WorldWideScience

Sample records for based control strategies

  1. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Han; Changhong Wang; Guoxing Yi

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiagent system (MAS) has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coo...

  2. Control strategies for VSC-based HVDC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Silva, Rodrigo Da

    2011-01-01

    Throughout this paper the modeling and control of the VSC-based HVDC systems are investigated and described. Two different control methods capable of controlling such systems are proposed. Both developed control strategies are implemented in the dq synchronous reference frame. In order to analyze...... the behavior of the developed VSC-based HVDC transmission system two study cases are carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained from simulations show acceptable performances, of the proposed strategies, when changes in the reference parameters are considered. The active power flow between...... the converters is succesfully achieved while, the independent control of active and reactive power is also verified....

  3. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helw, Hadi M; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  4. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helw, Hadi M.; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  5. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    OpenAIRE

    Deng-yin Zhang; Min Yang; Lei Cui

    2014-01-01

    To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM) is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according t...

  6. Congestion Control Strategy for Opportunistic Network Based on Message Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-yin Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the congestion problem in opportunistic networks, a congestion control strategy based on message deleting and transferring(DATM is proposed. The congested node calculates the storage value of each message according to the forwarding probability and TTL of message, then deletes the message with the minimum storage value and transfers the message with the minimum forwarding probability to neighboring nodes. The neighboring nodes calculate the receiving value of the message according to the forwarding probability and free buffer capacity of this message. The congested node transfers the message to the neighboring node with the maximum receiving value. The message will be deleted when there is no neighboring node to receive it. The algorithm is more targeted at deleting messages. Besides, it combines the strategy of transferring message. Therefore, it can deal with the congestion more efficiently. The message arrival rate is improved significantly and the end-to-end delay is also reduced to some extent.

  7. Indoor biology pollution control based on system-based humidity priority control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚昱; 谢慧; 石博强

    2009-01-01

    Indoor biological contamination and HVAC system secondary contamination problems caused wide public concerns. Biological contamination control will be the next step to achieve better IAQ. The most efficient and safe way to control biological contamination was to limit relative humidity in HVAC system and conditioned environment in the range that is more unsuitable for microorganism to survive. In this paper,by referring to bio-clean project experiences,a system-based humidity priority control manner came into being by lowering outdoor air humidity ratio to eliminate all indoor latent load and using self recirculation units to bear indoor sensible load. Based on the whole-course residue humidity contaminant control concept,dynamic step models for coil and conditioned zone were developed to describe mass and energy conservation and transformation processes. Then,HVAC system and conditioned zone dynamic models were established on LabVIEW+Matlab platform to investigate optimized regulation types,input signatures and control logics. Decoupling between cooling and dehumidification processes can be achieved and a more simplified and stable control system can be acquired by the system-based humidity priority control strategy. Therefore,it was a promising way for controlling biological pollution in buildings in order to achieve better IAQ.

  8. DC Voltage Balance Control Strategy for Medium Voltage Cascaded STATCOM Based on Distributed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DC bus capacitors of Medium Voltage Cascaded STATCOM are independent. DC side voltage balance control method is the key influencing factor of current control. The imbalance of DC bus voltage increases harmonic current and affects the safety of device. In this paper, the unbalance mechanism of DC side capacitor voltage is analyzed. Based on the unipolar dual frequency and carrier phase-shifted SPWM (CPS-SPWM modulation algorithms, the distributed control algorithms, which need multi- FPGA structure, are proposed. By changing the instantaneous active power input of single module, the voltage balance control strategies of DC bus capacitors are realized. The strategy can be applied in each inverter, respectively. Simulation and experiment results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the strategy

  9. Control strategy of maglev vehicles based on particle swarm algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Wang; Gang Shen; Jinsong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Taking a single magnet levitation system as the object, a nonlinear numerical model of the vehicle-guide-way coupling system was established to study the levitation control strategies. According to the similarity in dynamics, the single magnet-guideway coupling system was simpli-fied into a magnet-suspended track system, and the corre-sponding hardware-in-loop test rig was set up using dSPACE. A full-state-feedback controller was developed using the levitation gap signal and the current signal, and controller parameters were optimized by particle swarm algorithm. The results from the simulation and the test rig show that, the proposed control method can keep the sys-tem stable by calculating the controller output with the full-state information of the coupling system, Step responses from the test rig show that the controller can stabilize the system within 0.15 s with a 2% overshot, and performs well even in the condition of violent external disturbances. Unlike the linear quadratic optimal method, the particle swarm algorithm carries out the optimization with the nonlinear controlled object included, and its optimized results make the system responses much better.

  10. An estimator-based distributed voltage-predictive control strategy for ac islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimator-based voltage predictive control strategy for AC islanded microgrids, which is able to perform voltage control without any communication facilities. The proposed control strategy is composed of a network voltage estimator and a voltage predictive controller for each...

  11. Multi-agent coordination strategy estimation method based on control domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For estimation group competition and multiagent coordination strategy, this paper introduces a notion based on multiagent group. According to the control domain, it analyzes the multiagent strategy during competi tion in the macroscopic. It has been adopted in robot soccer and result enunciates that our method does not de pend on competition result. It can objectively quantitatively estimate coordination strategy.

  12. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  13. Design of a nonlinear backstepping control strategy of grid interconnected wind power system based PMSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Y.; Obbadi, A.; Sahnoun, S.; Benhmida, M.; Ouassaid, M.; Maaroufi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents nonlinear backstepping control for Wind Power Generation System (WPGS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and connected to utility grid. The block diagram of the WPGS with PMSG and the grid side back-to-back converter is established with the dq frame of axes. This control scheme emphasises the regulation of the dc-link voltage and the control of the power factor at changing wind speed. Besides, in the proposed control strategy of WPGS, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique and pitch control are provided. The stability of the regulators is assured by employing Lyapunov analysis. The proposed control strategy for the system has been validated by MATLAB simulations under varying wind velocity and the grid fault condition. In addition, a comparison of simulation results based on the proposed Backstepping strategy and conventional Vector Control is provided.

  14. Observational Iinearization and tracking objective excitation control strategy based on phasor measurement unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xiaoyan; LI Xingyuan; WANG Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    To improve the transient stability ofmultimachine power systems,observational linearization and tracking objective excitation control laws were derived from the phasor measurement unit (PMU),observational linearization,and tracking objective control theory based on synchronized coordinates and reference generator coordinates.The control strategies utilized real-time state variables obtained by PMU to linearize the state equations of the system,and then the linear optimal control strategy was used to design excitation controllers.The inaccuracy of the local linearization method and the complexity of the system models designed in the exact linearization method for nonlinear systems were avoided.Therefore,the control strategies were applied in real time.Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the transient stability of power systems more efficiently than nonlinear optimal excitation control.

  15. Modeling and Backstepping-based Nonlinear Control Strategy for a 6 DOF Quadrotor Helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashfaq Ahmad Mian; Wang Daobo

    2008-01-01

    In this article,a nonlinear model of an underactuated six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) quadrotor helicopter is derived on the basis of the Newton-Euler formalism.The derivation comprises determining equations of the motion of the quadrotor in three dimensions andapproximating the actuation forces through the modeling of aerodynamic coefficients and electric motor dynamics.The derived modelcomposed of translatioual and rotational subsystems is dynamically unstable,so a sequential nonlinear control strategy is used.The con-trol strategy includes feedback linearization coupled with a PD controller for the translational subsystem and a backstepping-based PID nonlinear controller for the rotational subsystem of the quadrotor.The performances of the nonlinear control method are evaluated by nonlinear simulation and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for the quadrotor helicopter inquasi-stationary flights.

  16. Velocity and Motion Control of a Self-balancing Vehicle based on a Cascade Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Velazquez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents balancing, velocity and motion control of a self-balancing vehicle. A cascade controller is implemented for both balancing control and angular velocity control. This controller is tested in simulations using a proposed mathematical model of the system. Motion control is achieved based on the kinematics of the robot. Control hardware is designed and integrated to implement the proposed controllers. Pitch is kept under 1° from the equilibrium position with no external disturbances. The linear cascade control is able to handle slight changes in the system dynamics, such as in the centre of mass and the slope on an inclined surface.

  17. Effects of iterative learning based signal control strategies on macroscopic fundamental diagrams of urban road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-10-01

    Urban traffic flows are inherently repeated on a daily or weekly basis. This repeatability can help improve the traffic conditions if it is used properly by the control system. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative learning control (ILC) strategy for traffic signals of urban road networks using the repeatability feature of traffic flow. To improve the control robustness, the ILC strategy is further integrated with an error feedback control law in a complementary manner. Theoretical analysis indicates that the ILC-based traffic signal control methods can guarantee the asymptotic learning convergence, despite the presence of modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. Finally, the impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategies on the network macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) are examined. The results show that the proposed ILC-based control strategies can homogenously distribute the network accumulation by controlling the vehicle numbers in each link to the desired levels under different traffic demands, which can result in the network with high capacity and mobility.

  18. Study on transient stability of wind turbine with induction generator based on variable pitch control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Han, L.;

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matlab....../Simulink, electromagnetic transient state models of the wind tubine generator system and the pitch control models were presented, and the transient behaviors of the wind turbine genarator system using the typical and the proposed pitch control strategies were analyzed and compared when the power grid was subjected...... to a three-phase short-circuit fault. Also the results were compared with using reactive compensation device. The simulation results show that the proposed pitch control strategy can effectively improve the transient stability of wind turbine generator system....

  19. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  20. A Novel Neutral Point Voltage Control Strategy for Three-Level NPC APF Based on SVPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unbalance of the neutral point voltage is an inherent problem of three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC Active Power Filter (APF; this paper analyzes the causes of unbalanced neutral point voltage and studies the reason of the unbalance of the neutral point voltage. A novel neutral point voltage control strategy using Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM is proposed. The proposed strategy is based on the traditional SVPWM, by controlling the effect time of small vector, which can change the state of the midpoint voltage fluctuation, and the neutral point voltage can be maintained balance. The influence of the vector on neutral point balance is investigated in depth. Simulation results show the neutral point voltage balancing control strategy based on SPWM is effective.

  1. Agent-based Cyber Control Strategy Design for Resilient Control Systems: Concepts, Architecture and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Rieger; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of automated regulatory control has been around since the middle of the last century through analog means. It has allowed engineers to operate the plant more consistently by focusing on overall operations and settings instead of individual monitoring of local instruments (inside and outside of a control room). A similar approach is proposed for cyber security, where current border-protection designs have been inherited from information technology developments that lack consideration of the high-reliability, high consequence nature of industrial control systems. Instead of an independent development, however, an integrated approach is taken to develop a holistic understanding of performance. This performance takes shape inside a multiagent design, which provides a notional context to model highly decentralized and complex industrial process control systems, the nervous system of critical infrastructure. The resulting strategy will provide a framework for researching solutions to security and unrecognized interdependency concerns with industrial control systems.

  2. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  3. Solution-based Chemical Strategies to Purposely Control the Microstructure of Functional Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei LIU; Congting SUN; Chenglin YAN; Dongfeng XUE

    2008-01-01

    Micro/nanostructured crystals with controlled architectures are desirable for many applications in optics, electronics, biology, medicine, and energy conversions. Low-temperature, aqueous chemical routes have been widely investigated for the synthesis of particles, and arrays of oriented nanorods and nanotubes. In this paper, based on the ideal crystal shapes predicted by the chemical bonding theory, we have developed some potential chemical strategies to tune the microstructure of functional materials, ZnS and Nb2O5 nanotube arrays, MgO wiskers and nestlike spheres, and cubic phase Cu2O microcrystals were synthesized here to elucidate these strategies. We describe their controlled crystallization processes and illustrate the detailed key factors controlling their growth by examining various reaction parameters. Current results demonstrate that our designed chemical strategies for tuning microstructure of functional materials are applicable to several technologically important materials, and therefore may be used as a versatile and effective route to the controllable synthesis of other inorganic functional materials.

  4. Coordinated Control Strategies of VSC-HVDC-Based Wind Power Systems for Low Voltage Ride Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyin Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Voltage Source Converter-HVDC (VSC-HVDC system applied to wind power generation can solve large scale wind farm grid-connection and long distance transmission problems. However, the low voltage ride through (LVRT of the VSC-HVDC connected wind farm is a key technology issue that must be solved, and it is currently lacking an economic and effective solution. In this paper, a LVRT coordinated control strategy is proposed for the VSC-HVDC-based wind power system. In this strategy, the operation and control of VSC-HVDC and wind farm during the grid fault period is improved. The VSC-HVDC system not only provides reactive power support to the grid, but also effectively maintains the power balance and DC voltage stability by reducing wind-farm power output, without increasing the equipment investment. Correspondingly, to eliminate the influence on permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG-based wind turbine (WT systems, a hierarchical control strategy is designed. The speed and validity of the proposed LVRT coordinated control strategy and hierarchical control strategy were verified by MATLAB/Simulink simulations.

  5. Automatic Generation Control Strategy Based on Balance of Daily Electric Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An automatic generation control strategy based on balance of daily total electric energy is put forward. It makes the balance between actual total generated energy controlled by automatic generation system and planned total energy on base of area control error, and makes the actual 24-hour active power load curve to approach the planned load curve. The generated energy is corrected by velocity weighting factor so that it conducts dynamic regulation and reaches the speed of response. Homologous strategy is used according to the real-time data in the operation of automatic generation control. Results of simulation are perfect and power energy compensation control with ideal effect can be achieved in the particular duration.

  6. Intelligent Model Building and GPC-PID Based Temperature Curve Control Strategy for Metallurgical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminar cooling process is a large-scale, nonlinear system, so the temperature control of such system is a difficult and complex problem. In this paper, a novel modeling method and a GPC-PID based control strategy for laminar cooling process are proposed to control the global temperature curve to produce high quality steel. First, based on the analysis of the cooling process of laminar flow, a new TS fuzzy model which possesses intelligence and self-learning ability is established to improve the temperature prediction accuracy. Second, the target temperature curve can be divided into several subgoals and each subgoal can be described by a CARIMA type of model. Then, by the decentralized predictive control method, GPC-PID based control strategy is introduced to guarantee the laminar cooling process to achieve subtargets, respectively; in that way the steel plate temperature will drop along the optimal temperature curve. Moreover, by employing the dSPACE control board into the process control system, the matrix process ability is added to the production line without large-scale reconstruction. Finally, the effectiveness and performance of the proposed modeling and control strategy are demonstrated by the industrial data and metallography detection in one steel company.

  7. Flow Control Strategy for the High Speed Network Based on Control Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Design of an effective congestion control scheme is a hot topic in the development of computer network. The flow control scheme can adjust the packet sending rate in source host, thus effectively avoiding the network congestion. This paper proposes a new flow control scheme based on discrete control theory. The simulation results show that this method can adjust the sending rate and queue level in buffer rapidly and effectively. The method is easy to implement and applicable to high speed networks.

  8. Asynchronous update based networked predictive control system using a novel proactive compensation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingyao; Zuo, Xin; Liu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Networked predictive control system (NPCS) has been proposed to address random delays and data dropouts in networked control systems (NCSs). A remaining challenge of this approach is that the controller has uncertain information about the actual control inputs, which leads to the predicted control input errors. The main contribution of this paper is to develop an explicit mechanism running in the distributed network nodes asynchronously, which enables the controller node to keep informed of the states of the actuator node without a priori knowledge about the network. Based on this mechanism, a novel proactive compensation strategy is proposed to develop asynchronous update based networked predictive control system (AUBNPCS). The stability criterion of AUBNPCS is derived analytically. A simulation experiment based on Truetime demonstrates the effectiveness of the scheme. PMID:26582090

  9. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  10. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Lilian; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ayoub, George M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  11. Coordinated Power Control Strategy based on Primary-Frequency-Signaling for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos;

    2013-01-01

    In a flexible microgrid, the power regulation of each electronic-converter-based unit should be not only determined by the load demand, but also controlled according to the power and energy available in each unit. This paper proposes a coordinated control strategy in which each unit can operate in...... different operation modes taking into account the resource limitation. Firstly, a Primary-Frequency-Signaling (PFS) is introduced to realize coordinated control between units in a distributed way. Then the whole control structure of system is descripted in detail, which includes innerloop control with...

  12. Predictive control strategies for wind turbine system based on permanent magnet synchronous generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaoui-Ben Hassine, Ikram; Naouar, Mohamed Wissem; Mrabet-Bellaaj, Najiba

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Model Predictive Control and Dead-beat predictive control strategies are proposed for the control of a PMSG based wind energy system. The proposed MPC considers the model of the converter-based system to forecast the possible future behavior of the controlled variables. It allows selecting the voltage vector to be applied that leads to a minimum error by minimizing a predefined cost function. The main features of the MPC are low current THD and robustness against parameters variations. The Dead-beat predictive control is based on the system model to compute the optimum voltage vector that ensures zero-steady state error. The optimum voltage vector is then applied through Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique. The main advantages of the Dead-beat predictive control are low current THD and constant switching frequency. The proposed control techniques are presented and detailed for the control of back-to-back converter in a wind turbine system based on PMSG. Simulation results (under Matlab-Simulink software environment tool) and experimental results (under developed prototyping platform) are presented in order to show the performances of the considered control strategies.

  13. Predictive control strategies for wind turbine system based on permanent magnet synchronous generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaoui-Ben Hassine, Ikram; Naouar, Mohamed Wissem; Mrabet-Bellaaj, Najiba

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Model Predictive Control and Dead-beat predictive control strategies are proposed for the control of a PMSG based wind energy system. The proposed MPC considers the model of the converter-based system to forecast the possible future behavior of the controlled variables. It allows selecting the voltage vector to be applied that leads to a minimum error by minimizing a predefined cost function. The main features of the MPC are low current THD and robustness against parameters variations. The Dead-beat predictive control is based on the system model to compute the optimum voltage vector that ensures zero-steady state error. The optimum voltage vector is then applied through Space Vector Modulation (SVM) technique. The main advantages of the Dead-beat predictive control are low current THD and constant switching frequency. The proposed control techniques are presented and detailed for the control of back-to-back converter in a wind turbine system based on PMSG. Simulation results (under Matlab-Simulink software environment tool) and experimental results (under developed prototyping platform) are presented in order to show the performances of the considered control strategies. PMID:26725504

  14. Research on Sensorless control strategies for Vehicle stability using Fuzzy based EDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ravi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and robust control scheme of Fuzzy Logic Electronic Differential Controller (FLEDC for sensorless drive based electric vehicle. The proposed system consists of two Brushless DC motors (BLDC that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels of an electric vehicle. Electronic differential controller (EDC ensures the maximum torque and it can control both the driving wheel independently to turn at different speeds in any curve according to the steering angle. The sensorless control strategies include back EMF zero crossing detection and third harmonic voltage integration. Fuzzy logic based EDC is used on these sensorless control strategies which optimizes the slip rate within the specified limit and thus enhances the vehicle stability The performances in terms of slip rate, current, Torque, back EMF are obtained by the proposed method and are compared with those obtained using conventional control method. By this comparative investigation, a suitable control strategy has been identified. The effectiveness and substantiation of these analysis are ascertained in the MATLAB/Simulink environment and also experimentally validated.

  15. Balancing Control Strategy for Li-Ion Batteries String Based on Dynamic Balanced Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hua Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Li-ion battery is becoming the optimal choice for the Electric Vehicle’s (EV power supply. In order to protect the Li-ion battery from charging damage and to prolong the battery’s life, a special control strategy based on the dynamic balanced point along with a non-dissipative equalizer is presented. The main focus of the proposed control strategy is to insure that the individual cell of a battery pack will be rapidly, efficiently and simultaneously balanced, by adjusting equalizing current of each cell dynamically. In this paper, a model of a four series connected Li-ion batteries pack has been established to evaluate the proposed control strategy. Superior performance is demonstrated by the simulation and experiment.

  16. Event-Based Control Strategy for Mobile Robots in Wireless Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Socas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new event-based control strategy for mobile robots is presented. It has been designed to work in wireless environments where a centralized controller has to interchange information with the robots over an RF (radio frequency interface. The event-based architectures have been developed for differential wheeled robots, although they can be applied to other kinds of robots in a simple way. The solution has been checked over classical navigation algorithms, like wall following and obstacle avoidance, using scenarios with a unique or multiple robots. A comparison between the proposed architectures and the classical discrete-time strategy is also carried out. The experimental results shows that the proposed solution has a higher efficiency in communication resource usage than the classical discrete-time strategy with the same accuracy.

  17. Event-Based Control Strategy for Mobile Robots in Wireless Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socas, Rafael; Dormido, Sebastián; Dormido, Raquel; Fabregas, Ernesto

    2015-12-02

    In this paper, a new event-based control strategy for mobile robots is presented. It has been designed to work in wireless environments where a centralized controller has to interchange information with the robots over an RF (radio frequency) interface. The event-based architectures have been developed for differential wheeled robots, although they can be applied to other kinds of robots in a simple way. The solution has been checked over classical navigation algorithms, like wall following and obstacle avoidance, using scenarios with a unique or multiple robots. A comparison between the proposed architectures and the classical discrete-time strategy is also carried out. The experimental results shows that the proposed solution has a higher efficiency in communication resource usage than the classical discrete-time strategy with the same accuracy.

  18. Control Strategy for Three Phase Voltage Source PWM Rectifier Based on the Space Vector Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOUD, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM control scheme for three-phase voltage source PWM rectifier. The control system based on SVPWM includes two PI controllers which are used to regulate the AC currents and DC-link voltage. The proposed control can stabilize the minimum of the systems storage function at the desired equilibrium point determined by unity power factor and sinusoidal current on the AC side, and constant output voltage on the DC side. So the stable state performance and robustness against the load�s disturbance of PWM rectifiers are both improved. The simulation result shows feasibility of this strategy.

  19. Model-based evaluation of an on-line control strategy for SBRs based on OUR and ORP measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Ll; Sin, G; Puig, S; Traore, A; Balaguer, M; Colprim, J; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2006-01-01

    Application of control strategies for existing wastewater treatment technologies becomes necessary to meet ever-stricter effluent legislations and reduce the associated treatment costs. In the case of SBR technology, controlling the phase scheduling is one of the key aspects of SBR operation. In this study a calibrated mechanistic model based on the ASM1 was used to evaluate an on-line control strategy for the SBR phase-scheduling and compare it with the SBR's performance using no control strategy. To evaluate the performance, reference indices relating to the effluent quality, the required energy for aeration and the treated wastewater volume were used. The results showed that it is possible to maintain optimal SBR performance in the studied system at minimal costs by on-line control of the length of the aerobic and anoxic phases.

  20. Coordinated Control Strategies of VSC-HVDC-Based Wind Power Systems for Low Voltage Ride Through

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyin Zhang; Zaijun Wu; Minqiang Hu; Xianyun Li; Ganyun Lv

    2015-01-01

    The Voltage Source Converter-HVDC (VSC-HVDC) system applied to wind power generation can solve large scale wind farm grid-connection and long distance transmission problems. However, the low voltage ride through (LVRT) of the VSC-HVDC connected wind farm is a key technology issue that must be solved, and it is currently lacking an economic and effective solution. In this paper, a LVRT coordinated control strategy is proposed for the VSC-HVDC-based wind power system. In this strategy, the oper...

  1. A new strategy of axial power distribution control based on three axial offsets concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have proposed a very simple control procedure for axial xenon oscillation control based on a characteristic trajectory. The trajectory is drawn by three offsets of power distributions, namely, AOp, AOi and AOx. They are defined as the offset of axial power distribution, the offset of the power distribution under which the current iodine distribution is obtained as the equilibrium and that for xenon distribution, respectively. When these offsets are plotted on X-Y plane for (AOp-AOx, AOi-AOx) the trajectory draws a quite characteristic ellipse (or an elliptic spiral). On the other hands, Constant Axial Offset Control (CAOC) procedure is adopted as axial power distribution control strategy during both base load and load following operations in domestic PWRs. In the previous paper, we have presented an innovative procedure of axial power distribution control during load following in PWRs based on this trajectory such that the AOp-AOx is to be controlled to zero when the value deviates the pre-determined limiting values. In this paper we propose a modified control strategy to get more stability of axial power distributions. In this strategy, we control the trajectory to be close to the major axis of the ellipse when the power distribution reaches the limiting values. In other words, the plot is not controlled only to reduce AOp-AOx but also AOi-AOx is taken into account at the same time. It is known that when the plot is controlled to the major axis, it means that the point gives the peak position of axial xenon oscillation. Therefore xenon oscillation will not increase its amplitude any more. Thus more stable axial power distribution control is attained. This kind of design concept is quite important especially for the future PWRs with elongated fuel length and longer core life. Because in a longer effective core and also the longer core life, it has been known that the stability of axial xenon oscillation becomes more unstable. In this paper, some simulation

  2. Decentralized Control Strategy for PV Based DC Microgrid with Hybrid Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Ishita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of power electronics technology and modernization of DC based loads, DC microgrids (DCMG are becoming most attractive solution in terms of their increased efficiency and high power quality. However they face certain challenges like intermittency of renewable energy sources, limitations in dynamic behaviour of storage systems and various stability issues during islanding. Thus it is mandatory to select the DCMG components properly with a robust control strategy for power converters in order to maintain power balance despite of variation in source and load power in order maintain the system power quality. In this work, a DC bus signalling based decentralized control strategy is proposed for a PV based DCMG, which eliminates the risk associated with DC bus voltage fluctuation. Fuel cell is as an auxiliary power source along with solar PV and storage devices, reduces the possibility of black out and helps to increase system reliability. The proposed control strategy has been validated through MATLAB/Simulink based simulation studies for variable weather condition and load demand on DCMG system.

  3. An evidence-based vector control strategy for military deployments: the British Army experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, A M; Baker, D; von Bertele, M J

    2001-01-01

    We describe the British Army's current strategy for controlling arthropod vectors of disease during overseas deployments. Military commanders and medical officers have different, but complementary responsibilities in achieving vector control. In this paper we define a hierarchy of evidence-based vector control guidelines. Field guidelines must be based on the best available research evidence, preferably that derived from pragmatic randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and from systematic reviews of trials. Assessing the effectiveness of different vector control measures involves a trade-off between the relative benefits and harm of different technology options. There is compelling scientific evidence that bed nets and screens treated with a pyrethroid insecticide are highly effective in protecting against nocturnally active, anthropophilic arthropods (including ectoparasites), and will reduce the incidence of malaria, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis and Chagas' disease. Etofenprox and deltamethrin are the safest pyrethroids, and permethrin the least safe. Vector control strategies of probable effectiveness are the use of insecticide-treated clothing, the wearing of protective clothing, and the correct use of DEET-based topical insect repellents. Aerosol insecticides are of debatable effectiveness. Other effective vector control measures, of limited usefulness during deployments, include electric fans, mosquito coils/vaporising mats, and smoke. "Biological" vector control measures, and insect buzzers/electrocuters are ineffective. Practical insect avoidance measures, based on an understanding of vector biology, complete the military vector-control arsenal. We conclude that practical insect avoidance measures, combined with pyrethroid-treated nets and clothing, and DEET-based topical repellents, can achieve almost 100% protection against biting arthropods. PMID:11584666

  4. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system......This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...... and reduces tax uncertainty. The paper adopts an interdisciplinary approach for explaining findings, using contingency-based theory and network theory at the inter-organisational level....

  5. Stability Analysis and Control of DFIG Based Wind Turbine Using FBC Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Tavoosi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Doubly fed induction generator has numerous advantages in wind power generation over other types of generators. Once a DFIG is subjected to a large voltage dip, a large rotor voltage induces in the rotor windings. This leads to a large transient current in rotor circuit and the dc-link overvoltage, and may block power electronic converter operation. This paper first discusses dynamic modeling of DFIG wind turbines with the stator flux orientation. Then, by small signal analysis, it is found that the dynamic behavior of the DFIG based WT during voltage dip, is strongly affected by the stator dynamics. Next, a nonlinear control strategy based on flatness is proposed to improve the DFIG transient performance. The main interest of this control method is the possibility to define the behavior of the state variable system in the steady state as well as in transients. Since the DFIG electrical dynamics are nonlinear; better control performance is achieved with nonlinear control, compared with the linear control scheme. The proposed approach stabilizes the stator dynamics through rotor and grid side filter voltage control. The results of time domain simulations validate the effectiveness the nonlinear control strategy during voltage dip of generator terminal.

  6. Decentralized Control Strategy for PV Based DC Microgrid with Hybrid Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas Ishita; Bajpai Prabodh

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of power electronics technology and modernization of DC based loads, DC microgrids (DCMG) are becoming most attractive solution in terms of their increased efficiency and high power quality. However they face certain challenges like intermittency of renewable energy sources, limitations in dynamic behaviour of storage systems and various stability issues during islanding. Thus it is mandatory to select the DCMG components properly with a robust control strategy fo...

  7. An Improved PSO-Based MPPT Control Strategy for Photovoltaic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    M. Abdulkadir; A. H. M. Yatim; S. T. Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy proposed for power maximizing which is a critical mechanism to ensure power track is maximized. Many tracking algorithms have been proposed for this purpose. One of the more commonly used techniques is the incremental conductance method. In this paper, an improved particle swarm optimization- (IPSO-) based MPPT technique for photovoltaic system operating under varying environmental conditions is proposed. The approach of linearly decreasing scheme for we...

  8. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP.

  9. Correction factor based double model fuzzy logic control strategy of arc voltage in pulsed MIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Meng Yongmin

    2005-01-01

    According to the feature of arc voltage control in welding steel using pulsed MIG welding, a correction factor based double model fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was developed to realize the arc voltage control by means of arc voltage feedback.When the error of peak arc voltage was great, a coarse adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed,in the controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the wire feeding speed by means of arc voltage feedback. When the error of peak arc voltage was small, a fine adjusting fuzzy logic control rules with correction factor was designed, in this controller, the peak arc voltage was controlled by the background time by means of arc voltage feedback. The FLC was realized in a Look-Up Table ( LUT) method. Experiments had been carried out aiming at implementing the control strategy to control the arc length change in welding process. Experimental results show that the controller proposed enables the consistency of arc length and the stabolity of arc voltage and welding process to be achieved in pulsed MIG welding process.

  10. Time delay effects on large-scale MR damper based semi-active control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a detailed investigation on the robustness of large-scale 200 kN MR damper based semi-active control strategies in the presence of time delays in the control system. Although the effects of time delay on stability and performance degradation of an actively controlled system have been investigated extensively by many researchers, degradation in the performance of semi-active systems due to time delay has yet to be investigated. Since semi-active systems are inherently stable, instability problems due to time delay are unlikely to arise. This paper investigates the effects of time delay on the performance of a building with a large-scale MR damper, using numerical simulations of near- and far-field earthquakes. The MR damper is considered to be controlled by four different semi-active control algorithms, namely (i) clipped-optimal control (COC), (ii) decentralized output feedback polynomial control (DOFPC), (iii) Lyapunov control, and (iv) simple-passive control (SPC). It is observed that all controllers except for the COC are significantly robust with respect to time delay. On the other hand, the clipped-optimal controller should be integrated with a compensator to improve the performance in the presence of time delay. (paper)

  11. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  12. Enhanced LVRT Control Strategy for DFIG-Based WECS in Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Iov, Florin

    2013-01-01

    An enhanced coordinated low voltage ride-through, LVRT, control strategy for a Doubly-fed Induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system, WECS, connected to a weak grid is presented in this paper. The compliance with the grid code commitments is also considered. A proposed decoupled...... double synchronous reference frame (DDSRF) current controller is adopted for the design of grid side converter, GSC, controller to counteract current oscillations during asymmetrical faults and tackle the DC link voltage run-away. For a precise detection of the grid voltage position even under severe...... voltage dips/unbalanced conditions, A DDSRF-PLL is proposed and analyzed to extract clean synchronization signal in order to improve the overall system performance. Moreover, a fast decomposition based positive and negative sequence algorithm is utilized for rapid fault detection and to engage the LVRT...

  13. Enhanced LVRT Control Strategy for DFIG-Based WECS in Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Iov, Florin

    2013-01-01

    voltage dips/unbalanced conditions, A DDSRF-PLL is proposed and analyzed to extract clean synchronization signal in order to improve the overall system performance. Moreover, a fast decomposition based positive and negative sequence algorithm is utilized for rapid fault detection and to engage the LVRT......An enhanced coordinated low voltage ride-through, LVRT, control strategy for a Doubly-fed Induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system, WECS, connected to a weak grid is presented in this paper. The compliance with the grid code commitments is also considered. A proposed decoupled...... double synchronous reference frame (DDSRF) current controller is adopted for the design of grid side converter, GSC, controller to counteract current oscillations during asymmetrical faults and tackle the DC link voltage run-away. For a precise detection of the grid voltage position even under severe...

  14. Research on Improved Control Strategy for STATCOM Based on Virtual Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate detection of reactive current is the precondition for the realization of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM reactive power compensation and harmonic suppression. Aiming at deviation and delay of the traditional reactive current detection algorithm with phase-locked loop (PLL and low-pass filter (LPF of STATCOM, a novel improved reactive current detection algorithm without PLL is proposed, in which the virtual matrix (VM is built to replace the original PLL, and improved current average value filter is used to realize the function of LPF, so as to improve the real-time performance and robustness of reactive current detection. The realization process of VM detection method is derived in this paper, and improved control strategy for STATCOM is designed based on the VM detection method. Simulation analysis of the proposed detection algorithm and control strategy is conducted in Matlab platform so as to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control strategy. The VM detection has the advantages of simple structure, fast response and easy for digital realization, which provides reference for the improvement of reactive power compensation precision for STATCOM.

  15. Costate Estimation of PMP-Based Control Strategy for PHEV Using Legendre Pseudospectral Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Costate value plays a significant role in the application of PMP-based control strategy for PHEV. It is critical for terminal SOC of battery at destination and corresponding equivalent fuel consumption. However, it is not convenient to choose the approximate costate in real driving condition. In the paper, the optimal control problem of PHEV based on PMP has been converted to nonlinear programming problem. By means of KKT condition costate can be approximated as KKT multipliers of NLP divided by the LGL weights. A kind of general costate estimation approach is proposed for predefined driving condition in this way. Dynamic model has been established in Matlab/Simulink in order to prove the effectiveness of the method. Simulation results demonstrate that the method presented in the paper can deduce the closer value of global optimal value than constant initial costate value. This approach can be used for initial costate and jump condition estimation of PMP-based control strategy for PHEV.

  16. Study on the dynamic performance of a novel buck-boost matrix converter based on double-loop control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Qi

    2011-12-01

    The dynamic performance of a novel Buck-Boost matrix converter (BBMC) based on double-loop control strategy is put forward in this paper. The fundamental principle of BBMC has been elaborated and the method of the double-loop control strategy has been built with Matlab, and then the dynamic performances of BBMC based on the double-loop control strategy are discussed. The results show that the output voltage and frequency can be almost constant with the BBMC and double-loop control strategy despite of the changeable input voltage and frequency. Moreover, a high-quality sine output wave with low harmonic distortion can be directly obtained without filtering. So it can be drawn that the BBMC based on the double-loop control strategy has perfectly dynamic performance and practical importance to the engineering.

  17. Strategy missile control system design using adaptive fuzzy control based on Popov stability criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianling; An, Jinwen; Wang, Mina

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the application and simulation of an adaptive fuzzy controller for a missile model. The fuzzy control system is tested using different values of fuzzy controller correctional factor on a nonlinear missile model. It is shown that the self-tuning fuzzy controller is well suited for controlling the pitch loop of the missile control system with air turbulence and parameter variety. The research shows that the Popov stability criterion could successfully guarantee the stability of the fuzzy system. It provides a good method for the design of missile control system. Simulation results suggest significant benefits from fuzzy logic in control task for missile pitch loop control.

  18. A Coherence Preservation Control Strategy in Cavity QED Based on Classical Quantum Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For eliminating the unexpected decoherence effect in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED, the transfer function of Rabi oscillation is derived theoretically using optical Bloch equations. In particular, the decoherence in cavity QED from the atomic spontaneous emission is especially considered. A feedback control strategy is proposed to preserve the coherence through Rabi oscillation stabilization. In the scheme, a classical quantum feedback channel for the quantum information acquisition is constructed via the quantum tomography technology, and a compensation system based on the root locus theory is put forward to suppress the atomic spontaneous emission and the associated decoherence. The simulation results have proved its effectiveness and superiority for the coherence preservation.

  19. Parametric Design and Robust Control Strategy for HEV Based on Permanent Magnet Electrical Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsalam Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Permanent Magnet-Dual Mechanical Ports (PM-DMP machine is used as an Electrical Variable Transmission (EVT, instead the Toyota Hybrid System (THS transmission, in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV. Decreasing and exploiting the power ratings of the power plants in the HEV system are the most efficient factors for increasing the economy and efficiency of the system. These goals are achieved through three tandem procedures: the first is focusing on the detailed calculations of the power ratings for the PMSM-EVT machines. These calculations are mainly based on the deeply analysis of the function of each plant at steady and dynamic states. The second is the robust vector control of the two PMSMs with the field weakening strategy. The third is developing a robust global power management control strategy to realize the power splitting for the full hybrids. The integration of HEV components including their dynamic models and controllers has been implemented by Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR simulation tool. The goals are validated by the simulation results with two different driving cycles; and from the interim analytical calculations and from analyzing the simulation results, the rated and maximum specifications of the PMSMEVT have been defined. Finally, the results are validated by comparing to the practical data of the Toyota Prius HEV. The results show that the power ratings of the electrical machines are saved more than that of Prius machines. Also, the system is driven at harder burden loads than that of Prius with perfect drivability.

  20. Elevator Control Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of known elevator control strategies by simulating these in an own made apartment simulator. Efficiency will be determined by the lowest product of the energy consumption (Watt/second), average waiting time, average transfer time and the maximum waiting time of a passenger, which is the output by the simulator. The apartment simulator will simulate the elevator behavior, according to a respective control strategy, and the passenger flow on each respectiv...

  1. CONTROL SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC BEARINGS BASED ON LINEAR QUADRATIC METHOD OF OPTIMAL CONTROL STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Huangqiu

    2005-01-01

    A state equation for radical 4-degree-of-freedom active magnetic bearings is built, and the approach on how to use linear quadratic method of optical control theory to design a centralized and decentralized parameters control system is introduced, and also Matlab language is used to simulate and analyze. The simulation results have proved that the differences are small between centralized parameters and decentralized parameters control system. The conclusions of experiments have shown that decentralized controllers designed from optimal state feedback theory meet the requirements of active magnetic bearing system. The vibration amplitude of the rotor is about 20 μm when the speed of the rotor runs between 0 to 60 000 r/min. This method may be used in the study and design of controllers of magnetic bearings.

  2. An adaptive control strategy of converter based DG to maintain protection coordination in distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    of network protection devices. As a protection measure commonly used in distribution network, recloser-fuse coordination could suffer from this impact. Research work has been conducted to deal with this problem by modifying the control strategy of the DG converters during faults. These solutions generally...... reduce the current output from the converters during faults so as to mitigate the influence on protection coordination. However, converter current reduction may not be necessary for all types of faults. This paper proposes a converter control strategy with adaptivity to different fault types and also non......-fault voltage drop events. This control strategy is validated by simulations in DIgSILENT PowerFactory....

  3. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham S. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA-based artificial neural network (ANN to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM, are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period.

  4. Control strategies based on effective power factor for distributed generation power plants during unbalanced grid voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernández, Miguel; Miret Tomàs, Jaume; Matas Alcalá, José; Guzmán Solà, Ramon; de Sousa Pérez, Óscar; Martí Colom, Pau; García de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Unbalanced voltages in three-phase power systems is a common perturbation propagated along the grid. Distributed Generation plants have gained widespread attention due to their capability to improve power quality in a distributed manner, including voltage unbalance mitigation. A conventional control strategy to command power plants during balanced grid voltages, is the use of power factor to inject/absorb reactive power depending on grid conditions. Advanced control strategies during unbalanc...

  5. An Improved PSO-Based MPPT Control Strategy for Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulkadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control strategy proposed for power maximizing which is a critical mechanism to ensure power track is maximized. Many tracking algorithms have been proposed for this purpose. One of the more commonly used techniques is the incremental conductance method. In this paper, an improved particle swarm optimization- (IPSO- based MPPT technique for photovoltaic system operating under varying environmental conditions is proposed. The approach of linearly decreasing scheme for weighting factor and cognitive and social parameter is modified. The proposed control scheme can overcome deficiency and accelerate convergence of the IPSO-based MPPT algorithm. The approach is not only capable of tracking the maximum power point under uniform insolation state, but also able to find the maximum power point under fast changing nonuniform insolation conditions. The photovoltaic systematic process with control schemes is created using MATLAB Simulink to verify the effectiveness with several simulations being carried out and then compared with the conventional incremental conductance technique. Lastly, the effectiveness of the intended techniques is proven using real data obtained form previous literature. With the change in insolation and temperature portrait, it produces exceptional MPPT maximization. This shows that optimum performance is achieved using the intended method compared to the typical method.

  6. Evolve the Controller for Static Synchronous Series Compensator Based on Control Strategy of Sen Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Jayaraman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Real and Reactive power flow in an alternating current transmission line can be independently controlled by connecting, to the transmission line, a series-compensating voltage, which is variable in magnitude and phase angle. The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC, a solid-state voltage source inverter (VSC coupled with a transformer, is connected in series with a transmission line. An SSSC injects an almost sinusoidal voltage, of variable magnitude, in series with a transmission line. This injected voltage is almost in quadrature with the line current, thereby emulating an inductive or a capacitive reactance in series with the transmission line. This emulated variable reactance, inserted by the injected voltage source, influences the electric power flow in the transmission line. In this report, an attempt is made to evolve the model of SSSC and VSC with preliminary studies for the controller design.

  7. Evolve the Controller for Static Synchronous Series Compensator Based on Control Strategy of Sen Transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Raju Jayaraman; Kowslaya M

    2014-01-01

    Real and Reactive power flow in an alternating current transmission line can be independently controlled by connecting, to the transmission line, a series-compensating voltage, which is variable in magnitude and phase angle. The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC), a solid-state voltage source inverter (VSC) coupled with a transformer, is connected in series with a transmission line. An SSSC injects an almost sinusoidal voltage, of variable magnitude, in series with a transmission li...

  8. The Study of Operation Modes and Control Strategies of a Multidirectional MC for Battery Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Toosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the performance of stand-alone battery based system and to achieve the continuous power transmission, the behavior of multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC has been analyzed in different operation modes. A systematic method interfacing a renewable source, a storage battery, and a load is proposed for a stand-alone battery based power system (SABBPS to utilize the MDMC as PWM converter, inverter, or PWM converter and inverter in different operation modes. In this study, the Extended Direct Duty Pulse Width Modulation (EDDPWM technique has been applied to control the power flow path between the renewable source, load, and the battery. Corresponding to generator voltage, input frequency, and loads demands, several operating states and control strategies are possible. Therefore, the boundaries and distribution of operation modes are discussed and illustrated to improve the system performance. The mathematical equation of the EDDPWM under different operation modes has been derived to achieve the maximum voltage ratio in each mode. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in simulation using MATLAB and experimental testing. Moreover, the THD, ripple, and power flow direction have been analyzed for output current to investigate the behavior of system in each operation mode.

  9. A new virtual-flux-vector based droop control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiefeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Qu, Yanqing;

    2013-01-01

    the flux ripple, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme is integrated into the DFC. The obtained results shows that the proposed flux droop strategy can achieve active and reactive power sharing with much lower frequency deviation and better transient performance than the conventional droop method, thus......Voltage and frequency droop method is commonly used in microgrids to achieve proper autonomous power sharing without rely on intercommunication systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrid applications by drooping the flux instead of the inverter....... In addition, a small- signal model is developed in order to design the main control parameters and study the system dynamics and stability. The proposed control scheme includes a direct flux control (DFC) algorithm, which avoids the use of PI controllers and PWM modulators. Furthermore, in order to reduce...

  10. Reinforcement Learning-Based Supervisory Control Strategy for a Rotary Kiln Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojie; Yue, Heng; Chai, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the discussion about an implementation strategy of how to employ reinforcement learning in control of a typical complex industrial process to enhance control performance and adaptability for the variations of operating conditions of the automatic control system. Operation of large rotary kilns is difficult and relies on experienced human operators observing the burning status, because of their inherent complexities. Thus the problem of human-machine coordination i...

  11. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Hernández Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container, and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries.

  12. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Martínez, José-Fernán; Lucas Martínez, Néstor; del Toro, Raúl M

    2015-09-18

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container), and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries.

  13. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Martínez, José-Fernán; Lucas Martínez, Néstor; del Toro, Raúl M

    2015-01-01

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container), and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries. PMID:26393612

  14. Fast control strategy for stabilising fixed-speed induction-generator-based wind turbines in an islanded distributed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Distributed generation systems (DGS) with fixed-speed induction-generator-based wind turbines (FSWT) are sensitive and vulnerable to voltage disturbances and reactive power deficiency. Consequently, the control and protection strategies for such a DGS should be prompt and precise to avoid undesired...... wind generator cutting off. This study investigates and analyses the dynamic characteristics of an FSWT to reveal the behaviours of an FSWT under disturbances. Then a fast control strategy for stabilising an islanded DGS is proposed. The main contributions of the control strategy are: the total amount...... of reactive power compensation and load shedding may be determined precisely; all the operation execution points may be decided accurately to improve DGS stability. Furthermore, the implementation of the fast control strategy is also discussed. A case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness...

  15. Optimal Control Strategy for Traffic Driven Epidemic Spreading Based on Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that community structure has a great impact on traffic transportation and epidemic spreading. The density of infected nodes and the epidemic threshold have been proven to have significant relationship with the node betweenness in traffic driven epidemic spreading method. In this paper, considering the impact of community structure on traffic driven epidemic spreading, an effective and novel strategy to control epidemic spreading in scale-free networks is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the new control strategy will obviously increase the ratio between the first and the second moments of the node betweenness distribution in scale-free networks. It is also found that the more accurate the community is identified, the stronger community structure the network has and the more efficient the control strategy is. Simulations on both computer-generated and real-world networks have confirmed the theoretical results.

  16. Supervisor control strategy of synchronizer for wet DCT based on online estimation of clutch drag torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tongli; Li, Hongkui; Zhang, Jianwu; Hao, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the performance of the synchronizer control strategy by considering the effect of clutch drag torque. The research of synchronization process in wet dual clutch transmission is performed in this paper. The significant effect of clutch drag torque is analyzed by adding a complex clutch drag torque module to synchronizer model. This paper focuses on the development of original estimation method of clutch drag torque. The estimation method offers an effective way to obtain accurate clutch drag torque, and it is applied to develop a new supervisor control strategy. Results have demonstrated that the estimation method has satisfied efficiency and accuracy and the control strategy improves the performance of the synchronizer mechanism significantly.

  17. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results. PMID:22395957

  18. School-based strategies for oral health education of adolescents- a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem Abdul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health education (OHE in schools has largely been imparted by dental professionals. Considering the substantial cost of this expert-led approach, the strategies relying on teachers, peer-leaders and learners themselves have also been utilized. However the evidence for comparative effectiveness of these strategies is lacking in the dental literature. The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of dentist-led, teacher-led, peer-led and self-learning strategies of oral health education. Methods A two-year cluster randomized controlled trial following a parallel design was conducted. It involved five groups of adolescents aged 10-11 years at the start of the study. The trial involved process as well as four outcome evaluations. The present paper discusses the findings of the study pertaining to the baseline and final outcome evaluation, both comprising of a self-administered questionnaire, a structured interview and clinical oral examination. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results All the three educator-led strategies of OHE had statistically higher mean oral health knowledge (OHK, oral health behavior (OHB, oral hygiene status (OHS and combined knowledge, behavior and oral hygiene status (KBS scores than the self-learning and control groups (p Conclusions The dentist-led, teacher-led and peer-led strategies of oral health education are equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents. The peer-led strategy, however, is almost as effective as the dentist-led strategy and comparatively more effective than the teacher-led and self-learning strategies in improving their oral health behavior. Trail registration SRCTN39391017

  19. A combination strategy based brain-computer interface for two-dimensional movement control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Maysam, Oladazimi; Veser, Sandra; Cao, Lei; Li, Jie; Jia, Jie; Xie, Hong; Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Two-dimensional (2D) movement control is an important issue in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) research because being able to move, for example, a cursor with the brain will enable patients with motor disabilities to control their environment. However, it is still a challenge to continuously control 2D movement with a non-invasive BCI system. In this paper, we developed a 2D cursor control with motor imagery BCI tasks allowing users to move a cursor to any position by using a combination strategy. With this strategy, a user can combine multiple motor imagery tasks, alternatively or simultaneously, to control 2D movements. Approach. After a training session, six participants took part in the first control strategy experiment (the center-out experiment) to verify the effectiveness of the cursor control. Three of the six participants performed an additional experiment, in which they were required to move the cursor to hit five targets in a given sequence. Main results. The average hit rate was more than 95.6% and the trajectories were close to the shortest path. The average hit rate was more than 95.6% and the trajectories were close to the shortest path in the center-out experiment. In the additional experiment, three participants achieved a 100% hit rate with a short trajectory. Significance. The results demonstrated that users were able to effectively control the 2D movement using the proposed strategy. The present system may be used as a tool to interact with the external world.

  20. Wind Farm Active Power Dispatch for Output Power Maximizing Based on a Wind Turbine Control Strategy for Load Minimizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Baohua; Hu, Weihao; Hou, Peng;

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of the wake effect in the wind farm control design (WF) can increase the total captured power by wind turbines (WTs), which is usually implemented by derating upwind WTs. However, derating the WT without a proper control strategy will increase the structural loads, caused by operation in...... stall mode. Therefore, the WT control strategy for derating operation should be considered in the attempt at maximizing the total captured power while reducing structural loads. Moreover, electrical power loss on the transmission system inside a WF is also not negligible for maximizing the total output...... power of the WF. In this paper, an optimal active power dispatch strategy based on a WT derating strategy and considering the transmission loss is proposed for maximizing the total output power. The active power reference of each WT is chosen as the optimization variable. A partial swarm optimizing...

  1. Double loop control strategy with different time steps based on human characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gwang Min; Lee, Jinoh; Kim, Jung

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a cooperative control strategy in consideration of the force sensitivity of human. The strategy consists of two loops: one is the intention estimation loop whose sampling time can be variable in order to investigate the effect of the sampling time; the other is the position control loop with fixed time step. A high sampling rate is not necessary for the intention estimation loop due to the bandwidth of the mechanoreceptors in humans. In addition, the force sensor implemented in the robot is sensitive to the noise induced from the sensor itself and tremor of the human. Multiple experiments were performed with the experimental protocol using various time steps of the intention estimation loop to find the suitable sampling times in physical human robot interaction. The task involves pull-and-push movement with a two-degree-of-freedom robot, and the norm of the interaction force was obtained for each experiment as the measure of the cooperative control performance.

  2. [The technological innovation strategy for quality control of Chinese medicine based on Big Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-hao; Qian, Zhong-zhi; Cheng, Yi-yu

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the quality control concepts of medical products within the global context and the development of the quality control technology of Chinese medicine are briefly described. Aimed at the bottlenecks in the regulation and quality control of Chinese medicine, using Big Data technology to address the significant challenges in Chinese medicine industry is proposed. For quality standard refinements and internationalization of Chinese medicine, a technological innovation strategy encompassing its methodology, and the R&D direction of the subsequent core technology are also presented. PMID:26978975

  3. Discrete Optimal Control Method Based on the Optimal Strategy of Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration was given to the discrete optimal control method for the optimal fishing strategy. Our method is new and efficient for discrete optimal control problem, which is different from the other optimal methods such as the traditional variational method, the Pontryagin principle of maximum, and the dynamic programming. The basic construction of the model is the traditional logistic function relating to the growth of fry. The discrete optimal control method for optimal fishing strategy was used to construct the optimal rate of each fishing strategy; the main focus of our work is on the rigorous mathematical analysis of the optimal control problem. The analysis allows one to obtain the optimal initial investment amount of the fry and the optimal size of the total catch. Furthermore, when the initial investment amount of the fry is below or above the optimal value and the intrinsic growth rate of fish R is too small, we derive that fishing operations should not be started in the last few years to make the overall fishing amount optimal. At last, several typical examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.

  4. Enhanced control strategy for MMC-based STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieves, M.; Maza, J.M.; Mauricio, J.M.;

    2014-01-01

    as required for load unbalance compensation. This paper proposes an improved balancing strategy for the delta configuration to overcome this situation based on the injection of a third harmonic zero sequence current. Simulation results have proved the effectiveness of the proposal even where different...

  5. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion System during Grid Voltage Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu

    and rotor current. The degraded performances of the DFIG may reduce the life time of the drive train, affect the system stability, and even destroy the power converters. To improve the system performance, stability and reliability, it must improve the control strategy for the DFIG experiencing non...... of the stator voltage can cause the transient stator flux, and then the transient stator flux may be enlarged due to the effects of the initial value. The amplitude of the transient flux is determined by both the instant and depth of stator voltage variation, and the decaying characteristic of the transient...... flux is affected by the control strategy of the rotor current and stator time constant. The stator transient flux is harmful to the DFIG, because it may cause oscillations of the electromagnetic torque, stator or rotor current, DC-link voltage, and stator active and reactive power. On the basis...

  6. A new virtual-flux-vector based droop control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jiefeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Qu, Yanqing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage and frequency droop method is commonly used in microgrids to achieve proper autonomous power sharing without rely on intercommunication systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrid applications by drooping the flux instead of the inverter output voltage. Firstly, the relation between the inverter flux and the active and reactive power is mathematically obtained. Secondly, a novel flux droop method is then developed in order to regul...

  7. Neural network based semi-active control strategy for structural vibration mitigation with magnetorheological damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Subrata

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network based semi-active control method for a rotary type magnetorheological (MR) damper. The characteristics of the MR damper are described by the classic Bouc-Wen model, and the performance of the proposed control method is evaluated in terms of a base exited shear......-displacement trajectories. The proposed neural network controller is therefore trained based on data derived from these desired forcedisplacement curves, where the optimal relation between friction force level and response amplitude is determined explicitly by simply maximizing the damping ratio of the targeted vibration...... to determine the damper current based on the derived optimal damper force. For that reason an inverse MR damper model is also designed based on the neural network identification of the particular rotary MR damper. The performance of the proposed controller is compared to that of an optimal pure viscous damper...

  8. A novel vehicle dynamics stability control algorithm based on the hierarchical strategy with constrain of nonlinear tyre forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Jia, Gang; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Hongjun; Cao, Dongpu; Song, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Direct yaw moment control (DYC), which differentially brakes the wheels to produce a yaw moment for the vehicle stability in a steering process, is an important part of electric stability control system. In this field, most control methods utilise the active brake pressure with a feedback controller to adjust the braked wheel. However, the method might lead to a control delay or overshoot because of the lack of a quantitative project relationship between target values from the upper stability controller to the lower pressure controller. Meanwhile, the stability controller usually ignores the implementing ability of the tyre forces, which might be restrained by the combined-slip dynamics of the tyre. Therefore, a novel control algorithm of DYC based on the hierarchical control strategy is brought forward in this paper. As for the upper controller, a correctional linear quadratic regulator, which not only contains feedback control but also contains feed forward control, is introduced to deduce the object of the stability yaw moment in order to guarantee the yaw rate and side-slip angle stability. As for the medium and lower controller, the quantitative relationship between the vehicle stability object and the target tyre forces of controlled wheels is proposed to achieve smooth control performance based on a combined-slip tyre model. The simulations with the hardware-in-the-loop platform validate that the proposed algorithm can improve the stability of the vehicle effectively.

  9. A service-oriented admission control strategy for class-based IP networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Solange; Carvalho, Paulo; Freitas, Vasco

    2008-01-01

    The clear trend toward the integration of current and emerging applications and services in the Internet launches new demands on service deployment and management. Distributed service-oriented traffic control mechanisms, operating with minimum impact on network performance, assume a crucial role as regards controlling services quality and network resources transparently and efficiently. In this paper, we describe and specify a lightweight distributed admission control (AC) model based on ...

  10. Canine-Based Strategies for Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovallos, Fredy G.; Amaku, Marcus; Carrillo, Eugenia; Moreno, Javier; Galati, Eunice A. B.; Lopes, Estela G.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Ferreira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis found worldwide. Its incidence has increased in Brazil in recent years, representing a serious public and animal health problem. The strategies applied in Brazil are questionable and are not sufficient to control the disease. Thus, we have compared the efficacy of some of the currently available strategies focused on dogs to prevent and control zoonotic VL in endemic areas by optimizing a mathematical model. The simulations showed that the elimination of seropositive dogs, the use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars, and the vaccination of dogs significantly contribute to reducing the prevalence of infection in both canines and humans. The use of insecticide-impregnated collars presented the highest level of efficacy mainly because it directly affected the force of infection and vector-dog contact. In addition, when used at a coverage rate of 90%, insecticide-impregnated collar was able to decrease the prevalence of seropositive dogs and humans to zero; moreover, because of the easy application and acceptance by the targeted population, these collars may be considered the most feasible for inclusion in public policies among the three simulated measures. Vaccination and euthanasia were efficacious, but the latter method is strongly criticized on ethical grounds, and both methods present difficulties for inclusion in public policies. When we compared the use of euthanasia and vaccination at coverages of 70 and 90%, respectively, the proportion of infected populations were similar. However, on evaluating the implications of both of these methods, particularly the negative aspects of culling dogs and the proportion of animals protected by vaccination, the latter measure appears to be the better option if the total cost is not significantly higher. The comparison of complications and advantages of different control strategies allows us to analyze the optimal measure and offer strategies to veterinary and public health

  11. Canine-Based Strategies for Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá P; Ovallos, Fredy G; Amaku, Marcus; Carrillo, Eugenia; Moreno, Javier; Galati, Eunice A B; Lopes, Estela G; Soares, Rodrigo M; Ferreira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis found worldwide. Its incidence has increased in Brazil in recent years, representing a serious public and animal health problem. The strategies applied in Brazil are questionable and are not sufficient to control the disease. Thus, we have compared the efficacy of some of the currently available strategies focused on dogs to prevent and control zoonotic VL in endemic areas by optimizing a mathematical model. The simulations showed that the elimination of seropositive dogs, the use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars, and the vaccination of dogs significantly contribute to reducing the prevalence of infection in both canines and humans. The use of insecticide-impregnated collars presented the highest level of efficacy mainly because it directly affected the force of infection and vector-dog contact. In addition, when used at a coverage rate of 90%, insecticide-impregnated collar was able to decrease the prevalence of seropositive dogs and humans to zero; moreover, because of the easy application and acceptance by the targeted population, these collars may be considered the most feasible for inclusion in public policies among the three simulated measures. Vaccination and euthanasia were efficacious, but the latter method is strongly criticized on ethical grounds, and both methods present difficulties for inclusion in public policies. When we compared the use of euthanasia and vaccination at coverages of 70 and 90%, respectively, the proportion of infected populations were similar. However, on evaluating the implications of both of these methods, particularly the negative aspects of culling dogs and the proportion of animals protected by vaccination, the latter measure appears to be the better option if the total cost is not significantly higher. The comparison of complications and advantages of different control strategies allows us to analyze the optimal measure and offer strategies to veterinary and public health

  12. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hao Fan; Hongwen He; Deng Pan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB). In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator) model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area ne...

  13. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Adaptive Strategy for Tuning of Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Bash Chandra Debnath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for learning and tuning a fuzzy logic controller automatically by means of a particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed self-learning fuzzy logic control that uses the PSO with adaptive abilities can learn the fuzzy conclusion tables, their corresponding membership functions and fitness value where the optimization only considers certain points of the membership functions. To exhibit the effectiveness of proposed algorithm, it is used to optimize the Gaussian membership functions of the fuzzy model of a nonlinear problem. Moreover, in order to design an effective adaptive fuzzy logic controller, an on line adaptive PSO based mechanism is presented to determine the parameters of the fuzzy mechanisms. Simulation results on two nonlinear problems are derived to demonstrate the powerful PSO learning algorithm and the proposed method is able to find good controllers better than neural controller and conventional controller for the target problem, cart pole type inverted pendulum system.

  14. A brucellosis disease control strategy for the Kakheti region of the country of Georgia: an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, K A; Boone, R B; Hill, A E; Salman, M D

    2014-06-01

    Brucellosis has been reported in livestock and humans in the country of Georgia with Brucella melitensis as the most common species causing disease. Georgia lacked sufficient data to assess effectiveness of the various potential control measures utilizing a reliable population-based simulation model of animal-to-human transmission of this infection. Therefore, an agent-based model was built using data from previous studies to evaluate the effect of an animal-level infection control programme on human incidence and sheep flock and cattle herd prevalence of brucellosis in the Kakheti region of Georgia. This model simulated the patterns of interaction of human-animal workers, sheep flocks and cattle herds with various infection control measures and returned population-based data. The model simulates the use of control measures needed for herd and flock prevalence to fall below 2%. As per the model output, shepherds had the greatest disease reduction as a result of the infection control programme. Cattle had the greatest influence on the incidence of human disease. Control strategies should include all susceptible animal species, sheep and cattle, identify the species of brucellosis present in the cattle population and should be conducted at the municipality level. This approach can be considered as a model to other countries and regions when assessment of control strategies is needed but data are scattered.

  15. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  16. Environmental optimal control strategies based on plant canopy photosynthesis responses and greenhouse climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lujuan; Xie, Songhe; Cui, Jiantao; Liu, Tao

    2006-11-01

    It is the essential goal of intelligent greenhouse environment optimal control to enhance income of cropper and energy save. There were some characteristics such as uncertainty, imprecision, nonlinear, strong coupling, bigger inertia and different time scale in greenhouse environment control system. So greenhouse environment optimal control was not easy and especially model-based optimal control method was more difficult. So the optimal control problem of plant environment in intelligent greenhouse was researched. Hierarchical greenhouse environment control system was constructed. In the first level data measuring was carried out and executive machine was controlled. Optimal setting points of climate controlled variable in greenhouse was calculated and chosen in the second level. Market analysis and planning were completed in third level. The problem of the optimal setting point was discussed in this paper. Firstly the model of plant canopy photosynthesis responses and the model of greenhouse climate model were constructed. Afterwards according to experience of the planting expert, in daytime the optimal goals were decided according to the most maximal photosynthesis rate principle. In nighttime on plant better growth conditions the optimal goals were decided by energy saving principle. Whereafter environment optimal control setting points were computed by GA. Compared the optimal result and recording data in real system, the method is reasonable and can achieve energy saving and the maximal photosynthesis rate in intelligent greenhouse

  17. Investigation of neural-net based control strategies for improved power system dynamic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The ability to accurately predict the behavior of a dynamic system is of essential importance in monitoring and control of complex processes. In this regard recent advances in neural-net base system identification represent a significant step toward development and design of a new generation of control tools for increased system performance and reliability. The enabling functionality is the one of accurate representation of a model of a nonlinear and nonstationary dynamic system. This functionality provides valuable new opportunities including: (1) The ability to predict future system behavior on the basis of actual system observations, (2) On-line evaluation and display of system performance and design of early warning systems, and (3) Controller optimization for improved system performance. In this presentation, we discuss the issues involved in definition and design of learning control systems and their impact on power system control. Several numerical examples are provided for illustrative purpose.

  18. T-S Fuzzy Model Based Control Strategy for the Networked Suspension Control System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control problem for the networked suspension control system of maglev train with random induced time delay and packet dropouts is investigated. First, Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy models are utilized to represent the discrete-time nonlinear networked suspension control system, and the parameters uncertainties of the nonlinear model have also been taken into account. The controllers take the form of parallel distributed compensation. Then, a sufficient condition for the stability of the networked suspension control system is derived. Based on the criteria, the state feedback fuzzy controllers are obtained, and the controller gains can be computed by using MATLAB LMI Toolbox directly. Finally, both the numerical simulations and physical experiments on the full-scale single bogie of CMS-04 maglev train have been accomplished to demonstrate the effectiveness of this proposed method.

  19. Differential Control Strategy based on an Equal Slip Rate for an All-wheel Electricdrive Underground Articulated Dumping Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential control strategy based on equal slip rates is introduced to improve the steering stability of an all-wheelelectric-drive underground articulated dumping truck. Steering kinematic and dynamic models of the truck are derived to describe the movement relationship and force of the driving wheels. In consideration of the difficulty of obtaining the absolute velocity for an all-wheel-drive truck, an acceleration sensor was set on a test truck, and a kalman filter was applied to obtain the actual value for the truck body. Simulation results for an equal-slip control strategy were compared with experimental results for an equal-torque control strategy. In the simulation, the four-wheel slip rate was 0.08 and the steering system of the truck was stable. The results verify that the equal-slip control strategy makes better use of the ground adhesion coefficient, is able to reasonably distribute drive power, notably reduces tire wear, and improves the use of driving power.

  20. Event-based control strategy for consensus of a group of VTOL-UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Alonzo, A; Guerrero Castellanos, Jose Fermi; Durand, Sylvain; N. Marchand; Maya-Rueda, S. E.; Mino-Aguilar, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a collaborative event-based control applied to the problem of consensus and formation of a group of VTOL-UAVs (Vertical Takeoff and Landing, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). Each VTOL-UAV decides, based on the difference of its current state (linear position and velocity) and its latest broadcast state, when it has to send a new value to its neighbors. The asymptotic convergence to average consensus or desired formation is depicted via numerical simulations.

  1. A comparison of acceptance- and control-based strategies for coping with food cravings: an analog study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M; Hoffman, Kimberly L; McGrath, Kathleen B; Herbert, James D; Brandsma, Lynn L; Lowe, Michael R

    2007-10-01

    The present study utilized an analog paradigm to investigate the effectiveness of two strategies for coping with food cravings, which was theorized to be critical to the maintenance of weight loss. Ninety-eight undergraduate students were given transparent boxes of chocolate Hershey's Kisses and instructed to keep the chocolates with them, but not to eat them, for 48 h. Before receiving the Kisses, participants were randomized to receive either (a) no intervention, (b) instruction in control-based coping strategies such as distraction and cognitive restructuring, or (c) instruction in acceptance-based strategies such as experiential acceptance and defusion techniques. Measures included the Power of Food Scale (PFS; a measure of psychological sensitivity to the food environment), self-report ratings of chocolate cravings and surreptitiously recorded chocolate consumption. Results suggested that the effect of the intervention depended on baseline PFS levels, such that acceptance-based strategies were associated with better outcomes (cravings, consumption) among those reporting the highest susceptibility to the presence of food, but greater cravings among those who scored lowest on the PFS. It was observed that craving self-report measures predicted chocolate consumption, and baseline PFS levels predicted both cravings and consumption. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for weight loss maintenance strategies. PMID:17544361

  2. Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome Can Use a Mindfulness-Based Strategy to Control Their Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Angela D. A.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome occasionally exhibit aggressive behavior against peers and parents. In a multiple baseline design across subjects, three adolescents with Asperger syndrome were taught to use a mindfulness-based procedure called "Meditation on the Soles of the Feet" to control their physical aggression in the family…

  3. A Moving Control Strategy Based on RSSI Real-time Localization in Multi-tier Mobile Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Wen; Min Yu; Wenwen Huang; Mingxing Deng

    2009-01-01

    Research on communication collection pattern for traditional fixed nodes with some mobile ones has been already extensive. However, almost nothing is done in tiered movement policy while movement track is unknown and sensor nodes drift at random direction. To fit the development of “smart dust” wireless sensor network, a new moving control strategy based on RSSI real-time localization is proposed in the multi-tier mobile sensor networks. First, we divide the monitoring field into ...

  4. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Adaptive Strategy for Tuning of Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Bash Chandra Debnath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for learning and tuning a fuzzy logic controller automatically by meansof a particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed self-learning fuzzy logic control that uses the PSOwith adaptive abilities can learn the fuzzy conclusion tables, their corresponding membership functions andfitness value where the optimization only considers certain points of the membership functions. To exhibitthe effectiveness of proposed algorithm, it is used to optimize the Gaussian membership functions of thefuzzy model of a nonlinear problem. Moreover, in order to design an effective adaptive fuzzy logiccontroller, an on line adaptive PSO based mechanism is presented to determine the parameters of the fuzzymechanisms. Simulation results on two nonlinear problems are derived to demonstrate the powerful PSOlearning algorithm and the proposed method is able to find good controllers better than neural controllerand conventional controller for the target problem, cart pole type inverted pendulum system.

  5. A decision tree-based on-line preventive control strategy for power system transient instability prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhao Yang; Zhang, Rui; Wong, Kit Po

    2014-02-01

    Maintaining transient stability is a basic requirement for secure power system operations. Preventive control deals with modifying the system operating point to withstand probable contingencies. In this article, a decision tree (DT)-based on-line preventive control strategy is proposed for transient instability prevention of power systems. Given a stability database, a distance-based feature estimation algorithm is first applied to identify the critical generators, which are then used as features to develop a DT. By interpreting the splitting rules of DT, preventive control is realised by formulating the rules in a standard optimal power flow model and solving it. The proposed method is transparent in control mechanism, on-line computation compatible and convenient to deal with multi-contingency. The effectiveness and efficiency of the method has been verified on New England 10-machine 39-bus test system.

  6. A remote islanding detection and control strategy for photovoltaic-based distributed generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study presents a new remote islanding detection method for PV based DG systems. • An uncomplicated VLSI based structure for voltage drifting detection is proposed with FPGA. • The proposed method was verified by the developed PV testbed constituted in the laboratory. • The islanding detection time is 1.65 ms even in a resonant condition. • The proposed method is independent from inverter & load so it can be easily implemented. - Abstract: This study presents a new remote islanding detection method and control system for photovoltaic (PV) based Distributed Generation (DG) systems. The proposed method monitors and controls the grid, local load and the output of the PV inverter in real time with the communication of circuit breakers. The proposed remote control system detects the changes in the currents of the circuit breakers, frequency, and the voltages by checking the defined threshold values at all electrical branches of the PV system. The proposed islanding detection algorithm was implemented by a low-cost FPGA board. The control system was also designed by considering a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) structure. The proposed method was verified by a developed prototype PV system constituted in the laboratory. The proposed control system was checked in a resonance condition with an active power match, and the verified results indicated that the developed system was also independent of the load and the inverter. Islanding detection time is approximately 1.65 ms even in a worst-case operational scenario, and this is a significantly shorter response time according to the existing standards. The proposed method presents a realistic solution to islanding, is easy to implement, and is suitable for real system applications. The method also provides a reliable islanding detection and presents a low-cost solution to the subject

  7. MPPT Algorithm for Small Wind Systems based on Speed Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian VLAD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of an autonomous low-power wind energy conversion system (WECS, based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG connected directly to the wind turbine. The purpose of this paper is to present an improving method for MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based shaft rotational speed optimal control. The proposed method concern the variable delay compensation between measured wind speed from anemometer and wind shaft rotational speed proportional signal. Experimental results aiming to prove the efficiency of the proposed method are presented.

  8. GRID-CONNECTED CONVERTER CONTROL STRATEGY BASED ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAGNITUDE AND PHASE OF SYSTEM VOLTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shansheng Feng

    2015-01-01

    Grid-connected converter is an important power interface between the DC bus of renewable energy power system and public grid. By virtue of vector relation of grid voltage, converter voltage and line impedance voltage, realtime control of active current and reactive current injected into the grid is realized. The simulation results show that grid-connected converter based on relationship between magnitude and phase of system voltage can flexibly regulate active power and reactive p...

  9. Adaptive Fuzzy PID Based Control Strategy For 3Phase 4Wire Shunt Active Filter To Mitigate Current Harmonics Of Grid Interconnection Of Renewable Energy Based Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleemullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control strategy for controlling the shunt active power filter to compensate reactive power and to reduce the unwanted harmonics in the grid current. Shunt active filter act as a current source which is connected in parallel with a non-linear load and controlled to produce the required compensating current. The proposed control strategy is based on the fuzzy PID controller which is used for determining the reference compensating currents of the three-phase shunt active power filters. Simulations are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK to verify the performance of the proposed controller. The output shows the controller has fast dynamic response high accuracy of tracking DC voltage reference and robust to load parameters variations.

  10. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  11. An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR system for four-wheel drive (4WD electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque and independent control of optimal slip rate, respectively, which are designed based on the torque adaptive principle of inter-axle differential and sliding mode control theory. Furthermore, in order to accurately describe the longitudinal tyre force characteristic, a slip rate calculation formula in the form of a state equation was used for solving the numerical problem posed by the traditional way. A simulation was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed ASR system can fully use the road friction condition, inhibit the drive-wheels from slipping, and improve the vehicle longitudinal driving stability.

  12. Comparative Studies of Different Control Strategies of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shabanpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR with no energy storage is studied. By using a matrix converter instead of the conventional AC/DC/AC converters, elimination of the DC-link capacitor is possible. The switching algorithm of matrix converter is the space vector modulation. There are different compensation algorithms to control the conventional DVR. These methods have been analyzed in this paper for the proposed matrix-converter-based DVR. A deep analysis through different diagrams would show the advantages or disadvantages of each compensation method. Equations for all methods are derived, and the characteristics of algorithms are compared with each other.

  13. Control strategy of shortcut nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Gang; ZHENG Ping; JIN Ren-cun; QAISAR Mahmood

    2006-01-01

    Shortcut nitrification for ammonium-rich wastewater is energy-saving and cost-effective procedure that has become one of the hotspots in the field of biological denitrogenation. An orthogonal experiment was performed to study the combined effects of operational parameters on the performance of internal-loop airlift bioreactor for shortcut nitrification. The optimum operational parameters for the shortcut nitrification were found as temperature 35 ℃, pH 8.0, dissolved oxygen concentration 1.0 mg/L, ammonium concentration 4 mmol/L and HRT 16 h, which have different influence on the performance of shortcut nitrification reactor. The pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration have significant bearing on the process. The results showed that the shortcut nitrification reactor could be successfully started up within 42 d, and the reactor performance is steady with minimum NO2-/NOx- of 85.2% , maximum 93.4% and average value of 91.4% in effluent. Based on the analysis of experimental data, a new control strategy named "priority + combination" for shortcut nitrification was suggested. Through this strategy, the startup and operation of shortcut nitrification for ammonium-rich sludge digester liquids were optimized. The control strategy works well to keep the reactor operation in steady state and in achieving high-efficiency for shortcut nitrification.

  14. New Strategy for Congestion Control based on Dynamic Adjustment of Congestion Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Attiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mechanism for the end-to-end congestion control, called EnewReno. The proposed mechanism is based on the enhancement of both the congestion avoidance and the fast recovery algorithms of the TCP NewReno so as to improve its performance. The basic idea of the proposed mechanism is to adjust the congestion window of the TCP sender dynamically based on the level of congestion in the network so as to allow transferring more packets to the destination. The performance of the proposed mechanism is evaluated and compared with the most recent mechanisms by simulation studies using the well known Network Simulator NS-2 and the realistic topology generator GT-ITM.

  15. Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Elmasides, Costas; Stergiopoulos, Fotis; Papadopoulou, Simira; Seferlis, Panos; Voutetakis, Spyros

    The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage) and to regulate the overall system operation, based on a developed power management strategy. Hydrogen is produced by using system excess power in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and is further stored in pressurized cylinders for subsequent use in a PEM fuel cell in cases of power shortage. A diesel generator complements the integrated system and is employed only in emergency cases, such as subsystems failure. The performance of the automatic control system is evaluated through the real-time operation of the power system where data from the various subsystems are recorded and analyzed using a supervised data acquisition unit. Various network protocols were used to integrate the system devices into one central control system managing in this way to compensate for the differences between chemical and electrical subunits. One of the main advantages is the ability of process monitoring from distance where users can perform changes to system principal variables. Furthermore, the performance of the implemented power management strategy is evaluated through simulated scenarios by including a case study analysis on system abilities to meet higher than expected electrical load demands.

  16. Quantum representation and watermark strategy for color images based on the controlled rotation of qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panchi; Xiao, Hong; Li, Binxu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a novel quantum representation and watermarking scheme based on the controlled rotation of qubits are proposed. Firstly, a flexible representation for quantum color image (FRQCI) is proposed to facilitate the image processing tasks. Some basic image processing operations based on FRQCI representation are introduced. Then, a novel watermarking scheme for quantum images is presented. In our scheme, the carrier image is stored in the phase θ of a qubit; at the same time, the watermark image is embedded into the phase φ of a qubit, which will not affect the carrier image's visual effect. Before being embedded into the carrier image, the watermark image is scrambled to be seemingly meaningless using quantum circuits, which further ensures the security of the watermark image. All the operations mentioned above are implemented by the controlled rotation of qubits. The experimental results on the classical computer show that the proposed watermarking scheme has better visual quality under a higher embedding capacity and outperforms the existing schemes in the literature.

  17. Energy optimal control strategies for electro motors; low-cost and sensorless PWM-VSI based induction motor control. Vol. 1: Main report, appendix and annex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, F.

    1998-02-01

    When variable speed induction motor drives are used in applications that run at low load for long periods, energy can be saved by reducing the motor flux at low load. In this report the efficiency of 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives are investigated experimentally with efficiency optimized and constant flux control, with sinusoidal and PWM voltage supply and with varying switching frequency. Steady-state motor models are developed and verified experimentally, and are used to analyze and develop efficiency optimizing control strategies. Four energy optimal control strategies are tested experimentally: cos({phi}) control, model-based control, off-line calculated airgap flux control and stator current/input power minimising search control. Their dynamical properties and their ability to reject load disturbances are analysed. Their ability to save energy is tested on a water pump system. For a typical predefined test-cycle the energy optimal control reduces the energy consumption with 10% compared with classical constant V/Hz control. (au)

  18. Mobile Target Tracking Based on Hybrid Open-Loop Monocular Vision Motion Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new real-time target tracking method based on the open-loop monocular vision motion control. It uses the particle filter technique to predict the moving target’s position in an image. Due to the properties of the particle filter, the method can effectively master the motion behaviors of the linear and nonlinear. In addition, the method uses the simple mathematical operation to transfer the image information in the mobile target to its real coordinate information. Therefore, it requires few operating resources. Moreover, the method adopts the monocular vision approach, which is a single camera, to achieve its objective by using few hardware resources. Firstly, the method evaluates the next time’s position and size of the target in an image. Later, the real position of the objective corresponding to the obtained information is predicted. At last, the mobile robot should be controlled in the center of the camera’s vision. The paper conducts the tracking test to the L-type and the S-type and compares with the Kalman filtering method. The experimental results show that the method achieves a better tracking effect in the L-shape experiment, and its effect is superior to the Kalman filter technique in the L-type or S-type tracking experiment.

  19. 基于支持向量机逼近的内模控制系统及应用%SVM Approximate-based Internal Model Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀南; 袁小芳

    2008-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM) approximate-based internal model control (IMC) strategy is presented for the steam valving control of synchronous generators. The proposed SVM IMC strategy includes two main parts: SVM approximate inverse controller and uncertainty compensation in the internal model structure. The SVM inverse controller is derived directly using an input-output approximation approach via Taylor expansion, and it is implemented through nonlinear system identification without further online training. Frthermore, a robustness filter is used for uncertainty compensation in the internal model structure.Simulations show the effectiveness of the SVM IMC strategy for the steam valving control.

  20. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  1. Optimizing insecticide allocation strategies based on houses and livestock shelters for visceral leishmaniasis control in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorahava, Kaushik K; Rosenberger, Jay M; Mubayi, Anuj

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most deadly form of the leishmaniasis family of diseases, which affects numerous developing countries. The Indian state of Bihar has the highest prevalence and mortality rate of VL in the world. Insecticide spraying is believed to be an effective vector control program for controlling the spread of VL in Bihar; however, it is expensive and less effective if not implemented systematically. This study develops and analyzes a novel optimization model for VL control in Bihar that identifies an optimal (best possible) allocation of chosen insecticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT] or deltamethrin) based on the sizes of human and cattle populations in the region. The model maximizes the insecticide-induced sandfly death rate in human and cattle dwellings while staying within the current state budget for VL vector control efforts. The model results suggest that deltamethrin might not be a good replacement for DDT because the insecticide-induced sandfly deaths are 3.72 times more in case of DDT even after 90 days post spray. Different insecticide allocation strategies between the two types of sites (houses and cattle sheds) are suggested based on the state VL-control budget and have a direct implication on VL elimination efforts in a resource-limited region.

  2. Comparing strategies for controlling an African pest rodent: an empirically based theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Leirs, Herwig; Mercelis, Saskia;

    2001-01-01

    that CMR data are available, we recommend developing Leslie-type population models for rodent pests on the basis of CMR-estimated demographic schedules. Such models have great potential in rodent management and allow the evaluation of different strategies.7. Besides improving the ecological basis...

  3. A study on the energy management in domestic micro-grids based on Model Predictive Control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of a domestic microgrid and house thermal model. • Model Predictive Control for simultaneous management of power flow and thermal comfort. • Modeling of summer and winter typical conditions. • Comparison with standard rule based controller results. • Fuel cell downsizing potential of output is up to 60%. - Abstract: In this paper a Model Predictive Control (MPC) logic, based on weather forecasts, has been applied to the analysis of power management in a domestic off-grid system. The system is laid out as the integration of renewable energy conversion devices (Photovoltaic, PV), a high efficiency energy conversion programmable system (a Fuel Cell, FC) and an electrochemical energy storage (batteries). The control strategy has the objective of minimizing energy costs, while maintaining the optimal environmental comfort in the house, thus optimizing the use of renewable sources. To that aim, a validated numerical model of the whole system has been developed, and simulations have been carried out for winter and summer periods. Performances attainable with a MPC-based logic have been evaluated in comparison with a standard Rule Based Control logic, by means of costs and efficiency parameters of the micro-grid. Temperature violations have been taken into account to represent the impact of the control on comfort. Results show an improvement of the house comfort conditions and a lower use (on average 14.5%) of primary fossil energy. This is due both to a reduction of required energy, and to an increased use of renewable energy sources. Moreover, the modulation of the HVAC load and of the FC operation gives a reduction of requested power by approximately 40%. Smoother battery pack charge and discharge processes are also obtained. As a main positive effect, a reduction of the FC powerplant size and an increase of its durability seems feasible, leading to an overall reduction of capital costs

  4. Learning an intermittent control strategy for postural balancing using an EMG-based human-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Asai

    Full Text Available It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off.

  5. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  6. A Moving Control Strategy Based on RSSI Real-time Localization in Multi-tier Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on communication collection pattern for traditional fixed nodes with some mobile ones has been already extensive. However, almost nothing is done in tiered movement policy while movement track is unknown and sensor nodes drift at random direction. To fit the development of “smart dust” wireless sensor network, a new moving control strategy based on RSSI real-time localization is proposed in the multi-tier mobile sensor networks. First, we divide the monitoring field into several sub-regions so that fusion nodes can collect data in their own parts respectively, and use constraints-based mobile localization (CML algorithm to calculate the location information of each sensor node. Then, a new Maximum Likelihood Nearest Neighbor (MLNN algorithm is proposed to design optimal routes for fusion nodes. Finally, each fusion node can collect sensed data along this route. Simulation results show that the moving control strategy can provide a good solution of the problem on tiered mobile network of instable communication and high-fraction of event loss. Only layouting a small number of fusion nodes, the network can receive higher data success rate and lower data transmission delay, and is very suitable for the large-scale industry real-time monitoring application of wireless sensor networks.

  7. Strategies for Industrial Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.

    Multivariable control strategies well-suited for industrial applications are suggested. The strategies combine the practical advantages of conventional SISO control schemes and -technology with the potential of multivariable controllers. Special emphasis is put on parameter-varying systems whose...... dynamics and gains strongly depend upon one or more physical parameters characterizing the operating point. This class covers many industrial systems such as airplanes, ships, robots and process control systems. Power plant boilers are representatives for process control systems in general. The dynamics...... and gains of power plant boilers strongly depend upon the load (instantaneous power production). This non-linear behavior suggests the use of gain-scheduling. For parameter-varying systems the multivariable control strategies can hence be divided into the following subsequent steps: choice of architecture...

  8. Preprocessing and Quality Control Strategies for Illumina DASL Assay-Based Brain Gene Expression Studies with Semi-Degraded Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L; Winn, Mary E; Li, Hai-Ri; April, Craig; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Fan, Jian-Bing; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Courchesne, Eric; Schork, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    Available statistical preprocessing or quality control analysis tools for gene expression microarray datasets are known to greatly affect downstream data analysis, especially when degraded samples, unique tissue samples, or novel expression assays are used. It is therefore important to assess the validity and impact of the assumptions built in to preprocessing schemes for a dataset. We developed and assessed a data preprocessing strategy for use with the Illumina DASL-based gene expression assay with partially degraded postmortem prefrontal cortex samples. The samples were obtained from individuals with autism as part of an investigation of the pathogenic factors contributing to autism. Using statistical analysis methods and metrics such as those associated with multivariate distance matrix regression and mean inter-array correlation, we developed a DASL-based assay gene expression preprocessing pipeline to accommodate and detect problems with microarray-based gene expression values obtained with degraded brain samples. Key steps in the pipeline included outlier exclusion, data transformation and normalization, and batch effect and covariate corrections. Our goal was to produce a clean dataset for subsequent downstream differential expression analysis. We ultimately settled on available transformation and normalization algorithms in the R/Bioconductor package lumi based on an assessment of their use in various combinations. A log2-transformed, quantile-normalized, and batch and seizure-corrected procedure was likely the most appropriate for our data. We empirically tested different components of our proposed preprocessing strategy and believe that our results suggest that a preprocessing strategy that effectively identifies outliers, normalizes the data, and corrects for batch effects can be applied to all studies, even those pursued with degraded samples.

  9. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  10. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Adaptive Strategy for Tuning of Fuzzy Logic Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Sree Bash Chandra Debnath; Pintu Chandra Shill; Kazuyuki Murase

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for learning and tuning a fuzzy logic controller automatically by means of a particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed self-learning fuzzy logic control that uses the PSO with adaptive abilities can learn the fuzzy conclusion tables, their corresponding membership functions and fitness value where the optimization only considers certain points of the membership functions. To exhibit the effectiveness of proposed algorithm, it is used to optim...

  12. Damping control strategies of inter-area low-frequency oscillation for DFIG-based wind farms integrated into a power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Shengquan; Ji, Haiting;

    2014-01-01

    -frequency oscillation is theoretically analyzed through the active/reactive power control of grid-connected wind farms. Additional damping control strategies with the active/reactive power loop of the DFIG-based wind farm are presented using the feedback signal of the transmission line active power flow based on the...... power system stabilizer (PSS) control method. Transient simulation on different damping gain coefficients are conducted for justification. Following the OTEF mechanism analysis, an additional fuzzy damping control strategy with the active/reactive power loop is proposed by identifying the oscillation...... phase and the severity to prevent different damping gain coefficients from affecting the presented PSS damping control method. Transient and dynamic simulation results and comparisons showed that both additional control strategies with the active and reactive power loops of the DFIG-based wind farm can...

  13. Wolbachia-Based Population Control Strategy Targeting Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquitoes Proves Efficient under Semi-Field Conditions : Wolbachia-Based Control of Culex quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Julien Cattel; Cyrille Lebon; Olivier Flores; Jean-Sébastien Dehecq; Mylène Weill; Louis Clément Gouagna; Pablo Tortosa

    2015-01-01

    In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy). We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is)] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mos...

  14. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Kyla; Bodas, Manish; Campbell, Ryan John; Swanson, Doug; Sharma, Ajit; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Elevated valosin containing protein (VCP/p97) levels promote the progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although many VCP inhibitors are available, most of these therapeutic compounds have low specificity for targeted tumor cell delivery. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of dendrimer-encapsulated potent VCP-inhibitor drug in controlling non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression. The VCP inhibitor(s) (either in their pure form or encapsulated in generation-4 PAMAM-dendrimer with hydroxyl surface) were tested for their in vitro efficacy in modulating H1299 (NSCLC cells) proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Our results show that VCP inhibition by DBeQ was significantly more potent than NMS-873 as evident by decreased cell proliferation (passay) and migration (passay), and increased apoptosis (passay) as compared to untreated control cells. Next, we found that dendrimer-encapsulated DBeQ (DDNDBeQ) treatment increased ubiquitinated-protein accumulation in soluble protein-fraction (immunoblotting) of H1299 cells as compared to DDN-control, implying the effectiveness of DBeQ in proteostasis-inhibition. We verified by immunostaining that DDNDBeQ treatment increases accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins that co-localizes with an ER-marker, KDEL. We observed that proteostasis-inhibition with DDNDBeQ, significantly decreased cell migration rate (scratch-assay and transwell-invasion) as compared to the control-DDN treatment (passay) and increased caspase-3/7 mediated apoptotic cell death (pclonogenic-assay that DDNDBeQ treatment significantly (p<0.001) inhibits H1299 colony-formation as compared to control/DDN. Overall, encapsulation of potent VCP-inhibitor DBeQ into a dendrimer allows selective VCP-mediated proteostasis-inhibition for controlling NSCLC-tumor growth and progression to allow tumor-targeted sustained drug delivery. PMID:27434122

  15. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Kyla; Bodas, Manish; Campbell, Ryan John; Swanson, Doug; Sharma, Ajit; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Elevated valosin containing protein (VCP/p97) levels promote the progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although many VCP inhibitors are available, most of these therapeutic compounds have low specificity for targeted tumor cell delivery. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of dendrimer-encapsulated potent VCP-inhibitor drug in controlling non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression. The VCP inhibitor(s) (either in their pure form or encapsulated in generation-4 PAMAM-dendrimer with hydroxyl surface) were tested for their in vitro efficacy in modulating H1299 (NSCLC cells) proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Our results show that VCP inhibition by DBeQ was significantly more potent than NMS-873 as evident by decreased cell proliferation (p<0.0001, MTT-assay) and migration (p<0.05; scratch-assay), and increased apoptosis (p<0.05; caspase-3/7-assay) as compared to untreated control cells. Next, we found that dendrimer-encapsulated DBeQ (DDNDBeQ) treatment increased ubiquitinated-protein accumulation in soluble protein-fraction (immunoblotting) of H1299 cells as compared to DDN-control, implying the effectiveness of DBeQ in proteostasis-inhibition. We verified by immunostaining that DDNDBeQ treatment increases accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins that co-localizes with an ER-marker, KDEL. We observed that proteostasis-inhibition with DDNDBeQ, significantly decreased cell migration rate (scratch-assay and transwell-invasion) as compared to the control-DDN treatment (p<0.05). Moreover, DDNDBeQ treatment showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation (p<0.01, MTT-assay) and increased caspase-3/7 mediated apoptotic cell death (p<0.05) as compared to DDN-control. This was further verified by cell cycle analysis (propidium-iodide-staining) that demonstrated significant cell cycle arrest in the G2/M-phase (p<0.001) by DDNDBeQ treatment as compared to control-DDN. Moreover

  16. Dendrimer-Based Selective Proteostasis-Inhibition Strategy to Control NSCLC Growth and Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Walworth

    Full Text Available Elevated valosin containing protein (VCP/p97 levels promote the progression of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Although many VCP inhibitors are available, most of these therapeutic compounds have low specificity for targeted tumor cell delivery. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of dendrimer-encapsulated potent VCP-inhibitor drug in controlling non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC progression. The VCP inhibitor(s (either in their pure form or encapsulated in generation-4 PAMAM-dendrimer with hydroxyl surface were tested for their in vitro efficacy in modulating H1299 (NSCLC cells proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Our results show that VCP inhibition by DBeQ was significantly more potent than NMS-873 as evident by decreased cell proliferation (p<0.0001, MTT-assay and migration (p<0.05; scratch-assay, and increased apoptosis (p<0.05; caspase-3/7-assay as compared to untreated control cells. Next, we found that dendrimer-encapsulated DBeQ (DDNDBeQ treatment increased ubiquitinated-protein accumulation in soluble protein-fraction (immunoblotting of H1299 cells as compared to DDN-control, implying the effectiveness of DBeQ in proteostasis-inhibition. We verified by immunostaining that DDNDBeQ treatment increases accumulation of ubiquitinated-proteins that co-localizes with an ER-marker, KDEL. We observed that proteostasis-inhibition with DDNDBeQ, significantly decreased cell migration rate (scratch-assay and transwell-invasion as compared to the control-DDN treatment (p<0.05. Moreover, DDNDBeQ treatment showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation (p<0.01, MTT-assay and increased caspase-3/7 mediated apoptotic cell death (p<0.05 as compared to DDN-control. This was further verified by cell cycle analysis (propidium-iodide-staining that demonstrated significant cell cycle arrest in the G2/M-phase (p<0.001 by DDNDBeQ treatment as compared to control

  17. Exploring pig trade patterns to inform the design of risk-based disease surveillance and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, C; Relun, A; Wall, B; Morris, A; Dixon, L; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the patterns of animal contact networks provides essential information for the design of risk-based animal disease surveillance and control strategies. This study characterises pig movements throughout England and Wales between 2009 and 2013 with a view to characterising spatial and temporal patterns, network topology and trade communities. Data were extracted from the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)'s RADAR (Rapid Analysis and Detection of Animal-related Risks) database, and analysed using descriptive and network approaches. A total of 61,937,855 pigs were moved through 872,493 movements of batches in England and Wales during the 5-year study period. Results show that the network exhibited scale-free and small-world topologies, indicating the potential for diseases to quickly spread within the pig industry. The findings also provide suggestions for how risk-based surveillance strategies could be optimised in the country by taking account of highly connected holdings, geographical regions and time periods with the greatest number of movements and pigs moved, as these are likely to be at higher risk for disease introduction. This study is also the first attempt to identify trade communities in the country, information which could be used to facilitate the pig trade and maintain disease-free status across the country in the event of an outbreak. PMID:27357836

  18. Analytical strategies for controlling polysorbate-based nanomicelles in fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtkova, Veronika; Schulzova, Vera; Lacina, Ondrej; Hrbek, Vojtech; Tomaniova, Monika; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the detection and quantification of organic micelle-type nanoparticles (NPs) with polysorbate components (polysorbate 20 and polysorbate 80) in their micelle shells that could be used to load biologically active compounds into fruit juice. Several advanced analytical techniques were applied in the stepwise method development strategy used. In the first phase, a system consisting of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography employing a size exclusion column coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (UHPLC-SEC-ELSD) was used for the fractionation of micelle assemblies from other, lower molecular weight sample components. The limit of detection (LoD) of these polysorbate micelles in spiked apple juice was 500 μg mL(-1). After this screening step, mass spectrometric (MS) detection was utilized to confirm the presence of polysorbates in the detected micelles. Two alternative MS techniques were tested: (i) ambient high-resolution mass spectrometry employing a direct analysis in real time ion source coupled with an Orbitrap MS analyzer (DART-Orbitrap MS) enabled fast and simple detection of the polysorbates present in the samples, with a lowest calibration level (LCL) of 1000 μg mL(-1); (ii) ultrahigh-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRTOF-MS) provided highly selective and sensitive detection and quantification of polysorbates with an LCL of 0.5 μg mL(-1). PMID:24810233

  19. A PD Law Based Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy For Simultaneous Control Of Indoor Temperature And Humidity Using A Variable Speed Direct Expansion Air Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhao; Xu, Xiang Guo; Deng, Shi Ming; Pan, Dong Mei

    2014-01-01

    In small to medium scale buildings located in the subtropics, such as Hong Kong, direct expansion air conditioning (DX A/C) systems are widely applied. This is because, as compared to chilled water based central air conditioning systems, DX A/C systems are compact, flexible for multi-room services, energy efficient and cost less to maintain and operate. However, traditionally, a DX A/C system is equipped with a single-speed compressor and supply air fan, and employs ON / OFF control strategy ...

  20. Optimal Elevator Group Control by Evolution Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Beielstein, Thomas; Ewald, Claus-Peter; MARKON, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Efficient elevator group control is important for the operation of large buildings. Recent developments in this field include the use of fuzzy logic and neural networks. This paper summarizes the development of an evolution strategy (ES) that is capable of optimizing the neuro-controller of an elevator group controller. It extends the results that were based on a simplified elevator group controller simulator. A threshold selection technique is presented as a method to cope with noisy fitness...

  1. Wind and Wave Disturbances Compensation to Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Improved Individual Pitch Control Based on Fuzzy Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rich and high quality of offshore wind resources, floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT arouses the attentions of many researchers. But on a floating platform, the wave and wind induced loads can significantly affect power regulation and vibration of the structure. Therefore, reducing these loads becomes a challenging part of the design of the floating system. To better alleviate these fatigue loads, a control system making compensations to these disturbances is proposed. In this paper an individual pitch control (IPC system integrated with disturbance accommodating control (DAC and model prediction control (MPC through fuzzy control is developed to alleviate the fatigue loads. DAC is mainly used to mitigate the effects of wind disturbance and MPC counteracts the effects of wave on the structure. The new individual pitch controller is tested on the NREL offshore 5 MW wind turbine mounted on a barge with a spread-mooring system, running in FAST, operating above-rated condition. Compared to the original baseline collective pitch control (CPC (Jonkman et al., 2007, the IPC system shows a better performance in reducing fatigue loads and is robust to complex wind and wave disturbances as well.

  2. Expected shortage based pre-release strategy for reservoir flood control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Frederick N.-F.; Wu, Chia-Wen

    2013-08-01

    In Taiwan, an increase in the frequency of severe flooding over the past decade has prompted demand for improved reservoir operation to control flood-related damage. Flood protection of reservoir can be enhanced by pre-releasing its storage to more adequately accommodate an impending flood. A procedure is proposed in this paper to evaluate the impact of pre-releases of flood control operation on water supply. A basic criterion used is that the pre-release of reservoir storage should not cause intolerable increment of water shortage risk. The shortage risks for different pre-release scenarios are simulated according to the uncertainties of storm rainfall and post-flood ordinary inflow till the end of next dry season. Two operational objectives are provided to help determining the target pre-released level. One of which identifies the minimum allowable pre-released threshold. The other seeks the pre-released level which maximizes the probability that the reservoir release during flood is below the non-damaging discharge and the end-of-operation storage target can still be achieved. This paper evaluated the operations of Tsengwen Reservoir of southern Taiwan during four typhoons from 2007 to 2012 to illustrate the significant contribution of pre-releases in reducing downstream flood potential.

  3. Comparison between Different Control Strategies of a Z-Source Inverter Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kazemdehdashti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR compensation methods are compared to each other for the load side connected shunt converter topology of z-source inverter based DVR to choose the best method. Four different topologies are recognized for DVR that two of them have energy storage devices, and two topologies have no energy storage that take ener\\-gy from the grid during the period of compensation. Here the load side connected shunt converter topology that takes necessary energy from the grid is used. Pre-sag compensation, in-phase compensation, energy-optimized methods are the three DVR compensation methods that studied and compared. A deep analysis through different diagrams would show the advantages or disadvantages of each compensation method. Equations for all methods are derived and the characteristics of algorithms are compared with each other. The simulation results done by SIMULINK/ MATLAB shows compensating by this topology based on the compensation methods.

  4. Self-adaptive strategy based on fuzzy control systems for improving performance in wireless sensors networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Hernández Díaz; José-Fernán Martínez; Néstor Lucas Martínez; del Toro, Raúl M.

    2015-01-01

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in differe...

  5. Risk-factors and strategies for control of carcinoma cervix in India: Hospital based cytological screening experience of 35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Misra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Role of risk factors in cervical carcinogenesis and strategies for control of the disease have been assessed from the accumulated cytological data, derived from 35 years of hospital-based screening in Lucknow, North India. Materials and Methods: A total of 36,484 women have been cytologically screened during a span of 35 years (April 1971 - June 2005 in the Gynaecology out patient department (OPD of Queen Mary′s Hospital. Results: The frequency of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL and carcinoma was found to be 7.2% and 0.6%, respectively, in the present study. The study revealed high age and parity as a predominant factor in cervical carcinogenesis, while viral sexually transmitted disease (STDs -human papilloma virus (HPV and Herpes simplex virus (HSV were also largely associated with SIL cases. The study emphasized great value of clinically downstaging the cervical cancer by detecting cervical cancer in the early stage. The study also revealed a significant difference in the frequency of SIL in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Conclusion: Based on the analyzed data, it was felt that single lifetime screening, which appears to be the most feasible and affordable mode for control of carcinoma cervix in developing countries like India, should be carried out in all women of high parity irrespective of age (with three or more children and in older women above the age of 40 years irrespective of parity.

  6. A Distributed Control Strategy for Coordination of an Autonomous LVDC Microgrid Based on Power-Line Signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    of sources using power-line signaling (PLS), a distributed control strategy in which the units inject sinusoidal signals of specific frequency into the common bus in order to communicate with each other. The control structure that allows the application of this method is revealed and the optimal range...

  7. An Effective Strategy To Construct Novel Polyoxometalate-Based Hybrids by Deliberately Controlling Organic Ligand Transformation In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Hong-Yan; Liu, Guo-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Deliberately controlling organic ligand transformation in situ has remained a challenge for the construction of polyoxometalate (POM)-based inorganic-organic hybrids. In this work, four POM-based hybrids assembled from an in situ bifurcating organic ligand-[Cu2(DIBA)4](H3PMo12O40)·6H2O (1), [Cu2(DIBA)4](H4SiW12O40)·6H2O (2), [Ag(HDIBA)2](H2PMo12O40)·2H2O (3), [Ag3(HDIBA)2(H2O)][(P2W18O62)1/2]·4H2O (4) (DIBAH = 3,5-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl) benzoic acid)-have been designed and obtained under hydrothermal conditions. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, displaying a three-dimensional (3D) 2-fold interpenetrating framework with two types of channels, and the bigger channels are occupied by Keggin polyoxoanions and crystallization water molecules, but only crystallization water molecules in the smaller ones. Compound 3 displays a 3D supramolecular structure constructed from {Ag(HDIBA)2} segments and PMo12O40(3-) polyoxoanions through hydrogen bonding interactions. Compound 4 shows a 3D 2-fold interpenetrating framework based on (3, 3, 4)-connected network, which is constructed from {Ag3(HDIBA)2}n chains and P2W18O62(6-) polyoxoanions as linkers. The DIBAH ligand was generated in situ from 3,5-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzonitrile by deliberate design, which illustrates that the strategy to construct novel POM-based hybrids by controlling ligand transformation in situ is rational and feasible. In addition, the effects of the central metal and POMs on the structures of the target compounds were discussed. Finally, the electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of compounds 1-4 have been investigated in this paper. PMID:27322656

  8. Examining Contextual Influences on Classroom-Based Implementation of Positive Behavior Support Strategies: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-11-01

    Although it is widely recognized that variation in implementation fidelity influences the impact of preventive interventions, little is known about how specific contextual factors may affect the implementation of social and behavioral interventions in classrooms. Theoretical research highlights the importance of multiple contextual influences on implementation, including factors at the classroom and school level (Domitrovich et al., Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1, 6-28, 2008). The current study used multi-level modeling to empirically examine the influence of teacher, classroom, and school characteristics on the implementation of classroom-based positive behavior support strategies over the course of 4 years. Data were collected in the context of a 37-school randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Multi-level results identified several school-level contextual factors (e.g., school size, behavioral disruptions) and teacher-level factors (perceptions of school organizational health and grade level taught) associated with variability in the implementation of classroom-based positive behavior supports. Implications for prevention research and practice are discussed. PMID:24793222

  9. SPARTINA CONTROL STRATEGY OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fang-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Spartina is a kind of very important and invasive grass. In its native range, it is very important for erosion control, fish, wildlife, and estuary reclamation. Therefore, it was introduced to many countries. Since 1963, it was introduced to China. Up to now, it was intentionally or accidentally planted nearly all estuaries in the east coast of China and the area was estimated over 0.1 × 106 hm2. As other introduced plants, Spartina grows very vigorously in China,and this caused many environmental and economical problems. So, it is an emergency to develop a Spartina control strategy of China. In the paper, the history of Spartina introduction in China was reviewed, and several methods which were probably feasible for China to control Spartina were introduced, including physical/mechanical (such as mowing, digging, and dredging), chemical, and biological methods. Before taking any measurments to control Spartina, 2 things should be done. The first was to develop a plan and make an inventory; the second was to select a feasible method according to local climatic, economic, social, and ecological conditions. It was suggested that it would be very important to assess the possible effect of control methods on the environment in order to prevent from causing other environmental problems.KEY WORDS :Spartina; control method; control strategy; environmental assessment

  10. Simulation of the fuel consumption benefits of various transmission arrangements and control strategies within a flywheel based mechanical hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Body, William; Brockbank, Chris [Torotrak (Development) Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Flywheel based mechanical hybrid technology is being developed for both motorsport and mainstream automotive applications. One particular road car application project, part funded by the UK Government Technology Strategy Board, is being led by Jaguar Land Rover, managed by Prodrive and using advanced technology from Flybrid Systems, Ford, Ricardo. Torotrak and Xtrac. During the two year programme, the group will develop the new technology and build a demonstrator vehicle equipped with the system. The mechanical system recovers kinetic energy from the vehicle during braking to a high speed rotating flywheel via a variable drive system. When compared to an electric motor / battery arrangement, the mechanical hybrid system offers benefits in cost, weight, package, efficiency and ultimately vehicle fuel consumption. As part of the development and optimisation process in order to specify the road car system, all aspects of the mechanical hybrid system are under investigation by the group. Alongside the required quantity of energy storage and the rates of energy recovery and reapplication, a number of different physical architectures for the system are being analysed. The Torotrak full-toroidal traction drive has been assigned as the variable drive element of the mechanical hybrid system. Multiple configuration options are available including direct drive, epicyclic shunted, range extended CVT and epicyclic shunted IVT arrangements. In addition, the flywheel and variable drive system can be connected to the powertrain in a variety of different locations, from the engine through the powertrain to the wheels. This paper describes the simulation of the mechanical hybrid system with particular focus on the impact on the fuel consumption benefit, over multiple drive cycles, of the variable drive configuration, the location of the variable drive and flywheel system and the control strategy options. (orig.)

  11. Research of IGPC Control Strategy Based-on Hybrid Optimization for Power Station Boiler Superheated Steam Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxian Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implicit Generalized Predictive Control (IGPC algorithm can directly identify controller parameters without the need of solving Diophantine equation, thus can reduce the on-line algorithm computation time. In order to improve IGPC performance and extend its application, modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm is introduced into IGPC rolling horizon optimization, combined with general IGPC gradient optimization method under unconstrained condition, a new hybrid optimization method is obtained, this modified IGPC can be used to both of the non-constraint industry process control and the constraint industry process control. Aiming at the superheated steam temperature control of sub-critical 600MW boiler, a new cascade compound control strategy that combines an outer loop IGPC master adjuster and an inner loop PID auxiliary adjuster is adopted. Finally the simulation results have shown that the proposed method can constrain the control action, prevent dramatic change of the input signal, thus can achieve good static and dynamic performances.

  12. Construction Strategy for an Internal Amplification Control for Real-Time Diagnostic Assays Using Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification: Development and Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; D'Agostino, Martin; Pla, Maria; Cook, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    An important analytical control in molecular amplification-based methods is an internal amplification control (IAC), which should be included in each reaction mixture. An IAC is a nontarget nucleic acid sequence which is coamplified simultaneously with the target sequence. With negative results for the target nucleic acid, the absence of an IAC signal indicates that amplification has failed. A general strategy for the construction of an IAC for inclusion in molecular beacon-based real-time nu...

  13. A novel Q-based online model updating strategy and its application in statistical process control for rubber mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunying Zhang; Sun Chen; Fang Wu; Kai Song

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the large time-delay in measuring the hardness of mixed rubber, rheological parameters were used to predict the hardness. A novel Q-based model updating strategy was proposed as a universal platform to track time-varying properties. Using a few selected support samples to update the model, the strategy could dramat-ical y save the storage cost and overcome the adverse influence of low signal-to-noise ratio samples. Moreover, it could be applied to any statistical process monitoring system without drastic changes to them, which is practical for industrial practices. As examples, the Q-based strategy was integrated with three popular algorithms (partial least squares (PLS), recursive PLS (RPLS), and kernel PLS (KPLS)) to form novel regression ones, QPLS, QRPLS and QKPLS, respectively. The applications for predicting mixed rubber hardness on a large-scale tire plant in east China prove the theoretical considerations.

  14. Improved Control Strategies for a DFIG-Based Wind-Power Generation System with SGSC under Unbalanced and Distorted Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jun; Yu, Mengting; Hu, Weihao;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates an improved control strategy for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind-power generation system with series grid-side converter (SGSC) under network unbalance and harmonic grid voltage distortion conditions. The integrated mathematical modeling of the DFIG system...

  15. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan;

    2011-01-01

    charging/discharging and local loads, which is available of either grid-connected operation or islanding operation. By using the proposed control strategy, the operations of a modular PV generation system are categorized into four modes: islanding with battery discharging, grid-connected rectification...... and maximum power point tracking operation, which enables the dc bus voltage regulation capability ofmodular dc/dc converters. Seamless switching of a battery converter between charging and discharging and that of a grid-connected converter between rectification and inversion are ensured by the proposed...

  16. Assessing control strategies for ground level ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Neelesh Vijay

    2009-12-01

    Developing cost effective control strategies for ozone has been a challenge to air quality modelers. Conventionally, the control strategies are applied across-the board to the region. The main aim of this research was to develop a Decision-Making Framework (DMF) for evaluating and optimizing the selection of ozone control strategies. Conventional across-the-board reductions conduct emission reductions uniformly throughout the region and throughout the day. By contrast, this dissertation studied targeted reductions, in which emission sources of various types are reduced at various times and locations. The proposed DMF comprised of four phases: (1) Initialization, (2) Mining, (3) Metamodeling, and (4) Optimization. This DMF was tested on a DFW 2009 future case episode which was based on a 10-day episode from August 13-22, 1999. 612 emission variables were identified in three source categories viz. point, area (includes non-road) and line (on-road). The emission control regions and time periods along with ozone monitoring regions and time periods were defined. The control strategy emission reductions and costs were also identified in this stage. Initially a Latin hypercube experimental design was setup to organize 30 sets of emission reduction scenarios to be modeled using the photochemical model CAMx. Data mining reduced the number of variables to a maximum of 126. A second Latin hypercube was setup to organize another 30 emission reduction scenarios for the significant variables identified by data mining. Metamodels were developed for ozone from the 60 CAMx runs using linear regression models constructed with the stepwise model selection method. Stepwise regression further reduced the number of variables. The metamodels were implemented in optimization as a surrogate for time-intensive CAMx modeling. Appropriate constraints were calculated for each metamodel to ensure that it satisfied EPA's MAT. The optimization was formulated to find the most cost effective

  17. Effectiveness and cost of recruitment strategies for a community-based randomised controlled trial among rainwater drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunliffe David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based recruitment is challenging particularly if the sampling frame is not easily defined as in the case of people who drink rainwater. Strategies for contacting participants must be carefully considered to maximise generalisability and minimise bias of the results. This paper assesses the recruitment strategies for a 1-year double-blinded randomised trial on drinking untreated rainwater. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and associated costs are described. Methods Community recruitment of households from Adelaide, Australia occurred from February to July 2007 using four methods: electoral roll mail-out, approaches to schools and community groups, newspaper advertising, and other media involvement. Word of mouth communication was also assessed. Results A total of 810 callers were screened, with 53.5% eligible. Of those who were eligible and sent further information, 76.7% were willing to participate in the study and 75.1% were enrolled. The target for recruitment was 300 households, and this was achieved. The mail-out was the most effective method with respect to number of households randomised, while recruitment via schools had the highest yield (57.3% and was the most cost effective when considering cost per household randomised (AUD$147.20. Yield and cost effectiveness were lowest for media advertising. Conclusion The use of electoral roll mail-out and advertising via schools were effective in reaching households using untreated rainwater for drinking. Employing multiple strategies enabled success in achieving the recruitment target. In countries where electoral roll extracts are available to researchers, this method is likely to have a high yield for recruitment into community-based epidemiological studies.

  18. An Optimal Reactive Power Control Strategy for a DFIG-Based Wind Farm to Damp the Sub-Synchronous Oscillation of a Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator speed and the output reactive power of the wind farms was introduced to derive the analytical expression of the damping coefficient. The phase range to obtain positive damping was determined. Second, the PID phase compensation parameters of the auxiliary damping controller were optimized by a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimum damping in the entire subsynchronous frequency band. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary damping control were demonstrated on a modified version of the IEEE first benchmark model by time domain simulation analysis with the use of DigSILENT/PowerFactory. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this derived damping factor expression and the condition of the positive damping can effectively analyze their impact on the system sub-synchronous oscillations, the proposed wind farms reactive power additional damping control strategy can provide the optimal damping effect over the whole sub-synchronous frequency band, and the control effect is better than the active power additional damping control strategy based on the power system stabilizator.

  19. A Control Strategy for Photovoltaic-Solid Polymer Electrolysis System Based on Surface Temperature of PV Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Muhida; Wahyudi; Rifki Muhida; Ahmad U. Priantoro

    2008-01-01

    Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking method based on analysis of PV panels surface Temperature for the PV-SPE system was designed and implemented. From this analysis an optimal voltage of PV can be obtained and was realized as a reference voltage of Dc-DC converter. By maintenance the output voltage of PV using the reference voltage control, the out...

  20. 场站油料库存控制策略仿真研究%Research on simulation of fuel inventory control strategy about air-force base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丰; 邢清华; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    It is a stochastic inventory control system with sequential demand for the fuel inventory control system in aviation station,the indexes of evaluating the strategy of inventory control and its calculation methods arc provided.The simulation model about the inventory control of air force base based on(Q,s) is established. The better inventory control strategy is built by using the OptQuest optimization toolbox integrated in the Arena at some scopes of initialization about the best inventory control strategy by an example. The simulation results prove that the inventory control strategy given by the simulation model is more feasible and scientific than the current system.%针对场站油料库存控制系统是一个需求为连续的随机库存控制系统,给出了评价其库存控制策略优劣的评价指标及其量化方法;基于仿真软件Arena,建立了基于(Q,s)存储策略的场站油料库存控制仿真模型.通过一个实例,利用Arena中集成的OptQuest优化工具箱搜索在最优库存控制策略初始值一定范围内的较优库存控制策略.结果表明,将所建立的仿真模型应用于场站油料库存控制,得出的控制策略比现行的更科学可行.

  1. Environmental Process Control: Strategies and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure and mathematical presentation of the optimal strategy for environmental process control is presented. This approach covers a wide variety of control systems, which have been constructed and analysed at the Institute of Environmental Engineering during the last fifteen years. Special attention is paid to the preventive environmental control and its tools: pollution prevention, life cycle assessment. The implementation results of preventive environmental control from more than 150 companies are presented in the paper.The investigations on water quality control issues are evaluated from the point of view of the interface between physico-ecological and socio-economical systems and decision support system based on river water quality model is suggested.

  2. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1996-01-01

    Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length...

  3. The Virtual Resistance Control Strategy for HVRT of Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid voltage swell will cause transient DC flux component in the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG stator windings, creating serious stator and rotor current and torque oscillation, which is more serious than influence of the voltage dip. It is found that virtual resistance manages effectively to suppress rotor current and torque oscillation, avoid the operation of crowbar circuit, and enhance its high voltage ride through technology capability. In order to acquire the best virtual resistance value, the excellent particle library (EPL of dynamic particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed. It takes the rotor voltage and rotor current as two objectives, which has a fast convergence performance and high accuracy. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the virtual resistance control strategy.

  4. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  5. Force Control Strategies in Hydraulically Actuated Legged Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Montes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, several strategies of force control have been proposed to be implemented and evaluated in ROBOCLIMBER, a quadruped robot of large dimensions. A first group of strategies proposed in this paper is based on impedance control, which is intended to adapt the foot-ground contact forces according to the experimentally specified damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency. A second control strategy of interest for many practical cases is called the parallel force/position control, which has one inner loop position control and two external control loops, one of force and another of position. A third group of control strategies is the posture stabilization for ROBOCLIMBER using the feedback of the ZMP calculation and the position of its legs. Finally, a control strategy for the control of a quasi-static gait using ZMP feedback is proposed and tested by simulation.

  6. Night ventilation control strategies in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Yi, Lingli; Gao, Fusheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2009-10-15

    In moderate climates night ventilation is an effective and energy-efficient approach to improve the indoor thermal environment for office buildings during the summer months, especially for heavyweight construction. However, is night ventilation a suitable strategy for office buildings with lightweight construction located in cold climates? In order to answer this question, the whole energy-consumption analysis software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the indoor thermal environment and energy consumption in typical office buildings with night mechanical ventilation in three cities in northern China. The summer outdoor climate data was analyzed, and three typical design days were chosen. The most important factors influencing night ventilation performance such as ventilation rates, ventilation duration, building mass and climatic conditions were evaluated. When night ventilation operation time is closer to active cooling time, the efficiency of night ventilation is higher. With night ventilation rate of 10 ach, the mean radiant temperature of the indoor surface decreased by up to 3.9 C. The longer the duration of operation, the more efficient the night ventilation strategy becomes. The control strategies for three locations are given in the paper. Based on the optimized strategies, the operation consumption and fees are calculated. The results show that more energy is saved in office buildings cooled by a night ventilation system in northern China than ones that do not employ this strategy. (author)

  7. Fuzzy Control Strategies in Human Operator and Sport Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana T; Markovic, Sasa

    2009-01-01

    The motivation behind mathematically modeling the human operator is to help explain the response characteristics of the complex dynamical system including the human manual controller. In this paper, we present two different fuzzy logic strategies for human operator and sport modeling: fixed fuzzy-logic inference control and adaptive fuzzy-logic control, including neuro-fuzzy-fractal control. As an application of the presented fuzzy strategies, we present a fuzzy-control based tennis simulator.

  8. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies.

  9. 基于状态距离的量子控制策略%Quantum Control Strategy Based on State Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛爽; 匡森

    2007-01-01

    Based on Bures distance, a Lyapunov function that represents the distance between a desired state and the actual state of a quantum system is selected. Considering the cases that an initial state is and is not orthogonal to the desired state respectively,we propose a class of control strategies with state feedback that ensures the stability of the closed-loop control system. Especially,the asymptotic stability of the control system is analyzed, deduced and proved in detail. Finally, a simulation experiment on a spin-1/2 particle system is done and the relation between the system state evolution time and control value is analyzed with different parameters . Research results have general theoretical meaning for control of quantum systems.

  10. A Control Strategy for Photovoltaic-Solid Polymer Electrolysis System Based on Surface Temperature of PV Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes to produce hydrogen from solar photovoltaic powered water electrolysis using solid polymer electrolysis are reported. An alternative control of maximum power point tracking method based on analysis of PV panel’s surface Temperature for the PV-SPE system was designed and implemented. From this analysis an optimal voltage of PV can be obtained and was realized as a reference voltage of Dc-DC converter. By maintenance the output voltage of PV using the reference voltage control, the output PV can be optimized at its MPP operation. The MPPT performance and hydrogen production performance of this method have been evaluated and discussed based on the results of the experiment.

  11. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and the relationship between the time constant, its smoothing effect and capacity allocation are analyzed and combined with Proportional Integral Differential (PID control to realize power smoothing control of wind power. Then wavelet theory is adopted to realize a multi-layer decomposition of power output in some wind farms, a power smoothing model based on hybrid energy storage technology is constructed combining the characteristics of the Super Capacitor (SC and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS technologies. The hybrid energy storage system is available for power fluctuations with high frequency-low energy and low frequency-high energy to achieve good smoothing effects compared with a single energy storage system. The power fluctuations filtered by the Wavelet Transform is regarded as the target value of BESS, the charging and discharging control for battery is completed quickly by Model Algorithm Control (MAC. Because of the influence of the inertia and the response speed of the battery, its actual output is not completely equal to the target value which mainly reflects in high-frequency part, the difference part uses SC to compensate and makes the output of battery and SC closer to the target value on the whole. Compared with the traditional Inertial Filter and PID control method, the validity of the model was verified by simulation results. Finally under the premise of power grid standards, the corresponding capacity design had been given to reduce the

  12. A strategy for quality control of Menispermum dauricum DC based on cytotoxic activity and hplc fingerprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L J Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Menispermum dauricumDC known as a traditional Chinese medicine, with high content of alkaloids, has been found to possess antitumor activity. In this research, an attempt to correlate fingerprinting with bioactivity was made for quality control of M. dauricum. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of extracts from ten batches of samples against human breast MCF-7 cancer cells was estimated by [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. Then, cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprints were established by high performance liquid chromatography. Eight peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of samples and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify and classify different samples into groups. Assays for determinations of total alkaloids and dauricine contents enabled cytotoxicity coefficient of each extract. The potential usefulness of employing cytotoxicity coefficient was investigated by a combination of Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis as being the reliable parameter to evaluate the herbal extracts. The results indicated that the level of dauricine (peak 8 in the fingerprint correlated closely with cytotoxicity and played a significant role in the cytotoxicity of Bei Dou-Gen and could be related to its antitumor properties. It is proposed that the cytotoxicity coefficient value with a cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprint of key biomarkers (dauricine may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of M. dauricum. The analysis of cytotoxic-activity-integrated fingerprint could correlate fingerprinting with bioactivities and would provide a reasonable strategy for quality control of complex mixture of herbal medicines.

  13. A Strategy for Quality Control of Menispermum dauricum DC Based on Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC Fingerprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Liu, J N

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Menispermum dauricum DC known as a traditional Chinese medicine, with high content of alkaloids, has been found to possess antitumor activity. In this research, an attempt to correlate fingerprinting with bioactivity was made for quality control of M. dauricum. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of extracts from ten batches of samples against human breast MCF-7 cancer cells was estimated by [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. Then, cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprints were established by high performance liquid chromatography. Eight peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of samples and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify and classify different samples into groups. Assays for determinations of total alkaloids and dauricine contents enabled cytotoxicity coefficient of each extract. The potential usefulness of employing cytotoxicity coefficient was investigated by a combination of Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis as being the reliable parameter to evaluate the herbal extracts. The results indicated that the level of dauricine (peak 8 in the fingerprint) correlated closely with cytotoxicity and played a significant role in the cytotoxicity of Bei Dou-Gen and could be related to its antitumor properties. It is proposed that the cytotoxicity coefficient value with a cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprint of key biomarkers (dauricine) may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of M. dauricum. The analysis of cytotoxic-activity-integrated fingerprint could correlate fingerprinting with bioactivities and would provide a reasonable strategy for quality control of complex mixture of herbal medicines. PMID:27168693

  14. Active steering control strategy for articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyong-il KIM; Hsin GUAN; Bo WANG; Rui GUO; Fan LIANG

    2016-01-01

    To improve maneuverability and stability of articulated vehicles, we design an active steering controller, including tractor and trailer controllers, based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. First, a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) model of the tractor-trailer with steered trailer axles is built. The simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO) algorithm is applied to identify the key parameters of the model under specified vehicle speed and steering wheel angle. Thus, the key pa-rameters of the simplified model can be obtained according to the vehicle conditions using an online look-up table and interpola-tion. Simulation results show that vehicle parameter outputs of the simplified model and TruckSim agree well, thus providing the ideal reference yaw rate for the controller. Then the active steering controller of the tractor and trailer based on LQR is designed to follow the desired yaw rate and minimize their side-slip angle of the center of gravity (CG) at the same time. Finally, simulation tests at both low speed and high speed are conducted based on the TruckSim-Simulink program. The results show significant effects on the active steering controller on improving maneuverability at low speed and lateral stability at high speed for the articulated vehicle. The control strategy is applicable for steering not only along gentle curves but also along sharp curves.

  15. Developing traction control strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using innovative optimization based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.; Gu, J.; Dong, Z. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a traction control system designed for hybrid vehicles with multiple power plants and drive axles. Model-based design tools were used to develop the traction control system and plug-in hybrid vehicle models. Optimization studies were conducted in a finite number of operating states in order to maximize the electrical and mechanical energy conversion efficiency of an extended range electric vehicle. Four global optimization algorithms were then evaluated in relation to their CPU times. The studied algorithms included a genetic algorithm (GA), a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, a hybrid adaptive metamodel optimization (HAM) and space elimination and unimodal region reduction (SEUMRE) algorithm. A comparative evaluation of the algorithms demonstrated that the PSO algorithm obtained optimal results, while the HAM algorithm used significantly less computational time. Results of the optimization studies were then implemented in a controller model. Results of the study showed that the energy efficiency of the vehicle improved using the developed controller model. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  17. National Drug Control Strategy. 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 National Drug Control Strategy of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The overarching goal of the President's Strategy is to reduce drug use in America through a balanced approach that focuses on stopping use before it starts, healing America's drug users, and disrupting the market for illegal…

  18. New ORP/pH based control strategy for chlorination and dechlorination of wastewater: pilot scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Kwon, S; Han, S; Yu, M; Kim, J; Gong, S; Colosimo, M F

    2006-01-01

    Due to its efficiency and low capital demands, chlorination has been widely used for disinfection in many wastewater treatment plants. Since the oxidation power of free chlorine is bigger than combined chlorines which are formed from the reaction between chlorine and reducing agents in water (especially, NH4+ and organic nitrogen), for effective disinfection, excess amount of chlorine is added until all the reducing agents are oxidized and free chlorine is available. After chlorination, chlorine residues in wastewater are usually reduced with SO2 or sulfites before the treated wastewater is discharged, since they are toxic to aquatic life. Addition of excess amount of SO2 or sulfite should be avoided. Otherwise, they consume dissolved oxygen in a river or stream and may have adverse impact on the aquatic life. Determination of wastewater chlorine demand and of sulfite dosages for dechlorination has been a challenge to WWTP operators, due to the dynamic characteristics of wastewater. Recently, a new ORP/pH based approach to determine chlorine demand and sulfite dosage was proposed. The method utilizes significant points occurring on the pH and ORP profiles during chlorination and dechlorination titrations. In this study, the proposed automatic titration system has been implemented into a control system to optimize chlorine and sulfite doses for a pilot scale chlorination/dechlorination system. In short, the disinfection system with the pH/ORP based controller showed very successful results; complete inactivation of total coliforms, and almost zero residual chlorines and high DO in its effluent. PMID:16749451

  19. Wolbachia-based population control strategy targeting Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes proves efficient under semi-field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célestine M Atyame

    Full Text Available In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI. This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy. We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean. The main purpose of the present study was to fill the gap between laboratory experiments and field implementation, i.e. assessing mating competitiveness of these incompatible males under semi-field conditions. In a first set of experiments, we analyzed crossing relationships between LR[wPip(Is] males and La Réunion field females collected as larvae in 19 distinct localities throughout the island. This investigation revealed total embryonic mortality, confirming the strong sterilizing capacity of LR[wPip(Is] males. Subsequently, mating competitiveness of LR[wPip(Is] males was assessed under semi-field conditions in the presence of field males and females from La Réunion. Confrontations were carried out in April and December using different ratios of LR[wPip(Is] to field males. The results indicated that the LR[wPip(Is] males successfully compete with field males in mating with field females, displaying even higher competitiveness than field males in April. Our results support the implementation of small-scale field tests in order to assess the feasibility of IIT against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean where this mosquito species is a proven competent vector for human pathogens.

  20. Wolbachia-based population control strategy targeting Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes proves efficient under semi-field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M; Cattel, Julien; Lebon, Cyrille; Flores, Olivier; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Weill, Mylène; Gouagna, Louis Clément; Tortosa, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In mosquitoes, the maternally inherited bacterial Wolbachia induce a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). This property can be used to reduce the density of mosquito field populations through inundative releases of incompatible males in order to sterilize females (Incompatible Insect Technique, or IIT, strategy). We have previously constructed the LR[wPip(Is)] line representing a good candidate for controlling field populations of the Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean. The main purpose of the present study was to fill the gap between laboratory experiments and field implementation, i.e. assessing mating competitiveness of these incompatible males under semi-field conditions. In a first set of experiments, we analyzed crossing relationships between LR[wPip(Is)] males and La Réunion field females collected as larvae in 19 distinct localities throughout the island. This investigation revealed total embryonic mortality, confirming the strong sterilizing capacity of LR[wPip(Is)] males. Subsequently, mating competitiveness of LR[wPip(Is)] males was assessed under semi-field conditions in the presence of field males and females from La Réunion. Confrontations were carried out in April and December using different ratios of LR[wPip(Is)] to field males. The results indicated that the LR[wPip(Is)] males successfully compete with field males in mating with field females, displaying even higher competitiveness than field males in April. Our results support the implementation of small-scale field tests in order to assess the feasibility of IIT against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the islands of southwestern Indian Ocean where this mosquito species is a proven competent vector for human pathogens. PMID:25768841

  1. A fault tolerant superheat control strategy for supermarket refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Rasmussen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a fault tolerant control (FTC) strategy is proposed for evaporator superheat control in supermarket refrigeration systems. Conventional control uses a pressure and temperature sensor for this purpose, however, the pressure sensor can fail to function. A contingency control strategy......, based on a maximum slope-seeking control method and only a single temperature sensor, is developed to drive the evaporator outlet temperature to a level that gives a suitable superheat of the refrigerant. The FTC strategy requires no a priori system knowledge or additional hardware and functions...... system....

  2. Robust missile feedback control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trottemant, E.J.; Scherer, C.W.; Weiss, M.; Vermeulen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the missile interception problem with two noncooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Introducing nonlinear uncertain models can potentially lead to nonexistence of game theoretic equilibrium strategies, computationally intractable problems, and/or highly reduced p

  3. Coordinated control strategy based on reactive power flow in UPQC%基于无功功率流的UPQC协调控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯兴田; 马文忠; 霍群海

    2013-01-01

    针对统一电能质量调节器UPQC常规控制中,其串并联变流器功能相对独立、利用率低的问题,提出基于无功功率流的UPQC协调控制策略.应用所设计的UPQC系统结构,协调分配UPQC串并联变流器的无功功率输出,控制串联变流器输出电压向量垂直相应的电流向量,控制并联变流器输出电流向量垂直相应的电压向量,有效消除了有功环流的影响.特别针对电网侧没有电能质量问题时,控制串联变流器继续输出无功功率,充分发挥两变流器的无功补偿功能.理论推导UPQC系统功率流的关系,并仿真实验分析提出的控制策略,结果表明该控制策略解决电能质量问题的同时,实现了UPQC串并联变流器功率的合理分配.%According to the relatively independent functions and low utilization rate of the unified power quality conditioner ( UPQC) series and parallel converters in UPQC regular control, the UPQC control strategy based on reactive power flow is provided. With the designed UPQC structure, the strategy real ized the coordinate distribution of the reactive power output of the UPQC series and parallel converters. The influence of active power circulation was effectively eliminated by controlling output voltage vector of the series converter perpendicular to the corresponding current vector and output current vector of the par allel converter perpendicular to the corresponding voltage vector. Especially when there is no power quali ty problem of the grid side, the strategy controlled the series converter to continue reactive power output and fully played the reactive power compensation function of both converters. The relationship of UPQC system power flow was theoretical deduced and the proposing control strategy was analyzed by simulation and experiment. The results show that the control strategy solves the power quality problems and realizes the rational power allocation of the UPQC series and parallel converters.

  4. Public authority control strategy for opinion evolution in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xiong, Xi; Zhang, Minghong; Li, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This paper addresses the need to deal with and control public opinion and rumors. Existing strategies to control public opinion include degree, random, and adaptive bridge control strategies. In this paper, we use the HK model to present a public opinion control strategy based on public authority (PA). This means utilizing the influence of expert or high authority individuals whose opinions we control to obtain the optimum effect in the shortest time possible and thus reach a consensus of public opinion. Public authority (PA) is only influenced by individuals' attributes (age, economic status, and education level) and not their degree distribution; hence, in this paper, we assume that PA complies with two types of public authority distribution (normal and power-law). According to the proposed control strategy, our experiment is based on random, degree, and public authority control strategies in three different social networks (small-world, scale-free, and random) and we compare and analyze the strategies in terms of convergence time (T), final number of controlled agents (C), and comprehensive efficiency (E). We find that different network topologies and the distribution of the PA in the network can influence the final controlling effect. While the effect of PA strategy differs in different network topology structures, all structures achieve comprehensive efficiency with any kind of public authority distribution in any network. Our findings are consistent with several current sociological phenomena and show that in the process of public opinion/rumor control, considerable attention should be paid to high authority individuals.

  5. Strategies For Malaria Control In Mangalore City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Udaya .N

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: What different strategies should be used to effectively control problem of malaria? Objectives: 1 To study the problem of malaria. 2 To study different strategies for effective control of malaria. Study design: Observational and record based. The problem of malaria was studied for three years from 1996-1998 Participants: Individuals having fever. Setting: Community based in Mangalore City. Study variables: Fever cases, blood slides prepared, slides found positive, agency-wise, species-wise and year-wise positivity. Statistical methods: Simple proportions. Results: The yield of cases has been shown to highest in passive surveillance, as reflected in high slide positivity rates. A total of 95,898 slides were prepared, out of which 19,169 were positive for malaria parasite. Thus, the overall side positivity was 20%. The SPR in passive surveillance was 34.5%. Month-wise distribution of positive cases showed high SPR and low Pv/Pf ratios during non-malaria seasons. It is suggested to improve passive surveillance to achieve high SPR thereby leading to substantial saving on slides, laboratory services and transport expenditure.

  6. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  7. Development of sensor-less control strategies for grid connected PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system with improved power quality features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, A. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Interest in renewable energy sources has grown in recent years in response to concerns of increasing pollution levels and depleting fossil fuels. Among renewable energy sources, wind energy generation is the fastest growing technology and one of the most cost-effective and environmental friendly means to generate electricity from renewable sources. Modern wind turbines are ready to be deployed in large scale as a result of recent developments in wind power technology. Variable speed permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) based wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are becoming more popular. The use of a permanent magnet reduces size, cost and weight of overall WECS. In addition, the absence of field winding and its excitation system avoids heat dissipation in the rotor winding, thereby improving overall efficiency of the WECS. This type of configuration is more appropriate for remote locations, particularly for off-shore wind application, where the geared doubly fed induction generator usually requires regular maintenance due to tearing-wearing in brushes, windings and gear box. This presentation discussed the development of sensor-less control strategies for grid connected PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system with improved power quality features. A novel adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system was used to estimate the speed and position of variable speed PMSG under fluctuating wind conditions. A novel control strategy was developed for the grid interfacing inverter incorporating power quality improvement features at point of common coupling.

  8. Improved Droop Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abusara, Mohammad; Sharkh, Suleiman; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    An improved control strategy for grid-connected inverters within microgrids is presented in this paper. The strategy is based on the classical P-ω and Q-V droop method. The improvement in the proposed control strategy is twofold: Firstly, the transient response of the droop controller is improved...... by replacing the traditional method of measuring average power, which is based on using a first order low pass filter, by a real time integration filter. This is shown to reduce the imported transient energy when connecting to the grid. Secondly, the steady state output current quality is improved by utilising...

  9. An extended signal control strategy for urban network traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tian, Fuli; Shi, Zhongke

    2016-03-01

    Traffic flow patterns are in general repeated on a daily or weekly basis. To improve the traffic conditions by using the inherent repeatability of traffic flow, a novel signal control strategy for urban networks was developed via iterative learning control (ILC) approach. Rigorous analysis shows that the proposed learning control method can guarantee the asymptotic convergence. The impacts of the ILC-based signal control strategy on the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD) were analyzed by simulations on a test road network. The results show that the proposed ILC strategy can evenly distribute the accumulation in the network and improve the network mobility.

  10. Grid control strategy of wind turbine based on double voltage source rectifier%基于双VSR的风电机组并网控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛俊旭; 李鑫; 童水光; 吴德忠; 田志刚; 王鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对兆瓦级永磁同步发电机组并网的控制要求,基于三相电压型脉宽调制(PWM)整流器的数学模型,重点研究了直接电流控制双闭环级联结构的三相电压型PWM整流器和基于SVPWM的三相电压型PWM整流器的控制系统设计,提出基于双电压型PWM整流器(VSR)的风力发电机组的并网控制策略,并建立该控制策略的等效电路模型.通过对该并网控制策略等效电路模型的仿真分析,验证了PWM整流器的升压整流特性;同时,该等效电路输出的三相交流相电流总谐波畸变率仅为1.64%,电流波形正弦度良好.仿真结果验证了该并网控制策略的可行性.%For grid control of permanent magneticm synchronous generator, according to the mathematcalmodel of three-phase voltage source rectifier, this work emphatically studied the controller design of three-phase voltage source rectifier(VSR), which has double closed-loop and cascade structure based on the direct current control, and voltage source rectifier based on space vector pulse width modulation. The grid control strategy based on double voltage source rectifier for wind turbine generators was and proposed the corresponding equivalent circuit model was established. The simulation to this grid control strategy's equivalent circuit proved the rising voltage speciality of pulse width modulation (PWM). The current's total harmonic distortion of the grid side output's three-phase AC interphase was only 1.64%, and its waveform was batter. The new control strategy was proved feasible by Simulink simulation.

  11. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  12. Control Strategy for Cascaded Medium - High Voltage STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libing Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Control strategy is researched for cascaded medium high static synchronous compensator to provide synthetic compensation ability of reactive power, harmonics and asymmetric currents. Basing on selective harmonic compensation strategy, a reference current detection method utilizing the combination of synchronous reference frame transformation and discrete Fourier transformation is proposed. The tracking control of instruction current is implemented by multi-carrier pulse width modulation (PWM. In allusion to the multi-carrier PWM, the capacitor voltage balancing control at the dc side is realized by a type of software based on the energy balance principle of the inverter bridge. The proposed control strategy is convenient for engineering implementation given its low calculation burden and simplicity. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is proven by both simulation and experimental results.

  13. Control strategies for friction dampers: numerical assessment and experimental investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of friction dampers has been proposed in a wide variety of mechanical systems for which it is not possible to apply viscoelastic materials, fluid based dampers or others viscous dampers. An important example is the application of friction dampers in aircraft engines to reduce the blades vibration amplitudes. In most cases, friction dampers have been studied in a passive way, however, a significant improvement can be achieved by controlling the normal force in the dampers. The aim of this paper is to study three control strategies for friction dampers based on the hysteresis cycle. The first control strategy maximizes the energy removal in each harmonic oscillation cycle, by calculating the optimum normal force based on the last displacement peak. The second control strategy combines the first one with the maximum energy removal strategy used in the smart spring devices. Finally, is presented the strategy which homogenously modulates the friction force. Numerical studies were performed with these three strategies defining the performance metrics. The best control strategy was applied experimentally. The experimental test rig was fully identified and its parameters were used for the numerical simulations. The obtained results show the good performance for the friction damper and the selected strategy.

  14. 基于限时脉冲控制害虫策略的Gompertz模型%Time-limited Pest Impulsive Control Strategy based on Gompertz Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐为坚; 陈时东

    2011-01-01

    基于在限定时间内控制害虫的策略,建立具有Gompertz增长的脉冲微分方程模型,得到该模型的边值解存在的条件,给出计算最大脉冲周期的方法,解决在限定时间内将害虫密度控制在经济阈值之下的问题.%Based on the time-limited pest control strategy,we construct the model of impulsive differential equation with Gompertz growth,and obtain the existence condition of the solution to the boundary value problem of the model.Furthermore,we present the method that can be used to calculate the maximum impulsive period,and solve the problem about how to control the pest density within the economic threshold in a given time.

  15. Strategies for glucose control in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Finan, Daniel Aaron; Jørgensen, John Bagterp;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply a robust feedforward-feedback control strategy to people with type 1 diabetes. The feedforward controller consists of a bolus calculator which compensates the disturbance coming from meals. The feedback controller is based on a linearized description of the model describing...

  16. A reactive control strategy for networked hydrographical system management

    OpenAIRE

    Duviella, Eric; Chiron, Pascale; Charbonnaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A reactive control strategy is proposed to improve the water asset management of complex hydrographical systems. This strategy requires the definition of rules to achieve a generic resource allocation and setpoint assignment. A modelling method of the complex hydro- graphical network based on a weighted digraph of instrumented points, is also presented. The simulation results of the strategy applied to a hydrographical system composed of one confluent and two difluents show its efficiency and...

  17. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles.

  18. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles. PMID:26014907

  19. Novel Strategy to Control Transgene Expression Mediated by a Sendai Virus-Based Vector Using a Nonstructural C Protein and Endogenous MicroRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-specific control of gene expression is an invaluable tool for studying various biological processes and medical applications. Efficient regulatory systems have been utilized to control transgene expression in various types of DNA viral or integrating viral vectors. However, existing regulatory systems are difficult to transfer into negative-strand RNA virus vector platforms because of significant differences in their transcriptional machineries. In this study, we developed a novel strategy for regulating transgene expression mediated by a cytoplasmic RNA vector based on a replication-defective and persistent Sendai virus (SeVdp). Because of the capacity of Sendai virus (SeV) nonstructural C proteins to specifically inhibit viral RNA synthesis, overexpression of C protein significantly reduced transgene expression mediated by SeVdp vectors. We found that SeV C overexpression concomitantly reduced SeVdp mRNA levels and genomic RNA synthesis. To control C expression, target sequences for an endogenous microRNA were incorporated into the 3′ untranslated region of the C genes. Incorporation of target sequences for miR-21 into the SeVdp vector restored transgene expression in HeLa cells by decreasing C expression. Furthermore, the SeVdp vector containing target sequences for let-7a enabled cell-specific control of transgene expression in human fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cells. Our findings demonstrate that SeV C can be used as an effective regulator for controlling transgene expression. This strategy will contribute to efficient and less toxic SeVdp-mediated gene transfer in various biological applications. PMID:27764162

  20. Control strategies for demand controlled ventilation in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and efficient fans is becoming the standard solution. The building regulation requirement for air change in dwellings is often a constant value that has been chosen to avoid moisture related problems in the indoor environment. This required air change is sometimes sufficient, sometimes too low and sometimes too....... In the studied house two control strategies were tested. A simple strategy where all sensors and controls were located in the air handling unit and only the speed of the fans can be controlled, and a complex strategy where sensors were placed in each room and where individual control of air flow in each room...

  1. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  2. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. 'This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  3. Research on Control Strategy of Offshore Wind Farm Based on DC Grid%基于DC-GRID的海上风电场控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁帅; 王平; 葛宝明

    2012-01-01

    The control strategy of offshore wind farm based on dc-grid was presented, including five VSWT-PMSGs, an offshore full bridge DC-DC converter and an onshore VSC inverter. Each PMSG was connected to the DC-bus. The voltage of DD-bus was stepped up by a Full Bridge DC-DC converter at the offshore HVDC station and then was inverted by the onshore VSC inverter to suit AC grid voltage. The effectiveness of the control strategy was verified by simulation analyses using Matlab/ Simulink.%提出了基于直流传输的海上风电场系统的控制策略,同时建立了基于DC-GRID的海上风电场系统模型。系统由永磁同步风机机组、离岸全桥直直变换器、岸端逆变器组成。各个永磁同步风电机组分别并联在高压大功率全桥DC-DC上,由升压后经过直流传输到岸端VSC之后,经逆变到适合交流电网传输的电压后并网。控制策略以及系统模型由MATLAB/SIMULINK仿真验证。

  4. Element Tracking Strategies for Hot Strip Laminar Cooling Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bin; ZHANG Zhong-ping; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2005-01-01

    Feedforward control is the core to control function in the cooling process of hot strip. One of the most important tasks in feedforward control is to determine the arrival time of the strip at various locations on the runout table for effective control. Based on the principles of element tracking and tracking strategies for variable rolling speed and constant rolling speed, a simple diagonal tracking method for an existing hot strip mill was proposed and tested. The test results show that the proposed strategies are effective for improving tracking control.

  5. Discussion on base bid price controlling strategies in engineering tendering%谈工程招标中的标底控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学兵

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the definition and functions of base bid price, the paper comprehensively explores base bid price control- ling strategies from aspects of determining engineering project, compiling basic principles of base bid price, common compiling base bid price methods, improving rationality of base bid price, and common methods and points of determining base bid price and so on, with a view to guar- antee smooth operation of bidding and tendering work.%在介绍了标底的定义和分析了标底作用的基础上,从工程项目确定和编制标底的基本原则、编制工程项目标底的常用方法、提高工程项目标底合理性、确定工程项目标底的常用方法和要点等几个方面,全面探讨了工程招标中的标底控制策略,以期保障招投标工作的顺利进行。

  6. Screening of pollution control and clean-up materials for river chemical spills using the multiple case-based reasoning method with a difference-driven revision strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rentao; Jiang, Jiping; Guo, Liang; Shi, Bin; Liu, Jie; Du, Zhaolin; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In-depth filtering of emergency disposal technology (EDT) and materials has been required in the process of environmental pollution emergency disposal. However, an urgent problem that must be solved is how to quickly and accurately select the most appropriate materials for treating a pollution event from the existing spill control and clean-up materials (SCCM). To meet this need, the following objectives were addressed in this study. First, the material base and a case base for environment pollution emergency disposal were established to build a foundation and provide material for SCCM screening. Second, the multiple case-based reasoning model method with a difference-driven revision strategy (DDRS-MCBR) was applied to improve the original dual case-based reasoning model method system, and screening and decision-making was performed for SCCM using this model. Third, an actual environmental pollution accident from 2012 was used as a case study to verify the material base, case base, and screening model. The results demonstrated that the DDRS-MCBR method was fast, efficient, and practical. The DDRS-MCBR method changes the passive situation in which the choice of SCCM screening depends only on the subjective experience of the decision maker and offers a new approach to screening SCCM.

  7. 基于消息优先级的 OppIoV拥塞控制策略%OppIoV Congestion Control Strategy Based on Message Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 曹文静; 于永利

    2015-01-01

    针对机会车联网的网络拥塞问题,提出了一种基于所传输消息优先级的车辆节点拥塞控制策略。当车辆节点存储空间不足而又需要存储新的消息时,该车辆节点内的所有消息按照其优先级由高到低排列,丢弃优先级最低的消息,直至有存储空间来接收新的消息。通过大量的仿真实验与传统的丢弃策略对比,该拥塞控制策略能显著提高消息的递交率,减小开销,并对网络拥塞状况有更好的自适应能力。%For network congestion of Opportunistic Internet of Vehicle ,a congestion control strategy of vehicle nodes based on the priority of the message transmission is proposed .When the storage space of vehicle nodes is insufficient and need to store the new messages ,all messages within the vehicle nodes according to their priority from high to low arrangement ,dropped the lowest priority message ,until there is storage space to receive a new message . Through a lot of simulation experiments and compared with traditional discarded strategies .The congestion control strategy can significantly increase the messages submitted rate ,reduce overhead ,and has better adaptive ability of network congestion situation .

  8. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal g...

  9. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings

  10. Wind farm models and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.;

    2005-01-01

    models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described.The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC......This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulationmodels are described, including wind turbine...

  11. Wind farm models and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Donovan, M.H.

    2005-08-01

    This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulation models are described, including wind turbine models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described. The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC connected active stall turbines. Finally, some simulation examples and conclusions are presented. (au)

  12. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一家; 张红先

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems : Duffing oscillator and Rǒssler chaos.

  13. An adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一家; 张红先

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive strategy for controlling chaotic systems. By employing the phase space reconstruction technique in nonlinear dynamical systems theory, the proposed strategy transforms the nonlinear system into canonical form, and employs a nonlinear observer to estimate the uncertainties and disturbances of the nonlinear system, and then establishes a state-error-like feedback law. The developed control scheme allows chaos control in spite of modeling errors and parametric variations. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through its applications to two well-known chaotic systems: Duffing oscillator and Rossler chaos.

  14. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally sol...

  15. Experimental demonstration of a new model-based SCR control strategy for cleaner heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising diesel aftertreatment technology that enables low nitrogen oxides (NOx) tailpipe emissions with relatively low fuel consumption. Future emission legislation is pushing the boundaries for SCR control systems to achieve high NOx conversion within a ta

  16. Assessing key safety concerns of a Wolbachia-based strategy to control dengue transmission by Aedes mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Popovici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever, chikungunya or malaria affect millions of people each year and control solutions are urgently needed. An international research program is currently being developed that relies on the introduction of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis into Aedes aegypti to control dengue transmission. In order to prepare for open-field testing releases of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, an intensive social research and community engagement program was undertaken in Cairns, Northern Australia. The most common concern expressed by the diverse range of community members and stakeholders surveyed was the necessity of assuring the safety of the proposed approach for humans, animals and the environment. To address these concerns a series of safety experiments were undertaken. We report in this paper on the experimental data obtained, discuss the limitations of experimental risk assessment and focus on the necessity of including community concerns in scientific research.

  17. 基于变结构模糊控制的MPPT控制策略%Control strategy on MPPT based on variable structure fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓玲; 范发靖; 周素梅

    2012-01-01

    As the high cost of photovoltaic cells and the low transformation efficiency is,in order to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic generation system, a Maximum Power Point: Tracking (MPPT) method bases on Incremental Conductance and Fuzzy control was improved. The method of asymmetrical output membership function and a variable structure Fuzzy control with PID was adopted, and response to the outside environmental changes rapidly and the photovoltaic cells MPP was tracked exactly,output vibration of MPP also decreased in this method.%为了充分提高光伏发电系统的效率,针对光伏电池成本高、转化效率低的问题,基于电导增量法和模糊控制技术,提出了一种最大功率点跟踪方法.该方法采用了非对称的输出隶属度函数和具有PID功能的变结构模糊控制,能快速响应外界环境变化,准确跟踪到光伏电池的最大功率点,且有效地减小了最大功率点处的输出波动.

  18. Sliding Mode Robustness Control Strategy for Shearer Height Adjusting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Su

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly established mathematical model of height adjusting hydro cylinder of the shearer, as well as the state space equation of the shearer height adjusting system. Secondly we designed a shearer automatic height adjusting controller adopting the sliding mode robustness control strategy. The height adjusting controller includes the sliding mode surface switching function based on Ackermann formula, as well as sliding mode control function with the improved butterworth filter. Then simulation of the height adjustment controller shows that the sliding mode robustness control solves buffeting of typical controller, and achieves automatic control for the rolling drum of the shearer.

  19. Chassis Control based on Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas Lopez, Carlos Albertos; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Ramirez-Mendoza, Ricardo,; Sename, Olivier; Dugard, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Global Chassis Control system with three-layers architecture (decision, control, and physical layers) a Fuzzy Logic (FL) approach is exploited. The FL based decision layer identifies the current driving condition of the vehicle and decides the control strategy to take care of this driving condition. A confusion matrix validates the classification results. The control strategy is implemented through the subsystems (suspension, steering, and braking) at the FL based control layer. Th...

  20. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  1. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  2. Effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral behavior to an evidence-based psychosocial intervention in dementia: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopp, C.M.E.; Graff, M.J.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Sanden, M.W.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy on physicians' referral rate to and knowledge on the community occupational therapy in dementia program (COTiD program). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial with 28 experimental and 17 control clusters was

  3. 基于ADAMS与MATLAB的汽车ABS控制策略的联合仿真%CO-SIMULATION OF AUTOMOBILE ABS CONTROL STRATEGY BASED ON ADAMS AND MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑太雄; 李倩敏; 邬彪

    2014-01-01

    Based on analysing the ABS simulation technology at present stage,in this paper we build the full vehicle model with ADAMS and the ABS control strategy model and the pressure regulating control unit model with MATLAB.The full vehicle dynamic model and the control model are connected together by the ADAMS/Control module interfaces,and to form an ABS real-time closed-loop control model,fi-nally the co-simulation of them two is realised.We also study the co-simulation of automobile ABS on high-adhesion coefficient road.It is known from the simulation results that the ABS system plays a very good anti-lock braking effect in the braking process of the full vehicle,this verifies the reliability of the ABS braking and the feasibility of the co-simulation method.%在分析现阶段ABS仿真技术的基础上,利用ADAMS搭建整车模型,利用MATLAB搭建ABS控制策略模型以及气压调节控制单元模型。通过ADAMS/Control模块接口将建立的整车动力学模型与控制模型连接起来,组成ABS实时闭环控制模型,最终实现两者的联合仿真。对高附着系数路面的汽车ABS进行联合仿真研究,由仿真结果可知ABS系统在整车的制动过程中起到了很好的制动防抱死效果,验证了ABS制动的可靠性以及联合仿真方法的可行性。

  4. Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type of management- knowledge based management and a new type of enterprise-knowledge based enterprise.Taking in consideration these predictable evolutions, this paper will try to present: • The main ideas of the researches the field of the knowledge based economy • The characteristics and principles of the knowledge based organizations and knowledge based management • The challenges and opportunities for knowledge based organizations.The first part of the paper will present the principles of the new economy- knowledge base economy, the essential and interrelated elements necessary to build and to implement a strategy in a knowledge economy and the opportunities and challenges to the countries as they seek to build regionally and globally competitive knowledge-based economies.The second part of the paper will present the characteristics of the knowledge based organizations, the principles and characteristics of their management. For many organizations, knowledge management is a relatively new concept, because they are discovering the knowledge value in their operations. Many firms have undertaken formal and informal knowledge management initiatives designed to improve process performance, increase customer responsiveness and spur innovation. But while some organizations have reaped significant benefits from their investment in knowledge efforts, others have run into noteworthy challenges.

  5. On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers control of responsive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scope...... of the paper is to discuss control strategies for responsive architectural structures, particularly reconfigurable architectural structures which can transform body shape, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two different shape alternatives....

  6. On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers control of responsive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scope of the paper is to discuss control strategies for responsive architectural structures, particularly reconfigurable architectural structures which can transform body shape, i.e. a transformation into mor...

  7. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of inse

  8. 基于HMCD的仿人机器人单杠运动控制策略%HMCD-based dynamic motion control strategy of humanoid robot on a horizontal bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯柏; 高世杰; 吴细宝

    2012-01-01

    为完成仿人机器人单杠运动,分析了欠驱动单杠机器人Acrobot模型,并根据IHOG技术要求、实物机器人本体结构和自由度配置,提出了基于HMCD的控制策略.通过单杠视频捕捉获取人体运动数据,根据仿人机器人模型分析关键特征点、基本动作的运动数据得到的关键帧的关节角数据,经过运动学约束调整,采用插值方法生成能够应用于仿人机器人的运动轨迹.在MF-1型仿人机器人单杠实物平台上进行控制实验的成功,验证了该方法的有效性.%Aiming at the movement implementation of a humanoid robot on a horizontal bar, the control strategy based on HMCD (human motion capture data) is proposed in this paper. The Acrobot model, its physical structure, the degree of freedom and the technical requirements of International Humanoid-robot Olympic Games (IHOG) were analyzed for the robot on a horizontal bar. The key steps of this dynamic motion strategy are motion data capture through the video of humans motion on the horizontal bar, the key feature points'analysis of the humanoid robot model and the joint angles kinematic data match in the basic movements. After making the appropriate adjustments due to the kinematic constraints, an interpolation method was used to generate the motion trajectory of all the joints. The experimental results, based on MF-1 type humanoid robot on the horizontal bar indicate that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  9. An Inventory Control Model Based on Optimized Purchasing Strategy%基于优化采购策略的库存控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董凤翔; 黄丽

    2012-01-01

    By exploring the inventory control of railway maintenance as the research background, a new inventory control model is proposed in this article which aims to optimize purchasing strategy. This model takes into overall consideration both the purchasing cost and inventory cost. The object function of this model is a function of random variables whose distributions are unknown. A new method based on stochastic simulation is established to solve the problem. Compared with the existing solution to the inventory control of railway maintenance, the new method will greatly reduce the cost. At the same time, it can increase the material guarantee ratio. This model can also be applied to other industries with similar inventory control problems.%以铁路维修的库存控制为背景,提出一种基于优化采购策略的库存控制模型.这一模型综合考虑库存材料的采购成本和库存成本.该模型的目标函数是一个随机变量的函数,而且随机变量的分布未知.本文提出了新的随机模拟方法来解决这一问题.数值试验表明,和现有的铁路维修库存控制方案比较,成本大为降低,并提高了材料保障率.这一模型也适用于其他行业类似的库存控制问题.

  10. A unified control strategy for the active reduction of sound and vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The generalized minimum variance (GMV) control strategy is proposed as an effective strategy for active sound and vibration control systems. The GMV strategy is shown to unify well-known adaptive filtering approaches based on LMS-type algorithms and purely feedback strategies as used in other types

  11. Decoupling Control Strategy for Single Phase SPWM Parallel Inverters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Gang Xu; Jian-Ping Xu; Tai-Qiang Cao

    2009-01-01

    A decoupling control strategy of inverter parallel system is proposed based on the equivalent output impedance of single phase voltage source SPWM (sinusoidal pulse width modulation) inverter. The active power and reactive power are calculated in terms of output voltage and current of the inverter, and sent to the other inverters in the parallel system via controller area network (CAN) bus. By calculating and decoupling the circumfluence of the active power and reactive power, the inverters can share load current via the regulation of the reference-signal phase and amplitude. Experimental results of an 110V/2kVA inverter parallel system show the feasibility of the decoupling control strategy.

  12. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. PMID:26817725

  13. Abc-frame complex-coefficient filter and controller based current harmonic elimination strategy for three-phase grid connected inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Current quality is one of the most important issues for operating three-phase grid-connected inverter in distributed generation systems. In practice, the grid current quality is degraded in case of non-ideal utility voltage. A new control strategy is proposed for the three-phase gridconnected...

  14. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan;

    for the process engineer to optimise the operation conditions, due to a lack of available process models, and complex interactions between variables which are not easy to define, especially across scales and equipment. There is however a vast amount of batch process data generated, which can be investigated...... contributions to the prediction, and the variable trends, it may be possible to develop improved control strategies for these variables....

  15. Reading comprehension metacognitive strategies as a means for controlling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah Aladina Caballero López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Textual comprehension implies the use of various metacognitive strategies by the students when they have to face a text to be competent readers. That is why the objective of this article is to illustrate the application of metacognitive strategies in order to achieve an efficient textual comprehension, taking into account the self – regulation the student exerts over his own learning process. It is applied as the main method historical-logical studies based on a professional-researching systematic practice; at the same time observation is largely used. The main result is the introduction of metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension, which subsequently favor the self-control of personal behavior. The article is the result of a research project sponsored by the department of Special Education. Key words: reading comprehension, metacognitive strategies, behavior self-control.

  16. A NEW STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL CONTROL STRATEGY FOR HYSTERETIC MR DAMPERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingZuguang; NiYiqing; KoJanming

    2004-01-01

    A new stochastic optimal control strategy for randomly excited quasi-integrable Hamiltonian systems using magneto-theological (MR) dampers is proposed. The dynamic behavior of an MR damper is characterized by the Bouc-Wen hysteretic model. The control force produced by the MR damper is separated into a passive part incorporated in the uncontrolled system and a semi-active part to be determined. The system combining the Bouc-Wen hysteretic force is converted into an equivalent non-hysteretic nonlinear stochastic control system. Then Ito stochastic differential equations are derived from the equivalent system by using the stochastic averaging method. A dynamical programming equation for the controlled diffusion processes is established based on the stochastic dynamical programming principle. The non-clipping nonlinear optimal control law is obtained for a certain performance index by minimizing the dynamical programming equation. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  17. A new balancing three level three dimensional space vector modulation strategy for three level neutral point clamped four leg inverter based shunt active power filter controlling by nonlinear back stepping controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F

    2016-07-01

    In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  18. A new balancing three level three dimensional space vector modulation strategy for three level neutral point clamped four leg inverter based shunt active power filter controlling by nonlinear back stepping controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F

    2016-07-01

    In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK. PMID:27018144

  19. Decoupling Control Strategy of D-STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzheng Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Distribution Network, Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM can stabilize turn-on point voltage, effectively reduce the transmission losses in power, improve the power factor and prevent the non-linear load. But under the circumstance of the d- and q-axis, D-STATCOM is a non-linear and strong coupling system, so decoupling control is very useful, that is because the decoupling control can ensure the output current fast track and have on different with the setting values. Study the decoupling control strategy of D-STATCOM, through the analysis of its basic structure, and then get the model of the coupling term. Due to avoid active and reactive current coupling, Fuzzy Immune PI Controller and inverse system method are combined to be used in the original system. Finally, the results are shown by the MATLAB simulation that the proposed decoupling control strategy is very good, because the performance is excellent, the structure is simple and easy to be implemented.

  20. A Radiation Control Strategy for Counter-Sorting of Fire-Control Radar Network Based on Tracking Requirement%基于跟踪任务需求的火控雷达网抗分选控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴凯; 封吉平; 韩壮志; 王学磊; 李成玉

    2014-01-01

    针对火控雷达信号极易被敌方侦察系统分选识别的问题,提出一种基于跟踪任务需求的抗分选控制策略。首先通过跟踪精度描述了火控雷达对目标的跟踪任务需求;然后将间歇开机与雷达组网相结合,在满足门限精度的条件下,对火控雷达网内的雷达进行轮换开机控制;最后对侦察系统的信号分选部分进行了仿真建模,通过分选成功率验证控制策略的有效性。结果表明,该策略在保证跟踪需求的前提下,使网内雷达信号的抗分选性能得到了提高。%The fire-control radar's signal is easily to be sorted and identified by the enemy reconnaissance system .Aiming at this problem,a radiation control strategy is proposed to improve the counter-sorting performance based on tracking requirement .Firstly,the tracking requirement of the fire-control radar to a target is described as the tracking accuracy .Then intermittent work is combined with radar network,and radars of the network are controlled through work rotation on the condition that the threshold tracking accuracy is kept .Finally,the simulation model of reconnaissance system's signal sorting is established,and the effectiveness of control strategy is verified .The results show that,with the radiation control strategy,the counter-sorting performance of the fire-control radars in the network is increased while keeping target tracking .

  1. Some thoughts on separation control strategies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P R Viswanath

    2007-02-01

    Separation control has received considerable emphasis in literature both owing to fundamental flow physics and technological applications. Flow separation generally leads to increased energy losses, instability and so on, and its control is essential to improve aerodynamic performance. Here a brief review is presented of three broad strategies for separation control: these include methods that involve energization of the boundary layer upstream of separation, those that involve altering the bubble flow or dead air zone, and those that may influence the shear layer reattachment directly. Examples from recent research in our laboratories are reviewed and it is suggested that direct manipulation of the reattachment process could lead to effective control/management.

  2. Empirically Based Strategies for Preventing Juvenile Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile crime is a serious public health problem that results in significant emotional and financial costs for victims and society. Using etiologic models as a guide, multiple interventions have been developed to target risk factors thought to perpetuate the emergence and persistence of delinquent behavior. Evidence suggests that the most effective interventions tend to have well-defined treatment protocols, focus on therapeutic approaches as opposed to external control techniques, and use multimodal cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies. Moving forward, there is a need to develop effective policies and procedures that promote the widespread adoption of evidence-based delinquency prevention practices across multiple settings. PMID:26980128

  3. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332...: Ozone. Determinations—EPA is determining that, as of July 18, 1995, the Salt Lake and Davis Counties ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard based on air quality monitoring data from...

  4. Characterizing the Aedes aegypti population in a Vietnamese village in preparation for a Wolbachia-based mosquito control strategy to eliminate dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A L Jeffery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A life-shortening strain of the obligate intracellular bacteria Wolbachia, called wMelPop, is seen as a promising new tool for the control of Aedes aegypti. However, developing a vector control strategy based on the release of mosquitoes transinfected with wMelPop requires detailed knowledge of the demographics of the target population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Tri Nguyen village (611 households on Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam, we conducted nine quantitative entomologic surveys over 14 months to determine if Ae. aegypti populations were spatially and temporally homogenous, and to estimate population size. There was no obvious relationship between mosquito (larval, pupal or adult abundance and temperature and rainfall, and no area of the village supported consistently high numbers of mosquitoes. In almost all surveys, key premises produced high numbers of Ae. aegypti. However, these premises were not consistent between surveys. For an intervention based on a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti, release ratios of infected to uninfected adult mosquitoes of all age classes are estimated to be 1.8-6.7ratio1 for gravid females (and similarly aged males or teneral adults, respectively. We calculated that adult female mosquito abundance in Tri Nguyen village could range from 1.1 to 43.3 individuals of all age classes per house. Thus, an intervention could require the release of 2-78 wMelPop-infected gravid females and similarly aged males per house, or 7-290 infected teneral female and male mosquitoes per house. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the variability we encountered, this study highlights the importance of multiple entomologic surveys when evaluating the spatial structure of a vector population or estimating population size. If a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti were to occur when wild Ae. aegypti abundance was at its maximum, a preintervention control program would be necessary to ensure that

  5. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies. PMID:25583867

  6. Turbine Control Strategies for Wind Farm Power Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor;

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been increasing interest in green energies, of which wind energy is the most important one. In order to improve the competitiveness of the wind power plants, there are ongoing researches to decrease cost per energy unit and increase the efficiency of wind turbines...... and wind farms. One way of achieving these goals is to optimize the power generated by a wind farm. One optimization method is to choose appropriate operating points for the individual wind turbines in the farm. We have made three models of a wind farm based on three difference control strategies....... Basically, the control strategies determine the steady state operating points of the wind turbines. Except the control strategies of the individual wind turbines, the wind farm models are similar. Each model consists of a row of 5MW reference wind turbines. In the models we are able to optimize...

  7. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, Mohsen, E-mail: m.farahani@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Hamedan-Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-14

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  8. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  9. Control strategies for DFIG wind turbines under grid fault conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rolán Blanco, Alejandro; de Medeiros, G.; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro; Teodorescu, R.

    2009-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame, attached to the magnetic flux vector, became very popular. In spite of the good behaviour of such algorithms their performance depends highly on an accurate detection of the s...

  10. Optimal Energy Control Strategy Design for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A heavy-duty parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled, and its optimal energy control is studied in this paper. The fundamental architecture of the parallel hybrid electric truck is modeled feed-forwardly, together with necessary dynamic features of subsystem or components. Dynamic programming (DP technique is adopted to find the optimal control strategy including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and the motor subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the fuel economy can be achieved in the heavy-duty vehicle cycle from the natural driving statistics.

  11. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean): Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ortiz; Fabián Rodriguez-Zaragoza; Brenda Hermosillo-Nuñez; Ferenc Jordán

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean). Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability) of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of diffe...

  12. Controlling strategy of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Yiling; Guo Shuliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literatures on control of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and propose a new control strategy to shorten the course of TB chemotherapy.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in PubMed.The search terms were "therapy (treatment) of tuberculosis," "therapy (treatment) of latent TB infection," and "vaccine of TB."Study selection Articles regarding treatment and vaccine of TB were selected and reviewed.Results The most crucial reason causing the prolonged course of TB chemotherapy is the dormant state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis).Nevertheless,there are,to date,no effective drugs that can directly kill the dormant cells of M.tuberculosis in clinical therapy.In accordance with the growth cycle of dormant M.tuberculosis in the body,the methods for controlling dormant M.tuberculosis include direct killing with drugs,prevention of dormant M.tuberculosis resuscitation with vaccines,and resuscitating dormant M.tuberculosis with preparations or drugs and then thoroughly killing these resuscitated M.tuberculosis by using anti-TB therapy.Conclusions The comprehensive analysis of the above three methods suggests that the drugs directly killing dormant cells are in clinical trials,TMC207 is the most beneficial for controlling TB.Because the side effect of vaccines is less and their action period is long,prevention of dormant cells resuscitation with vaccines is promising.The last control method makes it probable that when a huge number of active cells of M.tuberculosis have been killed and eradicated after 1-month short chemotherapy,only a strong short-term subsequent chemotherapy can completely kill and eradicate the remaining M.tuberculosis.This control strategy is expected to significantly shorten the course of TB chemotherapy and bring a new change and breakthrough in TB treatment.

  13. Power Control Strategy for Microgrid Based on Hybrid Energy Storage System%基于混合储能的微电网功率控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雨; 潘文霞; 冯蒙霜; 包抒一

    2013-01-01

    微电网中间歇式微电源输出功率较大的不确定和波动,给微电网孤网运行时的电能质量和并网运行时的功率可调度控制带来了巨大的挑战.采用单一的储能系统平滑功率波动,不仅无法很好解决上述两种问题,且不利于延长储能元件的寿命.文中利用超级电容的高功率密度、快速充放和蓄电池适于平抑长周期功率波动的特点,提出了基于超级电容和蓄电池组成的混合储能系统及相应的控制策略,微电网孤网运行时采用超级电容平滑波动频率较高的功率,并网运行时结合蓄电池平抑频率较低的功率,通过两者的共同作用提高了微电网孤网运行的电能质量与并网运行的可调度性,同时避免了蓄电池频繁充放电.在PSCAD/EMTDC中建立微电网仿真模型,验证了所提出的混合储能结构及其控制策略的可行性.%The output fluctuation of intermittent micro-power in mircrogrid will bring great challenge to the control of power quality at the island operation mode and the power schedulability at the grid-connected operation mode. Using one type of energy storage system to smooth the power fluctuation is hard to perfectly solve the above problems but is not good to extend the life of energy storage device. This paper proposes a control strategy based on hybrid energy storage system consisted of super-capacitor and battery, which takes advantage of the battery to smooth long-periodic fluctuation power and the high power density, fast charge and discharge of the super-capacitor. The super-capacitor is used to smooth the high fluctuation power when the microgrid on island operation mode. By combining with the battery, the super-capacitor can be used to smooth the low fluctuation power when the microgrid on grid-connected operation mode. Therefore, the power quality on island operation mode and schedulability of the microgrid on grid-connected operation mode can be improved, and too much

  14. CONTROL STRATEGY FOR ASSURING CONSTANT SURFACE FINISH BY CONTROLLING CUTTING FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    Čuš, Franci; Župerl, Uroš

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present surface roughness control strategy aimed at controlling the cutting force and maintaining constant roughness of the surface being milled by digital adaptation of cutting parameters. The idea of this control structure is to merge the off-line cutting condition optimization and genetic programming (GP) model based surface roughness control. The off-line optimization integrates the neural network (NN) modelling of the objective function and particle swar...

  15. Persistent organic pollutants control strategy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ya-juan; LU Yong-long; ZHANG Hong; WANG Tie-yu; XING Ying

    2005-01-01

    The development of Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs) control policy in China in the context of international concerns on POPs was reviewed. The aspects of the Chinese POPs control strategies were analyzed, and compared with those of developed counterparts (e.g. US, EU, Japan). Currently, while the legal framework on POPs management, which complies with international guidelines has been established, it should be improved in the areas of special POPs management, risk assessment, the precautionary principle, lifecycle management and technical support capacity. The analysis of Chinese POPs policy and suggestions for strengthening the sciencebased decision making capacity are not only useful for Chinese decision-makers, but also a case study for developing world and make a great contribution for the global elimination of POPs to make a toxic-free future.

  16. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean: Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ortiz

    Full Text Available Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean. Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4 showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3. Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5, the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1 the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2 the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics and (3 the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control. An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies.

  17. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean): Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Marco; Rodriguez-Zaragoza, Fabián; Hermosillo-Nuñez, Brenda; Jordán, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean). Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability) of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4) showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3). Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5), the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1) the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2) the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics) and (3) the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper) that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control). An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies. PMID:26114745

  18. An Optimal Reactive Power Control Strategy for a DFIG-Based Wind Farm to Damp the Sub-Synchronous Oscillation of a Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhao; Hui Li; Mingyu Wang; Yaojun Chen; Shengquan Liu; Dong Yang; Chao Yang; Yaogang Hu; Zhe Chen

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator spe...

  19. Highlights of the EPA innovative regulatory strategies workshop: Market-based incentives and other innovations for air pollution control. Summary of workshop discussion sessions. Held in Washington, DC on January 15-17, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 allow, and in some cases require, States to adopt market-based strategies or other innovative types of air pollution control. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) innovative regulatory strategies program seeks to encourage and facilitate, as appropriate, the development, demonstration, and implementation of a wide range of innovative regulatory air pollution programs, including market-based, informational, and pollution prevention approaches. The 3-day national workshop, attended by over two hundred people from Federal, State, and local agencies, industry, environmental and public interest groups, and the academic community highlighted issues associated with a variety of innovative, market-based strategies which are currently being developed or used by State and local authorities around the country

  20. Robust antisynchronization of chaos using sliding mode control strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Mondal; Mitul Islam; Nurul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a sliding mode control strategy-based scheme for achieving anti-synchronization between two coupled non-linear chaotic systems. The method works irrespective of whether the systems under consideration possess or lack inverse symmetry. Using a linear sliding surface, a sliding mode control input and a non-linear coupling function are designed that synchronizes the systems antiphase. Finite-time convergence of the method is established. The controller is also robust to all forms of bounded perturbations and this robustness can be easily achieved by tuning of a single controller parameter and introduction of a control vector. The controller is also made chattering-free by producing a continuous analogue of the discontinuous control input. The effectiveness of the method is established by implementing it to antisynchronize chaotic Sprott systems and Rossler systems. The results are also verified through numerical simulation work.

  1. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  2. 基于ExtendSim的自适应CONWIP控制策略研究%Research on the Control Strategy of Adaptive CONWIP Based on ExtendSim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳红; 赵新

    2016-01-01

    在多产品多阶段系统,需求的产生和服务时间是随机的,为了控制这类系统,针对已有的推式(Push)和拉式(Pull)生产控制策略使用的局限性,提出带有自适应看板和独立需求信息的拉式自适应定量在制品控制策略. 并以示例通过建立ExtendSim仿真模型说明提出策略的可行性,能够应对生产过程中的多类波动.%In multi-product and multi-phase system, the production and service time of the demand is random, in order to control the system, aim at the limitations of existing Push and Pull type production control strategies are used, presents with adaptive Kanban and independent information of demand pull type adaptive CONWIP control strategy.And an example is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method and can deal with the multi class fluctuations in the production process.

  3. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Ahmed Khan; Aftab Ahmad; Riffat Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel’s skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium dififcile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  4. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; Ahmed; Khan; Aftab; Ahmad; Riffat; Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospitalacquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel’s skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium difficile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broadspectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  5. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  6. Economic analysis of HPAI control in the Netherlands II: comparison of control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, N; Mourits, M C M; Saatkamp, H W

    2014-06-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight control strategies were analysed, including pre-emptive depopulation and vaccination strategies. The analysis was carried out for three different regions in the Netherlands: high-, medium- and low-density areas (HDA, MDA and LDA, respectively). The analysis included the veterinary impact (e.g. number of infected premises and duration), but was particularly focused on the impact on direct costs (DC) and direct consequential costs. The efficient set of control strategies for HDA and MDA included strategies based on either pre-emptive depopulation only or combined vaccination and pre-emptive depopulation: D2 (pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 2 km), RV3 + D1 (ring vaccination within a radius of 3 km and additional pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km) and PV + D1 (preventive vaccination in non-affected HDAs and pre-emptive depopulation within a radius of 1 km in the affected HDA). Although control solely based on depopulation in most cases showed to be effective for LDA, pre-emptive depopulation showed to have an additional advantage in these areas, that is, prevention of 'virus jumps' to other areas. The pros and cons of the efficient control strategies were discussed, for example, public perception and risk of export restrictions. It was concluded that for the Netherlands control of HPAI preferably should be carried out using strategies including pre-emptive depopulation with or without vaccination. Particularly, the short- and long-term implications on export, that is, indirect consequential costs (ICC) and aftermath costs of these strategies, should be analysed further.

  7. Temperature control strategy for a seal fatigue tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Związek

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is optimization of a control strategy used in a seal fatigue tester.Design/methodology/approach: Analytical approach has been applied to get an understanding of a heat exchange process. It is required to optimize the control process algorithm.Findings: The initial control algorithm has been improved regarding numerous tests under different operating conditions. The final version of the control program allows to maintain the temperature according to the on-off strategy minimizing the temperature oscillations and potential overshoots.Research limitations/implications: It should be considered a new control strategy based on PID controller.Practical implications: The major component of the tester is the heat exchanger. It consists of a tube and embedded pipe circuit feeding with the external heating or cooling medium. The tube is a cylindrical housing where the seals are assembled at both sides. Two main pumps circulate the medium at a specified flow rate and pressure. The temperature is maintained to hold it almost constant during heating and cooling phases. Two thermocouples are placed close to the seals, and the one in the middle of the heat exchanger tube. The tester is equipped with a control system consisting of a PLC controller and LabView data acquisition application. It is possible to control the device remotely through LAN/WAN networks. The LabView application communicates with the controller via software with the use of PPI (Point-To-Point Interface protocol. A new control algorithm has allowed to perform tests according to testing specification without significant overshoots.Originality/value: On-off control algorithm has been proposed for a combined heating-cooling installation rarely using in the industrial solutions.

  8. Food Security Strategy Based on Computer Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruihui Mu

    2015-01-01

    Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control...

  9. Research on Control Strategy of Series Hybrid Electric Bus Based on Advisor%采用Advisor的串联式混合动力客车控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡玲; 岳峰丽

    2012-01-01

    Taking the series hybrid bus as research object, the structure and control principle are introduced and the parameters are calculated and matched based on ADVISOR. The power following control strategy and constant temperature control strategy are analyzed and compared, the composite control strategy based on the two strategies is proposed, and the secondary development and simulation comparison in ADVISOR is performed. The simulation results show that the control system has good robustness and advantage of the two control strategy, which can stably meet the requirements of actual power performance, better e-mission performance, and fuel consumption.%以串联式混合动力客车为研究对象,介绍混合动力汽车的结构及控制原理,在Advisor平台下完成参数计算匹配.对常用的功率跟随和恒温式两种控制策略进行分析对比,提出在功率跟随控制策略基础上融入发动机恒温开关控制的复合控制策略,并在ADVISOR中完成二次开发和仿真对比.结果表明,控制结果鲁棒性好,结合了两种控制策略的优点,能合理稳定的满足实际动力性指标,并获得良好的燃油经济性能和排放性能.

  10. Food Security Strategy Based on Computer Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihui Mu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control strategy, when the issue of marketing and business strategy is very important. The results of this study also demonstrated the relationship between reward and food security strategies. Interview analysis showed that the attitude of senior management in the hotel's food security policy, the company's ability to significantly dependent on the corporate image.

  11. Chemical Biology Strategies for Biofilm Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Givskov, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbes live as densely populated multicellular surface-attached biofilm communities embedded in self-generated, extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs serve as a scaffold for cross-linking biofilm cells and support development of biofilm architecture and functions. Biofilms can have a clear negative impact on humans, where biofilms are a common denominator in many chronic diseases in which they prime development of destructive inflammatory conditions and the failure of our immune system to efficiently cope with them. Our current assortment of antimicrobial agents cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms. For industrial applications, the removal of biofilms within production machinery in the paper and hygienic food packaging industry, cooling water circuits, and drinking water manufacturing systems can be critical for the safety and efficacy of those processes. Biofilm formation is a dynamic process that involves microbial cell migration, cell-to-cell signaling and interactions, EPS synthesis, and cell-EPS interactions. Recent progress of fundamental biofilm research has shed light on novel chemical biology strategies for biofilm control. In this article, chemical biology strategies targeting the bacterial intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways will be discussed.

  12. Designing a sustainable strategy for malaria control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mharakurwa Sungano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in the 21st century is showing signs of declining over much of its distribution, including several countries in Africa where previously this was not thought to be feasible. Yet for the most part the strategies to attack the infection are similar to those of the 1950s. Three major Journals have recently drawn attention to the situation, stressing the importance of research, describing the successes and defining semantics related to control. But there is a need to stress the importance of local sustainability, and consider somewhat urgently how individual endemic countries can plan and implement the programmes that are currently financed, for the most part, by donor institutions. On an immediate basis research should be more focused on a data driven approach to control. This will entail new thinking on the role of local infrastructure and in training of local scientists in local universities in epidemiology and field malariology so that expanded control programmes can become operational. Donor agencies should encourage and facilitate development of career opportunities for such personnel so that local expertise is available to contribute appropriately.

  13. Optimal design of coordination control strategy for distributed generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-hua; Norapon Kanjanapadit

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design procedure for optimizing the power distribution strategy in distributed generation system. A coordinating controller, responsible to distribute the total load power request among multiple DG units, is suggested based on the conception of hierarchical control structure in the dynamic system.The optimal control problem was formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem subject to set of constraints.The resulting problem was solved using the Kutm-Tucker method. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide better efficiency in terms of reducing total costs compared to existing methods.In addition, the proposed optimal load distribution strategy can be easily implemented in real-time thanks to the simplicity of closed-form solutions.

  14. Mine-Hoist Active Fault Tolerant Control System and Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-jie; WANG Yao-cai; MENG Jiang; ZHAO Peng-cheng; CHANG Yan-wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant technologies, the mine-hoist active fault-tolerant control system (MAFCS) is presented with corresponding strategies,, which includes the fault diagnosis module (FDM), the dynamic library (DL) and the fault-tolerant control module (FCM). When a fault is judged from some sensor by FDM, FCM reconfigure the state of MAFCS by calling the parameters from all sub libraries in DL, in order to ensure the reliability and safety of mine hoist. The simulating result shows that, MAFCS is of certain intelligence, which can adopt the corresponding control strategies according to different fault modes, even when there are quite difference between the real data and the prior fault modes.

  15. Control of group of mobile autonomous agents via local strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin GAO; Daizhan CHENG; Yiguang HONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the formation control problem of multi-agent systems in a distributed fashion.Two cases of the information propagating topologies among multiple agents,characterized by graphics model,are considered.One is fixed topology.The other is switching topology which represents the limited and less reliable information exchange.The local formation control strategies established in this paper are based on a simple modification of the existing consensus control strategies.Moreover,some existing convergence conditions ale shown to be a special case of our model even in the continuous-time consensus case.Therefore.the results of this paper extend the existing results about the consensus problem.

  16. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  17. A Composite PWM Control Strategy for Boost Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfeng, Liu; Zhaoxia, Leng; Jinkun, Sun; Huamin, Wang

    In order to improve the control performance of boost converter with large signal disturbance, a composite PWM control strategy for boost converter operating in continuous condition mode (CCM) was proposed in this paper. The parasitical loss of Boost converter was analyzed and a loss compensation strategy was adopted to design feed-forward tracker for converter. The composite PWM controller consisted of the tracker and PID controller. Simulation and experiment results validated the validity of the control strategy presented in this paper.

  18. Instantaneous Current Feedback Control Strategy on Buck Mode Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Control strategies for Buck mode inverter have important effect on static and dynamic characteristics, reliability, load capacity, and short-circuit resistance. Instantaneous current feedback control strategies include instantaneous inductor current feedback control and instantaneous capacitor current feedback control, both of which have essential difference. When the Buck mode inverter respectively adopts instantaneous inductor current and capacitor current feedback control strategies, characteristics of stability, output voltage and power, short circuit, nonlinear load and dynamic are fully investigated in this paper.

  19. STUDY ON POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL STRATEGIES OF AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE IN CHINA BASED ON US-JAPAN EXPERIENCE AND ENLIGHTENMENT FOR THE PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    GAO QIANG; ZHAO FEI

    2014-01-01

    In United States, Japan and other developed countries in the agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and governance key policy and technical measures have achieved some success, compared to Chinese agricultural nonpoint source pollution and problems of the major causes and actively learning from the developed countries succeed agricultural nonpoint source pollution control practices and experiences, based on the actual situation, from the establishment of a sound related policies and r...

  20. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  1. 基于PCS7的加热炉燃烧控制策略及仿真研究%Furnace Combustion Control Strategy and Simulation Based on PCS 7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙自强; 丁小冬

    2012-01-01

    A furnace combustion control strategy based on Siemens SIMATIC PCS7 is designed to solve the problem of low combustion efficiency existing in the furnace control system,. In the strategy, used double-crossing-limiting ratio control, fuzzy control and feedforward control to control furnace' s main parameters: material temperature, air/fuel ratio and furnace pressure. The system used SMPT to simulate furnace and use SIMATIC PC57 to implement control strategy. The control process runs automatically and the result shows the strategy is feasibility and has better control performance. Propose a new control strategy and get better performance at the aspect of real-time control and improving combustion efficiency compared to the traditional furnace control based on mathematical model.%针对加热炉控制系统中存在的燃烧效率不高,控制响应延迟大的问题.设计了一套基于某公司SIMATIC PCS7控制系统的加热炉燃烧控制策略.系统针对加热炉燃烧控制中的主要参数:物料出口温度,空燃比,炉膛压力分别采用率级双交叉比值限幅控制策略,模糊控制策略和前馈控制策略进行控制.控制过程采用高级多功能过程实训系统(SMPr)仿真加热炉,利用SIMATIC PCS7控制系统实施加热炉的控制方案并利用上位机软件WinCC进行在线的实时监控.控制过程自动运行,根据控制过程和仿真结果表明,方案安全可靠,控制效果和可行性较好.比较于传统的基于数学模型的加热炉控制策略,方案提供了一种新型的控制策略,在很大程度上解决了加热炉燃烧效率不高,控制响应延迟大的问题.

  2. Application of a Pull Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control for Production Control of Assembly Line%基于模糊控制的拉式策略在装配生产控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫巨华; 黄敏; 王兴伟

    2011-01-01

    利用模糊控制鲁棒性强的特点,将其引入单产品装配线的生产控制系统中,构造新的拉式控制策略.在建立控制系统周期审查模型和完成控制器设计的基础上,通过缩小变异范围改进遗传算法求解以极小化在制品量和投放波动为目标,顾客满意率为约束条件的多目标规划,从而达到优化控制系统参数的目的.为考察模糊控制系统性能,通过实例与多阶段定量在制品法(Constant work-in-process,CoNWIP)、Kauban和一般拉式策略(Generic pull,GP)系统进行比较,结果表明模糊生产控制系统不仅能维持较低的在制品水平,更重要的是能维持较低的订单投放波动水平.%Due to its robustness, fuzzy control has been incorporated into the production control system to establish a pull strategy for single-product assembly line. Based on a periodic review model proposed to describe the operations of the assembly control system and on the designs of the fuzzy controllers,the basic genetic algorithm (GA) has been improved via reducing mutation domains to solve a multi-objective program, which minimizes the work-in-procees level and fluctuation level of order placement while meeting customer's demand, meanwhile,the parameters of the control system have been optimized. In order to investigate the performance of the proposed fuzzy control system, multi-CONWIP, Kanban and generic pull systems have been compared with the fuzzy system, and the results show that the fuzzy production control system keeps a lower work-inprocess level, and especially a weaker placement fluctuation.

  3. MARKETING STRATEGIES BASED ON THE BUYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In marketing, due to dynamic, rapid and permanent changes known on the market, we will talk more about politics than about strategy, the time horizon covered is much lower than that contained in a classic strategy, with a risk that elements and criteria to which we refer are no longer current. Sales growth strategies are, in fact, combination strategies and consist in the company applying, in its different units, different strategies, according to the requirement of appropriate strategies applied to different environments of action. A business strategy must be based on knowledge of customer purchasing behavior. To contact customers, a company may use one or more specific strategies. Every marketing strategy serves the interest of increasing competitiveness, and of stabilizing and improving the companys position in the market in a highly competitive environment. In the age of transformation into market economy, rapid technological development, and confrontation between economic and ecological factors, every single manager is compelled to elaborate an attitude, and to take a stand concerning research and development, technological transfer, the technological level of products, and the quality of services, because these are the factors determining the future development, the chances of survival, and in a wider sense the objectives of marketing strategy.

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Otieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted. The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control

  5. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  6. Intelligent Control Strategy of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Hajizadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals a control strategy developed for optimizing the power flow in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV structure. This method implements an on-line power management based on the neuro-fuzzy controller between dual power sources that consist of a battery bank and a fuel cell (FC. This structure included battery and fuel cell and its power train system include an Electric Motor (EM and vehicle dynamics. The proposed control method involves an intelligent controller which captures all of possible operation modes and predicts the driver intention. Moreover, there are local controllers to regulate the set points of each subsystems to reach the best performance and acceptable operation indexes. Simulation results of hybrid system illustrate improvement in the operation efficiency of the FCHV and the battery state of charge and fuel cell utilization factor have been maintained at a reasonable level.

  7. An optimal reactive power control strategy for a DFIG-based wind farm to damp the sub-synchronous oscillation of a power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Li, Hui; Wang, Mingyu;

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the auxiliary damping control with the reactive power loop on the rotor-side converter of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms to depress the sub-synchronous resonance oscillations in nearby turbogenerators. These generators are connected to a series capacitive...... compensation transmission system. First, the damping effect of the reactive power control of the DFIG-based wind farms was theoretically analyzed, and a transfer function between turbogenerator speed and the output reactive power of the wind farms was introduced to derive the analytical expression...... and effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary damping control were demonstrated on a modified version of the IEEE first benchmark model by time domain simulation analysis with the use of DigSILENT/PowerFactory. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that this derived damping factor expression...

  8. Strategies for searching and managing evidence-based practice resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based nursing practice requires the use of effective search strategies to locate relevant resources to guide practice change. Continuing education and staff development professionals can assist nurses to conduct effective literature searches. This article provides suggestions for strategies to aid in identifying search terms. Strategies also are recommended for refining searches by using controlled vocabulary, truncation, Boolean operators, PICOT (Population/Patient Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) searching, and search limits. Suggestions for methods of managing resources also are identified. Using these approaches will assist in more effective literature searches and may help evidence-based practice decisions. PMID:25221988

  9. Analysis of network-induced delay and control strategy based on Ball-Beam networked control system%球杆网络化控制系统的延时分析与控制方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 桂卫华; 伍晓峰

    2011-01-01

    delays are equivalently lumped together as a single delay. On the other hand, a method of delay-measuring is proposed. Based on that, a reasonable control strategy is designed. Compensating by Smith compensator, the ball-beam networked control system is simulated, and the result shows the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  10. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...... for improved and more efficient operation of wastewater treatment plants. Unfortunately, their evaluation and comparison – either practical or based on simulation – is difficult. This is partly due to the variability of the influent, to the complexity of the biological and biochemical phenomena......, plant layout, controllers, sensors, performance criteria and test procedures, i.e. a complete benchmarking protocol....

  11. Control Strategies for DFIG Wind Turbines Under Grid Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Alvara; Rolan, A.; Medeiros, G.;

    2009-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame......, attached to the magnetic flux vector, became very popular. In spite of the good behaviour of such algorithms their performance depends highly on an accurate detection of the stator flux position, something that can be critical under unbalanced or distorted grid voltage conditions. This paper presents a new...... with the response obtained with a classical VOC algorithm by means of PSCAD/EMTDC® simulation models....

  12. Modeling Responses of Leafy Spurge Dispersal to Control Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zewei Miao

    2007-01-01

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) has substantial negative effects on grassland biodiversity, productivity, and economic benefit in North America.To predict these negative impacts, we need an appropriate plant-spread model which can simulate the response of an invading population to different control strategies.In this study, using a stochastic map lattice approach we generated a spatially explicitly stochastic process-based model to simulate dispersal trajectories of leafy spurge under various control scenarios.The model integrated dispersal curve, propagule pressure, and population growth of leafy spurge at local and short-temporal scales to capture spread features of leafy spurge at large spatial and long-temporal scales.Our results suggested that narrow-, medium-, and fat-tailed kernels did not differ In their ability to predict spread, in contrast to previous works.For all kernels, Allee effects were significantly present and could explain the lag phase (three decades)before leafy spurge spread accelerated.When simulating from the initial stage of introduction, Allee effects were critical in predicting spread rate of leafy spurge, because the prediction could be seriously affected by the low density period of leafy spurge community.No Allee effects models were not able to simulate spread rate well in this circumstance.When applying control strategies to the current diatribution, Allee effects could stop the spread of leafy spurge; no Allee effects models, however, were able to slow but not stop the spread.The presence of Allee effects had significant ramifications on the efficiencies of control strategies.For both Allee and no Allee effects models, the later that control strategies were implemented, the more effort had to be input to achieve similar control results.

  13. Comparison of different control strategies on FMD in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different control strategies that could be used in Denmark during an outbreak of FMD, based on epidemiological, ethical and economic parameters. Nearly a hundred different control strategies and more than 30 sensitivity analyses were run, changing between...... depopulation (Depop), suppressive (VacToKill) and protective (VacToLive) vaccination with different times for implementation and different zone sizes. It is therefore obvious that not all results can be included here; neither will all results be presented at the seminar. However, we have done our best...... of the epidemics, it is shown that vaccination is more expensive compared to depopulation. Results from 1000 epidemics starting in cattle herds in cattle dense areas. Epidemiological results from ISP presented as medians and 5-95 percentiles (brackets), economical as means. The size, duration and costs...

  14. Comparison of Power Control Strategies for DFIG Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Luna, A.; Rodríguez, P.;

    2008-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame......, attached to the magnetic flux vector, became very popular. In spite of the good behaviour of such algorithms their performance depends highly on an accurate detection of the stator flux position, something that can be critical under unbalanced or distorted grid voltage conditions. This paper presents a new...... with the response obtained with a classical VOC algorithm by means of PSCAD/EMTDC® simulation models. Finally the behaviour of both strategies will be tested in a real setup....

  15. COMPUTER BASED ENVIRONMENT CONTROLS

    OpenAIRE

    Macoveiciuc Pastorel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to give an overview of the main activities of computer based activities controls. The basic principles of computer controls should be common to all sectors and to most types of hardware and software. The absence of a common definition of computer control may, in part, be due to the relative newness of computer controls. A key feature of many organisations today is change. Although not necessarily the driver of change, IT is invariably an intrinsec component and much ...

  16. A new weed control strategy in onion culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieron, M; Kerres, W; Schäffer, A

    2007-01-01

    A new strategy combining modem hoeing technique and spray application has been developed in order to reduce the amount of herbicides down to 20% compared to common practice. The effects on weed control have been investigated as well as the impact on qualitative and quantitative harvest. In two large scale field trials and two years of testing the authors evaluated different hoeing techniques combined with band spray application and standard spray application, the minimal lethal herbicide dose method (MLHD). All varieties have been calculated for environmental impact as well as practical and economical means. These studies reveal crop losses due to improper weed control as well as losses due to herbicide stress. Detailed information on concentration depending impact of several herbicides have been correlated to their control of different weeds and the achieved yield. Two contrary effects influencing the total yield have been identified. The novel strategy is based on the knowledge of these complex effects which finally led to a well practicable and highly economic strategy that enables onion farmers to control weeds while reducing the amounts of herbicides down to approximately 20%. PMID:18399447

  17. Capacitor Current Feedback-Based Active Resonance Damping Strategies for Digitally-Controlled Inductive-Capacitive-Inductive-Filtered Grid-Connected Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Lorzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL-type line filters are widely used in grid-connected voltage source inverters (VSIs, since they can provide substantially improved attenuation of switching harmonics in currents injected into the grid with lower cost, weight and power losses than their L-type counterparts. However, the inclusion of third order LCL network complicates the current control design regarding the system stability issues because of an inherent resonance peak which appears in the open-loop transfer function of the inverter control system near the control stability boundary. To avoid passive (resistive resonance damping solutions, due to their additional power losses, active damping (AD techniques are often applied with proper control algorithms in order to damp the LCL filter resonance and stabilize the system. Among these techniques, the capacitor current feedback (CCF AD has attracted considerable attention due to its effective damping performance and simple implementation. This paper thus presents a state-of-the-art review of resonance and stability characteristics of CCF-based AD approaches for a digitally-controlled LCL filter-based grid-connected inverter taking into account the effect of computation and pulse width modulation (PWM delays along with a detailed analysis on proper design and implementation.

  18. Application of Feedforward and Feedback Control Strategy for Wire Rod Hot Rolling Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-xiang; HAO Xiao-hong; WEN Zhi; HU Ze-qiang; ZHANG Yao-gen; CHEN Hu-qiu

    2005-01-01

    The feedforward and feedback control strategy of water flowrate based on the analysis of thermal process in water cooling box was proposed, and the control strategy was applied to wire rod hot rolling at Baosteel Co.The operation has proved that the strategy can control water flowrate in the cooling water box reasonably to ensure the temperature requirement of the wire discharged from the cooling water box.

  19. An intermodal traffic control strategy for private vehicle and public transport

    OpenAIRE

    BHOURI, N; LOTITO, P

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a traffic-responsive urban traffic control strategy allowing a real time passive public transport priority. The proposed strategy is based on a store and forward modeling of both of the private vehicle and Public transport traffic. The regulator is designed using the linear quadratic, which allows a traffic responsive co-ordinated control for wide-area networks. The objective of this strategy is to control the junctions traffic lights in order to improve the traffic perfor...

  20. Control strategies for effective robot assisted gait rehabilitation: the state of art and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinghui; Xie, Sheng Quan; Das, Raj; Zhu, Guo L

    2014-12-01

    A large number of gait rehabilitation robots, together with a variety of control strategies, have been developed and evaluated during the last decade. Initially, control strategies applied to rehabilitation robots were adapted from those applied to traditional industrial robots. However, these strategies cannot optimise effectiveness of gait rehabilitation. As a result, researchers have been investigating control strategies tailored for the needs of rehabilitation. Among these control strategies, assisted-as-needed (AAN) control is one of the most popular research topics in this field. AAN training strategies have gained the theoretical and practical evidence based backup from motor learning principles and clinical studies. Various approaches to AAN training have been proposed and investigated by research groups all around the world. This article presents a review on control algorithms of gait rehabilitation robots to summarise related knowledge and investigate potential trends of development. There are existing review papers on control strategies of rehabilitation robots. The review by Marchal-Crespo and Reinkensmeyer (2009) had a broad cover of control strategies of all kinds of rehabilitation robots. Hussain et al. (2011) had specifically focused on treadmill gait training robots and covered a limited number of control implementations on them. This review article encompasses more detailed information on control strategies for robot assisted gait rehabilitation, but is not limited to treadmill based training. It also investigates the potential to further develop assist-as-needed gait training based on assessments of patients' ability. In this paper, control strategies are generally divided into the trajectory tracking control and AAN control. The review covers these two basic categories, as well as other control algorithm and technologies derived from them, such as biofeedback control. Assessments on human gait ability are also included to investigate how to

  1. Economic Analysis of HPAI Control in the Netherlands II: Comparison of Control Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longworth, N.J.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    A combined epidemiological-economic modelling approach was used to analyse strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) control for the Netherlands. The modelling framework used was InterSpread Plus (ISP), a spatially based, stochastic and dynamic simulation model. A total of eight contro

  2. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  3. Dynamic Flow Control Strategies of Vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wei; ZHANG Youtong; ASIF Malik

    2015-01-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine’s operating conditions. That will lead to low NOX conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between–8%and 10%to–4%and 2%and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms . The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NOX emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NOX conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine’s operating conditions quickly.

  4. Dynamic flow control strategies of vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Youtong; Asif, Malik

    2015-03-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions. That will lead to low NO X conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between -8% and 10% to -4% and 2% and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms. The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NO X emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NO X conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions quickly.

  5. Optimal Control Strategies in a Two Dimensional Differential Game Using Linear Equation under a Perturbed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Danjuma SHEHU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper lays emphasis on formulation of two dimensional differential games via optimal control theory and consideration of control systems whose dynamics is described by a system of Ordinary Differential equation in the form of linear equation under the influence of two controls U(. and V(.. Base on this, strategies were constructed. Hence we determine the optimal strategy for a control say U(. under a perturbation generated by the second control V(. within a given manifold M.

  6. Design of an Active Vibration Isolation Control Strategy Based on IFT Method%基于IFT方法的主动隔振控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜文俊; 刘哲; 王维锐; 金良; 董丹

    2012-01-01

    针升自适应前馈控制算法在主动隔振系统中存在的局限性,提出了一种基于迭代反馈调整( IFT)的主动隔振控制策略.谊方法以主动隔振后的残余力均方值为目标函数,依托系统模型,根据实际需求设计控制器阶数,并通过信赖域的优化方法对控制器参教进行迭代调整,以获得期望的固定阶数的低阶控制器.该低阶控制器有利于降低成本和减少设计计算量,便于控制算法的实时实现.以基于磁致伸缩作动器的双层隔振系统为研究对象,用Matlab仿真软件对提出的算法进行仿真研究,并与自适应前馈控制算法中常用的归一化FXLMS算法进行比较.结果表明,基于IFT方法所设计的低阶控制器比归一化的FXLMS算法具有更好的隔振效果,有着很好的实用性和推广性.%In view of the limitations of the feedforward adaptive control method for active vibration isolation system, a method based on iterative feedback tuning is proposed. This method takes the mean square value of residual force as target function, and designs the controller order based on system model and actual demand. The trust region method is used for the controller parameters adjustment. Finally , a fixed lower order controller is obtained. The low order controllers can reduce costs and the design calculation, which is convenient for the real-time control algorithm to come true. Taken the active vibration isolation system based on magnetostrictive actuator as the research object, the algorithm is simulated by the Matlab and compared with the Normal FNLMS algorithm. The results show that the low order controllers based on the IFF methods have better vibration isolation effect than the Normal FXLMS algorithm. And the methods hare good practicability and extensibility.

  7. Behavioral Self-Control Strategies for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Leasha M.; Haraway, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, self-control strategies are conceptualized as existing on two intersecting continuums of more or less individual control and increasing complexity depending on individual need. Behavioral self-control strategies for young children require external supports to assist children in learning the skills necessary to practice and implement…

  8. Modelling nematode infections in sheep and parasite control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Laurenson, Yan Christian Stephen Mountfort

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing lambs adversely affects animal performance and welfare, causing significant production losses for the sheep industry. Control of gastrointestinal parasitism using chemotherapeutic treatment is under threat due to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, thus stimulating research into alternative control strategies. Whilst investigating control strategies experimentally can be costly and time consuming, using a mathematical modelling appro...

  9. Strategies for reactive power control in wind farms with STATCOM

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz González, Francisco; Martínez Rojas, Marcela; Sumper, Andreas; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents three strategies for reactive power control in wind farms with STATCOM. First, the STATCOM system and its applications in electric power systems and wind farms are shown. Second, the modeling done of the wind farm, the STATCOM and the network are presented. Finally, control strategies for reactive power delivered by the park to the network when required are shown. The result of the implementation of each control strategy is shown by simulation.

  10. DISTANCE-BASED UPDATE STRATEGY IN LDCQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yi; Edward Chan; Huang Zailu

    2004-01-01

    A new update strategy, distance-based update strategy, is presented in Location Dependent Continuous Query (LDCQ) under error limitation. There are different possibilities to intersect when the distances between moving objects and the querying boundary are different.Therefore, moving objects have different influences to the query result. We set different deviation limits for different moving objects according to distances. A great number of unnecessary updates are reduced and the payload of the system is relieved.

  11. The Robust Control Mixer Method for Reconfigurable Control Design By Using Model Matching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, Mogens; Verhagen, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust reconfigurable control synthesis method based on the combination of the control mixer method and robust H1 con- trol techniques through the model-matching strategy. The control mixer modules are extended from the conventional matrix-form into the LTI sys- tem form...... recovery besides the functionality recovery is also discussed under this framework. Comparing with the conventional control mixer method, the proposed method considers the recon gured system's stability, performance and robustness simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is illustrated by a case study...

  12. Population genetic structure of Aedes polynesiensis in the Society Islands of French Polynesia: implications for control using a Wolbachia-based autocidal strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brelsfoard Corey L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes polynesiensis is the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti in the South Pacific and an important vector of dengue virus. An improved understanding of the mosquito population genetics is needed for insight into the population dynamics and dispersal, which can aid in understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and control of the vector. In light of the potential release of a Wolbachia infected strain for vector control, our objectives were to investigate the microgeographical and temporal population genetic structure of A. polynesiensis within the Society Islands of French Polynesia, and to compare the genetic background of a laboratory strain intended for release into its population of origin. Methods A panel of eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype A. polynesiensis samples collected in French Polynesia from 2005-2008 and introgressed A. polynesiensis and Aedes riversi laboratory strains. Examination of genetic differentiation was performed using F-statistics, STRUCTURE, and an AMOVA. BAYESASS was used to estimate direction and rates of mosquito movement. Results FST values, AMOVA, and STRUCTURE analyses suggest low levels of intra-island differentiation from multiple collection sites on Tahiti, Raiatea, and Maupiti. Significant pair-wise FST values translate to relatively minor levels of inter-island genetic differentiation between more isolated islands and little differentiation between islands with greater commercial traffic (i.e., Tahiti, Raiatea, and Moorea. STRUCTURE analyses also indicate two population groups across the Society Islands, and the genetic makeup of Wolbachia infected strains intended for release is similar to that of wild-type populations from its island of origin, and unlike that of A. riversi. Conclusions The observed panmictic population on Tahiti, Raiatea, and Moorea is consistent with hypothesized gene flow occurring between islands that have relatively high levels of air

  13. 基于扰动观察法的MPPT控制优化策略%Optimized MPPT Control Strategy Based on Perturbation and Observation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄礼明; 连永圣; 陈标龙; 林培杰; 程树英

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the charging efficiency of photovoltaic system, the system controller takes the high-performance low-power Atmega 16 microcontroller as a core, changes the output voltage of Buck converter in real-time by adjusting the PWM duty cycle, and uses the MPPT control strategy of perturbation and observation method to achieve tracking of maximum power point of the photovoltaic power generation system. The MPPT algorithm was optimized to solve the problems of power oscillations and misjudg-ment probably caused by rapid perturbation during the tracking with perturbation and observation method. The real-time maximum power graph of the system is shown by a friendly man-machine interface. The testing results indicate that the method can ensure PV system to realize MPPT fast, steadily and accurately, and improve the charging efficiency.%为了提高光伏发电系统的充电效率,系统控制器采用高性能低功耗的ATmega16单片机为核心,通过调节PWM波占空比实时改变Buck变换器的输出电压,采用扰动观察法的MPPT控制策略,实现对光伏发电系统最大功率点的跟踪.针对扰动观察法跟踪过程中可能由于快速扰动导致功率振荡和误判的问题,系统对MPPT算法进行优化,并通过友好的人机界面实时显示最大功率曲线图.测试结果表明,该方法能够保证光伏发电系统快速、稳定、精确地跟踪最大功率点,提高了充电效率.

  14. STUDY OF THE STATUS OF TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL PROGRAM BASED ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIRECTLY OBSERVED TREATMENT SHORT-COURSE STRATEGY (DOTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Kooshad, Mahdokht Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ascendant trend of tuberculosis in the world introduces this disease to be one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. So that every year, 9 million people are afflicted to active TB and about 5.1 million people die of the disease. As the HIV contaminated cases are increased, emergence and spread field of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) bacilli has been provided. Objective: This study aimed to assess the Tuberculosis Control Program from 2005 to 2012 to determine the overall situation of disease epidemiology and prioritized strategies in disease control program within the south of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was extracted and analyzed retrospectively on the basis of records of all TB patients in TB health center and TB software in south Tehran in 2005-2012 years. Results: From the total population under protection of health center of south Tehran, 99% are urban and 1% are rural. During 2005-2012, 1242 TB cases have been registered and they were treated by DOTS method. There were 553 cases of new smear-positive pulmonary TB (44%), 222 cases of smear-negative pulmonary TB (18%) and 336 cases of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (27%), 26 cases of recurrence (2%) and 11 cases of MDR (0.9%). Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis has included 67.4% of all tuberculosis patients. Conclusions: The results showed that, in accordance with TB worldwide statistics, at the health center of south Tehran, pulmonary TB is the most common form of the disease (67.4%). The incidence of smear-positive tuberculosis and all forms of TB cases has been an ascending trend over the period between 2005 and 2012.

  15. An off-and-towards-equilibrium strategy for vibrational control of structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Runlin; Mai Tong; Zhou Xiyuan; Yan Weiming; Liu Xihui

    2006-01-01

    Traditional control strategies have difficulty handling nonlinear behavior of structures, time variable features and parameter uncertainties of structural control systems under seismic excitation. An off-and-towardsequilibrium (OTE) strategy combined with fuzzy control is presented in this paper to overcome these difficulties.According to the OTE strategy, the control force is designed from the viewpoint of a mechanical relationship between the motions of the structure, the exciting force and the control force. The advantage of the OTE strategy is that it can be used for a variety of control systems. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed strategy, the seismic performance of a three-story shear building with an Active Tendon System (ATS) using a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is studied. The main advantage of the fuzzy controller is its inherent robustness and ability to handle any nonlinear behavior of structures. However, there are no design guidelines to set up the corresponding control rule table for a FLC. Based on the proposed strategy for the FLC, a control rule table associated with the building under study is developed, which then allows formation of a detailed algorithm. The results obtained in this study show that the proposed strategy performs slightly better than the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) strategy, while possessing several advantages over the LQR controller. Consequently, the feasibility and validity of the proposed strategy are verified.

  16. CAN-based Synchronized Motion Control for Induction Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ren; Chun-Wen Li; De-Zong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    A control area network (CAN) based multi-motor synchronized motion control system with an advanced synchronized control strategy is proposed.The strategy is to incorporate the adjacent cross-coupling control strategy into the sliding mode control architecture. As illustrated by the four-induction-motor-based experimental results,the multi-motor synchronized motion control system,via the CAN bus,has been successfully implemented.With the employment of the advanced synchronized motion control strategy,the synchronization performance can be significantly improved.

  17. On Human Cost Control Strategy of Construction Enterprise Based on Strategic Perspective%战略视角的施工企业人力成本控制策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛力群

    2012-01-01

    施工企业有效实施人力成本控制策略,要求从企业战略的视角出发,结合企业发展愿景,制订企业人力成本战略方针并将其落实到企业的施工经营全过程.论文认为,战略视角的施工企业人力成本控制策略对企业获得竞争优势具有主要的作用,这是企业在市场竞争中获得人力资源管理的比较优势,提升企业竞争力的重要保证.%The construction enterprise effectively implements the human cost control strategy, which requests construction enterprise starts from the perspective of enterprise strategy, combines with enterprise development vision, formulates policies of human cost strategy of corporate and implements them in the whole process of construction business of enterprise. This paper believes that human cost control strategy of construction enterprise based on strategic perspective has main effect on gaining competitive advantage for enterprises, and it is comparative advantages of gaining human resource management for enterprises in market competition and the important guarantee to promote competitiveness of enterprises.

  18. Control strategy of microbial fuel cell based on generalized predictive control%基于广义预测控制策略的微生物燃料电池控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安爱民; 王静; 张浩琛; 杨国强; 刘云利

    2016-01-01

    The generalized predictive control is proposed that based on the control strategy of microbial fuel cell, combined with the characteristics of microbial fuel cells, to investigate the problems of unstable power output in the initial operation stage and the long adjustment time during the operation of an MFC, compared with the MFC system of PID control method joined, joined generalized predictive control of MFC system output is able to avoid the response greatly jitter and fast response, good robustness and dynamic adjustment to ensure that the dynamic output curve fast and accurate tracking system settings. The model identification is carried by the least squares method with forgetting factor to get linear model as a predictive model. Then, generalized predictive control (GPC) can adjust effectively the output response of an MFC under random influent flow at constant external resistance and acetate concentration. The simulation results show that GPC can achieve a good control effect and system robustness adjustment process has also been greatly improved in terms of speed control response. Effective implementation of the optimization of dynamic performance and robust performance of microbial fuel cell system to verify the proposed algorithm is effective and feasible.%针对 MFC 系统启动阶段输出响应不稳定以及调节时间较长的问题,结合微生物燃料电池自身特性,提出了基于广义预测控制(generalized predictive control,GPC)的微生物燃料电池(microbial fuel cell,MFC)控制策略。与加入PID控制方法对比得知,加入GPC的MFC系统输出能够避免响应出现大幅度的抖动,且响应速度快,动态调节鲁棒性好,保证了动态输出曲线快速准确地跟踪系统设定值。在给定外电阻为恒值和醋酸盐浓度随时间阶梯变化时,通过带遗忘因子的最小二乘法进行模型辨识,将所得线性模型作为预测模型,采用GPC算法进行控制。仿真表

  19. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  20. A Comprehensive LVRT Control Strategy for DFIG Wind Turbines With Enhanced Reactive Power Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Dongliang; Xu, Zhao; Yang, Lihui;

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a new control strategy to enhance the ability of reactive power support of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine during serious voltage dips. The proposed strategy is an advanced low voltage ride through (LVRT) control scheme, with which a part of the captu...

  1. Vector Control Based on SVPWM for ACIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the large torque ripple and current harmonics, low DC bus voltage problems, a new control strategy is proposed for AC induction motor by using space vector pulse width modulation, so that the static and dynamic performance are improved. The system simulation experiment mode was established based on SVPWM to verify the effectiveness of the system control mode. It is showed that it can reduce the current ripple and torque ripple, improve the utilization of DC bus voltage. It means that the control strategy based SVPWM can improve dynamic and static performance effectively for the ACIM servo system.

  2. 基于直流电流模糊预测控制的换相失败预防策略%A DC Current Fuzzy Predictive Control Based Strategy to Decrease Probability of Commutation Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高楷; 孙国强; 卫志农; 孙永辉; 袁阳

    2015-01-01

    为抑制直流输电系统逆变器换相失败的发生,可采用直流电流预测控制方法,但直流电流预测设定值计算公式中参数k存在一定的随机性,为此采用模糊控制器控制直流电流预测设定值,并提出直流电流模糊预测控制策略.设置了控制时长T,并通过仿真测试选取合适的T值,克服了原有方法引起的系统电流恢复缓慢的不足.最后通过 CIGRE HVDC标准模型的PSCAD-Matlab联合调用仿真进行算例分析,结果验证了所提方法的有效性.%DC-current predictive control strategy is an existing advanced method to restrain inverter commutation failure in HVDC system. To break limitation of this method that parameterk in computational formula is random, a DC current fuzzy predictive control based strategy is proposed. It uses fuzzy controller to control preset DC current value on inverter side. This paper also sets control duration T chosen through simulation testing. It overcomes drawback of existing method that the current recovers slowly. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed strategy for improving capability of HVDC system in resisting commutation failure and accelerating recovery after faults is verified with simulation with standard CIGRE HVDC benchmark testing model based on combined simulation of PSCAD and Matlab.

  3. 基于最佳电能使用的插电式混合动力客车控制策略%Control Strategy for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Based on Optimal Electric Energy Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗国鹏; 罗禹贡; 李克强

    2012-01-01

    In view of the problem of poor fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric bus in long distance driving with the control strategy currently adopted, a control strategy based on optimal electric energy use is proposed. It selects the mode of best utilization of electric energy according to expected driving distance and the SOC of battery. The results of simulation show that using the control strategy proposed can significantly improve the fuel economy of vehicle.%针对目前插电式混合动力汽车采用的控制策略在较长行驶里程时燃油经济性较差的问题,提出了一种基于最佳电能使用的控制策略.它根据目标行驶里程和电池SOC,选择最佳的电能使用方式.仿真结果表明,当目标行驶里程较长时,采用所提出的控制策略可显著改善汽车燃油经济性.

  4. 基于VMI策略的常用备件库存控制研究%A Study on Common Spare Parts Inventory Control Based on VMI Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任南; 杜强

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problem existing of traditional spare parts inventory, common spare parts, the important part of the spare parts inventory, was analyzed from the actual situation, and the common spare parts inventory based on VMI strategy was established. Through the case study, the model was performed under the condition which the shortage of the common spare parts was not allowed. The problem of spare parts inventory management was solved. The model optimize the structure of inventory. Finally, some suggestions on optimization are given.%针对传统备件库存中所存在的备件随机性强、需求规律差的问题,从供应商管理库存的角度出发,对常用备件的库存控制方法进行研究,建立了基于VMI策略的备件库存控制模型.并通过实例研究,对不允许缺货条件下的供应商管理备件库存模式与传统模式进行比较,结果表明,该方法可以很好的降低企业运营成本,解决了常用备件库存管理的问题,优化了备件库存结构,并给出了一些优化建议.

  5. A novel control strategy for single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal in SBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Gernaey, Krist;

    2015-01-01

    based on a process model and then tested experimentally. The resulting batch-to-batch control strategy had the total nitrogen removal efficiency as controlled variable and the setting of the aeration mass flow controller as manipulated variable. Compared to manual operation mode (constant air supply......-scale reactor is a promising result, which brings this control strategy one step closer to full-scale implementation....

  6. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG Wind Turbines for Low Voltage Ride Through

    OpenAIRE

    Chanxia Zhu; Minqiang Hu; Zaijun Wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved control strategy for both the rotor side converter (RSC) and grid side converter (GSC) of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbine (WT) system to enhance the low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability. Within the proposed control strategy, the RSC control introduces transient feed-forward compensation terms to mitigate the high frequency harmonic components and reduce the surge in the rotor currents. The proposed GSC control scheme also introd...

  7. Congestion control strategy based on quality of message in DTN%DTN中依据报文质量的拥塞控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵竹; 徐正欢; 李晓峰

    2012-01-01

    为了解决受限网络环境所带来的低的递交率的问题,DTN(Delay Tolerant Networks)通常采用多拷贝路由(multiple-copy routing)机制来实现报文的有效递交.但在实际情况下,网络中节点的缓存是受限的,当网络中的总报文教大于所有节点的缓存容量和时,网络就发生了拥塞.针对网络拥塞,通过计算节点缓存中的报文质量(Quality of Message)以确定报文丢弃的优先级,合理地丢弃报文控制拥塞.仿真结果显示与其他拥塞控制策略相比,该路由策略能得到更好的网络性能.%To solve the problem of low delivery ratio caused by intermittent network, DTN adopt multiple-copy routing to ensure the efficiency of message delivery. But in real situation, because the buffer of the node is limited, the network is congested when the number of message in network is larger than the sum of the buffer of the nodes. To deal with the congestion of the network, this paper drops the messages reasonably by defining the priority of message, and the priority is determined by the quality of the messages in the buffer of the node. The results show that this congestion control strategy can improve the network performance in congestion environment.

  8. 40 CFR 52.573 - Control strategy: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: General. 52.573... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.573 Control strategy: General. The generic rules and procedures for emission trades (bubbles), submitted on October 27, 1982, by...

  9. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section 52.58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead...

  11. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, 1-hour ozone NAAQS Redesignation Request and...

  12. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... satisfies 40 CFR 58.20(f) which requires the State to provide for the establishment and maintenance of... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.582 Control strategy: Ozone. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC..., Campbell and Kenton Counties) ozone nonattainment area. The demonstration of attainment of the...

  14. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a... of Progress Plan for the District of Columbia's portion of the Metropolitan Washington, D.C....

  15. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The redesignation request submitted by the State of Alabama, on March 16, 1995 for the Birmingham marginal...

  16. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. (a... requirements of sections 172(c)(9) and 182(c)(9) of the Clean Air Act, for the Greater Hartford serious...

  17. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. On October 22, 1990, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management submitted a revision...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  5. Activity-Based Information Integrating the operations strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto da Rocha de Araujo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world, companies seek for new operations strategies to ensure world corporate success. This article analyzes how the cost management models – both traditional and activity-based, aid the planning and management of corporate globalized operations. The efficacy of the models application depends on their alignment with the competitive strategy. Companies must evaluate the nature of the competition and its competitive priorities; they should then define the necessary and sufficient dependence level on costs information. In this article, three dependence levels are presented: operational, decision support and strategic control. The result of the research shows the importance of alignment between the cost management model and the competitive strategy for corporate success, and confirms the adequacy of the activity-based costing model as a supporting tool for decision taking in a global strategy. Case studies in world class companies in Brazil are presented.

  6. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  7. Global lessons from Nigeria's ebolavirus control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemuwa, Chris; Kutalek, Ruth; Ali, Mohammad; Mworozi, Edison; Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus disease outbreak challenged medical and public health systems in West Africa. In Nigeria, the existing infrastructure of the polio surveillance system was leveraged rapidly to contain the spread of Ebola virus. We highlight important lessons learnt from the successful implementation of Ebola virus disease surveillance strategies, which should be amplified further to prepare the ground for successful vaccination programs. Close collaboration between national and international stakeholders as well as public/private partnerships will be instrumental in future Ebola virus immunization strategies. PMID:26190046

  8. Partial budget of the discounted annual benefit of mastitis control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allore, H G; Erb, H N

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this study was to rank the benefits associated with various mastitis control strategies in simulated herds with intramammary infections caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus spp. other than Strep. agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Escherichia coli. The control strategies tested were prevention, vaccination for E. coli, lactation therapy, and dry cow antibiotic therapy. Partial budgets were based on changes caused by mastitis control strategies from the mean values for milk, fat, and protein yields of the control herd and the number of cows that were culled under a fixed mastitis culling criterion. Each annual benefit (dollars per cow per year) of a mastitis control strategy was compared with the revenue for the control herd and was calculated under two different milk pricing plans (3.5% milk fat and multiple-component pricing), three net replacement costs, and three prevalences of pathogen-specific intramammary infection. Twenty replicates of each control strategy were run with SIMMAST (a dynamic discrete event stochastic simulation model) for 5 simulated yr. Rankings of discounted annual benefits differed only slightly according to milk pricing plans within a pathogen group but differed among the pathogen groups. Differences in net replacement costs for cows culled because of mastitis did not change the ranking of control strategies within a pathogen group. Both prevention and dry cow therapy were important mastitis control strategies. For herds primarily infected with environmental pathogens, strategies that included vaccination for mastitis caused by E. coli dominated strategies that did not include vaccination against this microorganism.

  9. Information Feedback Strategies in a Signal Controlled Network with Overlapped Routes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li-Jun; HUANG Hai-Jun; LIU Tian-Liang

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects of four different information feedback strategies on the dynamics of traffic, travel-ers' route choice and the resultant system performance in a signal controlled network with overlapped routes.Simulation results given by the cellular automaton model show that the system purpose-based mean velocity feedback strategy and the congestion coefficient feedback strategy have more advantages in improving network utilization efficiency and reducing travelers' travel times. The travel time feedback strategy and the individual purposed-based mean velocity feedback strategy behave slightly better to ensure user equity.

  10. Coordinated control strategies for a micro-grid based on droop characteristics%基于下垂特性的微电网协调控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀琼; 高文杰; 井天军; 杨明皓

    2012-01-01

    Micro-grid technology aims to solve the problems caused by the large-scale grid-connected operation of distributed generator, and increase the power supply reliability. The coordinated control strategy of micro-sources is the key for the stability of micro—grids. The generic control method and coordinated control strategy of power electronics interface micro sources are analyzed in detail, and a coordinated control strategy for multi micro-source based on droop characteristics is presented in this paper. Using the feedback system BIBO stability criterion rooted in small gain theorem, the influence of the droop gains on the stability of the micro-grid system is analyzed to develop a way to a droop gain design. The proposed design method is verified by the simulation based on Matlab/Simulink.%微电网技术有助于解决分布式电源大规模接入电网的问题,同时增强用户供电的可靠性,而微网内各微源间的协调控制是微网研究的重点.文章分析了微网中电力电子接口的微源常用控制方法和协调控制结构,基于下垂控制特性提出了微网各微源的协调控制策略;利用互联反馈系统BIBO稳定判据小增益定理,分析了下垂系数对系统稳定性的影响,为下垂系数设计提供了依据,最后对提出的下垂系数设计依据在Matlab/Simulink中进行了仿真验证.

  11. Available Bandwidth Estimation Strategy Based on the Network Allocation Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Hongtao Liu; Lianglun Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Available bandwidth is of great importance to network Quality of Service assurance, network load balancing, streaming media rate control, routing, and congestion control, etc.. In this paper, the available bandwidth estimation strategy based on the Network Allocation Vector for Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed. According to the size of the average contention window, network nodes predict the probability of collision in process of frame transmission, and then estimate the number of retrans...

  12. New control strategies for neuroprosthetic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crago, Patrick E.; Lan, Ning; Veltink, Peter H.; Abbas, James J.; Kantor, Carole

    1996-01-01

    The availability of techniques to artificially excite paralyzed muscles opens enormous potential for restoring both upper and lower extremity movements with neuroprostheses. Neuroprostheses must stimulate muscle, and control and regulate the artificial movements produced. Control methods to accompli

  13. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  14. Improved Control Strategy for Microgrid Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Dou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultracapacitors (UCs, with their features of high power density and high current charge-discharge, have become the best choice for dynamic power compensation to improve the stability of microgrids and are increasingly being applied in microgrids. This paper presents the control of an energy storage system (ESS based on ultracapacitors in the context of grid-connected microgrids. The ESS is composed of DC/AC and DC/DC converters tied by a dc link. An improved dynamic model for the ESS is proposed. Based on the proposed model a Proportional-Integral-Resonant (PIR DC link voltage controller is proposed to maintain the DC link voltage through the charging-discharging control of ultracapacitors, capable of working properly under all operating conditions. An extra double frequency component is injected into the UC current by a R controller to dynamically compensate for DC instantaneous power and double frequency AC instantaneous power due to unbalanced grid conditions and disturbances. This feature maintains the DC link voltage constant under unbalanced conditions and increases the degrees of freedom of the DC/AC converter and thus facilitates the application of UCs in microgrids. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  15. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Han

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications.

  16. Control Strategy of SOC Open-Loop of Hybrid Electric Bus Based on Driving Cycle Prediction%基于道路工况预测混合动力公交车SOC开环控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱道伟; 谢辉; 严英

    2012-01-01

    混合动力车辆一般采用基于荷电状态(SOC)闭环的控制策略,对蓄电池组进行频繁充电,使SOC维持在较高水平,影响制动能量的回收,从而导致燃油经济性不理想.为此,利用BP神经网络并结合城市公交运行特点,提出SOC开环控制策略,对公交车未来站点间的运行工况进行预测,减少蓄电池组的充电次数,降低蓄电池组的荷电状态.试验表明,采用该控制策略可以显著降低电池组充电时间和次数,有利于制动能量的回收,百公里油耗降低了3%.%The conventional strategy of hybrid electric vehicle was based on the state of charge (SOC) closed-loop which charged the battery frequently to sustain a high-level SOC and decreased the fuel efficiency because the energy from the regenerative braking couldn't be stored any more. SOC open-loop control strategy was proposed using the BP neural network and considering the trait of city bus to predict the next driving cycles between two stops in short future. Experiment result shows that the control strategy is useful to decrease charging times and time-period, which improve fuel efficiency by 3% higher than the vehicle on the route with the control strategy of SOC closed-loop because of enhanced regenerative braking energy.

  17. 仿生六足机器人基于足力分布的位姿调整策略%Posture control strategy based on force distribution for bionic six-legged robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海清; 刘玉斌; 张赫; 陈杰; 赵杰

    2012-01-01

    针对六足机器人非结构化地形稳定步行问题,研究了基于足力分布的位姿调整策略.通过力学分析建立了机器人任意步态模式下的足力分布模型,获得足底受力的平衡关系;采用重心位置调整策略实现了机器人步行过程中的位姿优化,来提高步行稳定性;并且建立了虚拟悬挂模型,采用足力补偿的方法对外界的扰动进行抑制,进一步提高机器人步行的稳定性.通过仿真验证了该调整策略对提高机器人步行稳定裕度的有效性.%This paper proposed a posture control strategy based on force distribution for the purpose of keeping the posture stability of six - legged robot when the robot was walking on irregular terrain. This strategy considered of establishing the force distribution model on any gait patterns to obtain the balance relationship of plantar forces, and adjusted COG (center of gravity) to achieve optimal posture control. Applied force compensation on the basis of a virtual suspension model to achieve disturbance rejection. This strategy could effectively improve the walking stability of robot on irregular terrain. Adams simulations verified the effectiveness of the control strategy to improve the robot walking stability margin.

  18. 基于混合策略博弈的预防控制策略匹配方法%A Strategy-matching Method for Transient Precaution Control Based on Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵振国; 邱凌

    2013-01-01

    An online strategy-matching method for transient precaution control based on game theory is proposed,which regards the contingencies as the strategy of a virtual player and the control actions as that of a dispatcher.The payoff function is defined as the product of variation of stability margin and correction factors of strategy indicating the cost of control action and the influence of the changing environment on contingency,respectively.The method for obtaining Nash equilibrium is given by transforming the gaming model into a dual linear programming model,while the strategy with maximum expected revenue is selected as the precaution action.Finally,the method is verified effective on a New England test system.%以预决策控制策略集和预想事故集作为博弈策略集,以稳定裕度变化作为收益,并引入外界环境影响因子、控制代价及协调控制因子,建立了一种匹配最佳预防控制措施的混合策略博弈模型。将博弈问题求解转化为对偶线性规划问题,给出了 Nash 均衡的求解方法,并选择 Nash 均衡解中期望收益最大的控制策略作为预防控制策略。给出了新英格兰系统的仿真分析算例,验证了方法的有效性。

  19. Real-Time Control Strategy of Elman Neural Network for the Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Through researching the instantaneous control strategy and Elman neural network, the paper established equivalent fuel consumption functions under the charging and discharging conditions of power batteries, deduced the optimal control objective function of instantaneous equivalent consumption, established the instantaneous optimal control model, and designs the Elman neural network controller. Based on the ADVISOR 2002 platform, the instantaneous optimal control strategy and the Elman neural network control strategy were simulated on a parallel HEV. The simulation results were analyzed in the end. The contribution of the paper is that the trained Elman neural network control strategy can reduce the simulation time by 96% and improve the real-time performance of energy control, which also ensures the good performance of power and fuel economy.

  20. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  1. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arbula

    Full Text Available Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs, could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning.

  2. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI) and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning. PMID:27311017

  3. Research of the Optimal Automatic Generation Control Strategy of Interconnected Power Grid Based on CPS Standard%基于CPS标准的互联电网最优自动发电控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田启东; 翁毅选

    2015-01-01

    研究了考虑CPS的互联电网自动发电控制问题,提出了基于CPS和最优动态闭环控制的自动发电控制策略,在区域间互联电网中建立自动发电控制状态空间数学模型,采用了外点罚函数法进行目标函数的求解,并计及了CPS的新动态性能指标.与传统A标准下的PI控制策略相比,文中提出的方法考虑了区域控制偏差对系统频率恢复的贡献,明显地提高了CPS考核指标,降低了AGC机组的调节次数,减少了发电成本.同时,结合了最优化控制的良好的内部感知能力和动态适应性的优点.通过仿真分析,并与传统的控制策略相比较,结果表明文中提出的控制策略具有更优异的动态特性和更好的调节性能.%This paper studies the automatic generation control of the interconnected power grid considering CPS,and puts forward an automatic generation control strategy based on the CPS standard and optimal dynamic closed-loop control. It establishes the state space mathematic model of the automatic generation control of a two-region power grid,and introduces a new dynamic performance index which takes CPS into account and uses the outer point penalty function method to solve the objective function. Compared with the traditional PI control strategy based on A standard,the proposed method in the paper considers the contribution of ACE for frequency recovery,and obviously improves the CPS Assessment index,and reduces the number of regulation orders of AGC units and the cost of power generation. It combines the good internal perception and dynamic adaptability advantages of optimal control. Through simulation analysis,compared with conventional control stra-tegy,the proposed control strategy has more excellent dynamic characteristics and better regulation performance.

  4. Strategies for reward-based crowdfunding campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Richter, Christian; Brem, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding represents an alternative way of funding entrepreneurial ventures – and is attracting a high amount of interest in research as well as practice. Against this back- ground, this paper analyzes reward-based crowdfunding campaign strategies and their communication tools. To do this, 446...... crowdfunding projects were gathered and empirically analyzed. Three different paths of successful crowdfunding projects could be identified and are described in detail. Practical implications of crowdfunding strategies are derived, and are dependent on the required sales effort and the project added value....... The terms communicator, networker and self-runner are created for this crowdfunding strategy and filled with practi- cal examples. This paper contributes to the literature in different ways: first, it sheds more light on the developing concept of crowdfunding, with an overview of current academic dis...

  5. A power quality composite control strategy based on large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power generation%光伏规模化并网的电能质量复合控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬冬; 吴在军; 窦晓波; 莫熙; 赵波

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the potential benefits of the structure and function of grid connected inverters and integrate the function of filtering and reactive power compensation into PV power plant inverters, while achieving multi-function reusing, such as active grid, harmonic suppression, reactive power compensation and voltage compensation. After researching the controlling strategies of inverter and power quality characteristics and controlling methods, the topology of PV power plant is improved, based on which the reactive power allocation strategy of dynamic stability margin of inverter is proposed, and the controlling strategy of shunt connected inverter and series connected inverter are researched in detail. The use of the controlling strategy mentioned above effectively implements the power quality complex governance of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic, and the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed controlling strategy is verified by PSCAD/EMTDC.%为了充分发挥并网逆变器结构及功能上的潜在优势,研究将滤波及无功补偿功能融入光伏电站逆变器中,同时实现有功并网、谐波抑制、无功补偿及电压补偿等多功能复用。在研究了逆变器控制策略以及微电网电能质量特性和控制方法后,对光伏电站拓扑结构进行了改进。在此基础上提出了一种基于逆变器动态剩余容量的无功分配策略,对并联逆变器和串联逆变器的控制策略进行详细讨论。运用该控制策略有效地实现了光伏规模化并网的电能质量复合治理,并用PSCAD/EMTDC软件通过实例仿真验证了控制策略的正确性和有效性。

  6. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Mikułowski; Łukasz Jankowski

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG) capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~va...

  7. Strategy for ecologic control in fighting Varroa destructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasite Varroa destructor is one of the most wide-spread parasites of the honey bee, which is increasing its resistence to traditional synthetic acaricides more and more with each year. New regulations on quality of the European Union ban the presence of residue in bee products, which rules out the use of chemical means in the course of the honey harvest. The concept of ecologic control of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies implies the complementary use of adequate biotechnical and biophysical measures and treatments using preparations based on etheric oils and organic acids. The combination of these treatments according to the presented strategy makes it possible to keep varroasis under control.

  8. A controllable stitch layout strategy for random needle embroidery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHOU; Zheng-xing SUN; Ke-wei YANG

    2014-01-01

    Random needle embroidery (RNE) is a graceful art enrolled in the world intangible cultural heritage. In this paper, we study the stitch layout problem and propose a controllable stitch layout strategy for RNE. Using our method, a user can easily change the layout styles by adjusting several high-level layout parameters. This approach has three main features:firstly, a stitch layout rule containing low-level stitch attributes and high-level layout parameters is designed;secondly, a stitch neighborhood graph is built for each region to model the spatial relationship among stitches;thirdly, different stitch attributes (orientations, lengths, and colors) are controlled using different reaction-diffusion processes based on a stitch neighborhood graph. Moreover, our method supports the user in changing the stitch orientation layout by drawing guide curves interactively. The experimental results show its capability for reflecting various stitch layout styles and flexibility for user interaction.

  9. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping with a s......Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping...

  10. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping...... with a simple flux observer is used in the design. Assuming known motor parameters the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. It is also shown how a conventional field oriented controller may be obtained by omitting parts of the nonlinear controller....

  11. 基于振荡能量流的双馈风力发电系统动态稳定控制%A Dynamic Stability Control Strategy of Doubly-Fed Wind Power System Based on Transient Energy Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周香珍; 张顺

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种改善双馈风电场并网系统动态稳定性的控制策略。系统的振荡能量和暂态能量具有一致性,消耗振荡能量的元件能够加速系统不平衡能量的衰减,具有正阻尼。以此为基础,研究了以消耗振荡能量为目标的双馈风电场动态稳定控制方法,并讨论了机组运行极限对控制效果的影响,分析了风电场无功补偿的必要性。控制策略利用双馈风电机组快速有功、无功调节特性,暂存系统不平衡能量,并为系统提供无功补偿,改善系统的动态响应,提高系统稳定性。在DigSILENT/Power Factory中进行了仿真分析,验证了所提出控制策略的有效性及其对电网稳定性的贡献。%A novel control strategy to enhance the dynamic stability of grid-connected wind farm based on doubly-fed induction generator ( DFIG ) was presented. The oscillation energy of system was consistent with its transient energy,the element dissipating energy had positive contribution to the attenuation of unbalancing energy and had positive damping. Then a dynamic stability control strategy based on oscillation energy consumption was studied, the impacts of DFIG operation limits on the control were also discussed, and analyzing the necessity of reactive power compensation for wind farm. The control strategy storage unbalanced energy temporarily and provided fast reactive power compensation by making use of the DFIG fast active and reactive power regulation characteristic, it could improve the dynamic stability of the system. A testing system including a DFIG-based wind farm was realized using DigSILENT/Power Factory, the strategy validation and the contribution to power system stability enhancement were verified by simulation.

  12. Research on control strategy for battery system of photovoltaic power system based on bi-directional DC/DC converter%基于双向变换器的光伏储能控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 解璞

    2016-01-01

    独立光伏系统中,储能环节起到平衡功率、稳定系统的关键作用,而合理的控制策略能将储能系统与光伏阵列有机地结合起来,双向 DC/DC变换器正是完成此目标的桥梁。本文在对已有的双向 DC/DC变换器进行优化设计的基础上,提出了一种兼顾电池电性能与系统稳定性的储能系统控制策略。在 Matlab仿真环境下搭建了带有双向 DC/DC变换器的独立光伏系统模型,并对储能系统的工作情况进行仿真,验证了变换器拓扑结构与储能控制策略的合理性。%The independent photovoltaic system needs energy storage in order to balance the power and improve its stability of power generation. A scientiifc control strategy can combine the PV cells with the battery system organically. The bi-directional DC/DC converter can be the bridge to achieve this target. This paper presents a control strategy which takes account of battery electrical performance and system stability based on optimization on the circuit topology of bi-directional DC/DC already underway. Moreover, the charge and discharge circuit based on bi-directional DC/DC converter and an integral independent PV power system are built with Matlab. The simulation results show the correctness of the charge and discharge circuit topology and control strategy.

  13. Strategy optimization for controlled Markov process with descriptive complexity constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA QingShan; ZHAO QianChuan

    2009-01-01

    Due to various advantages in storage and Implementation,simple strategies are usually preferred than complex strategies when the performances are close.Strategy optimization for controlled Markov process with descriptive complexity constraint provides a general framework for many such problems.In this paper,we first show by examples that the descriptive complexity and the performance of a strategy could be Independent,and use the F-matrix in the No-Free-Lunch Theorem to show the risk that approximating complex strategies may lead to simple strategies that are unboundedly worse in cardinal performance than the original complex strategies.We then develop a method that handles the descriptive complexity constraint directly,which describes simple strategies exactly and only approximates complex strategies during the optimization.The ordinal performance difference between the resulting strategies of this selective approximation method and the global optimum is quantified.Numerical examples on an engine maintenance problem show how this method Improves the solution quality.We hope this work sheds some insights to solving general strategy optimization for controlled Markov procase with descriptive complexity constraint.

  14. Cell-based strategies for vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tongqiang; Fan, Jiabing; Fartash, Armita; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Vascular regeneration is known to play an essential role in the repair of injured tissues mainly through accelerating the repair of vascular injury caused by vascular diseases, as well as the recovery of ischemic tissues. However, the clinical vascular regeneration is still challenging. Cell-based therapy is thought to be a promising strategy for vascular regeneration, since various cells have been identified to exert important influences on the process of vascular regeneration such as the enhanced endothelium formation on the surface of vascular grafts, and the induction of vessel-like network formation in the ischemic tissues. Here are a vast number of diverse cell-based strategies that have been extensively studied in vascular regeneration. These strategies can be further classified into three main categories, including cell transplantation, construction of tissue-engineered grafts, and surface modification of scaffolds. Cells used in these strategies mainly refer to terminally differentiated vascular cells, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells. The aim of this review is to summarize the reported research advances on the application of various cells for vascular regeneration, yielding insights into future clinical treatment for injured tissue/organ. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1297-1314, 2016. PMID:26864677

  15. A Low Voltage Ride Through Control Strategy for PMSG Based on Electromechanical Energy Storage%基于机电储能的永磁同步发电机低电压穿越控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田野; 王冕; 张艺枥; 李军; 杨恩星; 陈国柱

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the existing low voltage ride through(LVRT) methods from power flow prospective,and proposes a LVRT control strategy based on the electromechanical energy storage.The generator-side converter maintains DC-link voltage while the grid-side converter tracks the maximum power point of wind energy.This control strategy combines braking resistor with greatly reduced cooling requirements and variable-pitch structure technology,can make full use of the wind turbines' inertial characteristics to store the imbalanced energy and realize LVRT smoothly,without increasing control complexity and system costs significantly.The correctness and validity of this LVRT control strategy is verified through MATLAB simulation of a 1.5 MW permanent magnet synchronous generator(PMSG) wind generation system.%从功率流向角度对已有低电压穿越(LVRT)方法进行归纳总结,在此基础上提出一种LVRT控制策略:基于机电储能,利用机侧变流器稳定直流母线电压,网侧变流器实现最大风能跟踪。该控制策略结合散热要求大大降低的制动电阻与变桨距调节技术,可以在不增加控制复杂度、不显著增加系统成本的情况下,充分利用风电机组惯性,存储电网电压跌落时系统的不平衡能量,平稳实现LVRT。通过对1.5MW永磁直驱风电系统的MATLAB仿真,验证了所提出的LVRT控制策略的正确性和有效性。

  16. Storage Management Strategy of Flash-Based Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Taiyong; ZHAO Li; HU Shiguang; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Storage management strategy can be expressed by a file system. Commercial file system for embedded application is generally complicated and resource wasted. In this paper, a specified file system adapted to embedded system with flash-based memory is developed. To guarantee the average usage of flash storage sectors, the strategy of wear leveling and adaptive damage management is introduced, in which a dynamic storage space management mode and the strategy of first in first out (FIFO) are adopted. Moreover, the strategy of redundancy design and fast-calculation and tracing is also adopted to extend the life of kernel sector, which can guarantee the reliable ser-vice of system booting. The practical application in an embedded CNC (computerized numerical control) platform proves that the file system has effective performance. Furthermore, the flash file system can be transplanted to dif-ferent embedded platforms by changing a few bottom hardware parameters with universality.

  17. An innovative strategy for open loop control of hot deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, J. C.; Irwin, R. D.; Grandhi, R. V.

    1993-10-01

    A new strategy for systematically calculating near optimal control parameters for hot deformation processes is presented in this article. This approach is based on modern control theory and involves deriving state-space models directly from available material behavior and hot deformation process models. Two basic stages of analysis and optimization are established in this strategy for nonlinear, open loop control system design for producing required microstructural characteristics, uniformity of deformation and temperature distribution, and other important physical requirements of hot worked products.

  18. Control strategies and experimental verifications of the electromagnetic mass damper system for structural vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chunwei; Ou Jinping

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic mass damper (EMD) control system, as an innovative active control system to reducestructural vibration, offers many advantages over traditional active mass driver/damper (AMD) control systems. In this paper,studies of several EMD control strategies and bench-scale shaking table tests of a two-story model structure are described.First, two structural models corresponding to uncontrolled and Zeroed cases are developed, and parameters of these modelsare validated through sinusoidal sweep tests to provide a basis for establishing an accurate mathematical model for furtherstudies. Then, a simplified control strategy for the EMD system based on the pole assignment control algorithm is proposed.Moreover, ideal pole locations are derived and validated through a series of shaking table tests. Finally, three benchmarkearthquake ground motions and sinusoidal sweep waves are imposed onto the structure to investigate the effectiveness andfeasibility of using this type of innovative active control system for structural vibration control. In addition, the robustnessof the EMD system is examined. The test results show that the EMD system is an effective and robust system for the controlof structural vibrations.

  19. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areewan Kajorndech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system in order to improve reliability and save energy costs by determining an optimal charging schedule of the energy storage system. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of energy storage system applications under the different control strategies.

  20. Drinker prototype alteration and cue reminders as strategies in a tailored Web-based intervention reducing adults' alcohol consumption: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Lettow (Britt); H. de Vries (Hein); A. Burdorf (Alex); B.J.F. Boon (Brigitte); P. van Empelen (Pepijn)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the eff

  1. Drinker Prototype Alteration and Cue Reminders as Strategies in a Tailored Web-Based Intervention Reducing Adults’ Alcohol Consumption: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, B. van; Vries, H. de; Burdorf, A.; Boon, B.; Empelen, P. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the effectiveness o

  2. A Communication-Less Distributed Voltage Control Strategy for a Multi-Bus AC Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Tan, Yongdong; Chen, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a communication-less distributed voltage control strategy for a multi-bus AC islanded microgrid. First, a Kalman Filter-based network voltage estimator is proposed to obtain voltage responses without communication links in the presence of load disturbances. Then, a voltage...... (Distributed Generator) unit rather than relying on any communication facilities; (2) In contrast to the conventional PI-based voltage control method, the proposed voltage control strategy can implement not only offset-free control for single-bus, but also optimal control for multi-bus. Thus the flexibility...

  3. Advanced Control Strategy for Single-Phase Voltage-Source Active Rectifier with Low Harmonic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahník, Vojtĕch; Peroutka, Zdenĕk; Talla, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces the advanced control of single-phase voltage-source active rectifier. This control provide direct control of trolley-wire current and active damping of low-frequency disturbances at the converter ac side. Our proposed control strategy combines PR controller with feed-forward model and low-frequency harmonic compensator based on resonant controllers. Achieved experimental results show excellent converter behavior, where converter is fed by strongly distorted supply voltage.

  4. Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.

  5. Comparison among nonlinear excitation control strategies used for damping power system oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A description and comparison of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generators are presented. ► Advantages of using nonlinear controllers are emphasized against the use of classical PSSs. ► We find that a particular selection of IDA gains achieve the same performance that FL controllers. - Abstract: This work is focused on the problem of power system stability. A thorough description of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generator excitation, which are designed for damping oscillations and improving transient stability on power systems, is presented along with a detailed comparison among these modern strategies and current solutions based on power system stabilizers. The performance related to damping injection in each controller, critical time enhancement, robustness against parametric uncertainties, and control signal energy consumption is analyzed. Several tests are presented to validate discussions on various advantages and disadvantages of each control strategy.

  6. The Modeling Strategies for Open Software Architecture of Robot Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although the modeling technologies for open robot controllers have been discussed widely, not much literature is devoted to the actual general modeling principles and strategies. The reason is that many researches focus on specific application fields. This paper accommodates for this lacuna and provides some general modeling principles and strategies. At last, the actual new modeling method -Hierarchical Object-Oriented Petri net (HOONet) which has been proved to be an effective modeling methodology, is used to illustrate the modeling strategies.

  7. Preschool Power Play: Resource Control Strategies Associated with Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber R. Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This exploratory study uses a multimethod approach to examine the relationship between social strategy usage and overall health in preschool children. Methods. Children's temperament, social strategies, and health assessments were obtained via reported behavior from parents and teachers. In addition, children's use of prosocial and coercive strategies was observed and recorded via one-way windows in the preschool facility. Results. Results revealed that the temperament characteristic of effortful control was related to the observed use of coercive strategies and that coercive strategies were not observed by teachers, who viewed these children as primarily prosocial. The reported use of both coercive and prosocial strategies was also related to decrease in illness. Conclusion. These findings in relation to previous work suggest that using both prosocial and coercive strategies can elevate status as well as maintain health even in young children.

  8. Model Based Predictive Control of a Fully Parallel Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas, Oscar Andrès; Poignet, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with an efficient application of a model based predictive control in parallel machines. A receding horizon control strategy based on a simplified dynamic model is implemented. Experimental results are shown for the H4 robot, a fully parallel structure providing 3 degrees of freedom (dof) in translation and 1 dof in rotation. The model based predictive control and the commonly used computed torque control strategies are compared. The tracking performances and the robustness wi...

  9. Control Strategies for Machining with Industrial Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Sörnmo, Olof

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents methods for improving machining with industrial robots using control, with focus on increasing positioning accuracy and controlling feed rate. The strong process forces arising during high-speed machining operations, combined with the limited stiffness of industrial robots, have hampered the usage of industrial robots in high-end machining tasks. However, since such manipulators may offer flexible and cost-effective machining solutions compared to conventional machine ...

  10. Strategies for reward-based crowdfunding campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Sascha; Richter, Christian; Brem, Alexander; Chang, M.-L.; Cheng, C. -F.

    2016-01-01

    Crowdfunding represents an alternative way of funding entrepreneurial ventures – and is attracting a high amount of interest in research as well as practice. Against this back- ground, this paper analyzes reward-based crowdfunding campaign strategies and their communication tools. To do this, 446 crowdfunding projects were gathered and empirically analyzed. Three different paths of successful crowdfunding projects could be identified and are described in detail. Practical implications of crow...

  11. Multicriteria Evaluation of Classical Swine Fever Control Strategies Using the Choquet Integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, J; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2016-02-01

    An outbreak of the highly contagious animal disease classical swine fever (CSF) requires the selection of an optimal control strategy. The choice of a control strategy is a decision process depending on different aspects. Besides epidemiology, economic and ethical/social aspects must be taken into account. In this study, multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) was used to evaluate six control strategies for two regions with different farm densities. A strategy including only the minimum EU control measures and the traditional control strategy based on preventive culling were compared to alternative control strategies using emergency vaccination and/or rapid PCR testing ('emergency vaccination', 'test to slaughter', 'test to control' and 'vaccination in conjunction with rapid testing'). The MACBETH approach was used in order to assess the three main criteria (epidemiology, economics and ethical/social aspects). Subcriteria with both quantitative and qualitative performance levels were translated into a normalized scale. The Choquet integral approach was adopted to obtain a ranking of the six CSF control strategies based on the three main criteria, taking interactions into account. Three different rankings of the importance of the main criteria, which were to reflect the potential perceptions of stakeholders, were examined. Both the region under investigation and the ranking of the main criteria had an influence on the 'best' choice. Alternative control strategies were favourable to the minimum EU control and the traditional control measures independent of the farm density. Because the choice of the 'best' control strategy does not solely depend on the epidemiological efficiency, MCDM can help to find the best solution. Both MACBETH and the Choquet integral approach are feasible MCDM approaches. MACBETH only needs a qualitative evaluation and is therefore a comparatively intuitive approach. The Choquet integral does not only take the importance of the criteria into

  12. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  13. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...) and 182(c)(2)(B) of the Clean Air Act for the Springfield, Massachusetts serious ozone...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville ozone nonattainment area has attained the ozone standard and that the reasonable further progress and...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable further progress and... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  19. Control Strategy for Microgrid Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Zhang, X.;

    2014-01-01

    frame control strategy is proposed. It has a simple control structure due to no need of a phase-locked loop and voltage/current positive/negative sequence extraction calculation. The coordinate control of power and current quality is achieved, which enhances the operation performance of microgrid...

  20. Modelling 3D control of upright stance using an optimal control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingda; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2012-01-01

    A 3D balance control model of quiet upright stance is presented, based on an optimal control strategy, and evaluated in terms of its ability to simulate postural sway in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The human body was represented as a two-segment inverted pendulum. Several assumptions were made to linearise body dynamics, for example, that there was no transverse rotation during upright stance. The neural controller was presumed to be an optimal controller that generates ankle control torque and hip control torque according to certain performance criteria. An optimisation procedure was used to determine the values of unspecified model parameters including random disturbance gains and sensory delay times. This model was used to simulate postural sway behaviours characterised by centre-of-pressure (COP)-based measures. Confidence intervals for all normalised COP-based measures contained unity, indicating no significant differences between any of the simulated COP-based measures and corresponding experimental references. In addition, mean normalised errors for the traditional measures were 3D balance control model appears to have the ability to accurately simulate 3D postural sway behaviours.

  1. Decentralized Coordinated Control Strategy of Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan

    Facing the challenges brought by the traditional large power system concerning the environmental and economic issues, along recent years distributed generation is considered as an alternative solution to provide clean energy in a local manner. In this context, Microgrid which performing as a local...... small size grid, is emerging as a promising concept to flexibly control both sides of power generation and consumption as an integral controllable unit. Regarding whether there is main grid participating in the power regulation, the operation of Microgrid can be mainly classified as two modes: grid......-connected mode and islanded mode. In the islanded mode operation, since there is no energy back-up from the main grid, the coordinated control of power balance between generation and consumption encounters more challenges and this thesis is mainly focused on this scope. Hierarchical structure can be applied...

  2. 重复控制的开关磁阻电机转矩脉动抑制策略%Repetitive Control Based Torque Ripple Reduction Strategy for SRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘作军; 常硕; 董砚; 郑易

    2013-01-01

    针对开关磁阻电机在运行中的转矩脉动问题,提出了一种基于重复控制的开关磁阻电机转矩脉动抑制方法.在具有周期性扰动的控制系统中,重复控制把上一周期的偏差和当前的偏差叠加到被控对象进行控制,以达到高精度的控制效果.在此策略基础上,通过转子位置角估算和滞环电流控制,合理调节转矩大小,使电机转矩在运行中平稳过渡,从而达到抑制其转矩脉动的效果.仿真证实该方法能够有效地抑制开关磁阻电机的转矩脉动.%To reduce the torque ripple in switched reluctance motor,a strategy based on repetitive control was proposed.In the system with periodic disturbance,repetitive control can obtain high precision in the way of inputting the sum of error in the present period and the last period.Based on this strategy,the torque of SRM could be adjusted with rotator position and current hysteresis-band control to make the motor running smoothly.And high torque ripple control performance was obtained.Simulation and experiment prove the effect in reducing torque ripple of SRM.

  3. A Novel Hybrid Safety-control Strategy for a Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As robots tend to work cooperatively with humans in shared workplaces, safety as regards robot- human interactions has caused a great deal of concern in the robot community, and control strategies have become a hot topic in robotics research. In order to guarantee the robot’s safety and continuous motions, this paper proposes a novel safety-control strategy, which is strictly conservative and which consists of a pre-contact and post-contact safety strategy. We adopt an optimal motion trajectory-planning method, by use of which the jerk, acceleration and velocity of the robot’s motion can be limited and a time-optimal motion can be obtained as a post-contact safety strategy for a position-controlled manipulator. The optimal motion trajectory planning not only reduces the impact forces during the collision period, but also maintains the efficiency of the manipulator and preserves continuous motions. Next, we describe a novel collision detection method as a pre-contact safety strategy to avoid collisions. The method proposed here can compute security warning region to handle the effect of robot motion on collision detection and detect collisions between non-convex polygon soups. Finally, the control strategy is implemented for a 7-DOF humanoid manipulator and the experimental results demonstrate the validity of this novel hybrid safety-control strategy.

  4. Chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control strategy for uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control (FSMC) strategy for uncertain chaotic systems. A fuzzy logic control is used to replace the discontinuous sign function of the reaching law in traditional sliding-mode control (SMC), and hence a control input without chattering is obtained in the chaotic systems with uncertainties. Base on the Lyapunov stability theory, we address the design schemes of integration fuzzy sliding-mode control, where the reaching law is proposed by a set of linguistic rules and the control input is chattering free. The Genesio chaotic system is used to test the proposed control strategy and the simulation results show the FSMC not only can control the uncertain chaotic behaviors to a desired state without oscillator very fast, but also the switching function is smooth without chattering. This result implies that this strategy is feasible and effective for chaos control

  5. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areewan Kajorndech; Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system ...

  6. 基于开绕组结构的永磁风力发电机控制策略%Control strategy of permanent magnet wind generator based on open winding configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年珩; 周义杰; 李嘉文

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the operation demands on the large capacity and high performance of permanent mag net synchronous generator (PMSG) for wind power generation system, the generation system with open winding based PMSG and two cascaded two-level converter is built, in which the vector control, position sensorless control, space vector modulation are investigated. By analyzing the mathematic model of the open winding PMSG, the vector control strategy based on the rotor flux orientation and the sensorless op eration technique based on the back electromotive force estimation was implemented, and then the target vector assignment method and the corresponding space vector modulation strategy for the two generator-side converter were also studied. The analysis results indicate that the proposed open winding PMSG sys tem can not only decrease the generator-side converter capacity, but achieve the three-level modulation effect. The correctness and availability of the proposed system and control strategy are validated by the experimental results.%为了实现永磁风力发电机组大容量、高性能的运行需求,建立一种基于开绕组结构的永磁同步发电机和两个级联两电平变流器组成的风力发电系统.对该系统所采用的矢量控制、无位置传感器运行、空间矢量调制等技术进行了研究.通过建立开绕组永磁同步发电机的数学模型,得出基于转子磁场定向的矢量控制策略,进而结合基于反电势估算法的无位置传感器运行技术,研究了开绕组永磁同步发电机在两个机侧变流器下的目标矢量分配方法及对应的空间矢量调制策略.分析结果表明,所提出的开绕组永磁同步发电系统不仅降低了机侧变流器的容量,还起到了三电平的调制效果.实验结果验证了所提结构及控制策略的正确性和可行性.

  7. Multi Criteria Decision Making to evaluate control strategies of contagious animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourits, M C M; van Asseldonk, M A P M; Huirne, R B M

    2010-09-01

    The decision on which strategy to use in the control of contagious animal diseases involves complex trade-offs between multiple objectives. This paper describes a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) application to illustrate its potential support to policy makers in choosing the control strategy that best meets all of the conflicting interests. The presented application focused on the evaluation of alternative strategies to control Classical Swine Fever (CSF) epidemics within the European Union (EU) according to the preferences of the European Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO). The performed analysis was centred on the three high-level objectives of epidemiology, economics and social ethics. The appraised control alternatives consisted of the EU compulsory control strategy, a pre-emptive slaughter strategy, a protective vaccination strategy and a suppressive vaccination strategy. Using averaged preference weights of the elicited CVOs, the preference ranking of the control alternatives was determined for six EU regions. The obtained results emphasized the need for EU region-specific control. Individual CVOs differed in their views on the relative importance of the various (sub)criteria by which the performance of the alternatives were judged. Nevertheless, the individual rankings of the control alternatives within a region appeared surprisingly similar. Based on the results of the described application it was concluded that the structuring feature of the MCDM technique provides a suitable tool in assisting the complex decision making process of controlling contagious animal diseases.

  8. A new semi-active safety control strategy for high-speed railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Xu, Zhengguo; Sun, Youxian

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the safety of railway vehicles. A new semi-active control strategy is proposed based on the skyhook control theory. In view of the main railway vehicle safety performance indicators, the new control strategy aims at reducing the derailment coefficient of railway vehicles by restraining the lateral vibrations of the bogie and the wheelset. Furthermore, to evaluate the improvement of the safety performance brought about by the new control strategy, a complete railway vehicle model is established using the ADAMS/Rail software package. In further co-simulations, five conventional control methods are compared with the proposed approach under the same conditions. Co-simulation results indicate that the new control strategy is effective in improving the safety performance of railway vehicles.

  9. Unique strategies to control reproduction in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Morton, K M; Billah, M

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive efficiency of camels is low under natural pastural conditions and so the use of artifical insemination and embryo transfer are becoming increasingly important to improve their breeding potential. Methods to control their reproductive cycle are therefore essential. This review describes characteristics of the ovarian follicular wave pattern in camels and exogenous hormonal control of ovulation. It also summarizes the difficulties involved with artifical insemination and analyzing the highly gelatinous semen, and reports on the latest methods used to try and reduce the viscosity and liquefy camel semen. In addition an account is given of different hormonal and physical methods used to synchronise follicular waves, and various hormone treatments used to broaden the availability of ovulated, asynchronous and non-ovulated recipients are discussed. PMID:21755692

  10. Integrating Strategy-Making through Interactive Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Sax, Johanna; Juul Andersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Strategic responses to complex and frequent environmental changes must balance the tension between innovative opportunistic search and optimization of operating processes. The ability to survive and thrive depends on an ability to facilitate dispersed exploratory initiatives, test their commercial viability, and exploit the associated business opportunities. However, dispersion of authority requires coordination as well as empowerment calls for extended controls. Hence, there is a tension bet...

  11. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmano Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  12. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  13. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is solved. Through analyzing the nonlinear vibration response characteristics, one kind of dual-mode adaptive hybrid control strategy based on H∞ control and unbalance displacement feed-forward compensation control is presented and a real-time switch controller is designed. The reliable hybrid control is implemented, and the stability in the process of real-time switch is solved. The results of this project can provide important basic theory support for the research of vehicle maglev flywheel battery control system.

  14. Reducing Emergency Department Crowding: Evidence Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Zabani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding has become a major barrier to receiving timely care. King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Saudi Arabia worked on identifying evidence based strategies for reducing the ED crowding by improving the intake. In addition to a review of literature, qualitative survey methods were used to identify strategies, which were classified into 10 suggested procedures categorized into three types of changes. Physical improvements include using physician cubicles, creating a team triage area and an internal waiting area for less acute patients instead of occupying beds. Technology improvements; include using informatics to update the electronic emergency record with information, using palmar scanning to instantly identify patients and using radio communication devices. Process improvements; include a scribe program to decrease clerical documentation tasks, switching between low flow and high flow processes, placing a physician in triage and using patient segmentation methods. PMID:27350468

  15. 基于模糊神经分数阶PID的储能电源逆变控制%Control strategy for energy storage system inverter based onfuzzyPIDneural network controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪磊; 樊波; 牛天林; 边岗莹; 赵广胜

    2016-01-01

    针对传统PID控制器存在抗干扰能力差、参数整定困难、时变控制不确定等不足,为进一步提高储能电源逆变输出电压波形质量,增强控制系统的鲁棒性,提出了基于优化模糊PID控制器的控制策略。在介绍分数阶控制器定义及其数学实现的基础上,该方法引入模糊控制规则对控制器的结构参数进行调整,同时融合了神经网络的自学习能力,通过在系统工作时动态调整隶属函数和完善模糊控制规则,实现控制器参数的在线调节和优化。仿真结果表明,优化后的控制器具有更灵活的结构和更强的鲁棒性,具备良好的动态特性和自适应能力,能够满足储能电源逆变控制的要求。%The traditional PID controller has a shortage of an-interference performance, parameters setting and time-varying control. In order to improve the output-voltage performance of the inverter and robustness of battery energy storage system power supply, this paper puts forward a control method based on optimized fuzzy PID controller. Based on expounding the definition and math algorithm of fractional order controller, the method introduces fuzzy control rules to adjust the parameters of the controller, meanwhile, combines with the self-learning ability of the neural network to adjust and optimize the controller parameters online by improving the membership function and fuzzy control rules constantly. The simulation results show that the quality of anti-interference and robust of the optimized control system are enhanced, the controller hasbetter construction and dynamic performance, above all, the optimized control methods are feasible for the inverter of battery energy storage system.

  16. A Comparative Study between Two Control Strategies for Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDIABDELLAH, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare two control strategies for direct AC-AC matrix converters; namely the Venturini method and the scalar strategy control method. The performance comparison of the two strategies is made under unbalanced distorted torque, rotor speed and stator current operation. The simulation of the three-phase matrix converter feeding an induction motor was accomplished by means of the Matlab/Simulink software. This package makes it possible to simulate the dynamic systems in a simple way and in graphic environment.

  17. A Novel Hybrid Safety-control Strategy for a Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Xia; Zainan Jiang; Hong Liu; Hegao Cai; Guangxin Wu

    2014-01-01

    As robots tend to work cooperatively with humans in shared workplaces, safety as regards robot- human interactions has caused a great deal of concern in the robot community, and control strategies have become a hot topic in robotics research. In order to guarantee the robot’s safety and continuous motions, this paper proposes a novel safety-control strategy, which is strictly conservative and which consists of a pre-contact and post-contact safety strategy. We adopt an optimal motion trajecto...

  18. Application of a controllable degron strategy for metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuf, Christoph; Maury, Jerome; Jacobsen, Simo Abdessamad;

    2014-01-01

    into the heterologous pathway. Unfortunately some deletions are lethal, as end products of pathways are needed for cellular growth. One example of such a pathway is the mevalonate pathway in S. cerevisiae with ergosterol as one of the most important end products. A great number of bioactive compounds, like various...... terpenoids, can be produced from intermediates of this pathway. Different strategies have been applied in order to down-regulate the expression of enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway. All these strategies work on the transcriptional level. This leads to a delay of the actual regulation......, as the existing enzyme will still be active. We present a strategy for down-regulation that acts on the protein level and which can therefore be controlled in a more precise manner than the hitherto reported strategies. As a case study we show the action of the degron strategy for controlling the pools...

  19. Modelling 3D control of upright stance using an optimal control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingda; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2012-01-01

    A 3D balance control model of quiet upright stance is presented, based on an optimal control strategy, and evaluated in terms of its ability to simulate postural sway in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The human body was represented as a two-segment inverted pendulum. Several assumptions were made to linearise body dynamics, for example, that there was no transverse rotation during upright stance. The neural controller was presumed to be an optimal controller that generates ankle control torque and hip control torque according to certain performance criteria. An optimisation procedure was used to determine the values of unspecified model parameters including random disturbance gains and sensory delay times. This model was used to simulate postural sway behaviours characterised by centre-of-pressure (COP)-based measures. Confidence intervals for all normalised COP-based measures contained unity, indicating no significant differences between any of the simulated COP-based measures and corresponding experimental references. In addition, mean normalised errors for the traditional measures were postural sway behaviours. PMID:21598131

  20. Capacitor Current Feedback-Based Active Resonance Damping Strategies for Digitally-Controlled Inductive-Capacitive-Inductive-Filtered Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorzadeh, Iman; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2016-01-01

    Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL)-type line filters are widely used in grid-connected voltage source inverters (VSIs), since they can provide substantially improved attenuation of switching harmonics in currents injected into the grid with lower cost, weight and power losses than their L......-type counterparts. However, the inclusion of third order LCL network complicates the current control design regarding the system stability issues because of an inherent resonance peak which appears in the open-loop transfer function of the inverter control system near the control stability boundary. To avoid...... passive (resistive) resonance damping solutions, due to their additional power losses, active damping (AD) techniques are often applied with proper control algorithms in order to damp the LCL filter resonance and stabilize the system. Among these techniques, the capacitor current feedback (CCF) AD has...

  1. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  2. A control strategy for a three-level unified power quality conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Luís F. C.; Costa, José C. C.; Aredes, Maurício; Afonso, João L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a control strategy for a three-level Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is introduced. Basically, this control strategy is based on the set of active and non-active (reactive) power definitions in the time domain, which have been proposed by Fryze in the 30´s of the last century. The goal of this work consists in expand this control strategy to deal with three-level converters. The use of three-level converters allows a better performance of the equipment, by reducing...

  3. Innovation in Active Vibration Control Strategy of Intelligent Structures

    OpenAIRE

    A. Moutsopoulou; G. E. Stavroulakis; Pouliezos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper ...

  4. Graded Voltage Control Strategy for Clustering Wind Farms Based on Doubly-fed Induction Generators%集群双馈风电场的分次调压控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠粉; 张毅威; 闵勇; 乔颖; 鲁宗相

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of clustering wind farms are strongly coupled between reactive power and voltage of wind farms and poor communication reliability.Based on these characteristics, this paper proposes a graded voltage control strategy.In the control strategy, doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) are main reactive power resources because of their high reliable reactive power generation ability and capacitors/static var compensators (SVCs) are auxiliary reactive power resources.This makes the strategy independent of high speed and high reliability communication between DFIGs and wind farm automatic voltage control (AVC) system.According to the grid operation condition, the PQ curve of DFIG is calculated previously.Based on the pre-setting PQ curve, the reactive power output of DFIG is adjusted automatically to eliminate voltage fluctuation caused by change of active power output.Only when the grid operation condition changes significantly, the PQ curve need to be updated, that means the PQ curve need not be calculated in real time.When the voltage control aim is not achieved or the updating of PQ curve does not finish, capacitors/SVCs are then used to control voltage, which is called the secondary voltage control.Simulations on a real clustering wind farms in northern China is carried out.The results show that the probability of wind generators' cascading disconnection from power grid is reduced effectively with the proposed graded voltage control strategy.Communication failures between DFIGs and wind farm AVC system have no influences on control effect.%基于集群风电场间无功电压耦合较强、通信条件较差的特点,提出以双馈风电机组为主、电容器/静止无功补偿器(SVC)为辅,不过分依赖风电机组与风电场自动电压控制系统间通信的集群双馈风电场分次调压控制策略.事先根据电网运行状况计算得到不需实时更新的双馈风电机组的PQ曲线,同步补偿无功功率以应对有功出

  5. SARS: hospital infection control and admission strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Tang, Xiao-Ping; Seto, Wing-Hong

    2003-11-01

    Nosocomial clustering with transmission to health care workers, patients and visitors is a prominent feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Hospital outbreaks of SARS typically occurred within the first week after admission of the very first SARS cases when the disease was not recognized and before isolation measures were implemented. In the majority of nosocomial infections, there was a history of close contact with a SARS patient, and transmission occurred via large droplets, direct contact with infectious material or by contact with fomites contaminated by infectious material. In a few instances, potential airborne transmission was reported in association with endotracheal intubation, nebulised medications and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation of SARS patients. In all SARS-affected countries, nosocomial transmission of the disease was effectively halted by enforcement of routine standard, contact and droplet precautions in all clinical areas and additional airborne precautions in the high-risk areas. In Hong Kong, where there are few private rooms for patient isolation, some hospitals have obtained good outcome by having designated SARS teams and separate wards for patient triage, confirmed SARS cases and step-down of patients in whom SARS had been ruled out. In conclusion, SARS represents one of the new challenges for those who are involved in hospital infection control. As SARS might re-emerge, all hospitals should take advantage of the current SARS-free interval to review their infection control programmes, alert mechanisms, response capability and to repair any identified inadequacies.

  6. Application of Control Strategy Based on the Fluid Mechanics Principle to the Air Distribution Control of Industry Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler%基于流体力学的工业煤粉锅炉配风控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻林

    2014-01-01

    文章以中小型工业煤粉锅炉的配风控制为例,应用了以流体力学原理为基础的配风控制策略,同时结合反馈信号,有效减少锅炉震荡调整时间,使锅炉尽快进入稳定燃烧状态,有效地提高了锅炉的安全性和稳定性,进一步提高工业煤粉锅炉的自动化控制水平。%the control strategy is the core of control system, the control strategy can directly influence the in⁃dustrial equipment in operation safety, stable and efficient. The control system is mostly through the feed⁃back signal as a control strategy decision, and the lag of feedback signal, often causes the device to run shocks to adjust time is too long, and even lead to equipment downtime or safety accident. Based on small and medium-sized industrial pulverized coal boiler air distribution control as an example, the application of the air distribution control strategy based on fluid mechanics principle as the foundation, and combining with the feedback signal, effectively reduce boiler shocks to adjust time, make the boiler as soon as possible into the steady combustion state, effectively improve the boiler's safety and stability, further improve the automa⁃tion of industrial coal the boiler level control.

  7. Therapeutic Strategies Based on Polymeric Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vilos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the field of materials science, the ability to perform multidisciplinary scientific work, and the need for novel administration technologies that maximize therapeutic effects and minimize adverse reactions to readily available drugs have led to the development of delivery systems based on microencapsulation, which has taken one step closer to the target of personalized medicine. Drug delivery systems based on polymeric microparticles are generating a strong impact on preclinical and clinical drug development and have reached a broad development in different fields supporting a critical role in the near future of medical practice. This paper presents the foundations of polymeric microparticles based on their formulation, mechanisms of drug release and some of their innovative therapeutic strategies to board multiple diseases.

  8. Strategy of control for bacterial biofilm processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Mayansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of the modern search of the antibiofilm preparations aimed at adhesive bacterial reactions, control of QS-systems, influence over bis-(3’-5’-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (cdi-GMP, and secretory bacterial processes are analysed. Approaches for biofilm dispersal and increasing the sensitivity of biofilm bacteria to antimicrobial drugs are discussed. It is underlined that the majority of inhibitor molecules were studied in vitro or in infected mice experiments. It is prognosed that in future there will appear medical preparations which will help for fighting bacterial biofilms preventing their development and spreading in the host organism.

  9. Study of fuel control strategy based on an fuel behavior model for starting conditions; Nenryo kyodo model ni motozuita shidoji no nenryo hosei hosho ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Uchida, M.; Iwano, H.; Oba, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have applied a fuel behavior model to a fuel injection system which we call SOFIS (Sophisticated and Optimized Fuel Injection System) so that we get air/fuel ratio control accuracy and good driveability. However the fuel behavior under starting conditions is still not clear. To meet low emission rules and to get better driveability under starting conditions, better air/fuel ratio control is necessary. Now we have understood the ignition timing, injection timing, and injection pulse width required in such conditions. In former days, we analyzed the state of the air/fuel mixture under cold conditions and made a new fuel behavior model which considered fuel loss such as hydrocarbons and dissolution into oil and so on. Al this time, we have applied this idea to starting. We confirm this new model offers improved air/fuel ratio control. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  11. 基于滑模变结构PI控制的光伏系统MPPT研究%Novel hybrid control of MPPT method based on sliding mode variable structure and PI strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳艳华; 惠晶; 谢伟

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis results of the photovoltaic power generation model and its output character, the proposed control er of sliding mode variable structure based on improved Zeta converter was proposed to realize Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic system. In order to obtain the optimized maximum power point control, the novel hybrid control of the Sliding Mode Variable Structure with variable switch parameter and PI strategy were presented. By comparing traditional P&O method with the proposed method by simulation and experiment, the good characters of the proposed method were verified.%在分析光伏电池的数学模型和输出特性基础上,给出基于改进的Zeta电路的滑模变结构控制策略。为实现光伏系统最大功率点跟踪(MPPT)的优化控制,提出可变阀值切换的滑模变结构+PI复合控制策略,实现了最大功率跟踪的优化控制。通过仿真与实验结果分析,并将给出的控制策略与广泛应用的扰动观测MPPT策略进行比较,验证了本控制策略具有良好的特性。

  12. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  13. Base-of-the-pyramid global strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boşcor, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global strategies for MNCs should focus on customers in emerging and developing markets instead of customers in developed economies. The “base-of-the-pyramid segment” comprises 4 billion people in the world. In order to be successful, companies will be required to form unconventional partnerships- with entities ranging from local governments to non-profit organizations - to gain the community’s trust and understand the environmental, infrastructure and political issues that may affect business. Being able to provide affordable, high-quality products and services in this market segment often means new approaches to marketing- new packaging and pricing structures, and using unfamiliar distribution structures.

  14. PERFUSION SYSTEM CONTROLLER STRATEGIES DURING AN ECMO SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Dhinakaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work modelling and control of Perfusion system is presented. The Perfusion system simultaneously controls the partial pressures during Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO support. The main Problem in ECMO system is exchange of Blood Gases in the Artificial Lung (Oxygenator.It is a highly Nonlinear Process comprising time-varying parameters, and varying time delays, it is currently being controlled manually by trained Perfusionist. The new control strategy implemented here has a feedback linearization routine with time-delay compensation for the Partial pressuresof Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. The controllers were tuned robustly and tested in simulations with a detailed artificial Lung (Oxygenator model in Cardiopulmonary bypass conditions. This Automatic control strategy is proposed to improve the patient’s safety by fast control reference tracking and good disturbance rejection under varying conditions.

  15. 基于优先顺序法的风电场限出力有功控制策略%Priority List-Based Output-Restricted Active Power Control Strategy for Wind Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俐; 谢永俊; 朱晨宸; 汪宁渤

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid increase of grid-integrated capacity of wind farms, wind farms should possess the adjusting ability of active power that can control active power output of wind farm according to the command from control center of power grid. Combining with actual requirement for active power control system of clustered wind farms in Jiuquan wind power base in Gansu province, China, taking the utilization of wind energy farthest and the prevention of frequent start/stop of wind power generators as the objectives and based on classical priority list method, an output-restricted active power control strategy for wind farms composed of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power generators is proposed. To meet the demand on output-restricted control for wind farms, an active power control frame in the level of wind farm and corresponding output-restricted control process are designed. Overall considering the prediction information, operating conditions and control characteristics of wind power generation units within wind farms, an output-restricted active power control sequence for wind farms, in which the indices of control performances of wind power generation units are taken as the index for rank ordering, is established, and then, based on the control sequence the method to allocate output-restricted active power is given. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified by the calculation of a wind farm composed of 33 doubly fed induction generators.%  随着风电并网容量的增加,风电场应具备有功功率调节能力,能根据电网调度部门指令控制其有功功率输出。结合甘肃酒泉风电基地集群风电有功控制系统的实际需要,以实现最大风能利用、避免风电场频繁起停为目标,基于经典优先顺序法提出了一种应用于变速恒频风电场的限出力有功控制策略。针对风电场限出力控制需要,设计了风电场层有功

  16. 基于改进经济压差的特高压电网无功电压控制策略%Reactive Power and Voltage Control Strategy for UHVAC Power Grid Based on Improved Economic Voltage Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓骏; 陈会员; 姚淑玲; 田华; 李晶; 罗红梅; 王一振

    2013-01-01

    According to present situation of voltage and reactive power control of UHVAC power grid,an improved economic voltage difference-based reactive power and voltage control strategy is proposed.Through real-time coordinative control of conventional reactive power compensator at low voltage side and dynamic reactive power compensation in 500kV power network,real-time balance of reactive power and voltage in UHVAC power grid can be implemented,and the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified by simulation results of actual power grid.Implementation of the proposed control strategy can evidently decrease the switching operation times and reduce failure rate of power equipments; the reactive power loss of power transformers can be further reduced and economic benefit of UHVAC power grid operation can be improved; besides,the bus voltage fluctuation caused by power fluctuation of tie lines can be well suppressed,thus a better voltage quality can be attained.%针对特高压电网电压无功控制现状及问题,提出了改进的经济压差无功控制策略,通过实时协调控制低压侧常规无功补偿与500 kV电网动态无功补偿,可实现特高压电网无功电力实时平衡,实际电网数字仿真证明了该策略的有效性和可行性.该策略的实施,可大幅降低常规无功补偿设备的投切操作频率,降低设备损坏率;可进一步降低变压器无功损耗,提升运行经济效益;同时对联络线功率波动引起的母线电压波动也有较好的抑制效果,可实现更好的电压质量.

  17. 基于电压下垂法的直流微电网混合储能系统控制策略%Control Strategy of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrid Based on Voltage Droop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文波; 秦文萍; 韩肖清; 王鹏; 刘家赢

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at stabilizing the DC bus voltage and optimizing the working process of the batteries, this paper presents a control strategy of hybrid energy storage systems in DC microgrid based on voltage droop method. The control strategy makes use of the ultracapacitor compensating the high-frequency components of bus power according to the DC bus voltage, indirectly compensates low-frequency components of bus power through the energy supplement of the batteries on the ultracapacitor, and takes advantage of the unable mutation characteristics of ultracapacitor voltage to achieve the smooth control of battery current. The control system can automatically switch work mode according to the conditions of DC bus voltage, ultracapacitor voltage and the state of charge (SOC) of battery. The experiments show that the control strategy can automatically adjust the output of batteries and ultracapacitor, maintain light fluctuation of DC bus voltage around rating, effectively reduce the frequency of battery charging and discharging and extend its using life.%以稳定直流母线电压和优化蓄电池工作过程为目的,提出了一种基于电压下垂法的直流微电网混合储能控制策略。该控制策略根据直流母线电压信息,利用超级电容快速补偿母线功率缺额的高频部分;通过蓄电池对超级电容进行能量补充,间接补偿母线功率缺额的低频部分;利用超级电容电压不能突变的特点,实现对蓄电池电流的平滑控制。控制系统以直流母线电压、超级电容电压及蓄电池荷电状态为判断条件,自动切换工作模式。实验表明,该控制策略可自动调节蓄电池和超级电容出力,维持直流母线电压在额定值附近小范围波动,有效地减小了蓄电池充放电次数,延长其使用寿命。

  18. 基于LVPWM的风电变流器控制技术研究%Control Strategy of the Converter of Wind Generator Based on LVPWM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏毅立; 张新; 魏士焕; 吴振奎

    2011-01-01

    变流器是双馈发电机系统的关键部分,它决定着控制系统及发电机输出电能的质量.针对以前的交流器广泛采用空间矢量脉宽调制(SVPWM)控制技术的不足,提出了逻辑电压空间矢量脉宽调制(LVPWM)控制技术,并介绍了其原理.最后搭建了Matlab/Simulink仿真试验平台和基于TMS320F2812 DSP的47kW变流器实验平台,实验结果表明,LVPWM控制技术正确且实用,并具有良好的应用前景.%Converter is the key part of doubly-fed induction generator system, which determines the control system and generator output power performance.The previous converters widely use space vector pulse width modulation(SVPWM)control technology, the article proposes logic voltage space vector pulse width modulation (LVPWM) control technology and describes its principles. In Matlab/Simulink simulation platform, a simulation model is validated. At the same time,TMS320F2812 DSP of 47 kW converter experimental platform is established. The experimental results show that LVPWM control technology is correct and practical, and has good prospects.

  19. Flow and Pressure Control Strategy Design of SMPT-1000 Boiler Based on S7-400 PLC%基于S7-400PLC的SMPT-1000压力流量控制策略设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学良; 叶志恒; 李聪平

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses SMPT-1000 ( Super Multifunction Process Control Training System ) to simulate the real boiler , and studies the problem of its outlet steam pressure and flow control strategy design .Based on Siemens S7-400 PLC and PCS7 pro-gramming software , by using SCL language fuzzy-PID controller , it shows that the outlet steam pressure and flow can be controlled in the scope of industrial requirements .%用SMPT-1000(高级多功能过程控制实训系统)来模拟真实的锅炉,研究其出口蒸汽压力、流量控制策略设计问题。基于西门子S7-400 PLC和PCS7编程软件,利用SCL语言编写了模糊-PID控制器,控制出口蒸汽压力和流量控制在工业要求的范围之内。

  20. Migration control: a distance compensation strategy in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-08-01

    Migratory behaviour forms an intrinsic part of the life histories of many organisms but is often a high-risk process. Consequently, varied strategies have evolved to negate such risks, but empirical data relating to their functioning are limited. In this study, we use the model system of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis to demonstrate a key strategy that can shorten migration exposure times in a group of social insects. Colonies of these ants frequently migrate to new nest sites, and due to the nature of their habitat, the distances over which they do so are variable, leading to fluctuating potential costs dependent on migration parameters. We show that colonies of this species facultatively alter the dynamics of a migration and so compensate for the distance over which a given migration occurs. Specifically, they achieve this by modulating the rate of 'tandem running', in which workers teach each other the route to a new nest site. Using this method, colonies are able to engage a larger number of individuals in the migration process when the distance to be traversed is greater, and furthermore, the system appears to be based on perceived encounter rate at the individual level. This form of decentralised control highlights the adaptive nature of a behaviour of ecological importance, and indicates that the key to its robustness lies in the use of simple rules. Additionally, our results suggest that such coordinated group reactions are central to achieving the high levels of ecological success seen in many eusocial organisms.

  1. Migration control: a distance compensation strategy in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-08-01

    Migratory behaviour forms an intrinsic part of the life histories of many organisms but is often a high-risk process. Consequently, varied strategies have evolved to negate such risks, but empirical data relating to their functioning are limited. In this study, we use the model system of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis to demonstrate a key strategy that can shorten migration exposure times in a group of social insects. Colonies of these ants frequently migrate to new nest sites, and due to the nature of their habitat, the distances over which they do so are variable, leading to fluctuating potential costs dependent on migration parameters. We show that colonies of this species facultatively alter the dynamics of a migration and so compensate for the distance over which a given migration occurs. Specifically, they achieve this by modulating the rate of 'tandem running', in which workers teach each other the route to a new nest site. Using this method, colonies are able to engage a larger number of individuals in the migration process when the distance to be traversed is greater, and furthermore, the system appears to be based on perceived encounter rate at the individual level. This form of decentralised control highlights the adaptive nature of a behaviour of ecological importance, and indicates that the key to its robustness lies in the use of simple rules. Additionally, our results suggest that such coordinated group reactions are central to achieving the high levels of ecological success seen in many eusocial organisms. PMID:27430995

  2. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training

    OpenAIRE

    Arbula, Sandra; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Lombardo, Nicoletta; Vallesi, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs), could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trai...

  3. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  4. Advanced Control Strategy of DFIG Wind Turbines for Power System Fault Ride Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lihui; Xu, Zhao; Ostergaard, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced control strategy for the rotor and grid side converters of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine (WT) to enhance the low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability according to the grid connection requirement. Within the new control strategy, the...... instantaneous DC-link current of the rotor side converter in order to smooth the DC-link voltage fluctuations during the grid fault. A major difference from other methods is that the proposed control strategy can absorb the additional kinetic energy during the fault conditions, and significantly reduce the...... oscillations in the stator and rotor currents and the DC bus voltage. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy has been demonstrated through various simulation cases. Compared with conventional crowbar protection, the proposed control method can not only improve the LVRT capability of the DFIG WT...

  5. Forward Link Power Control Strategy and its Optimum Issue in CDMA Cellular Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical method in order to estimate the forward link outage probability and user capacity of a cellular system which are based on IS-95 CDMA standard, especialy impact of power control strategy and voice activity monitoring in the system under long-term fading effects, in which the light and heavy fadings are considered. According to the numerical results obtained in this paper, the power control strategy leads to approximately the threefold user capacity in contrast to the situation without power control strategy. The reults are compared with Interference-to-Signal Ratio (ISR) driven power control scheme[6][9] which can be used only for simulation of the system. The power control strategy not only improves the desired signal to the interference ratio in the reference user's receiver, but also offers uniform service to the user wherever it is located in the cell.

  6. Smart — STATCOM control strategy implementation in wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Cantarellas, Antoni Mir; Miranda, H.;

    2012-01-01

    converters is increasing. This paper deals with an advanced control strategy design of a three-level converter performing STATCOM and Active Filter functionalities. The proposed system is called Smart-STATCOM since it has the capability of self-controlling reactive power and harmonic voltages at the same...... time. Therefore, deciding the amount of non-active currents (fundamental, 5th and 7th harmonics) to be injected depending on the PCC voltage quality. Experimental results of the proposed control strategy are analyzed in order to validate the performance of the entire system....

  7. Task Allocation Control Strategy in WSN with Multiple Sink Node Based on Ant Colony Algorithm%基于蚁群算法的多Sink节点任务分配控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕立新

    2014-01-01

    该文在多Sink节点并行的网络结构基础上,基于能量熵理论建立了多Sink节点任务分配控制模型,设计了基于蚁群算法的任务分配控制策略,该方法能够根据Sink节点的当前状态、能耗情况合理分配数据通信和处理任务,均衡各Sink节点的负载,提高网络数据处理效率和网络生存时间。%Parallel Sink node of the network structure is presented in this paper, based on the entropy theory is established based on energy Sink node task assignment control model, design the task assignment control strategy based on ant colony algorithm, this method can according to the current state of the Sink node, the energy consumption situation and reasonable distribution of data communication and processing tasks, and balance the load of each Sink node, improve the efficiency of network data process⁃ing and network survival time.

  8. Optimized Control Strategy For Over Loaded Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Knudsen, Torben; Wisniewski, Rafal;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Optimized control strategy for overloaded offshore wind turbines Introduction Operation and maintenance cost are an important part of cost of energy especially for offshore wind farms. Typically unplanned service is called for due to detection off excessive loads on components, e...... controller tuning for a given wind turbine. It also enables a very safe and robust comparison between a new control strategy and the present one. Main body of abstract Is it true that power de-rating indeed the best way to reduce loads? The power de-rating approach has the drawback of only indirectly...... as results of ensuring the load reduction to the given level. A MPC controller is configured and tuned using this novel approach including Pareto fronts. It is compared to the existing de-rating strategy using high fidelity aero-servo-elastic simulation code and the possibilities for reduction of cost...

  9. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  10. Regulatory controls for NORM contamination: Emerging issues and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NORM) faces the increasing likelihood of federal or state regulatory control. Public concern and limited preliminary survey data fuel the debate over the necessity, approach, and jurisdiction of a NORM regulatory strategy. This debate requires the resolution of technical controversies and potentially competing state and federal agency interests. An additional facet of the debate is the impact of regulation upon traditionally non-nuclear industries, such as oil and gas production. Regulatory response has been initiated in several states, such as Louisiana's controls on equipment used in oil and gas production, to control specific industrial activities which generate NORM. A more comprehensive, generic federal strategy to control NORM contamination is also under review by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper will detail the emerging technical issues, federal and state regulatory strategies under consideration, and evaluate the efficacy of selected regulatory approaches. (author)

  11. Structure and Control Strategies of Fuel Cell Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 张承宁; 孙逢春; 钟秋海

    2004-01-01

    The structure and kinds of the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) and the mathematical model of the fuel cell processor are discussed in detail. FCV includes many parts: the fuel cell thermal and water management, fuel supply, air supply and distribution, AC motor drive, main and auxiliary power management, and overall vehicle control system. So it requires different kinds of control strategies, such as the PID method, zero-pole method, optimal control method, fuzzy control and neural network control. Along with the progress of control method, the fuel cell vehicle's stability and reliability is up-and-up. Experiment results show FCV has high energy efficiency.

  12. Control strategy and hardware implementation for DC–DC boost power circuit based on proportional–integral compensator for high voltage application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For high-voltage (HV applications, the designers mostly prefer the classical DC–DC boost converter. However, it lacks due to the limitation of the output voltage by the gain transfer ratio, decreased efficiency and its requirement of two sensors for feedback signals, which creates complex control scheme with increased overall cost. Furthermore, the output voltage and efficiency are reduced due to the self-parasitic behavior of power circuit components. To overcome these drawbacks, this manuscript provides, the theoretical development and hardware implementation of DC–DC step-up (boost power converter circuit for obtaining extra output-voltage high-performance. The proposed circuit substantially improves the high output-voltage by voltage-lift technology with a closed loop proportional–integral controller. This complete numerical model of the converter circuit including closed loop P-I controller is developed in simulation (Matlab/Simulink software and the hardware prototype model is implemented with digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F2812. A detailed performance analysis was carried out under both line and load regulation conditions. Numerical simulation and its verification results provided in this paper, prove the good agreement of the circuit with theoretical background.

  13. Modelling and Control Design of Unified Power Flow Controller for Various Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nireekshana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is used to control the power flow in the transmission systems by controlling the impedance, voltage magnitude and phase angle. This controller offers advantages in terms of static and dynamic operation of the power system. It also brings in new challenges in power electronics and power system design. The basic structure of the UPFC consists of two voltage source inverter (VSI; where one converter is connected in parallel to the transmission line while the other is in series with the transmission line. The aim of the paper is to develop a control strategy for UPFC, modeling UPFC using MATLAB/SIMULINK and to analyze the control strategy to use the series voltage injection and shunt current injection for UPFC control. To simplify the design procedure we carry out the design for the series and shunt branches separately.In each case, a simple equivalent circuit represents the external system. The design has to be validated when the various subsystems are integrated.

  14. Improved Control Strategy for DFIG Wind Turbines for Low Voltage Ride Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanxia Zhu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved control strategy for both the rotor side converter (RSC and grid side converter (GSC of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind turbine (WT system to enhance the low voltage ride through (LVRT capability. Within the proposed control strategy, the RSC control introduces transient feed-forward compensation terms to mitigate the high frequency harmonic components and reduce the surge in the rotor currents. The proposed GSC control scheme also introduces a compensation term reflecting the instantaneous variation of the output power of the rotor side converter with consideration of the instantaneous power of grid filter impendence to keep the dc-link voltage nearly constant during the grid faults. To provide precise control, non-ideal proportional resonant (PR controllers for both the RSC and GSC current regulation are employed to further improve dynamic performance. Simulations performed in Matlab/Simulink verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  15. Reactive Control Strategy of DFIG Wind Farm Based on Reactive Sensitivity of Collection System%基于集电系统无功灵敏度的双馈风电场无功控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔杨; 徐蒙福; 唐耀华; 彭龙; 严干贵

    2015-01-01

    In view of reactive control problems such as unqualified voltage of point of common coupling (PCC) and high network-loss of power collection system in DFIG-based wind farms, this paper proposed a new reactive control strategy using reactive sensitivity of power collection system. Firstly, network-loss/reactive sensitivity and voltage/reactive sensitivity of wind farm power collection system were presented, based on analysis of reactive demand of wind farm. Ensuring maximum active power output as well, the proposed strategy suggests two goals about reactive control of wind farm, that is, to improve PCC voltage level using reactive sensitivity and to reduce network-loss using network-loss sensitivity. Simulation results of actual wind farm verified effectiveness of the proposed strategy.%针对目前双馈风电场并网点电压水平低、场内集电系统网损大等典型无功控制问题,提出一种基于无功灵敏度指标的新型双馈风电场无功控制策略.在对双馈风电场无功需求及双馈风电机组无功调节能力进行分析的基础上,构建了风电场集电系统无功灵敏度指标,即集电系统网损无功灵敏度及电压无功灵敏度.该策略能够在保证最大有功出力的同时,实现如下目的:1)利用集电系统电压无功灵敏度控制双馈风电机组无功输出,以改善并网点电压水平;2)利用集电系统网损灵敏度控制双馈风电机组无功输出,实现降低集电系统网损的目的.对某实际风电场的仿真算例验证了所提控制策略的有效性.

  16. Reactive Control Strategy of DFIG Wind Farm Based on Reactive Sensitivity of Collection System%基于集电系统无功灵敏度的双馈风电场无功控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔杨; 徐蒙福; 唐耀华; 彭龙; 严干贵

    2015-01-01

    针对目前双馈风电场并网点电压水平低、场内集电系统网损大等典型无功控制问题,提出一种基于无功灵敏度指标的新型双馈风电场无功控制策略.在对双馈风电场无功需求及双馈风电机组无功调节能力进行分析的基础上,构建了风电场集电系统无功灵敏度指标,即集电系统网损无功灵敏度及电压无功灵敏度.该策略能够在保证最大有功出力的同时,实现如下目的:1)利用集电系统电压无功灵敏度控制双馈风电机组无功输出,以改善并网点电压水平;2)利用集电系统网损灵敏度控制双馈风电机组无功输出,实现降低集电系统网损的目的.对某实际风电场的仿真算例验证了所提控制策略的有效性.%In view of reactive control problems such as unqualified voltage of point of common coupling (PCC) and high network-loss of power collection system in DFIG-based wind farms, this paper proposed a new reactive control strategy using reactive sensitivity of power collection system. Firstly, network-loss/reactive sensitivity and voltage/reactive sensitivity of wind farm power collection system were presented, based on analysis of reactive demand of wind farm. Ensuring maximum active power output as well, the proposed strategy suggests two goals about reactive control of wind farm, that is, to improve PCC voltage level using reactive sensitivity and to reduce network-loss using network-loss sensitivity. Simulation results of actual wind farm verified effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  17. Permanent Magnet Brushless Motor Control Strategy Based on Switching System Theory%基于切换系统理论的永磁无刷电动机控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕永健; 李飞; 李子龙

    2011-01-01

    The switching system is one of the important models which describe the hybrid dynamical systems. Different models and the switching rules are adopted to better describe the motion of the actual complicated systems. Combined with advantages of the PMSM and BLDCM.the paper proposed the switching control strategy for brushless permanent magnet motor with the rule of output feedback based on switching system theory. Then the linear model of the switching control system was obtained and the stability of it was analyzed. The results of the simulation and the experiment show that the switching control strategy is stable and could effectively improve the efficiency and the function of the motor in full speed range.%切换系统是描述混杂动态系统的重要模型之一,采用不同的模态和切换规则可以更好地刻画一个实际复杂动态系统的运行轨迹.基于切换系统理论,结合正弦波和方波电流驱动的永磁无刷电动机的各自优势,提出了按输出状态反馈切换的永磁无刷电动机切换控制策略,建立了切换系统的线性化模型并对其稳定性进行了分析.仿真和实验结果表明,切换控制系统运行稳定,可有效地提高电机全速度范围内的运行效率和性能.

  18. A Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Based Optimization Control Strategy for Hybrid Cascaded 7-Level Inverter%基于SVPWM调制的混合级联七电平逆变器优化控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿俊利; 梁晖; 金渊

    2015-01-01

    The working modes of hybrid cascaded 7-level inverter with dead zone are analyzed and analysis results show that there are different jumping situations of inverter voltage under different working modes. On this basis, based on space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) strategy an optimal control method is proposed. In the premise that the supporting capacitor voltage is under the control, through analyzing the jumping of output voltage level and the valve action times corresponding to the charging/discharging process of supporting capacity voltage switching in each interval an optimal control strategy to reduce the jumping of output voltage is put forward; besides, the output voltage loss due to the existence of dead zone time is analyzed and calculated according to the principle of volt-second balance, and the dead zone compensation for its modulation wave is performed. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is validated by results of simulation and experiments.%分析混合级联七电平逆变器带死区时的工作模式,不同工作模式下其逆变器电压的跳变情况不同。在此基础上,提出了基于空间矢量脉冲调制(space vector pulse width modulation,SVPWM)策略的优化控制方法。以控制支撑电容电压为前提,通过对每个区间支撑电容充放电切换过程所对应的开关动作次数、输出电压电平跳变情况的分析,提出了一种减小输出电压跳变的优化控制策略;此外,分析了死区时间的存在所带来的输出电压损失,根据伏秒平衡原理进行计算,并对其调制波进行死区补偿。仿真及实验结果验证了该控制策略的有效性。

  19. 基于混合储能的并网光伏电站有功分级控制策略%Active Power Hierarchical Control Strategy of Interconnected Photovoltaic Station Based on Hybrid Energy Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍雪娜; 张建成; 徐明; 刘汉民

    2013-01-01

    针对自然条件下光伏电源有功出力的波动性,以超级电容器和磷酸铁锂电池组成的混合储能系统为基础,制定了有功分级控制策略.首先分析了光伏电站整体结构及混合储能装置的接入方式,然后考虑电网需求利用指数平滑法来实时更新光伏电站整体出力参考值,实现第1级控制.根据储能元件能量存储与功率吞吐特性,提出了以超级电容器为充放电主体的混合储能系统能量管理策略,实现第2级控制,并设计了脉宽调制的控制原理电路.编程计算结果证实了所述方法的有效性.%In view of the active power fluctuation of large capacity photovoltaic (PV) power systems, based on a hybrid energy storage system consisting of supercapacitors and lithium-ion ferrous phosphate batteries, an active power hierarchical control strategy is formulated to optimize the output power of PV source. First, the overall structure of photovoltaic power station and the way of accessing the hybrid energy storage system are analyzed. Then, by considering the power grid needs, the exponential smoothing method is used to real-time update the reference values of output power to realize the first level control. The energy management strategy is put forward according to the storage characteristics of energy storage components and power throughput so as to realize the second level control of the hybrid energy storage system. In addition, an energy management strategy is put forward with supercapacitors as the principal part of charge and discharge. Finally, a control circuit of pulse width modulation (PWM) is designed. Programming results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Model-based control of networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Eloy; Montestruque, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    This monograph introduces a class of networked control systems (NCS) called model-based networked control systems (MB-NCS) and presents various architectures and control strategies designed to improve the performance of NCS. The overall performance of NCS considers the appropriate use of network resources, particularly network bandwidth, in conjunction with the desired response of the system being controlled.   The book begins with a detailed description of the basic MB-NCS architecture that provides stability conditions in terms of state feedback updates . It also covers typical problems in NCS such as network delays, network scheduling, and data quantization, as well as more general control problems such as output feedback control, nonlinear systems stabilization, and tracking control.   Key features and topics include: Time-triggered and event-triggered feedback updates Stabilization of uncertain systems subject to time delays, quantization, and extended absence of feedback Optimal control analysis and ...

  1. Linearizing Control of Induction Motor Based on Networked Control Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ren; Chun-Wen Li; De-Zong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to speed control of induction motors is developed by introducing networked control systems (NCSs) into the induction motor driving system. The control strategy is to stabilize and track the rotor speed of the induction motor when the network time delay occurs in the transport medium of network data. First, a feedback linearization method is used to achieve input-output linearization and decoupling control of the induction motor driving system based on rotor flux model, and then the characteristic of network data is analyzed in terms of the inherent network time delay. A networked control model of an induction motor is established. The sufficient condition of asymptotic stability for the networked induction motor driving system is given, and the state feedback controller is obtained by solving the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  2. Invasive mechanism and control strategy of Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to ascertain the invasive mechanism and control strategy of the invasive Crofton weed, Ageratina adenophora, its ecological adaptability and population differentiation,the formation of single dominant population, displacement of native plants and sustainable management strategies were investigated. The present results helped to clarify and explain such issues as the adaptability post invasion,interaction and competition between inter-and intra-species and community resistance, thereby providing important references to researches on other invasive alien species.

  3. Business Strategy and Management Control Measures for Success!

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kent; Snygg, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Background Studying the relationship between strategy and Management Control Systems (MCS) is not a new phenomenon. The main purpose with the MCS has long been to attain the strategic goals that have been set for the organisation. Scholars have therefore argued that MCS should be adapted in harmony to the strategy employed by the company. There exists however little empirical evidence to support this claim. Problem Recent studies shows that the largest problem companies’ face today is that th...

  4. MARKETING STRATEGIES BASED ON THE BUYING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    LIVIU NEAMŢU; ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMŢU

    2016-01-01

    In marketing, due to dynamic, rapid and permanent changes known on the market, we will talk more about politics than about strategy, the time horizon covered is much lower than that contained in a classic strategy, with a risk that elements and criteria to which we refer are no longer current. Sales growth strategies are, in fact, combination strategies and consist in the company applying, in its different units, different strategies, according to the requirement of appropriate st...

  5. New software rejuvenation strategy based on measurement and time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Operational software systems often experience an "aging" phenomenon, characterized by progressive performance degradation and a sudden hang/crash failure. Software rejuvenation is a proactive fault-tolerance strategy aimed to prevent unexpected outages due to aging. A new rejuvenation strategy based on measurement and time, and constructs a SRN model to evaluate this strategy. Numerical results show that this strategy outweighs either the purely measurementbased or the purely time-based strategy and can effectively improve system performance.

  6. Dynamic Protective Control Strategy for Distributed Generation System with Fixed-speed Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of induction generator based fixed-speed wind turbines (FSWT) are investigated. The impacts of different execution time in protective operations are studied under different fauit duration and various wind velocity situations, e.g. , FSWT stabilities of load shedding in distribution systems. Based on this research, a dynamic protective control strategy for a distributed generation system (DGS) with FSWT is proposed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  7. Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaki Tirados

    Full Text Available Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT.The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2. In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings.The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment, covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures. One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised.

  8. Available Bandwidth Estimation Strategy Based on the Network Allocation Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Available bandwidth is of great importance to network Quality of Service assurance, network load balancing, streaming media rate control, routing, and congestion control, etc.. In this paper, the available bandwidth estimation strategy based on the Network Allocation Vector for Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed. According to the size of the average contention window, network nodes predict the probability of collision in process of frame transmission, and then estimate the number of retransmission. Through the collection of Hello packets periodically sent by neighbors, nodes obtain their Network Allocation Vector, and then estimate the available bandwidth. The simulation results show that the strategy is simple and effective, can accurately estimate the collision of data frames as well as the available bandwidth of Wireless Sensor Networks.

  9. Unfalsified control based on the ? controller parameterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, R. S.; Colmegna, P.; Bianchi, F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an implementation of the unfalsified control (UC) method using the Riccati-based parameterisation of ? controllers. The method provides an infinite controller set to (un)falsify the real-time data streams seeking for the best performance. Different sets may be designed to increase the degrees of freedom of the set of controller candidates to perform UC. In general, a set of m central controllers could be designed, each one seeking different objectives and all with their own parameterisation as a function of a stable and bounded transfer matrix. For example, one controller parameterisation could be designed to solve the robust stability of a model set which covers the physical system, therefore guaranteeing feasibility. The implementation requires the online optimisation of either quadratic fractional or quadratic problems, depending on the selection of the cost function. A multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) time-varying model of a permanent magnet synchronous generator illustrates the use of this technique.

  10. Mothers' teaching strategies and children's effortful control: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children's general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children's vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers' 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies.

  11. Innovation in Active Vibration Control Strategy of Intelligent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moutsopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper presents sufficiently a recognizable advance in knowledge of active vibration control in intelligent structures.

  12. Impact of Machine Learning on Elevator Control Strategies : A comparison of time efficiency for machine learning elevator control strategies and static elevator control strategies in an office building

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Marcus; Andersson, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Elevators are used in a large amount of buildings all over the world for fast and comfortable transportation. Today it is becoming increasingly important for people and products to be time efficient, and with technological development new solutions are created to answer this rising demand. To do this in an elevator context, elevator control strategies are implementedas optimal as possible. Machine learning is a relatively new concept, but it is already used in attempts to improve the performa...

  13. Integrated control strategies for railway vehicles with independently-driven wheel motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinzhi FENG; Jun LI; R. M. Goodall

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the development of inte-grated control strategies for railway vehicles with inde-pendently-driven wheel motors. First, a non-linear vehicle dynamic model and motor drive strategy are pre-sented, which are followed by an investigation of the inte-grated control of stabilization, steering, and traction for the vehicle. Meanwhile a reformulated Kalman filter is developed and applied to estimate the required feedback by the control system. Finally, the effectiveness and prac-ticality of the proposed integrated controller are examined and assessed by real-time simulation based on host-target computer technology provided by Matlab/Simulink.

  14. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of

  15. Two-DOF precision platform for spacecraft thrust vector control: control strategies and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents control strategies and simulations of a two-DOF precision platform as an adaptive thruster mount structure with precision positioning and active vibration suppression capabilities for thrust vector control of space satellites. First, the configuration of the two-DOF precision platform is introduced, which is an intelligent tripod with two in-plane rotational degrees of freedom for the top device-plate. Precision positioning of this platform is achieved using active members that extend or contract to tilt the top device-plate where the thruster is mounted. Kinematic analysis of the platform is then presented and followed by two control strategies; namely local control strategy and global control strategy. In the local control strategy, the motion of each active member is controlled locally according to the kinematical feature of the platform and the local sensor information to achieve the desired tilt of the top device-plate. In the global control strategy, the motion of each active member is adjusted according to the system level information from a tilt sensor. Fuzzy logic control is employed and the two control strategies are simulated and compared.

  16. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa J McKay

    Full Text Available Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited.To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India.Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and contact with experts. Studies of any population resident in India were included. Studies where outcomes were not yet available, not directly related to tobacco use, or not specific to India, were excluded. Pre-tested proformas were used for data extraction and quality assessment. Studies with reliability concerns were excluded from some aspects of analysis. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was use as a framework for synthesis. Heterogeneity limited meta-analysis options. Synthesis was therefore predominantly narrative.Additional to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data, 80 studies were identified, 45 without reliability concerns. Most related to education (FCTC Article 12 and tobacco-use cessation (Article 14. They indicated widespread understanding of tobacco-related harm, but less knowledge about specific consequences of use. Healthcare professionals reported low confidence in cessation assistance, in keeping with low levels of training. Training for schoolteachers also appeared suboptimal. Educational and cessation assistance interventions demonstrated positive impact on tobacco use. Studies relating to smoke-free policies (Article 8, tobacco advertisements and availability (Articles 13 and 16 indicated increasingly widespread smoke-free policies, but persistence of high levels of SHS exposure, tobacco promotions and availability-including to minors. Data relating to taxation/pricing and packaging (Articles 6 and 11 were limited. We did not identify any studies of product regulation, alternative employment strategies, or illicit trade (Articles 9, 10, 15 and 17.Tobacco-use outcomes could be improved

  17. Economic and epidemiological evalution of possible salmonella control strategies in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Schaik, van G.; Veling, J.; Backus, G.B.C.; Franken, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a Salmonella control program for Dutch dairy herds. Salmonella control strategies were evaluated using a computer-based model consisting of an epidemiological module and an economics module. The epidemiological module is a state transition model of the infectivity

  18. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  19. Wolbachia: A biological control strategy against arboviral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Ipsita; Rath, Animesha; Mahapatra, Namita; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes like Dengue are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in human population. There are no effective vaccines or treatment against dengue fever till date and the control methods are limited. So, new approaches are urgently in need to reverse these trends. Vector control is currently the primary intervention tool. Strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. Wolbachia an endosymbiont of arthropod vectors is being explored as a novel ecofriendly control strategy. Studies in Drosophila have shown that Wolbachia can confer resistance to diverse RNA viruses and protect flies from virus-induced mortality. This review was focused on biology of the Wolbachia and its implication as a control measure for arboviral diseases mainly Dengue and Chikungunya. PMID:27681542

  20. LAN Security Control Strategy Based on the Internal Prison%基于监狱内部局域网的安全控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛锡军; 宋瑜崎

    2012-01-01

    With network technology and the rapid development of information technology, the digital management of the prison as the product of the Internet age, has become the development direction of prison management. In this paper several prison work, contact network system, found inside the prison network security status, LAN computer network security deficiencies, and exhaustively from VLAN, IP address management, firewall technology and other aspects and put forward many methods and control measures, to ensure that the prison of LAN security.%随着网络技术和信息技术的迅速发展,监狱数字化管理作为网络时代的产物,已经成为监狱管理发展的方向。本文在工作中,接触几个监狱的网络系统,发现监狱内部网络的安全现状,局域网内计算机网络面临的安全不足之处,并详尽地从VLAN(虚拟局域网)技术、IP地址管理、防火墙技术等多方面提出许多方法和控制措施,确保监狱局域网络安全。

  1. A novel control strategy for load converter of DC isolated distribution system under unbalanced loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. NOROOZIAN; M. ABEDI; G.B. GHAREHPETIAN; S. H. HOSSEINI

    2009-01-01

    A novel control strategy for the load converter supplying the unbalanced AC load in a DC isolated distribution system is presented. The control algorithm results in balanced and sinusoidal load voltages under unbalanced AC loading. The unbalanced load is characterized in the d-q-0 rotating coordinate based on symmetrical sequence components. Also, the mathematical model of the load converter in both a-b-c and d-q-0 coordinates is derived by using the average large signal model. Then, two control strategies for the load converter are presented. The first one uses the conventional d-q-0 controller to ensure the voltage and current regulation. The second one is a newly proposed control strategy based on the decomposition of the voltage and current into instantaneous positive, negative, and zero sequences. These three sequences are controlled independently in their own reference frames as DC signals. The performance of the load converter using these two control strategies is compared. Simulation results show the validity and capability of the newly proposed control strategy.

  2. An Efficient Modal Control Strategy for the Active Vibration Control of a Truss Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalhal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient modal control strategy is described for the active vibration control of a truss structure. In this approach, a feedback force is applied to each mode to be controlled according to a weighting factor that is determined by assessing how much each mode is excited by the primary source. The strategy is effective provided that the primary source is at a fixed position on the structure, and that the source is stationary in the statistical sense. To test the effectiveness of the control strategy it is compared with an alternative, established approach namely, Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC. Numerical simulations show that with the new strategy it is possible to significantly reduce the control effort required, with a minimal reduction in control performance.

  3. Iris Localization Based on Edge Searching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong; Han Jiuqiang

    2005-01-01

    An iris localization scheme based on edge searching strategies is presented. First, the edge detection operator Laplacian-ofGaussian (LoG) is used to iris original image to search its inner boundary. Then, a circle detection operator is introduced to locate the outer boundary and its center, which is invariant of translation, rotation and scale. Finally, the method of curve fitting is developed in localization of eyelid. The performance of the proposed method is tested with 756 iris images from 108 different classes in CASIA Iris Database and compared with the conventional Hough transform method. The experimental results show that without loss of localization accuracy, the proposed iris localization algorithm is apparently faster than Hough transform.

  4. Composite braking control strategy of pure electric bus based on brake driving intention recognition%基于制动驾驶意图辨识的纯电动客车复合制动控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵轩; 马建; 汪贵平

    2014-01-01

    To research braking force distribution ratio of composite braking system for pure electric bus,a composite braking control strategy based on brake driving intention recognition was presented.A double-layer brake driving intention recognition model based on hidden Markov theory was set up and identified by using road experiment data.Based on recognized driving intention and vehicle speed,the distribution ratios of braking forces for front and rear wheels, ECE regulation, motor characteristics, slip ratios, battery characteristics, super capacitor characteristics and transmission system characteristics were taken as constraint conditions,the braking force distribution strategy of composite braking system was proposed,and the control strategy of composite braking system was simulated by Simulink software under 9 operating conditions.Simulation result shows that friction braking system and motor regenerative braking system can work coordinately and steadily under various operating conditions when the braking control strategy is applied,and braking energy can be recovered as much as possible under the premise of ensuring braking safety.Energy recovery efficiency is highest under slight brake when vehicle speed was low,and the efficiency can reach to 43 .84%.Energy recovery efficiency is lowest under emergency brake when vehicle speed is high,and the efficiency is only 0. 89%. 2 tabs,21 figs,23 refs.%为了研究纯电动客车复合制动系统制动力分配比例,提出了基于制动驾驶意图辨识的复合制动控制策略。基于隐形马尔科夫理论建立了双层制动驾驶意图辨识模型,运用道路试验数据对模型进行辨识验证。基于辨识出的驾驶意图和车速,以前后轮制动力分配比例、ECE 法规、电机特性、滑移率、蓄电池特性、超级电容特性与传动系统特性为约束条件,制定了复合制动系统制动力分配策略,在9种工况下,应用Simulink对复合制动系统进行建

  5. Analysis of Control Strategies for Diode Clamped Multilevel Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Balamurugan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of various Pulse Width Modulation (PWM strategies for the three phase Diode Clamped Multi Level Inverter (DCMLI. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of new modulation schemes with Variable Amplitude (VA and various new schemes adopting the constant switching frequency and also variable switching frequency multicarrier control freedom degree combination concepts are developed and simulated for the chosen three phase DCMLI. The three phase DCMLI, is controlled in this paper with Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM reference along with triangular carriers and analysis is made among both without carrier overlapping and with Carrier Overlapping (CO techniques to choose the better strategy by performing simulation using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The variation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD and fundamental RMS output voltage is observed for various modulation indices. It is observed that among the various equal amplitude PWM strategies, COPWM-C provides less THD and higher RMS voltage. It is recognized that among the various variable amplitude PWM strategies, VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. By comparing the equal amplitude PWM strategies with the variable amplitude PWM strategies it is inferred that VACOPWM-C provides less THD and VACOPWM-B provides higher RMS voltage. It is also inferred that carrier overlapping techniques provides better results compared to the without carrier overlapping techniques.

  6. Control strategies used in the control software for the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Wang, Yan-Yu; Pan, Liang-Ming; Tu, Sheng-Pan

    2016-07-01

    Automation control systems are important for the operation of an accelerator. To ensure the reliable, stable and flexible operation of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), several control systems are developed. The developed control systems are the SECRAL control system, the LECR3 control system, the LAPECR1 control system and the Electro-Static septum control system. The corresponding control software systems are developed using Visual C++. To ensure the accuracy, stability and flexibility of the control systems, some special control strategies are developed in the control software systems. This paper provides a detailed description of the main control strategies used in the control software systems. The main control strategies are composed of a reliable communication mechanism, a correct data/command transmission mechanism, an efficient data storage mechanism and an interlock protection mechanism. To guarantee a reliable communication between the devices for the commercially purchased devices and the built in-house ones, a modified heartbeat method is developed. To provide flexible reconstitution function for the control systems, the command queue and the state machine are combined. The message mechanism and the multiple windows mechanism are also used for the module mechanism. The relevant control systems are introduced as examples of these control strategies. These systems have been running stably for several years.

  7. 一种前馈补偿和模糊滑模相结合的柔性机械臂控制%Control Strategy for Flexible Manipulator Based on Feedforward Compensation and Fuzzy-Sliding Mode Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党进; 倪风雷; 刘业超; 刘宏

    2011-01-01

    Considering external disturbance, friction, parameters variation, modeling errors and other issues in flexible joint robot control system, the external disturbance is divided into deterministic part and uncertainty part, and the friction into linear part and nonlinear part, then a new structure robust controller based on the combination of feedforward compensation and fuzzy sliding mode control is proposed. The controller consists of two parts, the part associated with the robot structure itself, deterministic disturbance and the linear part of the friction can be eliminate effectively by computed torque and feedforward compensation. And the fuzzy-sliding mode control of the proposed controller can compensate the external uncertainty disturbance, nonlinear part of friction, parameters variation, modeling error and so on. The experiment results on the platform of HIT four degrees of freedom flexible manipulator show the good position tracking performance and strong anti-interference ability.%针对柔性关节机器人控制系统中存在的扰动力、摩擦力、参数变化以及建模误差等问题,将扰动力分为确定性扰动和不确定性扰动、摩擦力分为线性和非线性部分,并在此基础上提出了一种前馈补偿和模糊滑模相结合的鲁棒控制器.机器人自身结构的相关量、确定性扰动以及摩擦力的线性部分,可以通过控制器的计算力矩和前馈补偿部分进行有效控制,并通过模糊滑模控制器来克服外界的不确定性扰动、摩擦力的非线性部分、参数变化以及建模误差等.在HIT四自由度柔性机械臂上进行了控制器的相关实验,实验结果表明,该控制器具有良好的位置跟踪性能和较强的抗干扰能力.

  8. Study and experimental verification of control tuning strategies in a variable speed wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaragoza, Jordi; Pou, Josep; Arias, Antoni [Electronic Engineering Dept., Technical University of Catalonia, Campus Terrassa, C. Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Spiteri, Cyril [Department of Industrial Electrical Power Conversion, University of Malta, Faculty of Engineering, Msida (Malta); Robles, Eider; Ceballos, Salvador [Energy Unit, Robotiker-Tecnalia Technology Corporation, Zamudio, Basque Country (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    This paper analyzes and compares different control tuning strategies for a variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The aerodynamics of the wind turbine (WT) and a PMSG have been modeled. The control strategy used in this research is composed of three regulators, which may be based on either linear or nonlinear controllers. In this analysis, proportional-integral (PI) linear controllers have been used. Two different tuning strategies are analyzed and compared. The main goal is to enhance the overall performance by achieving a low sensitivity to disturbances and minimal overshoot under variable operating conditions. Finally, the results have been verified by an experimental WECS laboratory prototype. (author)

  9. A Combined Cooperative Braking Model with a Predictive Control Strategy in an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Guo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO. To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective.

  10. Rationale and design of the Kanyini guidelines adherence with the polypill (Kanyini-GAP study: a randomised controlled trial of a polypill-based strategy amongst Indigenous and non Indigenous people at high cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usherwood Tim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kanyini Guidelines Adherence with the Polypill (Kanyini-GAP Study aims to examine whether a polypill-based strategy (using a single capsule containing aspirin, a statin and two blood pressure-lowering agents amongst Indigenous and non-Indigenous people at high risk of experiencing a cardiovascular event will improve adherence to guideline-indicated therapies, and lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Methods/Design The study is an open, randomised, controlled, multi-centre trial involving 1000 participants at high risk of cardiovascular events recruited from mainstream general practices and Aboriginal Medical Services, followed for an average of 18 months. The participants will be randomised to one of two versions of the polypill, the version chosen by the treating health professional according to clinical features of the patient, or to usual care. The primary study outcomes will be changes, from baseline measures, in serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure and self-reported current use of aspirin, a statin and at least two blood pressure lowering agents. Secondary study outcomes include cardiovascular events, renal outcomes, self-reported barriers to indicated therapy, prescription of indicated therapy, occurrence of serious adverse events and changes in quality-of-life. The trial will be supplemented by formal economic and process evaluations. Discussion The Kanyini-GAP trial will provide new evidence as to whether or not a polypill-based strategy improves adherence to effective cardiovascular medications amongst individuals in whom these treatments are indicated. Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN126080005833347.

  11. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning CommercialBuilding Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-05-01

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak pricing (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a new electricity tariff design to promote demand response. This paper begins with a brief review of terminology regarding energy management and demand response, followed by a discussion of DR control strategies and a preliminary overview of a forthcoming guide on DR strategies. The final section discusses experience to date with these strategies, followed by a discussion of the peak electric demand savings from the 2005 Automated CPP program. An important concept identified in the automated DR field tests is that automated DR will be most successful if the building commissioning industry improves the operational effectiveness of building controls. Critical peak pricing and even real time pricing are important trends in electricity pricing that will require new functional tests for building commissioning.

  12. Control Strategies for HCCI Mixed-Mode Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to expand the operational range of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mixed-mode combustion for gasoline en-gines. ORNL has extensive experience in the analysis, interpretation, and control of dynamic engine phenomena, and Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain compo-nents and subsystems. The partnership of these knowledge bases was important to address criti-cal barriers associated with the realistic implementation of HCCI and enabling clean, efficient operation for the next generation of transportation engines. The foundation of this CRADA was established through the analysis of spark-assisted HCCI data from a single-cylinder research engine. This data was used to (1) establish a conceptual kinetic model to better understand and predict the development of combustion instabilities, (2) develop a low-order model framework suitable for real-time controls, and (3) provide guidance in the initial definition of engine valve strategies for achieving HCCI operation. The next phase focused on the development of a new combustion metric for real-time characterization of the combustion process. Rapid feedback on the state of the combustion process is critical to high-speed decision making for predictive control. Simultaneous to the modeling/analysis studies, Delphi was focused on the development of engine hardware and the engine management system. This included custom Delphi hardware and control systems allowing for flexible control of the valvetrain sys-tem to enable HCCI operation. The final phase of this CRADA included the demonstration of conventional and spark assisted HCCI on the multi-cylinder engine as well as the characterization of combustion instabilities, which govern the operational boundaries of this mode of combustion. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout this project. Meetings were held on a bi-weekly basis with additional reports, presentation, and

  13. Sustainability, Strategy and Management Control: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Crutzen, Nathalie; Herzig, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the emerging body of literature on the relationship between sustainability, strategy and management control. Our way to organise and present the literature aims to both structure the state of our knowledge in this area and stimulate others to contribute to a shared and better understanding of this field of research. Previous research has underlined that (sustainability) management control systems play a key role in shaping processes of (sustaina...

  14. Joint Environmental and Economical Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Plants Control Strategies: A Benchmark Scenario Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Meneses

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a joint environmental and economic analysis of different Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP control strategies is carried out. The assessment is based on the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a method to evaluate the environmental impact and the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 (BSM1. The BSM1 is taken as the benchmark scenario used to implement the control strategies. The Effluent Quality Index (EQI and the Overall Cost Index (OCI are two indicators provided by BSM1 and used to evaluate the plant’s performance from the effluent quality and the economic points of view, respectively. This work conducts a combined analysis and assessment of ten different control strategies defined to operate a wastewater treatment plant. This analysis includes the usual economic and performance indexes provided by BSM1 joined with the LCA analysis that determines the environmental impact linked to each one of the considered control strategies. It is shown how to get an overall evaluation of the environmental effects by using a normalized graphical representation that can be easily used to compare control strategies from the environmental impact point of view. The use of only the BSM1 indexes provides an assessment that leads to a clustering of control strategies according to the cost/quality tradeoff they show. Therefore, regarding the cost/quality tradeoff, all strategies in the same group are almost equal and do not provide an indication on how to proceed in order to select the appropriate one. It is therefore shown how the fact of adding a new, complementary, evaluation (LCA based allows either to reinforce a decision that could be taken solely on the basis of the EQI/OCI tradeoff or to select one control strategy among the others.

  15. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monoxide national ambient air quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental... National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Lake and Marion Counties for an additional ten years. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1023 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for purposes of satisfying the 5 percent increment of progress requirement of 40 CFR 51.905(a)(1)(ii... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1023...: Ozone. (a) Determination. EPA is determining that, as of July 21, 1995, the Lewiston-Auburn...

  17. 40 CFR 52.977 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... and regulations: Ozone. Determination of Attainment. Effective March 12, 2010 EPA has determined the Baton Rouge 1-hour ozone nonattainment area has attained the 1-hour ozone National Ambient Air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982 Section 52.1982 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. (1) The Salem/ Portland and Medford/Ashland area attainment plans...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1683 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of EPA's ozone implementation rule (see 40 CFR 51.918), this determination suspends the reasonable... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1683...: Ozone. (a) The State of New York has certified to the satisfaction of the EPA that no sources...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 52.1885, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885...: Ozone. (a) Part D—Approval. The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The ozone...