WorldWideScience

Sample records for based control strategies

  1. ROBUST INTERNAL MODEL CONTROL STRATEGY BASED PID CONTROLLER FOR BLDCM

    OpenAIRE

    A.PURNA CHANDRA RAO; Y. P. OBULESU,; CH. SAI BABU

    2010-01-01

    All the closed loop control system requires the controller for improvement of transient response of the error signal. Though the tuning of PID controller in real time is bit difficult and moreover it lacks the disturbance rejection capability. This paper presents a tuning of PID parameters based on internal model strategy. The advantageous of the proposed control strategy is well described in the paper. To test the validity of the proposed control, it is implemented in brushless dc motor driv...

  2. ROBUST INTERNAL MODEL CONTROL STRATEGY BASED PID CONTROLLER FOR BLDCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.PURNA CHANDRA RAO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available All the closed loop control system requires the controller for improvement of transient response of the error signal. Though the tuning of PID controller in real time is bit difficult and moreover it lacks the disturbance rejection capability. This paper presents a tuning of PID parameters based on internal model strategy. The advantageous of the proposed control strategy is well described in the paper. To test the validity of the proposed control, it is implemented in brushless dc motor drive. The mathematical model of brushless dc motor (BLDC is presented for control design. In addition the robustness of the control strategy is discussed. The proposed control strategy possesses good transient responses and good load disturbance response. In addition, the proposed control strategy possesses good tracking ability. To test the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the BLDC is represented in transfer function model and later implemented in test system. The results are presented to validate the proposed control strategy for BLDC drive.

  3. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Han; Changhong Wang; Guoxing Yi

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiagent system (MAS) has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coo...

  4. Efficient community-based control strategies in adaptive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most studies on adaptive networks concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structure in the transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing the modularity, we investigate the evolution of community structure during the transient process, and find that a strong community structure is induced by the rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic dynamics, which, remarkably, delays the outbreak of disease. We then study the effects of control strategies started at different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not ‘the earlier, the better’ for the implementation of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of a strong community structure. For the immunization strategy, immunizing the susceptible nodes on susceptible–infected links and immunizing susceptible nodes randomly have similar control effects. However, for the quarantine strategy, quarantining the infected nodes on susceptible–infected links can yield a far better result than quarantining infected nodes randomly. More significantly, the community-based quarantine strategy performs better than the community-based immunization strategy. This study may shed new light on the forecast and the prevention of epidemics among humans. (paper)

  5. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-yin Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according to the forwarding probability and free buffer capacity of this message. The congested node transfers the message to the neighboring node with the maximum receiving value. The message will be deleted when there is no neighboring node to receive it. The algorithm is more targeted at deleting messages. Besides, it combines the strategy of transferring message. Therefore, it can deal with the congestion more efficiently. The message arrival rate is improved significantly and the end-to-end delay is also reduced to some extent.

  6. Indoor biology pollution control based on system-based humidity priority control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚昱; 谢慧; 石博强

    2009-01-01

    Indoor biological contamination and HVAC system secondary contamination problems caused wide public concerns. Biological contamination control will be the next step to achieve better IAQ. The most efficient and safe way to control biological contamination was to limit relative humidity in HVAC system and conditioned environment in the range that is more unsuitable for microorganism to survive. In this paper,by referring to bio-clean project experiences,a system-based humidity priority control manner came into being by lowering outdoor air humidity ratio to eliminate all indoor latent load and using self recirculation units to bear indoor sensible load. Based on the whole-course residue humidity contaminant control concept,dynamic step models for coil and conditioned zone were developed to describe mass and energy conservation and transformation processes. Then,HVAC system and conditioned zone dynamic models were established on LabVIEW+Matlab platform to investigate optimized regulation types,input signatures and control logics. Decoupling between cooling and dehumidification processes can be achieved and a more simplified and stable control system can be acquired by the system-based humidity priority control strategy. Therefore,it was a promising way for controlling biological pollution in buildings in order to achieve better IAQ.

  7. A nonlinear strategy for sensor based vehicle path control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method of transverse control which makes use of nonlinear formulations is presented. The strategy is utilized to stabilize a vehicle. The vehicle is autonomously guided and takes its control inputs from an optical sensing system. Additionally, the velocity of the vehicle is dictated by a longitudinal controller, which is also discussed.

  8. Strategies to control pollution from coal based thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, B.; Paliwal, S.K. [Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi (India)

    1997-12-31

    In India, coal based thermal power plants contribute a prime source of energy supply. It has become necessary to adopt an integrated strategy with emphasis on waste minimisation in addition to control at source. Use of clean process technologies such as Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC, PFBC and AFBC) boilers which not only provide higher combustion efficiency but also emit less amount of pollutants. In order to improve performance of existing power stations and to reduce emission of fly ash, the power plants should use beneficiated coal. Besides the savings in transportation cost and reduction in ash generation, the Plant Load Factor (PLF) of power stations will also be increased considerably after using beneficiated coal. To promote use of flyash for various useful purposes, it is necessary to a adopt dry flyash collection system. Fiscal incentives on equipment and machineries, exemption on excise and custom duties and free availability of land and electricity to the entrepreneur are among the measures required for reducing the problems caused by flyash. The paper provides an overview of the pollution problems in coal based power plants and possible options for waste minimisation and pollution control. 4 tabs.

  9. Control strategies for VSC-based HVDC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Silva, Rodrigo Da

    2011-01-01

    the behavior of the developed VSC-based HVDC transmission system two study cases are carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained from simulations show acceptable performances, of the proposed strategies, when changes in the reference parameters are considered. The active power flow between...

  10. Artificial Neural Network Based Control Strategies for Paddy Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar F. Lilhare

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paddy drying process depends upon ambient conditions, paddy quality, temperature and mass of hot drying air. Existing techniques of paddy drying process are highly nonlinear. In this paper, a neural network based automated controller for paddy drying is designed. The designed controller manages the steam temperature and blower motor speed to achieve constant paddy drying time. A Layer recurrent neural network is adopted for the controller. Atmospheric conditions such as temperature and humidity along with the size of the paddy are used as input to the network. Experimental results show that the developed controller can be used to control the paddy drying process. Implementation of developed controller will help in controlling the drying time at almost constant value which will definitely improve the quality of rice.

  11. Pheromone-based management strategies to control the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). A review

    OpenAIRE

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2013-01-01

    We here review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. After presenting the general principles of sex pheromone-based control strategies, we describe strategies used to control T. absoluta inc...

  12. Multi-agent coordination strategy estimation method based on control domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For estimation group competition and multiagent coordination strategy, this paper introduces a notion based on multiagent group. According to the control domain, it analyzes the multiagent strategy during competi tion in the macroscopic. It has been adopted in robot soccer and result enunciates that our method does not de pend on competition result. It can objectively quantitatively estimate coordination strategy.

  13. An estimator-based distributed voltage-predictive control strategy for ac islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimator-based voltage predictive control strategy for AC islanded microgrids, which is able to perform voltage control without any communication facilities. The proposed control strategy is composed of a network voltage estimator and a voltage predictive controller for each...... distributed generator, where the voltage estimator serves as an essential tool to obtain network voltages response without using communication links, while the voltage predictive controller is able to implement offset-free voltage control for a specified bus. The dynamic performance of the proposed voltage...... control strategy is analyzed through small signal analysis method, from which the design guideline for the controller parameters is formulated. Furthermore, the robustness of the proposed voltage control strategy is investigated under a series of parameters uncertainties, including the line parameters...

  14. A microprocessor-based fuzzy logic control strategy for fuel cell powered bicycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is aimed to develop a fuzzy logic control strategy for fuel cell powered bicycle. Advanced control strategy with low cost microprocessor is a crucial development step for future commercialization phase of fuel cell system applications. In this paper, a micro controller based fuzzy logic control strategy and system is developed to improve the running performance of the bicycle, as the fuel cell powered system has great uncertainty of power output. Through advanced control methods, significant improvement in the performance of fuel cell powered bicycle, the energy consumption, and the running speed can be achieved. (author)

  15. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  16. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion System during Grid Voltage Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu

    transient flux is affected by the control strategy of the rotor current and stator time constant. The stator transient flux is harmful to the DFIG, because it may cause oscillations of the electromagnetic torque, stator or rotor current, DC-link voltage, and stator active and reactive power. On the basis of...... and control error leads to that the stator active and reactive power cannot be completely decoupled. Based on this, a stator frequency and phase control strategy is proposed to regulate the stator frequency and decouple the active and reactive power. The proposed strategy doesn’t need the PLL, which...... simplifies the control system and also reduce the effects of the PLL on system performance. Based on the simulation and experimental results, it clearly verifies that the proposed strategy can accurately control the stator phase angle and completely decouple the stator active and reactive power. Besides...

  17. Design of a nonlinear backstepping control strategy of grid interconnected wind power system based PMSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Y.; Obbadi, A.; Sahnoun, S.; Benhmida, M.; Ouassaid, M.; Maaroufi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents nonlinear backstepping control for Wind Power Generation System (WPGS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and connected to utility grid. The block diagram of the WPGS with PMSG and the grid side back-to-back converter is established with the dq frame of axes. This control scheme emphasises the regulation of the dc-link voltage and the control of the power factor at changing wind speed. Besides, in the proposed control strategy of WPGS, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique and pitch control are provided. The stability of the regulators is assured by employing Lyapunov analysis. The proposed control strategy for the system has been validated by MATLAB simulations under varying wind velocity and the grid fault condition. In addition, a comparison of simulation results based on the proposed Backstepping strategy and conventional Vector Control is provided.

  18. Pheromone-based management strategies to control the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caparros Megido, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We here review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. After presenting the general principles of sex pheromone-based control strategies, we describe strategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection, population monitoring, mass annihilation and mating disruption techniques.

  19. Observational Iinearization and tracking objective excitation control strategy based on phasor measurement unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xiaoyan; LI Xingyuan; WANG Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    To improve the transient stability ofmultimachine power systems,observational linearization and tracking objective excitation control laws were derived from the phasor measurement unit (PMU),observational linearization,and tracking objective control theory based on synchronized coordinates and reference generator coordinates.The control strategies utilized real-time state variables obtained by PMU to linearize the state equations of the system,and then the linear optimal control strategy was used to design excitation controllers.The inaccuracy of the local linearization method and the complexity of the system models designed in the exact linearization method for nonlinear systems were avoided.Therefore,the control strategies were applied in real time.Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the transient stability of power systems more efficiently than nonlinear optimal excitation control.

  20. A Control Strategy Scheme for Fuel Cell-Vehicle Based on Frequency Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Alloui, Hamza; Marouani, Khoudir; Becherif, Mohamed; Sid, Mohamed Nacer; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy scheme based on frequency-separation for Fuel cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), using a Fuel cell (FC) as a main energy source, and a battery as an auxiliary power source. First, an analysis of hybrid architecture using an FC and batteries for automotive applications is presented. Next, the model and the control strategy are described. In this strategy a frequency splitter is used for routing the low frequency content of power demand into the F...

  1. Modeling and Backstepping-based Nonlinear Control Strategy for a 6 DOF Quadrotor Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashfaq Ahmad Mian; Wang Daobo

    2008-01-01

    In this article,a nonlinear model of an underactuated six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) quadrotor helicopter is derived on the basis of the Newton-Euler formalism.The derivation comprises determining equations of the motion of the quadrotor in three dimensions andapproximating the actuation forces through the modeling of aerodynamic coefficients and electric motor dynamics.The derived modelcomposed of translatioual and rotational subsystems is dynamically unstable,so a sequential nonlinear control strategy is used.The con-trol strategy includes feedback linearization coupled with a PD controller for the translational subsystem and a backstepping-based PID nonlinear controller for the rotational subsystem of the quadrotor.The performances of the nonlinear control method are evaluated by nonlinear simulation and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for the quadrotor helicopter inquasi-stationary flights.

  2. An adaptive synchronization strategy based on active control for demodulating message hidden in chaotic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of secure communication, it is very important to demodulate the message hidden in chaotic signals. In this paper, an adaptive synchronization strategy based on active control is proposed, which is used to design an active controller and an appropriate adaptive demodulator at the receiver to recover the transmitted message hidden in chaotic signals of a drive system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is shown that the transmitted message can be theoretically recovered by using the proposed strategy. Numerical simulations based on the Chua's circuit are also presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. In addition, it is shown via simulations that, by increasing the gain of the active controller the message error caused by the external noise and the discontinuous property of the message can be reduced

  3. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  4. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  5. Study on transient stability of wind turbine with induction generator based on variable pitch control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Han, L.;

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matl...... three-phase short-circuit fault. Also the results were compared with using reactive compensation device. The simulation results show that the proposed pitch control strategy can effectively improve the transient stability of wind turbine generator system.......In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matlab....../Simulink, electromagnetic transient state models of the wind tubine generator system and the pitch control models were presented, and the transient behaviors of the wind turbine genarator system using the typical and the proposed pitch control strategies were analyzed and compared when the power grid was subjected to a...

  6. Solution-based Chemical Strategies to Purposely Control the Microstructure of Functional Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei LIU; Congting SUN; Chenglin YAN; Dongfeng XUE

    2008-01-01

    Micro/nanostructured crystals with controlled architectures are desirable for many applications in optics, electronics, biology, medicine, and energy conversions. Low-temperature, aqueous chemical routes have been widely investigated for the synthesis of particles, and arrays of oriented nanorods and nanotubes. In this paper, based on the ideal crystal shapes predicted by the chemical bonding theory, we have developed some potential chemical strategies to tune the microstructure of functional materials, ZnS and Nb2O5 nanotube arrays, MgO wiskers and nestlike spheres, and cubic phase Cu2O microcrystals were synthesized here to elucidate these strategies. We describe their controlled crystallization processes and illustrate the detailed key factors controlling their growth by examining various reaction parameters. Current results demonstrate that our designed chemical strategies for tuning microstructure of functional materials are applicable to several technologically important materials, and therefore may be used as a versatile and effective route to the controllable synthesis of other inorganic functional materials.

  7. Dual-loop control strategy for DFIG-based Wind turbines under grid voltage disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Yi;

    2016-01-01

    , therefore, it cannot work well during the transient state to decay the transient flux and to suppress the flux accumulation. In this paper, a dual-loop control strategy, which includes the conventional current loop and an additional flux loop, is proposed to not only control the active and reactive power...... voltage may introduce harmful power and torque oscillations to the DFIG, and even lead to rotor overcurrent. For the conventional field-oriented vector control strategy, the design of the controller is based on the steady-state model of the DFIG, which neglects the dynamic of the stator flux, and......, but also decay the stator transient flux, and avoid the accumulation of the stator transient flux. Moreover, the proposed strategy can obtain nearly constant stator active power and electromagnetic torque, which may prolong the lifetime of the drive train. A case study on a typical 2-MW DFIG...

  8. Coordinated Control Strategies of VSC-HVDC-Based Wind Power Systems for Low Voltage Ride Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyin Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Voltage Source Converter-HVDC (VSC-HVDC system applied to wind power generation can solve large scale wind farm grid-connection and long distance transmission problems. However, the low voltage ride through (LVRT of the VSC-HVDC connected wind farm is a key technology issue that must be solved, and it is currently lacking an economic and effective solution. In this paper, a LVRT coordinated control strategy is proposed for the VSC-HVDC-based wind power system. In this strategy, the operation and control of VSC-HVDC and wind farm during the grid fault period is improved. The VSC-HVDC system not only provides reactive power support to the grid, but also effectively maintains the power balance and DC voltage stability by reducing wind-farm power output, without increasing the equipment investment. Correspondingly, to eliminate the influence on permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG-based wind turbine (WT systems, a hierarchical control strategy is designed. The speed and validity of the proposed LVRT coordinated control strategy and hierarchical control strategy were verified by MATLAB/Simulink simulations.

  9. Automatic Generation Control Strategy Based on Balance of Daily Electric Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic generation control strategy based on balance of daily total electric energy is put forward. It makes the balance between actual total generated energy controlled by automatic generation system and planned total energy on base of area control error, and makes the actual 24-hour active power load curve to approach the planned load curve. The generated energy is corrected by velocity weighting factor so that it conducts dynamic regulation and reaches the speed of response. Homologous strategy is used according to the real-time data in the operation of automatic generation control. Results of simulation are perfect and power energy compensation control with ideal effect can be achieved in the particular duration.

  10. Agent-based Cyber Control Strategy Design for Resilient Control Systems: Concepts, Architecture and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Rieger; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of automated regulatory control has been around since the middle of the last century through analog means. It has allowed engineers to operate the plant more consistently by focusing on overall operations and settings instead of individual monitoring of local instruments (inside and outside of a control room). A similar approach is proposed for cyber security, where current border-protection designs have been inherited from information technology developments that lack consideration of the high-reliability, high consequence nature of industrial control systems. Instead of an independent development, however, an integrated approach is taken to develop a holistic understanding of performance. This performance takes shape inside a multiagent design, which provides a notional context to model highly decentralized and complex industrial process control systems, the nervous system of critical infrastructure. The resulting strategy will provide a framework for researching solutions to security and unrecognized interdependency concerns with industrial control systems.

  11. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  12. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Lilian; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ayoub, George M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  13. Asynchronous update based networked predictive control system using a novel proactive compensation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingyao; Zuo, Xin; Liu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Networked predictive control system (NPCS) has been proposed to address random delays and data dropouts in networked control systems (NCSs). A remaining challenge of this approach is that the controller has uncertain information about the actual control inputs, which leads to the predicted control input errors. The main contribution of this paper is to develop an explicit mechanism running in the distributed network nodes asynchronously, which enables the controller node to keep informed of the states of the actuator node without a priori knowledge about the network. Based on this mechanism, a novel proactive compensation strategy is proposed to develop asynchronous update based networked predictive control system (AUBNPCS). The stability criterion of AUBNPCS is derived analytically. A simulation experiment based on Truetime demonstrates the effectiveness of the scheme. PMID:26582090

  14. Coordinated Power Control Strategy based on Primary-Frequency-Signaling for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos;

    2013-01-01

    In a flexible microgrid, the power regulation of each electronic-converter-based unit should be not only determined by the load demand, but also controlled according to the power and energy available in each unit. This paper proposes a coordinated control strategy in which each unit can operate in...... different operation modes taking into account the resource limitation. Firstly, a Primary-Frequency-Signaling (PFS) is introduced to realize coordinated control between units in a distributed way. Then the whole control structure of system is descripted in detail, which includes innerloop control with...

  15. Flow Control Strategy for the High Speed Network Based on Control Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Design of an effective congestion control scheme is a hot topic in the development of computer network. The flow control scheme can adjust the packet sending rate in source host, thus effectively avoiding the network congestion. This paper proposes a new flow control scheme based on discrete control theory. The simulation results show that this method can adjust the sending rate and queue level in buffer rapidly and effectively. The method is easy to implement and applicable to high speed networks.

  16. Predictive control strategies for wind turbine system based on permanent magnet synchronous generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaoui-Ben Hassine, Ikram; Naouar, Mohamed Wissem; Mrabet-Bellaaj, Najiba

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Model Predictive Control and Dead-beat predictive control strategies are proposed for the control of a PMSG based wind energy system. The proposed MPC considers the model of the converter-based system to forecast the possible future behavior of the controlled variables. It allows selecting the voltage vector to be applied that leads to a minimum error by minimizing a predefined cost function. The main features of the MPC are low current THD and robustness against parameters variations. The Dead-beat predictive control is based on the system model to compute the optimum voltage vector that ensures zero-steady state error. The optimum voltage vector is then applied through Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique. The main advantages of the Dead-beat predictive control are low current THD and constant switching frequency. The proposed control techniques are presented and detailed for the control of back-to-back converter in a wind turbine system based on PMSG. Simulation results (under Matlab-Simulink software environment tool) and experimental results (under developed prototyping platform) are presented in order to show the performances of the considered control strategies. PMID:26725504

  17. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...... environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system and...

  18. Research on Sensorless control strategies for Vehicle stability using Fuzzy based EDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ravi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and robust control scheme of Fuzzy Logic Electronic Differential Controller (FLEDC for sensorless drive based electric vehicle. The proposed system consists of two Brushless DC motors (BLDC that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels of an electric vehicle. Electronic differential controller (EDC ensures the maximum torque and it can control both the driving wheel independently to turn at different speeds in any curve according to the steering angle. The sensorless control strategies include back EMF zero crossing detection and third harmonic voltage integration. Fuzzy logic based EDC is used on these sensorless control strategies which optimizes the slip rate within the specified limit and thus enhances the vehicle stability The performances in terms of slip rate, current, Torque, back EMF are obtained by the proposed method and are compared with those obtained using conventional control method. By this comparative investigation, a suitable control strategy has been identified. The effectiveness and substantiation of these analysis are ascertained in the MATLAB/Simulink environment and also experimentally validated.

  19. Event-Based Control Strategy for Mobile Robots in Wireless Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Socas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new event-based control strategy for mobile robots is presented. It has been designed to work in wireless environments where a centralized controller has to interchange information with the robots over an RF (radio frequency interface. The event-based architectures have been developed for differential wheeled robots, although they can be applied to other kinds of robots in a simple way. The solution has been checked over classical navigation algorithms, like wall following and obstacle avoidance, using scenarios with a unique or multiple robots. A comparison between the proposed architectures and the classical discrete-time strategy is also carried out. The experimental results shows that the proposed solution has a higher efficiency in communication resource usage than the classical discrete-time strategy with the same accuracy.

  20. A new strategy of axial power distribution control based on three axial offsets concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed a very simple control procedure for axial xenon oscillation control based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory draws a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). On the other hands, Constant Axial Offset Control (CAOC) procedure is adopted as axial power distribution control strategy during both base load and load following operations in domestic PWRs. In the previous paper, we have presented an innovative procedure of axial power distribution control during load following in PWRs based on this trajectory such that the AOp-AOx is to be controlled to zero when the value deviates the pre-determined limiting values. In this paper we propose a modified control strategy to get more stability of axial power distributions. In this strategy, we control the trajectory to be close to the major axis of the ellipse when the power distribution reaches the limiting values. In other words, the plot is not controlled only to reduce AOp-AOx but also AOi-AOx is taken into account at the same time. It is known that when the plot is controlled to the major axis, it means that the point gives the peak position of axial xenon oscillation. Therefore xenon oscillation will not increase its amplitude any more. Thus more stable axial power distribution control is attained. This kind of design concept is quite important especially for the future PWRs with elongated fuel length and longer core life. Because in a longer effective core and also the longer core life, it has been known that the stability of axial xenon oscillation becomes more unstable. In this paper, some simulation

  1. Decentralized Control Strategy for PV Based DC Microgrid with Hybrid Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Ishita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of power electronics technology and modernization of DC based loads, DC microgrids (DCMG are becoming most attractive solution in terms of their increased efficiency and high power quality. However they face certain challenges like intermittency of renewable energy sources, limitations in dynamic behaviour of storage systems and various stability issues during islanding. Thus it is mandatory to select the DCMG components properly with a robust control strategy for power converters in order to maintain power balance despite of variation in source and load power in order maintain the system power quality. In this work, a DC bus signalling based decentralized control strategy is proposed for a PV based DCMG, which eliminates the risk associated with DC bus voltage fluctuation. Fuel cell is as an auxiliary power source along with solar PV and storage devices, reduces the possibility of black out and helps to increase system reliability. The proposed control strategy has been validated through MATLAB/Simulink based simulation studies for variable weather condition and load demand on DCMG system.

  2. An evidence-based vector control strategy for military deployments: the British Army experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, A M; Baker, D; von Bertele, M J

    2001-01-01

    We describe the British Army's current strategy for controlling arthropod vectors of disease during overseas deployments. Military commanders and medical officers have different, but complementary responsibilities in achieving vector control. In this paper we define a hierarchy of evidence-based vector control guidelines. Field guidelines must be based on the best available research evidence, preferably that derived from pragmatic randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and from systematic reviews of trials. Assessing the effectiveness of different vector control measures involves a trade-off between the relative benefits and harm of different technology options. There is compelling scientific evidence that bed nets and screens treated with a pyrethroid insecticide are highly effective in protecting against nocturnally active, anthropophilic arthropods (including ectoparasites), and will reduce the incidence of malaria, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis and Chagas' disease. Etofenprox and deltamethrin are the safest pyrethroids, and permethrin the least safe. Vector control strategies of probable effectiveness are the use of insecticide-treated clothing, the wearing of protective clothing, and the correct use of DEET-based topical insect repellents. Aerosol insecticides are of debatable effectiveness. Other effective vector control measures, of limited usefulness during deployments, include electric fans, mosquito coils/vaporising mats, and smoke. "Biological" vector control measures, and insect buzzers/electrocuters are ineffective. Practical insect avoidance measures, based on an understanding of vector biology, complete the military vector-control arsenal. We conclude that practical insect avoidance measures, combined with pyrethroid-treated nets and clothing, and DEET-based topical repellents, can achieve almost 100% protection against biting arthropods. PMID:11584666

  3. Stability Analysis and Control of DFIG Based Wind Turbine Using FBC Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Tavoosi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Doubly fed induction generator has numerous advantages in wind power generation over other types of generators. Once a DFIG is subjected to a large voltage dip, a large rotor voltage induces in the rotor windings. This leads to a large transient current in rotor circuit and the dc-link overvoltage, and may block power electronic converter operation. This paper first discusses dynamic modeling of DFIG wind turbines with the stator flux orientation. Then, by small signal analysis, it is found that the dynamic behavior of the DFIG based WT during voltage dip, is strongly affected by the stator dynamics. Next, a nonlinear control strategy based on flatness is proposed to improve the DFIG transient performance. The main interest of this control method is the possibility to define the behavior of the state variable system in the steady state as well as in transients. Since the DFIG electrical dynamics are nonlinear; better control performance is achieved with nonlinear control, compared with the linear control scheme. The proposed approach stabilizes the stator dynamics through rotor and grid side filter voltage control. The results of time domain simulations validate the effectiveness the nonlinear control strategy during voltage dip of generator terminal.

  4. Decentralized Control Strategy for PV Based DC Microgrid with Hybrid Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas Ishita; Bajpai Prabodh

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of power electronics technology and modernization of DC based loads, DC microgrids (DCMG) are becoming most attractive solution in terms of their increased efficiency and high power quality. However they face certain challenges like intermittency of renewable energy sources, limitations in dynamic behaviour of storage systems and various stability issues during islanding. Thus it is mandatory to select the DCMG components properly with a robust control strategy fo...

  5. Correction factor based double model fuzzy logic control strategy of arc voltage in pulsed MIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Meng Yongmin

    2005-01-01

    According to the feature of arc voltage control in welding steel using pulsed MIG welding, a correction factor based double model fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was developed to realize the arc voltage control by means of arc voltage feedback.When the error of peak arc voltage was great, a coarse adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed,in the controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the wire feeding speed by means of arc voltage feedback. When the error of peak arc voltage was small, a fine adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed, in this controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the background time by means of arc voltage feedback. The FLC was realized in a Look-Up Table ( LUT) method. Experiments had been carried out aiming at implementing the control strategy to control the arc length change in welding process. Experimental results show that the controller proposed enables the consistency of arc length and the stabolity of arc voltage and welding process to be achieved in pulsed MIG welding process.

  6. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP. PMID:21330730

  7. Time delay effects on large-scale MR damper based semi-active control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a detailed investigation on the robustness of large-scale 200 kN MR damper based semi-active control strategies in the presence of time delays in the control system. Although the effects of time delay on stability and performance degradation of an actively controlled system have been investigated extensively by many researchers, degradation in the performance of semi-active systems due to time delay has yet to be investigated. Since semi-active systems are inherently stable, instability problems due to time delay are unlikely to arise. This paper investigates the effects of time delay on the performance of a building with a large-scale MR damper, using numerical simulations of near- and far-field earthquakes. The MR damper is considered to be controlled by four different semi-active control algorithms, namely (i) clipped-optimal control (COC), (ii) decentralized output feedback polynomial control (DOFPC), (iii) Lyapunov control, and (iv) simple-passive control (SPC). It is observed that all controllers except for the COC are significantly robust with respect to time delay. On the other hand, the clipped-optimal controller should be integrated with a compensator to improve the performance in the presence of time delay. (paper)

  8. Enhanced LVRT Control Strategy for DFIG-Based WECS in Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Iov, Florin

    2013-01-01

    An enhanced coordinated low voltage ride-through, LVRT, control strategy for a Doubly-fed Induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system, WECS, connected to a weak grid is presented in this paper. The compliance with the grid code commitments is also considered. A proposed decoupled...... voltage dips/unbalanced conditions, A DDSRF-PLL is proposed and analyzed to extract clean synchronization signal in order to improve the overall system performance. Moreover, a fast decomposition based positive and negative sequence algorithm is utilized for rapid fault detection and to engage the LVRT...

  9. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  10. Costate Estimation of PMP-Based Control Strategy for PHEV Using Legendre Pseudospectral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Costate value plays a significant role in the application of PMP-based control strategy for PHEV. It is critical for terminal SOC of battery at destination and corresponding equivalent fuel consumption. However, it is not convenient to choose the approximate costate in real driving condition. In the paper, the optimal control problem of PHEV based on PMP has been converted to nonlinear programming problem. By means of KKT condition costate can be approximated as KKT multipliers of NLP divided by the LGL weights. A kind of general costate estimation approach is proposed for predefined driving condition in this way. Dynamic model has been established in Matlab/Simulink in order to prove the effectiveness of the method. Simulation results demonstrate that the method presented in the paper can deduce the closer value of global optimal value than constant initial costate value. This approach can be used for initial costate and jump condition estimation of PMP-based control strategy for PHEV.

  11. Study on the dynamic performance of a novel buck-boost matrix converter based on double-loop control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Qi

    2011-12-01

    The dynamic performance of a novel Buck-Boost matrix converter (BBMC) based on double-loop control strategy is put forward in this paper. The fundamental principle of BBMC has been elaborated and the method of the double-loop control strategy has been built with Matlab, and then the dynamic performances of BBMC based on the double-loop control strategy are discussed. The results show that the output voltage and frequency can be almost constant with the BBMC and double-loop control strategy despite of the changeable input voltage and frequency. Moreover, a high-quality sine output wave with low harmonic distortion can be directly obtained without filtering. So it can be drawn that the BBMC based on the double-loop control strategy has perfectly dynamic performance and practical importance to the engineering.

  12. Strategy missile control system design using adaptive fuzzy control based on Popov stability criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianling; An, Jinwen; Wang, Mina

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the application and simulation of an adaptive fuzzy controller for a missile model. The fuzzy control system is tested using different values of fuzzy controller correctional factor on a nonlinear missile model. It is shown that the self-tuning fuzzy controller is well suited for controlling the pitch loop of the missile control system with air turbulence and parameter variety. The research shows that the Popov stability criterion could successfully guarantee the stability of the fuzzy system. It provides a good method for the design of missile control system. Simulation results suggest significant benefits from fuzzy logic in control task for missile pitch loop control.

  13. Parametric Design and Robust Control Strategy for HEV Based on Permanent Magnet Electrical Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsalam Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Permanent Magnet-Dual Mechanical Ports (PM-DMP machine is used as an Electrical Variable Transmission (EVT, instead the Toyota Hybrid System (THS transmission, in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV. Decreasing and exploiting the power ratings of the power plants in the HEV system are the most efficient factors for increasing the economy and efficiency of the system. These goals are achieved through three tandem procedures: the first is focusing on the detailed calculations of the power ratings for the PMSM-EVT machines. These calculations are mainly based on the deeply analysis of the function of each plant at steady and dynamic states. The second is the robust vector control of the two PMSMs with the field weakening strategy. The third is developing a robust global power management control strategy to realize the power splitting for the full hybrids. The integration of HEV components including their dynamic models and controllers has been implemented by Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR simulation tool. The goals are validated by the simulation results with two different driving cycles; and from the interim analytical calculations and from analyzing the simulation results, the rated and maximum specifications of the PMSMEVT have been defined. Finally, the results are validated by comparing to the practical data of the Toyota Prius HEV. The results show that the power ratings of the electrical machines are saved more than that of Prius machines. Also, the system is driven at harder burden loads than that of Prius with perfect drivability.

  14. Discrete Optimal Control Method Based on the Optimal Strategy of Fishing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Consideration was given to the discrete optimal control method for the optimal fishing strategy. Our method is new and efficient for discrete optimal control problem, which is different from the other optimal methods such as the traditional variational method, the Pontryagin principle of maximum, and the dynamic programming. The basic construction of the model is the traditional logistic function relating to the growth of fry. The discrete optimal control method for optimal fishing strategy w...

  15. Elevator Control Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of known elevator control strategies by simulating these in an own made apartment simulator. Efficiency will be determined by the lowest product of the energy consumption (Watt/second), average waiting time, average transfer time and the maximum waiting time of a passenger, which is the output by the simulator. The apartment simulator will simulate the elevator behavior, according to a respective control strategy, and the passenger flow on each respectiv...

  16. CONTROL SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC BEARINGS BASED ON LINEAR QUADRATIC METHOD OF OPTIMAL CONTROL STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Huangqiu

    2005-01-01

    A state equation for radical 4-degree-of-freedom active magnetic bearings is built, and the approach on how to use linear quadratic method of optical control theory to design a centralized and decentralized parameters control system is introduced, and also Matlab language is used to simulate and analyze. The simulation results have proved that the differences are small between centralized parameters and decentralized parameters control system. The conclusions of experiments have shown that decentralized controllers designed from optimal state feedback theory meet the requirements of active magnetic bearing system. The vibration amplitude of the rotor is about 20 μm when the speed of the rotor runs between 0 to 60 000 r/min. This method may be used in the study and design of controllers of magnetic bearings.

  17. Practice-Based Professional Development for Self-Regulated Strategies Development in Writing: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Karen R.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Graham, Steve; Driscoll, Steven A.; Sandmel, Karin; Brindle, Mary; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this randomized controlled study, 20 second- and third-grade teachers participated in practice-based professional development in strategies instruction in either story or opinion essay writing, using the Self-Regulated Strategies Development (SRSD) instructional model. These teachers worked in schools collaborating with a local university to…

  18. A task-based usage strategy for control centre wall displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the findings from an exploratory definition of a usage strategy for multiple control centre wall displays in CANDU nuclear power plants. Wall displays are defined as large sized, vertically oriented display surfaces that may be positioned in various locations about a control room to support user information needs. The paper begins by discussing the need for a usage strategy for all control room information resources, and then reviews the history in wall display implementation and usage in nuclear power plant control rooms. The balance of the paper discusses the approach used in characterization and review of control room task information needs and definition of a wall display usage strategy. The paper concludes by outlining some of the possible impacts on future control room design and operations that the introduction of wall displays may imply. (author)

  19. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham S. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA-based artificial neural network (ANN to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM, are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period.

  20. Control strategies based on effective power factor for distributed generation power plants during unbalanced grid voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernández, Miguel; Miret Tomàs, Jaume; Matas Alcalá, José; Guzmán Solà, Ramon; de Sousa Pérez, Óscar; Martí Colom, Pau; García de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Unbalanced voltages in three-phase power systems is a common perturbation propagated along the grid. Distributed Generation plants have gained widespread attention due to their capability to improve power quality in a distributed manner, including voltage unbalance mitigation. A conventional control strategy to command power plants during balanced grid voltages, is the use of power factor to inject/absorb reactive power depending on grid conditions. Advanced control strategies during unbalanc...

  1. Controllable functionalization and wettability transition of graphene-based films by an atomic oxygen strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though chemical modification of graphene based on Hummers method has been most widely used to tailor its properties and interfacial characteristics, a method which could achieve definitive and controllable groups and properties is still highly required. Here, we demonstrate a high-vacuum oxidation strategy by atomic oxygen (AO) and investigate the AO induced functionalization and wettability transition in films made from basal-defect- and oxide-free graphene dispersions. These graphene-based films are neither graphene nor graphite, but graphene blocks constituted by numerous randomly stacked graphene flakes. It is found that AO induced functionalization of these films through the formation of epoxy groups, sp3 configuration, ether, and double and triple C–O groups. The films turn to be hydrophilic after exposed to AO. The contact angle increases with AO exposure time. This phenomenon is attributed to the lower surface roughness induced by collision and/or edge erosion of energetic ions to the film surface and is further explained by the Wenzel model. The demonstrated strategy can overcome limitations of Hummers method, provide possibility to gain functionalization and wettability transition in liquid-phase exfoliated basal-defect- and oxide-free graphene in the dry environment, and may extend the study and application of this material in spacecraft in low earth orbit

  2. Evolve the Controller for Static Synchronous Series Compensator Based on Control Strategy of Sen Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Jayaraman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Real and Reactive power flow in an alternating current transmission line can be independently controlled by connecting, to the transmission line, a series-compensating voltage, which is variable in magnitude and phase angle. The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC, a solid-state voltage source inverter (VSC coupled with a transformer, is connected in series with a transmission line. An SSSC injects an almost sinusoidal voltage, of variable magnitude, in series with a transmission line. This injected voltage is almost in quadrature with the line current, thereby emulating an inductive or a capacitive reactance in series with the transmission line. This emulated variable reactance, inserted by the injected voltage source, influences the electric power flow in the transmission line. In this report, an attempt is made to evolve the model of SSSC and VSC with preliminary studies for the controller design.

  3. Evolve the Controller for Static Synchronous Series Compensator Based on Control Strategy of Sen Transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Raju Jayaraman; Kowslaya M

    2014-01-01

    Real and Reactive power flow in an alternating current transmission line can be independently controlled by connecting, to the transmission line, a series-compensating voltage, which is variable in magnitude and phase angle. The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), a solid-state voltage source inverter (VSC) coupled with a transformer, is connected in series with a transmission line. An SSSC injects an almost sinusoidal voltage, of variable magnitude, in series with a transmission li...

  4. Controlling the Atomic Structure of Au30 Nanoclusters by a Ligand-Based Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Tatsuya; Liu, Chong; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Renxi; Chen, Yuxiang; Rosi, Nathaniel L; Jin, Rongchao

    2016-06-01

    We report the X-ray structure of a gold nanocluster with 30 gold atoms protected by 18 1-adamantanethiolate ligands (formulated as Au30 (S-Adm)18 ). This nanocluster exhibits a threefold rotationally symmetrical, hexagonal-close-packed (HCP) Au18 kernel protected by six dimeric Au2 (SR)3 staple motifs. This new structure is distinctly different from the previously reported Au30 S(S-(t) Bu)18 nanocluster protected by 18 tert-butylthiolate ligands and one sulfido ligand with a face-centered cubic (FCC) Au22 kernel. The Au30 (S-Adm)18 nanocluster has an anomalous solubility (it is only soluble in benzene but not in other common solvents). This work demonstrates a ligand-based strategy for controlling nanocluster structure and also provides a method for the discovery of possibly overlooked clusters because of their anomalous solubility. PMID:27099989

  5. Design of a Load Torque Based Control Strategy for Improving Electric Tractor Motor Energy Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the electrical conversion efficiency of an electric tractor motor, a load torque based control strategy (LTCS is designed in this paper by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. By mathematically modeling electric-mechanical performance and theoretical energy waste of the electric motor, as well as the transmission characteristics of the drivetrain, the objective function, control relationship, and analytical platform are established. Torque and rotation speed of the motor’s output shaft are defined as manipulated variables. LTCS searches the working points corresponding to the best energy conversion efficiency via PSO to control the running status of the electric motor and uses logic and fuzzy rules to fit the search initialization for load torque fluctuation. After using different plowing forces to imitate all the common tillage forces, the simulation of traction experiment is conducted, which proves that LTCS can make the tractor use electrical power efficiently and maintain agricultural applicability on farmland conditions. It provides a novel method of fabricating a more efficient electric motor used in the traction of an off-road vehicle.

  6. Model-based control strategies in the dynamic interaction of air supply and fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grujicic, M.; Chittajallu, K.M.; Law, E.H. [Clemson University, SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Pukrushpan, J.T. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-12-01

    Model-based control strategies are utilized to analyse and optimize the transient behaviour of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system consisting of air and fuel supply subsystems, a perfect air/fuel humidifier and a fuel cell stack at constant fuel cell temperature. The model is used to analyse the control of the fuel cell system with respect to maintaining a necessary level of oxygen partial pressure in the cathode during abrupt changes in the current demanded by the user. Maintaining the oxygen partial pressure in the cathode is necessary to prevent short circuit and membrane damage. The results obtained indicate that the oxygen level in the cathode can be successfully maintained through feedforward control of the air compressor motor voltage. However, the net power provided by the fuel cell system is compromised during the transients following abrupt changes in the stack current, suggesting a need for power management via the use of a secondary power source such as a battery. (author)

  7. Adaptive control strategy for ECRH negative high-voltage power supply based on CMAC neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to solve the problem that the negative high-voltage power supply in an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system can not satisfy the requirements because of the nonlinearity and sensitivity, the direct inverse model control strategy was proposed by using cerebellar model articulation controller(CMAC) for better control, and experiments were carried out to study the system performances with CMAC tracing dynamic signals. The results show that this strategy is strong in self-learning and self-adaptation and easy to be realized. (authors)

  8. An Online Learning Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Q-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Hu; Weimin Li; Hui Xu; Guoqing Xu

    2015-01-01

    In order to realize the online learning of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) control strategy, a fuzzy Q-learning (FQL) method is proposed in this paper. FQL control strategies consists of two parts: The optimal action-value function Q*(x,u) estimator network (QEN) and the fuzzy parameters tuning (FPT). A back propagation (BP) neural network is applied to estimate Q*(x,u) as QEN. For the fuzzy controller, we choose a Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system (FIS) and the parameters of the FIS are tun...

  9. The Study of Operation Modes and Control Strategies of a Multidirectional MC for Battery Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Toosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the performance of stand-alone battery based system and to achieve the continuous power transmission, the behavior of multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC has been analyzed in different operation modes. A systematic method interfacing a renewable source, a storage battery, and a load is proposed for a stand-alone battery based power system (SABBPS to utilize the MDMC as PWM converter, inverter, or PWM converter and inverter in different operation modes. In this study, the Extended Direct Duty Pulse Width Modulation (EDDPWM technique has been applied to control the power flow path between the renewable source, load, and the battery. Corresponding to generator voltage, input frequency, and loads demands, several operating states and control strategies are possible. Therefore, the boundaries and distribution of operation modes are discussed and illustrated to improve the system performance. The mathematical equation of the EDDPWM under different operation modes has been derived to achieve the maximum voltage ratio in each mode. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in simulation using MATLAB and experimental testing. Moreover, the THD, ripple, and power flow direction have been analyzed for output current to investigate the behavior of system in each operation mode.

  10. Reinforcement Learning-Based Supervisory Control Strategy for a Rotary Kiln Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojie; Yue, Heng; Chai, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the discussion about an implementation strategy of how to employ reinforcement learning in control of a typical complex industrial process to enhance control performance and adaptability for the variations of operating conditions of the automatic control system. Operation of large rotary kilns is difficult and relies on experienced human operators observing the burning status, because of their inherent complexities. Thus the problem of human-machine coordination i...

  11. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Hernández Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container, and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries.

  12. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Martínez, José-Fernán; Lucas Martínez, Néstor; del Toro, Raúl M.

    2015-01-01

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container), and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries. PMID:26393612

  13. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Martínez, José-Fernán; Lucas Martínez, Néstor; del Toro, Raúl M

    2015-01-01

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container), and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries. PMID:26393612

  14. An Innovative Control Strategy to Improve the Fault Ride-Through Capability of DFIGs Based on Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vandai Le; Xinran Li; Yong Li; Tran Le Thang Dong; Caoquyen Le

    2016-01-01

    An innovative control strategy is proposed for enhancing the low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of a doubly fed induction generator based on wind energy conversion systems (DFIG-WECS). Within the proposed control method, the current control loops of the rotor side converter (RSC) are developed based on passivity theory. The control scheme for the grid side converter (GSC) is designed based on a two-term approach to keep the DC-link voltage close to a given value. The first term based ...

  15. Supervisor control strategy of synchronizer for wet DCT based on online estimation of clutch drag torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tongli; Li, Hongkui; Zhang, Jianwu; Hao, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the performance of the synchronizer control strategy by considering the effect of clutch drag torque. The research of synchronization process in wet dual clutch transmission is performed in this paper. The significant effect of clutch drag torque is analyzed by adding a complex clutch drag torque module to synchronizer model. This paper focuses on the development of original estimation method of clutch drag torque. The estimation method offers an effective way to obtain accurate clutch drag torque, and it is applied to develop a new supervisor control strategy. Results have demonstrated that the estimation method has satisfied efficiency and accuracy and the control strategy improves the performance of the synchronizer mechanism significantly.

  16. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results. PMID:22395957

  17. School-based strategies for oral health education of adolescents- a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem Abdul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health education (OHE in schools has largely been imparted by dental professionals. Considering the substantial cost of this expert-led approach, the strategies relying on teachers, peer-leaders and learners themselves have also been utilized. However the evidence for comparative effectiveness of these strategies is lacking in the dental literature. The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of dentist-led, teacher-led, peer-led and self-learning strategies of oral health education. Methods A two-year cluster randomized controlled trial following a parallel design was conducted. It involved five groups of adolescents aged 10-11 years at the start of the study. The trial involved process as well as four outcome evaluations. The present paper discusses the findings of the study pertaining to the baseline and final outcome evaluation, both comprising of a self-administered questionnaire, a structured interview and clinical oral examination. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results All the three educator-led strategies of OHE had statistically higher mean oral health knowledge (OHK, oral health behavior (OHB, oral hygiene status (OHS and combined knowledge, behavior and oral hygiene status (KBS scores than the self-learning and control groups (p Conclusions The dentist-led, teacher-led and peer-led strategies of oral health education are equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents. The peer-led strategy, however, is almost as effective as the dentist-led strategy and comparatively more effective than the teacher-led and self-learning strategies in improving their oral health behavior. Trail registration SRCTN39391017

  18. A combination strategy based brain-computer interface for two-dimensional movement control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Maysam, Oladazimi; Veser, Sandra; Cao, Lei; Li, Jie; Jia, Jie; Xie, Hong; Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Two-dimensional (2D) movement control is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) research because being able to move, for example, a cursor with the brain will enable patients with motor disabilities to control their environment. However, it is still a challenge to continuously control 2D movement with a non-invasive BCI system. In this paper, we developed a 2D cursor control with motor imagery BCI tasks allowing users to move a cursor to any position by using a combination strategy. With this strategy, a user can combine multiple motor imagery tasks, alternatively or simultaneously, to control 2D movements. Approach. After a training session, six participants took part in the first control strategy experiment (the center-out experiment) to verify the effectiveness of the cursor control. Three of the six participants performed an additional experiment, in which they were required to move the cursor to hit five targets in a given sequence. Main results. The average hit rate was more than 95.6% and the trajectories were close to the shortest path. The average hit rate was more than 95.6% and the trajectories were close to the shortest path in the center-out experiment. In the additional experiment, three participants achieved a 100% hit rate with a short trajectory. Significance. The results demonstrated that users were able to effectively control the 2D movement using the proposed strategy. The present system may be used as a tool to interact with the external world.

  19. Economic analysis of exergy efficiency based control strategy for geothermal district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ExEBCS for exergy efficiency maximization in real GDHS is economically evaluated. • The initial cost for ExEBCS is more expensive than that for old one by 6.33 kUS$/year. • The cost saving makes the ExEBCS profitable by up to 7% of annual energy saving. • This results in a short payback period of 3.8 years. • The use of newly ExEBCS in GDHSs is quite suitable. - Abstract: In this study, the exergy efficiency based control strategy (ExEBCS) for exergy efficiency maximization in geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) is economically evaluated. As a real case study, the Afyon GDHS in the city of Afyonkarahisar/Turkey is considered. Its actual thermal data as of average weekly data are collected in heating seasons during the period 2006–2010 for artificial neural network (ANN) modeling. The ANN modeling of the Afyon GDHS is used as a test system to demonstrate the effectiveness and economic impact of the ExEBCS under various operating conditions. Then, the ExEBCS is evaluated economically in case of application to real Afyon GDHS of the ExEBCS. The results show that the initial cost for the ExEBCS is more expensive than that for the old one by 6.33 kUS$/year as a result of replacing automatic controller. The saving in heat production makes the ExEBCS profitable by up to 7% of annual energy saving as a result of the increase in the heat production by 88% when the control system is operated. This results in a short payback period of 3.8 years. This study confirms that the use of ExEBCS in district heating systems (especially GDHS) is quite suitable

  20. An adaptive control strategy of converter based DG to maintain protection coordination in distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    network protection devices. As a protection measure commonly used in distribution network, recloser-fuse coordination could suffer from this impact. Research work has been conducted to deal with this problem by modifying the control strategy of the DG converters during faults. These solutions generally...

  1. Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch for Output Power Maximizing Based on a Wind Turbine Control Strategy for Load Minimizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng;

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the wake effect in the wind farm control design (WF) can increase the total captured power by wind turbines (WTs), which is usually implemented by derating upwind WTs. However, derating the WT without a proper control strategy will increase the structural loads, caused by operation in...... stall mode. Therefore, the WT control strategy for derating operation should be considered in the attempt at maximizing the total captured power while reducing structural loads. Moreover, electrical power loss on the transmission system inside a WF is also not negligible for maximizing the total output...... power of the WF. In this paper, an optimal active power dispatch strategy based on a WT derating strategy and considering the transmission loss is proposed for maximizing the total output power. The active power reference of each WT is chosen as the optimization variable. A partial swarm optimizing...

  2. An intelligent control chart for monitoring of autocorrelated egg production process data based on a synergistic control strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Kristof; Vaesen, Inge; Löffel, Jenny; Kemps, Bart; Kamers, Bram; Zoons, Johan; Darius, Paul; Decuypere, Eddy; De Baerdemaeker, Josse; Ketelaere, Bart de

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring livestock production processes by means of statistical control charts can provide an important support for management. The non-stationary and autocorrelated characteristics of most data originating from such processes impede the direct introduction of these data into control charts. To deal with these characteristics Engineering Process Control strategies can be applied. Stationarity was achieved by modelling and subtracting the time dependent trend using a non-linear m...

  3. Fault Characteristics and Control Strategies of Multiterminal High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Based on Modular Multilevel Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Chang; Zhongping Yang; Yi Wang; Fei Lin; Shihui Liu

    2015-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging voltage source converter topology suitable for multiterminal high voltage direct current transmission based on modular multilevel converter (MMC-MTDC). This paper presents fault characteristics of MMC-MTDC including submodule fault, DC line fault, and fault ride-through of wind farm integration. Meanwhile, the corresponding protection strategies are proposed. The correctness and effectiveness of the control strategies are verified by estab...

  4. Design and implementation of LQR/LQG strategies for oxygen stoichiometry control in PEM fuel cells based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niknezhadi, Ali; Allué Fantova, Miguel; Kunusch, Cristian; Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the oxygen stoichiometry control problem of proton exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells and introduces a solution through an optimal control methodology. Based on the study of a non-linear dynamical model of a laboratory PEM fuel cell system and its associated components (air compressor, humidifiers, line heaters, valves, etc.), a control strategy for the oxygen stoichiometry regulation in the cathode line is designed and tested. From a linearized model of the syste...

  5. [The technological innovation strategy for quality control of Chinese medicine based on Big Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Zhong-zhi; Cheng, Yi-yu

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented. PMID:26978975

  6. A Novel Torque Coordination Control Strategy of a Single-Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The torque coordination control during mode transition is a very important task for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with a clutch serving as the key enabling actuator element. Poor coordination will deteriorate the drivability of the driver and lead to excessive wearing to the clutch friction plates. In this paper, a novel torque coordination control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented to coordinate the motor torque, engine torque, and clutch torque so that the seamless mode switching can be achieved. Different to the existing model predictive control (MPC methods, only one model predictive controller is needed and the clutch torque is taken as an optimized variable rather than a known parameter. Furthermore, the successful idea of model reference control (MRC is also used for reference to generate the set-point signal required by MPC. The parameter sensitivity is studied for better performance of the proposed model predictive controller. The simulation results validate that the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy has less vehicle jerk, less torque interruption, and smaller clutch frictional losses, compared with the baseline method. In addition, the sensitivity and adaptiveness of the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy are evaluated.

  7. Discrete Optimal Control Method Based on the Optimal Strategy of Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration was given to the discrete optimal control method for the optimal fishing strategy. Our method is new and efficient for discrete optimal control problem, which is different from the other optimal methods such as the traditional variational method, the Pontryagin principle of maximum, and the dynamic programming. The basic construction of the model is the traditional logistic function relating to the growth of fry. The discrete optimal control method for optimal fishing strategy was used to construct the optimal rate of each fishing strategy; the main focus of our work is on the rigorous mathematical analysis of the optimal control problem. The analysis allows one to obtain the optimal initial investment amount of the fry and the optimal size of the total catch. Furthermore, when the initial investment amount of the fry is below or above the optimal value and the intrinsic growth rate of fish R is too small, we derive that fishing operations should not be started in the last few years to make the overall fishing amount optimal. At last, several typical examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.

  8. Reliability of unstable periodic orbit based control strategies in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nagender; Hasse, Maria; Biswal, B; Singh, Harinder P

    2015-04-01

    Presence of recurrent and statistically significant unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in time series obtained from biological systems is now routinely used as evidence for low dimensional chaos. Extracting accurate dynamical information from the detected UPO trajectories is vital for successful control strategies that either aim to stabilize the system near the fixed point or steer the system away from the periodic orbits. A hybrid UPO detection method from return maps that combines topological recurrence criterion, matrix fit algorithm, and stringent criterion for fixed point location gives accurate and statistically significant UPOs even in the presence of significant noise. Geometry of the return map, frequency of UPOs visiting the same trajectory, length of the data set, strength of the noise, and degree of nonstationarity affect the efficacy of the proposed method. Results suggest that establishing determinism from unambiguous UPO detection is often possible in short data sets with significant noise, but derived dynamical properties are rarely accurate and adequate for controlling the dynamics around these UPOs. A repeat chaos control experiment on epileptic hippocampal slices through more stringent control strategy and adaptive UPO tracking is reinterpreted in this context through simulation of similar control experiments on an analogous but stochastic computer model of epileptic brain slices. Reproduction of equivalent results suggests that far more stringent criteria are needed for linking apparent success of control in such experiments with possible determinism in the underlying dynamics. PMID:25933652

  9. Reliability of unstable periodic orbit based control strategies in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Nagender; Singh, Harinder P. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Hasse, Maria [Institut für Höchstleistungsrechnen, Universität Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Biswal, B. [Cluster Innovation Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110021 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Presence of recurrent and statistically significant unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in time series obtained from biological systems is now routinely used as evidence for low dimensional chaos. Extracting accurate dynamical information from the detected UPO trajectories is vital for successful control strategies that either aim to stabilize the system near the fixed point or steer the system away from the periodic orbits. A hybrid UPO detection method from return maps that combines topological recurrence criterion, matrix fit algorithm, and stringent criterion for fixed point location gives accurate and statistically significant UPOs even in the presence of significant noise. Geometry of the return map, frequency of UPOs visiting the same trajectory, length of the data set, strength of the noise, and degree of nonstationarity affect the efficacy of the proposed method. Results suggest that establishing determinism from unambiguous UPO detection is often possible in short data sets with significant noise, but derived dynamical properties are rarely accurate and adequate for controlling the dynamics around these UPOs. A repeat chaos control experiment on epileptic hippocampal slices through more stringent control strategy and adaptive UPO tracking is reinterpreted in this context through simulation of similar control experiments on an analogous but stochastic computer model of epileptic brain slices. Reproduction of equivalent results suggests that far more stringent criteria are needed for linking apparent success of control in such experiments with possible determinism in the underlying dynamics.

  10. Reliability of unstable periodic orbit based control strategies in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presence of recurrent and statistically significant unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in time series obtained from biological systems is now routinely used as evidence for low dimensional chaos. Extracting accurate dynamical information from the detected UPO trajectories is vital for successful control strategies that either aim to stabilize the system near the fixed point or steer the system away from the periodic orbits. A hybrid UPO detection method from return maps that combines topological recurrence criterion, matrix fit algorithm, and stringent criterion for fixed point location gives accurate and statistically significant UPOs even in the presence of significant noise. Geometry of the return map, frequency of UPOs visiting the same trajectory, length of the data set, strength of the noise, and degree of nonstationarity affect the efficacy of the proposed method. Results suggest that establishing determinism from unambiguous UPO detection is often possible in short data sets with significant noise, but derived dynamical properties are rarely accurate and adequate for controlling the dynamics around these UPOs. A repeat chaos control experiment on epileptic hippocampal slices through more stringent control strategy and adaptive UPO tracking is reinterpreted in this context through simulation of similar control experiments on an analogous but stochastic computer model of epileptic brain slices. Reproduction of equivalent results suggests that far more stringent criteria are needed for linking apparent success of control in such experiments with possible determinism in the underlying dynamics

  11. A new virtual-flux-vector based droop control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiefeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Qu, Yanqing;

    2013-01-01

    flux ripple, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme is integrated into the DFC. The obtained results shows that the proposed flux droop strategy can achieve active and reactive power sharing with much lower frequency deviation and better transient performance than the conventional droop method, thus......Voltage and frequency droop method is commonly used in microgrids to achieve proper autonomous power sharing without rely on intercommunication systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrid applications by drooping the flux instead of the inverter...... output voltage. Firstly, the relation between the inverter flux and the active and reactive power is mathematically obtained. Secondly, a novel flux droop method is then developed in order to regulate the active and reactive powers by drooping the flux amplitude and the phase angle, respectively. In...

  12. Supervisory Control Strategy Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions

  13. A Novel Torque Coordination Control Strategy of a Single-Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Model Predictive Control

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The torque coordination control during mode transition is a very important task for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a clutch serving as the key enabling actuator element. Poor coordination will deteriorate the drivability of the driver and lead to excessive wearing to the clutch friction plates. In this paper, a novel torque coordination control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented to coordinate the motor torque, engine torque, and clutch torque so that...

  14. Human Resource Management Risks: Sources and Control Strategies Based on Dairy Farmer Focus Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Harsh, Stephen B.; Mugera, Amin W.

    2006-01-01

    Human resource management in agriculture and associated risks are under-researched topics. To identify the sources of human resource management risks confronting dairy farms, gain insights into how dairy farmers perceive the impacts of these risks, and identify control strategies, four focus group discussions were held with dairy farm managers. Managers’ perceptions served to develop a framework for the analysis of human resource management risks in agriculture and derive recommendations fo...

  15. A new virtual-flux-vector based droop control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jiefeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Qu, Yanqing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage and frequency droop method is commonly used in microgrids to achieve proper autonomous power sharing without rely on intercommunication systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrid applications by drooping the flux instead of the inverter output voltage. Firstly, the relation between the inverter flux and the active and reactive power is mathematically obtained. Secondly, a novel flux droop method is then developed in order to regul...

  16. Risk-Based Prioritization among Air Pollution Control Strategies in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Joshua S.; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhou, Ying; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China is a densely populated region with recent dramatic increases in energy consumption and atmospheric emissions. Objectives: We studied how different emission sectors influence population exposures and the corresponding health risks, to inform air pollution control strategy design. Methods: We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System to model the marginal contribution to baseline concentrations from different sectors. ...

  17. Research on Sensorless control strategies for Vehicle stability using Fuzzy based EDC

    OpenAIRE

    A Ravi; S. Palani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient and robust control scheme of Fuzzy Logic Electronic Differential Controller (FLEDC) for sensorless drive based electric vehicle. The proposed system consists of two Brushless DC motors (BLDC) that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels of an electric vehicle. Electronic differential controller (EDC) ensures the maximum torque and it can control both the driving wheel independently to turn at different speeds in any curve according to the steering angl...

  18. Neural network based semi-active control strategy for structural vibration mitigation with magnetorheological damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Subrata

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network based semi-active control method for a rotary type magnetorheological (MR) damper. The characteristics of the MR damper are described by the classic Bouc-Wen model, and the performance of the proposed control method is evaluated in terms of a base exited shear......-displacement trajectories. The proposed neural network controller is therefore trained based on data derived from these desired forcedisplacement curves, where the optimal relation between friction force level and response amplitude is determined explicitly by simply maximizing the damping ratio of the targeted vibration...... mode of the structure. The neural network control is then developed to reproduce the desired force based on damper displacement and velocity as network input, and it is therefore referred to as an amplitude dependent model reference control method. An inverse model of the MR damper is needed to...

  19. An online controller redesign based fault-tolerant strategy for thermal comfort in a multi-zone building

    OpenAIRE

    Yamé, Joseph Julien; Jain, Tushar; Sauter, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) boxes are used in multi-zone buildings, which varies the volume of constant temperature air separately supplied by an air-handling unit to meet challenging thermal load demands of individual zones. A fault appearing in the VAV damper severely affects the control performance and consequently, the energy efficiency of the overall system. To address this issue, we present a novel online redesign based fault-tolerant control strategy in this paper for a VAV thermal syste...

  20. Network topology control strategy based on spatial evolutionary public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Deng, Chuang; Suh, Il Hong

    2015-08-01

    It is often the case that rational individuals will adjust their connectivity in commercial or social activities for maximizing their payoffs. In this process, we can observe that individuals always gather around a leader or a competitive individual who can bring them more benefits. Inspired by this, we propose a strategy that impels nodes of network to connect with a specific node that we have specified with the perspective of spatial evolutionary public goods game. Thus a node is specified and given a larger enhancement factor which reflects his advantage over others. Then we employ a payoff-oriented preferential rewire strategy that individual will sever a neighbor who provides him with the lowest benefit and then link others randomly. The results illustrate that this strategy not only ensures the promotion of cooperation but also increases the degree of the specified node. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of two relevant parameters: enhancement factor and rewire frequency. We find that if the control strategy expects to work effectively, these two parameters have to ensure an evolution environment where cooperators can prevail defectors. We also conclude that a relatively low rewire frequency contributes to increasing the degree of the specified node. Meanwhile we attempt to present our interpretations for these phenomena.

  1. An Innovative Control Strategy to Improve the Fault Ride-Through Capability of DFIGs Based on Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandai Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative control strategy is proposed for enhancing the low voltage ride-through (LVRT capability of a doubly fed induction generator based on wind energy conversion systems (DFIG-WECS. Within the proposed control method, the current control loops of the rotor side converter (RSC are developed based on passivity theory. The control scheme for the grid side converter (GSC is designed based on a two-term approach to keep the DC-link voltage close to a given value. The first term based on the maximal voltage of GSC is introduced in the GSC control loops as a reference reactive current. The second one reflecting the instantaneous unbalanced power flow between the RSC and GSC is also introduced in the GSC control loops as a disturbance considering the instantaneous power of the grid filter to compensate the instantaneous rotor power. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified via time domain simulation of a 2.0 MW-575 V DFIG-WECS using PSCAD/EMTP. Simulation results show that the control of the DFIG with the proposed approach can improve the LVRT capability better than with the conventional one.

  2. A novel vehicle dynamics stability control algorithm based on the hierarchical strategy with constrain of nonlinear tyre forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Jia, Gang; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Hongjun; Cao, Dongpu; Song, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Direct yaw moment control (DYC), which differentially brakes the wheels to produce a yaw moment for the vehicle stability in a steering process, is an important part of electric stability control system. In this field, most control methods utilise the active brake pressure with a feedback controller to adjust the braked wheel. However, the method might lead to a control delay or overshoot because of the lack of a quantitative project relationship between target values from the upper stability controller to the lower pressure controller. Meanwhile, the stability controller usually ignores the implementing ability of the tyre forces, which might be restrained by the combined-slip dynamics of the tyre. Therefore, a novel control algorithm of DYC based on the hierarchical control strategy is brought forward in this paper. As for the upper controller, a correctional linear quadratic regulator, which not only contains feedback control but also contains feed forward control, is introduced to deduce the object of the stability yaw moment in order to guarantee the yaw rate and side-slip angle stability. As for the medium and lower controller, the quantitative relationship between the vehicle stability object and the target tyre forces of controlled wheels is proposed to achieve smooth control performance based on a combined-slip tyre model. The simulations with the hardware-in-the-loop platform validate that the proposed algorithm can improve the stability of the vehicle effectively.

  3. A service-oriented admission control strategy for class-based IP networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Solange; Carvalho, Paulo; Freitas, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    The clear trend toward the integration of current and emerging applications and services in the Internet launches new demands on service deployment and management. Distributed service-oriented traffic control mechanisms, operating with minimum impact on network performance, assume a crucial role as regards controlling services quality and network resources transparently and efficiently. In this paper, we describe and specify a lightweight distributed admission control (AC) model based on ...

  4. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hao Fan; Hongwen He; Deng Pan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB). In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator) model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area ne...

  5. Canine-Based Strategies for Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovallos, Fredy G.; Amaku, Marcus; Carrillo, Eugenia; Moreno, Javier; Galati, Eunice A. B.; Lopes, Estela G.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Ferreira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis found worldwide. Its incidence has increased in Brazil in recent years, representing a serious public and animal health problem. The strategies applied in Brazil are questionable and are not sufficient to control the disease. Thus, we have compared the efficacy of some of the currently available strategies focused on dogs to prevent and control zoonotic VL in endemic areas by optimizing a mathematical model. The simulations showed that the elimination of seropositive dogs, the use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars, and the vaccination of dogs significantly contribute to reducing the prevalence of infection in both canines and humans. The use of insecticide-impregnated collars presented the highest level of efficacy mainly because it directly affected the force of infection and vector-dog contact. In addition, when used at a coverage rate of 90%, insecticide-impregnated collar was able to decrease the prevalence of seropositive dogs and humans to zero; moreover, because of the easy application and acceptance by the targeted population, these collars may be considered the most feasible for inclusion in public policies among the three simulated measures. Vaccination and euthanasia were efficacious, but the latter method is strongly criticized on ethical grounds, and both methods present difficulties for inclusion in public policies. When we compared the use of euthanasia and vaccination at coverages of 70 and 90%, respectively, the proportion of infected populations were similar. However, on evaluating the implications of both of these methods, particularly the negative aspects of culling dogs and the proportion of animals protected by vaccination, the latter measure appears to be the better option if the total cost is not significantly higher. The comparison of complications and advantages of different control strategies allows us to analyze the optimal measure and offer strategies to veterinary and public health

  6. Canine-Based Strategies for Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá P; Ovallos, Fredy G; Amaku, Marcus; Carrillo, Eugenia; Moreno, Javier; Galati, Eunice A B; Lopes, Estela G; Soares, Rodrigo M; Ferreira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis found worldwide. Its incidence has increased in Brazil in recent years, representing a serious public and animal health problem. The strategies applied in Brazil are questionable and are not sufficient to control the disease. Thus, we have compared the efficacy of some of the currently available strategies focused on dogs to prevent and control zoonotic VL in endemic areas by optimizing a mathematical model. The simulations showed that the elimination of seropositive dogs, the use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars, and the vaccination of dogs significantly contribute to reducing the prevalence of infection in both canines and humans. The use of insecticide-impregnated collars presented the highest level of efficacy mainly because it directly affected the force of infection and vector-dog contact. In addition, when used at a coverage rate of 90%, insecticide-impregnated collar was able to decrease the prevalence of seropositive dogs and humans to zero; moreover, because of the easy application and acceptance by the targeted population, these collars may be considered the most feasible for inclusion in public policies among the three simulated measures. Vaccination and euthanasia were efficacious, but the latter method is strongly criticized on ethical grounds, and both methods present difficulties for inclusion in public policies. When we compared the use of euthanasia and vaccination at coverages of 70 and 90%, respectively, the proportion of infected populations were similar. However, on evaluating the implications of both of these methods, particularly the negative aspects of culling dogs and the proportion of animals protected by vaccination, the latter measure appears to be the better option if the total cost is not significantly higher. The comparison of complications and advantages of different control strategies allows us to analyze the optimal measure and offer strategies to veterinary and public health

  7. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Adaptive Strategy for Tuning of Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Bash Chandra Debnath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for learning and tuning a fuzzy logic controller automatically by means of a particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed self-learning fuzzy logic control that uses the PSO with adaptive abilities can learn the fuzzy conclusion tables, their corresponding membership functions and fitness value where the optimization only considers certain points of the membership functions. To exhibit the effectiveness of proposed algorithm, it is used to optimize the Gaussian membership functions of the fuzzy model of a nonlinear problem. Moreover, in order to design an effective adaptive fuzzy logic controller, an on line adaptive PSO based mechanism is presented to determine the parameters of the fuzzy mechanisms. Simulation results on two nonlinear problems are derived to demonstrate the powerful PSO learning algorithm and the proposed method is able to find good controllers better than neural controller and conventional controller for the target problem, cart pole type inverted pendulum system.

  8. Fault Characteristics and Control Strategies of Multiterminal High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Based on Modular Multilevel Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modular multilevel converter (MMC is an emerging voltage source converter topology suitable for multiterminal high voltage direct current transmission based on modular multilevel converter (MMC-MTDC. This paper presents fault characteristics of MMC-MTDC including submodule fault, DC line fault, and fault ride-through of wind farm integration. Meanwhile, the corresponding protection strategies are proposed. The correctness and effectiveness of the control strategies are verified by establishing a three-terminal MMC-MTDC system under the PSCAD/EMTDC electromagnetic transient simulation environment.

  9. Environmental optimal control strategies based on plant canopy photosynthesis responses and greenhouse climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lujuan; Xie, Songhe; Cui, Jiantao; Liu, Tao

    2006-11-01

    It is the essential goal of intelligent greenhouse environment optimal control to enhance income of cropper and energy save. There were some characteristics such as uncertainty, imprecision, nonlinear, strong coupling, bigger inertia and different time scale in greenhouse environment control system. So greenhouse environment optimal control was not easy and especially model-based optimal control method was more difficult. So the optimal control problem of plant environment in intelligent greenhouse was researched. Hierarchical greenhouse environment control system was constructed. In the first level data measuring was carried out and executive machine was controlled. Optimal setting points of climate controlled variable in greenhouse was calculated and chosen in the second level. Market analysis and planning were completed in third level. The problem of the optimal setting point was discussed in this paper. Firstly the model of plant canopy photosynthesis responses and the model of greenhouse climate model were constructed. Afterwards according to experience of the planting expert, in daytime the optimal goals were decided according to the most maximal photosynthesis rate principle. In nighttime on plant better growth conditions the optimal goals were decided by energy saving principle. Whereafter environment optimal control setting points were computed by GA. Compared the optimal result and recording data in real system, the method is reasonable and can achieve energy saving and the maximal photosynthesis rate in intelligent greenhouse

  10. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  11. Investigation of neural-net based control strategies for improved power system dynamic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The ability to accurately predict the behavior of a dynamic system is of essential importance in monitoring and control of complex processes. In this regard recent advances in neural-net base system identification represent a significant step toward development and design of a new generation of control tools for increased system performance and reliability. The enabling functionality is the one of accurate representation of a model of a nonlinear and nonstationary dynamic system. This functionality provides valuable new opportunities including: (1) The ability to predict future system behavior on the basis of actual system observations, (2) On-line evaluation and display of system performance and design of early warning systems, and (3) Controller optimization for improved system performance. In this presentation, we discuss the issues involved in definition and design of learning control systems and their impact on power system control. Several numerical examples are provided for illustrative purpose.

  12. A strategy for adaptive synchronization of an electrical chaotic circuit based on nonlinear control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the adaptive synchronization of an electrical chaotic oscillator through a nonlinear control law. The nonlinear controller is designed to synchronize two identical chaotic systems. Lyapunov stability theory is applied to prove that under some conditions the drive-response system can achieve practical synchronization. The designed controller contains only continuous nonlinear terms existing in the dynamical systems and is easy to implement in practice. As an illustrative example to verify the validity of the proposed method, a hyperbolic tangent-based electrical and chaotic circuit is chosen and its dynamics is briefly investigated to demonstrate its chaotic behavior.

  13. Differential Control Strategy based on an Equal Slip Rate for an All-wheel Electricdrive Underground Articulated Dumping Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential control strategy based on equal slip rates is introduced to improve the steering stability of an all-wheelelectric-drive underground articulated dumping truck. Steering kinematic and dynamic models of the truck are derived to describe the movement relationship and force of the driving wheels. In consideration of the difficulty of obtaining the absolute velocity for an all-wheel-drive truck, an acceleration sensor was set on a test truck, and a kalman filter was applied to obtain the actual value for the truck body. Simulation results for an equal-slip control strategy were compared with experimental results for an equal-torque control strategy. In the simulation, the four-wheel slip rate was 0.08 and the steering system of the truck was stable. The results verify that the equal-slip control strategy makes better use of the ground adhesion coefficient, is able to reasonably distribute drive power, notably reduces tire wear, and improves the use of driving power.

  14. A comparison of acceptance- and control-based strategies for coping with food cravings: an analog study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M; Hoffman, Kimberly L; McGrath, Kathleen B; Herbert, James D; Brandsma, Lynn L; Lowe, Michael R

    2007-10-01

    The present study utilized an analog paradigm to investigate the effectiveness of two strategies for coping with food cravings, which was theorized to be critical to the maintenance of weight loss. Ninety-eight undergraduate students were given transparent boxes of chocolate Hershey's Kisses and instructed to keep the chocolates with them, but not to eat them, for 48 h. Before receiving the Kisses, participants were randomized to receive either (a) no intervention, (b) instruction in control-based coping strategies such as distraction and cognitive restructuring, or (c) instruction in acceptance-based strategies such as experiential acceptance and defusion techniques. Measures included the Power of Food Scale (PFS; a measure of psychological sensitivity to the food environment), self-report ratings of chocolate cravings and surreptitiously recorded chocolate consumption. Results suggested that the effect of the intervention depended on baseline PFS levels, such that acceptance-based strategies were associated with better outcomes (cravings, consumption) among those reporting the highest susceptibility to the presence of food, but greater cravings among those who scored lowest on the PFS. It was observed that craving self-report measures predicted chocolate consumption, and baseline PFS levels predicted both cravings and consumption. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for weight loss maintenance strategies. PMID:17544361

  15. Event-based control strategy for consensus of a group of VTOL-UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Alonzo, A; Guerrero Castellanos, Jose Fermi; Durand, Sylvain; N. Marchand; Maya-Rueda, S. E.; Mino-Aguilar, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a collaborative event-based control applied to the problem of consensus and formation of a group of VTOL-UAVs (Vertical Takeoff and Landing, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). Each VTOL-UAV decides, based on the difference of its current state (linear position and velocity) and its latest broadcast state, when it has to send a new value to its neighbors. The asymptotic convergence to average consensus or desired formation is depicted via numerical simulations.

  16. Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome Can Use a Mindfulness-Based Strategy to Control Their Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…

  17. A Moving Control Strategy Based on RSSI Real-time Localization in Multi-tier Mobile Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Wen; Min Yu; Wenwen Huang; Mingxing Deng

    2009-01-01

    Research on communication collection pattern for traditional fixed nodes with some mobile ones has been already extensive. However, almost nothing is done in tiered movement policy while movement track is unknown and sensor nodes drift at random direction. To fit the development of “smart dust” wireless sensor network, a new moving control strategy based on RSSI real-time localization is proposed in the multi-tier mobile sensor networks. First, we divide the monitoring field into ...

  18. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Adaptive Strategy for Tuning of Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Bash Chandra Debnath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for learning and tuning a fuzzy logic controller automatically by meansof a particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed self-learning fuzzy logic control that uses the PSOwith adaptive abilities can learn the fuzzy conclusion tables, their corresponding membership functions andfitness value where the optimization only considers certain points of the membership functions. To exhibitthe effectiveness of proposed algorithm, it is used to optimize the Gaussian membership functions of thefuzzy model of a nonlinear problem. Moreover, in order to design an effective adaptive fuzzy logiccontroller, an on line adaptive PSO based mechanism is presented to determine the parameters of the fuzzymechanisms. Simulation results on two nonlinear problems are derived to demonstrate the powerful PSOlearning algorithm and the proposed method is able to find good controllers better than neural controllerand conventional controller for the target problem, cart pole type inverted pendulum system.

  19. A decision tree-based on-line preventive control strategy for power system transient instability prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhao Yang; Zhang, Rui; Wong, Kit Po

    2014-02-01

    Maintaining transient stability is a basic requirement for secure power system operations. Preventive control deals with modifying the system operating point to withstand probable contingencies. In this article, a decision tree (DT)-based on-line preventive control strategy is proposed for transient instability prevention of power systems. Given a stability database, a distance-based feature estimation algorithm is first applied to identify the critical generators, which are then used as features to develop a DT. By interpreting the splitting rules of DT, preventive control is realised by formulating the rules in a standard optimal power flow model and solving it. The proposed method is transparent in control mechanism, on-line computation compatible and convenient to deal with multi-contingency. The effectiveness and efficiency of the method has been verified on New England 10-machine 39-bus test system.

  20. Efficient fault-ride-through control strategy of DFIG-based wind turbines during the grid faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A comparative review of DFIGs fault-ride-through improvement approaches is presented. • An efficient control strategy is proposed to improve the FRT capability of DFIG. • The rotor overcurrent, DC-link overvoltage and torque oscillations are decreased. • The RSC, DC-link capacitor and mechanical parts are kept safe during the grid faults. • The DFIG remains connected to the grid during the symmetrical and asymmetrical faults. - Abstract: As the penetration of wind power in electrical power system increases, it is necessary that wind turbines remain connected to the grid and contribute to the system stability during and after the grid faults. This paper proposes an efficient control strategy to improve the fault ride through (FRT) capability of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) during the symmetrical and asymmetrical grid faults. The proposed scheme consists of active and passive FRT compensators. The active compensator is carried out by determining the rotor current references to reduce the rotor over voltages. The passive compensator is based on rotor current limiter (RCL) that considerably reduces the rotor inrush currents at the instants of occurring and clearing the grid faults with deep sags. By applying the proposed strategy, negative effects of the grid faults in the DFIG system including the rotor over currents, electromagnetic torque oscillations and DC-link over voltage are decreased. The system simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy

  1. A remote islanding detection and control strategy for photovoltaic-based distributed generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study presents a new remote islanding detection method for PV based DG systems. • An uncomplicated VLSI based structure for voltage drifting detection is proposed with FPGA. • The proposed method was verified by the developed PV testbed constituted in the laboratory. • The islanding detection time is 1.65 ms even in a resonant condition. • The proposed method is independent from inverter & load so it can be easily implemented. - Abstract: This study presents a new remote islanding detection method and control system for photovoltaic (PV) based Distributed Generation (DG) systems. The proposed method monitors and controls the grid, local load and the output of the PV inverter in real time with the communication of circuit breakers. The proposed remote control system detects the changes in the currents of the circuit breakers, frequency, and the voltages by checking the defined threshold values at all electrical branches of the PV system. The proposed islanding detection algorithm was implemented by a low-cost FPGA board. The control system was also designed by considering a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) structure. The proposed method was verified by a developed prototype PV system constituted in the laboratory. The proposed control system was checked in a resonance condition with an active power match, and the verified results indicated that the developed system was also independent of the load and the inverter. Islanding detection time is approximately 1.65 ms even in a worst-case operational scenario, and this is a significantly shorter response time according to the existing standards. The proposed method presents a realistic solution to islanding, is easy to implement, and is suitable for real system applications. The method also provides a reliable islanding detection and presents a low-cost solution to the subject

  2. MPPT Algorithm for Small Wind Systems based on Speed Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian VLAD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of an autonomous low-power wind energy conversion system (WECS, based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG connected directly to the wind turbine. The purpose of this paper is to present an improving method for MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based shaft rotational speed optimal control. The proposed method concern the variable delay compensation between measured wind speed from anemometer and wind shaft rotational speed proportional signal. Experimental results aiming to prove the efficiency of the proposed method are presented.

  3. GRID-CONNECTED CONVERTER CONTROL STRATEGY BASED ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAGNITUDE AND PHASE OF SYSTEM VOLTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shansheng Feng

    2015-01-01

    Grid-connected converter is an important power interface between the DC bus of renewable energy power system and public grid. By virtue of vector relation of grid voltage, converter voltage and line impedance voltage, realtime control of active current and reactive current injected into the grid is realized. The simulation results show that grid-connected converter based on relationship between magnitude and phase of system voltage can flexibly regulate active power and reactive p...

  4. An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR system for four-wheel drive (4WD electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque and independent control of optimal slip rate, respectively, which are designed based on the torque adaptive principle of inter-axle differential and sliding mode control theory. Furthermore, in order to accurately describe the longitudinal tyre force characteristic, a slip rate calculation formula in the form of a state equation was used for solving the numerical problem posed by the traditional way. A simulation was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed ASR system can fully use the road friction condition, inhibit the drive-wheels from slipping, and improve the vehicle longitudinal driving stability.

  5. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  6. Comparative Studies of Different Control Strategies of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shabanpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR with no energy storage is studied. By using a matrix converter instead of the conventional AC/DC/AC converters, elimination of the DC-link capacitor is possible. The switching algorithm of matrix converter is the space vector modulation. There are different compensation algorithms to control the conventional DVR. These methods have been analyzed in this paper for the proposed matrix-converter-based DVR. A deep analysis through different diagrams would show the advantages or disadvantages of each compensation method. Equations for all methods are derived, and the characteristics of algorithms are compared with each other.

  7. New Strategy for Congestion Control based on Dynamic Adjustment of Congestion Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Attiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mechanism for the end-to-end congestion control, called EnewReno. The proposed mechanism is based on the enhancement of both the congestion avoidance and the fast recovery algorithms of the TCP NewReno so as to improve its performance. The basic idea of the proposed mechanism is to adjust the congestion window of the TCP sender dynamically based on the level of congestion in the network so as to allow transferring more packets to the destination. The performance of the proposed mechanism is evaluated and compared with the most recent mechanisms by simulation studies using the well known Network Simulator NS-2 and the realistic topology generator GT-ITM.

  8. Quantum representation and watermark strategy for color images based on the controlled rotation of qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panchi; Xiao, Hong; Li, Binxu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a novel quantum representation and watermarking scheme based on the controlled rotation of qubits are proposed. Firstly, a flexible representation for quantum color image (FRQCI) is proposed to facilitate the image processing tasks. Some basic image processing operations based on FRQCI representation are introduced. Then, a novel watermarking scheme for quantum images is presented. In our scheme, the carrier image is stored in the phase θ of a qubit; at the same time, the watermark image is embedded into the phase φ of a qubit, which will not affect the carrier image's visual effect. Before being embedded into the carrier image, the watermark image is scrambled to be seemingly meaningless using quantum circuits, which further ensures the security of the watermark image. All the operations mentioned above are implemented by the controlled rotation of qubits. The experimental results on the classical computer show that the proposed watermarking scheme has better visual quality under a higher embedding capacity and outperforms the existing schemes in the literature.

  9. Control strategy of shortcut nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Gang; ZHENG Ping; JIN Ren-cun; QAISAR Mahmood

    2006-01-01

    Shortcut nitrification for ammonium-rich wastewater is energy-saving and cost-effective procedure that has become one of the hotspots in the field of biological denitrogenation. An orthogonal experiment was performed to study the combined effects of operational parameters on the performance of internal-loop airlift bioreactor for shortcut nitrification. The optimum operational parameters for the shortcut nitrification were found as temperature 35 ℃, pH 8.0, dissolved oxygen concentration 1.0 mg/L, ammonium concentration 4 mmol/L and HRT 16 h, which have different influence on the performance of shortcut nitrification reactor. The pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration have significant bearing on the process. The results showed that the shortcut nitrification reactor could be successfully started up within 42 d, and the reactor performance is steady with minimum NO2-/NOx- of 85.2% , maximum 93.4% and average value of 91.4% in effluent. Based on the analysis of experimental data, a new control strategy named "priority + combination" for shortcut nitrification was suggested. Through this strategy, the startup and operation of shortcut nitrification for ammonium-rich sludge digester liquids were optimized. The control strategy works well to keep the reactor operation in steady state and in achieving high-efficiency for shortcut nitrification.

  10. Energy optimal control strategies for electro motors; low-cost and sensorless PWM-VSI based induction motor control. Vol. 1: Main report, appendix and annex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, F.

    1998-02-01

    When variable speed induction motor drives are used in applications that run at low load for long periods, energy can be saved by reducing the motor flux at low load. In this report the efficiency of 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives are investigated experimentally with efficiency optimized and constant flux control, with sinusoidal and PWM voltage supply and with varying switching frequency. Steady-state motor models are developed and verified experimentally, and are used to analyze and develop efficiency optimizing control strategies. Four energy optimal control strategies are tested experimentally: cos({phi}) control, model-based control, off-line calculated airgap flux control and stator current/input power minimising search control. Their dynamical properties and their ability to reject load disturbances are analysed. Their ability to save energy is tested on a water pump system. For a typical predefined test-cycle the energy optimal control reduces the energy consumption with 10% compared with classical constant V/Hz control. (au)

  11. 基于支持向量机逼近的内模控制系统及应用%SVM Approximate-based Internal Model Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀南; 袁小芳

    2008-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM) approximate-based internal model control (IMC) strategy is presented for the steam valving control of synchronous generators. The proposed SVM IMC strategy includes two main parts: SVM approximate inverse controller and uncertainty compensation in the internal model structure. The SVM inverse controller is derived directly using an input-output approximation approach via Taylor expansion, and it is implemented through nonlinear system identification without further online training. Frthermore, a robustness filter is used for uncertainty compensation in the internal model structure.Simulations show the effectiveness of the SVM IMC strategy for the steam valving control.

  12. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  13. A minimal order observer based frequency control strategy for an integrated wind-battery-diesel power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy is a fluctuating resource which can diverge quickly and causes the frequency deviation. To overcome this problem, the current paper deals with a frequency control scheme for a small power system by a coordinated control strategy of a wind turbine generator (WTG) and a battery energy storage system (BESS). The small power system composes of a wind turbine, a battery storage and a diesel generator. A minimal order observer is utilized as a disturbance observer to estimate the load of the power system. The load deviations are considered in a frequency domain. The low frequency component is reduced by the pitch angle control system of the WTG, while the high frequency component is reduced by the charge/discharge of the BESS, respectively. The output power command of the BESS is determined according to the state of charge, the high frequency component of the frequency deviation and the load variation. The proposed method is compared with the conventional method in different cases. By using the proposed method, the capacity of the battery is decreased by the charge/discharge of the BESS in long term. To enhance the control performance, the generalized predictive control (GPC) method is introduced to the pitch angle control system of the WTG. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the numerical simulations. -- Highlights: ► A coordinated control method for a WTG and a BESS in the small power system. ► To achieve this objective, a minimal order observer is utilized. ► The output power command of the WTG is based on the wind speed and the estimated frequency deviations. ► The output power the WTG is controlled by the GPC based robust pitch angle control system. ► The output power command of the BESS is determined by the state of charge and the estimated frequency deviations.

  14. Design and Evaluation for Target Indicated Torque Based Engine Starting Control Strategy in a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine power demand of the start condition can be separated into two parts including resistance overcoming and acceleration realization for the reason that there is no power output during the starting process. The present paper mainly focuses on the fuel injection quantity control based on the engine power demand especially the acceleration demand for the resistance force is fixed for a specific engine, and the starting acceleration velocity is set as a target curve so that the acceleration process can also be fixed. The feasibility of the start control strategy proposed in this paper was verified by a comparison of the traditional starting control with a constant fuel quantity, and starting performance of the target acceleration based control shows predominance to the constant quantity control. And then the comparison between various starting acceleration processes, which was realized by the settings of acceleration curve slope factor, was conducted and results showed that the acceleration processes with higher slope factors perform better.

  15. A study on the energy management in domestic micro-grids based on Model Predictive Control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of a domestic microgrid and house thermal model. • Model Predictive Control for simultaneous management of power flow and thermal comfort. • Modeling of summer and winter typical conditions. • Comparison with standard rule based controller results. • Fuel cell downsizing potential of output is up to 60%. - Abstract: In this paper a Model Predictive Control (MPC) logic, based on weather forecasts, has been applied to the analysis of power management in a domestic off-grid system. The system is laid out as the integration of renewable energy conversion devices (Photovoltaic, PV), a high efficiency energy conversion programmable system (a Fuel Cell, FC) and an electrochemical energy storage (batteries). The control strategy has the objective of minimizing energy costs, while maintaining the optimal environmental comfort in the house, thus optimizing the use of renewable sources. To that aim, a validated numerical model of the whole system has been developed, and simulations have been carried out for winter and summer periods. Performances attainable with a MPC-based logic have been evaluated in comparison with a standard Rule Based Control logic, by means of costs and efficiency parameters of the micro-grid. Temperature violations have been taken into account to represent the impact of the control on comfort. Results show an improvement of the house comfort conditions and a lower use (on average 14.5%) of primary fossil energy. This is due both to a reduction of required energy, and to an increased use of renewable energy sources. Moreover, the modulation of the HVAC load and of the FC operation gives a reduction of requested power by approximately 40%. Smoother battery pack charge and discharge processes are also obtained. As a main positive effect, a reduction of the FC powerplant size and an increase of its durability seems feasible, leading to an overall reduction of capital costs

  16. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Asai

    Full Text Available It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  17. A Moving Control Strategy Based on RSSI Real-time Localization in Multi-tier Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on communication collection pattern for traditional fixed nodes with some mobile ones has been already extensive. However, almost nothing is done in tiered movement policy while movement track is unknown and sensor nodes drift at random direction. To fit the development of “smart dust” wireless sensor network, a new moving control strategy based on RSSI real-time localization is proposed in the multi-tier mobile sensor networks. First, we divide the monitoring field into several sub-regions so that fusion nodes can collect data in their own parts respectively, and use constraints-based mobile localization (CML algorithm to calculate the location information of each sensor node. Then, a new Maximum Likelihood Nearest Neighbor (MLNN algorithm is proposed to design optimal routes for fusion nodes. Finally, each fusion node can collect sensed data along this route. Simulation results show that the moving control strategy can provide a good solution of the problem on tiered mobile network of instable communication and high-fraction of event loss. Only layouting a small number of fusion nodes, the network can receive higher data success rate and lower data transmission delay, and is very suitable for the large-scale industry real-time monitoring application of wireless sensor networks.

  18. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  19. Strategies for Industrial Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.

    dynamics and gains strongly depend upon one or more physical parameters characterizing the operating point. This class covers many industrial systems such as airplanes, ships, robots and process control systems. Power plant boilers are representatives for process control systems in general. The dynamics......Multivariable control strategies well-suited for industrial applications are suggested. The strategies combine the practical advantages of conventional SISO control schemes and -technology with the potential of multivariable controllers. Special emphasis is put on parameter-varying systems whose...

  20. Model-Based Design of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    King, Jonathan Charles

    2012-01-01

    For years the trend in the automotive industry has been toward more complex electronic control systems. The number of electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles is ever increasing as is the complexity of communication networks among the ECUs. Increasing fuel economy standards and the increasing cost of fuel is driving hybridization and electrification of the automobile. Achieving superior fuel economy with a hybrid powertrain requires an effective and optimized control system. On the other h...

  1. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  2. Damping control strategies of inter-area low-frequency oscillation for DFIG-based wind farms integrated into a power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Shengquan; Ji, Haiting;

    2014-01-01

    -frequency oscillation is theoretically analyzed through the active/reactive power control of grid-connected wind farms. Additional damping control strategies with the active/reactive power loop of the DFIG-based wind farm are presented using the feedback signal of the transmission line active power flow based on the...... power system stabilizer (PSS) control method. Transient simulation on different damping gain coefficients are conducted for justification. Following the OTEF mechanism analysis, an additional fuzzy damping control strategy with the active/reactive power loop is proposed by identifying the oscillation...... phase and the severity to prevent different damping gain coefficients from affecting the presented PSS damping control method. Transient and dynamic simulation results and comparisons showed that both additional control strategies with the active and reactive power loops of the DFIG-based wind farm can...

  3. Evaluation of Zika Vector Control Strategies Using Agent-Based Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Gunaratne, Chathika; Akbas, Mustafa Ilhan; Garibay, Ivan; Ozmen, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Aedes Aegypti is the vector of several deadly diseases, including Zika. Effective and sustainable vector control measures must be deployed to keep A. aegypti numbers under control. The distribution of A. Aegypti is subject to spatial and climatic constraints. Using agentbased modeling, we model the population dynamics of A. aegypti subjected to the spatial and climatic constraints of a neighborhood in the Key West. Satellite imagery was used to identify vegetation, houses(CO2 zones) both crit...

  4. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Adaptive Strategy for Tuning of Fuzzy Logic Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Sree Bash Chandra Debnath; Pintu Chandra Shill; Kazuyuki Murase

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for learning and tuning a fuzzy logic controller automatically by means of a particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed self-learning fuzzy logic control that uses the PSO with adaptive abilities can learn the fuzzy conclusion tables, their corresponding membership functions and fitness value where the optimization only considers certain points of the membership functions. To exhibit the effectiveness of proposed algorithm, it is used to optim...

  5. Wolbachia-Based Population Control Strategy Targeting Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes Proves Efficient under Semi-Field Conditions : Wolbachia-Based Control of Culex quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Julien Cattel; Cyrille Lebon; Olivier Flores; Jean-Sébastien Dehecq; Mylène Weill; Louis Clément Gouagna; Pablo Tortosa

    2015-01-01

    In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy). We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is)] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mos...

  6. Comparing strategies for controlling an African pest rodent: an empirically based theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Leirs, Herwig; Mercelis, Saskia; Mwanjabe, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    1. Small rodents in general and the multimammate rat Mastomys natalensis in particular cause major economic losses in Africa through damage to crops. Attempts to develop dynamic population models for this and other pest rodents are ongoing. Small rodents in general and the multimammate rat in...... particular cause major economic losses in Africa through damage to crops. Attempts to develop dynamic population models for this and other pest rodents are ongoing. 2. Demographic estimates from a capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study in Tanzania were used to parameterize a population model for this species....... Provided that CMR data are available, we recommend developing Leslie-type population models for rodent pests on the basis of CMR-estimated demographic schedules. Such models have great potential in rodent management and allow the evaluation of different strategies.7. Besides improving the ecological basis...

  7. Exploring pig trade patterns to inform the design of risk-based disease surveillance and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, C; Relun, A; Wall, B; Morris, A; Dixon, L; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the patterns of animal contact networks provides essential information for the design of risk-based animal disease surveillance and control strategies. This study characterises pig movements throughout England and Wales between 2009 and 2013 with a view to characterising spatial and temporal patterns, network topology and trade communities. Data were extracted from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)'s RADAR (Rapid Analysis and Detection of Animal-related Risks) database, and analysed using descriptive and network approaches. A total of 61,937,855 pigs were moved through 872,493 movements of batches in England and Wales during the 5-year study period. Results show that the network exhibited scale-free and small-world topologies, indicating the potential for diseases to quickly spread within the pig industry. The findings also provide suggestions for how risk-based surveillance strategies could be optimised in the country by taking account of highly connected holdings, geographical regions and time periods with the greatest number of movements and pigs moved, as these are likely to be at higher risk for disease introduction. This study is also the first attempt to identify trade communities in the country, information which could be used to facilitate the pig trade and maintain disease-free status across the country in the event of an outbreak. PMID:27357836

  8. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. Analytical strategies for controlling polysorbate-based nanomicelles in fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtkova, Veronika; Schulzova, Vera; Lacina, Ondrej; Hrbek, Vojtech; Tomaniova, Monika; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the detection and quantification of organic micelle-type nanoparticles (NPs) with polysorbate components (polysorbate 20 and polysorbate 80) in their micelle shells that could be used to load biologically active compounds into fruit juice. Several advanced analytical techniques were applied in the stepwise method development strategy used. In the first phase, a system consisting of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography employing a size exclusion column coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (UHPLC-SEC-ELSD) was used for the fractionation of micelle assemblies from other, lower molecular weight sample components. The limit of detection (LoD) of these polysorbate micelles in spiked apple juice was 500 μg mL(-1). After this screening step, mass spectrometric (MS) detection was utilized to confirm the presence of polysorbates in the detected micelles. Two alternative MS techniques were tested: (i) ambient high-resolution mass spectrometry employing a direct analysis in real time ion source coupled with an Orbitrap MS analyzer (DART-Orbitrap MS) enabled fast and simple detection of the polysorbates present in the samples, with a lowest calibration level (LCL) of 1000 μg mL(-1); (ii) ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRTOF-MS) provided highly selective and sensitive detection and quantification of polysorbates with an LCL of 0.5 μg mL(-1). PMID:24810233

  10. A PD Law Based Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy For Simultaneous Control Of Indoor Temperature And Humidity Using A Variable Speed Direct Expansion Air Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhao; Xu, Xiang Guo; Deng, Shi Ming; Pan, Dong Mei

    2014-01-01

    In small to medium scale buildings located in the subtropics, such as Hong Kong, direct expansion air conditioning (DX A/C) systems are widely applied. This is because, as compared to chilled water based central air conditioning systems, DX A/C systems are compact, flexible for multi-room services, energy efficient and cost less to maintain and operate. However, traditionally, a DX A/C system is equipped with a single-speed compressor and supply air fan, and employs ON / OFF control strategy ...

  11. Comparison between Different Control Strategies of a Z-Source Inverter Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kazemdehdashti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR compensation methods are compared to each other for the load side connected shunt converter topology of z-source inverter based DVR to choose the best method. Four different topologies are recognized for DVR that two of them have energy storage devices, and two topologies have no energy storage that take ener\\-gy from the grid during the period of compensation. Here the load side connected shunt converter topology that takes necessary energy from the grid is used. Pre-sag compensation, in-phase compensation, energy-optimized methods are the three DVR compensation methods that studied and compared. A deep analysis through different diagrams would show the advantages or disadvantages of each compensation method. Equations for all methods are derived and the characteristics of algorithms are compared with each other. The simulation results done by SIMULINK/ MATLAB shows compensating by this topology based on the compensation methods.

  12. Self-adaptive strategy based on fuzzy control systems for improving performance in wireless sensors networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Hernández Díaz; José-Fernán Martínez; Néstor Lucas Martínez; del Toro, Raúl M.

    2015-01-01

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in differe...

  13. Wind and Wave Disturbances Compensation to Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Improved Individual Pitch Control Based on Fuzzy Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rich and high quality of offshore wind resources, floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT arouses the attentions of many researchers. But on a floating platform, the wave and wind induced loads can significantly affect power regulation and vibration of the structure. Therefore, reducing these loads becomes a challenging part of the design of the floating system. To better alleviate these fatigue loads, a control system making compensations to these disturbances is proposed. In this paper an individual pitch control (IPC system integrated with disturbance accommodating control (DAC and model prediction control (MPC through fuzzy control is developed to alleviate the fatigue loads. DAC is mainly used to mitigate the effects of wind disturbance and MPC counteracts the effects of wave on the structure. The new individual pitch controller is tested on the NREL offshore 5 MW wind turbine mounted on a barge with a spread-mooring system, running in FAST, operating above-rated condition. Compared to the original baseline collective pitch control (CPC (Jonkman et al., 2007, the IPC system shows a better performance in reducing fatigue loads and is robust to complex wind and wave disturbances as well.

  14. Implementing two DC motor speed control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Danilo Rairán Antolines

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available While linear control techniques for dynamic systems have been widely tested, systems are not linear in practice. This means that controllers must be re-tuned to make them useful in an experimental setup. This article presents the tuning and re-tuning process for two control strategies: a PID and an algorithm based on the choice of overall transfer function controlling a DC permanent magnet motor. The algorithms’ performance is evaluated and some recommendations are made.

  15. Implementing two DC motor speed control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    José Danilo Rairán Antolines; Yeni Paola Sierra Niño; Néstor Iván Moreno Roballo

    2010-01-01

    While linear control techniques for dynamic systems have been widely tested, systems are not linear in practice. This means that controllers must be re-tuned to make them useful in an experimental setup. This article presents the tuning and re-tuning process for two control strategies: a PID and an algorithm based on the choice of overall transfer function controlling a DC permanent magnet motor. The algorithms’ performance is evaluated and some recommendations are made.

  16. Optimal Elevator Group Control by Evolution Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Beielstein, Thomas; Ewald, Claus-Peter; MARKON, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Efficient elevator group control is important for the operation of large buildings. Recent developments in this field include the use of fuzzy logic and neural networks. This paper summarizes the development of an evolution strategy (ES) that is capable of optimizing the neuro-controller of an elevator group controller. It extends the results that were based on a simplified elevator group controller simulator. A threshold selection technique is presented as a method to cope with noisy fitness...

  17. A Distributed Control Strategy for Coordination of an Autonomous LVDC Microgrid Based on Power-Line Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    number of sources using power-line signaling (PLS), a distributed control strategy in which the units inject sinusoidal signals of specific frequency into the common bus in order to communicate with each other. The control structure that allows the application of this method is revealed and the optimal...

  18. Risk-factors and strategies for control of carcinoma cervix in India: Hospital based cytological screening experience of 35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Misra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Role of risk factors in cervical carcinogenesis and strategies for control of the disease have been assessed from the accumulated cytological data, derived from 35 years of hospital-based screening in Lucknow, North India. Materials and Methods: A total of 36,484 women have been cytologically screened during a span of 35 years (April 1971 - June 2005 in the Gynaecology out patient department (OPD of Queen Mary′s Hospital. Results: The frequency of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL and carcinoma was found to be 7.2% and 0.6%, respectively, in the present study. The study revealed high age and parity as a predominant factor in cervical carcinogenesis, while viral sexually transmitted disease (STDs -human papilloma virus (HPV and Herpes simplex virus (HSV were also largely associated with SIL cases. The study emphasized great value of clinically downstaging the cervical cancer by detecting cervical cancer in the early stage. The study also revealed a significant difference in the frequency of SIL in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Conclusion: Based on the analyzed data, it was felt that single lifetime screening, which appears to be the most feasible and affordable mode for control of carcinoma cervix in developing countries like India, should be carried out in all women of high parity irrespective of age (with three or more children and in older women above the age of 40 years irrespective of parity.

  19. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B4C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  20. An Effective Strategy To Construct Novel Polyoxometalate-Based Hybrids by Deliberately Controlling Organic Ligand Transformation In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Hong-Yan; Liu, Guo-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Deliberately controlling organic ligand transformation in situ has remained a challenge for the construction of polyoxometalate (POM)-based inorganic-organic hybrids. In this work, four POM-based hybrids assembled from an in situ bifurcating organic ligand-[Cu2(DIBA)4](H3PMo12O40)·6H2O (1), [Cu2(DIBA)4](H4SiW12O40)·6H2O (2), [Ag(HDIBA)2](H2PMo12O40)·2H2O (3), [Ag3(HDIBA)2(H2O)][(P2W18O62)1/2]·4H2O (4) (DIBAH = 3,5-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl) benzoic acid)-have been designed and obtained under hydrothermal conditions. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, displaying a three-dimensional (3D) 2-fold interpenetrating framework with two types of channels, and the bigger channels are occupied by Keggin polyoxoanions and crystallization water molecules, but only crystallization water molecules in the smaller ones. Compound 3 displays a 3D supramolecular structure constructed from {Ag(HDIBA)2} segments and PMo12O40(3-) polyoxoanions through hydrogen bonding interactions. Compound 4 shows a 3D 2-fold interpenetrating framework based on (3, 3, 4)-connected network, which is constructed from {Ag3(HDIBA)2}n chains and P2W18O62(6-) polyoxoanions as linkers. The DIBAH ligand was generated in situ from 3,5-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzonitrile by deliberate design, which illustrates that the strategy to construct novel POM-based hybrids by controlling ligand transformation in situ is rational and feasible. In addition, the effects of the central metal and POMs on the structures of the target compounds were discussed. Finally, the electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of compounds 1-4 have been investigated in this paper. PMID:27322656

  1. A relative risk comparison of criticality control strategies based on fresh fuel and burnup credit design bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fresh fuel design basis provides some margin of safety, i.e., criticality safety is almost independent of loading operations if fuel designs do not change significantly over the next 40 years. However, the design basis enrichment for future nuclear fuel will most likely vary with time. As a result, it cannot be guaranteed that the perceived passivity of the concept will be maintained over the life cycle of a future cask system. Several options are available to ensure that the reliability of a burnup credit system is comparable to or greater than that of a system based on a fresh fuel assumption. Criticality safety and control reliability could increase with burnup credit implementation. The safety of a burnup credit system could be comparable to that for a system based on the fresh fuel assumption. A burnup credit philosophy could be implemented without any cost-benefit tradeoff. A burnup credit design basis could result in a significant reduction in total system risk as well as economic benefits. These reductions occur primarily as a result of increased cask capacities and, thus, fewer shipments. Fewer shipments also result in fewer operations over the useful life of a cask, and opportunities for error decrease. The system concept can be designed such that only benefits occur. These benefits could include enhanced criticality safety and the overall reliability of cask operations, as well as system risk and economic benefits. Thus, burnup credit should be available as an alternative for the criticality design of spent fuel shipping casks

  2. Improved Control Strategies for a DFIG-Based Wind-Power Generation System with SGSC under Unbalanced and Distorted Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jun; Yu, Mengting; Hu, Weihao;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates an improved control strategy for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind-power generation system with series grid-side converter (SGSC) under network unbalance and harmonic grid voltage distortion conditions. The integrated mathematical modeling of the DFIG system...... control of SGSC, which indicates that the rotor-side converter (RSC) can be still controlled with the traditional vector control strategy without modifications. Meanwhile, for the parallel grid-side converter (PGSC), three sets of selectable control targets are identified and their corresponding current...... references are calculated. In addition, the allocation principles for the PGSC’s current references are proposed by taking into account the PGSC's current rating limit. The impact of PGSC’s current limit on the proposed control strategies have been investigated in detail. Furthermore, a PI regulator with a...

  3. Wind and Wave Disturbances Compensation to Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Improved Individual Pitch Control Based on Fuzzy Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Yang; Qing-wang Song; Lei Wang; Shan Zuo; Sheng-shan Li

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rich and high quality of offshore wind resources, floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) arouses the attentions of many researchers. But on a floating platform, the wave and wind induced loads can significantly affect power regulation and vibration of the structure. Therefore, reducing these loads becomes a challenging part of the design of the floating system. To better alleviate these fatigue loads, a control system making compensations to these disturbances is proposed. In this p...

  4. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  5. A Cooperative Traffic Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    BORG, Dora Lee; Bhouri, Neila; SCERRI, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    With one-third of the global population living in cities by 2030 and the need for mobility fueling traffic growth all over the world, the traffic congestion problem in major cities is becoming more and more acute. Besides economic losses, traffic congestion has detrimental effects on our standard of living and on the environment. A viable solution to the traffic congestion problem is intelligent traffic control. The main aim of this work is to test a Model Predictive Control Strategy (MPC) on...

  6. Examining Contextual Influences on Classroom-Based Implementation of Positive Behavior Support Strategies: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-11-01

    Although it is widely recognized that variation in implementation fidelity influences the impact of preventive interventions, little is known about how specific contextual factors may affect the implementation of social and behavioral interventions in classrooms. Theoretical research highlights the importance of multiple contextual influences on implementation, including factors at the classroom and school level (Domitrovich et al., Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1, 6-28, 2008). The current study used multi-level modeling to empirically examine the influence of teacher, classroom, and school characteristics on the implementation of classroom-based positive behavior support strategies over the course of 4 years. Data were collected in the context of a 37-school randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Multi-level results identified several school-level contextual factors (e.g., school size, behavioral disruptions) and teacher-level factors (perceptions of school organizational health and grade level taught) associated with variability in the implementation of classroom-based positive behavior supports. Implications for prevention research and practice are discussed. PMID:24793222

  7. Fast control strategy for stabilising fixed-speed induction-generator-based wind turbines in an islanded distributed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    of reactive power compensation and load shedding may be determined precisely; all the operation execution points may be decided accurately to improve DGS stability. Furthermore, the implementation of the fast control strategy is also discussed. A case study is presented to demonstrate the...... effectiveness of the proposed method....

  8. Research of IGPC Control Strategy Based-on Hybrid Optimization for Power Station Boiler Superheated Steam Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxian Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implicit Generalized Predictive Control (IGPC algorithm can directly identify controller parameters without the need of solving Diophantine equation, thus can reduce the on-line algorithm computation time. In order to improve IGPC performance and extend its application, modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm is introduced into IGPC rolling horizon optimization, combined with general IGPC gradient optimization method under unconstrained condition, a new hybrid optimization method is obtained, this modified IGPC can be used to both of the non-constraint industry process control and the constraint industry process control. Aiming at the superheated steam temperature control of sub-critical 600MW boiler, a new cascade compound control strategy that combines an outer loop IGPC master adjuster and an inner loop PID auxiliary adjuster is adopted. Finally the simulation results have shown that the proposed method can constrain the control action, prevent dramatic change of the input signal, thus can achieve good static and dynamic performances.

  9. SPARTINA CONTROL STRATEGY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fang-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Spartina is a kind of very important and invasive grass. In its native range, it is very important for erosion control, fish, wildlife, and estuary reclamation. Therefore, it was introduced to many countries. Since 1963, it was introduced to China. Up to now, it was intentionally or accidentally planted nearly all estuaries in the east coast of China and the area was estimated over 0.1 × 106 hm2. As other introduced plants, Spartina grows very vigorously in China,and this caused many environmental and economical problems. So, it is an emergency to develop a Spartina control strategy of China. In the paper, the history of Spartina introduction in China was reviewed, and several methods which were probably feasible for China to control Spartina were introduced, including physical/mechanical (such as mowing, digging, and dredging), chemical, and biological methods. Before taking any measurments to control Spartina, 2 things should be done. The first was to develop a plan and make an inventory; the second was to select a feasible method according to local climatic, economic, social, and ecological conditions. It was suggested that it would be very important to assess the possible effect of control methods on the environment in order to prevent from causing other environmental problems.KEY WORDS :Spartina; control method; control strategy; environmental assessment

  10. RNAi-Based Strategy for Asian Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citri) Control: A Method to Reduce the Spread of Citrus Greening Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkings, Chloe; Morgan, K.; Shaffer, L.; Powell, C.; Borovsky, D.; Cave, R.; Dawson, B.; Gowda, S.; Shatters, Jr., R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Citrus greening disease is a serious bacterial disease of citrus worldwide and is vectored by the Asian citrus pysllid (Diaphorina Citri).  The only effective control strategy includes vigorous control of the psyllid, primarily through heavy reliance on pesticides. As a more sustainable and environmentally friendly method of psyllid control, we evaluated a RNA interference (RNAi) approach based on psyllid oral uptake of dsRNA molecules that target specific psyllid genes.  This approach is bas...

  11. Construction Strategy for an Internal Amplification Control for Real-Time Diagnostic Assays Using Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification: Development and Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; D'Agostino, Martin; Pla, Maria; Cook, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    An important analytical control in molecular amplification-based methods is an internal amplification control (IAC), which should be included in each reaction mixture. An IAC is a nontarget nucleic acid sequence which is coamplified simultaneously with the target sequence. With negative results for the target nucleic acid, the absence of an IAC signal indicates that amplification has failed. A general strategy for the construction of an IAC for inclusion in molecular beacon-based real-time nu...

  12. A novel Q-based online model updating strategy and its application in statistical process control for rubber mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunying Zhang; Sun Chen; Fang Wu; Kai Song

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the large time-delay in measuring the hardness of mixed rubber, rheological parameters were used to predict the hardness. A novel Q-based model updating strategy was proposed as a universal platform to track time-varying properties. Using a few selected support samples to update the model, the strategy could dramat-ical y save the storage cost and overcome the adverse influence of low signal-to-noise ratio samples. Moreover, it could be applied to any statistical process monitoring system without drastic changes to them, which is practical for industrial practices. As examples, the Q-based strategy was integrated with three popular algorithms (partial least squares (PLS), recursive PLS (RPLS), and kernel PLS (KPLS)) to form novel regression ones, QPLS, QRPLS and QKPLS, respectively. The applications for predicting mixed rubber hardness on a large-scale tire plant in east China prove the theoretical considerations.

  13. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan;

    2011-01-01

    , grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation.The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information...... charging/discharging and local loads, which is available of either grid-connected operation or islanding operation. By using the proposed control strategy, the operations of a modular PV generation system are categorized into four modes: islanding with battery discharging, grid-connected rectification...... maximum power point tracking operation, which enables the dc bus voltage regulation capability ofmodular dc/dc converters. Seamless switching of a battery converter between charging and discharging and that of a grid-connected converter between rectification and inversion are ensured by the proposed...

  14. Effectiveness and cost of recruitment strategies for a community-based randomised controlled trial among rainwater drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunliffe David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based recruitment is challenging particularly if the sampling frame is not easily defined as in the case of people who drink rainwater. Strategies for contacting participants must be carefully considered to maximise generalisability and minimise bias of the results. This paper assesses the recruitment strategies for a 1-year double-blinded randomised trial on drinking untreated rainwater. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and associated costs are described. Methods Community recruitment of households from Adelaide, Australia occurred from February to July 2007 using four methods: electoral roll mail-out, approaches to schools and community groups, newspaper advertising, and other media involvement. Word of mouth communication was also assessed. Results A total of 810 callers were screened, with 53.5% eligible. Of those who were eligible and sent further information, 76.7% were willing to participate in the study and 75.1% were enrolled. The target for recruitment was 300 households, and this was achieved. The mail-out was the most effective method with respect to number of households randomised, while recruitment via schools had the highest yield (57.3% and was the most cost effective when considering cost per household randomised (AUD$147.20. Yield and cost effectiveness were lowest for media advertising. Conclusion The use of electoral roll mail-out and advertising via schools were effective in reaching households using untreated rainwater for drinking. Employing multiple strategies enabled success in achieving the recruitment target. In countries where electoral roll extracts are available to researchers, this method is likely to have a high yield for recruitment into community-based epidemiological studies.

  15. Strategies of desert locust control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The desert locust can infest an area from Mauritania to India and roughly from the Mediterranean to the Equator. Plagues with many swarms of adults and very many bands of hoppers are separated by recessions when most of the locusts are scattered and confined to the arid central belt. Widespread and heavy rain in the recession area may lead to outbreak breeding with 'patches' of hoppers. This may be followed by an upsurge during which successful breeding occurs in areas to which the adults of successive generations migrate. Further population increases leads to a plague. In spite of recent studies, the value of the damage caused by the desert locust is not known and it is not clear whether the control costs balance the prevented damage. But the impact on individual farmers may be devastating. Local crop protection is not feasible and financial compensation is difficult. However, the main importance of the desert locust is 'political' since swarms are dramatic and also migrate between countries. The current strategy is to prevent plagues by control of the outbreak or the early upsurge despite the lack of field evidence that this is effective and theoretical studies that suggest it is not. Moreover, several brief plagues have occurred. The adherence to a preventative strategy, the irregular occurrence of plagues and the fact that even during a plague many countries will escape has led to plague crisis management. During plagues aid, usually in the form of pesticide and aircraft, has been supplied by donors with no adequate assessment of the need or of the capacity of the recipient country to use what is supplied. Much pesticide has remained after plagues, creating a difficult disposal problem. Research and development has concentrated on survey data processing and forecasting with GIS, improved survey and application techniques with GPS, barrier applications with new persistent pesticides, use of mycopesticides and IGRs, and environmental monitoring. The

  16. An Optimal Reactive Power Control Strategy for a DFIG-Based Wind Farm to Damp the Sub-Synchronous Oscillation of a Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator speed and the output reactive power of the wind farms was introduced to derive the analytical expression of the damping coefficient. The phase range to obtain positive damping was determined. Second, the PID phase compensation parameters of the auxiliary damping controller were optimized by a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimum damping in the entire subsynchronous frequency band. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary damping control were demonstrated on a modified version of the IEEE first benchmark model by time domain simulation analysis with the use of DigSILENT/PowerFactory. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this derived damping factor expression and the condition of the positive damping can effectively analyze their impact on the system sub-synchronous oscillations, the proposed wind farms reactive power additional damping control strategy can provide the optimal damping effect over the whole sub-synchronous frequency band, and the control effect is better than the active power additional damping control strategy based on the power system stabilizator.

  17. An intelligent control strategy based on ANFIS techniques in order to improve the performance of a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle vision system

    OpenAIRE

    Marichal, G. N.; Hernández, A,; Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Acosta, L.; Campoy Cervera, Pascual

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent control approach based on Neuro-Fuzzy systems is presented. A model of a low-cost vision platform for an unmanned aerial system is taken in the study. A simulation platform including this low-cost vision system and the influence of the helicopter vibrations over this system is shown. The intelligent control approach has been inserted in this simulation platform. Several trials taking these Neuro-Fuzzy systems as a fundamental part of the control strategy have bee...

  18. Simulation work on Fractional Order PI{\\lambda} Control Strategy for speed control of DC motor based on stability boundary locus method

    OpenAIRE

    Praboo, N. N.; P.K. BHABA

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of Fractional Order Proportional Integral (FO-PI{\\lambda}) controller for the speed control of DC motor. A mathematical model of DC motor control system is derived and based on this model fractional order PI{\\lambda} controller is designed using stability boundary locus method to satisfy required gain margin (GM) and phase margin (PM) of the system. Servo and Regulatory tracking simulation runs are carried out for the speed control of DC motor. The performance...

  19. A Control Strategy for Photovoltaic-Solid Polymer Electrolysis System Based on Surface Temperature of PV Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Muhida; Wahyudi; Rifki Muhida; Ahmad U. Priantoro

    2008-01-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking method based on analysis of PV panels surface Temperature for the PV-SPE system was designed and implemented. From this analysis an optimal voltage of PV can be obtained and was realized as a reference voltage of Dc-DC converter. By maintenance the output voltage of PV using the reference voltage control, the out...

  20. 场站油料库存控制策略仿真研究%Research on simulation of fuel inventory control strategy about air-force base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丰; 邢清华; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    It is a stochastic inventory control system with sequential demand for the fuel inventory control system in aviation station,the indexes of evaluating the strategy of inventory control and its calculation methods arc provided.The simulation model about the inventory control of air force base based on(Q,s) is established. The better inventory control strategy is built by using the OptQuest optimization toolbox integrated in the Arena at some scopes of initialization about the best inventory control strategy by an example. The simulation results prove that the inventory control strategy given by the simulation model is more feasible and scientific than the current system.%针对场站油料库存控制系统是一个需求为连续的随机库存控制系统,给出了评价其库存控制策略优劣的评价指标及其量化方法;基于仿真软件Arena,建立了基于(Q,s)存储策略的场站油料库存控制仿真模型.通过一个实例,利用Arena中集成的OptQuest优化工具箱搜索在最优库存控制策略初始值一定范围内的较优库存控制策略.结果表明,将所建立的仿真模型应用于场站油料库存控制,得出的控制策略比现行的更科学可行.

  1. Triboelectric effect as a new strategy for sealing and controlling the flow in paper-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Everson T S G; Santhiago, Murilo; de Souza, Fabrício R; Coltro, Wendell K T; Kubota, Lauro T

    2015-04-01

    We reported here for the first time that triboelectric charges on PET sheets can be used to seal and control the flow rate in paper-based devices. The proposed method exhibits simplicity and low cost, provides reversible sealing and minimizes the effect of sample evaporation. PMID:25686364

  2. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  3. The Virtual Resistance Control Strategy for HVRT of Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid voltage swell will cause transient DC flux component in the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG stator windings, creating serious stator and rotor current and torque oscillation, which is more serious than influence of the voltage dip. It is found that virtual resistance manages effectively to suppress rotor current and torque oscillation, avoid the operation of crowbar circuit, and enhance its high voltage ride through technology capability. In order to acquire the best virtual resistance value, the excellent particle library (EPL of dynamic particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed. It takes the rotor voltage and rotor current as two objectives, which has a fast convergence performance and high accuracy. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the virtual resistance control strategy.

  4. Environmental Process Control: Strategies and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure and mathematical presentation of the optimal strategy for environmental process control is presented. This approach covers a wide variety of control systems, which have been constructed and analysed at the Institute of Environmental Engineering during the last fifteen years. Special attention is paid to the preventive environmental control and its tools: pollution prevention, life cycle assessment. The implementation results of preventive environmental control from more than 150 companies are presented in the paper.The investigations on water quality control issues are evaluated from the point of view of the interface between physico-ecological and socio-economical systems and decision support system based on river water quality model is suggested.

  5. Decentralized Coordinated Control Strategy of Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan

    control strategies in this thesis, in order to promote the decentralization of the overall system. Especially the consensus algorithm based secondary level is investigated in the thesis in order to simplify the communication configuration which only flood information through the neighboring units...... without additional communication facility assistance within this thesis. Here two bus-signaling method (BSM) methods are proposed. The power line is then not only taken as physical connection among the distributed units, but also the signal carrier to inform Microgrid components changing their control...

  6. An optimal reactive power control strategy for a DFIG-based wind farm to damp the sub-synchronous oscillation of a power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Li, Hui; Wang, Mingyu;

    2014-01-01

    condition of the positive damping can effectively analyze their impact on the system sub-synchronous oscillations, the proposed wind farms reactive power additional damping control strategy can provide the optimal damping effect over the whole sub-synchronous frequency band, and the control effect is better......This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive...... compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator speed and the output reactive power of the wind farms was introduced to derive the analytical expression of the...

  7. Force Control Strategies in Hydraulically Actuated Legged Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Montes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, several strategies of force control have been proposed to be implemented and evaluated in ROBOCLIMBER, a quadruped robot of large dimensions. A first group of strategies proposed in this paper is based on impedance control, which is intended to adapt the foot-ground contact forces according to the experimentally specified damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency. A second control strategy of interest for many practical cases is called the parallel force/position control, which has one inner loop position control and two external control loops, one of force and another of position. A third group of control strategies is the posture stabilization for ROBOCLIMBER using the feedback of the ZMP calculation and the position of its legs. Finally, a control strategy for the control of a quasi-static gait using ZMP feedback is proposed and tested by simulation.

  8. 基于状态距离的量子控制策略%Quantum Control Strategy Based on State Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛爽; 匡森

    2007-01-01

    Based on Bures distance, a Lyapunov function that represents the distance between a desired state and the actual state of a quantum system is selected. Considering the cases that an initial state is and is not orthogonal to the desired state respectively,we propose a class of control strategies with state feedback that ensures the stability of the closed-loop control system. Especially,the asymptotic stability of the control system is analyzed, deduced and proved in detail. Finally, a simulation experiment on a spin-1/2 particle system is done and the relation between the system state evolution time and control value is analyzed with different parameters . Research results have general theoretical meaning for control of quantum systems.

  9. Fuzzy Control Strategies in Human Operator and Sport Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana T; Markovic, Sasa

    2009-01-01

    The motivation behind mathematically modeling the human operator is to help explain the response characteristics of the complex dynamical system including the human manual controller. In this paper, we present two different fuzzy logic strategies for human operator and sport modeling: fixed fuzzy-logic inference control and adaptive fuzzy-logic control, including neuro-fuzzy-fractal control. As an application of the presented fuzzy strategies, we present a fuzzy-control based tennis simulator.

  10. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and the relationship between the time constant, its smoothing effect and capacity allocation are analyzed and combined with Proportional Integral Differential (PID control to realize power smoothing control of wind power. Then wavelet theory is adopted to realize a multi-layer decomposition of power output in some wind farms, a power smoothing model based on hybrid energy storage technology is constructed combining the characteristics of the Super Capacitor (SC and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS technologies. The hybrid energy storage system is available for power fluctuations with high frequency-low energy and low frequency-high energy to achieve good smoothing effects compared with a single energy storage system. The power fluctuations filtered by the Wavelet Transform is regarded as the target value of BESS, the charging and discharging control for battery is completed quickly by Model Algorithm Control (MAC. Because of the influence of the inertia and the response speed of the battery, its actual output is not completely equal to the target value which mainly reflects in high-frequency part, the difference part uses SC to compensate and makes the output of battery and SC closer to the target value on the whole. Compared with the traditional Inertial Filter and PID control method, the validity of the model was verified by simulation results. Finally under the premise of power grid standards, the corresponding capacity design had been given to reduce the

  11. A Control Strategy for Photovoltaic-Solid Polymer Electrolysis System Based on Surface Temperature of PV Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking method based on analysis of PV panel’s surface Temperature for the PV-SPE system was designed and implemented. From this analysis an optimal voltage of PV can be obtained and was realized as a reference voltage of Dc-DC converter. By maintenance the output voltage of PV using the reference voltage control, the output PV can be optimized at its MPP operation. The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment.

  12. A strategy for quality control of Menispermum dauricum DC based on cytotoxic activity and hplc fingerprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L J Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Menispermum dauricumDC known as a traditional Chinese medicine, with high content of alkaloids, has been found to possess antitumor activity. In this research, an attempt to correlate fingerprinting with bioactivity was made for quality control of M. dauricum. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of extracts from ten batches of samples against human breast MCF-7 cancer cells was estimated by [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. Then, cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprints were established by high performance liquid chromatography. Eight peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of samples and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify and classify different samples into groups. Assays for determinations of total alkaloids and dauricine contents enabled cytotoxicity coefficient of each extract. The potential usefulness of employing cytotoxicity coefficient was investigated by a combination of Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis as being the reliable parameter to evaluate the herbal extracts. The results indicated that the level of dauricine (peak 8 in the fingerprint correlated closely with cytotoxicity and played a significant role in the cytotoxicity of Bei Dou-Gen and could be related to its antitumor properties. It is proposed that the cytotoxicity coefficient value with a cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprint of key biomarkers (dauricine may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of M. dauricum. The analysis of cytotoxic-activity-integrated fingerprint could correlate fingerprinting with bioactivities and would provide a reasonable strategy for quality control of complex mixture of herbal medicines.

  13. A Strategy for Quality Control of Menispermum dauricum DC Based on Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC Fingerprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Liu, J N

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Menispermum dauricum DC known as a traditional Chinese medicine, with high content of alkaloids, has been found to possess antitumor activity. In this research, an attempt to correlate fingerprinting with bioactivity was made for quality control of M. dauricum. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of extracts from ten batches of samples against human breast MCF-7 cancer cells was estimated by [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. Then, cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprints were established by high performance liquid chromatography. Eight peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of samples and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify and classify different samples into groups. Assays for determinations of total alkaloids and dauricine contents enabled cytotoxicity coefficient of each extract. The potential usefulness of employing cytotoxicity coefficient was investigated by a combination of Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis as being the reliable parameter to evaluate the herbal extracts. The results indicated that the level of dauricine (peak 8 in the fingerprint) correlated closely with cytotoxicity and played a significant role in the cytotoxicity of Bei Dou-Gen and could be related to its antitumor properties. It is proposed that the cytotoxicity coefficient value with a cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprint of key biomarkers (dauricine) may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of M. dauricum. The analysis of cytotoxic-activity-integrated fingerprint could correlate fingerprinting with bioactivities and would provide a reasonable strategy for quality control of complex mixture of herbal medicines. PMID:27168693

  14. Optimal control of anthracnose using mixed strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mbogne, David Jaurès Fotsa; Thron, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose and study a spatial diffusion model for the control of anthracnose disease in a bounded domain. The model is a generalization of the one previously developed in [14]. We use the model to simulate two different types of control strategies against anthracnose disease. Strategies that employ chemical fungicides are modeled using a continuous control function; while strategies that rely on cultivational practices (such as pruning and removal of mummified fruits) are model...

  15. Cigarette smoking: health effects and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberg, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    Active cigarette smoking causes a broad spectrum of diseases that extend to many different organ systems. Its numerous deleterious health effects, combined with the substantial prevalence of cigarette smoking, make it a major worldwide cause of death. Smoking contributes so heavily to the mortality burden because it is a major cause of vascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition to these diseases, cigarette smoking also causes other respiratory symptoms, adversely affects reproductive outcomes and is a cause of diminished health status. Furthermore, exposure to secondhand smoke is an established cause of coronary heart disease and lung cancer, as well as a host of other adverse health effects. Given that cigarette smoking is such a major threat to global public health, controlling the worldwide epidemic of cigarette smoking would lead to enormous public health benefits. Strategies to control cigarette smoking at the societal level include smoke-free workplace legislation, increasing cigarette taxes and regulating cigarette advertising. On the individual level, preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking among youths is the optimal strategy; in practice, discovering efficacious primary prevention interventions has proven challenging. During the past two decades, major advances have been made in extending the menu of options available to assist dependent smokers in successfully quitting smoking. Successfully combating cigarette smoking requires a broad-based commitment to smoking control from multiple stakeholders, along with a multifaceted strategy that addresses both societal and individual factors. PMID:19198699

  16. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  17. New ORP/pH based control strategy for chlorination and dechlorination of wastewater: pilot scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Kwon, S; Han, S; Yu, M; Kim, J; Gong, S; Colosimo, M F

    2006-01-01

    Due to its efficiency and low capital demands, chlorination has been widely used for disinfection in many wastewater treatment plants. Since the oxidation power of free chlorine is bigger than combined chlorines which are formed from the reaction between chlorine and reducing agents in water (especially, NH4+ and organic nitrogen), for effective disinfection, excess amount of chlorine is added until all the reducing agents are oxidized and free chlorine is available. After chlorination, chlorine residues in wastewater are usually reduced with SO2 or sulfites before the treated wastewater is discharged, since they are toxic to aquatic life. Addition of excess amount of SO2 or sulfite should be avoided. Otherwise, they consume dissolved oxygen in a river or stream and may have adverse impact on the aquatic life. Determination of wastewater chlorine demand and of sulfite dosages for dechlorination has been a challenge to WWTP operators, due to the dynamic characteristics of wastewater. Recently, a new ORP/pH based approach to determine chlorine demand and sulfite dosage was proposed. The method utilizes significant points occurring on the pH and ORP profiles during chlorination and dechlorination titrations. In this study, the proposed automatic titration system has been implemented into a control system to optimize chlorine and sulfite doses for a pilot scale chlorination/dechlorination system. In short, the disinfection system with the pH/ORP based controller showed very successful results; complete inactivation of total coliforms, and almost zero residual chlorines and high DO in its effluent. PMID:16749451

  18. Wolbachia-based population control strategy targeting Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes proves efficient under semi-field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célestine M Atyame

    Full Text Available In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy. We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean. The main purpose of the present study was to fill the gap between laboratory experiments and field implementation, i.e. assessing mating competitiveness of these incompatible males under semi-field conditions. In a first set of experiments, we analyzed crossing relationships between LR[wPip(Is] males and La Réunion field females collected as larvae in 19 distinct localities throughout the island. This investigation revealed total embryonic mortality, confirming the strong sterilizing capacity of LR[wPip(Is] males. Subsequently, mating competitiveness of LR[wPip(Is] males was assessed under semi-field conditions in the presence of field males and females from La Réunion. Confrontations were carried out in April and December using different ratios of LR[wPip(Is] to field males. The results indicated that the LR[wPip(Is] males successfully compete with field males in mating with field females, displaying even higher competitiveness than field males in April. Our results support the implementation of small-scale field tests in order to assess the feasibility of IIT against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean where this mosquito species is a proven competent vector for human pathogens.

  19. Wolbachia-based population control strategy targeting Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes proves efficient under semi-field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M; Cattel, Julien; Lebon, Cyrille; Flores, Olivier; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Weill, Mylène; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Tortosa, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy). We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is)] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean. The main purpose of the present study was to fill the gap between laboratory experiments and field implementation, i.e. assessing mating competitiveness of these incompatible males under semi-field conditions. In a first set of experiments, we analyzed crossing relationships between LR[wPip(Is)] males and La Réunion field females collected as larvae in 19 distinct localities throughout the island. This investigation revealed total embryonic mortality, confirming the strong sterilizing capacity of LR[wPip(Is)] males. Subsequently, mating competitiveness of LR[wPip(Is)] males was assessed under semi-field conditions in the presence of field males and females from La Réunion. Confrontations were carried out in April and December using different ratios of LR[wPip(Is)] to field males. The results indicated that the LR[wPip(Is)] males successfully compete with field males in mating with field females, displaying even higher competitiveness than field males in April. Our results support the implementation of small-scale field tests in order to assess the feasibility of IIT against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean where this mosquito species is a proven competent vector for human pathogens. PMID:25768841

  20. National Drug Control Strategy. 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 National Drug Control Strategy of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The overarching goal of the President's Strategy is to reduce drug use in America through a balanced approach that focuses on stopping use before it starts, healing America's drug users, and disrupting the market for illegal…

  1. Coordinated control strategy based on reactive power flow in UPQC%基于无功功率流的UPQC协调控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兴田; 马文忠; 霍群海

    2013-01-01

    针对统一电能质量调节器UPQC常规控制中,其串并联变流器功能相对独立、利用率低的问题,提出基于无功功率流的UPQC协调控制策略.应用所设计的UPQC系统结构,协调分配UPQC串并联变流器的无功功率输出,控制串联变流器输出电压向量垂直相应的电流向量,控制并联变流器输出电流向量垂直相应的电压向量,有效消除了有功环流的影响.特别针对电网侧没有电能质量问题时,控制串联变流器继续输出无功功率,充分发挥两变流器的无功补偿功能.理论推导UPQC系统功率流的关系,并仿真实验分析提出的控制策略,结果表明该控制策略解决电能质量问题的同时,实现了UPQC串并联变流器功率的合理分配.%According to the relatively independent functions and low utilization rate of the unified power quality conditioner ( UPQC) series and parallel converters in UPQC regular control, the UPQC control strategy based on reactive power flow is provided. With the designed UPQC structure, the strategy real ized the coordinate distribution of the reactive power output of the UPQC series and parallel converters. The influence of active power circulation was effectively eliminated by controlling output voltage vector of the series converter perpendicular to the corresponding current vector and output current vector of the par allel converter perpendicular to the corresponding voltage vector. Especially when there is no power quali ty problem of the grid side, the strategy controlled the series converter to continue reactive power output and fully played the reactive power compensation function of both converters. The relationship of UPQC system power flow was theoretical deduced and the proposing control strategy was analyzed by simulation and experiment. The results show that the control strategy solves the power quality problems and realizes the rational power allocation of the UPQC series and parallel converters.

  2. Optimal control of anthracnose using mixed strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotsa Mbogne, David Jaures; Thron, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose and study a spatial diffusion model for the control of anthracnose disease in a bounded domain. The model is a generalization of the one previously developed in [15]. We use the model to simulate two different types of control strategies against anthracnose disease. Strategies that employ chemical fungicides are modeled using a continuous control function; while strategies that rely on cultivational practices (such as pruning and removal of mummified fruits) are modeled with a control function which is discrete in time (though not in space). For comparative purposes, we perform our analyses for a spatially-averaged model as well as the space-dependent diffusion model. Under weak smoothness conditions on parameters we demonstrate the well-posedness of both models by verifying existence and uniqueness of the solution for the growth inhibition rate for given initial conditions. We also show that the set [0, 1] is positively invariant. We first study control by impulsive strategies, then analyze the simultaneous use of mixed continuous and pulse strategies. In each case we specify a cost functional to be minimized, and we demonstrate the existence of optimal control strategies. In the case of pulse-only strategies, we provide explicit algorithms for finding the optimal control strategies for both the spatially-averaged model and the space-dependent model. We verify the algorithms for both models via simulation, and discuss properties of the optimal solutions. PMID:26407644

  3. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED REPETITIVE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR A DC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.VIJAYAKARTHICK

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, design and implementation of Modified Repetitive Control Strategy (MRCS for a DC Motor System is proposed. MRCS developed by Hara et.al, is considered as a base in this study. Key factors such as Learning filter (L and Robustness filter (Q in the learning control strategy are identified using Zero Phase Error Tracking Control (ZPETC technique and frequency method respectively. Design and implementation of the MRCS approach involves the approximation of First Order process (FOP that includes ZNTR based PControl settings and sine wave generation. Simulation runs of the DC Motor System are carried out for the periodic reference tracking with MRCS based P mode control loop. A similar test run with Repetitive Control Strategy (RCS based P mode and conventional P-mode are carried out for comparison purpose. Results confirm the supremacy of MRCS based P mode control loop. A robustness of the MRCS is also analyzed.

  4. Robust missile feedback control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trottemant, E.J.; Scherer, C.W.; Weiss, M.; Vermeulen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the missile interception problem with two noncooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Introducing nonlinear uncertain models can potentially lead to nonexistence of game theoretic equilibrium strategies, computationally intractable problems, and/or highly reduced p

  5. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  6. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  7. An extended signal control strategy for urban network traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-03-01

    Traffic flow patterns are in general repeated on a daily or weekly basis. To improve the traffic conditions by using the inherent repeatability of traffic flow, a novel signal control strategy for urban networks was developed via iterative learning control (ILC) approach. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed learning control method can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. The impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategy on the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) were analyzed by simulations on a test road network. The results show that the proposed ILC strategy can evenly distribute the accumulation in the network and improve the network mobility.

  8. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED REPETITIVE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR A DC MOTOR

    OpenAIRE

    M.VIJAYAKARTHICK; S. Sathishbabu; Bhaba, P. K.; S.N.SIVARAJ

    2011-01-01

    In this work, design and implementation of Modified Repetitive Control Strategy (MRCS) for a DC Motor System is proposed. MRCS developed by Hara et.al, is considered as a base in this study. Key factors such as Learning filter (L) and Robustness filter (Q) in the learning control strategy are identified using Zero Phase Error Tracking Control (ZPETC) technique and frequency method respectively. Design and implementation of the MRCS approach involves the approximation of First Order process (F...

  9. Control strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of zoonotic alveolar echinococcosis, can be controlled effectively by the experimental delivery of anthelminthic baits for urban foxes. Monthly baiting over a 45-month period was effective for long-lasting control. Trimonthly baiting intervals were far less effective and did not prevent parasite recovery. PMID:18826831

  10. Control Strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of zoonotic alveolar echinococcosis, can be controlled effectively by the experimental delivery of anthelminthic baits for urban foxes. Monthly baiting over a 45-month period was effective for long-lasting control. Trimonthly baiting intervals were far less effective and did not prevent parasite recovery.

  11. Control strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, D; Deplazes, P.

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of zoonotic alveolar echinococcosis, can be controlled effectively by the experimental delivery of anthelminthic baits for urban foxes. Monthly baiting over a 45-month period was effective for long-lasting control. Trimonthly baiting intervals were far less effective and did not prevent parasite recovery.

  12. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  13. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    dissolved oxygen level during aerobic periods. All three strategies attempt to satisfy a common control criterion representing optimal performance over the time length of one process cycle (typically I to 3 hours) and are based on models developed from simple mass balances or which have been experimentally...... determined. The effects of the strategies on short term nitrogen dynamics are explained in terms of the potential and capacity of denitrification. The relative effectiveness of the strategies are compared and where the strategies would be located in a hierarchical control structure is discussed. Copyright (C...

  14. Control strategies for friction dampers: numerical assessment and experimental investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of friction dampers has been proposed in a wide variety of mechanical systems for which it is not possible to apply viscoelastic materials, fluid based dampers or others viscous dampers. An important example is the application of friction dampers in aircraft engines to reduce the blades vibration amplitudes. In most cases, friction dampers have been studied in a passive way, however, a significant improvement can be achieved by controlling the normal force in the dampers. The aim of this paper is to study three control strategies for friction dampers based on the hysteresis cycle. The first control strategy maximizes the energy removal in each harmonic oscillation cycle, by calculating the optimum normal force based on the last displacement peak. The second control strategy combines the first one with the maximum energy removal strategy used in the smart spring devices. Finally, is presented the strategy which homogenously modulates the friction force. Numerical studies were performed with these three strategies defining the performance metrics. The best control strategy was applied experimentally. The experimental test rig was fully identified and its parameters were used for the numerical simulations. The obtained results show the good performance for the friction damper and the selected strategy.

  15. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  18. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles. PMID:26014907

  19. Review of road traffic control strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorgiou, M.; Diakaki, C.; Dinopoulou, V.; Kotsialos, A.; Wang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Traffic congestion in urban road and freeway networks leads to a strong degradation of the network infrastructure and accordingly reduced throughput, which can be countered via suitable control measures and strategies. After illustrating the main reasons for infrastructure deterioration due to traffic congestion, a comprehensive overview of proposed and implemented control strategies is provided for three areas: urban road networks, freeway networks, and route guidance. Selected application r...

  20. Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type...

  1. A reactive control strategy for networked hydrographical system management

    OpenAIRE

    Duviella, Eric; Chiron, Pascale; Charbonnaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A reactive control strategy is proposed to improve the water asset management of complex hydrographical systems. This strategy requires the definition of rules to achieve a generic resource allocation and setpoint assignment. A modelling method of the complex hydro- graphical network based on a weighted digraph of instrumented points, is also presented. The simulation results of the strategy applied to a hydrographical system composed of one confluent and two difluents show its efficiency and...

  2. Switching strategy based on homotopy continuation for non-regular affine systems with application in induction motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Borisevich, Alex; Schullerus, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    In the article the problem of output setpoint tracking for affine non-linear system is considered. Presented approach combines state feedback linearization and homotopy numerical continuation in subspaces of phase space where feedback linearization fails. The method of numerical parameter continuation for solving systems of nonlinear equations is generalized to control affine non-linear dynamical systems. The illustrative example of control of MIMO system which is not static feedback lineariz...

  3. Discussion on base bid price controlling strategies in engineering tendering%谈工程招标中的标底控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学兵

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the definition and functions of base bid price, the paper comprehensively explores base bid price control- ling strategies from aspects of determining engineering project, compiling basic principles of base bid price, common compiling base bid price methods, improving rationality of base bid price, and common methods and points of determining base bid price and so on, with a view to guar- antee smooth operation of bidding and tendering work.%在介绍了标底的定义和分析了标底作用的基础上,从工程项目确定和编制标底的基本原则、编制工程项目标底的常用方法、提高工程项目标底合理性、确定工程项目标底的常用方法和要点等几个方面,全面探讨了工程招标中的标底控制策略,以期保障招投标工作的顺利进行。

  4. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie

    vehicle eet operators to eliminate the grid congestion problem. Note that the electric vehicle eet operator can manage the EVs based on the three aforementioned control strategies. To test and evaluate the proposed control strategies, multi-agent concepts is used to model the price coordinated...... hierarchical scheduling system. To implement and demonstrate the multi-agent systems, a novel simulation platform has been developed based on the integration of JACK (a Java based agent-oriented development environment) and Matlab/Simulink software....... control, market based control, and price control. The thesis investigates new approaches for distribution networks congestion management. It suggests and develops a market based control for distribution grid congestion management. The general equilibrium market mechanism is utilized in the operation...

  5. Strategies for the control of catheter encrustation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, D J; Evans, A; Morris, N; Hughes, G

    2002-06-01

    Two general strategies have been adopted to develop catheter materials that resist encrustaion by bacterial biofilms: (a) the incorporation of antimicrobial agents into the polymers and (b) the production of materials with surface properties which prevent the adherence of bacterial cells. Our experience to develop non-adherent surfaces which abstracts design from nature is reported. Compounds based on 2-methacryloloxyethylphosphorylcholine co-polymerised with long-chain alkyl methacrylates have been produced which have structural and surface properties similar to those of the outer membranes of erythrocytes. These PC-coatings have been applied onto catheter base materials where they produce polar surfaces that are extremely hydrophilic. In experiments using a laboratory model of the catheterised bladder we found that the PC-coatings did not reduce colonisation of latex or silicone catheters by crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilm. There were no significant difference between the amounts of calcium and magnesium salts deposited on coated and non-coated catheters. In a further set of experiments the PC-coatings did not significantly increase the mean times for which catheters drained freely. In a parallel clinical study, the performance of PC-coated ureteral stents was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and bacteriological analysis on 44 PC-coated stents that had been implanted in patients for 12-week periods and 28 control stents suggested that the PC-coated devices were less vulnerable to encrustation and colonisation by bacterial biofilm than normal stents. It was of interest that in contrast to encrusted catheters, urease producing species such as P. mirabilis were rarely isolated from the stents. The main organisms colonising the stents were enterococci and coagulase-negative staphylococci. These results suggest that the mechanisms of catheter and stent encrustation may be different and require different strategies for control. PMID:12135840

  6. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. 'This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  7. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  8. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally sol...

  9. Experimental demonstration of a new model-based SCR control strategy for cleaner heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising diesel aftertreatment technology that enables low nitrogen oxides (NOx) tailpipe emissions with relatively low fuel consumption. Future emission legislation is pushing the boundaries for SCR control systems to achieve high NOx conversion within a ta

  10. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal g...

  11. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings

  12. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Li; Xiangjun Li; Fang Chen; Xiwang Cui; Xiaojuan Han

    2012-01-01

    Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and th...

  13. Radioactive demonstration of DWPF product control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will vitrify high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass. The waste will be mixed with properly formulated glass-making frit and fed to a melter at 1150 degrees C. Process reliability and product quality are ensured by proper control of the melter feed composition. The effectiveness of the product and process control strategies that will be utilized by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was demonstrated during a campaign in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The remotely operated process included the preparation of the melter feed, vitrification in a slurry-fed 1/100th scale melter an analysis of the glass product both for its composition an durability. The campaign processed approximately 10 kg (on a dry basis) of radioactive sludge from Tank 51. This sludge is representative of the first batch of sludge that will be sent to the DWPF for immobilization into borosilicate glass. Additions to the sludge were made based on calculations using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Analysis of the glass produced during the campaign showed that a durable glass was produced with a composition very close to that predicted using the PCCS. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Wind farm models and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Donovan, M.H.

    2005-08-01

    This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulation models are described, including wind turbine models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described. The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC connected active stall turbines. Finally, some simulation examples and conclusions are presented. (au)

  15. Wind farm models and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Donovan, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described.The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC......This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulationmodels are described, including wind turbine...

  16. Assessing key safety concerns of a Wolbachia-based strategy to control dengue transmission by Aedes mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Popovici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever, chikungunya or malaria affect millions of people each year and control solutions are urgently needed. An international research program is currently being developed that relies on the introduction of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis into Aedes aegypti to control dengue transmission. In order to prepare for open-field testing releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, an intensive social research and community engagement program was undertaken in Cairns, Northern Australia. The most common concern expressed by the diverse range of community members and stakeholders surveyed was the necessity of assuring the safety of the proposed approach for humans, animals and the environment. To address these concerns a series of safety experiments were undertaken. We report in this paper on the experimental data obtained, discuss the limitations of experimental risk assessment and focus on the necessity of including community concerns in scientific research.

  17. Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type of management- knowledge based management and a new type of enterprise-knowledge based enterprise.Taking in consideration these predictable evolutions, this paper will try to present: • The main ideas of the researches the field of the knowledge based economy • The characteristics and principles of the knowledge based organizations and knowledge based management • The challenges and opportunities for knowledge based organizations.The first part of the paper will present the principles of the new economy- knowledge base economy, the essential and interrelated elements necessary to build and to implement a strategy in a knowledge economy and the opportunities and challenges to the countries as they seek to build regionally and globally competitive knowledge-based economies.The second part of the paper will present the characteristics of the knowledge based organizations, the principles and characteristics of their management. For many organizations, knowledge management is a relatively new concept, because they are discovering the knowledge value in their operations. Many firms have undertaken formal and informal knowledge management initiatives designed to improve process performance, increase customer responsiveness and spur innovation. But while some organizations have reaped significant benefits from their investment in knowledge efforts, others have run into noteworthy challenges.

  18. Sliding Mode Robustness Control Strategy for Shearer Height Adjusting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Su

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly established mathematical model of height adjusting hydro cylinder of the shearer, as well as the state space equation of the shearer height adjusting system. Secondly we designed a shearer automatic height adjusting controller adopting the sliding mode robustness control strategy. The height adjusting controller includes the sliding mode surface switching function based on Ackermann formula, as well as sliding mode control function with the improved butterworth filter. Then simulation of the height adjustment controller shows that the sliding mode robustness control solves buffeting of typical controller, and achieves automatic control for the rolling drum of the shearer.

  19. Chassis Control based on Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas Lopez, Carlos Albertos; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Ramirez-Mendoza, Ricardo,; Sename, Olivier; Dugard, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Global Chassis Control system with three-layers architecture (decision, control, and physical layers) a Fuzzy Logic (FL) approach is exploited. The FL based decision layer identifies the current driving condition of the vehicle and decides the control strategy to take care of this driving condition. A confusion matrix validates the classification results. The control strategy is implemented through the subsystems (suspension, steering, and braking) at the FL based control layer. Th...

  20. Operational reliability assessment of adaptive control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptive control strategies carry a promise for on-line design of control actions in automation of nuclear power plants and components. Operational reliability analysis of a typical adaptive control algorithm is performed using failure modes and effects analysis. The adaptive controller is susceptible to failure characteristic of the process of model identification involved in the on-line design of the control. Means of failure detection and enhancement of the controller fault tolerance are sought as well as means of placing the controlled process and the plant into a safe state, or termination of the process in case of encountering control failure. Those means are incorporated in a supervisory system to monitor the control system performance, mitigate some of the failure consequences and alert the operator of the state of the plant. Recommendations are given of design improvement to upgrade the adaptive control system performance in nuclear environments. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral behavior to an evidence-based psychosocial intervention in dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopp, C.M.E.; Graff, M.J.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Sanden, M.W.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral rate to and knowledge on the community occupational therapy in dementia program (COTiD program). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial with 28 experimental and 17 control clusters was

  2. Modeling and robust control strategy for a control-optimized piezoelectric microgripper.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossard, Mathieu; Boukallel, Mehdi; Chaillet, Nicolas; Rotinat-Libersa, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, modeling and robust control strategy for a new control-optimized piezoelectric microgripper are presented. The device to be controlled is a piezoelectric flexible mechanism dedicated to micromanipulation. It has been previously designed with an emphasis to control strategy, using a new topological optimization method, by considering innovative frequency-based criteria. A complete non-linear model relating the voltage and the resulting deflection is established taking into accou...

  3. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  4. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  5. Comparison of Power Control Strategies for DFIG Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Luna, A.; Rodríguez, P.;

    2008-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame...... VOC strategy able to control the operation of a DFIG in the αβ reference frame, with no need of flux position estimation, something that conducts to a more simple and robust algorithm. In order to evaluate the advantages of this new control proposal, namely VOC-RRF, their performance will be compared...

  6. Control Strategies for DFIG Wind Turbines Under Grid Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Alvara; Rolan, A.; Medeiros, G.;

    2009-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame...... VOC strategy able to control the operation of a DFIG in the αβ reference frame, with no need of flux position estimation, something that conducts to a more simple and robust algorithm. In order to evaluate the advantages of this new control proposal, namely VOC-RRF, their performance will be compared...

  7. Revised control strategies to improve sulphur plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a lower cost alternative to process additions or modifications for improving sulfur plant performance, strategies can yield impressive results. Traditional control strategies are discussed, including reaction furnace control (combustion air, H2S content compensation, acid gas), blower surge control, and the use of process measurement and control valves. Revised control strategies are then presented. In controlling the furnace combustion air, the objective is to use the fast-acting trim air valve to handle any rapid small disturbances while using the main air valve to handle base load. H2 content compensation is performed by monitoring the reaction furnace temperature, which provides a means of detecting H2S changes immediately. A temperature control loop is configured to adjust the air to acid gas ratio. An alternative to controlling acid gas during startup is bringing in the acid gas under flow control rather than pressure control, and let the flare pressure controller maintain the back pressure on the regeneration unit. Blower surge control is more effective using a blower flow as the control variable. New and existing instrumentation should be calibrated for the current plant load, not the design load. High resolution characterized ball valves are more desirable than the traditional butterfly valves. The revised control strategies cannot be practically implemented in pneumatic equipment and require electronic controllers. Applying the revised strategies has enabled a 0.5% increase in sulfur recovery, equivalent to a 33% decrease in stack SO2 emissions. The revised strategies also make the sulfur plants more stable during process upsets and normal operation. 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. 基于ADAMS与MATLAB的汽车ABS控制策略的联合仿真%CO-SIMULATION OF AUTOMOBILE ABS CONTROL STRATEGY BASED ON ADAMS AND MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑太雄; 李倩敏; 邬彪

    2014-01-01

    Based on analysing the ABS simulation technology at present stage,in this paper we build the full vehicle model with ADAMS and the ABS control strategy model and the pressure regulating control unit model with MATLAB.The full vehicle dynamic model and the control model are connected together by the ADAMS/Control module interfaces,and to form an ABS real-time closed-loop control model,fi-nally the co-simulation of them two is realised.We also study the co-simulation of automobile ABS on high-adhesion coefficient road.It is known from the simulation results that the ABS system plays a very good anti-lock braking effect in the braking process of the full vehicle,this verifies the reliability of the ABS braking and the feasibility of the co-simulation method.%在分析现阶段ABS仿真技术的基础上,利用ADAMS搭建整车模型,利用MATLAB搭建ABS控制策略模型以及气压调节控制单元模型。通过ADAMS/Control模块接口将建立的整车动力学模型与控制模型连接起来,组成ABS实时闭环控制模型,最终实现两者的联合仿真。对高附着系数路面的汽车ABS进行联合仿真研究,由仿真结果可知ABS系统在整车的制动过程中起到了很好的制动防抱死效果,验证了ABS制动的可靠性以及联合仿真方法的可行性。

  9. 基于HMCD的仿人机器人单杠运动控制策略%HMCD-based dynamic motion control strategy of humanoid robot on a horizontal bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯柏; 高世杰; 吴细宝

    2012-01-01

    为完成仿人机器人单杠运动,分析了欠驱动单杠机器人Acrobot模型,并根据IHOG技术要求、实物机器人本体结构和自由度配置,提出了基于HMCD的控制策略.通过单杠视频捕捉获取人体运动数据,根据仿人机器人模型分析关键特征点、基本动作的运动数据得到的关键帧的关节角数据,经过运动学约束调整,采用插值方法生成能够应用于仿人机器人的运动轨迹.在MF-1型仿人机器人单杠实物平台上进行控制实验的成功,验证了该方法的有效性.%Aiming at the movement implementation of a humanoid robot on a horizontal bar, the control strategy based on HMCD (human motion capture data) is proposed in this paper. The Acrobot model, its physical structure, the degree of freedom and the technical requirements of International Humanoid-robot Olympic Games (IHOG) were analyzed for the robot on a horizontal bar. The key steps of this dynamic motion strategy are motion data capture through the video of humans motion on the horizontal bar, the key feature points'analysis of the humanoid robot model and the joint angles kinematic data match in the basic movements. After making the appropriate adjustments due to the kinematic constraints, an interpolation method was used to generate the motion trajectory of all the joints. The experimental results, based on MF-1 type humanoid robot on the horizontal bar indicate that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  10. An Inventory Control Model Based on Optimized Purchasing Strategy%基于优化采购策略的库存控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董凤翔; 黄丽

    2012-01-01

    By exploring the inventory control of railway maintenance as the research background, a new inventory control model is proposed in this article which aims to optimize purchasing strategy. This model takes into overall consideration both the purchasing cost and inventory cost. The object function of this model is a function of random variables whose distributions are unknown. A new method based on stochastic simulation is established to solve the problem. Compared with the existing solution to the inventory control of railway maintenance, the new method will greatly reduce the cost. At the same time, it can increase the material guarantee ratio. This model can also be applied to other industries with similar inventory control problems.%以铁路维修的库存控制为背景,提出一种基于优化采购策略的库存控制模型.这一模型综合考虑库存材料的采购成本和库存成本.该模型的目标函数是一个随机变量的函数,而且随机变量的分布未知.本文提出了新的随机模拟方法来解决这一问题.数值试验表明,和现有的铁路维修库存控制方案比较,成本大为降低,并提高了材料保障率.这一模型也适用于其他行业类似的库存控制问题.

  11. Improved Droop Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abusara, Mohammad; Sharkh, Suleiman; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    by replacing the traditional method of measuring average power, which is based on using a first order low pass filter, by a real time integration filter. This is shown to reduce the imported transient energy when connecting to the grid. Secondly, the steady state output current quality is improved by......An improved control strategy for grid-connected inverters within microgrids is presented in this paper. The strategy is based on the classical P-ω and Q-V droop method. The improvement in the proposed control strategy is twofold: Firstly, the transient response of the droop controller is improved...... utilising a virtual inductance, which is shown to reject grid voltage harmonics disturbance and thus improve the output current THD. A small signal model of the inverter based on the transfer function approach is developed to analyse is stability and determine droop gains. Simulation and experimental...

  12. On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers control of responsive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scope of...... the paper is to discuss control strategies for responsive architectural structures, particularly reconfigurable architectural structures which can transform body shape, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two different shape alternatives....

  13. On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers control of responsive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scope of the paper is to discuss control strategies for responsive architectural structures, particularly reconfigurable architectural structures which can transform body shape, i.e. a transformation into mor...

  14. Decoupling Control Strategy for Single Phase SPWM Parallel Inverters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Gang Xu; Jian-Ping Xu; Tai-Qiang Cao

    2009-01-01

    A decoupling control strategy of inverter parallel system is proposed based on the equivalent output impedance of single phase voltage source SPWM (sinusoidal pulse width modulation) inverter. The active power and reactive power are calculated in terms of output voltage and current of the inverter, and sent to the other inverters in the parallel system via controller area network (CAN) bus. By calculating and decoupling the circumfluence of the active power and reactive power, the inverters can share load current via the regulation of the reference-signal phase and amplitude. Experimental results of an 110V/2kVA inverter parallel system show the feasibility of the decoupling control strategy.

  15. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. PMID:26817725

  16. Logic reliability analysis of adaptive control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach is developed for the evaluation of the reliability of logic of adaptive control strategies, taking into account logic structural complexity and potential failure of programming modules. Flaws in the control system algorithm may not be discovered during debugging or initial testing and may only affect the performance under abnormal situations although the system may appear reliable in normal operations. Considering an adaptive control system designed for use in control of equipment employed in nuclear power stations, logic reliability evaluation is demonstrated. The approach given is applicable to any other designs and may be used to compare different control system logic structures from the reliability viewpoint. Evaluation of the reliability of control systems is essential to automated operation of equipment used in nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Empirically Based Strategies for Preventing Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile crime is a serious public health problem that results in significant emotional and financial costs for victims and society. Using etiologic models as a guide, multiple interventions have been developed to target risk factors thought to perpetuate the emergence and persistence of delinquent behavior. Evidence suggests that the most effective interventions tend to have well-defined treatment protocols, focus on therapeutic approaches as opposed to external control techniques, and use multimodal cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies. Moving forward, there is a need to develop effective policies and procedures that promote the widespread adoption of evidence-based delinquency prevention practices across multiple settings. PMID:26980128

  18. Reading comprehension metacognitive strategies as a means for controlling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Aladina Caballero López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Textual comprehension implies the use of various metacognitive strategies by the students when they have to face a text to be competent readers. That is why the objective of this article is to illustrate the application of metacognitive strategies in order to achieve an efficient textual comprehension, taking into account the self – regulation the student exerts over his own learning process. It is applied as the main method historical-logical studies based on a professional-researching systematic practice; at the same time observation is largely used. The main result is the introduction of metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension, which subsequently favor the self-control of personal behavior. The article is the result of a research project sponsored by the department of Special Education. Key words: reading comprehension, metacognitive strategies, behavior self-control.

  19. Designing a sustainable strategy for malaria control?

    OpenAIRE

    Mharakurwa Sungano; Sullivan David; Thuma Phil; Shiff Clive

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Malaria in the 21st century is showing signs of declining over much of its distribution, including several countries in Africa where previously this was not thought to be feasible. Yet for the most part the strategies to attack the infection are similar to those of the 1950s. Three major Journals have recently drawn attention to the situation, stressing the importance of research, describing the successes and defining semantics related to control. But there is a need to stress the im...

  20. New Control Strategy of Hybrid Power Filter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škramlík, Jiří; Valouch, Viktor

    Madeira : APDEE, 2007, s. 1-6. ISBN 978-972-8822-08-8. [ Portuguese -Spanish Conference in Electrical Engineering - XCLEEE /10./. Madeira (PT), 05.07.2007-07.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : active power filters * feedback and feedforward control strategy * unsymetrical and non-sinusoidal voltage system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  1. A new balancing three level three dimensional space vector modulation strategy for three level neutral point clamped four leg inverter based shunt active power filter controlling by nonlinear back stepping controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F

    2016-07-01

    In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK. PMID:27018144

  2. Characterizing the Aedes aegypti population in a Vietnamese village in preparation for a Wolbachia-based mosquito control strategy to eliminate dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A L Jeffery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A life-shortening strain of the obligate intracellular bacteria Wolbachia, called wMelPop, is seen as a promising new tool for the control of Aedes aegypti. However, developing a vector control strategy based on the release of mosquitoes transinfected with wMelPop requires detailed knowledge of the demographics of the target population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Tri Nguyen village (611 households on Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam, we conducted nine quantitative entomologic surveys over 14 months to determine if Ae. aegypti populations were spatially and temporally homogenous, and to estimate population size. There was no obvious relationship between mosquito (larval, pupal or adult abundance and temperature and rainfall, and no area of the village supported consistently high numbers of mosquitoes. In almost all surveys, key premises produced high numbers of Ae. aegypti. However, these premises were not consistent between surveys. For an intervention based on a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti, release ratios of infected to uninfected adult mosquitoes of all age classes are estimated to be 1.8-6.7ratio1 for gravid females (and similarly aged males or teneral adults, respectively. We calculated that adult female mosquito abundance in Tri Nguyen village could range from 1.1 to 43.3 individuals of all age classes per house. Thus, an intervention could require the release of 2-78 wMelPop-infected gravid females and similarly aged males per house, or 7-290 infected teneral female and male mosquitoes per house. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the variability we encountered, this study highlights the importance of multiple entomologic surveys when evaluating the spatial structure of a vector population or estimating population size. If a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti were to occur when wild Ae. aegypti abundance was at its maximum, a preintervention control program would be necessary to ensure that

  3. Decoupling Control Strategy of D-STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzheng Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Distribution Network, Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM can stabilize turn-on point voltage, effectively reduce the transmission losses in power, improve the power factor and prevent the non-linear load. But under the circumstance of the d- and q-axis, D-STATCOM is a non-linear and strong coupling system, so decoupling control is very useful, that is because the decoupling control can ensure the output current fast track and have on different with the setting values. Study the decoupling control strategy of D-STATCOM, through the analysis of its basic structure, and then get the model of the coupling term. Due to avoid active and reactive current coupling, Fuzzy Immune PI Controller and inverse system method are combined to be used in the original system. Finally, the results are shown by the MATLAB simulation that the proposed decoupling control strategy is very good, because the performance is excellent, the structure is simple and easy to be implemented.

  4. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  5. Some thoughts on separation control strategies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P R Viswanath

    2007-02-01

    Separation control has received considerable emphasis in literature both owing to fundamental flow physics and technological applications. Flow separation generally leads to increased energy losses, instability and so on, and its control is essential to improve aerodynamic performance. Here a brief review is presented of three broad strategies for separation control: these include methods that involve energization of the boundary layer upstream of separation, those that involve altering the bubble flow or dead air zone, and those that may influence the shear layer reattachment directly. Examples from recent research in our laboratories are reviewed and it is suggested that direct manipulation of the reattachment process could lead to effective control/management.

  6. Modular Multilevel Converter Control Strategy with Fault Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Eni, Emanuel-Petre; Mathe, Laszlo;

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) technology has recently emerged in VSC-HVDC applications where it demonstrated higher efficiency and fault tolerance compared to the classical 2-level topology. Due to the ability of MMC to connect to HV levels, MMC can be also used in transformerless STATCOM...... and large wind turbines. In this paper, a control and communication strategy have been developed to accommodate tolerant module failure and capacitor voltage unbalance. A downscaled prototype converter has been built in order to validate and investigate the control strategy, and also test the proposed...... communication infrastructure based on Industrial Ethernet....

  7. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies. PMID:25583867

  8. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, Mohsen, E-mail: m.farahani@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Hamedan-Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-14

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  9. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  10. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean): Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ortiz; Fabián Rodriguez-Zaragoza; Brenda Hermosillo-Nuñez; Ferenc Jordán

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean). Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability) of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of diffe...

  11. Strategies for glucose control in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Finan, Daniel Aaron; Jørgensen, John Bagterp;

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity changes, and mismatches in meal estimation. They demonstrate that the designed controller is able to achieve offset-free control when the insulin sensitivity change, and that having a time-varying reference signal enables more robust control of blood glucose in the cases where the meal size is......In this paper we apply a robust feedforward-feedback control strategy to people with type 1 diabetes. The feedforward controller consists of a bolus calculator which compensates the disturbance coming from meals. The feedback controller is based on a linearized description of the model describing...... the patient. We minimize the risk of hypoglycemia by introducing a time-varying glucose setpoint based on the announced meal size and the physiological model of the patient. The simulation results are based on a virtual patient simulated by the Hovorka model. They include the cases where the insulin...

  12. Control strategies for DFIG wind turbines under grid fault conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rolán Blanco, Alejandro; de Medeiros, G.; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro; Teodorescu, R.

    2009-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame, attached to the magnetic flux vector, became very popular. In spite of the good behaviour of such algorithms their performance depends highly on an accurate detection of the s...

  13. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  14. Power Control Strategy for Microgrid Based on Hybrid Energy Storage System%基于混合储能的微电网功率控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雨; 潘文霞; 冯蒙霜; 包抒一

    2013-01-01

    微电网中间歇式微电源输出功率较大的不确定和波动,给微电网孤网运行时的电能质量和并网运行时的功率可调度控制带来了巨大的挑战.采用单一的储能系统平滑功率波动,不仅无法很好解决上述两种问题,且不利于延长储能元件的寿命.文中利用超级电容的高功率密度、快速充放和蓄电池适于平抑长周期功率波动的特点,提出了基于超级电容和蓄电池组成的混合储能系统及相应的控制策略,微电网孤网运行时采用超级电容平滑波动频率较高的功率,并网运行时结合蓄电池平抑频率较低的功率,通过两者的共同作用提高了微电网孤网运行的电能质量与并网运行的可调度性,同时避免了蓄电池频繁充放电.在PSCAD/EMTDC中建立微电网仿真模型,验证了所提出的混合储能结构及其控制策略的可行性.%The output fluctuation of intermittent micro-power in mircrogrid will bring great challenge to the control of power quality at the island operation mode and the power schedulability at the grid-connected operation mode. Using one type of energy storage system to smooth the power fluctuation is hard to perfectly solve the above problems but is not good to extend the life of energy storage device. This paper proposes a control strategy based on hybrid energy storage system consisted of super-capacitor and battery, which takes advantage of the battery to smooth long-periodic fluctuation power and the high power density, fast charge and discharge of the super-capacitor. The super-capacitor is used to smooth the high fluctuation power when the microgrid on island operation mode. By combining with the battery, the super-capacitor can be used to smooth the low fluctuation power when the microgrid on grid-connected operation mode. Therefore, the power quality on island operation mode and schedulability of the microgrid on grid-connected operation mode can be improved, and too much

  15. Controlling strategy of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Yiling; Guo Shuliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literatures on control of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and propose a new control strategy to shorten the course of TB chemotherapy.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in PubMed.The search terms were "therapy (treatment) of tuberculosis," "therapy (treatment) of latent TB infection," and "vaccine of TB."Study selection Articles regarding treatment and vaccine of TB were selected and reviewed.Results The most crucial reason causing the prolonged course of TB chemotherapy is the dormant state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis).Nevertheless,there are,to date,no effective drugs that can directly kill the dormant cells of M.tuberculosis in clinical therapy.In accordance with the growth cycle of dormant M.tuberculosis in the body,the methods for controlling dormant M.tuberculosis include direct killing with drugs,prevention of dormant M.tuberculosis resuscitation with vaccines,and resuscitating dormant M.tuberculosis with preparations or drugs and then thoroughly killing these resuscitated M.tuberculosis by using anti-TB therapy.Conclusions The comprehensive analysis of the above three methods suggests that the drugs directly killing dormant cells are in clinical trials,TMC207 is the most beneficial for controlling TB.Because the side effect of vaccines is less and their action period is long,prevention of dormant cells resuscitation with vaccines is promising.The last control method makes it probable that when a huge number of active cells of M.tuberculosis have been killed and eradicated after 1-month short chemotherapy,only a strong short-term subsequent chemotherapy can completely kill and eradicate the remaining M.tuberculosis.This control strategy is expected to significantly shorten the course of TB chemotherapy and bring a new change and breakthrough in TB treatment.

  16. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean: Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ortiz

    Full Text Available Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean. Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4 showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3. Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5, the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1 the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2 the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics and (3 the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control. An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies.

  17. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean): Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Marco; Rodriguez-Zaragoza, Fabián; Hermosillo-Nuñez, Brenda; Jordán, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean). Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability) of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4) showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3). Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5), the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1) the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2) the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics) and (3) the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper) that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control). An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies. PMID:26114745

  18. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean): Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Marco; Rodriguez-Zaragoza, Fabián; Hermosillo-Nuñez, Brenda; Jordán, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean). Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability) of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4) showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3). Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5), the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1) the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2) the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics) and (3) the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper) that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control). An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies. PMID:26114745

  19. Food Security Strategy Based on Computer Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruihui Mu

    2015-01-01

    Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control...

  20. CONTROL STRATEGY FOR ASSURING CONSTANT SURFACE FINISH BY CONTROLLING CUTTING FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    Čuš, Franci; Župerl, Uroš

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present surface roughness control strategy aimed at controlling the cutting force and maintaining constant roughness of the surface being milled by digital adaptation of cutting parameters. The idea of this control structure is to merge the off-line cutting condition optimization and genetic programming (GP) model based surface roughness control. The off-line optimization integrates the neural network (NN) modelling of the objective function and particle swar...

  1. Comparison of different control strategies on FMD in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different control strategies that could be used in Denmark during an outbreak of FMD, based on epidemiological, ethical and economic parameters. Nearly a hundred different control strategies and more than 30 sensitivity analyses were run, changing between...... extract the essence of the results. All results will be presented in the final project report, which will be available on request to the authors. Comparing epidemiological outputs showed that extra control measures will always reduce the average duration and size of an epidemic. However, the variations in...... duration and size of epidemics are large, and if epidemics are small, extra control measures may not always be necessary. Comparing depopulation to suppressive and protective vaccination shows that from an epidemiologic point of view, vaccination will be beneficial. However, comparing the economy of the...

  2. An Optimal Reactive Power Control Strategy for a DFIG-Based Wind Farm to Damp the Sub-Synchronous Oscillation of a Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhao; Hui Li; Mingyu Wang; Yaojun Chen; Shengquan Liu; Dong Yang; Chao Yang; Yaogang Hu; Zhe Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator spe...

  3. Highlights of the EPA innovative regulatory strategies workshop: Market-based incentives and other innovations for air pollution control. Summary of workshop discussion sessions. Held in Washington, DC on January 15-17, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 allow, and in some cases require, States to adopt market-based strategies or other innovative types of air pollution control. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) innovative regulatory strategies program seeks to encourage and facilitate, as appropriate, the development, demonstration, and implementation of a wide range of innovative regulatory air pollution programs, including market-based, informational, and pollution prevention approaches. The 3-day national workshop, attended by over two hundred people from Federal, State, and local agencies, industry, environmental and public interest groups, and the academic community highlighted issues associated with a variety of innovative, market-based strategies which are currently being developed or used by State and local authorities around the country

  4. Control Strategy of Scheduling Invalidation of Data Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Hu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the number increment of mobile computing equipment, the invalidation of equipment and broadcasting information because of wireless bandwidth, communication quality and too long scheduling queue that badly influence the system computing performance. Mobile cache is a good technology to solute this difficult problem. Considering the priority problem of broadcasting queue generated by data invalidation cache, this paper designs a multi-buffer queue-scheduling model, which classifies the priority of broadcasting data. An invalidation control strategy of data broadcasting scheduling based on mobile Agent and IBM Application Response Measurement (ARM is presented to guarantee data executing on the terminal in the right time. The results of experiments show that the invalidation rate and average work response time of the presented model and strategy in this paper are less (20% than the single buffer queue mode and random invalidation controlling strategy.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants control strategy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ya-juan; LU Yong-long; ZHANG Hong; WANG Tie-yu; XING Ying

    2005-01-01

    The development of Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs) control policy in China in the context of international concerns on POPs was reviewed. The aspects of the Chinese POPs control strategies were analyzed, and compared with those of developed counterparts (e.g. US, EU, Japan). Currently, while the legal framework on POPs management, which complies with international guidelines has been established, it should be improved in the areas of special POPs management, risk assessment, the precautionary principle, lifecycle management and technical support capacity. The analysis of Chinese POPs policy and suggestions for strengthening the sciencebased decision making capacity are not only useful for Chinese decision-makers, but also a case study for developing world and make a great contribution for the global elimination of POPs to make a toxic-free future.

  6. Food Security Strategy Based on Computer Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihui Mu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control strategy, when the issue of marketing and business strategy is very important. The results of this study also demonstrated the relationship between reward and food security strategies. Interview analysis showed that the attitude of senior management in the hotel's food security policy, the company's ability to significantly dependent on the corporate image.

  7. Robust antisynchronization of chaos using sliding mode control strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Mondal; Mitul Islam; Nurul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a sliding mode control strategy-based scheme for achieving anti-synchronization between two coupled non-linear chaotic systems. The method works irrespective of whether the systems under consideration possess or lack inverse symmetry. Using a linear sliding surface, a sliding mode control input and a non-linear coupling function are designed that synchronizes the systems antiphase. Finite-time convergence of the method is established. The controller is also robust to all forms of bounded perturbations and this robustness can be easily achieved by tuning of a single controller parameter and introduction of a control vector. The controller is also made chattering-free by producing a continuous analogue of the discontinuous control input. The effectiveness of the method is established by implementing it to antisynchronize chaotic Sprott systems and Rossler systems. The results are also verified through numerical simulation work.

  8. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1117 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1117 Control strategy... not submit an adequate control strategy demonstration to show that the Maryland Regulation...

  10. 40 CFR 52.57 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.57... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.57 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides... part of the revised sulfur oxide control strategy, is disapproved as it applies to the Widows...

  11. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; Ahmed; Khan; Aftab; Ahmad; Riffat; Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospitalacquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel’s skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium difficile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broadspectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  12. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Ahmed Khan; Aftab Ahmad; Riffat Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel’s skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium dififcile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  13. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  14. Temperature control strategy for a seal fatigue tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Związek

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is optimization of a control strategy used in a seal fatigue tester.Design/methodology/approach: Analytical approach has been applied to get an understanding of a heat exchange process. It is required to optimize the control process algorithm.Findings: The initial control algorithm has been improved regarding numerous tests under different operating conditions. The final version of the control program allows to maintain the temperature according to the on-off strategy minimizing the temperature oscillations and potential overshoots.Research limitations/implications: It should be considered a new control strategy based on PID controller.Practical implications: The major component of the tester is the heat exchanger. It consists of a tube and embedded pipe circuit feeding with the external heating or cooling medium. The tube is a cylindrical housing where the seals are assembled at both sides. Two main pumps circulate the medium at a specified flow rate and pressure. The temperature is maintained to hold it almost constant during heating and cooling phases. Two thermocouples are placed close to the seals, and the one in the middle of the heat exchanger tube. The tester is equipped with a control system consisting of a PLC controller and LabView data acquisition application. It is possible to control the device remotely through LAN/WAN networks. The LabView application communicates with the controller via software with the use of PPI (Point-To-Point Interface protocol. A new control algorithm has allowed to perform tests according to testing specification without significant overshoots.Originality/value: On-off control algorithm has been proposed for a combined heating-cooling installation rarely using in the industrial solutions.

  15. MARKETING STRATEGIES BASED ON THE BUYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In marketing, due to dynamic, rapid and permanent changes known on the market, we will talk more about politics than about strategy, the time horizon covered is much lower than that contained in a classic strategy, with a risk that elements and criteria to which we refer are no longer current. Sales growth strategies are, in fact, combination strategies and consist in the company applying, in its different units, different strategies, according to the requirement of appropriate strategies applied to different environments of action. A business strategy must be based on knowledge of customer purchasing behavior. To contact customers, a company may use one or more specific strategies. Every marketing strategy serves the interest of increasing competitiveness, and of stabilizing and improving the companys position in the market in a highly competitive environment. In the age of transformation into market economy, rapid technological development, and confrontation between economic and ecological factors, every single manager is compelled to elaborate an attitude, and to take a stand concerning research and development, technological transfer, the technological level of products, and the quality of services, because these are the factors determining the future development, the chances of survival, and in a wider sense the objectives of marketing strategy.

  16. Optimal design of coordination control strategy for distributed generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-hua; Norapon Kanjanapadit

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design procedure for optimizing the power distribution strategy in distributed generation system. A coordinating controller, responsible to distribute the total load power request among multiple DG units, is suggested based on the conception of hierarchical control structure in the dynamic system.The optimal control problem was formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem subject to set of constraints.The resulting problem was solved using the Kutm-Tucker method. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide better efficiency in terms of reducing total costs compared to existing methods.In addition, the proposed optimal load distribution strategy can be easily implemented in real-time thanks to the simplicity of closed-form solutions.

  17. Designing a sustainable strategy for malaria control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mharakurwa Sungano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in the 21st century is showing signs of declining over much of its distribution, including several countries in Africa where previously this was not thought to be feasible. Yet for the most part the strategies to attack the infection are similar to those of the 1950s. Three major Journals have recently drawn attention to the situation, stressing the importance of research, describing the successes and defining semantics related to control. But there is a need to stress the importance of local sustainability, and consider somewhat urgently how individual endemic countries can plan and implement the programmes that are currently financed, for the most part, by donor institutions. On an immediate basis research should be more focused on a data driven approach to control. This will entail new thinking on the role of local infrastructure and in training of local scientists in local universities in epidemiology and field malariology so that expanded control programmes can become operational. Donor agencies should encourage and facilitate development of career opportunities for such personnel so that local expertise is available to contribute appropriately.

  18. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  19. 基于PCS7的加热炉燃烧控制策略及仿真研究%Furnace Combustion Control Strategy and Simulation Based on PCS 7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙自强; 丁小冬

    2012-01-01

    A furnace combustion control strategy based on Siemens SIMATIC PCS7 is designed to solve the problem of low combustion efficiency existing in the furnace control system,. In the strategy, used double-crossing-limiting ratio control, fuzzy control and feedforward control to control furnace' s main parameters: material temperature, air/fuel ratio and furnace pressure. The system used SMPT to simulate furnace and use SIMATIC PC57 to implement control strategy. The control process runs automatically and the result shows the strategy is feasibility and has better control performance. Propose a new control strategy and get better performance at the aspect of real-time control and improving combustion efficiency compared to the traditional furnace control based on mathematical model.%针对加热炉控制系统中存在的燃烧效率不高,控制响应延迟大的问题.设计了一套基于某公司SIMATIC PCS7控制系统的加热炉燃烧控制策略.系统针对加热炉燃烧控制中的主要参数:物料出口温度,空燃比,炉膛压力分别采用率级双交叉比值限幅控制策略,模糊控制策略和前馈控制策略进行控制.控制过程采用高级多功能过程实训系统(SMPr)仿真加热炉,利用SIMATIC PCS7控制系统实施加热炉的控制方案并利用上位机软件WinCC进行在线的实时监控.控制过程自动运行,根据控制过程和仿真结果表明,方案安全可靠,控制效果和可行性较好.比较于传统的基于数学模型的加热炉控制策略,方案提供了一种新型的控制策略,在很大程度上解决了加热炉燃烧效率不高,控制响应延迟大的问题.

  20. Copula based Dynamic Hedging Strategy with Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Brutti Righi; Paulo Sergio Ceretta

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper a dynamic hedging strategy for futures based exclusively on copula functions. We develop an algorithm based on numerical simulations from estimated copula and marginal probability function to obtain innovations. We illustrate our approach through an empirical example with Crude Oil and Gold. OLS static estimate showed itself improper and the proposed algorithm obtained very good results in spot/future variance reduction strategy.

  1. Instantaneous Current Feedback Control Strategy on Buck Mode Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Control strategies for Buck mode inverter have important effect on static and dynamic characteristics, reliability, load capacity, and short-circuit resistance. Instantaneous current feedback control strategies include instantaneous inductor current feedback control and instantaneous capacitor current feedback control, both of which have essential difference. When the Buck mode inverter respectively adopts instantaneous inductor current and capacitor current feedback control strategies, characteristics of stability, output voltage and power, short circuit, nonlinear load and dynamic are fully investigated in this paper.

  2. A Composite PWM Control Strategy for Boost Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfeng, Liu; Zhaoxia, Leng; Jinkun, Sun; Huamin, Wang

    In order to improve the control performance of boost converter with large signal disturbance, a composite PWM control strategy for boost converter operating in continuous condition mode (CCM) was proposed in this paper. The parasitical loss of Boost converter was analyzed and a loss compensation strategy was adopted to design feed-forward tracker for converter. The composite PWM controller consisted of the tracker and PID controller. Simulation and experiment results validated the validity of the control strategy presented in this paper.

  3. STUDY ON POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL STRATEGIES OF AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE IN CHINA BASED ON US-JAPAN EXPERIENCE AND ENLIGHTENMENT FOR THE PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    GAO QIANG; ZHAO FEI

    2014-01-01

    In United States, Japan and other developed countries in the agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and governance key policy and technical measures have achieved some success, compared to Chinese agricultural nonpoint source pollution and problems of the major causes and actively learning from the developed countries succeed agricultural nonpoint source pollution control practices and experiences, based on the actual situation, from the establishment of a sound related policies and r...

  4. An intelligent control strategy based on ANFIS techniques in order to improve the performance of a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle vision system

    OpenAIRE

    Marichal, G. N.; Hernández, A,; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Acosta, L.; Campoy, P.

    2010-01-01

    n this paper, an intelligent control approach based on Neuro-Fuzzy systems is presented. A model of a lowcost vision platform for an unmanned aerial system is taken in the study. A simulation platform including this low-cost vision system and the influence of the helicopter vibrations over this system is shown. The intelligent control approach has been inserted in this simulation platform. Several trials taking these Neuro-Fuzzy systems as a fundamental part of the contro...

  5. Strategies for searching and managing evidence-based practice resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based nursing practice requires the use of effective search strategies to locate relevant resources to guide practice change. Continuing education and staff development professionals can assist nurses to conduct effective literature searches. This article provides suggestions for strategies to aid in identifying search terms. Strategies also are recommended for refining searches by using controlled vocabulary, truncation, Boolean operators, PICOT (Population/Patient Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) searching, and search limits. Suggestions for methods of managing resources also are identified. Using these approaches will assist in more effective literature searches and may help evidence-based practice decisions. PMID:25221988

  6. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Otieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted. The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control

  7. Strategy for Modernization of Main Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetime of most information devices spans 5 years at most. Both memory capacity and CPU performance nearly double every 2 years. A new operating system is released every year. New information technology appears rapidly and disappears. Even though there is time delay, this phenomena is observed in I and C (instrument and control) devices in nuclear power plants. It is assumed that lifetime of I and C is about 20 years. At that time, spare parts are difficult to purchase. However, main control rooms in nuclear power plant have not changed dramatically. Once MCR is built, it stays almost forever. Why do the operators in NPP insist using the old and traditional devices? Traditional MCR has some advantage over advanced MCR. For example tradition MCR provides operators panoramic view, and dedicated and strong devices. On the other hand, advanced MCR provide them powerful presentation and information. When new power plants are built, advanced MCR is preferred. But when old MCR is modernized, most operators still insist the old style. This is because the transition from traditional MCR to advanced MCR is not clear and has challenges to overcome. This paper will explain the challenges and provide a strategy to overcome

  8. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2033 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.2033 Section 52.2033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur oxides. (a) The revision to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  10. Intelligent Control Strategy of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Hajizadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals a control strategy developed for optimizing the power flow in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV structure. This method implements an on-line power management based on the neuro-fuzzy controller between dual power sources that consist of a battery bank and a fuel cell (FC. This structure included battery and fuel cell and its power train system include an Electric Motor (EM and vehicle dynamics. The proposed control method involves an intelligent controller which captures all of possible operation modes and predicts the driver intention. Moreover, there are local controllers to regulate the set points of each subsystems to reach the best performance and acceptable operation indexes. Simulation results of hybrid system illustrate improvement in the operation efficiency of the FCHV and the battery state of charge and fuel cell utilization factor have been maintained at a reasonable level.

  11. Saving Building Energy through Advanced Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the relationship between building energy usage and building control system operation and performance. A method is presented for estimating the energy saving potential of improvements in building and control system operation, including the relative impact of recommssioning and hardware and software upgrades, based on a subjective assessment of the level of energy efficient design and the energy usage of the building relative to similar buildings as indicated by the Energy Utilization Index for the building. The method introduces a Building Design Index and a Building Operating Index to evaluate building energy performance versus similar buildings, and uses these indices to estimate potential savings and effectiveness of control system improvements.

  12. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...... for improved and more efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, their evaluation and comparison – either practical or based on simulation – is difficult. This is partly due to the variability of the influent, to the complexity of the biological and biochemical phenomena and to...... model, plant layout, controllers, sensors, performance criteria and test procedures, i.e. a complete benchmarking protocol....

  13. Adaptive Control Based On Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Sun; Lujin, Zhang; Jinhai, Zou; Siyi, Miao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the adaptive control based on neural network is studied. Firstly, a neural network based adaptive robust tracking control design is proposed for robotic systems under the existence of uncertainties. In this proposed control strategy, the NN is used to identify the modeling uncertainties, and then the disadvantageous effects caused by neural network approximating error and external disturbances in robotic system are counteracted by robust controller. Especially the proposed cont...

  14. Predictive PID Control Based on GPC Control of Inverted Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Bouhajar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Having regard to the large application of the inverted pendulum in robotic system, this study is interested in controlling this process with two strategies of controls. The first proposed control is the state feedback with an observer based on the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC algorithm. In the second proposed control we used the characteristic of predictive control GPC to improve the performance of the classical PID controller. The obtained results have been discussed and compared; the simulation results obtained by the predictive PID control are mentioned.

  15. Capacitor Current Feedback-Based Active Resonance Damping Strategies for Digitally-Controlled Inductive-Capacitive-Inductive-Filtered Grid-Connected Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Lorzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL-type line filters are widely used in grid-connected voltage source inverters (VSIs, since they can provide substantially improved attenuation of switching harmonics in currents injected into the grid with lower cost, weight and power losses than their L-type counterparts. However, the inclusion of third order LCL network complicates the current control design regarding the system stability issues because of an inherent resonance peak which appears in the open-loop transfer function of the inverter control system near the control stability boundary. To avoid passive (resistive resonance damping solutions, due to their additional power losses, active damping (AD techniques are often applied with proper control algorithms in order to damp the LCL filter resonance and stabilize the system. Among these techniques, the capacitor current feedback (CCF AD has attracted considerable attention due to its effective damping performance and simple implementation. This paper thus presents a state-of-the-art review of resonance and stability characteristics of CCF-based AD approaches for a digitally-controlled LCL filter-based grid-connected inverter taking into account the effect of computation and pulse width modulation (PWM delays along with a detailed analysis on proper design and implementation.

  16. Study and experimental verification of control tuning strategies in a variable speed wind energy conversion system

    OpenAIRE

    Zaragoza Bertomeu, Jordi; Pou Félix, Josep; Arias Pujol, Antoni; Spiteri, Cyril; Robles Sestafe, Eider; Ceballos Recio, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares different control tuning strategies for a variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The aerodynamics of the wind turbine (WT) and a PMSG have been modeled. The control strategy used in this research is composed of three regulators, which may be based on either linear or nonlinear controllers. In this analysis, proportional-integral (PI) linear controllers have been used. Two differ...

  17. DISTANCE-BASED UPDATE STRATEGY IN LDCQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yi; Edward Chan; Huang Zailu

    2004-01-01

    A new update strategy, distance-based update strategy, is presented in Location Dependent Continuous Query (LDCQ) under error limitation. There are different possibilities to intersect when the distances between moving objects and the querying boundary are different.Therefore, moving objects have different influences to the query result. We set different deviation limits for different moving objects according to distances. A great number of unnecessary updates are reduced and the payload of the system is relieved.

  18. An intermodal traffic control strategy for private vehicle and public transport

    OpenAIRE

    BHOURI, N; LOTITO, P

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a traffic-responsive urban traffic control strategy allowing a real time passive public transport priority. The proposed strategy is based on a store and forward modeling of both of the private vehicle and Public transport traffic. The regulator is designed using the linear quadratic, which allows a traffic responsive co-ordinated control for wide-area networks. The objective of this strategy is to control the junctions traffic lights in order to improve the traffic perfor...

  19. A new weed control strategy in onion culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieron, M; Kerres, W; Schäffer, A

    2007-01-01

    A new strategy combining modem hoeing technique and spray application has been developed in order to reduce the amount of herbicides down to 20% compared to common practice. The effects on weed control have been investigated as well as the impact on qualitative and quantitative harvest. In two large scale field trials and two years of testing the authors evaluated different hoeing techniques combined with band spray application and standard spray application, the minimal lethal herbicide dose method (MLHD). All varieties have been calculated for environmental impact as well as practical and economical means. These studies reveal crop losses due to improper weed control as well as losses due to herbicide stress. Detailed information on concentration depending impact of several herbicides have been correlated to their control of different weeds and the achieved yield. Two contrary effects influencing the total yield have been identified. The novel strategy is based on the knowledge of these complex effects which finally led to a well practicable and highly economic strategy that enables onion farmers to control weeds while reducing the amounts of herbicides down to approximately 20%. PMID:18399447

  20. Process stability for chemical recovery units: Which black liquor firing control strategies enhance stability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, D.T.; Frederickson, J.O.; Andrews, J.R. [James River Corp., Berlin, NH (United States). Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Black liquor firing control strategies strive to buffer chemical recovery units (CRU) from changes in kraft pulp mill process. The importance of firing control strategy has increased recently with the trend to link concentrators directly to CRU liquor headers to ensure minimal liquor storage. Four control strategies were evaluated: (1) black liquor nozzle pressure, (2) black liquor volumetric flow, (3) black liquor solids mass flow, and (4) energy flow control. The variation between the base case and the four different control strategies was evaluated by changes in six process parameters, i.e., pressure, velocity, solids mass flow, energy released, droplet diameter, and droplet evaporative load. Results indicated that for non-fouling units, the energy release strategy provided the best stability. For fouling units, the choice was less obvious; none of the evaluated control strategies ranked consistently best. Liquor header (nozzle) pressure control proved to be least desirable. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. COMPUTER BASED ENVIRONMENT CONTROLS

    OpenAIRE

    Macoveiciuc Pastorel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to give an overview of the main activities of computer based activities controls. The basic principles of computer controls should be common to all sectors and to most types of hardware and software. The absence of a common definition of computer control may, in part, be due to the relative newness of computer controls. A key feature of many organisations today is change. Although not necessarily the driver of change, IT is invariably an intrinsec component and much ...

  2. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  3. Optimal Control Strategies in a Two Dimensional Differential Game Using Linear Equation under a Perturbed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Danjuma SHEHU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper lays emphasis on formulation of two dimensional differential games via optimal control theory and consideration of control systems whose dynamics is described by a system of Ordinary Differential equation in the form of linear equation under the influence of two controls U(. and V(.. Base on this, strategies were constructed. Hence we determine the optimal strategy for a control say U(. under a perturbation generated by the second control V(. within a given manifold M.

  4. Dynamic flow control strategies of vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Youtong; Asif, Malik

    2015-03-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions. That will lead to low NO X conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between -8% and 10% to -4% and 2% and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms. The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NO X emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NO X conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions quickly.

  5. No “Magic Bullet”: Exploring Community Mobilization Strategies Used in a Multi-site Community Based Randomized Controlled Trial: Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    OpenAIRE

    Tedrow, Virginia A.; Carla E Zelaya; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Morin, Stephen F; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael D.; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    As community-level interventions become more common in HIV prevention, processes such as community mobilization (CM) are increasingly utilized in public health programs and research. Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized controlled trial, is testing the hypothesis that CM coupled with community-based mobile voluntary counseling and testing and post-test support services will alter community norms and reduce the incidence of HIV. By using a multiple-case study approach, this qualit...

  6. Behavioral Self-Control Strategies for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Leasha M.; Haraway, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, self-control strategies are conceptualized as existing on two intersecting continuums of more or less individual control and increasing complexity depending on individual need. Behavioral self-control strategies for young children require external supports to assist children in learning the skills necessary to practice and implement…

  7. Modelling nematode infections in sheep and parasite control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Laurenson, Yan Christian Stephen Mountfort

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing lambs adversely affects animal performance and welfare, causing significant production losses for the sheep industry. Control of gastrointestinal parasitism using chemotherapeutic treatment is under threat due to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, thus stimulating research into alternative control strategies. Whilst investigating control strategies experimentally can be costly and time consuming, using a mathematical modelling appro...

  8. A supervisory control strategy for building cooling water systems for practical and real time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a model based supervisory control strategy for online control of building central cooling water systems to enhance their energy efficiency. The supervisory control strategy seeks the minimum energy input to provide adequate cooling energy for buildings, taking into account the characteristics and interactions of central cooling water systems as well as the requirements and constraints of practical application. Simplified semi-physical chiller and cooling tower models are used to predict the system energy performance and environment quality as well as the system response to changes of control settings. A hybrid optimization technique, namely the PMES (performance map and exhaustive search) based method, is developed and utilized to seek optimal solutions to the optimization problem. The control performance and energy performance of this model based supervisory control strategy are evaluated on the central cooling water system of a high rise commercial office building by comparing with that of the model based supervisory control strategy using a genetic algorithm (GA) as the optimization tool, and the performance map based near optimal control strategy as well as other conventional control strategies for cooling water systems in terms of energy efficiency, control accuracy, computational cost etc. The results showed that this strategy is more energy efficient and computational cost effective than other methods for online practical application

  9. Design strategy for control of inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor power plant safety is assured through a combination of engineered barriers to radiation release (e.g., reactor containment) in combination with active reactor safety systems to shut the reactor down and remove decay heat. While not specifically identified as safety systems, the control systems responsible for continuous operation of plant subsystems are the first line of defense for mitigating radiation releases and for plant protection. ''''Inherently safe'' reactors take advantage of passive system features for decay-heat removal and reactor shutdown functions normally ascribed to active reactor safety systems. The advent of these reactors may permit restructuring of the present control system design strategy. This restructuring is based on the fact that authority for protection against unlikely accidents is, as much as practical, placed upon the passive features of the system instead of the traditional placement upon the PPS. Consequently, reactor control may be simplified, allowing the reliability of control systems to be improved and more easily defended

  10. Strategies for reactive power control in wind farms with STATCOM

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz González, Francisco; Martínez Rojas, Marcela; Sumper, Andreas; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents three strategies for reactive power control in wind farms with STATCOM. First, the STATCOM system and its applications in electric power systems and wind farms are shown. Second, the modeling done of the wind farm, the STATCOM and the network are presented. Finally, control strategies for reactive power delivered by the park to the network when required are shown. The result of the implementation of each control strategy is shown by simulation.

  11. On Human Cost Control Strategy of Construction Enterprise Based on Strategic Perspective%战略视角的施工企业人力成本控制策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛力群

    2012-01-01

    施工企业有效实施人力成本控制策略,要求从企业战略的视角出发,结合企业发展愿景,制订企业人力成本战略方针并将其落实到企业的施工经营全过程.论文认为,战略视角的施工企业人力成本控制策略对企业获得竞争优势具有主要的作用,这是企业在市场竞争中获得人力资源管理的比较优势,提升企业竞争力的重要保证.%The construction enterprise effectively implements the human cost control strategy, which requests construction enterprise starts from the perspective of enterprise strategy, combines with enterprise development vision, formulates policies of human cost strategy of corporate and implements them in the whole process of construction business of enterprise. This paper believes that human cost control strategy of construction enterprise based on strategic perspective has main effect on gaining competitive advantage for enterprises, and it is comparative advantages of gaining human resource management for enterprises in market competition and the important guarantee to promote competitiveness of enterprises.

  12. Population genetic structure of Aedes polynesiensis in the Society Islands of French Polynesia: implications for control using a Wolbachia-based autocidal strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brelsfoard Corey L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes polynesiensis is the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti in the South Pacific and an important vector of dengue virus. An improved understanding of the mosquito population genetics is needed for insight into the population dynamics and dispersal, which can aid in understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and control of the vector. In light of the potential release of a Wolbachia infected strain for vector control, our objectives were to investigate the microgeographical and temporal population genetic structure of A. polynesiensis within the Society Islands of French Polynesia, and to compare the genetic background of a laboratory strain intended for release into its population of origin. Methods A panel of eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype A. polynesiensis samples collected in French Polynesia from 2005-2008 and introgressed A. polynesiensis and Aedes riversi laboratory strains. Examination of genetic differentiation was performed using F-statistics, STRUCTURE, and an AMOVA. BAYESASS was used to estimate direction and rates of mosquito movement. Results FST values, AMOVA, and STRUCTURE analyses suggest low levels of intra-island differentiation from multiple collection sites on Tahiti, Raiatea, and Maupiti. Significant pair-wise FST values translate to relatively minor levels of inter-island genetic differentiation between more isolated islands and little differentiation between islands with greater commercial traffic (i.e., Tahiti, Raiatea, and Moorea. STRUCTURE analyses also indicate two population groups across the Society Islands, and the genetic makeup of Wolbachia infected strains intended for release is similar to that of wild-type populations from its island of origin, and unlike that of A. riversi. Conclusions The observed panmictic population on Tahiti, Raiatea, and Moorea is consistent with hypothesized gene flow occurring between islands that have relatively high levels of air

  13. An off-and-towards-equilibrium strategy for vibrational control of structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Runlin; Mai Tong; Zhou Xiyuan; Yan Weiming; Liu Xihui

    2006-01-01

    Traditional control strategies have difficulty handling nonlinear behavior of structures, time variable features and parameter uncertainties of structural control systems under seismic excitation. An off-and-towardsequilibrium (OTE) strategy combined with fuzzy control is presented in this paper to overcome these difficulties.According to the OTE strategy, the control force is designed from the viewpoint of a mechanical relationship between the motions of the structure, the exciting force and the control force. The advantage of the OTE strategy is that it can be used for a variety of control systems. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed strategy, the seismic performance of a three-story shear building with an Active Tendon System (ATS) using a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is studied. The main advantage of the fuzzy controller is its inherent robustness and ability to handle any nonlinear behavior of structures. However, there are no design guidelines to set up the corresponding control rule table for a FLC. Based on the proposed strategy for the FLC, a control rule table associated with the building under study is developed, which then allows formation of a detailed algorithm. The results obtained in this study show that the proposed strategy performs slightly better than the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) strategy, while possessing several advantages over the LQR controller. Consequently, the feasibility and validity of the proposed strategy are verified.

  14. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm Based on Social Foraging Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Shen; Yunlong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, K. M. Passino proposed Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) for distributed optimization and control. Biologic foraging strategies are diverse. Based on social and intelligent foraging theory, this paper proposed an adaptive bacterial foraging optimization algorithm, and introduced six foraging operators: chaos run operator, assimilation run operator, tumble operator, swimming operator, reproduction operator and elimination-dispersal operator. Among those operators, chaos...

  15. Activity-Based Information Integrating the operations strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto da Rocha de Araujo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world, companies seek for new operations strategies to ensure world corporate success. This article analyzes how the cost management models – both traditional and activity-based, aid the planning and management of corporate globalized operations. The efficacy of the models application depends on their alignment with the competitive strategy. Companies must evaluate the nature of the competition and its competitive priorities; they should then define the necessary and sufficient dependence level on costs information. In this article, three dependence levels are presented: operational, decision support and strategic control. The result of the research shows the importance of alignment between the cost management model and the competitive strategy for corporate success, and confirms the adequacy of the activity-based costing model as a supporting tool for decision taking in a global strategy. Case studies in world class companies in Brazil are presented.

  16. 基于直流电流模糊预测控制的换相失败预防策略%A DC Current Fuzzy Predictive Control Based Strategy to Decrease Probability of Commutation Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高楷; 孙国强; 卫志农; 孙永辉; 袁阳

    2015-01-01

    为抑制直流输电系统逆变器换相失败的发生,可采用直流电流预测控制方法,但直流电流预测设定值计算公式中参数k存在一定的随机性,为此采用模糊控制器控制直流电流预测设定值,并提出直流电流模糊预测控制策略.设置了控制时长T,并通过仿真测试选取合适的T值,克服了原有方法引起的系统电流恢复缓慢的不足.最后通过 CIGRE HVDC标准模型的PSCAD-Matlab联合调用仿真进行算例分析,结果验证了所提方法的有效性.%DC-current predictive control strategy is an existing advanced method to restrain inverter commutation failure in HVDC system. To break limitation of this method that parameterk in computational formula is random, a DC current fuzzy predictive control based strategy is proposed. It uses fuzzy controller to control preset DC current value on inverter side. This paper also sets control duration T chosen through simulation testing. It overcomes drawback of existing method that the current recovers slowly. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed strategy for improving capability of HVDC system in resisting commutation failure and accelerating recovery after faults is verified with simulation with standard CIGRE HVDC benchmark testing model based on combined simulation of PSCAD and Matlab.

  17. The Conceptual Bases of Study Strategy Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel; McCune, Velda

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the historical origins and development of a series of well-known study strategy inventories and seeks to identify their conceptual bases. The theories and evidence influencing the development of 6 contrasting instruments are considered before examining empirical evidence of similarities and differences between the…

  18. 基于最佳电能使用的插电式混合动力客车控制策略%Control Strategy for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Based on Optimal Electric Energy Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗国鹏; 罗禹贡; 李克强

    2012-01-01

    In view of the problem of poor fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric bus in long distance driving with the control strategy currently adopted, a control strategy based on optimal electric energy use is proposed. It selects the mode of best utilization of electric energy according to expected driving distance and the SOC of battery. The results of simulation show that using the control strategy proposed can significantly improve the fuel economy of vehicle.%针对目前插电式混合动力汽车采用的控制策略在较长行驶里程时燃油经济性较差的问题,提出了一种基于最佳电能使用的控制策略.它根据目标行驶里程和电池SOC,选择最佳的电能使用方式.仿真结果表明,当目标行驶里程较长时,采用所提出的控制策略可显著改善汽车燃油经济性.

  19. Vector Control Based on SVPWM for ACIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the large torque ripple and current harmonics, low DC bus voltage problems, a new control strategy is proposed for AC induction motor by using space vector pulse width modulation, so that the static and dynamic performance are improved. The system simulation experiment mode was established based on SVPWM to verify the effectiveness of the system control mode. It is showed that it can reduce the current ripple and torque ripple, improve the utilization of DC bus voltage. It means that the control strategy based SVPWM can improve dynamic and static performance effectively for the ACIM servo system.

  20. Available Bandwidth Estimation Strategy Based on the Network Allocation Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Hongtao Liu; Lianglun Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Available bandwidth is of great importance to network Quality of Service assurance, network load balancing, streaming media rate control, routing, and congestion control, etc.. In this paper, the available bandwidth estimation strategy based on the Network Allocation Vector for Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed. According to the size of the average contention window, network nodes predict the probability of collision in process of frame transmission, and then estimate the number of retrans...

  1. Torque-based gasoline engine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, N.; Stier, G.; Beaumont, A.J.; Noble, A.D. [Ricardo, Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a new control strategy for gasoline engines that is based on engine torque. The reference for the calculation of the different actuator set points is a torque demand variable. This makes it possible to consider the influence on torque of both - manipulated variables inside the engine control system and signals belonging to external systems - at one central point. Therefore controlling the interaction between different components of electronic systems inside the vehicle is facilitated. This gives rise to new possibilities to extend the control strategy and to improve driveability. (author)

  2. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG Wind Turbines for Low Voltage Ride Through

    OpenAIRE

    Chanxia Zhu; Minqiang Hu; Zaijun Wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved control strategy for both the rotor side converter (RSC) and grid side converter (GSC) of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbine (WT) system to enhance the low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability. Within the proposed control strategy, the RSC control introduces transient feed-forward compensation terms to mitigate the high frequency harmonic components and reduce the surge in the rotor currents. The proposed GSC control scheme also introd...

  3. Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Seasonal-Long Insecticide-Based Control Strategy against Aedes albopictus Nuisance in an Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Beniamino; Manica, Mattia; D'Alessandro, Antonello; Bottà, Giordano; Filipponi, Federico; Protano, Carmela; Vitali, Matteo; Rosà, Roberto; Della Torre, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal-long larvicide treatments and/or outdoor space-spray applications of insecticides are frequently applied to reduce Aedes albopictus nuisance in urban areas of temperate regions, where the species has become a permanent pest affecting people's quality of life and health. However, assessments of the effectiveness of sequential interventions is a difficult task, as it requires to take into account the cumulative and combined effect of multiple treatments, as well as the mosquito seasonal dynamics (rather than mosquito abundance before and after single treatments). We here present the results of the effectiveness assessment of a seasonal-long calendar-based control intervention integrating larvicide treatments of street catch basins and night-time adulticide ground spraying in the main University hospital in Rome (Italy). Cage-experiments and an intensive monitoring of wild mosquito abundance in treated and untreated sites were carried out along an entire season. Sticky traps were used to monitor adult abundance and site-specific eco-climatic variations (by recording water left over in each trap), in order to disentangle the effect of insecticide treatments from eco-climatic drivers on mosquito seasonal dynamics. Despite the apparent limited impact of single adulticide sprayings assessed based on mortality in caged and wild mosquitoes, the results of the temporal analysis showed that mosquito seasonal patterns were initially comparable in the two sites, diverged in the absence of diverging eco-climatic conditions and remained stable afterwards. This allowed to attribute the lack of the expected Ae. albopictus population expansion in the treated site to the combined effect of multiple adulticide sprayings and larvicide treatments carried out during the whole season. The approach proposed was proved to be successful to assess effects of seasonal-long control treatments on adult mosquito population dynamics and could represent a valuable instrument to assess the

  4. Optimized control strategy for crowbarless solid state modular power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid state modular power supply with series connected IGBT based power modules have been employed as high voltage bias power supply of klystron amplifier. Auxiliary compensation of full wave inverter bridge with ZVS/ZCS operations of all IGBTs over entire operating range is incorporated. An optimized control strategy has been adopted for this power supply needing no output filter, making this scheme crowbarless and is presented in this paper. DSP based fully digital control with same duty cycle for all power modules, have been incorporated for regulating this power supply along with adequate protection features. Input to this power supply is taken directly from 11 kV line and the input system is intentionally made 24 pulsed to reduce the input harmonics, improve the input power factor significantly, there by requiring no line filters. Various steps have been taken to increase the efficiency of major subsystems, so as to improve the overall efficiency of this power supply significantly. (author)

  5. Tabu Search Based Strategies for Conformational Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Svetlana; Engels, Bernd

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an application of the new nonlinear global optimization routine gradient only tabu search (GOTS) to conformational search problems. It is based on the tabu search strategy which tries to determine the global minimum of a function by the steepest descent-modest ascent strategy. The refinement of ranking procedure of the original GOTS method and the exploitation of simulated annealing elements are described, and the modifications of the GOTS algorithm necessary to adopt it to conformation searches are explained. The utility of the GOTS for conformational search problems is tested using various examples.

  6. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Han

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications.

  7. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  8. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  11. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  12. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the State to provide for the establishment and maintenance of... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.582 Control strategy: Ozone. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  14. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C....

  15. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  16. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. (a... requirements of sections 172(c)(9) and 182(c)(9) of the Clean Air Act, for the Greater Hartford serious...

  17. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy:...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  2. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.724 Section 52.724 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy:...

  3. 40 CFR 52.795 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.795 Section 52.795 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.795 Control strategy:...

  4. 40 CFR 52.928 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.928 Section 52.928 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.928 Control strategy:...

  5. 40 CFR 52.527 - Control strategy: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.527 Section 52.527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.527 Control strategy: General....

  6. 40 CFR 52.834 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.834 Section 52.834 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Iowa § 52.834 Control strategy: Sulfur...

  7. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.573 Section 52.573 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy:...

  8. 40 CFR 52.728 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.728 Section 52.728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.728 Control strategy:...

  9. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen... using to implement provisions of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration regulations for...

  10. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a)...

  11. Strategies for reward-based crowdfunding campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Richter, Christian; Brem, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding represents an alternative way of funding entrepreneurial ventures – and is attracting a high amount of interest in research as well as practice. Against this back- ground, this paper analyzes reward-based crowdfunding campaign strategies and their communication tools. To do this, 446...... crowdfunding projects were gathered and empirically analyzed. Three different paths of successful crowdfunding projects could be identified and are described in detail. Practical implications of crowdfunding strategies are derived, and are dependent on the required sales effort and the project added value. The...... terms communicator, networker and self-runner are created for this crowdfunding strategy and filled with practi- cal examples. This paper contributes to the literature in different ways: first, it sheds more light on the developing concept of crowdfunding, with an overview of current academic dis...

  12. Information Feedback Strategies in a Signal Controlled Network with Overlapped Routes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li-Jun; HUANG Hai-Jun; LIU Tian-Liang

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects of four different information feedback strategies on the dynamics of traffic, travel-ers' route choice and the resultant system performance in a signal controlled network with overlapped routes.Simulation results given by the cellular automaton model show that the system purpose-based mean velocity feedback strategy and the congestion coefficient feedback strategy have more advantages in improving network utilization efficiency and reducing travelers' travel times. The travel time feedback strategy and the individual purposed-based mean velocity feedback strategy behave slightly better to ensure user equity.

  13. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  14. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias; Jacobsen, Morten

    using multivariable control strategies for SMISMO control of a single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder, when not taking other measures to improve performance. The paper first presents an experimentally verified model of the system considered, from which a linear model is derived. Based...... on the model, the control strategies are discussed and severalH¥ controllers are designed, for which both simulation and experimental results are presented. The controllers are evaluated with regard to performance and robustness and compared to a simple SISO control. Based on the findings, the...

  15. Two-stage pH control strategy based on the pH preference of acetoin reductase regulates acetoin and 2,3-butanediol distribution in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    Full Text Available Acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (AR/BDH, which catalyzes the interconversion between acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, plays an important role in distribution of the products pools. This work characterized the Bacillus subtilis AR/BDH for the first time. The enzyme showed very different pH preferences of pH 6.5 for reduction and pH 8.5 for oxidation. Based on these above results, a two-stage pH control strategy was optimized for acetoin production, in which the pH was controlled at 6.5 for quickly converting glucose to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, and then 8.0 for reversely transforming 2,3-butanediol to acetoin. By over-expression of AR/BDH in the wild-type B. subtilis JNA 3-10 and applying fed-batch fermentation based on the two-stage pH control strategy, acetoin yield of B. subtilis was improved to a new record of 73.6 g/l, with the productivity of 0.77 g/(l · h. The molar yield of acetoin was improved from 57.5% to 83.5% and the ratio of acetoin/2,3-butanediol was switched from 2.7:1 to 18.0:1.

  16. 仿生六足机器人基于足力分布的位姿调整策略%Posture control strategy based on force distribution for bionic six-legged robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海清; 刘玉斌; 张赫; 陈杰; 赵杰

    2012-01-01

    针对六足机器人非结构化地形稳定步行问题,研究了基于足力分布的位姿调整策略.通过力学分析建立了机器人任意步态模式下的足力分布模型,获得足底受力的平衡关系;采用重心位置调整策略实现了机器人步行过程中的位姿优化,来提高步行稳定性;并且建立了虚拟悬挂模型,采用足力补偿的方法对外界的扰动进行抑制,进一步提高机器人步行的稳定性.通过仿真验证了该调整策略对提高机器人步行稳定裕度的有效性.%This paper proposed a posture control strategy based on force distribution for the purpose of keeping the posture stability of six - legged robot when the robot was walking on irregular terrain. This strategy considered of establishing the force distribution model on any gait patterns to obtain the balance relationship of plantar forces, and adjusted COG (center of gravity) to achieve optimal posture control. Applied force compensation on the basis of a virtual suspension model to achieve disturbance rejection. This strategy could effectively improve the walking stability of robot on irregular terrain. Adams simulations verified the effectiveness of the control strategy to improve the robot walking stability margin.

  17. Cell-based strategies for vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tongqiang; Fan, Jiabing; Fartash, Armita; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Vascular regeneration is known to play an essential role in the repair of injured tissues mainly through accelerating the repair of vascular injury caused by vascular diseases, as well as the recovery of ischemic tissues. However, the clinical vascular regeneration is still challenging. Cell-based therapy is thought to be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration, since various cells have been identified to exert important influences on the process of vascular regeneration such as the enhanced endothelium formation on the surface of vascular grafts, and the induction of vessel-like network formation in the ischemic tissues. Here are a vast number of diverse cell-based strategies that have been extensively studied in vascular regeneration. These strategies can be further classified into three main categories, including cell transplantation, construction of tissue-engineered grafts, and surface modification of scaffolds. Cells used in these strategies mainly refer to terminally differentiated vascular cells, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the reported research advances on the application of various cells for vascular regeneration, yielding insights into future clinical treatment for injured tissue/organ. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1297-1314, 2016. PMID:26864677

  18. Storage Management Strategy of Flash-Based Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taiyong; ZHAO Li; HU Shiguang; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Storage management strategy can be expressed by a file system. Commercial file system for embedded application is generally complicated and resource wasted. In this paper, a specified file system adapted to embedded system with flash-based memory is developed. To guarantee the average usage of flash storage sectors, the strategy of wear leveling and adaptive damage management is introduced, in which a dynamic storage space management mode and the strategy of first in first out (FIFO) are adopted. Moreover, the strategy of redundancy design and fast-calculation and tracing is also adopted to extend the life of kernel sector, which can guarantee the reliable ser-vice of system booting. The practical application in an embedded CNC (computerized numerical control) platform proves that the file system has effective performance. Furthermore, the flash file system can be transplanted to dif-ferent embedded platforms by changing a few bottom hardware parameters with universality.

  19. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  20. Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultracapacitors (UCs, with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy storage system (ESS based on ultracapacitors in the context of grid-connected microgrids. The ESS is composed of DC/AC and DC/DC converters tied by a dc link. An improved dynamic model for the ESS is proposed. Based on the proposed model a Proportional-Integral-Resonant (PIR DC link voltage controller is proposed to maintain the DC link voltage through the charging-discharging control of ultracapacitors, capable of working properly under all operating conditions. An extra double frequency component is injected into the UC current by a R controller to dynamically compensate for DC instantaneous power and double frequency AC instantaneous power due to unbalanced grid conditions and disturbances. This feature maintains the DC link voltage constant under unbalanced conditions and increases the degrees of freedom of the DC/AC converter and thus facilitates the application of UCs in microgrids. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. Research of the Optimal Automatic Generation Control Strategy of Interconnected Power Grid Based on CPS Standard%基于CPS标准的互联电网最优自动发电控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田启东; 翁毅选

    2015-01-01

    研究了考虑CPS的互联电网自动发电控制问题,提出了基于CPS和最优动态闭环控制的自动发电控制策略,在区域间互联电网中建立自动发电控制状态空间数学模型,采用了外点罚函数法进行目标函数的求解,并计及了CPS的新动态性能指标.与传统A标准下的PI控制策略相比,文中提出的方法考虑了区域控制偏差对系统频率恢复的贡献,明显地提高了CPS考核指标,降低了AGC机组的调节次数,减少了发电成本.同时,结合了最优化控制的良好的内部感知能力和动态适应性的优点.通过仿真分析,并与传统的控制策略相比较,结果表明文中提出的控制策略具有更优异的动态特性和更好的调节性能.%This paper studies the automatic generation control of the interconnected power grid considering CPS,and puts forward an automatic generation control strategy based on the CPS standard and optimal dynamic closed-loop control. It establishes the state space mathematic model of the automatic generation control of a two-region power grid,and introduces a new dynamic performance index which takes CPS into account and uses the outer point penalty function method to solve the objective function. Compared with the traditional PI control strategy based on A standard,the proposed method in the paper considers the contribution of ACE for frequency recovery,and obviously improves the CPS Assessment index,and reduces the number of regulation orders of AGC units and the cost of power generation. It combines the good internal perception and dynamic adaptability advantages of optimal control. Through simulation analysis,compared with conventional control stra-tegy,the proposed control strategy has more excellent dynamic characteristics and better regulation performance.

  2. A power quality composite control strategy based on large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power generation%光伏规模化并网的电能质量复合控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬冬; 吴在军; 窦晓波; 莫熙; 赵波

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the potential benefits of the structure and function of grid connected inverters and integrate the function of filtering and reactive power compensation into PV power plant inverters, while achieving multi-function reusing, such as active grid, harmonic suppression, reactive power compensation and voltage compensation. After researching the controlling strategies of inverter and power quality characteristics and controlling methods, the topology of PV power plant is improved, based on which the reactive power allocation strategy of dynamic stability margin of inverter is proposed, and the controlling strategy of shunt connected inverter and series connected inverter are researched in detail. The use of the controlling strategy mentioned above effectively implements the power quality complex governance of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic, and the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed controlling strategy is verified by PSCAD/EMTDC.%为了充分发挥并网逆变器结构及功能上的潜在优势,研究将滤波及无功补偿功能融入光伏电站逆变器中,同时实现有功并网、谐波抑制、无功补偿及电压补偿等多功能复用。在研究了逆变器控制策略以及微电网电能质量特性和控制方法后,对光伏电站拓扑结构进行了改进。在此基础上提出了一种基于逆变器动态剩余容量的无功分配策略,对并联逆变器和串联逆变器的控制策略进行详细讨论。运用该控制策略有效地实现了光伏规模化并网的电能质量复合治理,并用PSCAD/EMTDC软件通过实例仿真验证了控制策略的正确性和有效性。

  3. Identifying main drivers and testing control strategies for CCHFV spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, T; Breton, E; Josse, M; Deniz, A; Guven, E; Vatansever, Z

    2016-03-01

    Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is an emerging zoonotic disease. The causative agent is a virus (CCHFV), mainly transmitted by ticks of the species Hyalomma marginatum in Eastern Europe and Turkey. In order to test potential scenarios for the control of pathogen spread, the basic reproduction number (R0) for CCHF was calculated. This calculation was based on a population dynamics model and parameter values from the literature for pathogen transmission. The tick population dynamics model takes into account the major processes involved and gives estimates for tick survival from one stage to the other and number of feeding ticks. It also considers the influence of abiotic (meteorological variables) and biotic factors (host densities) on model outputs, which were compared with data collected in Central Anatolia (Turkey). R0 computation was thereafter used to test control strategies and especially the effect of acaricide treatment. Simulation results indicate that such treatments could have valuable effects provided that the acaricide is applied regularly throughout the spring and summer, and over several years. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis to abiotic and biotic factors showed that, even though temperature has a strong impact on model outputs, host (mainly hare) densities also play a role. The kind of model we have developed provides insight into the ability of different strategies to prevent and control disease spread and has proved its relevance when associated with field trials. PMID:26174420

  4. Sequential search strategies based on kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript has been written to obtain the French Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches. It is not intended to provide new academic results nor should it be considered as a reference textbook. Instead, this manuscript is a brief (and incomplete) summary of my teaching and research activities. You will find in this manuscript a compilation of some articles in which I had a significant contribution, together with some introductory paragraphs about sequential search strategies based on krigi...

  5. Strategies for reward-based crowdfunding campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Sascha; Richter, Christian; Brem, Alexander; Chang, M.-L.; Cheng, C. -F.

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding represents an alternative way of funding entrepreneurial ventures – and is attracting a high amount of interest in research as well as practice. Against this back- ground, this paper analyzes reward-based crowdfunding campaign strategies and their communication tools. To do this, 446 crowdfunding projects were gathered and empirically analyzed. Three different paths of successful crowdfunding projects could be identified and are described in detail. Practical implications of crow...

  6. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Mikułowski; Łukasz Jankowski

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG) capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~va...

  7. A strategy for cancer control in Ireland / National Cancer Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health and Children

    2006-01-01

    To address the rapidly rising burden of cancer, this second National Cancer Strategy A Strategy for Cancer Control in Ireland 2006 advocates a comprehensive cancer control policy programme. Cancer control is a whole population, integrated and cohesive approach to cancer that involves prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and supportive and palliative care. It places a major emphasis on measurement of need and on addressing inequalities and implies that we must focus on ensuring that al...

  8. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  9. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arbula

    Full Text Available Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs, could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning.

  10. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  11. A controllable stitch layout strategy for random needle embroidery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Zheng-xing SUN; Ke-wei YANG

    2014-01-01

    Random needle embroidery (RNE) is a graceful art enrolled in the world intangible cultural heritage. In this paper, we study the stitch layout problem and propose a controllable stitch layout strategy for RNE. Using our method, a user can easily change the layout styles by adjusting several high-level layout parameters. This approach has three main features:firstly, a stitch layout rule containing low-level stitch attributes and high-level layout parameters is designed;secondly, a stitch neighborhood graph is built for each region to model the spatial relationship among stitches;thirdly, different stitch attributes (orientations, lengths, and colors) are controlled using different reaction-diffusion processes based on a stitch neighborhood graph. Moreover, our method supports the user in changing the stitch orientation layout by drawing guide curves interactively. The experimental results show its capability for reflecting various stitch layout styles and flexibility for user interaction.

  12. Strategy for ecologic control in fighting Varroa destructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasite Varroa destructor is one of the most wide-spread parasites of the honey bee, which is increasing its resistence to traditional synthetic acaricides more and more with each year. New regulations on quality of the European Union ban the presence of residue in bee products, which rules out the use of chemical means in the course of the honey harvest. The concept of ecologic control of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies implies the complementary use of adequate biotechnical and biophysical measures and treatments using preparations based on etheric oils and organic acids. The combination of these treatments according to the presented strategy makes it possible to keep varroasis under control.

  13. A modified probing feeding strategy: control aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Velut, Stéphane; de Maré, Lena; Hagander, Per

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a fermentation technique, which combines the advantages of the probing feeding strategy and the temperature limited fed-batch technique. The early phase of the cultivation is run under glucose limited conditions by using the original probing technique. When the maximum oxygen transfer capacity of the reactor is reached, the temperature is decreased to lower the oxygen demand. A slight glucose excess, achieved by downwards probing pulses, guarantees that thetemperature is th...

  14. Risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The Configuration Control; The Risk-based Configuration Control (during power operation mode, and during shutdown mode). PSA requirements. Use of Risk-based Configuration Control System. Configuration Management (basic elements, benefits, information requirements)

  15. Strategy optimization for controlled Markov process with descriptive complexity constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA QingShan; ZHAO QianChuan

    2009-01-01

    Due to various advantages in storage and Implementation,simple strategies are usually preferred than complex strategies when the performances are close.Strategy optimization for controlled Markov process with descriptive complexity constraint provides a general framework for many such problems.In this paper,we first show by examples that the descriptive complexity and the performance of a strategy could be Independent,and use the F-matrix in the No-Free-Lunch Theorem to show the risk that approximating complex strategies may lead to simple strategies that are unboundedly worse in cardinal performance than the original complex strategies.We then develop a method that handles the descriptive complexity constraint directly,which describes simple strategies exactly and only approximates complex strategies during the optimization.The ordinal performance difference between the resulting strategies of this selective approximation method and the global optimum is quantified.Numerical examples on an engine maintenance problem show how this method Improves the solution quality.We hope this work sheds some insights to solving general strategy optimization for controlled Markov procase with descriptive complexity constraint.

  16. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping with a...... simple flux observer is used in the design. Assuming known motor parameters the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. It is also shown how a conventional field oriented controller may be obtained by omitting parts of the nonlinear controller....

  17. An innovative strategy for open loop control of hot deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, J. C.; Irwin, R. D.; Grandhi, R. V.

    1993-10-01

    A new strategy for systematically calculating near optimal control parameters for hot deformation processes is presented in this article. This approach is based on modern control theory and involves deriving state-space models directly from available material behavior and hot deformation process models. Two basic stages of analysis and optimization are established in this strategy for nonlinear, open loop control system design for producing required microstructural characteristics, uniformity of deformation and temperature distribution, and other important physical requirements of hot worked products.

  18. Interdependency of Culture, Strategy and Management Control Systems in an R&D Context

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarstrand, Linus; Hedberg, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Organisational culture, strategy and management control systems have all been subjects of much discussion and many books and papers have been written on these topics. What is less well-established is how they interact with and influence one another, the investigation of which is the purpose of this thesis. Based on previous research, the authors develop a theoretical model based on aspects of organisational culture, strategy formulations and management control systems. This model is tested wi...

  19. Advanced Control Strategy for Single-Phase Voltage-Source Active Rectifier with Low Harmonic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahník, Vojtĕch; Peroutka, Zdenĕk; Talla, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces the advanced control of single-phase voltage-source active rectifier. This control provide direct control of trolley-wire current and active damping of low-frequency disturbances at the converter ac side. Our proposed control strategy combines PR controller with feed-forward model and low-frequency harmonic compensator based on resonant controllers. Achieved experimental results show excellent converter behavior, where converter is fed by strongly distorted supply voltage.

  20. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areewan Kajorndech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system in order to improve reliability and save energy costs by determining an optimal charging schedule of the energy storage system. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of energy storage system applications under the different control strategies.

  1. Comparison among nonlinear excitation control strategies used for damping power system oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A description and comparison of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generators are presented. ► Advantages of using nonlinear controllers are emphasized against the use of classical PSSs. ► We find that a particular selection of IDA gains achieve the same performance that FL controllers. - Abstract: This work is focused on the problem of power system stability. A thorough description of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generator excitation, which are designed for damping oscillations and improving transient stability on power systems, is presented along with a detailed comparison among these modern strategies and current solutions based on power system stabilizers. The performance related to damping injection in each controller, critical time enhancement, robustness against parametric uncertainties, and control signal energy consumption is analyzed. Several tests are presented to validate discussions on various advantages and disadvantages of each control strategy.

  2. Model Based Predictive Control of a Fully Parallel Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas, Oscar Andrès; Poignet, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with an efficient application of a model based predictive control in parallel machines. A receding horizon control strategy based on a simplified dynamic model is implemented. Experimental results are shown for the H4 robot, a fully parallel structure providing 3 degrees of freedom (dof) in translation and 1 dof in rotation. The model based predictive control and the commonly used computed torque control strategies are compared. The tracking performances and the robustness wi...

  3. Control strategies and experimental verifications of the electromagnetic mass damper system for structural vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chunwei; Ou Jinping

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic mass damper (EMD) control system, as an innovative active control system to reducestructural vibration, offers many advantages over traditional active mass driver/damper (AMD) control systems. In this paper,studies of several EMD control strategies and bench-scale shaking table tests of a two-story model structure are described.First, two structural models corresponding to uncontrolled and Zeroed cases are developed, and parameters of these modelsare validated through sinusoidal sweep tests to provide a basis for establishing an accurate mathematical model for furtherstudies. Then, a simplified control strategy for the EMD system based on the pole assignment control algorithm is proposed.Moreover, ideal pole locations are derived and validated through a series of shaking table tests. Finally, three benchmarkearthquake ground motions and sinusoidal sweep waves are imposed onto the structure to investigate the effectiveness andfeasibility of using this type of innovative active control system for structural vibration control. In addition, the robustnessof the EMD system is examined. The test results show that the EMD system is an effective and robust system for the controlof structural vibrations.

  4. The Modeling Strategies for Open Software Architecture of Robot Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although the modeling technologies for open robot controllers have been discussed widely, not much literature is devoted to the actual general modeling principles and strategies. The reason is that many researches focus on specific application fields. This paper accommodates for this lacuna and provides some general modeling principles and strategies. At last, the actual new modeling method -Hierarchical Object-Oriented Petri net (HOONet) which has been proved to be an effective modeling methodology, is used to illustrate the modeling strategies.

  5. Reducing Emergency Department Crowding: Evidence Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Zabani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding has become a major barrier to receiving timely care. King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Saudi Arabia worked on identifying evidence based strategies for reducing the ED crowding by improving the intake. In addition to a review of literature, qualitative survey methods were used to identify strategies, which were classified into 10 suggested procedures categorized into three types of changes. Physical improvements include using physician cubicles, creating a team triage area and an internal waiting area for less acute patients instead of occupying beds. Technology improvements; include using informatics to update the electronic emergency record with information, using palmar scanning to instantly identify patients and using radio communication devices. Process improvements; include a scribe program to decrease clerical documentation tasks, switching between low flow and high flow processes, placing a physician in triage and using patient segmentation methods. PMID:27350468

  6. Preschool Power Play: Resource Control Strategies Associated with Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber R. Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This exploratory study uses a multimethod approach to examine the relationship between social strategy usage and overall health in preschool children. Methods. Children's temperament, social strategies, and health assessments were obtained via reported behavior from parents and teachers. In addition, children's use of prosocial and coercive strategies was observed and recorded via one-way windows in the preschool facility. Results. Results revealed that the temperament characteristic of effortful control was related to the observed use of coercive strategies and that coercive strategies were not observed by teachers, who viewed these children as primarily prosocial. The reported use of both coercive and prosocial strategies was also related to decrease in illness. Conclusion. These findings in relation to previous work suggest that using both prosocial and coercive strategies can elevate status as well as maintain health even in young children.

  7. Multicriteria Evaluation of Classical Swine Fever Control Strategies Using the Choquet Integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, J; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2016-02-01

    An outbreak of the highly contagious animal disease classical swine fever (CSF) requires the selection of an optimal control strategy. The choice of a control strategy is a decision process depending on different aspects. Besides epidemiology, economic and ethical/social aspects must be taken into account. In this study, multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) was used to evaluate six control strategies for two regions with different farm densities. A strategy including only the minimum EU control measures and the traditional control strategy based on preventive culling were compared to alternative control strategies using emergency vaccination and/or rapid PCR testing ('emergency vaccination', 'test to slaughter', 'test to control' and 'vaccination in conjunction with rapid testing'). The MACBETH approach was used in order to assess the three main criteria (epidemiology, economics and ethical/social aspects). Subcriteria with both quantitative and qualitative performance levels were translated into a normalized scale. The Choquet integral approach was adopted to obtain a ranking of the six CSF control strategies based on the three main criteria, taking interactions into account. Three different rankings of the importance of the main criteria, which were to reflect the potential perceptions of stakeholders, were examined. Both the region under investigation and the ranking of the main criteria had an influence on the 'best' choice. Alternative control strategies were favourable to the minimum EU control and the traditional control measures independent of the farm density. Because the choice of the 'best' control strategy does not solely depend on the epidemiological efficiency, MCDM can help to find the best solution. Both MACBETH and the Choquet integral approach are feasible MCDM approaches. MACBETH only needs a qualitative evaluation and is therefore a comparatively intuitive approach. The Choquet integral does not only take the importance of the criteria into

  8. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  9. Advanced Control Strategies for Mobile Hydraulic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cristofori, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Mobile hydraulic machines are affected by numerous undesired dynamics, mainly discontinuous motion and vibrations. Over the years, many methods have been developed to limit the extent of those undesired dynamics and improve controllability and safety of operation of the machine. However, in most of the cases, today's methods do not significantly differ from those developed in a time when electronic controllers were slower and less reliable than they are today. This dissertation addresses t...

  10. Control Strategies for Machining with Industrial Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Sörnmo, Olof

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents methods for improving machining with industrial robots using control, with focus on increasing positioning accuracy and controlling feed rate. The strong process forces arising during high-speed machining operations, combined with the limited stiffness of industrial robots, have hampered the usage of industrial robots in high-end machining tasks. However, since such manipulators may offer flexible and cost-effective machining solutions compared to conventional machine ...

  11. Strategies for controlling acid rain: economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two competing approaches to reducing pollution such as the acid rain precursors SOsub(2) and NOsub(x). In the command and control approach, pollution control legislation may dictate the technological method by which specified pollution reductions are to be achieved. A key feature of command-and-control regulations is their inflexibility. The alternative approach relies on market mechanisms and incentives to induce firms to reduce pollution voluntarily. Economists generally prefer this approach because it permits flexibility for firms in selecting abatement methods to minimize costs. This chapter deals with qualitative issues in determining and achieving an ''optimal'' pollution level using various taxes, subsidies or quantitative restrictions. Alternative permit schemes for achieving regional pollution control are considered. Statistical studies are discussed which compare the command-and-control approach with the economic incentives approach and show that there are substantial cost differences between them in most cases. Finally, some institutional factors, that may lead to more costly acid rain control schemes being selected, are examined. A list of 61 references is appended. (UK)

  12. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...) and 182(c)(2)(B) of the Clean Air Act for the Springfield, Massachusetts serious ozone...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard and that the reasonable further progress and...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental... Island has committed to year round carbon monoxide monitoring at the East Providence...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1486 - Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. 52.1486 Section 52.1486 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Hydrocarbons and ozone. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2575 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2575 Section 52.2575 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) Part D—Approval—With the exceptions set forth in this subpart,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2525 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52.2525 Section 52.2525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Sulfur dioxide. (a) The provisions of § 51.112(a) are not met because the State did...

  3. Control Strategy for Microgrid Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Zhang, X.; Geng, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    frame control strategy is proposed. It has a simple control structure due to no need of a phase-locked loop and voltage/current positive/negative sequence extraction calculation. The coordinate control of power and current quality is achieved, which enhances the operation performance of microgrid...

  4. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  5. Chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control strategy for uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control (FSMC) strategy for uncertain chaotic systems. A fuzzy logic control is used to replace the discontinuous sign function of the reaching law in traditional sliding-mode control (SMC), and hence a control input without chattering is obtained in the chaotic systems with uncertainties. Base on the Lyapunov stability theory, we address the design schemes of integration fuzzy sliding-mode control, where the reaching law is proposed by a set of linguistic rules and the control input is chattering free. The Genesio chaotic system is used to test the proposed control strategy and the simulation results show the FSMC not only can control the uncertain chaotic behaviors to a desired state without oscillator very fast, but also the switching function is smooth without chattering. This result implies that this strategy is feasible and effective for chaos control

  6. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  7. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s.

  8. A Novel Hybrid Safety-control Strategy for a Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As robots tend to work cooperatively with humans in shared workplaces, safety as regards robot- human interactions has caused a great deal of concern in the robot community, and control strategies have become a hot topic in robotics research. In order to guarantee the robot’s safety and continuous motions, this paper proposes a novel safety-control strategy, which is strictly conservative and which consists of a pre-contact and post-contact safety strategy. We adopt an optimal motion trajectory-planning method, by use of which the jerk, acceleration and velocity of the robot’s motion can be limited and a time-optimal motion can be obtained as a post-contact safety strategy for a position-controlled manipulator. The optimal motion trajectory planning not only reduces the impact forces during the collision period, but also maintains the efficiency of the manipulator and preserves continuous motions. Next, we describe a novel collision detection method as a pre-contact safety strategy to avoid collisions. The method proposed here can compute security warning region to handle the effect of robot motion on collision detection and detect collisions between non-convex polygon soups. Finally, the control strategy is implemented for a 7-DOF humanoid manipulator and the experimental results demonstrate the validity of this novel hybrid safety-control strategy.

  9. Modelling 3D control of upright stance using an optimal control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingda; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2012-01-01

    A 3D balance control model of quiet upright stance is presented, based on an optimal control strategy, and evaluated in terms of its ability to simulate postural sway in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The human body was represented as a two-segment inverted pendulum. Several assumptions were made to linearise body dynamics, for example, that there was no transverse rotation during upright stance. The neural controller was presumed to be an optimal controller that generates ankle control torque and hip control torque according to certain performance criteria. An optimisation procedure was used to determine the values of unspecified model parameters including random disturbance gains and sensory delay times. This model was used to simulate postural sway behaviours characterised by centre-of-pressure (COP)-based measures. Confidence intervals for all normalised COP-based measures contained unity, indicating no significant differences between any of the simulated COP-based measures and corresponding experimental references. In addition, mean normalised errors for the traditional measures were 3D balance control model appears to have the ability to accurately simulate 3D postural sway behaviours. PMID:21598131

  10. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  11. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areewan Kajorndech; Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system ...

  12. Base-of-the-pyramid global strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boşcor, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global strategies for MNCs should focus on customers in emerging and developing markets instead of customers in developed economies. The “base-of-the-pyramid segment” comprises 4 billion people in the world. In order to be successful, companies will be required to form unconventional partnerships- with entities ranging from local governments to non-profit organizations - to gain the community’s trust and understand the environmental, infrastructure and political issues that may affect business. Being able to provide affordable, high-quality products and services in this market segment often means new approaches to marketing- new packaging and pricing structures, and using unfamiliar distribution structures.

  13. A new semi-active safety control strategy for high-speed railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Xu, Zhengguo; Sun, Youxian

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the safety of railway vehicles. A new semi-active control strategy is proposed based on the skyhook control theory. In view of the main railway vehicle safety performance indicators, the new control strategy aims at reducing the derailment coefficient of railway vehicles by restraining the lateral vibrations of the bogie and the wheelset. Furthermore, to evaluate the improvement of the safety performance brought about by the new control strategy, a complete railway vehicle model is established using the ADAMS/Rail software package. In further co-simulations, five conventional control methods are compared with the proposed approach under the same conditions. Co-simulation results indicate that the new control strategy is effective in improving the safety performance of railway vehicles.

  14. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  15. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  16. Adaptive control strategies for cooperative dual-arm manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative dual-arm robots are discussed. Implementation of these adaptive controllers does not require the use of complex mathematical models of the arm dynamics or knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or load parameters. These strategies have simple structures, and are computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates. In all three cases, the coupling effects between the arms through the load are treated as disturbances which are rejected by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. Simulation results demonstrate the usefulness of the controllers.

  17. A Comparative Study between Two Control Strategies for Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDIABDELLAH, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare two control strategies for direct AC-AC matrix converters; namely the Venturini method and the scalar strategy control method. The performance comparison of the two strategies is made under unbalanced distorted torque, rotor speed and stator current operation. The simulation of the three-phase matrix converter feeding an induction motor was accomplished by means of the Matlab/Simulink software. This package makes it possible to simulate the dynamic systems in a simple way and in graphic environment.

  18. A Novel Hybrid Safety-control Strategy for a Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Xia; Zainan Jiang; Hong Liu; Hegao Cai; Guangxin Wu

    2014-01-01

    As robots tend to work cooperatively with humans in shared workplaces, safety as regards robot- human interactions has caused a great deal of concern in the robot community, and control strategies have become a hot topic in robotics research. In order to guarantee the robot’s safety and continuous motions, this paper proposes a novel safety-control strategy, which is strictly conservative and which consists of a pre-contact and post-contact safety strategy. We adopt an optimal motion trajecto...

  19. Unique strategies to control reproduction in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Morton, K M; Billah, M

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive efficiency of camels is low under natural pastural conditions and so the use of artifical insemination and embryo transfer are becoming increasingly important to improve their breeding potential. Methods to control their reproductive cycle are therefore essential. This review describes characteristics of the ovarian follicular wave pattern in camels and exogenous hormonal control of ovulation. It also summarizes the difficulties involved with artifical insemination and analyzing the highly gelatinous semen, and reports on the latest methods used to try and reduce the viscosity and liquefy camel semen. In addition an account is given of different hormonal and physical methods used to synchronise follicular waves, and various hormone treatments used to broaden the availability of ovulated, asynchronous and non-ovulated recipients are discussed. PMID:21755692

  20. Integrating Strategy-Making through Interactive Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Sax, Johanna; Juul Andersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Strategic responses to complex and frequent environmental changes must balance the tension between innovative opportunistic search and optimization of operating processes. The ability to survive and thrive depends on an ability to facilitate dispersed exploratory initiatives, test their commercial viability, and exploit the associated business opportunities. However, dispersion of authority requires coordination as well as empowerment calls for extended controls. Hence, there is a tension bet...

  1. Flight penetration of wind shear: Control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amit S.

    1988-01-01

    Wind shear is a dangerous condition where there is a sharp change in the direction and magnitude of the wind velocity over a short distance or time. This condition is especially dangerous to aircraft during landing and takeoff and can cause a sudden loss of lift and thereby height at a critical time. A numerical simulation showed the effective performance of the Linear Quadratic Regulator and the Nonlinear Inverse Dynamics controllers. The major conclusions are listed and discussed.

  2. A control strategy for a three-level unified power quality conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Luís F. C.; Costa, José C. C.; Aredes, Maurício; Afonso, João L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a control strategy for a three-level Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is introduced. Basically, this control strategy is based on the set of active and non-active (reactive) power definitions in the time domain, which have been proposed by Fryze in the 30´s of the last century. The goal of this work consists in expand this control strategy to deal with three-level converters. The use of three-level converters allows a better performance of the equipment, by reducing...

  3. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmano Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  4. Application of Control Strategy Based on the Fluid Mechanics Principle to the Air Distribution Control of Industry Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler%基于流体力学的工业煤粉锅炉配风控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻林

    2014-01-01

    文章以中小型工业煤粉锅炉的配风控制为例,应用了以流体力学原理为基础的配风控制策略,同时结合反馈信号,有效减少锅炉震荡调整时间,使锅炉尽快进入稳定燃烧状态,有效地提高了锅炉的安全性和稳定性,进一步提高工业煤粉锅炉的自动化控制水平。%the control strategy is the core of control system, the control strategy can directly influence the in⁃dustrial equipment in operation safety, stable and efficient. The control system is mostly through the feed⁃back signal as a control strategy decision, and the lag of feedback signal, often causes the device to run shocks to adjust time is too long, and even lead to equipment downtime or safety accident. Based on small and medium-sized industrial pulverized coal boiler air distribution control as an example, the application of the air distribution control strategy based on fluid mechanics principle as the foundation, and combining with the feedback signal, effectively reduce boiler shocks to adjust time, make the boiler as soon as possible into the steady combustion state, effectively improve the boiler's safety and stability, further improve the automa⁃tion of industrial coal the boiler level control.

  5. Innovation in Active Vibration Control Strategy of Intelligent Structures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moutsopoulou; G. E. Stavroulakis; Pouliezos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper ...

  6. Study of fuel control strategy based on an fuel behavior model for starting conditions; Nenryo kyodo model ni motozuita shidoji no nenryo hosei hosho ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Uchida, M.; Iwano, H.; Oba, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have applied a fuel behavior model to a fuel injection system which we call SOFIS (Sophisticated and Optimized Fuel Injection System) so that we get air/fuel ratio control accuracy and good driveability. However the fuel behavior under starting conditions is still not clear. To meet low emission rules and to get better driveability under starting conditions, better air/fuel ratio control is necessary. Now we have understood the ignition timing, injection timing, and injection pulse width required in such conditions. In former days, we analyzed the state of the air/fuel mixture under cold conditions and made a new fuel behavior model which considered fuel loss such as hydrocarbons and dissolution into oil and so on. Al this time, we have applied this idea to starting. We confirm this new model offers improved air/fuel ratio control. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Turbine Control Strategies for Wind Farm Power Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    wind farms. One way of achieving these goals is to optimize the power generated by a wind farm. One optimization method is to choose appropriate operating points for the individual wind turbines in the farm. We have made three models of a wind farm based on three difference control strategies...... generated power by changing the power reference of the individual wind turbines. We use the optimization setup to compare power production of the wind farm models. This paper shows that for the most frequent wind velocities (below and around the rated values), the generated powers of the wind farms are......In recent decades there has been increasing interest in green energies, of which wind energy is the most important one. In order to improve the competitiveness of the wind power plants, there are ongoing researches to decrease cost per energy unit and increase the efficiency of wind turbines and...

  8. 基于改进经济压差的特高压电网无功电压控制策略%Reactive Power and Voltage Control Strategy for UHVAC Power Grid Based on Improved Economic Voltage Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓骏; 陈会员; 姚淑玲; 田华; 李晶; 罗红梅; 王一振

    2013-01-01

    According to present situation of voltage and reactive power control of UHVAC power grid,an improved economic voltage difference-based reactive power and voltage control strategy is proposed.Through real-time coordinative control of conventional reactive power compensator at low voltage side and dynamic reactive power compensation in 500kV power network,real-time balance of reactive power and voltage in UHVAC power grid can be implemented,and the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified by simulation results of actual power grid.Implementation of the proposed control strategy can evidently decrease the switching operation times and reduce failure rate of power equipments; the reactive power loss of power transformers can be further reduced and economic benefit of UHVAC power grid operation can be improved; besides,the bus voltage fluctuation caused by power fluctuation of tie lines can be well suppressed,thus a better voltage quality can be attained.%针对特高压电网电压无功控制现状及问题,提出了改进的经济压差无功控制策略,通过实时协调控制低压侧常规无功补偿与500 kV电网动态无功补偿,可实现特高压电网无功电力实时平衡,实际电网数字仿真证明了该策略的有效性和可行性.该策略的实施,可大幅降低常规无功补偿设备的投切操作频率,降低设备损坏率;可进一步降低变压器无功损耗,提升运行经济效益;同时对联络线功率波动引起的母线电压波动也有较好的抑制效果,可实现更好的电压质量.

  9. 基于优先顺序法的风电场限出力有功控制策略%Priority List-Based Output-Restricted Active Power Control Strategy for Wind Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俐; 谢永俊; 朱晨宸; 汪宁渤

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid increase of grid-integrated capacity of wind farms, wind farms should possess the adjusting ability of active power that can control active power output of wind farm according to the command from control center of power grid. Combining with actual requirement for active power control system of clustered wind farms in Jiuquan wind power base in Gansu province, China, taking the utilization of wind energy farthest and the prevention of frequent start/stop of wind power generators as the objectives and based on classical priority list method, an output-restricted active power control strategy for wind farms composed of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power generators is proposed. To meet the demand on output-restricted control for wind farms, an active power control frame in the level of wind farm and corresponding output-restricted control process are designed. Overall considering the prediction information, operating conditions and control characteristics of wind power generation units within wind farms, an output-restricted active power control sequence for wind farms, in which the indices of control performances of wind power generation units are taken as the index for rank ordering, is established, and then, based on the control sequence the method to allocate output-restricted active power is given. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified by the calculation of a wind farm composed of 33 doubly fed induction generators.%  随着风电并网容量的增加,风电场应具备有功功率调节能力,能根据电网调度部门指令控制其有功功率输出。结合甘肃酒泉风电基地集群风电有功控制系统的实际需要,以实现最大风能利用、避免风电场频繁起停为目标,基于经典优先顺序法提出了一种应用于变速恒频风电场的限出力有功控制策略。针对风电场限出力控制需要,设计了风电场层有功

  10. MARKETING STRATEGIES BASED ON THE BUYING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    LIVIU NEAMŢU; ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMŢU

    2016-01-01

    In marketing, due to dynamic, rapid and permanent changes known on the market, we will talk more about politics than about strategy, the time horizon covered is much lower than that contained in a classic strategy, with a risk that elements and criteria to which we refer are no longer current. Sales growth strategies are, in fact, combination strategies and consist in the company applying, in its different units, different strategies, according to the requirement of appropriate st...

  11. Direct Torque Control Strategy for Doubly Fed Induction Machine under Low Voltage Dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Madhav Gopala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control strategy of generating a rotor flux amplitude reference for Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM based wind turbines. In addition to that a Direct Torque Control (DTC strategy that provides fast dynamic response accompanies the overall control of the wind turbine. It is specially designed to address perturbations, such as voltage dips, keeping controlled the torque of the wind turbine, considerably reducing the stator and rotor over currents during faults. Despite the fact that the proposed control does not totally eliminate the necessity of the typical crowbar protection for this kind of turbines, it eliminates the activation of this protection during low depth voltage dips.

  12. A new process control strategy for aqueous film coating of pellets in fluidised bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.C.; Sonnergaard, Jørn; Bertelsen, Pernille Scholdan;

    2003-01-01

    controlling factor. The type of pellets affected the maximum spray rate. A thermodynamic model for the coating process is employed throughout the process and not just during steady state. The thermodynamic model is incorporated into a new process control strategy. The process control strategy is based on in......-process calculation of degree of utilisation of the potential evaporation energy (DUE) of the outlet air and the relative outlet air humidity (RH). The spray rate is maximised using set points of DUE and RH as control parameters. The product temperature is controlled simultaneously by regulating the inlet air...

  13. Flow and Pressure Control Strategy Design of SMPT-1000 Boiler Based on S7-400 PLC%基于S7-400PLC的SMPT-1000压力流量控制策略设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学良; 叶志恒; 李聪平

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses SMPT-1000 ( Super Multifunction Process Control Training System ) to simulate the real boiler , and studies the problem of its outlet steam pressure and flow control strategy design .Based on Siemens S7-400 PLC and PCS7 pro-gramming software , by using SCL language fuzzy-PID controller , it shows that the outlet steam pressure and flow can be controlled in the scope of industrial requirements .%用SMPT-1000(高级多功能过程控制实训系统)来模拟真实的锅炉,研究其出口蒸汽压力、流量控制策略设计问题。基于西门子S7-400 PLC和PCS7编程软件,利用SCL语言编写了模糊-PID控制器,控制出口蒸汽压力和流量控制在工业要求的范围之内。

  14. New software rejuvenation strategy based on measurement and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Operational software systems often experience an "aging" phenomenon, characterized by progressive performance degradation and a sudden hang/crash failure. Software rejuvenation is a proactive fault-tolerance strategy aimed to prevent unexpected outages due to aging. A new rejuvenation strategy based on measurement and time, and constructs a SRN model to evaluate this strategy. Numerical results show that this strategy outweighs either the purely measurementbased or the purely time-based strategy and can effectively improve system performance.

  15. Task Allocation Control Strategy in WSN with Multiple Sink Node Based on Ant Colony Algorithm%基于蚁群算法的多Sink节点任务分配控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕立新

    2014-01-01

    该文在多Sink节点并行的网络结构基础上,基于能量熵理论建立了多Sink节点任务分配控制模型,设计了基于蚁群算法的任务分配控制策略,该方法能够根据Sink节点的当前状态、能耗情况合理分配数据通信和处理任务,均衡各Sink节点的负载,提高网络数据处理效率和网络生存时间。%Parallel Sink node of the network structure is presented in this paper, based on the entropy theory is established based on energy Sink node task assignment control model, design the task assignment control strategy based on ant colony algorithm, this method can according to the current state of the Sink node, the energy consumption situation and reasonable distribution of data communication and processing tasks, and balance the load of each Sink node, improve the efficiency of network data process⁃ing and network survival time.

  16. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  17. Available Bandwidth Estimation Strategy Based on the Network Allocation Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Available bandwidth is of great importance to network Quality of Service assurance, network load balancing, streaming media rate control, routing, and congestion control, etc.. In this paper, the available bandwidth estimation strategy based on the Network Allocation Vector for Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed. According to the size of the average contention window, network nodes predict the probability of collision in process of frame transmission, and then estimate the number of retransmission. Through the collection of Hello packets periodically sent by neighbors, nodes obtain their Network Allocation Vector, and then estimate the available bandwidth. The simulation results show that the strategy is simple and effective, can accurately estimate the collision of data frames as well as the available bandwidth of Wireless Sensor Networks.

  18. PERFUSION SYSTEM CONTROLLER STRATEGIES DURING AN ECMO SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Dhinakaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work modelling and control of Perfusion system is presented. The Perfusion system simultaneously controls the partial pressures during Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO support. The main Problem in ECMO system is exchange of Blood Gases in the Artificial Lung (Oxygenator.It is a highly Nonlinear Process comprising time-varying parameters, and varying time delays, it is currently being controlled manually by trained Perfusionist. The new control strategy implemented here has a feedback linearization routine with time-delay compensation for the Partial pressuresof Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. The controllers were tuned robustly and tested in simulations with a detailed artificial Lung (Oxygenator model in Cardiopulmonary bypass conditions. This Automatic control strategy is proposed to improve the patient’s safety by fast control reference tracking and good disturbance rejection under varying conditions.

  19. Strategy of control for bacterial biofilm processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Mayansky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of the modern search of the antibiofilm preparations aimed at adhesive bacterial reactions, control of QS-systems, influence over bis-(3’-5’-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (cdi-GMP, and secretory bacterial processes are analysed. Approaches for biofilm dispersal and increasing the sensitivity of biofilm bacteria to antimicrobial drugs are discussed. It is underlined that the majority of inhibitor molecules were studied in vitro or in infected mice experiments. It is prognosed that in future there will appear medical preparations which will help for fighting bacterial biofilms preventing their development and spreading in the host organism.

  20. Advanced Control Strategy of DFIG Wind Turbines for Power System Fault Ride Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lihui; Xu, Zhao; Ostergaard, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced control strategy for the rotor and grid side converters of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine (WT) to enhance the low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability according to the grid connection requirement. Within the new control strategy, the...... instantaneous DC-link current of the rotor side converter in order to smooth the DC-link voltage fluctuations during the grid fault. A major difference from other methods is that the proposed control strategy can absorb the additional kinetic energy during the fault conditions, and significantly reduce the...... oscillations in the stator and rotor currents and the DC bus voltage. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy has been demonstrated through various simulation cases. Compared with conventional crowbar protection, the proposed control method can not only improve the LVRT capability of the DFIG WT...

  1. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, T J; Kilmer, R L; Glenn, S J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production. PMID:10902307

  2. Different Optimal Control Strategies for Exploitation of Demand Response in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    resources, intermittent renewable energy resources in the Smart Grid. This paper presents different optimal control (Genetic Algorithm-based and Model Predictive Control-based) algorithms that schedule controlled loads in the industrial and residential sectors, based on dynamic price and weather forecast......, considering users’ comfort settings to meet an optimization objective, such as maximum profit or minimum energy consumption. It is demonstrated in this work that the GA-based and MPC-based optimal control strategies are able to achieve load shifting for grid reliability and energy savings, including demand...

  3. Control strategy and hardware implementation for DC–DC boost power circuit based on proportional–integral compensator for high voltage application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For high-voltage (HV applications, the designers mostly prefer the classical DC–DC boost converter. However, it lacks due to the limitation of the output voltage by the gain transfer ratio, decreased efficiency and its requirement of two sensors for feedback signals, which creates complex control scheme with increased overall cost. Furthermore, the output voltage and efficiency are reduced due to the self-parasitic behavior of power circuit components. To overcome these drawbacks, this manuscript provides, the theoretical development and hardware implementation of DC–DC step-up (boost power converter circuit for obtaining extra output-voltage high-performance. The proposed circuit substantially improves the high output-voltage by voltage-lift technology with a closed loop proportional–integral controller. This complete numerical model of the converter circuit including closed loop P-I controller is developed in simulation (Matlab/Simulink software and the hardware prototype model is implemented with digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F2812. A detailed performance analysis was carried out under both line and load regulation conditions. Numerical simulation and its verification results provided in this paper, prove the good agreement of the circuit with theoretical background.

  4. Migration control: a distance compensation strategy in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-08-01

    Migratory behaviour forms an intrinsic part of the life histories of many organisms but is often a high-risk process. Consequently, varied strategies have evolved to negate such risks, but empirical data relating to their functioning are limited. In this study, we use the model system of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis to demonstrate a key strategy that can shorten migration exposure times in a group of social insects. Colonies of these ants frequently migrate to new nest sites, and due to the nature of their habitat, the distances over which they do so are variable, leading to fluctuating potential costs dependent on migration parameters. We show that colonies of this species facultatively alter the dynamics of a migration and so compensate for the distance over which a given migration occurs. Specifically, they achieve this by modulating the rate of 'tandem running', in which workers teach each other the route to a new nest site. Using this method, colonies are able to engage a larger number of individuals in the migration process when the distance to be traversed is greater, and furthermore, the system appears to be based on perceived encounter rate at the individual level. This form of decentralised control highlights the adaptive nature of a behaviour of ecological importance, and indicates that the key to its robustness lies in the use of simple rules. Additionally, our results suggest that such coordinated group reactions are central to achieving the high levels of ecological success seen in many eusocial organisms. PMID:27430995

  5. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  6. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  7. 40 CFR 52.1173 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonattainment or maintenance areas at the State or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.1173... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1173 Control...

  8. 40 CFR 52.725 - Control strategy: Particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51.1004(c), suspends the requirements for this area to submit an... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulates. 52.725... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.725 Control...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1030 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1030 Section 52.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1030 Control...

  10. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. 52.330 Section 52.330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control...

  11. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training

    OpenAIRE

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trai...

  12. Nonlinear Control Strategies for Cooperative Control of Multi-Robot Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sabattini, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with distributed control strategies for cooperative control of multi-robot systems. Specifically, distributed coordination strategies are presented for groups of mobile robots. The formation control problem is initially solved exploiting artificial potential fields. The purpose of the presented formation control algorithm is to drive a group of mobile robots to create a completely arbitrarily shaped formation. Robots are initially controlled to create a regular polygon fo...

  13. Reactive Control Strategy of DFIG Wind Farm Based on Reactive Sensitivity of Collection System%基于集电系统无功灵敏度的双馈风电场无功控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔杨; 徐蒙福; 唐耀华; 彭龙; 严干贵

    2015-01-01

    In view of reactive control problems such as unqualified voltage of point of common coupling (PCC) and high network-loss of power collection system in DFIG-based wind farms, this paper proposed a new reactive control strategy using reactive sensitivity of power collection system. Firstly, network-loss/reactive sensitivity and voltage/reactive sensitivity of wind farm power collection system were presented, based on analysis of reactive demand of wind farm. Ensuring maximum active power output as well, the proposed strategy suggests two goals about reactive control of wind farm, that is, to improve PCC voltage level using reactive sensitivity and to reduce network-loss using network-loss sensitivity. Simulation results of actual wind farm verified effectiveness of the proposed strategy.%针对目前双馈风电场并网点电压水平低、场内集电系统网损大等典型无功控制问题,提出一种基于无功灵敏度指标的新型双馈风电场无功控制策略.在对双馈风电场无功需求及双馈风电机组无功调节能力进行分析的基础上,构建了风电场集电系统无功灵敏度指标,即集电系统网损无功灵敏度及电压无功灵敏度.该策略能够在保证最大有功出力的同时,实现如下目的:1)利用集电系统电压无功灵敏度控制双馈风电机组无功输出,以改善并网点电压水平;2)利用集电系统网损灵敏度控制双馈风电机组无功输出,实现降低集电系统网损的目的.对某实际风电场的仿真算例验证了所提控制策略的有效性.

  14. Reactive Control Strategy of DFIG Wind Farm Based on Reactive Sensitivity of Collection System%基于集电系统无功灵敏度的双馈风电场无功控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔杨; 徐蒙福; 唐耀华; 彭龙; 严干贵

    2015-01-01

    针对目前双馈风电场并网点电压水平低、场内集电系统网损大等典型无功控制问题,提出一种基于无功灵敏度指标的新型双馈风电场无功控制策略.在对双馈风电场无功需求及双馈风电机组无功调节能力进行分析的基础上,构建了风电场集电系统无功灵敏度指标,即集电系统网损无功灵敏度及电压无功灵敏度.该策略能够在保证最大有功出力的同时,实现如下目的:1)利用集电系统电压无功灵敏度控制双馈风电机组无功输出,以改善并网点电压水平;2)利用集电系统网损灵敏度控制双馈风电机组无功输出,实现降低集电系统网损的目的.对某实际风电场的仿真算例验证了所提控制策略的有效性.%In view of reactive control problems such as unqualified voltage of point of common coupling (PCC) and high network-loss of power collection system in DFIG-based wind farms, this paper proposed a new reactive control strategy using reactive sensitivity of power collection system. Firstly, network-loss/reactive sensitivity and voltage/reactive sensitivity of wind farm power collection system were presented, based on analysis of reactive demand of wind farm. Ensuring maximum active power output as well, the proposed strategy suggests two goals about reactive control of wind farm, that is, to improve PCC voltage level using reactive sensitivity and to reduce network-loss using network-loss sensitivity. Simulation results of actual wind farm verified effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  15. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  16. Regulatory controls for NORM contamination: Emerging issues and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NORM) faces the increasing likelihood of federal or state regulatory control. Public concern and limited preliminary survey data fuel the debate over the necessity, approach, and jurisdiction of a NORM regulatory strategy. This debate requires the resolution of technical controversies and potentially competing state and federal agency interests. An additional facet of the debate is the impact of regulation upon traditionally non-nuclear industries, such as oil and gas production. Regulatory response has been initiated in several states, such as Louisiana's controls on equipment used in oil and gas production, to control specific industrial activities which generate NORM. A more comprehensive, generic federal strategy to control NORM contamination is also under review by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper will detail the emerging technical issues, federal and state regulatory strategies under consideration, and evaluate the efficacy of selected regulatory approaches. (author)

  17. Structure and Control Strategies of Fuel Cell Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 张承宁; 孙逢春; 钟秋海

    2004-01-01

    The structure and kinds of the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) and the mathematical model of the fuel cell processor are discussed in detail. FCV includes many parts: the fuel cell thermal and water management, fuel supply, air supply and distribution, AC motor drive, main and auxiliary power management, and overall vehicle control system. So it requires different kinds of control strategies, such as the PID method, zero-pole method, optimal control method, fuzzy control and neural network control. Along with the progress of control method, the fuel cell vehicle's stability and reliability is up-and-up. Experiment results show FCV has high energy efficiency.

  18. Control of micronutrient deficiencies in India: obstacles and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K

    2002-05-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and iodine continue to be of public health significance in India. The government of India initiated national programs to prevent, control and combat these deficiencies and their serious consequences. The interventions involved (1) distribution of iodized salt in the endemic areas, (2) administration of semiannual massive dose of vitamin A to young children, and (3) distribution of iron-folic acid tablets to the vulnerable groups. Evaluations revealed that the biologic impact of these interventions was unsatisfactory. Inadequate allocation of funds (10% of the actual needs) necessary to cover the enormous number of beneficiaries was one of the important obstacles. Consequently, the allocation of supplies to different provinces was far short of the requirements (10-30%). As a result of poor orientation, the functionaries were not adhering to the guidelines, leading to woefully inadequate (1-20%) and irregular coverage. There was no proper monitoring or supervision to make midcourse corrections to improve the functioning. The community was not informed of the purpose and details of each intervention. Hence, it did not utilize the resources completely and remained passive recipients. The community was not aware of the dietary approaches to prevent micronutrient disorders owing to absence of nutrition education. With the adoption of National Nutrition Policy by the government of India, a concerted and focused approach should be adopted. The future strategies should include a mix of short-term supplementation and food-based strategy encompassing food fortification and home gardening. Innovative approaches in information, education, and communication (such as social marketing strategy) for making the interventions sustainable should be adopted. PMID:12035864

  19. Low Mobility Based Geographic Routing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kolandaiswami Arjunan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In geographic routing, nodes need to maintain up-to-date positions of their immediate neighbours for making effective forwarding decisions. Periodic broadcasting of beacon packets regardless of the node mobility and traffic patterns are proved to increase the update cost and decreases the routing performance. If only a small percentage of the nodes are involved in forwarding packets, it is unnecessary for nodes which are located far away from the forwarding path to employ periodic beaconing because these updates are not useful for forwarding the current traffic. Hence Adaptive Position Update (APU Scheme was introduced, (i nodes whose movements are harder to predict update their positions more frequently (and vice versa, and (ii nodes closer to forwarding paths update their positions more frequently (and vice versa. Further we contend that if forwarding nodes have high mobility there is an increased risk of frequent link failures. Thereby we propose a low mobility based forwarding node selection strategy to improve the routing performance and energy efficiency of the nodes in the system. Extensive simulations demonstrated that our routing strategy has two interesting features: 1 Less number of link failures with improved packet delivery ratio. 2 Less energy consumption when compared to APU alone and periodic broadcasting schemes.

  20. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG Wind Turbines for Low Voltage Ride Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanxia Zhu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved control strategy for both the rotor side converter (RSC and grid side converter (GSC of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind turbine (WT system to enhance the low voltage ride through (LVRT capability. Within the proposed control strategy, the RSC control introduces transient feed-forward compensation terms to mitigate the high frequency harmonic components and reduce the surge in the rotor currents. The proposed GSC control scheme also introduces a compensation term reflecting the instantaneous variation of the output power of the rotor side converter with consideration of the instantaneous power of grid filter impendence to keep the dc-link voltage nearly constant during the grid faults. To provide precise control, non-ideal proportional resonant (PR controllers for both the RSC and GSC current regulation are employed to further improve dynamic performance. Simulations performed in Matlab/Simulink verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. A novel control strategy for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal in SBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Gernaey, Krist; Smets, Barth F.; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    A novel feedforward–feedback control strategy was developed for complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a sequencing batch reactor. The aim of the control system was to carry out the regulation of the process while keeping the system close to the optimal operation. The controller was designed...... based on a process model and then tested experimentally. The resulting batch-to-batch control strategy had the total nitrogen removal efficiency as controlled variable and the setting of the aeration mass flow controller as manipulated variable. Compared to manual operation mode (constant air supply...... lab-scale reactor is a promising result, which brings this control strategy one step closer to full-scale implementation....

  2. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella [Department of Engineering, University of Napoli “Parthenope” (Italy); Martini, Fabrizio [Green Energy Plus srl (Italy); Pirozzi, Salvatore [SIAT Installazioni spa (Italy); Ubertini, Stefano [School of Engineering (DEIM) University of Tuscia (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting.

  3. The quality of meat from sheep treated with tannin- and saponin-based remedies as a natural strategy for parasite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogna, D M R; Tansawat, R; Cornforth, D; Ward, R; Bella, M; Luciano, G; Priolo, A; Villalba, J

    2014-02-01

    Lambs were assigned to four groups of seven and treated as follows for 12 days: control group (BP) was fed beet pulp; group T (tannin remedy) received the BP diet including 80 g/kg of quebracho extract; group S (saponin remedy) received the BP diet including 15 g/kg of quillaja extract; and group C had a free choice between T and S remedies. Lipid oxidation was lower in meat from S lambs compared to T lambs (P<0.05). Among the volatile compounds, lactate was lower in meat from S lambs compared to T animals (P=0.05). Metabolomic analysis showed that the T treatment increased ribose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol concentration in meat (P<0.05), while cholesterol was decreased by S and C treatments. The T treatment increased the concentration of C14:1 cis-9 (P<0.05). These findings indicate that treatments for parasite control containing tannins and saponins do not detrimentally affect sheep meat quality. PMID:24211542

  4. Iris Localization Based on Edge Searching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong; Han Jiuqiang

    2005-01-01

    An iris localization scheme based on edge searching strategies is presented. First, the edge detection operator Laplacian-ofGaussian (LoG) is used to iris original image to search its inner boundary. Then, a circle detection operator is introduced to locate the outer boundary and its center, which is invariant of translation, rotation and scale. Finally, the method of curve fitting is developed in localization of eyelid. The performance of the proposed method is tested with 756 iris images from 108 different classes in CASIA Iris Database and compared with the conventional Hough transform method. The experimental results show that without loss of localization accuracy, the proposed iris localization algorithm is apparently faster than Hough transform.

  5. Inhibitory control gains from higher-order cognitive strategy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Michael A; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Rao, Neena K; Maguire, Mandy J; Brier, Matthew R; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control. Middle school students enrolled in a comprehension- and reasoning-focused cognitive strategy training program and passive controls participated. The training program taught students a set of steps for inferring essential gist or themes from materials. Both before and after training or a comparable duration in the case of the passive controls, participants completed a semantically cued Go/No-Go task that was designed to assess the effects of depth of semantic processing on response inhibition and components of event-related potentials (ERP) related to response inhibition. Depth of semantic processing was manipulated by varying the level of semantic categorization required for response selection and inhibition. The SMART-trained group showed inhibitory control gains and changes in fronto-central P3 ERP amplitudes on inhibition trials; whereas, the control group did not. The results provide evidence of the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control and modulation of ERPs associated with semantically cued inhibitory control. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for cognitive strategy training, models of cognitive abilities, and education. PMID:24286804

  6. Model-based control of networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Eloy; Montestruque, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a class of networked control systems (NCS) called model-based networked control systems (MB-NCS) and presents various architectures and control strategies designed to improve the performance of NCS. The overall performance of NCS considers the appropriate use of network resources, particularly network bandwidth, in conjunction with the desired response of the system being controlled.   The book begins with a detailed description of the basic MB-NCS architecture that provides stability conditions in terms of state feedback updates . It also covers typical problems in NCS such as network delays, network scheduling, and data quantization, as well as more general control problems such as output feedback control, nonlinear systems stabilization, and tracking control.   Key features and topics include: Time-triggered and event-triggered feedback updates Stabilization of uncertain systems subject to time delays, quantization, and extended absence of feedback Optimal control analysis and ...

  7. Dynamic Protective Control Strategy for Distributed Generation System with Fixed-speed Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of induction generator based fixed-speed wind turbines (FSWT) are investigated. The impacts of different execution time in protective operations are studied under different fauit duration and various wind velocity situations, e.g. , FSWT stabilities of load shedding in distribution systems. Based on this research, a dynamic protective control strategy for a distributed generation system (DGS) with FSWT is proposed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  8. Business Strategy and Management Control Measures for Success!

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kent; Snygg, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Background Studying the relationship between strategy and Management Control Systems (MCS) is not a new phenomenon. The main purpose with the MCS has long been to attain the strategic goals that have been set for the organisation. Scholars have therefore argued that MCS should be adapted in harmony to the strategy employed by the company. There exists however little empirical evidence to support this claim. Problem Recent studies shows that the largest problem companies’ face today is that th...

  9. Invasive mechanism and control strategy of Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to ascertain the invasive mechanism and control strategy of the invasive Crofton weed, Ageratina adenophora, its ecological adaptability and population differentiation,the formation of single dominant population, displacement of native plants and sustainable management strategies were investigated. The present results helped to clarify and explain such issues as the adaptability post invasion,interaction and competition between inter-and intra-species and community resistance, thereby providing important references to researches on other invasive alien species.

  10. Linearizing Control of Induction Motor Based on Networked Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ren; Chun-Wen Li; De-Zong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to speed control of induction motors is developed by introducing networked control systems (NCSs) into the induction motor driving system. The control strategy is to stabilize and track the rotor speed of the induction motor when the network time delay occurs in the transport medium of network data. First, a feedback linearization method is used to achieve input-output linearization and decoupling control of the induction motor driving system based on rotor flux model, and then the characteristic of network data is analyzed in terms of the inherent network time delay. A networked control model of an induction motor is established. The sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for the networked induction motor driving system is given, and the state feedback controller is obtained by solving the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  11. Optimal shifting control strategy in inertia phase of an automatic transmission for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Yihuai; Geng, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Shifting quality is a crucial factor in all parts of the automobile industry. To ensure an optimal gear shifting strategy with best fuel economy for a stepped automatic transmission, the controller should be designed to meet the challenge of lacking of a feedback sensor to measure the relevant variables. This paper focuses on a new kind of automatic transmission using proportional solenoid valve to control the clutch pressure, a speed difference of the clutch based control strategy is designed for the shift control during the inertia phase. First, the mechanical system is shown and the system dynamic model is built. Second, the control strategy is designed based on the characterization analysis of models which are derived from dynamics of the drive line and electro-hydraulic actuator. Then, the controller uses conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control theory, and a robust two-degree-of-freedom controller is also carried out to determine the optimal control parameters to further improve the system performance. Finally, the designed control strategy with different controller is implemented on a simulation model. The compared results show that the speed difference of clutch can track the desired trajectory well and improve the shift quality effectively.

  12. Cloud-based Networked Visual Servo Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Lu, Lei; Chen, Chih-Chung;

    2013-01-01

    , which integrates networked computational resources for cloud image processing, is considered in this article. The main contributions of this article are i) a real-time transport protocol for transmitting large volume image data on a cloud computing platform, which enables high sampling rate visual......The performance of vision-based control systems, in particular of highly dynamic vision-based motion control systems, is often limited by the low sampling rate of the visual feedback caused by the long image processing time. In order to overcome this problem, the networked visual servo control...... feedback, ii) a stabilizing control law for the networked visual servo control system with time-varying feedback time delay, and iii) a sending rate scheduling strategy aiming at reducing the communication network load. The performance of the networked visual servo control system with sending rate...

  13. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is s...

  14. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of

  15. LAN Security Control Strategy Based on the Internal Prison%基于监狱内部局域网的安全控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛锡军; 宋瑜崎

    2012-01-01

    With network technology and the rapid development of information technology, the digital management of the prison as the product of the Internet age, has become the development direction of prison management. In this paper several prison work, contact network system, found inside the prison network security status, LAN computer network security deficiencies, and exhaustively from VLAN, IP address management, firewall technology and other aspects and put forward many methods and control measures, to ensure that the prison of LAN security.%随着网络技术和信息技术的迅速发展,监狱数字化管理作为网络时代的产物,已经成为监狱管理发展的方向。本文在工作中,接触几个监狱的网络系统,发现监狱内部网络的安全现状,局域网内计算机网络面临的安全不足之处,并详尽地从VLAN(虚拟局域网)技术、IP地址管理、防火墙技术等多方面提出许多方法和控制措施,确保监狱局域网络安全。

  16. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  17. Innovation in Active Vibration Control Strategy of Intelligent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moutsopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper presents sufficiently a recognizable advance in knowledge of active vibration control in intelligent structures.

  18. Optimal charge control strategies for stationary photovoltaic battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahao; Danzer, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    Battery systems coupled to photovoltaic (PV) modules for example fulfill one major function: they locally decouple PV generation and consumption of electrical power leading to two major effects. First, they reduce the grid load, especially at peak times and therewith reduce the necessity of a network expansion. And second, they increase the self-consumption in households and therewith help to reduce energy expenses. For the management of PV batteries charge control strategies need to be developed to reach the goals of both the distribution system operators and the local power producer. In this work optimal control strategies regarding various optimization goals are developed on the basis of the predicted household loads and PV generation profiles using the method of dynamic programming. The resulting charge curves are compared and essential differences discussed. Finally, a multi-objective optimization shows that charge control strategies can be derived that take all optimization goals into account.

  19. Integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinzhi FENG; Jun LI; R. M. Goodall

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the development of inte-grated control strategies for railway vehicles with inde-pendently-driven wheel motors. First, a non-linear vehicle dynamic model and motor drive strategy are pre-sented, which are followed by an investigation of the inte-grated control of stabilization, steering, and traction for the vehicle. Meanwhile a reformulated Kalman filter is developed and applied to estimate the required feedback by the control system. Finally, the effectiveness and prac-ticality of the proposed integrated controller are examined and assessed by real-time simulation based on host-target computer technology provided by Matlab/Simulink.

  20. Impact of Machine Learning on Elevator Control Strategies : A comparison of time efficiency for machine learning elevator control strategies and static elevator control strategies in an office building

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Marcus; Andersson, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Elevators are used in a large amount of buildings all over the world for fast and comfortable transportation. Today it is becoming increasingly important for people and products to be time efficient, and with technological development new solutions are created to answer this rising demand. To do this in an elevator context, elevator control strategies are implementedas optimal as possible. Machine learning is a relatively new concept, but it is already used in attempts to improve the performa...