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  1. Long-term absence of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection in chronically immunosuppressed patients after treatment with the porcine cell-based Academic Medical Center bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Nicuolo, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Andria, B.; Scuderi, V.; Scognamiglio, M.; Tammaro, A.; Mancini, A.; Cozzolino, S.; di Florio, E.; Bracco, A.; Calise, F.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinical use of porcine cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) support in acute liver failure as bridging therapy for liver transplantation exposes the patient to the risk of transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) to human. This risk may be enhanced when patients receive l

  2. Prevalence of porcine endogenous retrovirus in Chinese pig breeds and in patients treated with a porcine liver cell-based bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu; Zheng Liu; Evangelos Dalakas

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) in various pig breeds raised in China including Chinese experimental mini-pigs by PERV-reverse transcriptase (PERV-RT enzyme). Moreover, the potential for infection of PERV was investigated in patients treated with a bioreactor based on porcine liver cells (n = 3).METHODS: Pig serum, liver and musde cell-free supematants were collected from various Chinese pig breeds. Porcine hepatocytes were isolated with a two-step perfusion method. Three patients with acute or chronic liver failure were treated with a bioartificial liver support system (BALSS) for 8-12 h and serum samples were collected from the patients before, immediately after and 30 d after treatment.RESULTS: The activities of PERV-RT enzyme in pig liver and muscle cell-free supernatants were higher than in normal human controls. PERV-TR enzyme activity did not increase in patients before and after 1 mo of treatment.PERV-RT activities were not significantly different when compared with pre-treatment group (1.544±0.155576), the post-treatment groups (1.501±0.053507, 1.461±0.033808 and 1.6006667±0.01963 for 0, 14 and 30 d post-treatment,respectively, P>0.05), and normal control group (1.440±1.0641, P>0.05). RT enzyme activity in Chinese experimental mini-pigs was higher than in normal human control group (1.440±1.0641 U/mL, P0.05) when compared with the pig breeds except in the muscle supernatants. All the samples including muscle and liver cell supernatants from the Chinese mini-experimental pigs and the four domestic Chinese pig breeds contained PERVs.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the risk of PERV infection through BALSS containing porcine liver cells without immunosuppressants may be quite low. Although there were PERVs in Chinese experimental mini-pigs and porcine liver cell culture suspensions, we did not find any evidence of persistent PERV infection in patients treated with this porcine hepatocyte-based bioartificial

  3. Allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia

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    Kimura M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amniotic membrane contains a multipotential stem cell population and is expected to possess the machinery to regulate immunological reactions. We investigated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (AMSC transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia as a preclinical trial. Methods. Porcine AMSCs were isolated from amniotic membranes obtained by cesarean section just before delivery and were cultured to increase their numbers before transplantation. Chronic myocardial ischemia was induced by implantation of an ameroid constrictor around the left circumflex coronary artery. Four weeks after ischemia induction, nine swine were assigned to undergo either allogeneic AMSC transplantation or normal saline injection. Functional analysis was performed by echocardiography, and histological examinations were carried out by immunohistochemistry 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Results. Echocardiography demonstrated that left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly improved and left ventricular dilatation was well attenuated 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Histological assessment showed a significant reduction in percentage of fibrosis in the AMSC transplantation group. Injected allogeneic green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing AMSCs were identified in the immunocompetent host heart without the use of any immunosuppressants 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry revealed that GFP colocalized with cardiac troponin T and cardiac troponin I. Conclusions. We have demonstrated that allogeneic AMSC transplantation produced histological and functional improvement in the impaired myocardium in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. The transplanted allogeneic AMSCs survived without the use of any immunosuppressants and gained cardiac phenotype through either their transdifferentiation or cell fusion.

  4. Enhanced Myocardial Vascularity and Contractility by Novel FGF-1 Transgene in a Porcine Model of Chronic Coronary Occlusion

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    Janet L. Parker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiogenesis gene therapy has long been sought as a novel alternative treatment for restoring the blood flow and improving the contractile function of the ischemic heart in selected clinical settings. Angiogenic fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1 is a promising candidate for developing a promising gene therapy protocol due to its multipotent ability to stimulate endothelial cell (EC growth, migration, and tube formation. Despite these advantages, however, FGF gene therapy has suffered setbacks mainly due to the inefficient delivery rate of the growth factor in vivo. Given the potent angiogenic effect of FGF-1, we reasoned that constitutively synthesized minute quantities of this polypeptide hormone, when empowered with the ability to escape the cellular constraint, could freely act in a paracrine/autocrine fashion on nearby existing capillary plexuses and lead to neovascularization and restoration of the blood flow to ischemic tissues for reparative purpose. Methods: We report the direct gene transfer of a retroviral-based mammalian expression vector encoding a secreted form of FGF-1 (sp-FGF-1 for the purpose of therapeutic angiogenesis into the porcine myocardium subjected to the surgical placement of an ameroid occluder to induce the chronic coronary occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx and regional myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography, performed 3 weeks after surgery, confirmed the interruption of the blood flow in the LCx distal to the site of ameroid placement. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis using antibody specific to von Willebrand factor (vWF, an endothelial marker, showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in myocardial vascularity in the sp-FGF-1 hearts compared to the control (vector alone. Importantly, an assessment of the cardiac function by echocardiography, performed 3 weeks after surgery, demonstrated improved cardiac contractility due to increased left ventricular free wall contraction in the

  5. A robust linkage map of the porcine autosome based on gene-associated SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingborg, Rikke K K; Gregersen, Vivi R; Zhan, Bujie;

    2009-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are necessary for mapping of mendelian traits and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). To identify the actual genes, which control these traits, a map based on gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is highly valuable. In this study, the SNPs were...... genotyped in a large family material comprising more than 5,000 piglets derived from 12 Duroc boars crossed with 236 Danish Landrace/Danish Large White sows. The SNPs were identified in sequence alignments of 4,600 different amplicons obtained from the 12 boars and containing coding regions of genes derived...... from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic shotgun sequences. Results Linkage maps of all 18 porcine autosomes were constructed based on 456 gene-associated and six porcine EST-based SNPs. The total length of the averaged-sex whole porcine autosome was estimated to 1,711.8 cM resulting...

  6. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: chronic artery lumen patency and histology in porcine iliac artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Kunio, Mie; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Sakurada, Masami

    2012-02-01

    We proposed a short-duration heating balloon angioplasty. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to 60-70°C within 15-25 s with a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic artery lumen patency as well as histological alteration of artery wall after the short-duration heating balloon dilatation with porcine healthy iliac artery. The short-term heating balloon dilated sites were angiographically patent in acute (1 hour) and in chronic phases (1 and 4 weeks). One week after the dilatation, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) density in the artery media measured from H&E-stained specimens was approx. 20% lower than that in the reference artery. One and four weeks after the dilatations, normal structure of artery adventitia was maintained without any incidence of thermal injury. Normal lamellar structure of the artery media was also maintained. We found that the localized heating restricted to artery media by the short-duration heating could maintain adventitial function and artery normal structure in chronic phase.

  7. Acute and chronic local inflammatory reaction after implantation of different extracellular porcine dermis collagen matrices in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Silke; Hoene, Andreas; Walschus, Uwe; Kob, Anette; Pissarek, Jens-Wolfgang; Schlosser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Two cross-linked acellular porcine dermal collagen matrices (Permacol and NRX) were implanted into rats and the acute and chronic local inflammatory tissue reactions were investigated after 7, 14, 28, and 112 days. Both membranes were stable in vivo for up to 112 days. All investigated immune cell populations (CD68+ macrophages, CD163+ macrophages, T lymphocytes, MHC class II positive cells, mast cells, and NK cells) were present. Their amount decreased significantly over time compared to day 7 after implantation. A change from an acute to a chronic inflammation and an associated shift from proinflammatory M1-like to anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages were observed. In the early phase there was a significant correlation of T cells to CD68+ (M1-like) macrophages, whereas in the chronic phase T lymphocytes were positively correlated with CD163+ (M2-like) macrophages. The material NRX showed an enhanced inflammatory reaction in comparison to Permacol possibly caused by material characteristics such as a twofold higher thickness of the membrane, roughness, and water absorption capacity. Nevertheless, a more pronounced regenerative process as, for example, indicated by nestin expression demonstrated its possible suitability for applications as wound repair material.

  8. Acute and Chronic Local Inflammatory Reaction after Implantation of Different Extracellular Porcine Dermis Collagen Matrices in Rats

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    Silke Lucke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cross-linked acellular porcine dermal collagen matrices (Permacol and NRX were implanted into rats and the acute and chronic local inflammatory tissue reactions were investigated after 7, 14, 28, and 112 days. Both membranes were stable in vivo for up to 112 days. All investigated immune cell populations (CD68+ macrophages, CD163+ macrophages, T lymphocytes, MHC class II positive cells, mast cells, and NK cells were present. Their amount decreased significantly over time compared to day 7 after implantation. A change from an acute to a chronic inflammation and an associated shift from proinflammatory M1-like to anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages were observed. In the early phase there was a significant correlation of T cells to CD68+ (M1-like macrophages, whereas in the chronic phase T lymphocytes were positively correlated with CD163+ (M2-like macrophages. The material NRX showed an enhanced inflammatory reaction in comparison to Permacol possibly caused by material characteristics such as a twofold higher thickness of the membrane, roughness, and water absorption capacity. Nevertheless, a more pronounced regenerative process as, for example, indicated by nestin expression demonstrated its possible suitability for applications as wound repair material.

  9. A Novel Closed-Chest Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure Suitable for Experimental Research in Cardiovascular Disease

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    Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac pathologies are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries, with myocardial infarction (MI representing one of the major conditions leading to heart failure (HF. Hitherto, the development of consistent, stable, and reproducible models of closed-chest MI in large animals, meeting the clinical realism of a patient with HF subsequent to chronic ischemic necrosis, has not been successful. We hereby report the design and ensuing application of a novel porcine experimental model of closed-chest chronic ischemia suitable for biomedical research, mimicking post-MI HF. We also emphasize the key procedural steps involved in replicating this unprecedented model, from femoral artery and vein catheterization to MI induction by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery through superselective deployment of platinum-nylon coils, as well as endomyocardial biopsy sampling for histologic analysis and cell harvesting. Our model could indeed represent a valuable contribution and tool for translational research, providing precious insights to understand and overcome the many hurdles concerning, and currently quenching, the preclinical steps mandatory for the clinical translation of new cardiovascular technologies for personalized HF treatments.

  10. Chronic high glucose inhibits albumin reabsorption by lysosomal alkalinization in cultured porcine proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Fukashi

    2006-06-01

    Lysosomal acidification is a key step of albumin reabsorption in proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). This study was performed to examine the influence of chronic high glucose on lysosomal acidification in cultured PTECs. Porcine PTECs (LLC-PK(1) cells) were cultured in 16.7 mM (300 mg/dl) glucose (HG) alone or with 0.5 mM phlorizin for 24 weeks and subsequently for 12 weeks in 5.5 mM (100 mg/dl) glucose (NG). Chronic HG inhibited the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-albumin (A) uptake progressively, while phlorizin reversed the inhibition. NG for 12 weeks after HG normalized the uptake. The time-dependent uptake of FITC-A was inhibited by HG and bafilomycin A(1) (BafA(1)) after 15 min and by 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and N-ethyl-N-isopropyl-amiloride (EIPA) after 3 min. Cellular ATP was depleted by HG and restored by NG. Lysosomal pH, assessed by an acidotropic fluorescent probe, was alkalinized (pH 4.5-7.8) with 5.5-27.8 mM glucose and normalized by subsequent NG. BafA(1) alkalinized lysosomes, and the concentration required to 50% change for the pH and 50% inhibition of FITC-A uptake was similar. EIPA inhibited FITC-A uptake, but did not influence lysosomal pH. DIDS inhibited FITC-A uptake, and unexpectedly lowered lysosomal pH. Real time PCR showed that HG reduced the mRNA level for vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, but did not alter those of chloride channel-5 and Na(+)-H(+)-exchanger-3. In conclusion, the chronic HG inhibits albumin reabsorption by lysosomal alkalinization in PTECs, probably due to ATP depletion and down-regulation of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

  11. Identification of QTL for dorso-caudal chronic pleuritis in 12 crossbred porcine families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, V R; Sørensen, K K; Christensen, O F

    2010-01-01

    Pleuropneumonia is a major problem in pig production. At the time of slaughter, chronic pleuritis (CP) developed from pleuropneumonia is a common finding, and breeding for a reduced incidence of CP using marker-assisted selection (MAS) would be advantageous. Before applying MAS, quantitative trait...

  12. Proteomic changes of the porcine small intestine in response to chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanjun; Gu, Xianhong

    2015-12-01

    Acute heat stress (HS) negatively affects intestinal integrity and barrier function. In contrast, chronic mild HS poses a distinct challenge to animals. Therefore, this study integrates biochemical, histological and proteomic approaches to investigate the effects of chronic HS on the intestine in finishing pigs. Castrated male crossbreeds (79.00 ± 1.50 kg BW) were subjected to either thermal neutral (TN, 21 °C; 55% ± 5% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (30 °C; 55% ± 5% humidity; n=8) for 3 weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after 3 weeks of high environmental exposure and the plasma hormones, the intestinal morphology, integrity, and protein profiles of the jejunum mucosa were determined. Chronic HS reduced the free triiodothyronine (FT3) and GH levels. HS damaged intestinal morphology, increased plasma d-lactate concentrations and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal mucosa. Proteome analysis of the jejunum mucosa was conducted by 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Fifty-three intestinal proteins were found to be differentially abundant, 18 of which were related to cell structure and motility, and their changes in abundance could comprise intestinal integrity and function. The down-regulation of proteins involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), electron transport chain (ETC), and oxidative phosphorylation suggested that chronic HS impaired energy metabolism and thus induced oxidative stress. Moreover, the changes of ten proteins in abundance related to stress response and defense indicated pigs mediated long-term heat exposure and counteracted its negative effects of heat exposure. These findings have important implications for understanding the effect of chronic HS on intestines.

  13. A cucumber mosaic virus based expression system for the production of porcine circovirus specific vaccines.

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    Akos Gellért

    Full Text Available Potential porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 capsid protein epitopes, suitable for expression on the surface of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV particles were determined by a thorough analysis of the predicted PCV capsid protein structure. The ab initio protein structure prediction was carried out with fold recognition and threading methods. The putative PCV epitopes were selected on the basis of PCV virion models and integrated into the plant virus coat protein, after amino acid position 131. The recombinants were tested for infectivity and stability on different Nicotiana species and stable recombinant virus particles were purified. The particles were tested for their ability to bind to PCV induced porcine antibodies and used for specific antibody induction in mice and pigs. The results showed that PCV epitopes expressed on the CMV surface were recognized by the porcine antibodies and they were also able to induce PCV specific antibody response. Challenge experiment with PCV2 carried out in immunized pigs showed partial protection against the infection. Based on these results it was concluded that specific antiviral vaccine production for the given pathogen was feasible, offering an inexpensive way for the mass production of such vaccines.

  14. Identification of QTL for dorso-caudal chronic pleuritis in 12 crossbred porcine families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, V R; Sørensen, K K; Christensen, O F; Busch, M E; Vingborg, R K K; Velander, I H; Lund, M S; Bendixen, C

    2010-10-01

    Pleuropneumonia is a major problem in pig production. At the time of slaughter, chronic pleuritis (CP) developed from pleuropneumonia is a common finding, and breeding for a reduced incidence of CP using marker-assisted selection (MAS) would be advantageous. Before applying MAS, quantitative trait loci (QTL) or markers associated with the prevalence of CP should be identified. In this study, 7470 pigs from crosses between 12 Danish Duroc boars and 604 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were evaluated for CP located on the dorso-caudal part of the lungs. Quantitative trait loci were identified within boar families using both a Binomial logistic regression method and a chi-square test of association. Significant QTL for CP were detected on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 8, 12, 13, 14 and 18 using both methods. One QTL on SSC 8 was also detected across families. For the QTL identified within families, the odds-ratio of having CP was approximately twice as high for the unfavourable allele compared to the favourable one. These QTL and closely linked markers show promise for the development of gene-specific markers associated with a reduced incidence of CP located on the dorso-caudal part of the lungs.

  15. Evaluation of a Model-Based Hemodynamic Monitoring Method in a Porcine Study of Septic Shock

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    James A. Revie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The accuracy and clinical applicability of an improved model-based system for tracking hemodynamic changes is assessed in an animal study on septic shock. Methods. This study used cardiovascular measurements recorded during a porcine trial studying the efficacy of large-pore hemofiltration for treating septic shock. Four Pietrain pigs were instrumented and induced with septic shock. A subset of the measured data, representing clinically available measurements, was used to identify subject-specific cardiovascular models. These models were then validated against the remaining measurements. Results. The system accurately matched independent measures of left and right ventricle end diastolic volumes and maximum left and right ventricular pressures to percentage errors less than 20% (except for the 95th percentile error in maximum right ventricular pressure and all R2>0.76. An average decrease of 42% in systemic resistance, a main cardiovascular consequence of septic shock, was observed 120 minutes after the infusion of the endotoxin, consistent with experimentally measured trends. Moreover, modelled temporal trends in right ventricular end systolic elastance and afterload tracked changes in corresponding experimentally derived metrics. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that this model-based method can monitor disease-dependent changes in preload, afterload, and contractility in porcine study of septic shock.

  16. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR for detection and quantification of porcine parvovirus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, Danielle; Souza, Carine K; Schaefer, Rejane; Vincent, Amy L; Cantão, Maurício E; Coldebella, Arlei; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R

    2015-07-01

    Porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4) is a DNA virus, and a member of the Parvoviridae family within the Bocavirus genera. It was detected recently in swine, but its epidemiology and pathology remain unclear. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting a conserved region of the ORF3 gene of PPV4 was developed. The qPCR detection limit was 9.5 × 10(1) DNA copies/μL. There was no cross-reaction with porcine parvovirus, torque teno virus 1, torque teno virus 2, porcine circovirus type 1, porcine circovirus type 2, or with pseudorabies virus. Two hundred and seventy-two samples, including serum, semen, lungs, feces, ovarian follicular fluids, ovaries and uterus, were evaluated by qPCR and PPV4 was detected in 36 samples (13.2%). When compared with a conventional PCR (cPCR), the qPCR assay was 10 times more sensitive and the detection of PPV4 DNA in field samples was increased 2.5 times. Partial sequencing of PPV4 ORF3 gene, obtained from two pooled samples of uterus and ovaries, revealed a high nucleotide identity (98-99%) with a reference PPV4 sequence. The qPCR can be used as a fast and accurate assay for the detection and quantification of PPV4 in field samples and for epidemiological studies in swine herds.

  17. Preclinical detection of porcine circovirus type 2 infection using an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay.

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    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. Preclinical identification of PCV2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of PCV2-associated diseases. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (UNDP-PCR for PCV2 detection. Magnetic microparticles coated with PCV2 specific DNA probes were used to enrich PCV2 DNA from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with PCV2 specific oligonucleotides were added to form a sandwich nucleic acid-complex. After the complex was formed, the oligonucleotides were released and characterized by PCR. This assay exhibited about 500-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 2 copies of purified PCV2 genomic DNA and 10 viral copies of PCV2 in serum. The assay has a wide detection range for all of PCV2 genotypes with reliable reproducibility. No cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses including porcine circovirus type 1, porcine parvovirus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and classical swine fever virus. The positive detection rate of PCV2 specific UNDP-PCR in 40 preclinical field samples was 27.5%, which appeared greater than that by conventional and real-time PCR and appeared application potency in evaluation of the viral loads levels of preclinical infection samples. The UNDP-PCR assay reported here can reliably rule out false negative results from antibody-based assays, provide a nucleic acid extraction free, specific, ultrasensitive, economic and rapid diagnosis method for preclinical PCV2 infection in field, which may help prevent large-scale outbreaks.

  18. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  19. Microbiological safety of a novel bio-artificial liver support system based on porcine hepatocytes: a experimental study

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    Han Bing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our institute has developed a novel bio-artificial liver (BAL support system, based on a multi-layer radial-flow bioreactor carrying porcine hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. It has been shown that porcine hepatocytes are capable of carrying infectious porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs into human cells, thus the microbiological safety of any such system must be confirmed before clinical trials can be performed. In this study, we focused on assessing the status of PERV infection in beagles treated with the novel BAL. Methods Five normal beagles were treated with the novel BAL for 6 hours. The study was conducted for 6 months, during which plasma was collected from the BAL and whole blood from the beagles at regular intervals. DNA and RNA in both the collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and plasma samples were extracted for conventional PCR and reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR with PERV-specific primers and the porcine-specific primer Sus scrofa cytochrome B. Meanwhile, the RT activity and the in vitro infectivity of the plasma were measured. Results Positive PERV RNA and RT activity were detected only in the plasma samples taken from the third circuit of the BAL system. All other samples including PBMCs and other plasma samples were negative for PERV RNA, PERV DNA, and RT activity. In the in vitro infection experiment, no infection was found in HEK293 cells treated with plasma. Conclusions No infective PERV was detected in the experimental animals, thus the novel BAL had a reliable microbiological safety profile.

  20. EST-based Analysis of Gene Expression in the Porcine Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Zhang; Wu Jin; Yanwu Zeng; Zhixi Su; Songnian Hu; Jun Yu

    2004-01-01

    Since pig is an important livestock species worldwide, its gene expression has been investigated intensively, but rarely in brain. In order to study gene expression profiles in the pig central nervous system, we sequenced and analyzed 43,122 highquality 5′ end expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from porcine cerebellum, cortex cerebrum, and brain stem cDNA libraries, involving several different prenatal and postnatal developmental stages. The initial ESTs were assembled into 16,101 clusters and compared to protein and nucleic acid databases in GenBank. Of these sequences, 30.6% clusters matched protein databases and represented function known sequences; 75.1% had significant hits to nucleic acid databases and partial represented known function; 73.3% matched known porcine ESTs; and 21.5% had no matches to any known sequences in GenBank. We used the categories defined by the Gene Ontology to survey gene expression in the porcine brain.

  1. Sex determination of porcine embryos using a new developed duplex polymerase chain reaction procedure based on the amplification of repetitive sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Eva; Bussalleu, Eva; Briz, M Dolors; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Bonet, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have become increasingly prevalent for sexing embryos. The aim of the present study was to develop a suitable duplex PCR procedure based on the amplification of porcine repetitive sequences for sexing porcine tissues, embryos and single cells. Primers were designed targeting the X12696 Y chromosome-specific repeat sequence (SUSYa and SUSYb; sex-related primer sets), the multicopy porcine-specific mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene (SUS12S; control primer set) and the X51555 1 chromosome repeat sequence (SUS1; control primer set). The specificity of the primer sets was established and the technique was optimised by testing combinations of two specific primer sets (SUSYa/SUS12S; SUSYb/SUS12S), different primer concentrations, two sources of DNA polymerase, different melting temperatures and different numbers of amplification cycles using genomic DNA from porcine ovarian and testicular tissue. The optimised SUSYa/SUS12S- and SUSYb/SUS12S-based duplex PCR procedures were applied to porcine in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts, cell-stage embryos and oocytes. The SUSYb/SUS12S primer-based procedure successfully sexed porcine single cells and IVP cell-stage embryos (100% efficiency), as well as blastocysts (96.6% accuracy; 96.7% efficiency). This is the first report to demonstrate the applicability of these repetitive sequences for this purpose. In conclusion, the SUSYb/SUS12S primer-based duplex PCR procedure is highly reliable and sensitive for sexing porcine IVP embryos.

  2. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial.

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    Sanne J Jansen of Lorkeers

    Full Text Available Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls.Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes.We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA. Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals.Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

  3. Identification of co-expression gene networks, regulatory genes and pathways for obesity based on adipose tissue RNA Sequencing in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Zhernakova, Daria V.

    2014-01-01

    interactions. Identification of co-expressed and regulatory genes in RNA extracted from relevant tissues representing lean and obese individuals provides an entry point for the identification of genes and pathways of importance to the development of obesity. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is an excellent model...... in a porcine model. Methods We selected 36 animals for RNA Sequencing from a previously created F2 pig population representing three extreme groups based on their predicted genetic risks for obesity. We applied Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to detect clusters of highly co-expressed genes...... in humans and rodents, e.g. CSF1R and MARC2. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply systems biology approaches using porcine adipose tissue RNA-Sequencing data in a genetically characterized porcine model for obesity. We revealed complex networks, pathways, candidate and regulatory...

  4. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for porcine parvovirus 4 detection and quantification in reproductive tissues of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4) is a DNA virus, and a member of the Parvoviridae family within the Bocavirus genera. It was recently detected in swine, but its epidemiology and pathology remain unclear. A TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting a conserved region of the O...

  5. A magnetic nanoparticle-based multiple-gene delivery system for transfection of porcine kidney cells.

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    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for gene delivery into mammalian somatic cells and may be useful for reproductive cloning using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. However, limited investigations of their potential applications in animal genetics and breeding, particularly multiple-gene delivery by magnetofection, have been performed. Here, we developed a stable, targetable and convenient system for delivering multiple genes into the nuclei of porcine somatic cells using magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as gene carriers. After surface modification by polyethylenimine, the spherical magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed strong binding affinity for DNA plasmids expressing the genes encoding a green (DNAGFP or red (DNADsRed fluorescent protein. At weight ratios of DNAGFP or DNADsRed to magnetic nanoparticles lower than or equal to 10∶1 or 5∶1, respectively, the DNA molecules were completely bound by the magnetic nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy analyses confirmed binding of the spherical magnetic nanoparticles to stretched DNA strands up to several hundred nanometers in length. As a result, stable and efficient co-expression of GFP and DsRed in porcine kidney PK-15 cells was achieved by magnetofection. The results presented here demonstrate the potential application of magnetic nanoparticles as an attractive delivery system for animal genetics and breeding studies.

  6. Understanding PRRSV infection in porcine lung based on genome-wide transcriptome response identified by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqi Xiao

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has been one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide and causes great economic losses each year. PRRS virus (PRRSV replicates mainly in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs and dendritic cells (DCs and develops persistent infections, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE, interstitial pneumonia and immunosuppression. But the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV infection still are poorly understood. Here we report on the first genome-wide host transcriptional responses to classical North American type PRRSV (N-PRRSV strain CH 1a infection using Solexa/Illumina's digital gene expression (DGE system, a tag-based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, and analyse systematically the relationship between pulmonary gene expression profiles after N-PRRSV infection and infection pathology. Our results suggest that N-PRRSV appeared to utilize multiple strategies for its replication and spread in infected pigs, including subverting host innate immune response, inducing an anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory state as well as developing ADE. Upregulation expression of virus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and inflammatory enzymes and inflammatory cells, antibodies, complement activation were likely to result in the development of inflammatory responses during N-PRRSV infection processes. N-PRRSV-induced immunosuppression might be mediated by apoptosis of infected cells, which caused depletion of immune cells and induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine response in which they were unable to eradicate the primary infection. Our systems analysis will benefit for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of N-PRRSV infection, developing novel antiviral therapies and identifying genetic components for swine resistance/susceptibility to PRRS.

  7. Replication efficiency of rolling-circle replicon-based plasmids derived from porcine circovirus 2 in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurez, Florence; Dory, Daniel; Henry, Aurélie; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Jestin, André

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a method was developed to measure replication rates of rolling-circle replicon-based plasmids in eukaryotic cells. This method is based on the discriminative quantitation of MboI-resistant, non-replicated input plasmids and DpnI-resistant, replicated plasmids. To do so, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) replicon-based plasmids were constructed. These plasmids contained the PCV2 origin of replication, the PCV2 Rep promoter and the PCV2 Rep gene. The results show that the replication rate depends on the length of the PCV2 replicon-based plasmid and not on the respective position of the Rep promoter and the promoter of the gene of interest that encodes the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). In all cases, it was necessary to add the Rep gene encoded by a plasmid and cotransfected as a replication booster. This method can evaluate the replication potential of replicon-based plasmids quickly and is thereby a promising tool for the development of plasmids for vaccine purposes.

  8. Evidence based practice of chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management.

  9. A porcine model of progressive Parkinson disease established by chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M S; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Møller, Arne

    2009-01-01

    not imitate the progression of PD well enough. To address this, we have established a progressive PD model on Göttingen minipigs based on chronic infusion of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Fourteen female Göttingen minipigs were implanted subcutaneously with infusion pumps......, whereas animals receiving 24 mg/day had their pumps turned off after 11 days due to severe PD symptoms. Histopathological examination showed increased nigral neuron loss with increased MPTP dosages. HPLC showed decreased striatal dopamine levels at daily MPTP dosages of 12 mg or higher. Stereological...

  10. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jacob;

    2007-01-01

    of genes between different tissues, in particular brain/spinal cord, and found patterns of correlation between genes that share expression in pairs of libraries. Finally, there was remarkable agreement in expression between specialized tissues according to Gene Ontology categories. CONCLUSION: This EST......BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the structure of gene expression is essential for mammalian transcriptomics research. We analyzed a collection of more than one million porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which two-thirds were generated in the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project and one-third are from...... approximately 25% have a high confidence match to UniProt. Approximately 6,000 new porcine gene clusters were identified. Expression analysis based on the non-normalized libraries resulted in the following findings. The distribution of cluster sizes is scaling invariant. Brain and testes are among the tissues...

  11. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    of genes between different tissues, in particular brain/spinal cord, and found patterns of correlation between genes that share expression in pairs of libraries. Finally, there was remarkable agreement in expression between specialized tissues according to Gene Ontology categories. Conclusion: This EST......Background: Knowledge of the structure of gene expression is essential for mammalian transcriptomics research. We analyzed a collection of more than one million porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which two-thirds were generated in the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project and one-third are from...... approximately 25% have a high confidence match to UniProt. Approximately 6,000 new porcine gene clusters were identified. Expression analysis based on the non-normalized libraries resulted in the following findings. The distribution of cluster sizes is scaling invariant. Brain and testes are among the tissues...

  12. Chemiluminescent Detection for Estimating Relative Copy Numbers of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Proviruses from Chinese Minipigs Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haowen; Liu, Ming; Zhou, Bingcong; Deng, Yan; He, Nongyue; Jiang, Hesheng; Guo, Yafen; Lan, Ganqiu; Jiang, Qinyang; Yang, Xiurong; Li, Zhiyang

    2016-06-01

    Chinese Bama minipigs could be potential donors for the supply of xenografts because they are genetically stable, highly inbred, and inexpensive. However, porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) is commonly integrated in pig genomes and could cause a cross-species infection by xenotransplantation. For screening out the pigs with low copy numbers of PERV proviruses, we have developed a novel semiquantitative analysis approach based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and chemiluminescence (CL) for estimating relative copy numbers (RCNs) of PERV proviruses in Chinese Bama minipigs. The CL intensities of PERV proviruses and the housekeeping gene glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were respectively determined with this method, and the RCNs of PERV proviruses were calculated by the equation: RCN of PERV provirus = CL intensity of PERV provirus/CL intensity of GAPDH. The results showed that PERVs were integrated in the genomes of Bama minipigs at different copy numbers, and the copy numbers of PERV-C subtype were greatly low. Two Bama minipigs with low copy numbers of PERV proviruses were detected out and could be considered as xenograft donor candidates. Although only semiquantitation can be achieved, this approach has potential for screening out safe and suitable pig donors for xenotransplantation.

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: case-based session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K R; Döhner, H; Keating, M J; Montserrat, E

    2001-01-01

    Drs. Hartmut Döhner, Michael J. Keating, Kanti R. Rai and Emili Montserrat form the panel to review chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) while focusing on the clinical features of a particular patient. The pace of progress in CLL has accelerated in the past decade. The pathophysiological nature of this disease, as had been known in the past, was based largely on the intuitive and empiric notions of two leaders in hematology, William Dameshek and David Galton. Now the works of a new generation of leaders are providing us with the scientific explanations of why CLL is a heterogeneous disease, perhaps consisting of at least two separate entities. In one form of CLL, the leukemic lymphocytes have a surface immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region gene that has undergone somatic mutations, with tell-tale markers suggesting that these cells had previously traversed the germinal centers. Such patients have a distinctly superior prognosis than their counterparts whose leukemic lymphocytes IgV genes have no mutations (these are indeed immunologically naive cells), who have a worse prognosis. The introduction of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique has provided us with new insights into the diverse chromosomal abnormalities that can occur in CLL, and which have significant impact on the clinical behavior and prognosis of patients with this disease. Major advances in therapeutics of CLL also have occurred during the past decade. Two monoclonal antibodies, Campath-1H (anti-CD52) and rituximab (anti-CD20), and one nucleoside analogue, fludarabine, have emerged as three agents of most promise in the front-line treatment of this disease. Studies currently in progress reflect our attempts to find the most effective manner of combining these agents to improve the overall survival statistics for CLL patients. As in many other hematological malignancies, high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous or HLA-compatible allogeneic stem cells rescue strategies are under study as

  14. Catalog of 199 register-based definitions of chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Michael F; Johnsen, Søren P; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    definitions were proposed based on record linkage between multiple registers, including registers of prescribed drugs and use of general practitioners' services. CONCLUSIONS THIS STUDY PROVIDED A CATALOG OF REGISTER-BASED DEFINITIONS FOR CHRONIC CONDITIONS FOR USE IN HEALTHCARE PLANNING AND RESEARCH, WHICH IS......INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current study was to present and discuss a broad range of register-based definitions of chronic conditions for use in register research, as well as the challenges and pitfalls when defining chronic conditions by the use of registers. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: The definitions were defined based on information from nationwide Danish public healthcare registers. Medical and epidemiological specialists identified and grouped relevant diagnosis codes that covered chronic conditions, using the International Classification System version 10 (ICD-10). Where relevant...

  15. Scaffold-based delivery of autologous mesenchymal stem cells for mandibular distraction osteogenesis: preliminary studies in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyang Sun

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bone regeneration through distraction osteogenesis (DO is promising but remarkably slow. To accelerate it, autologous mesenchymal stem cells have been directly injected to the distraction site in a few recent studies. Compared to direct injection, a scaffold-based method can provide earlier cell delivery with potentially better controlled cell distribution and retention. This pilot project investigated a scaffold-based cell-delivery approach in a porcine mandibular DO model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven adolescent domestic pigs were used for two major sets of studies. The in-vitro set established methodologies to: aspirate bone marrow from the tibia; isolate, characterize and expand bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs; enhance BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation using FGF-2; and confirm cell integration with a gelatin-based Gelfoam scaffold. The in-vivo set transplanted autologous stem cells into the mandibular distraction sites using Gelfoam scaffolds; completed a standard DO-course and assessed bone regeneration by macroscopic, radiographic and histological methods. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and t-tests were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: From aspirated bone marrow, multi-potent, heterogeneous BM-MSCs purified from hematopoietic stem cell contamination were obtained. FGF-2 significantly enhanced pig BM-MSC osteogenic differentiation and proliferation, with 5 ng/ml determined as the optimal dosage. Pig BM-MSCs integrated readily with Gelfoam and maintained viability and proliferative ability. After integration with Gelfoam scaffolds, 2.4-5.8×10(7 autologous BM-MSCs (undifferentiated or differentiated were transplanted to each experimental DO site. Among 8 evaluable DO sites included in the final analyses, the experimental DO sites demonstrated less interfragmentary mobility, more advanced gap obliteration, higher mineral content and faster mineral apposition than the control sites, and all transplanted scaffolds

  16. The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiro; Maeda, Kosuke; Koriyama, Miyu; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Miura, Hiromi; Ohtsuka, Masato; Nakamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Kazuchika

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of multigene constructs into single cells is important for improving the performance of domestic animals, as well as understanding basic biological processes. In particular, multigene constructs allow the engineering and integration of multiple genes related to xenotransplantation into the porcine genome. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system allows multiple genes to be stably integrated into target genomes through a single transfection event. However, to our knowledge, no attempt to introduce multiple genes into a porcine genome has been made using this system. In this study, we simultaneously introduced seven transposons into a single porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF). PEFs were transfected with seven transposons containing genes for five drug resistance proteins and two (red and green) fluorescent proteins, together with a PB transposase expression vector, pTrans (experimental group). The above seven transposons (without pTrans) were transfected concomitantly (control group). Selection of these transfected cells in the presence of multiple selection drugs resulted in the survival of several clones derived from the experimental group, but not from the control. PCR analysis demonstrated that approximately 90% (12/13 tested) of the surviving clones possessed all of the introduced transposons. Splinkerette PCR demonstrated that the transposons were inserted through the TTAA target sites of PB. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using a PEF clone with multigene constructs demonstrated successful production of cloned blastocysts expressing both red and green fluorescence. These results indicate the feasibility of this PB-mediated method for simultaneous transfer of multigene constructs into the porcine cell genome, which is useful for production of cloned transgenic pigs expressing multiple transgenes. PMID:27589724

  17. The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of multigene constructs into single cells is important for improving the performance of domestic animals, as well as understanding basic biological processes. In particular, multigene constructs allow the engineering and integration of multiple genes related to xenotransplantation into the porcine genome. The piggyBac (PB transposon system allows multiple genes to be stably integrated into target genomes through a single transfection event. However, to our knowledge, no attempt to introduce multiple genes into a porcine genome has been made using this system. In this study, we simultaneously introduced seven transposons into a single porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF. PEFs were transfected with seven transposons containing genes for five drug resistance proteins and two (red and green fluorescent proteins, together with a PB transposase expression vector, pTrans (experimental group. The above seven transposons (without pTrans were transfected concomitantly (control group. Selection of these transfected cells in the presence of multiple selection drugs resulted in the survival of several clones derived from the experimental group, but not from the control. PCR analysis demonstrated that approximately 90% (12/13 tested of the surviving clones possessed all of the introduced transposons. Splinkerette PCR demonstrated that the transposons were inserted through the TTAA target sites of PB. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using a PEF clone with multigene constructs demonstrated successful production of cloned blastocysts expressing both red and green fluorescence. These results indicate the feasibility of this PB-mediated method for simultaneous transfer of multigene constructs into the porcine cell genome, which is useful for production of cloned transgenic pigs expressing multiple transgenes.

  18. Porcine acellular dermis-based breast reconstruction: complications and outcomes following adjuvant radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Cho Ee; Pieri, Andrew; Fasih, Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Background Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) such as StratticeTM are increasingly used in UK during implant-based reconstruction. However, there are mixed opinions regarding the compatibility of radiotherapy treatment in pre- and post-reconstructed breasts. The aims of this study are to audit the rates of radiation induced complications in patients who underwent breast reconstruction using StratticeTM and establish whether there is an association between timing of radiotherapy and complication ...

  19. Met-myoglobin formation, accumulation, degradation, and myoglobin oxygenation monitoring based on multiwavelength attenuance measurement in porcine meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Phan, Kien Nguyen; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method to investigate formation, accumulation, and degradation of met-myoglobin (met-Mb) and myoglobin oxygenation from the interior of porcine meat. For the experiment, color photos and attenuance spectra of porcine meat (well-bled muscle, fat, and mixed) were collected daily to perform colorimetric analysis and to obtain the differences of attenuance between 578 and 567 nm (A578-A567) and between 615 and 630 nm (A630-A615), respectively. Oxy-, deoxy-, and met-myoglobin concentration changes over storage time were also calculated using Beer-Lamberts' law with reflectance intensities at 557, 582, and 630 nm. The change of A578-A567 was well matched with the change of myoglobin oxygenation, and the change of A630-A615 corresponded well with the formation and degradation of met-Mb. In addition, attenuation differences, A578-A567 and A630-A615, were able to show the formation of met-Mb earlier than colorimetric analysis. Therefore, the attenuance differences between wavelengths can be indicators for estimating myoglobin oxygenation and met-Mb formation, accumulation, and degradation, which enable us to design a simple device to monitor myoglobin activities in porcine meat.

  20. Experimental assessment of CT-based thermometry during laser ablation of porcine pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, E.; Saccomandi, P.; Giurazza, F.; Caponero, M. A.; Mortato, L.; Di Matteo, F. M.; Panzera, F.; Del Vescovo, R.; Beomonte Zobel, B.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-08-01

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is employed to destroy tumors in organs, and its outcome strongly depends on the temperature distribution inside the treated tissue. The recent introduction of computed tomography (CT) scan thermometry, based on the CT number dependence of the tissue with temperature, overcomes the invasiveness of other techniques used to monitor temperature during LITT. The averaged CT number (ROI = 0.02 cm2) of an ex vivo swine pancreas is monitored during LITT (Nd:YAG laser power of 3 W, treatment time: 120 s) at different distances from the applicator (from 4 to 30 mm). The averaged CT number shows a clear decrease during treatment: it is highest at 4 mm from the applicator (mean variation in the whole treatment of -0.256 HU s-1) and negligible at 30 mm, since the highest temperature increase is present close to the applicator (i.e., 45 °C at 4 mm and 25 °C at 6 mm). To obtain the relationship between CT numbers and pancreas temperature, the reference temperature was measured by 12 fiber Bragg grating sensors. The CT number decreases as a function of temperature, showing a nonlinear trend with a mean thermal sensitivity of -0.50 HU °C-1. Results here reported are the first assessment of pancreatic CT number dependence on temperature, at the best of our knowledge. Findings can be useful to further investigate CT scan thermometry during LITT on the pancreas.

  1. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the monitoring and surveillance of antibodies to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus based on a recombinant membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing-Hui; Zuo, Yu-Zhu; Shen, Xiao-Qiang; Gu, Wen-Yuan; Di, Jing-Mei

    2015-12-01

    The recent dramatic increase in reported cases of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in pig farms is a potential threat to the global swine industry. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis, serological monitoring, and surveillance of specific antibodies in pigs resulting from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection or vaccination would be essential in helping to control the spread of PED. We developed and validated an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the recombinant membrane (M) protein of PEDV. To detect PEDV antibodies in eight herds, 382 serum samples were collected from sows that had been immunized with a PED vaccine, and screened using the developed ELISA in parallel with a serum neutralization (SN) assay. Of the tested samples, 276 were positive for the presence of PEDV antibodies according to both assays, while 98 were negative. An excellent agreement between the ELISA and the SN assay was observed (kappa=0.947; 95% confidence interval=0.910-0.984; McNemar's test, P=0.727). No cross-reaction was detected for the developed ELISA with other coronaviruses or other common pig pathogens. The developed ELISA could be used for serological evaluation and indirect diagnosis of PED infection.

  2. Renoprotective Mechanism of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Based on Transcriptomic Analysis in a Porcine Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Eun Yoon

    Full Text Available Ischemic preconditioning (IPC is a well-known phenomenon in which tissues are exposed to a brief period of ischemia prior to a longer ischemic event. This technique produces tissue tolerance to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI. Currently, IPC's mechanism of action is poorly understood. Using a porcine single kidney model, we performed remote IPC with renal IRI and evaluated the IPC mechanism of action. Following left nephrectomy, 15 female Yorkshire pigs were divided into three groups: no IPC and 90 minutes of warm ischemia (control, remote IPC immediately followed by 90 minutes of warm ischemia (rIPCe, and remote IPC with 90 minutes of warm ischemia performed 24 hours later (rIPCl. Differential gene expression analysis was performed using a porcine-specific microarray. The microarray analysis of porcine renal tissues identified 1,053 differentially expressed probes in preconditioned pigs. Among these, 179 genes had altered expression in both the rIPCe and rIPCl groups. The genes were largely related to oxidation reduction, apoptosis, and inflammatory response. In the rIPCl group, an additional 848 genes had altered expression levels. These genes were primarily related to immune response and inflammation, including those coding for cytokines and cytokine receptors and those that play roles in the complement system and coagulation cascade. In the complement system, the membrane attack complex was determined to be sublytic, because it colocalized with phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Furthermore, alpha 2 macroglobulin, tissue plasminogen activator, uterine plasmin trypsin inhibitor, and arginase-1 mRNA levels were elevated in the rIPCl group. These findings indicate that remote IPC produces renoprotective effects through multiple mechanisms, and these effects develop over a long timeframe rather than immediately following IPC.

  3. Feasibility of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent: a preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Hemar, Julie; Hasirci, Vasif; Breton, Pierre; Damour, Odile

    2012-08-01

    Oral tissue engineering aims to treat and fill tissue deficits caused by congenital defects, facial trauma, or malignant lesion surgery, as well as to study the biology of oral mucosa. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) require a large animal model to evaluate cell-based devices, including tissue-engineered oral mucosa, prior to initiating human clinical studies. Porcine oral mucosa is non-keratinized and resembles that of humans more closely than any other animal in terms of structure and composition; however, there have not been any reports on the reconstruction of a porcine oral mucosa equivalent, probably due to the difficulty to culture porcine fibroblasts. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a 3D porcine oral mucosa equivalent based on a collagen-GAG-chitosan scaffold, as well as reconstructed porcine epithelium by using an amniotic membrane as support, or without any support in form of epithelial cell sheets by using thermoresponsive culture plates. Explants technique was used for the isolation of the porcine fibroblasts and a modified fibroblast medium containing 20% fetal calf serum was used for their culture. The histological and transmission electron microscopic analyses of the resulting porcine oral mucosa models showed the presence of non-keratinized epithelia expressing keratin 13, the major differentiation marker of non-keratinized oral mucosa, in all models, and the presence of newly synthesized collagen fibers in the lamina propria equivalent of the full-thickness model, indicating the functionality of porcine fibroblasts.

  4. Microarray-based approach identifies differentially expressed microRNAs in porcine sexually immature and mature testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifan Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules which are proved to be involved in mammalian spermatogenesis. Their expression and function in the porcine germ cells are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY: We employed a miRNA microarray containing 1260 unique miRNA probes to evaluate the miRNA expression patterns between sexually immature (60-day and mature (180-day pig testes. One hundred and twenty nine miRNAs representing 164 reporter miRNAs were expressed differently (p<0.1. Fifty one miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 78 miRNAs were down-regulated in mature testes. Nine of these differentially expressed miRNAs were validated using quantitative RT-PCR assay. Totally 15,919 putative miRNA-target sites were detected by using RNA22 method to align 445 NCBI pig cDNA sequences with these 129 differentially expressed miRNAs, and seven putative target genes involved in spermatogenesis including DAZL, RNF4 gene were simply confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study indicated specific miRNAs expression in porcine testes and suggested that miRNAs had a role in regulating spermatogenesis.

  5. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkes, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured group program that uses mindfulness meditation to improve well-being and alleviate suffering. This article reviews the impact of MBSR for people with chronic diseases. The review includes original research that was published in English and peer-reviewed and reported outcomes for adults with chronic diseases who had participated in an MBSR program. Fifteen studies were identified. Outcomes related to mental and physical health, well-being, and quality of life. The studies included different research designs, and used self-report and physiological outcome measures. Participants' clinical diagnoses included fibromyalgia, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and cardiovascular diagnoses. All 15 studies found that participation in an MBSR program resulted in improvements. No negative change was reported between baseline and follow up. Outcomes in regard to specific variables were difficult to compare and equivocal. Overall, positive change predominated. Chronic diseases are associated with a range of unwelcome psychological and physical consequences. Participation in an MBSR program is likely to result in coping better with symptoms, improved overall well-being and quality of life, and enhanced health outcomes. As an adjunct to standard care, MBSR has potential for much wider application in Australian primary care settings.

  6. Identification of co-expression gene networks, regulatory genes and pathways for obesity based on adipose tissue RNA Sequencing in a porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a complex metabolic condition in strong association with various diseases, like type 2 diabetes, resulting in major public health and economic implications. Obesity is the result of environmental and genetic factors and their interactions, including genome-wide genetic interactions. Identification of co-expressed and regulatory genes in RNA extracted from relevant tissues representing lean and obese individuals provides an entry point for the identification of genes and pathways of importance to the development of obesity. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is an excellent model for human obesity, offering the possibility to study in-depth organ-level transcriptomic regulations of obesity, unfeasible in humans. Our aim was to reveal adipose tissue co-expression networks, pathways and transcriptional regulations of obesity using RNA Sequencing based systems biology approaches in a porcine model. Methods We selected 36 animals for RNA Sequencing from a previously created F2 pig population representing three extreme groups based on their predicted genetic risks for obesity. We applied Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to detect clusters of highly co-expressed genes (modules). Additionally, regulator genes were detected using Lemon-Tree algorithms. Results WGCNA revealed five modules which were strongly correlated with at least one obesity-related phenotype (correlations ranging from -0.54 to 0.72, P < 0.001). Functional annotation identified pathways enlightening the association between obesity and other diseases, like osteoporosis (osteoclast differentiation, P = 1.4E-7), and immune-related complications (e.g. Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxity, P = 3.8E-5; B cell receptor signaling pathway, P = 7.2E-5). Lemon-Tree identified three potential regulator genes, using confident scores, for the WGCNA module which was associated with osteoclast differentiation: CCR1, MSR1 and SI1 (probability scores respectively 95.30, 62.28, and

  7. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies.

  8. The Establishment of Immunochemistry Test Based on a Synthetic Peptide Antibody for the Detection of a Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin WEN; Aihua MAO; Junming ZHOU; Lixin LU; Jianping XIE; Fengzhi WANG; Kongwang HE; Yanxiu NI; Xuehan ZHANG; Rongli GUO; Bin LI; Xiaomin WANG; Zhengyu YU

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel porcine circovirus-like virus P1 with a circular DNA genome of 0.648 kb was identified. P1 antigen was detected both in vitro and in vivo by synthetic peptide-derived polyclonal antibody-based immunochemistry. The designed peptides were synthesized by solid-phase technique, purified by high per-formance liquid chromatography, coupled to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and injected into rabbits to prepare polyclonal antibody. The emergence of positive cells revealed that synthetic peptide could elicit antibodies against P1 and viral protein could be synthesized. The polyclonal peptide antibodies described here was successfully ap-plied to immunochemical staining and proved helpful in diagnosing P1.

  9. Scale-up of the process to obtain functional ingredients based in plasma protein concentrates from porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, Dolors; Toldrà, Mònica; Saguer, Elena; Carretero, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of a scaled-up process to obtain two protein concentrates from porcine blood plasma, i.e. serum and albumin, for use as functional food ingredients was assessed. The process consisted of fractionating plasma proteins by salting out, concentrating and purifying fractions by means of membrane technology, and subsequently dehydrating through spray-drying. The fractionation process allowed a good isolation of the desired proteins, which were then concentrated and desalted in a tangential flow filtration (TFF) process combining ultra and diafiltration. Purification, pre-concentration and dehydration were successfully achieved. The functional properties of dehydrated serum and albumin were determined. As compared to the same hemoderivatives obtained by a lab-scale production system, serum maintained the gelling properties; albumin exhibited similar foaming properties; and both serum and albumin concentrates showed slightly improved emulsifying properties.

  10. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks...... introns, as does its human and mouse counterparts. RT-PCR cloning revealed two SLITRK1 transcripts: a full-length mRNA and a transcript variant that results in a truncated protein. The encoded SLITRK1 protein, consisting of 695 amino acids, displays a very high homology to human SLITRK1 (99%). The porcine...

  11. Novel microbiome-based therapeutics for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, E K; Lynch, S V

    2015-03-01

    The human microbiome, i.e. the collection of microbes that live on, in and interact with the human body, is extraordinarily diverse; microbiota have been detected in every tissue of the human body interrogated to date. Resident microbiota interact extensively with immune cells and epithelia at mucosal surfaces including the airways, and chronic inflammatory and allergic respiratory disorders are associated with dysbiosis of the airway microbiome. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease with a large socioeconomic impact, and recent studies have shown that sinus inflammation is associated with decreased sinus bacterial diversity and the concomitant enrichment of specific sinus pathogens. Here, we discuss the potential role for probiotic supplementation for CRS in light of this increasing understanding of the airway microbiome and microbial interactions with the host. We focus on the ecological significance of microbiome-based probiotic supplementation and potential interactions with the gastrointestinal tract and consider microbial administration methods for treatment of CRS.

  12. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  13. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  14. Relative age of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus sequences in Sus scrofa based on the molecular clock hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönjes, Ralf R; Niebert, Marcus

    2003-11-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 x 10(6) years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 x 10(6) years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 x 10(6) years ago.

  15. Development of a vaccine vector based on a subgenomic replicon of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinfeng; Yao, Qingxia; Fan, Huiying; Xiao, Shaobo; Si, Youhui; Chen, Huanchun

    2009-09-01

    In this study, a DNA-launched subgenomic replicon of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was developed for use as a vaccine vector. This replicon plasmid contained a PRRSV subgenome without structural genes ORF2-ORF6, and was under the transcriptional control of the immediate-early promoter of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a reporter gene, the DNA-launched subgenomic replicon of PRRSV, named pOK-Clone20-rep, could express heterologous genes in vitro. After direct inoculation of pOK-Clone20-rep, mice developed antibody responses that were specific for both the EGFP and the N gene in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice immunized with pOK-Clone20-rep at a dose of 100microg showed significantly enhanced levels of IFN-gamma compared with those inoculated with 100microg of pcD-EGFP, a conventional DNA vaccine that encodes EGFP. In summary, the results show that the DNA-launched subgenomic replicon of PRRSV could not only mediate foreign gene expression in vitro but also induced an immune response in vivo. Similarly, expression and immunogenicity of the N gene also strengthened the potential of the replicon to serve as a vaccine vector expressing multiple genes. It therefore provides a useful tool for vaccine development and the study of the transcription and replication of PRRSV.

  16. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  17. Community-based exercise training for people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease: a mixed-methods evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; McKeough, Zoe J; Mo, Laura R; Dallimore, Jamie T; Dennis, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor uptake and adherence are problematic for hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation programs, often because of access difficulties. The aims of this mixed-methods study were to determine the feasibility of a supervised exercise training program in a community gymnasium in people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease, to explore the experiences of participants and physiotherapists and to determine if a community venue improved access and adherence to rehabilitation. Methods Adults with chronic respiratory and/or chronic cardiac disease referred to a hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation program were screened to determine their suitability to exercise in a community venue. Eligible patients were offered the opportunity to attend supervised exercise training for 8 weeks in a community gymnasium. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and physiotherapists at the completion of the program. Results Thirty-one people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease (34% males, mean [standard deviation] age 72 [10] years) commenced the community-based exercise training program. Twenty-two (71%) completed the program. All participants who completed the program, and the physiotherapists delivering the program, were highly satisfied, with reports of the community venue being well-equipped, convenient, and easily accessible. Using a community gymnasium promoted a sense of normality and instilled confidence in some to continue exercising at a similar venue post rehabilitation. However, factors such as cost and lack of motivation continue to be barriers. Conclusion The convenience and accessibility of a community venue for rehabilitation contributed to high levels of satisfaction and a positive experience for people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease and physiotherapists. PMID:27895476

  18. A novel silk-based artificial ligament and tricalcium phosphate/polyether ether ketone anchor for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - safety and efficacy in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; He, Jiankang; Bian, Weiguo; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Wenyou; Li, Dichen; Snedeker, Jess G

    2014-08-01

    Loss of ligament graft tension in early postoperative stages following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can come from a variety of factors, with slow graft integration to bone being widely viewed as a chief culprit. Toward an off-the-shelf ACL graft that can rapidly integrate to host tissue, we have developed a silk-based ACL graft combined with a tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/polyether ether ketone anchor. In the present study we tested the safety and efficacy of this concept in a porcine model, with postoperative assessments at 3months (n=10) and 6months (n=4). Biomechanical tests were performed after euthanization, with ultimate tensile strengths at 3months of ∼370N and at 6months of ∼566N - comparable to autograft and allograft performance in this animal model. Comprehensive histological observations revealed that TCP substantially enhanced silk graft to bone attachment. Interdigitation of soft and hard tissues was observed, with regenerated fibrocartilage characterizing a transitional zone from silk graft to bone that was similar to native ligament bone attachments. We conclude that both initial stability and robust long-term biological attachment were consistently achieved using the tested construct, supporting a large potential for silk-TCP combinations in the repair of the torn ACL.

  19. Chronic pediatric pulmonary disease and primary humoral antibody based immune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, A

    2011-04-01

    Chronic inflammation of the larger airways is a common occurrence in children. A number of factors such as younger age, premature birth, male gender, exposure to environmental smoke or pollution, and crowded housing can increase a child's susceptibility to chronic lung disease. Chronic bronchitis may be caused by an underlying humoral immunodeficiency if the clinical course is recurrent or prolonged. Primary humoral immunodeficiency accounts for approximately 70% of all immunodeficiencies. The differential of chronic bronchitis also includes Cystic Fibrosis, ciliary defects and immune cellular and phagocytic defects. This review will summarize the most common humoral antibody based immune based deficiencies associated with chronic pulmonary disease.

  20. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  1. Evidence-based Evaluation and Management of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Chronic cough is common and has a significant impact on the wellbeing of patients and the use and cost of health care services. Traditionally the approach to chronic cough in patients who are nonsmokers and are not taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor has focused on the diagnosis and management of the upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, and reflux disease. The evaluation of patients with chronic cough frequently involves trials of empiric therapy for these 3 conditions. Chronic cough may be perpetuated by abnormalities of the cough reflex and sensitization of its afferent and central components.

  2. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  3. An Ultrasound Image-Based Dynamic Fusion Modeling Method for Predicting the Quantitative Impact of In Vivo Liver Motion on Intraoperative HIFU Therapies: Investigations in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Apoutou N'Djin

    Full Text Available Organ motion is a key component in the treatment of abdominal tumors by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU, since it may influence the safety, efficacy and treatment time. Here we report the development in a porcine model of an Ultrasound (US image-based dynamic fusion modeling method for predicting the effect of in vivo motion on intraoperative HIFU treatments performed in the liver in conjunction with surgery. A speckle tracking method was used on US images to quantify in vivo liver motions occurring intraoperatively during breathing and apnea. A fusion modeling of HIFU treatments was implemented by merging dynamic in vivo motion data in a numerical modeling of HIFU treatments. Two HIFU strategies were studied: a spherical focusing delivering 49 juxtapositions of 5-second HIFU exposures and a toroidal focusing using 1 single 40-second HIFU exposure. Liver motions during breathing were spatially homogenous and could be approximated to a rigid motion mainly encountered in the cranial-caudal direction (f = 0.20 Hz, magnitude > 13 mm. Elastic liver motions due to cardiovascular activity, although negligible, were detectable near millimeter-wide sus-hepatic veins (f = 0.96 Hz, magnitude 75%. Fusion modeling predictions were preliminarily validated in vivo and showed the potential of using a long-duration toroidal HIFU exposure to accelerate the ablation process during breathing (from 0.5 to 6 cm3 · min(-1. To improve HIFU treatment control, dynamic fusion modeling may be interesting for assessing numerically focusing strategies and motion compensation techniques in more realistic conditions.

  4. Home-based chronic care. An expanded integrative model for home health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Paula; Hennessey, Beth; Harrison, Gregory; Fagan, Martha; Norman, Barbara; Suter, W Newton

    2008-04-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) developed by is an influential and accepted guide for the care of patients with chronic disease. Wagner acknowledges a current healthcare focus on acute care needs that often circumvents chronic care coordination. He identifies the need for a "division of labor" to assist the primary care physician with this neglected function. This article posits that the role of chronic care coordination assistance and disease management fits within the purview of home healthcare and should be central to home health chronic care delivery. An expanded Home-Based Chronic Care Model (HBCCM) is described that builds on Wagner's model and integrates salient theories from fields beyond medicine. The expanded model maximizes the potential for disease self-management success and is intended to provide a foundation for home health's integral role in chronic disease management.

  5. Community-based exercise training for people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease: a mixed-methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara RJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Renae J McNamara,1,2 Zoe J McKeough,3 Laura R Mo,3 Jamie T Dallimore,4 Sarah M Dennis3 1Physiotherapy Department, 2Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Department, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, 3Discipline of Physiotherapy, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, 4Eastern Sydney Medicare Local, Rosebery, NSW, Australia Background: Poor uptake and adherence are problematic for hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation programs, often because of access difficulties. The aims of this mixed-methods study were to determine the feasibility of a supervised exercise training program in a community gymnasium in people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease, to explore the experiences of participants and physiotherapists and to determine if a community venue improved access and adherence to rehabilitation. Methods: Adults with chronic respiratory and/or chronic cardiac disease referred to a hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation program were screened to determine their suitability to exercise in a community venue. Eligible patients were offered the opportunity to attend supervised exercise training for 8 weeks in a community gymnasium. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and physiotherapists at the completion of the program. Results: Thirty-one people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease (34% males, mean [standard deviation] age 72 [10] years commenced the community-based exercise training program. Twenty-two (71% completed the program. All participants who completed the program, and the physiotherapists delivering the program, were highly satisfied, with reports of the community venue being well-equipped, convenient, and easily accessible. Using a community gymnasium promoted a sense of normality and instilled confidence in some to continue exercising at a similar venue post rehabilitation. However, factors such as cost and lack of motivation continue to be barriers

  6. Immune therapy including dendritic cell based therapy in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sk Md Fazle Akbar; Norio Horiike; Morikazu Onji

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. Of the approximately 2 billion people who have been infected worldwide, more than 400 million are chronic carriers of HBV. Considerable numbers of chronic HBV carriers suffer from progressive liver diseases. In addition, all HBV carriers are permanent source of this virus. There is no curative therapy for chronic HBV carriers. Antiviral drugs are recommended for about 10% patients, however, these drugs are costly, have limited efficacy, and possess considerable side effects.Recent studies have shown that immune responses of the host to the HBV are critically involved at every stage of chronic HBV infection: (1) These influence acquisition of chronic HBV carrier state, (2) They are important in the context of liver damages, (3) Recovery from chronic HBV-related liver diseases is dependent on nature and extent of HBV-specific immune responses.However, induction of adequate levels of HBV-specific immune responses in chronic HBV carriers is difficult.During the last one decade, hepatitis B vaccine has been administered to chronic HBV carriers as a therapeutic approach (vaccine therapy). The present regimen of vaccine therapy is safe and cheap, but not so effective.A dendritic cell-based therapeutic vaccine has recently been developed for treating chronic HBV infection. In this review, we will discuss about the concept, scientific logics, strategies and techniques of development of HBV-specific immune therapies including vaccine therapy and dendritic cell-based vaccine therapy for treating chronic HBV infection.

  7. Megavoltage Image-Based Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking of a NiTi Stent in Porcine Lungs on a Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Per R., E-mail: perpolse@rm.dk [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Nielsen, Martin S.; Thomsen, Jakob B. [Department of Medical Physics, Aalborg Hospital, University of Aarhus, Aalborg (Denmark); Jensen, Henrik K. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Aalborg Hospital, University of Aarhus, Aalborg (Denmark); Kjaergaard, Benedict; Zepernick, Peter R. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital, University of Aarhus, Aalborg (Denmark); Worm, Esben; Fledelius, Walther [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Cho, Byungchul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sawant, Amit [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and potential limitations of MV image-based dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking in a porcine model on a linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: A thermo-expandable NiTi stent designed for kilovoltage (kV) X-ray visualization of lung lesions was inserted into the bronchia of three anaesthetized Goettingen minipigs. A four-dimensional computed tomography scan was used for planning a five-field conformal treatment with circular multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures. A 22.5 Gy single fraction treatment was delivered to the pigs. The peak-to-peak stent motion was 3 to 8 mm, with breathing periods of 1.2 to 4 s. Before treatment, X-ray images were used for image-guided setup based on the stent. During treatment delivery, continuous megavoltage (MV) portal images were acquired at 7.5 Hz. The stent was segmented in the images and used for continuous adaptation of the MLC aperture. Offline, the tracking error in beam's eye view of the treatment beam was calculated for each MV image as the difference between the MLC aperture center and the segmented stent position. The standard deviations of the systematic error {Sigma} and the random error {sigma} were determined and compared with the would-be errors for a nontracking treatment with pretreatment image-guided setup. Results: Reliable stent segmentation was obtained for 11 of 15 fields. Segmentation failures occurred when image contrast was dominated by overlapping anatomical structures (ribs, diaphragm) rather than by the stent, which was designed for kV rather than MV X-ray visibility. For the 11 fields with reliable segmentation, {Sigma} was 0.5 mm/0.4 mm in the two imager directions, whereas {sigma} was 0.5 mm/1.1 mm. Without tracking, {Sigma} and {sigma} would have been 1.7 mm/1.4 mm and 0.8 mm/1.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, in vivo DMLC tracking has been demonstrated on a linear accelerator showing the potential for improved targeting accuracy

  8. Progesterone (CIDR)-based timed AI protocols using GnRH, porcine LH or estradiol cypionate for dairy heifers: ovarian and endocrine responses and pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J D; Kastelic, J P; Rajamahendran, R; Aali, M; Dinn, N

    2005-10-15

    The overall objective was to compare the efficacy of GnRH, porcine LH (pLH) and estradiol cypionate (ECP), in a modified Ovsynch/fixed-time AI (FTAI) protocol that included a controlled internal drug [progesterone] release (CIDR) device. In Experiment 1, heifers received a CIDR on Day -10, and PGF (25mg) on Day -3. At CIDR insertion, heifers received 100 microg of GnRH (n=6), 0.5mg of ECP (n=6), 5.0mg of pLH (n=6) or 2 mL of saline (n=7); these treatments were repeated on Day -1, except for ECP, that was repeated on Day -2, concurrent with CIDR-removal. The 5.0 mg pLH was the least effective with a longer interval to ovulation than the other groups combined (102 versus 64 h; PpLH compared to all other groups (4.5 versus 10.3 ng/mL; PpLH (n=6; pLH-low), 25.0 mg pLH (n=6, pLH-high), or 100 microg GnRH (n=5; control). Heifers in the pLH-high group had greater (PpLH treatments did not differ (P>0.10). Area under the curve for LH (ng/32 h) was at least 50% greater (PpLH-treated heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers (mean, 41.3, 56.3 and 20.3 for pLH-low, pLH-high and GnRH, respectively). Ovulation occurred in 15 of 17 heifers. Progesterone concentrations were higher on Days 9 and 14 in heifers given 25mg of pLH, suggesting enhanced CL function. In Experiment 3, 240 heifers were assigned to CIDR-based Ovsynch/FTAI protocols. The first and second hormonal treatments (with an intervening PGF treatment on Day -3) were GnRH/GnRH (100 microg), ECP/ECP (0.5 mg), pLH/pLH (12.5 mg) or GnRH/ECP, respectively; pregnancy rates were 58.7, 66.1, 45.9 and 48.3%, respectively (ECP/ECP>both pLH/pLH and GnRH/ECP; Pbased Ovsynch/FTAI protocols using either GnRH/GnRH or ECP/ECP yielded pregnancy rates about 20% points higher than previously reported for dairy heifers bred to Ovsynch/FTAI in the absence of a CIDR.

  9. Rapid detection and grouping of porcine bocaviruses by an EvaGreen(®) based multiplex real-time PCR assay using melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaowen; Liu, Gaopeng; Opriessnig, Tanja; Wang, Zining; Yang, Zongqi; Jiang, Yonghou

    2016-08-01

    Several novel porcine bocaviruses (PBoVs) have been identified in pigs in recent years and association of these viruses with respiratory signs or diarrhea has been suggested. In this study, an EvaGreen(®)-based multiplex real-time PCR (EG-mPCR) with melting curve analysis was developed for simultaneous detection and grouping of novel PBoVs into the same genogroups G1, G2 and G3. Each target produced a specific amplicon with a melting peak of 81.3 ± 0.34 °C for PBoV G1, 78.2 ± 0.37 °C for PBoV G2, and 85.0 ± 0.29 °C for PBoV G3. Non-specific reactions were not observed when other pig viruses were used to assess the EG-mPCR assay. The sensitivity of the EG-mPCR assay using purified plasmid constructs containing the specific viral target fragments was 100 copies for PBoV G1, 50 for PBoV G2 and 100 for PBoV G3. The assay is able to detect and distinguish three PBoV groups with intra-assay and inter-assay variations ranging from 0.13 to 1.59%. The newly established EG-mPCR assay was validated with 227 field samples from pigs. PBoV G1, G2 and G3 was detected in 15.0%, 25.1% and 41.9% of the investigated samples and coinfections of two or three PBoV groups were also detected in 25.1% of the cases, indicating that all PBoV groups are prevalent in Chinese pigs. The agreement of the EG-mPCR assay with an EvaGreen-based singleplex real-time PCR (EG-sPCR) assay was 99.1%. This EG-mPCR will serve as a rapid, sensitive, reliable and cost effective alternative for routine surveillance testing of multiple PBoVs in pigs and will enhance our understanding of the epidemiological features and possible also pathogenetic changes associated with these viruses in pigs.

  10. Development of an EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six viral pathogens of porcine reproductive and respiratory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pinbin; Wu, Haigang; Jiang, Yonghou; Opriessnig, Tanja; Zheng, Xiaowen; Mo, Yecheng; Yang, Zongqi

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent infection of pigs with two or more pathogens is common in pigs under intensive rearing conditions. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are all associated with reproductive or respiratory disorders or both and can cause significant economic losses in pig production worldwide. An EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR (EG-mPCR) with melting curve analysis was developed in this study for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six viruses in pigs. This method is able to detect and distinguish PCV2, PPV, PRRSV, CSFV, JEV and PRV with the limits of detection ranging from 100 to 500 copies/μL, high reproducibility, and intra-assay and inter-assay variation ranging from 0.11 to 3.20%. After validation, a total of 118 field samples were tested by the newly developed EG-mPCR. PCV2 was identified in 23%, PPV in 15%, PRRSV in 17% and PRV in 5% of the samples. Concurrent PCV2 and PRRSV infection was detected in 6.7%, PCV2 and PPV in 5% and PPV2 and PRRSV infection was detected in 5% of the cases. The agreement of the EG-mPCR and conventional PCR tests was 99.2%. This EG-mPCR will be a useful, rapid, reliable and cost-effective alternative for routine surveillance testing of viral infections in pigs.

  11. Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mike

    2016-03-24

    Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC)-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I) chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I) chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the range of

  12. Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Buckley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the

  13. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  14. Re-Evaluation of Acid-Base Prediction Rules in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Martinu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The prediction rules for the evaluation of the acid-base status in patients with chronic respiratory acidosis, derived primarily from an experimental canine model, suggest that complete compensation should not occur. This appears to contradict frequent observations of normal or near-normal pH levels in patients with chronic hypercapnia.

  15. Impact of an occupation-based self-management programme on chronic disease management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Lynn

    2013-02-01

    There is a need for the development and evaluation of occupational therapy interventions enabling participation and contributing to self-management for individuals with multiple chronic conditions. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility and potential impact of an occupation-based self-management programme for community living individuals with multiple chronic conditions.

  16. Porcine Rotaviruses: Epidemiology, Immune Responses and Control Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Amimo, Joshua O.; Saif, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A–I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well. The presence of porcine RV H (RVH), a newly defined distinct genogroup, was recently confirmed in diarrheic pigs in Japan, Brazil, and the US. The complex epidemiology, pathogenicity and high genetic diversity of porcine RVAs are widely recognized and well-studied. More recent data show a significant genetic diversity based on the VP7 gene analysis of RVB and C strains in pigs. In this review, we will summarize previous and recent research to provide insights on historic and current prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine RVs in different geographic regions and production systems. We will also provide a brief overview of immune responses to porcine RVs, available control strategies and zoonotic potential of different RV genotypes. An improved understanding of the above parameters may lead to the development of more optimal strategies to manage RV diarrheal disease in swine and humans. PMID:28335454

  17. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  18. Optimizing Interferon Alfa Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Roomer (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis C virus was first discovered in 1989 as the major cause of chronic non-A non-B hepatitis. The hepatitis C virus is a single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family of flaviviruses. The primary target of the hepatitis C virus are hepatocytes where viral particles repli

  19. Infrared laser sealing of porcine tissues: preliminary in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Perkins, William C.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    We are exploring infrared (IR) lasers as an alternative energy modality to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices intended to provide rapid surgical hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1470-nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm in 2 s, yielding burst pressures porcine model. A prototype, fiber optic based handheld probe with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on blood vessels Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 mm in 8 samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels in vivo. With further improvements in probe design and laser parameter optimization, IR lasers may provide an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices.

  20. In vivo response to an implanted shape memory polyurethane foam in a porcine aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N; Clubb, Fred J; Wilson, Thomas S; Miller, Matthew W; Fossum, Theresa W; Hartman, Jonathan; Tuzun, Egemen; Singhal, Pooja; Maitland, Duncan J

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral aneurysms treated by traditional endovascular methods using platinum coils have a tendency to be unstable, either due to chronic inflammation, compaction of coils, or growth of the aneurysm. We propose to use alternate filling methods for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using polyurethane-based shape memory polymer (SMP) foams. SMP polyurethane foams were surgically implanted in a porcine aneurysm model to determine biocompatibility, localized thrombogenicity, and their ability to serve as a stable filler material within an aneurysm. The degree of healing was evaluated via gross observation, histopathology, and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy imaging after 0, 30, and 90 days. Clotting was initiated within the SMP foam at time 0 (<1 h exposure to blood before euthanization), partial healing was observed at 30 days, and almost complete healing had occurred at 90 days in vivo, with minimal inflammatory response.

  1. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  2. Effect of Obesity and Chronic Inflammation on TRAIL-Based Immunotherapy for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0271 TITLE: “Effect of obesity and chronic inflammation on TRAIL-based immunotherapy for advanced breast cancer...JAN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effect of Obesity and Chronic Inflammation on TRAIL-Based Immunotherapy for Advanced Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...arise in cancer patients, rendering antitumor immune responses ineffective. In addition, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that obese

  3. A longitudinal study of cell-mediated immunity in pigs infected with porcine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is an ubiquitous pathogen causing reproductive failure in swine. Protection against reproductive failure caused by acute PPV infection has commonly been related to the presence of specific antibodies in the dam. However, the role of cell-mediated immunity during chronic PPV...

  4. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  5. [Clinical-metabolic data base on chronic generalized parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil'miiarov, E M; Berezhnoĭ, V P; Gil'miiarova, I E; Tlustenko, V P

    2008-01-01

    As the result of clinical-lab study of 40 oral fluid parameters in 176 patients new block of data was received disclosing key pathogenetic links of chronic generalized parodontitis (CGP) to which could be attributed endocrine dysfunction with cortisol level reduction and free thyroid hormones increase, enforcing prooxidant processes with multiple iron content increase. As the result of it molecules of medium mass were accumulated; protein spectrum, protein coupling capacity, content of collagenous C-peptide, osteocalcine, Ca, P and Mg were changing. In comprehensive CGP treatment due to Natursyl (lipophilic fraction of holy thistle) applications the disease clinical signs disappeared quicker and biochemical markers normalized.

  6. A Multi-Modal Digital Game-Based Learning Environment for Hospitalized Children with Chronic Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jui-Chih; Tsuei, Mengping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the digital game-based learning for children with chronic illnesses in the hospital settings. The design-based research and qualitative methods were applied. Three eight-year-old children with leukemia participated in this study. In the first phase, the multi-user game-based learning system was developed and…

  7. Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social In

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and the NCI’s Center for Global Health held a workshop entitled “Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social Interventions”, which took place in Bridgetown, Barbados from July 21 to 24, 2015. The objectives of the workshop were to encourage the generation of research to more rapidly accelerate chronic disease prevention and management.

  8. Autoantibodies against vinculin in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Minako; Sawai, Setsu; Satoh, Mamoru; Mori, Masahiro; Kazami, Takahiro; Misawa, Sonoko; Shibuya, Kazumoto; Ishibashi, Masumi; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kado, Sayaka; Kodera, Yoshio; Nomura, Fumio; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-10-15

    To identify the target molecules of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), we used proteomic-based approach in the extracted proteins from porcine cauda equina. Two of 31 CIDP patients had markedly elevated serum autoantibodies against vinculin, a cell adhesion protein. Both of the patients with anti-vinculin antibodies had similar clinical manifestation, which are compatible with those of "typical" CIDP. Immunocytochemistry showed that vinculin was stained at the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerves by serum samples. Our results suggest that vinculin is a possible immunological target molecule in a subpopulation of typical CIDP patients.

  9. Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit

    2011-06-07

    Porcine skin is often considered a substitute for human skin based on morphological and functional data, for example, for transdermal drug diffusion studies. A chemical, structural and temporal characterization of porcine skin in comparison to human skin is not available but will likely improve our understanding of this porcine skin model. Here, we employ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to holistically measure chemical species as well as spatial structure as a function of time to characterize porcine skin as a model for human skin. Porcine skin was found to resemble human skin spectroscopically and differences are elucidated. Cryo-prepared fresh porcine skin samples for spectroscopic imaging were found to be stable over time and small variations are observed. Hence, we extended characterization to the use of this model for dynamic processes. In particular, the capacity and stability of this model in transdermal diffusion is examined. The results indicate that porcine skin is likely to be an attractive tool for studying diffusion dynamics of materials in human skin.

  10. A Fuzzy Rule-Base Model for Classification of Spirometric FVC Graphs in Chronical Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of distinguishing COPD group diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma ) by using fuzzy theory and to put into practice a “fuzzy rule-base...FVC Plots”. Keywords - asthma , chronic bronchitis, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), emphysema , expert systems, FVC (forced vital...the group of chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma because of these reasons [4-7]. Additionally, similar symptoms may cause fuzziness in

  11. Justifying clinical trials for porcine islet xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cara E; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Edmonton Protocol encouraged a great deal of optimism that a cell-based cure for type I diabetes could be achieved. However, donor organ shortages prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread solution as the supply cannot possibly equal the demand. Porcine islet xenotransplantation has the potential to address these shortages, and recent preclinical and clinical trials show promising scientific support. Consequently, it is important to consider whether the current science meets the ethical requirements for moving toward clinical trials. Despite the potential risks and the scientific unknowns that remain to be investigated, there is optimism regarding the xenotransplantation of some types of tissue, and enough evidence has been gathered to ethically justify clinical trials for the most safe and advanced area of research, porcine islet transplantation. Researchers must make a concerted effort to maintain a positive image for xenotransplantation, as a few well-publicized failed trials could irrevocably damage public perception of xenotransplantation. Because all of society carries the burden of risk, it is important that the public be involved in the decision to proceed. As new information from preclinical and clinical trials develops, policy decisions should be frequently updated. If at any point evidence shows that islet xenotransplantation is unsafe, then clinical trials will no longer be justified and they should be halted. However, as of now, the expected benefit of an unlimited supply of islets, combined with adequate informed consent, justifies clinical trials for islet xenotransplantation.

  12. Efficacy of the porcine species in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina eGutierrez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since domestication, pigs have been used extensively in agriculture and kept as companion animals. More recently they have been used in biomedical research, given they share many physiological and anatomical similarities with humans. Recent technological advances in assisted reproduction, somatic cell cloning, stem cell culture, genome editing and transgenesis now enable the creation of unique porcine models of human diseases. Here we highlight the potential applications and advantages of using pigs, particularly minipigs, as indispensable large animal models in fundamental and clinical research, including the development of therapeutics for inherited and chronic disorders, and cancers.

  13. Association between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and anxiety disorder: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This case-control study utilized a population-based dataset to examine the association of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS with prior anxiety disorder (AD by comparing the risk of prior AD between subjects with CP/CPPS and matched controls in Taiwan. METHODS: We study used data sourced from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. The cases comprised 8,088 subjects with CP/CPPS and 24,264 randomly matched subjects as controls. We used a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR for having been previously diagnosed with AD between subjects with and without CP/CPPS. RESULTS: Of the 24,264 sampled subjects, 2309 (7.1% had received an AD diagnosis before the index date; AD was found in 930 (11.5% cases and 1379 (5.7% controls (p59 years. In particular, subjects aged 40∼59 years had the highest adjusted OR (of 2.53 for prior AD among cases compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that CP/CPPS is associated with previously diagnosed AD. Urologists should be alert for the association between CP/CPPS and AD in subjects suffering from AD.

  14. Web-Based Self-Management in Chronic Care: A Study of Change in Patient Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Web-based self-management interventions (W-SMIs) are designed to help a large number of chronically ill people become more actively engaged in their health care. Despite the potential to engage more patients in self-managing their health, the use of W-SMIs by patients and their clinicians is low. Using a self-management conceptual model based on…

  15. Proteolysis of specific porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins by boar acrosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, B S; Dudkiewicz, A B; Bundman, D S

    1985-04-01

    The morphologic and biochemical effects on the structure and constituent glycoproteins of the zona pellucida (ZP) by a specific sperm enzyme, acrosin, and a nonsperm enzyme, trypsin, have been evaluated. Intact porcine ZP matricies, exposed to either acrosin or trypsin, were analyzed microscopically. Changes in specific glycoproteins were monitored by high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and the silver-based color stain, GELCODE. Although these enzymes did not alter the macroscopic properties of the ZP matrix, the 2D-PAGE ZP protein patterns were markedly altered. The high molecular weight glycoprotein families (II and III) were sensitive to proteolytic digestion, whereas the major glycoprotein family (I) of the porcine zona was only partially proteolyzed by acrosin and trypsin. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that acrosin had unique substrate specificity compared to that of trypsin, since the ZP peptide patterns were found to be different. These studies are the first to demonstrate which integral glycoproteins of the native porcine ZP matrix are specifically proteolyzed by acrosin from the homologous species and that this proteolysis occurs without the dissolution of the native porcine matrix.

  16. A web-based training program to support chronic kidney disease screening by community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheewala, Pankti A; Peterson, Gregory M; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R; Bereznicki, Luke; Jose, Matthew D; Castelino, Ronald L

    2016-10-01

    Background Community pharmacists' role in screening of several chronic diseases has been widely explored. The global health burden of chronic kidney disease is high; however, the progression and adverse outcomes can be prevented or delayed by detecting and treating the disease in its initial stages 1-3. Therefore, a web-based training program was developed to enhance pharmacists' knowledge and skills required to perform a chronic kidney disease screening service in a community setting. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a web-based training program on community pharmacists' knowledge and skills associated with chronic kidney disease screening. As secondary aim, pharmacists' satisfaction with the training program was assessed. Setting Community pharmacy practice. Method A web-based training program was developed by four pharmacists and a nephrologist. Quantitative data was collected by employing a self-administered, web-based questionnaire, which comprised a set of five multiple-choice knowledge questions and one clinical vignette to assess skills. A nine-item Likert scale was used to determine pharmacists' satisfaction with the training program. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' knowledge and skills scores at pre and post-training, reliability of the Likert scale, and the proportion of responses to the individual nine items of the satisfaction survey. Results Fifty pharmacists participated in the pre-questionnaire and 38 pharmacists completed the web-based training and post-questionnaire. Significant differences were observed in the knowledge scores (p web-based training program positively enhanced pharmacists' knowledge and skills associated with chronic kidney disease screening. These findings support further development and widespread implementation of the training program to facilitate health promotion and early identification of chronic kidney disease in a community setting.

  17. Evidence-based pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Ansari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain (NP is a chronic, debilitating symptomatology of lesions/injuries of the central and peripheral nervous system. As per pooled estimates, the prevalence is 7-8% in the general population; however, the prevalence varies with different neuropathic conditions. The aetiology can range from peripheral neuropathic conditions viz. peripheral diabetic neuropathic pain (PDNP, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN, trigeminal neuralgia, HIV- associated polyneuropathy, cervical radiculopathy to central neuropathic conditions, viz. central post-stroke pain, spinal cord injury and the neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis. Apart from the symptomatic perception of pain, neuropathic pain affects the cognitive and emotional aspects of the affected individual. The pain, being debilitating and resistant to over-the-counter analgesics, diminishes the quality of life, disrupts sleep and leads to psychiatric complications such as comorbid anxiety and depression. The management is palliative and involves drugs, psychological intervention, stimulations and nerve-blocking techniques. This review concentrates on the pharmacological therapeutic options available and focuses on the selection of the agent/s in accordance with the evidence. The first-line treatment includes the tricyclic antidepressants ([TCAs]; amitriptyline, nortriptyline, selective serotonin norepinephrine inhibitors ([SNRIs]; duloxetine, venlafaxine, calcium channel alpha 2 - delta ligands (pregabalin, gabapentin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine. Lidocaine plasters are first-line options for specific focal conditions such as post-herpetic neuralgia. The second-line therapy includes the opioid analgesics and tramadol. The choice of drug selection should complement the patient’s age, type of neuropathic condition, tolerability to an agent, comorbid condition and cost-effectiveness. Management must be individualized with a realistic and composite goal of making the pain tolerable and

  18. Neuroprotective Effect against Alzheimer's Disease of Porcine Brain Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Thukham-Mee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Despite the increasing importance of Alzheimer’s disease, no effective therapeutic strategy is available. Therefore, neuroprotective strategy is still required. Recent findings show that numerous substances possessing antioxidant can improve neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Based on the antioxidant effect and its reputation to serve as brain tonic in traditional folklore, we hypothesized that porcine brain extract could mitigate neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Therefore, this study was set up to determine the effect of porcine brain extract on memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Approach: Male Wistar rats (180-220 g had been orally given porcine brain extract at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg kg-1 BW for a period of 4 weeks before and 1 week after the induction of cognitive deficit condition as those found in early phase of Alzheimer’s disease via the intraventricular injection of AF64A, a cholinotoxin. Rats were assessed the spatial memory using Morris water maze test. Then, they were determined neuron density in hippocampus using histological techniques. Moreover, the assessment of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level in hippocampus were also performed. Results: It was found that both doses of porcine brain extract could enhance memory, neuron and cholinergic neuron density in all subregions of hippocampus. In addition, the decreased AChE and MDA were also observed. Therefore, our results suggested that the possible underlying mechanism of the extract might occur partly via the decrease in oxidative stress marker, MDA and AChE. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates that porcine brain extract can protect against memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, it should be serve as the potential food supplement or adjuvant therapy against Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related cognitive

  19. Episode-Based Payment, Evaluating the Impact on Chronic...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Policy makers are interested in aggregating fee-for-service reimbursement into episode-based bundle payments, hoping it will lead to greater efficiency in the...

  20. The Impact of a Telephone-Based Chronic Disease Management Program on Medical Expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, George; Cook, David; Talens, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    The impact of a payer-provided telephone-based chronic disease management program on medical expenditures was evaluated using claims data from 126,245 members in employer self-ensured health plans (16,224 with a chronic disease in a group enrolled in the self-management program, 13,509 with a chronic disease in a group not participating in the program). A random effects regression model controlling for retrospective risk, age, sex, and diagnosis with a chronic disease was used to determine the impact of program participation on market-adjusted health care expenditures. Further confirmation of results was obtained by an ordinary least squares model comparing market- and risk-adjusted costs to the length of participation in the program. Participation in the program is associated with an average annual savings of $1157.91 per enrolled member in health care expenditures. Savings increase with the length of participation in the program. The results support the use of telephone-based patient self-management of chronic disease as a cost-effective means to reduce health care expenditures in the working-age population. (Population Health Management 2016;19:156-162).

  1. Haemophilus parasuis Subunit Vaccines Based on Native Proteins with Affinity to Porcine Transferrin Prevent the Expression of Proinflammatory Chemokines and Cytokines in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Frandoloso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of chemokines (CCL-2 and CXCL-8 and cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 was evaluated by RT-qPCR in colostrum-deprived pigs vaccinated and challenged with Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5. Two vaccines containing native proteins with affinity to porcine transferrin (NPAPTim and NPAPTit were tested, along with two control groups: one inoculated with PBS instead of antigen (challenge group (CHG, and another one nonimmunized and noninfected (blank group. The use of NPAPTim and NPAPTit resulted in complete protection against H. parasuis (no clinical signs and/or lesions, and both vaccines were capable of avoiding the expression of the proinflammatory molecules to levels similar to physiological values in blank group. However, overexpression of all proinflammatory molecules was observed in CHG group, mainly in the target infection tissues (brain, lungs, and spleen. High expression of CCL-2, CXCL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6 can be considered one of the characteristics of H. parasuis infection by serovar 5.

  2. Internet-based therapy for adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, S.L.; Priesterbach, L.P.; Uiterwaal, C.S.; Bleijenberg, G.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Putte, E.M. van de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be an effective treatment of adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but its availability is limited. Fatigue in Teenagers on the Internet (FITNET), an Internet-based CBT program for adolescents with CFS, has been developed as an alt

  3. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients with chronic heart failure : a Dutch practice guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achttien, A.J.; Staal, J.B.; Voort, S. van der; Kemps, H.M.; Koers, H.; Jongert, M.W.A. (Tinus); Hendriks, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale To improve the quality of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) a practice guideline from the Dutch Royal Society for Physiotherapy (KNGF) has been developed. Guideline development A systematic literature search was performed to formulate c

  4. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in patients with chronic heart failure: a Dutch practice guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achttien, R.J.; Staal, J.B.; Voort, S. van der; Kemps, H.M.; Koers, H.; Jongert, M.W.; Hendriks, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: To improve the quality of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) a practice guideline from the Dutch Royal Society for Physiotherapy (KNGF) has been developed. GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT: A systematic literature search was performed to formulate

  5. [Chronic pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Patai, Árpád; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos

    2015-02-15

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease associated with structural and functional damage of the pancreas. In most cases pain, maldigestion and weight loss are the leading symptoms, which significantly worsen the quality of life. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 123 relevant clinical questions in 11 topics were defined. Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guidelines were presented and discussed at the consensus meeting in September 12, 2014. All clinical questions were accepted with total or strong agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based guideline for chronic pancreatitis in Hungary. This guideline provides very important and helpful data for tuition, everyday practice and proper financing of chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

  6. Survival in Mediterranean Ambulatory Patients With Chronic Heart Failure. A Population-based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frigola Capell, E.; Comin-Colet, J.; Davins-Miralles, J.; Gich-Saladich, I.J.; Wensing, M.; Verdu-Rotellar, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Scarce research has been performed in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure in the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to describe survival trends in our target population and the impact of prognostic factors. METHODS: We carried out a population-based retrospective

  7. Mechanisms underlying fatigue: a voxel-based morphometric study of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Yasuyoshi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a crucial sensation that triggers rest, yet its underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Intense long-term fatigue is a symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome, which is used as a model to study the mechanisms underlying fatigue. Methods Using magnetic resonance imaging, we conducted voxel-based morphometry of 16 patients and 49 age-matched healthy control subjects. Results We found that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome had reduced gray-matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Within these areas, the volume reduction in the right prefrontal cortex paralleled the severity of the fatigue of the subjects. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous reports of an abnormal distribution of acetyl-L-carnitine uptake, which is one of the biochemical markers of chronic fatigue syndrome, in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, the prefrontal cortex might be an important element of the neural system that regulates sensations of fatigue.

  8. Chronic care management of globesity: promoting healthier lifestyles in traditional and mHealth based settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and being overweight could be real chronic conditions above all if there are other complications such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, cancer and various psychosocial and psychopathological disorders,. Due to the multifactorial etiology of obesity, evidence-based interventions to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities combine different treatment approaches: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and, in some situations, pharmacological and surgical. There are significant limitations in this multidisciplinary chronic care management of obesity, most notably those regarding costs and long-term adherence and efficacy. Programs including eHealth platforms and new technologies could overcome limitations connected to the traditional in-patient chronic care management of obesity, thus providing promising opportunities in enhancing weight reduction and reducing complications in terms of long-term efficacy and effectiveness across clinical, organizational, and economic perspectives.

  9. Mindfulness-based stress reduction: a non-pharmacological approach for chronic illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR therapy is a meditation therapy, though originally designed for stress management, it is being used for treating a variety of illnesses such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, skin and immune disorders. Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy of MBSR in the treatment of chronic illnesses; it’s mechanism of action and adverse effects. It describes an alternative method of treatment for physicians and patients that may help patients cope with their diseases in a more effective way. Materials and Methods: COCHRANE, EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched for data on outcome of treatment with MBSR used alone or in conjunction with other treatments. The data available on prevention of diseases through MBSR was also analyzed. Results: All the 18 studies included in this systematic review showed improvement in the condition of patients after MBSR therapy. These studies were focused on patients with chronic diseases like cancer, hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain and skin disorders, before and after MBSR therapy. Conclusions: Although the research on MBSR is sparse, the results of these researches indicate that MBSR improves the condition of patients suffering from chronic illnesses and helps them cope with a wide variety of clinical problems.

  10. Mindfulness-based stress reduction: A non-pharmacological approach for chronic illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR therapy is a meditation therapy, though originally designed for stress management, it is being used for treating a variety of illnesses such as depression, anxiety, chronic pain, cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, skin and immune disorders. Aim: The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy of MBSR in the treatment of chronic illnesses; it′s mechanism of action and adverse effects. It describes an alternative method of treatment for physicians and patients that may help patients cope with their diseases in a more effective way. Materials and Methods: COCHRANE, EMBASE and MEDLINE were systematically searched for data on outcome of treatment with MBSR used alone or in conjunction with other treatments. The data available on prevention of diseases through MBSR was also analyzed. Results: All the 18 studies included in this systematic review showed improvement in the condition of patients after MBSR therapy. These studies were focused on patients with chronic diseases like cancer, hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain and skin disorders, before and after MBSR therapy. Conclusions: Although the research on MBSR is sparse, the results of these researches indicate that MBSR improves the condition of patients suffering from chronic illnesses and helps them cope with a wide variety of clinical problems.

  11. Building up a Virtual Community for Home-Based Chronic Diseases Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yan; Bai, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    With the development of Internet, social networks get more and more popular, it brings us an idea of designing a virtual community for home-based chronic diseases healthcare. In this paper, we conduct a questionnaire to gather the requirements of the community and describe them with user stories. Afterwards, a conceptual prototype is developed based on the requirements. The proposed virtual community involves healthcare providers, healthcare recipients and other people relevant to the home-ba...

  12. Molecular characterization, sequence analysis and tissue expression of a porcine gene – MOSPD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The full-length cDNA sequence of a porcine gene, MOSPD2, was amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method based on a pig expressed sequence tag sequence which was highly homologous to the coding sequence of the human MOSPD2 gene. Sequence prediction analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 491 amino acids that has high homology with the motile sperm domain-containing protein 2 (MOSPD2 of five species: horse (89%, human (90%, chimpanzee (89%, rhesus monkey (89% and mouse (85%; thus, it could be defined as a porcine MOSPD2 gene. This novel porcine gene was assigned GeneID: 100153601. This gene is structured in 15 exons and 14 introns as revealed by computer-assisted analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the porcine MOSPD2 gene has a closer genetic relationship with the MOSPD2 gene of horse. Tissue expression analysis indicated that the porcine MOSPD2 gene is generally and differentially expressed in the spleen, muscle, skin, kidney, lung, liver, fat and heart. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on the porcine MOSPD2 gene.

  13. [Research advances in porcine bocavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2012-03-01

    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) was considered as a new member of the genus Bocavirus of the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, which was discovered in Swedish swine herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 2009. At present, as an emerging pathogen, it was paid great attention by researchers at home and abroad. This paper referred to some published literatures and reviewed several aspects of PBoV including its finding, classification, genome structure and replication, epidemiology, associativity with diseases, cultural and diagnostic methods.

  14. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility.

  15. Regional multiaxial mechanical properties of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, G; Pedrigi, R M; Heistand, M R; Humphrey, J D

    2007-02-01

    The lens capsule of the eye plays fundamental biomechanical roles in both normal physiological processes and clinical interventions. There has been modest attention given to the mechanical properties of this important membrane, however, and prior studies have focused on 1-D analyses of the data. We present results that suggest that the porcine anterior lens capsule has a complex, regionally dependent, nonlinear, anisotropic behavior. Specifically, using a subdomain inverse finite element method to analyze data collected via a new biplane video-based test system, we found that the lens capsule is nearly isotropic (in-plane) near the pole but progressively stiffer in the circumferential compared to the meridional direction as one approaches the equator. Because the porcine capsule is a good model of the young human capsule, there is strong motivation to determine if similar regional variations exist in the human lens capsule for knowledge of such complexities may allow us to improve the design of surgical procedures and implants.

  16. The rate of co-infection for piglet diarrhea viruses in China and the genetic characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z-P; Yang, Z; Lin, W-D; Wang, W-Y; Yang, J; Jin, W-J; Qin, A-J

    2016-03-01

    Piglet diarrhea epidemics result in major economic losses for the swine industry. Four viruses are closely linked to porcine diarrhea: porcine kobuvirus (PKV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PRoV). We have conducted an epidemiology study to determine the frequency of infection and co-infection with these viruses in China, and characterized the genetic variation of the isolated PEDV and PKV strains. Stool and intestinal samples (n = 314) were collected from piglets with diarrhea in China from years 2012 to 2014. RT-PCR was used to detect PKV, PEDV, TGEV, and PRoV. Phylogenetic relationships between reference strains and the isolated PEDV and PKV strains were determined based on the M and 3D gene sequence. The rates of infection with PKV, PEDV, TGEV and PRoV were 29.9%, 24.2%, 1.91%, and 0.31%, respectively. Co-infections with PKV and the other three viruses were very common. Co-infection of PKV and PEDV was detected in 15.0% (47/314) of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the PKV 3D gene indicated that there were some phylogenetic differences in the PKV strains across regions within China. However, according to the PEDV M gene, strains clustered into three groups and the primary group was distinct from the vaccine strain CV777. This study provides insights in to the prevalence of diarrhea viruses and their prevention and control in China.

  17. Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Health Coaching for Patients with Chronic Conditions: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinger, Sarah; Kriston, Levente; Herbarth, Lutz; Siegmund-Schultze, Elisabeth; Bermejo, Isaac; Matschinger, Herbert; Heider, Dirk; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, heart disease and cancer are leading causes of death and disability. These conditions are at least partially preventable or modifiable, e.g. by enhancing patients’ self-management. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of telephone-based health coaching (TBHC) in chronically ill patients. Methods and Findings This prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compares an intervention group (IG) of participants in TBHC to a control group (CG) without TBHC. Endpoints were assessed two years after enrolment. Three different groups of insurees with 1) multiple conditions (chronic campaign), 2) heart failure (heart failure campaign), or 3) chronic mental illness conditions (mental health campaign) were targeted. The telephone coaching included evidence-based information and was based on the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making, and collaborative goal setting. Patients received an average of 12.9 calls. Primary outcome was time from enrolment until hospital readmission within a two-year follow-up period. Secondary outcomes comprised the probability of hospital readmission, number of daily defined medication doses (DDD), frequency and duration of inability to work, and mortality within two years. All outcomes were collected from routine data provided by the statutory health insurance. As informed consent was obtained after randomization, propensity score matching (PSM) was used to minimize selection bias introduced by decliners. For the analysis of hospital readmission and mortality, we calculated Kaplan-Meier curves and estimated hazard ratios (HR). Probability of hospital readmission and probability of death were analysed by calculating odds ratios (OR). Quantity of health service use and inability to work were analysed by linear random effects regression models. PSM resulted in patient samples of 5,309 (IG: 2,713; CG: 2,596) in the chronic campaign, of 660 (IG: 338; CG: 322) in the

  18. In vitro test on the ability of a yeast cell wall based product to inhibit the Escherichia coli F4ac adhesion on the brush border of porcine intestinal villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Priori, D; Gandolfi, G; Colombo, M; Coloretti, F; Goossens, T; Bosi, P

    2012-12-01

    The ability of a yeast cell wall (YCW)-based product (SENTIGUARD C; Nutriad) to inhibit the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ac (ETEC) adhesion on the brush border of porcine intestinal villi was tested. The ETEC suspensions were preincubated with 2 batches of the product (A and B) at different concentrations (10, 5, and 0.5%, wt/vol) or with their filtrates (AF and BF) and then with intestinal villi susceptible to ETEC adhesion. In all the trials, ETEC suspensions were also preincubated with egg yolk (E) immunized against ETEC to assess the maximum inhibition of the adhesiveness or directly with the villi [control group (Con)] to verify the maximum adhesiveness of the pathogen. For each treatment, 20 different villi were observed, brush border measured, and the adherent pathogens counted. A scanning electron microscope analysis was used to confirm the ability of ETEC to adhere on the YCW. The E treatment significantly reduced the pathogen adhesion on the villi compared with the C group in all the trials (P intestinal infection from ETEC in young pigs with the affinity of ETEC to YCW.

  19. Mass lesions in chronic pancreatitis: benign or malignant? An "evidence-based practice" approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerstenmaier, Jan F

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion in the presence of chronic pancreatitis can be extremely challenging. At the same time, a high level of certainty about the diagnosis is necessary for appropriate management planning. The aim of this study was to establish current best evidence about which imaging methods reliably differentiate a benign from a malignant lesion, and show how that evidence is best applied. A diagnostic algorithm based on Bayesian analysis is proposed.

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Subsequent Risk of Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Ting Kao; Shih-Han Hung; Herng-Ching Lin; Chih-Kuang Liu; Hung-Meng Huang; Chuan-Song Wu

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) still remains unclear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the relationship between OSA and subsequent CRS using a population-based dataset. The study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We selected 971 patients with OSA for the study cohort and 4855 patients without OSA for the comparison cohort. Each patient was tracked for 5 years to determine those wh...

  1. Improving the management of chronic diseases using web-based technologies: an application in hemophilia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Leonor; Saavedra, Vasco; Ferreira, Carlos; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Modern methods of information and communication that use web technologies provide an opportunity to facilitate closer communication between patients and healthcare providers, allowing a joint management of chronic diseases. This paper describes a web-based technological solution to support the management of inherited bleeding disorders integrating, diffusing and archiving large sets of data relating to the clinical practice of hemophilia care, more specifically the clinical practice at the Hematology Service of Coimbra Hospital Center (a Hemophilia Treatment Center located in Portugal).

  2. Web-Based Interventions for Chronic Back Pain: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Divya; Turin, Tanvir C; Chowdhury, M Faruq U

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain is one of the most common presenting complaints to a physician’s office. Treatment is often challenging and recovery depends on various factors, often resulting in significant investments of time and resources. Objective The aim of this review is to determine which Web-based interventions aimed at chronic low back pain are of benefit to patients. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studying Web-based interventions directed at adults with chronic low back pain were included. Retrospective studies, narrative reviews, nonrandomized trials, and observational studies were excluded. Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched. Results In total, nine unique RCTs were identified (total participants=1796). The number of patients randomized in each trial ranged from 51 to 580. Four trials studied online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and five trials studied other Web-based interventions with interactive features. Empowerment/control was improved in six studies. Use of CBT was associated with reduced catastrophization among patients. Mixed results were reported with regards to reduction in pain levels and disability, although some studies showed promise in reducing disability in the short term. One study that measured health care utilization reported reduced utilization with the use of moderated email discussion. Conclusions Limited data are available regarding effective Web-based interventions to improve outcomes for patients with chronic low back pain. Nine RCTs with small sample sizes were identified in this review. Online CBT appears to show some promise in terms of reducing catastrophization and improving patient attitudes. Further research in this area with larger-scale studies focusing on appropriate outcomes appears to be a priority. PMID:27460413

  3. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia in Swine Associated with Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP is a chronic respiratory disease. Although the pathogenesis of BOOP is still incompletely understood, BOOP is responsive to steroids and has a good prognosis. In our five pigs with chronic postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, typical BOOP lesions were revealed. All five porcine lungs showed typical intraluminal plugs, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 was identified. They also exhibited similar pathologic findings such as proliferation of type II pneumocytes and myofibroblasts (MFBs, extracellular collagen matrix (ECM deposition, and fragmentation of elastic fibers. MFBs migration correlative molecules, for instance, gelatinase A, B and osteopontin, appeared strongly in the progressing marginal area of polypoid intraluminal plugs of fibrotic lesion. These molecules colocalized with the active MFBs. Both gelatinase activity and intercellular level of active MFBs were significantly increased (<.05. Porcine chronic bronchopneumonia leads to BOOP and it is associated with PCV2 persistent infection. Swine BOOP demonstrates similar cellular constituents with human BOOP. Perhaps their molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis operate in a similar way. Thus we infer that the swine BOOP can be considered as a potential animal model for human BOOP associated with natural viral infection. Moreover, it is more convenient to obtain samples.

  4. Association between chronic osteomyelitis and deep-vein thrombosis. Analysis of a nationwide population-based registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T-Y; Chen, Y-G; Huang, W-Y; Lin, C-L; Peng, C-L; Sung, F-C; Kao, C-H

    2014-09-02

    Studies on the association between chronic osteomyelitis and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse a nationwide population-based database for association between DVT or PE after a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 1998 to 2008, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2010. We identified patients with chronic osteomyelitis using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. The patients with chronic osteomyelitis and comparison controls were selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score. The propensity score was calculated by a logistic regression to estimate the probability of the treatment assignment given the baseline variables including age, sex, and Charlson comorbidity index score. We analysed the risks of DVT and PE by using Cox proportional hazards regression models, including sex, age, and comorbidities. In total, 24,335 chronic osteomyelitis patients and 24,335 controls were enrolled in the study. The risk of developing DVT was 2.49-fold in patients with chronic osteomyelitis compared with the comparison cohort, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The multiplicative increased risks of DVT were also significant in patients with chronic osteomyelitis with any comorbidity. In conclusion, physicians should consider chronic osteomyelitis in their evaluation of risk factors for DVT.

  5. A porcine model for teaching surgical cricothyridootomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Campelo Spencer Netto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptability of an educational project using A porcine model of airway for teaching surgical cricothyroidotomy to medical students and medical residents at a university hospital in southern Brazil.METHODS: we developed a teaching project using a porcine model for training in surgical cricothyroidotomy. Medical students and residents received lectures about this surgical technique and then held practical training with the model. After the procedure, all participants filled out a form about the importance of training in airway handling and the model used.RESULTS: There were 63 participants. The overall quality of the porcine model was estimated at 8.8, while the anatomical correlation between the model and the human anatomy received a mean score of 8.5. The model was unanimously approved and considered useful in teaching the procedure.CONCLUSION: the training of surgical cricothyroidotomy with a porcine model showed good acceptance among medical students and residents of this institution.

  6. 同时检测猪圆环病毒2型、猪细小病毒和伪狂犬病毒连接酶检测反应-PCR基因芯片检测方法的建立%A universal oligonucleotide microarray based on ligase detection reaction (LDR)-PCR for parallel detection of porcine circovirus type 2,porcine parvovirus and pseudorabies virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑶; 汪平; 董沁芳; 程菊会; 徐辉; 丁先锋; 郭江峰; 姜永厚

    2011-01-01

    为快速、灵敏、准确地同时检测和鉴别猪圆环病毒2型(PCV2)、猪细小病毒(PPV)和伪狂犬病毒(PRV)的方法,本研究采用连接酶检测反应(LDR)-PCR和基因芯片技术建立一种新型检测方法.首先在3种病毒的保守区内分别设计一对LDR探针,两端各连接一段通用序列,依次进行LDR、通用引物荧光标记扩增和芯片杂交,同时比较引物标记和Cy5 -dCTP标记方法的灵敏度.结果表明该方法可以特异地检测PCV2、PPV和PRV3种病毒,而对牛病毒性腹泻病毒、猪传染性胃肠炎病毒、猪流行性腹泻病毒、猪繁殖与呼吸障碍综合征病毒、猪瘟病毒、乙型脑炎病毒、猪圆环病毒1型检测结果均为阴性;对3种病毒的最低检测限少于10个拷贝;Cy5-dCTP标记检测的灵敏度显著高于引物标记.利用建立的方法对41例临床样品进行检测,与普通PCR检测结果符合率为97.6%~100%.该方法的建立为基础研究和临床应用提供了技术平台.%To establish a sensitive detection method for porcine circovims type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) which cause swine severe reproductive and/or respiratory failure, a novel diagnostic oligonucleotide microarray based on ligase detection reaction PCR (LDR-PCR) was developed in this study. According to alignment of the viral sequences, LDR probes for each virus were designed, which were flanked by universal sequences on both sides of the probes. Through asymmetric PCR enrichment of the ligation products by universal primers, labeling and microarray hybridization, the target viruses were detected and differentiated. Compared to the labeling method with Cy5-primer, Cy5-dCTP labeling was more sensitive in this assay. The specific test result showed that the assay had no cross reaction with bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine reproductive and respiratory

  7. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell–core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou, E-mail: hyhan@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-08-05

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL{sup −1} with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. - Highlights: • A versatile ELISA-based immunoassay for PCV2 antibody was developed. • Enzyme and CdSe QDs modified SiO{sub 2} particles were used to improve sensitivity. • The simultaneous three ELISA-based techniques enhanced the detection reliability. • The biosensors strategy could provide a new avenue to ELISA-based sensors.

  8. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... nerve fibers were localized to islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and blood vessels. Vagus stimulation had no effect on substance P and neurokinin A release, whereas capsaicin infusion stimulated release of both. Substance P and neurokinin A infusion increased release of insulin, glucagon, and exocrine...... secretion, whereas somatostatin secretion was unaffected. The effect of substance P on insulin, glucagon, and exocrine secretion was blocked by the NK-1 receptor antagonist. The effect of electrical stimulation of vagus nerves on insulin and exocrine secretion was not influenced by tachykinin receptor...

  9. Novel Approach for Isolation and Identification of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Strain NJ Using Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Jia, Shuo; Zhao, Haiyuan; Yin, Jiyuan; Wang, Xiaona; Yu, Meiling; Ma, Sunting; Wu, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Wenlu; Xu, Yigang; Li, Yijing

    2017-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea in China and other countries, is responsible for serious economic losses in the pork industry. Inactivated PEDV vaccine plays a key role in controlling the prevalence of PEDV. However, consistently low viral titers are obtained during the propagation of PEDV in vitro; this represents a challenge to molecular analyses of the virus and vaccine development. In this study, we successfully isolated a PEDV isolate (strain NJ) from clinical samples collected during a recent outbreak of diarrhea in piglets in China, using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). We found that the isolate was better adapted to growth in IECs than in Vero cells, and the titer of the IEC cultures was 104.5 TCID50/0.1 mL at passage 45. Mutations in the S protein increased with the viral passage and the mutations tended towards attenuation. Viral challenge showed that the survival of IEC-adapted cultures was higher at the 45th passage than at the 5th passage. The use of IECs to isolate and propagate PEDV provides an effective approach for laboratory-based diagnosis of PEDV, as well as studies of the epidemiological characteristics and molecular biology of this virus. PMID:28117718

  10. A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hung, Shu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment.

  11. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  12. Porcine models of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selsby, Joshua T; Ross, Jason W; Nonneman, Dan; Hollinger, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. This disease has been studied using a variety of animal models including fish, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially to our mechanistic understanding of the disease and disease progression, limitations inherent to each model have slowed the clinical advancement of therapies, which necessitates the development of novel large-animal models. Several porcine dystrophin-deficient models have been identified, although disease severity may be so severe as to limit their potential contributions to the field. We have recently identified and completed the initial characterization of a natural porcine model of dystrophin insufficiency. Muscles from these animals display characteristic focal necrosis concomitant with decreased abundance and localization of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex components. These pigs recapitulate many of the cardinal features of muscular dystrophy, have elevated serum creatine kinase activity, and preliminarily appear to display altered locomotion. They also suffer from sudden death preceded by EKG abnormalities. Pig dystrophinopathy models could allow refinement of dosing strategies in human-sized animals in preparation for clinical trials. From an animal handling perspective, these pigs can generally be treated normally, with the understanding that acute stress can lead to sudden death. In summary, the ability to create genetically modified pig models and the serendipitous discovery of genetic disease in the swine industry has resulted in the emergence of new animal tools to facilitate the critical objective of improving the quality and length of life for boys afflicted with such a devastating disease.

  13. Molecular evolution of the porcine type I interferon family: subtype-specific expression and antiviral activity.

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    Yongming Sang

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFNs, key antiviral cytokines, evolve to adapt with ever-changing viral threats during vertebrate speciation. Due to novel pathogenic pressure associated with Suidae speciation and domestication, porcine IFNs evolutionarily engender both molecular and functional diversification, which have not been well addressed in pigs, an important livestock species and animal model for biomedical sciences. Annotation of current swine genome assembly Sscrofa10.2 reveals 57 functional genes and 16 pseudogenes of type I IFNs. Subfamilies of multiple IFNA, IFNW and porcine-specific IFND genes are separated into four clusters with ∼ 60 kb intervals within the IFNB/IFNE bordered region in SSC1, and each cluster contains mingled subtypes of IFNA, IFNW and IFND. Further curation of the 57 functional IFN genes indicates that they include 18 potential artifactual duplicates. We performed phylogenetic construction as well as analyses of gene duplication/conversion and natural selection and showed that porcine type I IFN genes have been undergoing active diversification through both gene duplication and conversion. Extensive analyses of the non-coding sequences proximal to all IFN coding regions identified several genomic repetitive elements significantly associated with different IFN subtypes. Family-wide studies further revealed their molecular diversity with respect to differential expression and restrictive activity on the resurgence of a porcine endogenous retrovirus. Based on predicted 3-D structures of representative animal IFNs and inferred activity, we categorized the general functional propensity underlying the structure-activity relationship. Evidence indicates gene expansion of porcine type I IFNs. Genomic repetitive elements that associated with IFN subtypes may serve as molecular signatures of respective IFN subtypes and genomic mechanisms to mediate IFN gene evolution and expression. In summary, the porcine type I IFN profile has

  14. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan; Li, Sijia; Henke, Adam; Muse, Evan D; Cheng, Bo; Welzel, Gustav; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Wang, Danling; Roland, Jason; Glass, Christopher K; Tremblay, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR), a nuclear hormone receptor, is an essential regulator of immune responses. Activation of LXR-mediated transcription by synthetic agonists, such as T0901317 and GW3965, attenuates progression of inflammatory disease in animal models. However, the adverse effects of these conventional LXR agonists in elevating liver lipids have impeded exploitation of this intriguing mechanism for chronic therapy. Here, we explore the ability of a series of sterol-based LXR agonists to alleviate inflammatory conditions in mice without hepatotoxicity. We show that oral treatment with sterol-based LXR agonists in mice significantly reduces dextran sulfate sodium colitis-induced body weight loss, which is accompanied by reduced expression of inflammatory markers in the large intestine. The anti-inflammatory property of these agonists is recapitulated in vitro in mouse lamina propria mononuclear cells, human colonic epithelial cells, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, treatment with LXR agonists dramatically suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression in a model of traumatic brain injury. Importantly, in both disease models, the sterol-based agonists do not affect the liver, and the conventional agonist T0901317 results in significant liver lipid accumulation and injury. Overall, these results provide evidence for the development of sterol-based LXR agonists as novel therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.-Yu, S., Li, S., Henke, A., Muse, E. D., Cheng, B., Welzel, G., Chatterjee, A. K., Wang, D., Roland, J., Glass, C. K., Tremblay, M. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.

  15. Liver Stiffness Measurement-Based Scoring System for Significant Inflammation Related to Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Chen, Guo-Liang; Huang, Wen-Qi; Min, Feng; Chen, Tian; Xu, Jin-Chao; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers. Methods The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327), and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement. Results An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(−) patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(−) patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(−) patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3). Conclusions Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation. PMID:25360742

  16. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  17. Development of left ventricular hypertrophy in a novel porcine model of mitral regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nathja; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Moesgaard, Sophia Gry

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a porcine model for chronic nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) to investigate left ventricular (LV) enlargement and eccentric hypertrophy. DESIGN: Nonischemic MR was induced in 30 pigs by open-chest immobilization of the posterior mitral leaflet by transannular...... traction sutures that where applied in transmyocardial fashion. A sham operated control group (n = 13) was included. Echocardiographic LV size and heart weight assessed at euthanasia were used to evaluate the development of LV enlargement and eccentric hypertrophy after 8 weeks follow-up. RESULTS: Eight...... for chronic moderate to severe nonischemic MR with development of LV enlargement and eccentric hypertrophy within 8 weeks has been established in pigs....

  18. Passive and iontophoretic transport enhancement of insulin through porcine epidermis by depilatories: Permeability and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Sumeet K.; Singh, Jagdish

    2003-01-01

    The effect of thioglycolate-based depilatory lotions was studied on the in vitro passive and iontophoretic permeability of insulin through porcine epidermis and biophysical changes in the stratum corneum (SC) lipids and proteins. The porcine epidermis and Franz diffusion cells modified for iontophoresis were used for the in vitro transport studies. Cathodal iontophoresis was performed at 0.2 mA/cm2 current density. Resistance of the control- and depilatory-lotion-treated epidermis was determi...

  19. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

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    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and

  20. Use of polarized light microscopy in porcine reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, J N; Maside, C; Gil, M A; Muñoz, M; Cuello, C; Díez, C; Sánchez-Osorio, J R; Martín, D; Gomis, J; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Carrocera, S; Martinez, E A; Gómez, E

    2011-09-01

    The meiotic spindle in the oocyte is composed of microtubules and plays an important role during chromosome alignment and separation at meiosis. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) could be useful for a non-invasive evaluation of the meiotic spindle and may allow removal of nuclear structures without fluorochrome staining and ultraviolet exposure. In this study, PLM was used to assess its potential application in porcine reproductive technologies. The objectives of the present study were to assess the efficiency of PLM to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes; to examine its effects on the oocyte developmental competence; to select oocytes based on the presence of the meiotic spindle detected by PLM; and to assess the efficiency oocyte enucleation assisted with PLM. In the first experiment, the presence of microtubule-polymerized protein was assessed and confirmed in oocytes (n = 117) by immunostaining and chromatin detection. In the second experiment, oocytes (n = 160) were exposed or not (controls) to PLM for 10 minutes, and then parthenogenetically activated and cultured in vitro. In the third experiment, development competence of oocytes with a positive or negative signal to PLM was analyzed after in vitro fertilization. Finally, oocytes (n = 54) were enucleated using PLM as a tool to remove the meiotic spindle. A positive PLM signal was detected in 98.2 % of the oocytes, which strongly correlated (r = 1; p PLM did not differ significantly from controls on cleavage, total blastocyst, expanded blastocyst rates and total cell numbers. The percentage of oocytes at the MII stage and blastocyst formation rate in the negative PLM group significantly differed from control and PLM positive groups. Overall efficiency of spindle removal using the PLM-Oosight system was 92.6%. These results suggest that polarized light microscopy is an efficient system to detect microtubule-polymerized protein in in vitro-matured porcine oocytes and does

  1. Community analysis of chronic wound bacteria using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing: impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota.

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    Lance B Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonization is hypothesized to play a pathogenic role in the non-healing state of chronic wounds. We characterized wound bacteria from a cohort of chronic wound patients using a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach and assessed the impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prospectively enrolled 24 patients at a referral wound center in Baltimore, MD; sampled patients' wounds by curette; cultured samples under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; and pyrosequenced the 16S rRNA V3 hypervariable region. The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed an average of 10 different bacterial families in wounds--approximately 4 times more than estimated by culture-based analyses. Fastidious anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Clostridiales family XI were among the most prevalent bacteria identified exclusively by 16S rRNA gene-based analyses. Community-scale analyses showed that wound microbiota from antibiotic treated patients were significantly different from untreated patients (p = 0.007 and were characterized by increased Pseudomonadaceae abundance. These analyses also revealed that antibiotic use was associated with decreased Streptococcaceae among diabetics and that Streptococcaceae was more abundant among diabetics as compared to non-diabetics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed complex bacterial communities including anaerobic bacteria that may play causative roles in the non-healing state of some chronic wounds. Our data suggest that antimicrobial therapy alters community structure--reducing some bacteria while selecting for others.

  2. Profiling the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of porcine ovaries using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Gao, Ning; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Liu, Jing; He, Jin-Long; Xu, Yuan; Lin, Wen-Mian; Chen, Zan-Mou; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jia-Qi

    2016-02-25

    Substantial evidence has shown that DNA methylation regulates the initiation of ovarian and sexual maturation. Here, we investigated the genome-wide profile of DNA methylation in porcine ovaries at single-base resolution using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. The biological variation was minimal among the three ovarian replicates. We found hypermethylation frequently occurred in regions with low gene abundance, while hypomethylation in regions with high gene abundance. The DNA methylation around transcriptional start sites was negatively correlated with their own CpG content. Additionally, the methylation level in the bodies of genes was higher than that in their 5' and 3' flanking regions. The DNA methylation pattern of the low CpG content promoter genes differed obviously from that of the high CpG content promoter genes. The DNA methylation level of the porcine ovary was higher than that of the porcine intestine. Analyses of the genome-wide DNA methylation in porcine ovaries would advance the knowledge and understanding of the porcine ovarian methylome.

  3. Comparative evaluation of a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR to quantify Porcine circovirus-2 DNA in swine tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezen, Diogenes; Rijsewijk, Franciscus A M; Teixeira, Thais F; Holz, Carine L; Varela, Ana P; Cibulski, Samuel P; Gregianini, Tatiane Shäffer; Batista, Helena B C R; Franco, Ana C; Roehe, Paulo M

    2011-11-01

    Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is considered the major etiological agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. The clinical manifestations of the disease are correlated with moderate to high amounts of PCV-2 DNA in biological samples of affected pigs. A threshold of 10(7) DNA copies/ml is suggested as the trigger factor for symptoms. A comparative study was conducted to determine which quantitative method would be more suitable to estimate the PCV-2 DNA load. Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed: a competitive PCR (cPCR) and a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR. The assays were compared for their capacity to detect PCV-2 in DNA samples extracted from liver, lung, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and kidney of PMWS-affected (n = 23) or non-PMWS-affected pigs (n = 9). Both assays could successfully quantify PCV-2 DNA in all tissue samples and were able to detect significant differences between the numbers of PCV-2 DNA copies found in tissues of PMWS-affected and non-PMWS-affected pigs (≥ 10(2.5)). The highest mean viral loads were detected by the SYBR Green real-time PCR, up to 10(7.0 ± 1.5) copies/100 ng of total DNA sample, while the cPCR detected up to 10(4.8 ± 1.5). A mean difference of 10(1.8) was found between the amounts of PCV-2 DNA detected, using the SYBR Green real-time PCR and the cPCR, suggesting that the viral load threshold for PMWS should be determined for each particular assay.

  4. Economic Evaluation of Community-Based Case Management of Patients Suffering From Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller

    2016-01-01

    was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) from the perspective of the healthcare sector. Costs were valued in British Pounds (£) at price level 2016. Scenario analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted in order to assess uncertainty......Objectives To analyse the cost effectiveness of community-based case management for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods The study took place in the third largest municipality in Denmark and was conducted as a randomised controlled trial with 12 months...... value used by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). No formally established Danish threshold value exists....

  5. THE "NEW" DRUG CLASSES IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND THEIR EVIDENCE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of ivabradine and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, drugs with principally different mechanisms of action, is presented in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF on the base of GISSI-HF and SHIFT trails results. It is essential to compaire an effect of these drugs on the morbidity and mortality in combined therapy of patients with CHF , because each additional drug may change in compliance to treatment, induces additional costs or may be a reason of new side effects. Additional (to standard therapy effects of ivabradine and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are discussed.

  6. THE "NEW" DRUG CLASSES IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND THEIR EVIDENCE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Tereshchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of ivabradine and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, drugs with principally different mechanisms of action, is presented in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF on the base of GISSI-HF and SHIFT trails results. It is essential to compaire an effect of these drugs on the morbidity and mortality in combined therapy of patients with CHF , because each additional drug may change in compliance to treatment, induces additional costs or may be a reason of new side effects. Additional (to standard therapy effects of ivabradine and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are discussed.

  7. Impact of preoperative chronic renal failure on liver transplantation: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung PC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peter Chi-Ho Chung,1,2 Hsiu-Pin Chen,1,2 Jr-Rung Lin,3,4 Fu-Chao Liu,1,2 Huang-Ping Yu1,2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, 3Clinical Informatics and Medical Statistics Research Center, 4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative chronic renal failure (CRF affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. Methods: This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2,931 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of preoperative CRF. Results: The overall estimated survival rate of liver transplantation recipients (LTRs with preoperative CRF was significantly lower than that of patients without preoperative CRF (P=0.0085. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of duration of intensive care unit stay, total hospital stay, bacteremia, postoperative bleeding, and pneumonia during hospitalization. Long-term adverse effects, including cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease, were not different between patients with versus without CRF. Conclusion: These findings suggest that LTRs with preoperative CRF have a higher rate of mortality. Keywords: chronic renal failure, cohort study, survival rate, liver transplantation, population-based study

  8. Tailored implementation of evidence-based practice for patients with chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wensing

    Full Text Available When designing interventions and policies to implement evidence based healthcare, tailoring strategies to the targeted individuals and organizations has been recommended. We aimed to gather insights into the ideas of a variety of people for implementing evidence-based practice for patients with chronic diseases, which were generated in five European countries.A qualitative study in five countries (Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, United Kingdom was done, involving overall 115 individuals. A purposeful sample of four categories of stakeholders (healthcare professionals, quality improvement officers, healthcare purchasers and authorities, and health researchers was involved in group interviews in each of the countries to generate items for improving healthcare in different chronic conditions per country: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, depression in elderly people, multi-morbidity, obesity. A disease-specific standardized list of determinants of practice in these conditions provided the starting point for these groups. The content of the suggested items was categorized in a pre-defined framework of 7 domains and specific themes in the items were identified within each domain.The 115 individuals involved in the study generated 812 items, of which 586 addressed determinants of practice. These largely mapped onto three domains: individual health professional factors, patient factors, and professional interactions. Few items addressed guideline factors, incentives and resources, capacity of organizational change, or social, political and legal factors. The relative numbers of items in the different domains were largely similar across stakeholder categories within each of the countries. The analysis identified 29 specific themes in the suggested items across countries.The type of suggestions for improving healthcare practice was largely similar across different stakeholder groups, mainly addressing healthcare

  9. Acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of chronic pain: a meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veehof, M.M.; Trompetter, H.R.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Schreurs, K.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    The number of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain, such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), increased in recent years. Therefore an update is warranted of our former system

  10. Simultaneous detection and subtyping of porcine endogenous retroviruses proviral DNA using the dual priming oligonucleotide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyoung Joon; Park, Seong Jun; Kim, Hye Kwon; Ann, Soo Kyung; Rho, Semi; Keum, Hyun Ok; Park, Bong Kyun

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR that can detect porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) proviral genes (pol, envA, envB, envC) and porcine mitochondrial DNA, using a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) system. The primer specifically detected the PERV proviral genes pol, envA, envB, envC, and porcine mitochondrial DNA only in samples of pig origin. The sensitivity of the primer was demonstrated by simultaneous amplification of all 5 target genes in as little as 10 pg of pig DNA containing PERV proviral genes and mitochondrial DNA. The multiplex PCR, when applied to field samples, simultaneously and successfully amplified PERV proviral genes from liver, blood and hair root samples. Thus, the multiplex PCR developed in the current study using DPO-based primers is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for the detection and subtyping of PERV proviral genes.

  11. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profiles of 3 novel porcine genes: ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xianghua; Liu, Yonggang; Yang, Liangyu; Song, Chunlian; Hou, Jiafa

    2008-01-01

    The complete coding sequences of 3 porcine genes - ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA - were amplified by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved sequence information of the mouse or other mammals and referenced pig ESTs. These 3 novel porcine genes were then deposited in the NCBI database and assigned GeneIDs: 100142661, 100142664 and 100142667. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the porcine ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA all have closer genetic relationships with the ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA of cattle. Tissue expression profile analysis was also carried out and results revealed that swine ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA genes were differentially expressed in various organs, including skeletal muscle, the heart, liver, fat, kidney, lung, and small and large intestines. Our experiment is the first one to establish the foundation for further research on these 3 swine genes.

  12. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV. Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues. Methods: Porcine tissues (both fresh and decellularised were analysed using validated assays specific for PERV: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: PERV specific GAG sequences were found in the porcine heart tissue samples using PCR for DNA and RT- PCR for RNA. All tissue samples (both fresh and treated tissues like aortic valve, pulmonary valve and heart muscle showed the presence of PERV DNA. RT PCR for PERV was positive in all fresh tissues and was found to be negative in decellularised treated tissues. Conclusions: PCR is a rapid, specific test for the detection of PERV virus in xenografts. These findings have demonstrated that the presence of proviral DNA form of PERV in porcine tissues needs to be carefully considered when the infectious disease potential of xenotransplantation is being assessed.

  13. Mapping the antigenic structure of porcine parvovirus at the level of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Langeveld, Jan; Bøtner, Anette;

    1998-01-01

    located in the region corresponding to the major capsid protein VP2. Based on this information, and on analogy to other autonomous parvoviruses, 24 different peptides were synthesised, coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and used to immunise rabbits. Most antisera were able to bind viral protein......The antigenic structure of the capsid proteins of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was investigated. A total of nine linear epitopes were identified by Pepscan using porcine or rabbit anti-PPV antisera. No sites were identified with a panel of neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All epitopes were...

  14. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwakura, Yuji; Mimuro, Jun; Onishi, Akira; Iwamoto, Masaki; Madoiwa, Seiji; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Ishiwata, Akira; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Asuka; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Hashimoto, Michiko; Yazaki, Satoko; Sakata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  15. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kashiwakura

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8. Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  16. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome is associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Lin, Herng-Ching; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2016-05-26

    This study aimed to examine this association by comparing the risk of prior irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) between patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and matched controls in Taiwan. Data were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This study included 4870 cases with CP/CPPS and 4870 age-matched controls. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations of CP/CPPS with previously diagnosed IBS. We found that a total of 753 (7.7%) of the 9740 sampled patients had IBS prior to the index date; IBS was found in 497 (10.2%) cases and in 256 (5.3%) controls. Conditional logistic regression revealed a higher odds ratio (OR) of prior IBS (OR 2.05, 95% CI = 1.75-2.40) for cases than controls. Furthermore, after adjusting for the patients' monthly income, geographical location, urbanization level, and hypertension and coronary heart disease, the conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that cases were more likely than controls to have prior IBS (OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.67-2.29). Furthermore, we found that CP/CPPS was consistently and significantly associated with prior IBS regardless of age group. We concluded that the diagnosis of CP/CPPS was associated with previously diagnosed IBS. Urologists should be aware of the association between CP/CPPS and IBS when treating patients.

  17. Rectal stenosis in pigs associated with Salmonella Typhimurium and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rectal stricture is an acquired annular fibrous constriction of the rectum that results from a variety of chronic necrotizing enteric diseases. In pigs, it is in most cases a sequel of Salmonella infection. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a known pathogen causing immunosuppression in pigs worldwide. PCV2 infected pigs may be predisposed to salmonellosis. In this report, rectal stenosis was observed in 160 pigs from a herd that experienced an outbreak of enteric salmonellosis over a 4-month period. Distension of the abdominal wall and diarrhea were the main clinical signs observed. Five animals were analyzed showing annular cicatrization of the rectal wall 5.0-7.0 cm anterior to the anorectal junction and Salmonella-positive immunostaining in the large intestine. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from fragments of the large intestine. Porcine circovirus type 2 antigen was observed in the mesenteric lymph-node in 4 pigs and in the large intestine in 3 pigs.

  18. Treatment of chronic pain in older people: evidence-based choice of strong-acting opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ojik, Annette L; Jansen, Paul A F; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; van Roon, Eric N

    2012-08-01

    In the treatment of chronic malignant and non-malignant pain, opioids are used as strong analgesics. Frail elderly patients often have multiple co-morbidities and use multiple medicines, leading to an increased risk of clinically relevant drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Age-related changes and increased frailty may lead to a less predictable drug response, increased drug sensitivity, and potential harmful drug effects. As a result, physicians face a complex task in prescribing medication to elderly patients. In this review, the appropriateness of the strong-acting opioids buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone and tapentadol is determined for use in elderly patients. Evidence-based recommendations for prescribing strong opioids to the frail elderly are presented. A literature search was performed for all individual drugs, using a validated and published set of 23 criteria concerning effectiveness, safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, experience, and convenience in elderly patients. First, information on the criteria was obtained from pharmaceutical reference books and a MEDLINE search. The information obtained on the individual drugs in the class of opioids was compared with the reference drug morphine. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated on the basis of the pros and cons for the frail elderly. Using the set of 23 criteria, no differentiation can be made between the appropriateness of buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine and oxycodone for use in elderly patients. Methadone has strong negative considerations in the treatment of chronic pain in the frail elderly. Methadone has a high drug-drug interaction potential and is associated with prolongation of the QT interval and a potential risk of accumulation due to a long elimination half-life. In addition, methadone is difficult to titrate because of its large inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics, particularly in the frail elderly

  19. Improved methods for chronic light-based motor mapping in mice: automated movement tracking with accelerometers, and chronic EEG recording in a bilateral thin-skull preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely eSilasi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetic stimulation of the mouse cortex can be used to generate motor maps that are similar to maps derived from electrode-based stimulation. Here we present a refined set of procedures for repeated light-based motor mapping in ChR2-expressing mice implanted with a bilateral thinned-skull chronic window and a chronically implanted EEG electrode. Light stimulation is delivered sequentially to over 400 points across the cortex, and evoked movements are quantified on-line with a 3-axis accelerometer attached to each forelimb. Bilateral maps of forelimb movement amplitude and movement direction were generated at weekly intervals after recovery from cranial window implantation. We found that light pulses of ~2 mW produced well-defined maps that were centered approximately 0.7 mm anterior and 1.6 mm lateral from bregma. Map borders were defined by sites where light stimulation evoked EEG deflections, but not movements. Motor maps were similar in size and location between mice, and maps were stable over weeks in terms of the number of responsive sites, and the direction of evoked movements. We suggest that our method may be used to chronically assess evoked motor output in mice, and may be combined with other imaging tools to assess cortical reorganization or sensory-motor integration.

  20. Heat sensitivity of porcine IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, J J; Bourdieu, C; Rouze, P; Houdayer, M

    1975-09-01

    The sensitivity to heat of porcine IgG was studied. The serum from immunized pigs was heated at 56 degrees C for 30 min as for decomplementation. The elution pattern of the serum proteins on an agarose gel column showed a dramatic change with the appearance of a large peak of the gel-excluded material. This peak contained mainly IgG molecules which still retained its antibody activity. This fact points to misinterpretations which can easily occur in 7S and 19S antibody recognition during the porcine immune response. Correlation is suggested of this property with the large number of interheavy chain disulfide bridges present in porcine IgG.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling in Porcine Fetal Thymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjiong Chen; Shengbin Li; Lin Ye; Jianing Geng; Yajun Deng; Songnian Hu

    2003-01-01

    obtain an initial overview of gene diversity and expression pattern in porcinethymus, 11,712 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) from 100-day-old porcine thymus(FTY) were sequenced and 7,071 cleaned ESTs were used for gene expressionanalysis. Clustered by the PHRAP program, 959 contigs and 3,074 singlets wereobtained. Blast search showed that 806 contigs and 1,669 singlets (totally 5,442ESTs) had homologues in GenBank and 1,629 ESTs were novel. According to theGene Ontology classification, 36.99% ESTs were cataloged into the gene expressiongroup, indicating that although the functional gene (18.78% in defense group) ofthymus is expressed in a certain degree, the 100-day-old porcine thymus still existsin a developmental stage. Comparative analysis showed that the gene expressionpattern of the 100-day-old porcine thymus is similar to that of the human infantthymus.

  2. Development and application of a SYBR green RT-PCR for first line screening and quantification of porcine sapovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauroy Axel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sapoviruses are single stranded positive sense RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. The virus is detected in different species including the human and the porcine species as an enteric pathogen causing asymptomatic to symptomatic enteritis. In this study, we report the development of a rapid real time qRT-PCR based on SYBR Green chemistry for the diagnosis of porcine sapovirus infection in swine. Results The method allows the detection of porcine sapoviruses and the quantification of the genomic copies present in stool samples. During its development, the diagnostic tool showed good correlation compared with the gold standard conventional RT-PCR and was ten-fold more sensitive. When the method was applied to field samples, porcine noroviruses from genogroup 2 genotype 11b were also detected. The method was also applied to swine samples from the Netherlands that were positive for PoSaV infection. Phylogenetic results obtained from the samples showed that PoSaV sequences were genetically related to the currently described genogroup III, to the proposed genogroup VII and also to the MI-QW19 sequence (close to the human SaV sequences. Conclusions A rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnosis method was developed for porcine sapovirus diagnosis. It correlated with the gold standard conventional RT-PCR. Specificity was good apart for genogroup 2 genotype 11b porcine noroviruses. As a first line screening diagnosis method, it allows a quicker and easier decision on doubtful samples.

  3. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-08-01

    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at ‑80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute.

  4. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... alcohol abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute ... chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be a factor in some cases. ...

  5. Layer-specific radiofrequency ultrasound-based strain analysis in a porcine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy validated by a geometric model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slochteren, F.J. van; Spoel, T.I. van der; Hansen, H.H.G.; Bovendeerd, P.H.; Doevendans, P.A.; Sluijter, J.P.; Chamuleau, S.A.; Korte, C.L. de

    2014-01-01

    Local layer-specific myocardial deformation after myocardial infarction (MI) has not been studied extensively although the sub-endocardium is more vulnerable to ischemia and interstitial fibrosis deposition. Radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound-based analysis could provide superior layer-specific radial s

  6. Spatial analysis and temporal trends of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Denmark from 2007 to 2010 based on laboratory submission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl;

    2015-01-01

    of PRRSV in Danish swine herds from 2007 to 2010, based on type-specific serological tests from the PRRS surveillance and control program in Denmark using the results stored in the information management system at the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Vet). The average...

  7. Gel-based phosphoproteomics analysis of sarcoplasmic proteins in postmortem porcine muscle with pH decline rate and time differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Karlsson, Anders H;

    2011-01-01

    Meat quality development is highly influenced by the pH decline caused by the postmortem (PM) glycolysis. Protein phosphorylation is an important mechanism in regulating the activity of glycometabolic enzymes. Here, a gel-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the protein phosphory...

  8. A community-based case-control study of asthma and chronic bronchitis in relation to occupation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, D.; Donan, P.T.; Cowie, H.A.; Miller, B.G.; Soutar, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    A community-based epidemiological study was conducted in the West Lothian and Central Regions of Scotland in 1994 by postal questionnaire to investigate the associations between occupations previously held and prevalent symptoms of asthma and chronic bronchitis. 50% of the 34,000 questionnaires were returned. The prevalence of asthma was estimated to be 8% and that of chronic bronchitis was 15%. The prevalence of asthma and of chronic bronchitis related to work was estimated to be 0.5% and 2.2% respectively. Clinical assessments of a sample of respondents confirmed the reliability of diagnoses of asthma using a self-administered questionnaire, but suggested that the work-relatedness of asthma was less reliably diagnosed. Asthma symptoms were particularly implicated with employment in the food processing, catering and textiles industries. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with dusty jobs such as coal mining metal processing and manufacturing of electrical products.

  9. Development of disaster pamphlets based on health needs of patients with chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Emi; Mori, Kikuko; Kaji, Hidesuke; Nonami, Yoko; Fukano, Chika; Kayano, Tomonori; Kawada, Terue; Kimura, Yukari; Yasui, Kumiko; Ueki, Hiroko; Ugai, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a pamphlet that would enable patients with diabetes, rheumatic diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and dialysis treatment to be aware of changes in their physical conditions at an early stage of a disaster, cope with these changes, maintain self-care measures, and recover their health. Illness-specific pamphlets were produced based on disaster-related literature, news articles, surveys of victims of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster and Typhoon Tokage, and other sources. Each pamphlet consisted of seven sections-each section includes items common to all illnesses as well as items specific to each illness. The first section, "Physical Self-Care", contains a checklist of 18 common physical symptoms as well as symptoms specific to each illness, and goes on to explain what the symptoms may indicate and what should be done about them. The main aim of the "Changes in Mental Health Conditions" section is to detect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at an early stage. The section "Preventing the Deterioration of Chronic Illnesses" is designed to prevent the worsening of each illness through the provision of information on cold prevention, adjustment to the living environment, and ways of coping with stress. In the sections, "Medication Control" and "Importance of Having Medical Examinations", spaces are provided to list medications currently being used and details of the hospital address, in order to ensure the continued use of medications. The section, "Preparing for Evacuations" gives a list of everyday items and medical items needed to be prepared for a disaster. Finally, the "Methods of Contact in an Emergency" section provides details of how to use the voicemail service. The following content-specific to each illness also was explained in detail: (1) for diabetes, complications arising from the deterioration of the illness, attention to nutrition, and insulin management; (2) for rheumatic diseases, a checklist of

  10. Risk factors for infection of sow herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was u...

  11. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research – Suggestion for an operational tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest...

  12. Hyperlipidemia Is Associated with Chronic Urticaria: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Chen, Chao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) is diverse, with chronic infections and inflammation being reported as considerable contributing factors. Although the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be significantly elevated in patients with CU, no one has specifically estimated the effects on CU following hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to examine the association between hyperlipidemia and CU using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. This study included 9798 adults with CU as cases and 9798 sex- and age-matched controls. These patients were examined for whether they had received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia. We used conditional logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for having been previously diagnosed with hyperlipidemia between cases and controls. In total, 7066 (36.1%) patients had received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, including 4287 (43.8%) among CU cases and 2779 (28.4%) among controls. The conditional logistic regression revealed that the OR of prior hyperlipidemia for cases was 1.97 (95% CI: 1.85~2.09) compared to the controls. Furthermore, compared to patients without CU, patients with CU independently experienced a 1.65-fold (95% CI = 1.55~1.76; phyperlipidemia diagnosis, after adjustments were made. We concluded that CU was associated with having received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia.

  13. Managing inadequate responses to frontline treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: a case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixby, Dale L

    2013-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib are the standard of care for treating patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Compared with interferon-based treatment, the previous standard of care, imatinib is associated with significantly higher cytogenetic response rates and prolonged overall survival. Nilotinib and dasatinib, both newer and more potent TKIs, significantly improve cytogenetic and molecular response rates compared with imatinib. Despite significant advances in CML treatment enabled by the TKIs, a fraction of patients who receive frontline treatment with a TKI demonstrate inadequate response. The reasons for this vary, but in many cases, inadequate response can be attributed to non-adherence to the treatment regimen, intolerance to the drug, intrinsic or acquired resistance to the drug, or a combination of reasons. More often than not, strategies to improve response necessitate a change in treatment plan, either a dose adjustment or a switch to an alternate drug, particularly in the case of drug intolerance or drug resistance. Improved physician-patient communication and patient education are effective strategies to address issues relating to adherence and intolerance. Because inadequate response to TKI treatment correlates with poor long-term outcomes, it is imperative that patients who experience intolerance or who fail to achieve appropriate responses are carefully evaluated so that appropriate treatment modifications can be made to maximize the likelihood of positive long-term outcome.

  14. Pharmacist Web-Based Training Program on Medication Use in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Impact on Knowledge, Skills, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legris, Marie-eve; Seguin, Noemie Charbonneau; Desforges, Katherine; Sauve, Patricia; Lord, Anne; Bell, Robert; Berbiche, Djamal; Desrochers, Jean-Francois; Lemieux, Jean-Philippe; Morin-Belanger, Claudia; Paradis, Francois Ste-Marie; Lalonde, Lyne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are multimorbid elderly at high risk of drug-related problems. A Web-based training program was developed based on a list of significant drug-related problems in CKD patients requiring a pharmaceutical intervention. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of the program on community…

  15. Effectiveness of a home-based physical therapy program in patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SÎRBU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To demonstrate the effectiveness of a home-based physical therapy program on pain, spine mobility and quality of daily activities in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP. We also want to show that patients who undergo this program decreased their intake in analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Methods: 18 patients with chronic low back pain were assessed with the following tests: VAS pain scale, Schober’s test and Rolland-Morris questionnaire. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID consumption was recorded. Over a period of six months all subjects participated in a 45 minutes home-based physical therapy program, three times per week. Before starting this intervention all patients were instructed and exercises were demonstrated in front of them by a physical therapist. Moreover, they received written brochures in order to exercise correctly at home. Follow-up examinations took place at baseline and six months later. Results: We obtained significant differences between pre- and post-intervention assessments of pain (p=0.001, lumbar flexion (p=0.0001 and functional status (p=0.0005 in our group. Moreover, the number of patients who were taken analgesics decreased from 7 (39% to 5 patients (28%. Likewise the number of patients who were taken anti-inflammatory drugs decreased from 11 (61% to 8 (44%. Conclusion: The home-based rehabilitation program was effective in improving the ranges of active lumbar flexion and in decreasing the physical disability caused by low back pain, as well as in reducing the levels of pain. We note that a larger number of patients have given up to the intake of NSAIDs comparative to those who have given up to analgesics.

  16. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  17. Management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS): an evidence-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Methods: The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the treatment for CP/CPPS all over the world were searched. MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2007), EMBASE (January 1988 to June 2007), and 4 Chinese databases were electronically searched. The studies included in the references of eligible studies were additionally searched. Two reviewers independently screened the studies for eligibility, evaluated the quality and extracted the data from the eligible studies, with confirmation by crosschecking. Divergences of opinion were settled by discussion or consulted by the experts. Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 4.2 software. Results: Twelve original studies involving 1 003 participants met inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, alpha-blockers could improve the symptoms of CP/CPPS obviously with WMD of NIH-CPSI, total score and pain score were -4.10 (95%CI: -6.92 to -1.28) and -1.68 (95%CI: -2.54 to -0.82). Antibiotics could not improve the symptoms obviously with WMD of NIH-CPSI; total score and pain score were -2.71 (95%CI: -4.78 to -0.64) and -0.86 (95%CI: -2.07 to 0.36). Flavoxate could not improve the NIH-CPSI total score obviously, but could relieve the pain, with WMD of NIH-CPSI total score and pain score being -2.96 (95%CI: -5.17 to -0.74) and -2.31 (95% CI: -4.05 to 0.03). Prostat could improve the NIH CPSI total score obviously, but could not relieve the pain, with WMD of NIH-CPSI total score and pain score being -7.60 (95%CI: -9.97 to -5.23) and -2.02 (95%CI: -4.07 to 0.04). Conclusion: Drug intervention could improve total symptoms of CP/CPPS in some degree, but no universally effective treatment is available that can prove significant lasting benefit for all the symptoms of CP/CPPS. Future RCT must use an appropriate sample size and optimal duration and follow-up of participants. It is important to improve the quality

  18. The role of home-based information and communications technology interventions in chronic disease management: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Rekha; Warren, Jim

    2009-06-01

    This article presents a systematic literature review done to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of home-based information and communications technology enabled interventions for chronic disease management, with emphasis on their impact on health outcomes and costs. Relevant articles were retrieved from PubMed and evaluated using quality worksheets with pre-identified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 256 articles retrieved, 27 were found to concord with the study criteria. Evaluation of the identified articles was conducted irrespective of study design, type of home-based intervention or chronic disease involved. The review demonstrates that HBIs applied to chronic disease management improve functional and cognitive patient outcomes and reduce healthcare spending. However, further research is needed to assess benefit in terms of evidence-based outcome indicators (that can provide a basis for meta-analysis), to confirm sustainable cost benefits, and to systematically collect data on physician satisfaction with patient management.

  19. From viral genome to specific peptide epitopes: methods for identifying porcine T cell epitopes based on in silico predictions, in vitro identification and ex vivo verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Rasmussen, Michael; Harndah, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    The affinity with which major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules bind peptides is instrumental to presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We analyzed three swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) molecules for complete nonamer peptide-based binding matrices in order.......000 peptides. T cell epitopes were identified using peptide-SLA complexes assembled into fluorescent tetramers to stain swine influenza specific CTLs derived from immunized animals and MHC-defined pigs vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease virus. These results demonstrate the broad applicability of methods...

  20. Identification of weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochetes by biochemical reactions, PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Tatsuo; Araki, Hiroshi; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2008-08-01

    We examined the usefulness of PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and species-specific PCR combined with a newly devised rapid biochemical test using microplates for identifying weakly beta-hemolytic intestinal spirochetes (WBHIS) isolated from pigs. WBHIS strains showing atypical biochemical characteristics were decisively identified at the species level by PCR-RFLP and species-specific PCR. Identification of WBHIS at the species level in routine diagnostic work will certainly contribute to clarifying the pathogenicity of WBHIS.

  1. Home-Based Telehealth Hospitalization for Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anna Svarre; Laursen, Lars C; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Telehealth interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have focused primarily on stable outpatients. Telehealth designed to handle the acute exacerbation that normally requires hospitalization could also be of interest. The aim of this study...... was to compare the effect of home-based telehealth hospitalization with conventional hospitalization for exacerbation in severe COPD. Materials and Methods: A two-center, noninferiority, randomized, controlled effectiveness trial was conducted between June 2010 and December 2011. Patients with severe COPD....... The noninferiority margin was set at 20% of the control group's risk of re-admission. Secondary outcomes were mortality, need for manual or mechanical ventilation or noninvasive ventilation, length of hospitalization, physiological parameters, health-related quality of life, user satisfaction, healthcare costs...

  2. Medical Nutrition Therapy based on Nutrition Intervention for a Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Hee

    2014-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability, and according to statistics from the World Health Organization, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death overall in the face of decades, and expected to be increased. In 2005, the reported prevalence of COPD in Korea was 17.2% of adults over the age of 45. Malnutrition is a common problem in papatients with COPD. And several nutritional intervention studies showed a significant improvement in physical and functional outcomes. According to the results of previous studies, the nutritional support is important. This is a case report of a patient with COPD who was introduced to a proper diet through nutrition education based on the medical nutrition therapy protocol for COPD.

  3. Fasciola hepatica saposin-like-2 protein based ELISA for the serodiagnosis of chronic human fascioliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Santiago, Olgary; Delgado, Bonnibel; Espino, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and evaluated for its diagnostic ability to detect human IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica saposin-like protein-2. The assay was compared with an indirect ELISA with excretory-secretory products (FhES) from adult F. hepatica. In an analysis of the sera of 37 patients infected with F. hepatica, 40 patients with other parasitic infections, and 50 healthy controls, the sensitivity of both ELISA assays was 100%. However, the FhSAP2-based ELISA was more specific (95.6%) than the FhES-ELISA (91.9%). These results demonstrated that FhSAP2 can be used in the serodiagnosis of chronic human fascioliasis with additional advantage that is relative cheap and easy to produce. Studies are in progress to evaluate this FhSAP2-ELISA assay in a large-scale prevalence surveys in endemic areas. PMID:21683266

  4. Internet-based social networking and its role in the evolution of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Chido; Herr, Allen; Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Ginsburg, Lauren; Siskin, Gary P

    2012-06-01

    The Internet is being seen as a growing resource for health-related information for a large number of patients. It is undeniable that its widespread presence has led to the growth of awareness that chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as an entity that may contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Social networking and file-sharing Web sites have brought patients with MS together from all over the world and have facilitated the distribution of personal experiences and information derived from medical research as it relates to CCSVI. As a result, there has been an accelerated growth in the number of patients seeking treatment for this syndrome in light of the possibility that it may improve their present condition. This article will review this phenomenon, the Internet-based resources available to MS patients seeking information about CCSVI, and the responsibilities of physicians as they participate in these online discussions.

  5. Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: From Molecular Bases to Practical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ripellino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, in which both cellular and humoral immune responses are involved. The disease is clinically heterogeneous with some patients displaying pure motor form and others also showing a variable degree of sensory dysfunction; disease evolution may also differ from patient to patient, since monophasic, progressive, and relapsing forms are reported. Underlying such clinical variability there is probably a broad spectrum of molecular dysfunctions that are and will be the target of therapeutic strategies. In this review we first explore the biological bases of current treatments and subsequently we focus on the practical management that must also take into account pharmacoeconomic issues.

  6. From Viral genome to specific peptide epitopes - Methods for identifying porcine T cell epitopes based on in silico predictions, in vitro identification and ex vivo verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Rasmussen, Michael; Harndahl, Mikkel

    immunity during viral infections and disease. Here we combine the ability of complete nonamer peptide based binding matrices for three different SLA proteins to predict good candidates for peptide-SLA (pSLA) binding with that of an online available algorithm, NetMHCpan. Further we analyze the correlation......The affinity for and stability of peptides bound by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are instrumental factors in presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In swine, such peptide presentations by swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) are crucial for swine...... can be identified within a given viral genome, along with the elimination of hundreds, or even thousands, of peptide sequences, which are not likely to be bound. Applying these methods can save enormous amounts of time and costs of epitope discovery studies and MHC binding analysis not only in swine...

  7. A receptor-based bioadsorbent to target advanced glycation end products in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangrong; Lapidos, Karen A.; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Sprague, Stuart M.; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been reported to be a major contributor to chronic systemic inflammation. AGEs are not efficiently removed by hemodialysis or the kidney of a chronic kidney disease (CKD) patient. The goal of this study was to develop a receptor for AGEs (RAGE)-based bioadsorbent device that was capable of removing endogenous AGEs from human blood. The extracellular domain of RAGE was immobilized onto agarose beads to generate the bioadsorbent. The efficacy of AGE removal from saline, serum, and whole blood; biological effects of AGE reduction; and hemocompatibility and stability of the bioadsorbent were investigated. The bioadsorbent bound AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) with a binding capacity of 0.73 ± 0.07 mg AGE-BSA/ml bioadsorbent. The bioadsorbent significantly reduced the concentration of total AGEs in serum isolated from end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients by 57%. AGE removal resulted in a significant reduction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in human endothelial cells and abolishment of osteoclast formation in osteoclast progenitor cells. A hollow fiber device loaded with bioadsorbent reduced endogenous AGEs from recirculated blood to 36% of baseline levels with no significant changes in total protein and albumin concentration. The bioadsorbent maintained AGE-specific binding capacity after freeze-drying and storage for 1 year. This approach provides the foundation for further development of sRAGE-based extracorporeal therapies to selectively deplete serum AGEs from human blood and decrease inflammation in patients with diabetes and/or CKD. PMID:24206165

  8. A receptor-based bioadsorbent to target advanced glycation end products in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangrong; Lapidos, Karen A; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Sprague, Stuart M; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2014-06-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been reported to be a major contributor to chronic systemic inflammation. AGEs are not efficiently removed by hemodialysis or the kidney of a chronic kidney disease (CKD) patient. The goal of this study was to develop a receptor for AGEs (RAGE)-based bioadsorbent device that was capable of removing endogenous AGEs from human blood. The extracellular domain of RAGE was immobilized onto agarose beads to generate the bioadsorbent. The efficacy of AGE removal from saline, serum, and whole blood; biological effects of AGE reduction; and hemocompatibility and stability of the bioadsorbent were investigated. The bioadsorbent bound AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) with a binding capacity of 0.73 ± 0.07 mg AGE-BSA/mL bioadsorbent. The bioadsorbent significantly reduced the concentration of total AGEs in serum isolated from end-stage kidney disease patients by 57%. AGE removal resulted in a significant reduction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human endothelial cells and abolishment of osteoclast formation in osteoclast progenitor cells. A hollow fiber device loaded with bioadsorbent-reduced endogenous AGEs from recirculated blood to 36% of baseline levels with no significant changes in total protein or albumin concentration. The bioadsorbent maintained AGE-specific binding capacity after freeze-drying and storage for 1 year. This approach provides the foundation for further development of soluble RAGE-based extracorporeal therapies to selectively deplete serum AGEs from human blood and decrease inflammation in patients with diabetes and/or CKD.

  9. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Larsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, idiopathic and familial, is characterized by degradation of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies (LB in the substantia nigra. LBs contain aggregated proteins of which α-synuclein is the major component. The protein synphilin-1 interacts and colocalizes with α-synuclein in LBs. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine synphilin-1 and isoforms hereof with the future perspective to use the pig as a model for Parkinson's disease. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. The spatial expression of SNCAIP mRNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1 of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90% and to mouse (84% synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation.

  10. Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, M.G.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anim Genet. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print] Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility. Galina-Pantoja L, Siggens K, van Schriek MG, Heuven HC. PIC/Genus, 100 Bluegrass Commons Blvd, Hendersonville, TN 37075, USA. The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions a

  11. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H;

    1994-01-01

    In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine ...

  12. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and altered risk of lung cancer in a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been consistently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, previous studies have had limited ability to determine whether the association is due to smoking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE population-based case-control study recruited 2100 cases and 2120 controls, of whom 1934 cases and 2108 controls reported about diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD (chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, or asthma more than 1 year before enrollment. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. After adjustment for smoking, other previous lung diseases, and study design variables, lung cancer risk was elevated among individuals with a history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5, emphysema (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.8, or COPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0-3.1. Among current smokers, association between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was strongest among lighter smokers. Asthma was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in males (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the associations of personal history of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD with increased risk of lung cancer are not entirely due to smoking. Inflammatory processes may both contribute to COPD and be important for lung carcinogenesis.

  14. Development of a rapid in vitro protein refolding assay which discriminates between peptide-bound and peptide-free forms of recombinant porcine major histocompatibility class I complex (SLA-I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Kristensen, B.; Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    -I restricted porcine CD8(+) T-cell epitope currently known is a 9-residue peptide from the polyprotein of CSFV (J. Gen. Virol, 76 (1995) 3039). Based on results with the CSFV epitope and two porcine haplotypes (H4 and H7), the in vitro refold assay appeared able to discriminate between peptide-free and peptide...

  15. Base excess, a marker of chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure and predictor of survival in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the role of base excess (BE as marker of chronic hypercapnia and survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF. Moreover, it was investigated whether the effects of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV on CHRF were reflected in BE and survival. In 240 (160 without exacerbation patients with COPD (mean±SD FEV1 30.7±9.7 %pred; PaCO2 56.9±9.9 mmHg body-mass index (BMI, lung function, respiratory muscle function, blood gases and 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD were assessed prior to initiation of NPPV. In addition, the changes of risk factors 6.3±2.9 months after initiation of NPPV were evaluated. Overall mortality during the follow-up time (26.0±24.5 months was 34.6%. Deaths resulted predominantly from respiratory causes (65.1%; among those, respiratory failure was most frequent (85.2%. Univariate analysis revealed BMI, FEV1, maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, inspiratory load (P0.1, haemoglobin, 6-MWD, hyperinflation (IC/TLC, RV/TLC, blood gases and BE to be associated (p<0.05 each with prognosis. In multivariate analyses, however, only BMI, RV/TLC and BE turned out to be independent cross-sectional predictors (p<0.05. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that BE had predictive value particularly in patients with BMI25 kg·m–2, RV/TLC70 % and PaCO257 mmHg. Furthermore, changes of BMI, RV/TLC and BE (p<0.01 were associated with improved prognosis in severe hypercapnic COPD. In patients with COPD and CHRF, BE was a prognostic marker for mortality, that was independent from other factors, particularly PaCO2. In addition, reversal of CHRF was reflected in BE and appeared to have an impact on prognosis.

  16. Similarities in the immunoglobulin response and VH gene usage in rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to porcine hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borie Dominic C

    2006-03-01

    not been previously identified, and encodes xenoantibodies at later time points post-transplant. Sequencing of IgG clones revealed increased usage of the monkey germline progenitor most similar to human IGHV3-11 and the onset of mutations. Conclusion The small number of IGVH genes encoding xenoantibodies to porcine hepatocytes in non-human primates and humans is highly conserved. Rhesus monkeys are an appropriate preclinical model for testing novel reagents such as those developed using structure-based drug design to target and deplete antibodies to porcine xenografts.

  17. Microchannel-based regenerative scaffold for chronic peripheral nerve interfacing in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Akhil; Tahilramani, Mayank; Bentley, John T; Gore, Russell K; Millard, Daniel C; Mukhatyar, Vivek J; Joseph, Anish; Haque, Adel S; Stanley, Garrett B; English, Arthur W; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2015-02-01

    Neurally controlled prosthetics that cosmetically and functionally mimic amputated limbs remain a clinical need because state of the art neural prosthetics only provide a fraction of a natural limb's functionality. Here, we report on the fabrication and capability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and epoxy-based SU-8 photoresist microchannel scaffolds to serve as viable constructs for peripheral nerve interfacing through in vitro and in vivo studies in a sciatic nerve amputee model where the nerve lacks distal reinnervation targets. These studies showed microchannels with 100 μm × 100 μm cross-sectional areas support and direct the regeneration/migration of axons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts through the microchannels with space available for future maturation of the axons. Investigation of the nerve in the distal segment, past the scaffold, showed a high degree of organization, adoption of the microchannel architecture forming 'microchannel fascicles', reformation of endoneurial tubes and axon myelination, and a lack of aberrant and unorganized growth that might be characteristic of neuroma formation. Separate chronic terminal in vivo electrophysiology studies utilizing the microchannel scaffolds with permanently integrated microwire electrodes were conducted to evaluate interfacing capabilities. In all devices a variety of spontaneous, sensory evoked and electrically evoked single and multi-unit action potentials were recorded after five months of implantation. Together, these findings suggest that microchannel scaffolds are well suited for chronic implantation and peripheral nerve interfacing to promote organized nerve regeneration that lends itself well to stable interfaces. Thus this study establishes the basis for the advanced fabrication of large-electrode count, wireless microchannel devices that are an important step towards highly functional, bi-directional peripheral nerve interfaces.

  18. An epidemiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A community-based study in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. Methodology: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was used to interview all subjects and screen for symptoms of COPD. Postbronchodilator spirometry was done to confirm COPD. Statistical Analysis: Adjusted odds ratio (aOR was calculated by multivariable analysis to examine the association of risk factors with COPD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was developed to assess predictability. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.9%. Tobacco smoking was the strongest risk factor associated (aOR 9.48; 95% CI 4.22, 14.13 followed by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, occupational exposure, age, and biomass fuel. Each pack-year of smoking increased 15% risk of COPD. Ex-smokers had 63% lesser risk compared to current smokers. Clinical allergy seems to preclude COPD (aOR 0.06; 95% CI 0.02, 0.37. ROC analysis showed 94.38% of the COPD variability can be assessed by this model (sensitivity 57.4%; positive predictive value 93.3%. Only 48% patients were on treatment. Treatment continuation was impeded by its cost. Conclusion: COPD prevalence in the region of Delhi, India, is high, and our case-finding population study identified a high rate of patients who were not on any treatment. Our study adds to creating awareness on the importance of smoking cessation, early diagnosis of COPD, and the need for regular treatment.

  19. 慢性发绀型肺血减少先天性心脏病幼猪模型的建立与病理学观察%Development and pathological observation on a chronic cyanotic porcine model with decreased pulmonary blood flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋; 刘迎龙; 吕小东; 朱耀斌; 凌锋; 刘爱军; 李刚; 续玉林

    2011-01-01

    .09) mmHg ( 1 mmHg =0.133 kpa) to ( 19.67 ± 4.76) mmHg after 4 weeks ( P = 0.011) . The arterial oxygen saturation ( SaO2) . arterial oxygen tension ( PaO2 ) , arterial carhon dioxide tension ( PaCO2 ) , hemoglobin concentration ( Hb) and hematocrit value ( Hct) were 82.35%, 68.73 mmHg , 51.83 mmHg, 13.82 g/dl and 42.67% in cyanotic model group versus 96.43% , 194.08 mmHg, 36.9 mmHg, 10.98 g/dl and 31.17% in control group, respectively ( all P <0.05) . There were significant pathologic differences of lung and heart tissue between the two groups. Conclusion : A chronic porcine model of cyanotic congenital heart disease with decreased pulmonary blood flow was successfully established by right-to-left shunting with a PA-to-LA synthetic graft with PA banding. Application of this experimental design may enhance our understanding and possibly influence the treatment of patients having congenital cyanotic heart disease with decreased pulmonary blood flow.

  20. Barrier Functionality of Porcine and Bovine Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Nakhlband

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, isolated cell based blood-brain barrier (BBB models have been widely used for brain drug delivery and targeting, due to their relatively proper bioelectrical and permeability properties. However, primary cultures of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs isolated from different species vary in terms of bioelectrical and permeability properties. Methods: To pursue this, in the current investigation, primary porcine and bovine BCECs (PBCECs and BBCECs, respectively were isolated and used as an in vitro BBB model. The bioelectrical and permeability properties were assessed in BCECs co-cultured with C6 cells with/without hydrocortisone (550 nM. The bioelectrical properties were further validated by means of the permeability coefficients of transcellular and paracellular markers. Results: The primary PBCECs displayed significantly higher trans-endothelial electrical resistance (~900 W.cm2 than BBCECs (~700 W.cm2 - both co-cultured with C6 cells in presence of hydrocortisone. Permeability coefficients of propranolol/diazepam and mannitol/sucrose in PBCECs were ~21 and ~2 (×10-6 cm.sec-1, where these values for BBCECs were ~25 and ~5 (×10-6 cm.sec-1. Conclusion: Upon our bioelectrical and permeability findings, both models display discriminative barrier functionality but porcine BCECs seem to provide a better platform than bovine BCECs for drug screening and brain targeting.

  1. Trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing surgical and endoscopic drainage in patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Philippe; Wonderling, David; Cahen, Djuna L; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Gouma, Dirk J; Bruno, Marco J; Pereira, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Objective Published evidence indicates that surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct was more effective than endoscopic drainage for patients with chronic pancreatitis. This analysis assessed the cost-effectiveness of surgical versus endoscopic drainage in obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Design This trial-based cost-utility analysis (ISRCTN04572410) was conducted from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective and during a 79-month time horizon. During the trial the details of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and pancreatic insufficiency were collected. The resource use was varied in the sensitivity analysis based on a review of the literature. The health outcome was the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY), generated using EQ-5D data collected during the trial. There were no pancreas-related deaths in the trial. All-cause mortality from the trial was incorporated into the QALY estimates in the sensitivity analysis. Setting Hospital. Participants Patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Primary and secondary outcome measures Costs, QALYs and cost-effectiveness. Results The result of the base-case analysis was that surgical drainage dominated endoscopic drainage, being both more effective and less costly. The sensitivity analysis varied mortality and resource use and showed that the surgical option remained dominant in all scenarios. The probability of cost-effectiveness for surgical drainage was 100% for the base case and 82% in the assessed most conservative case scenario. Conclusions In obstructive chronic pancreatitis, surgical drainage is highly cost-effective compared with endoscopic drainage from a UK NHS perspective. PMID:24065699

  2. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with chronic somatic conditions: a meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugen, S. van; Ferwerda, M.; Hoeve, D.; Rovers, M.M.; Koulil, S. van; Middendorp, H. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic somatic conditions face unique challenges accessing mental health care outside of their homes due to symptoms and physical limitations. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) has shown to be effective for various psychological conditions. The increasing

  3. Development of Feeling Better: A web-based pain management programme for children with chronic pain and their parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline M Traynor

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: It is feasible to create an evidence-based and theory driven online self-management intervention to support children with chronic pain and their parents. Service users can be involved in the design and conduct of research in a meaningful way. An exploratory trial to test the feasibility of acceptability of Feeling Better is underway.

  4. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  5. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 3: Porcine islet product manufacturing and release testing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayat, Gina R; Gazda, Lawrence S; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Hering, Bernhard J; Hosking, Peter; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Rajotte, Ray V

    2016-01-01

    In the 2009 IXA consensus, the requirements for the quality and control of manufacturing of porcine islet products were based on the U.S. regulatory framework where the porcine islet products fall within the definition of somatic cell therapy under the statutory authority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, porcine islet products require pre-market approval as a biologic product under the Public Health Services Act and they meet the definition of a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Thus, they are subject to applicable provisions of the law and as such, control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, safety of porcine islet products, and characterization of porcine islet products must be met before proceeding to clinical trials. In terms of control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, the manufacturing facility must be in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines appropriate for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials. Sponsors intending to conduct a Phase 1/2 trial of islet xenotransplantation products must be able to demonstrate the safety of the product through the establishment of particular quality assurance and quality control procedures. All materials (including animal source and pancreas) used in the manufacturing process of the porcine islet products must be free of adventitious agents. The final porcine islet product must undergo tests for the presence of these adventitious agents including sterility, mycoplasma (if they are cultured), and endotoxin. Assessments of the final product must include the safety specifications mentioned above even if the results are not available until after release as these data would be useful for patient diagnosis and treatment if necessary. In addition, a plan of action must be in place for patient notification and treatment in case the

  6. Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of chronic urticaria/angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA) continues to be a vexing condition for both patients and health care providers. Despite progress made in recent years to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of CUA and its treatment, many patients continue to experience ongoing symptoms and impaired quality of life. In the overwhelming majority of cases, a definite etiology is not identified. Laboratory testing may be justified based on its "reassurance value"; however, extensive routine testing is not favorable from a cost-benefit standpoint and does not lead to improved patient care outcomes. The target for effective management is to control CUA with a combination of avoidance measures, lifestyle changes, and regular administration of medication. A step-care approach to pharmacologic management that is favorable from the standpoint of balancing the potential for benefit with the potential for harm can lead to substantial improvement in quality of life. This article will focus on achieving improved outcomes for patients with CUA based on evidence-directed recommendations for diagnosis and management.

  7. Evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by BAC-based microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Lisa D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a highly variable disease with life expectancies ranging from months to decades. Cytogenetic findings play an integral role in defining the prognostic significance and treatment for individual patients. Results We have evaluated 25 clinical cases from a tertiary cancer center that have an established diagnosis of CLL and for which there was prior cytogenetic and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH data. We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based microarray designed for the detection of known constitutional genetic syndromes. In 15 of the 25 cases, aCGH detected all copy number imbalances identified by prior cytogenetic and/or FISH studies. For the majority of those not detected, the aberrations were present at low levels of mosaicism. Furthermore, for 15 of the 25 cases, additional abnormalities were detected. Four of those cases had deletions that mapped to intervals implicated in inherited predisposition to CLL. For most cases, aCGH was able to detect abnormalities present in as few as 10% of cells. Although changes in ploidy are not easily discernable by aCGH, results for two cases illustrate the detection of additional copy gains and losses present within a mosaic tetraploid cell population. Conclusions Our results illustrate the successful evaluation of CLL using a microarray optimized for the interrogation of inherited disorders and the identification of alterations with possible relevance to CLL susceptibility.

  8. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about the presence of chronic morbidity in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients at disease onset. Previous studies have been mainly performed in established IA patients or they focus on isolated co-morbid diseases. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic disease

  9. Sex-based differences in brain alterations across chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Fling, Connor; Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce D; Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A

    2017-01-02

    Common brain mechanisms are thought to play a significant role across a multitude of chronic pain syndromes. In addition, there is strong evidence for the existence of sex differences in the prevalence of chronic pain and in the neurobiology of pain. Thus, it is important to consider sex when developing general principals of pain neurobiology. The goal of the current Mini-Review is to evaluate what is known about sex-specific brain alterations across multiple chronic pain populations. A total of 15 sex difference and 143 single-sex articles were identified from among 412 chronic pain neuroimaging articles. Results from sex difference studies indicate more prominent primary sensorimotor structural and functional alterations in female chronic pain patients compared with male chronic pain patients: differences in the nature and degree of insula alterations, with greater insula reactivity in male patients; differences in the degree of anterior cingulate structural alterations; and differences in emotional-arousal reactivity. Qualitative comparisons of male-specific and female-specific studies appear to be consistent with the results from sex difference studies. Given these differences, mixed-sex studies of chronic pain risk creating biased data or missing important information and single-sex studies have limited generalizability. The advent of large-scale neuroimaging databases will likely aid in building a more comprehensive understanding of sex differences and commonalities in brain mechanisms underlying chronic pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A model-based meta-analysis of sofosbuvir-based treatments in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pitarch, Alejandro; Guglieri-López, Beatriz; Ferriols-Lisart, Rafael; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of sofosbuvir-based treatments in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection using a model-based meta-analysis (MBMA). A bibliographic search was performed to identify clinical trials involving sofosbuvir as a unique direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agent or together with daclatasvir, ledipasvir or simeprevir for the treatment of diagnosed HCV infection. The time course of the virological response (VR) was modelled to estimate the effect of treatment and the influence of population characteristics on the longitudinal efficacy profile. The model was validated and simulations of 10 different treatment schedules were performed. Data from 19 clinical trials were included in the analysis. According to the developed model, therapy with sofosbuvir+ledipasvir is the most effective therapy in all scenarios, but it does not differ greatly in terms of sustained VR with respect to other combinations of DAA treatments. In conclusion, this MBMA generates knowledge regarding hypothetical head-to-head trials that have not been conducted previously. Therapies with sofosbuvir+ledipasvir are probably the most effective sofosbuvir-based treatments.

  11. Cloning and characterization of porcine aquaporin 1 water channel expressed extensively in gastrointestinal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Ying Jin; Yan-Li Liu; Li-Na Xu; Yong Jiang; Ying Wang; Bao-Xue Yang; Hong Yang; Tong-Hui Ma

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clone and characterize the porcine aquaporins (AQPs) in the gastrointestinal system.METHODS: A PCR-based cloning strategy and RACE were used to clone full-length AQP coding sequence from reversely transcribed pig liver cDNA. Stopped-flow light scattering and a YFP-based fluorescence method were used to measure the osmotic water permeability of erythrocytes and the stably transfected CHO cells.RT-PCR, Northern blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the gastrointestinal expression and localization of cloned AQPs. Protein expression in transfected cells and red blood cells was analyzed by Western blot.RESULTS: An 813 bp cDNA encoding a 271 amino acid porcine aquaporin (designated pAQP1) was cloned from liver mRNA (pAQP1 has a 93% identity with human AQP1 and contains two NPA motifs conserved in AQP family, one consensus sequence for N-linked glycosylation, and one mercury-sensitive site at cysteine 191). RT-PCR analysis revealed extensive expression of pAQP1 mRNA in porcine digestive glands and gut.Northern blot showed a single 3.0 kb transcript in selected digestive organs, pAQP1 protein was localized at central lacteals of the small intestine, microvessles of salivary glands, as well as epithelium of intrahepatic bile ducts by immunoperoxydase. High osmotic water permeability that is inhibitable by HgCl2 was detected in porcine erythrocytes and CHO cells stably transfected with pAQP1 cDNA. Tmmunoblot analysis of porcine erythrocytes and pAQP-transfected CHO cells revealed an unglycosylated 28 ku band and larger glycosylated proteins.CONCLUSION: pAQP1 is the first porcine aquaporin that can be molecularly identified so far. The broad distribution of pAQP1 in epithelium and endothelium of porcine digestive organs may suggest an important role of channel-mediated water transport in fluid secretion/absorption as well as in digestive function and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal system.

  12. Chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and risk of non-melanoma skin cancers-A population based study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Ø; Olesen, Anne B; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    We examined the associations between chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) in a population-based case-control study of 4,187 patients diagnosed with a first primary NMSC in 1995 in Denmark. From the National Patient Registry covering all Danish...... hospitals, we obtained data on hospitalizations with chronic diseases, recorded before the date of NMSC diagnosis. Using incidence density sampling, we selected 10 age-, gender-, and residence-matched controls from the Danish Civil Registration System. We used conditional logistic regression to compute...... incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Although no overall association was found between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and hospitalization for chronic diseases, an elevated IRR for BCC was found among patients with connective tissue disease (IRR 1.34 (95% CI: 0.99-1.82)), transplants...

  13. A population-based study measuring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooi, Lai Seong; Ong, Loke Meng; Ahmad, Ghazali; Bavanandan, Sunita; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Naidu, Balkish M; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon W; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M

    2013-11-01

    In this population-based study, we determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia in order to have accurate information for health-care planning. A sample of 876 individuals, representative of 15,147 respondents from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, of the noninstitutionalized adult population (over 18 years old) in West Malaysia was studied. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI equation); albuminuria and stages of chronic kidney disease were derived from calibrated serum creatinine, age, gender and early morning urine albumin creatinine ratio. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in this group was 9.07%. An estimated 4.16% had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (eGFR >90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.05% had stage 2 (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.26% had stage 3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 0.24% had stage 4 (eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 0.36% had stage 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR Malaysia is common and, therefore, warrants early detection and treatment in order to potentially improve outcome.

  14. A therapeutic delivery system for chronic osteomyelitis via a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weigang; Ye, Chenyi; Zheng, Qixin; Wu, Gui; Cheng, Zhaohui

    2016-08-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to be cured and often relapses, which presents to be a great challenge to clinicians. We conducted this original study to explore the efficiency of therapeutic alliance for chronic osteomyelitis by a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology. We designed and fabricated preciously a multi-drug implant with a multi-layered concentric cylinder construction by three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Levofloxacin and tobramycin were incorporated into the drug implant in a specific sequence. The drug release property of the drug implant was assayed in vitro We also developed an animal model of chronic osteomyelitis to estimate the effect of the 3D printed multi-drug implant. The results showed that the multi-drug implant had a sustained and programmed drug release property. Levofloxacin and tobramycin which were released from the multi-drug implant worked in tandem to enhance pharmacodynamic action which was similar to a tumor chemotherapy program and were sufficient to treat chronic osteomyelitis. These findings imply that the administration of 3D printed multi-drug implant would be a potential therapeutic method for chronic osteomyelitis. Further studies are required.

  15. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias FD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Dultra Dias,1 Luciana Maria Malosá Sampaio,1 Graziela Alves da Silva,1 Évelim LF Dantas Gomes,1 Eloisa Sanches Pereira do Nascimento,1 Vera Lucia Santos Alves,2 Roberto Stirbulov,2 Dirceu Costa11Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University – UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Pneumology Clinic at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo (AME, São Paulo, BrazilIntroduction: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with the goal of improving the functional capacity and quality of life, as well as maintaining the clinical stability of COPD sufferers. However, not all patients are available for such a program despite discomfort with their condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a home-based PR (HBPR program on functional ability, quality of life, and respiratory muscle strength and endurance.Patients and methods: Patients with COPD according to the Global Initiative of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease were randomized (double-blind into two groups. One group performed a protocol at home with aerobic and muscle strength exercises and was called the intervention group; the other group received only instructions to perform breathing and stretching exercises, characterizing it as the control group (CG. We assessed the following variables at baseline and 2 months: exercise tolerance (incremental shuttle walk test and upper limb test, respiratory muscle (strength and endurance test, and health-related quality of life (Airways Questionnaire 20.Results: There were no significant changes after the intervention in either of the two groups in exercise tolerance and quality of life. However, the intervention group had improved respiratory endurance compared with the CG, while the CG presented a decrease in the load sustained by the respiratory muscles after the HBPR.Conclusion: A program of HBPR with biweekly

  16. Sources of cumulus expansion enabling factor (CEEF) in porcine follicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that expansion of porcine cumulus did not depend on oocyte-secreted factor(s), and it is therefore presumed that porcine CEEF may not be produced exclusively by the oocyte. In this experiment, we used mouse oocytectomized complexes (OOX), which were incapable of CEEF production, to assess the secretion of CEEF by evacuated zona, oocytes of different quality and somatic cells in the porcine follicles. The results showed that: (ⅰ) Evacuated zonae from both porcine and mouse oocytes did not produce CEEF. (ⅱ) Porcine oocytes of A, B and C types from 3 - 6 mm follicles were not significantly different in both production and activity of CEEF. (ⅲ) Both porcine OOX from 3 - 6 mm follicles and granulose cells from < 1 mm follicles secreted CEEF in a large quantity, independent of gonadotropins; mural granulose cells from 3-6 mm follicles, however, produced neglectable amount of CEEF. (ⅳ) The follicular fluid from 3-6 mm porcine follicles contained CEEF activity that was concentration-dependent, and thus it enabled cumulus expansion in 60% mouse OOX when used at 10% of concentration, but the expansion rate of mouse OOX decreased to 9% when the concentration was increased to 50%. (ⅴ) Mouse OOX cultured in porcine CEEF-containing M199 expanded only in the presence of gonadotropins, suggesting that the activity of porcine CEEF is hormone-de- pendent.

  17. Porcine hokovirus in wild boar in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Coelho, Catarina; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-04-01

    Porcine hokovirus (PHoV), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (P-PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (H-PARV4/5), was first described in Hong Kong. To evaluate the occurrence of P-PARV4 in Portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. P-PARV4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the P-PARV4 isolates and other P-PARV4 reference strains. This virus appears to be emerging, with yet unknown implications for public health.

  18. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan

    2007-01-01

    )â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully...... delipated in this way. Parthenogenetic activation (PA) after complete removal of zona resulted in similar blastocyst rates in delipated vs. control oocytes (28 ± 7% vs. 28 ± 5%, respectively). Subsequent vitrification of produced blastocysts with the Cryotop technique resulted in higher survival rates......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  19. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila;

    2015-01-01

    %) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel......RNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90...... splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....

  20. Targeted Porcine Genome Engineering with TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Golas, Mariola Monika;

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs are becoming an invaluable animal model for agricultural, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Unlike traditional transgenesis, which is accomplished by randomly inserting an exogenous transgene cassette into the natural chromosomal context, targeted genome editing...... confers precisely editing (e.g., mutations or indels) or insertion of a functional transgenic cassette to user-designed loci. Techniques for targeted genome engineering are growing dramatically and include, e.g., zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs......, including construction of sequence-specific TALENs, delivery of TALENs into primary porcine fibroblasts, and detection of TALEN-mediated cleavage, is described. This chapter is useful for scientists who are inexperienced with TALEN engineering of porcine cells as well as of other large animals....

  1. Effects of home-based respiratory muscle training in children and adolescents with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle weakness is a functional repercussion of chronic lung disease (CLD. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of home-based respiratory muscle training (RMT in children and adolescents with CLD or neuromuscular disease (NMD. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study involving children and adolescents with CLD or NMD. Before and after 6 months of home-based RMT, we measured respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP, PEF, and peak cough flow (PCF. We made statistical comparisons between the pre-RMT and post-RMT values, as well as evaluating the correlation between the duration and effect of RMT. RESULTS: The study included 29 patients, with a mean age of 12 years (range, 5-17 years, of whom 18 (62.1% were male. The CLD group comprised 11 patients (37.9%, and the NMD group comprised 18 (62.1%. The mean duration of the RMT was 60 weeks (range, 46-90 weeks in the CLD group and 39 weeks (range, 24-89 weeks in the NMD group. In comparison with the pre-RMT values, the post-RMT values for MIP and MEP were significantly higher in both groups, whereas those for PEF and PCF were significantly higher only in the NMD group. We found no correlation between the duration and the effect of RMT. CONCLUSIONS: Home-based RMT appears to be an effective strategy for increasing respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with CLD or NMD, although it increased the ability to cough effectively only in those with NMD.

  2. An IL28B genotype-based clinical prediction model for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R O'Brien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in IL28B and other factors are associated with sustained virological response (SVR after pegylated-interferon/ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Using data from the HALT-C Trial, we developed a model to predict a patient's probability of SVR based on IL28B genotype and clinical variables. METHODS: HALT-C enrolled patients with advanced CHC who had failed previous interferon-based treatment. Subjects were re-treated with pegylated-interferon/ribavirin during trial lead-in. We used step-wise logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR and create the predictive model. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to predict a priori probabilities of SVR and determine area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC. RESULTS: Among 646 HCV genotype 1-infected European American patients, 14.2% achieved SVR. IL28B rs12979860-CC genotype was the strongest predictor of SVR (aOR, 7.56; p10% (43.3% of subjects had an SVR rate of 27.9% and accounted for 84.8% of subjects actually achieving SVR. To verify that consideration of both IL28B genotype and clinical variables is required for treatment decisions, we calculated AUC values from published data for the IDEAL Study. CONCLUSION: A clinical prediction model based on IL28B genotype and clinical variables can yield useful individualized predictions of the probability of treatment success that could increase SVR rates and decrease the frequency of futile treatment among patients with CHC.

  3. Purification of tubulin from porcine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Christopher; Friel, Claire T; Borgonovo, Barbara; Drechsel, David N; Hyman, Anthony A; Howard, Jonathon

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules, polymers of the heterodimeric protein αβ-tubulin, give shape to cells and are the tracks for vesicle transport and chromosome segregation. In vitro assays to study microtubule functions and their regulation by microtubule-associated proteins require the availability of purified αβ-tubulin. In this chapter, we describe the process of purification of heterodimeric αβ-tubulin from porcine brain.

  4. Primary Culture of Porcine Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for the primary culture of porcine pancreatic acinar cells. INTERVENTIONS: Dispersed pancreatic acinar cells available utilizing RPMI-1640 medium containing collagenase III. After purification, the isolated acinar cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with the addition of 2.5% fetal bovine serum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The morphological characteristics of acinar cells were described. (3)H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells and the activity of amylase or l...

  5. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  6. Phenotyping chronic pelvic pain based on latent class modeling of physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, B W; Grey, S F; Reichenbach, M; McCarroll, M; Von Gruenigen, V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Defining clinical phenotypes based on physical examination is required for clarifying heterogeneous disorders such as chronic pelvic pain (CPP). The objective of this study was to determine the number of classes within 4 examinable regions and then establish threshold and optimal exam criteria for the classes discovered. Methods. A total of 476 patients meeting the criteria for CPP were examined using pain pressure threshold (PPT) algometry and standardized numeric scale (NRS) pain ratings at 30 distinct sites over 4 pelvic regions. Exploratory factor analysis, latent profile analysis, and ROC curves were then used to identify classes, optimal examination points, and threshold scores. Results. Latent profile analysis produced two classes for each region: high and low pain groups. The optimal examination sites (and high pain minimum thresholds) were for the abdominal wall region: the pair at the midabdomen (PPT threshold depression of > 2); vulvar vestibule region: 10:00 position (NRS > 2); pelvic floor region: puborectalis (combined NRS > 6); vaginal apex region: uterosacral ligaments (combined NRS > 8). Conclusion. Physical examination scores of patients with CPP are best categorized into two classes: high pain and low pain. Standardization of the physical examination in CPP provides both researchers and general gynecologists with a validated technique.

  7. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marise de Freitas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA nanoparticles (MB-NP and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT—in planktonic and biofilm phases—with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL at 20 J/cm2 in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm2 in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82% on gingival bleeding index (GBI compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment.

  8. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Laura Marise; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Chorilli, Marlus; Giusti, Juçaíra Stella M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Soukos, Nikolaos S.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Fontana, Carla Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles (MB-NP) and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT—in planktonic and biofilm phases—with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL) at 20 J/cm2 in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP) or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm2) in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82%) on gingival bleeding index (GBI) compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment. PMID:27213356

  9. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Laura Marise; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Chorilli, Marlus; Giusti, Juçaíra Stella M; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Soukos, Nikolaos S; Amiji, Mansoor M; Fontana, Carla Raquel

    2016-05-20

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles (MB-NP) and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT-in planktonic and biofilm phases-with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL) at 20 J/cm² in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP) or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm²) in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82%) on gingival bleeding index (GBI) compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment.

  10. Isolation and molecular characterization of porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its endocrine effects in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Bersani, M; Schmidt, P;

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the regulation of the endocrine porcine pancreas. Initially, we isolated and purified CGRP from extracts of porcine adrenal glands and pancreases. A single molecular form of the peptide...... was found in the two tissues. The adrenal peptide was sequenced and found to differ from human alpha-CGRP at six positions and from human beta-CGRP at three positions. By immunohistochemistry, CGRP was found in nerve fibers in the pancreatic ganglia. A synthetic replica of the porcine peptide was infused...

  11. A proteomic approach to porcine saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal.

  12. Primary Culture of Porcine Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao X

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for the primary culture of porcine pancreatic acinar cells. INTERVENTIONS: Dispersed pancreatic acinar cells available utilizing RPMI-1640 medium containing collagenase III. After purification, the isolated acinar cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with the addition of 2.5% fetal bovine serum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The morphological characteristics of acinar cells were described. (3H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells and the activity of amylase or lipase were determined during the culture process. RESULTS: There were no remarkable morphological changes in the pancreatic acinar cells during the 20 days culture. The acini showed a tendency to gather but did not attach to the walls of the culture disks. A good (3H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells in the primary culture was maintained. The secretion of amylase or lipase from the acini decreased with the length of time of the culture. DISCUSSION: The primary culture of acinar cells from a porcine pancreas which was carried out in this study maintained the normal morphology of the acinar cells and their ability to grow but not their secretion of amylase or lipase. The method would benefit by the further experiments on acini of porcine pancreas.

  13. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernard Taylor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  14. Cloning of Porcine Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 and Its Expression in Porcine Oocytes and Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Nong, Suqun; Ma, Qingyan; Chen, Baojian; Liu, Mingjun; Pan, Tianbiao; Liao, D. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The maternal-to-embryonic transition (MET) is a complex process that occurs during early mammalian embryogenesis and is characterized by activation of the zygotic genome, initiation of embryonic transcription, and replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. The objective of this study was to reveal the temporal expression and localization patterns of PTTG1 during early porcine embryonic development and to establish a relationship between PTTG1 and the MET. To achieve this goal, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to clone porcine PTTG1. Subsequently, germinal vesicle (GV)- and metaphase II (MII)-stage oocytes, zygotes, 2-, 4-, and 8-cell-stage embryos, morulas, and blastocysts were produced in vitro and their gene expression was analyzed. The results revealed that the coding sequence of porcine PTTG1 is 609-bp in length and that it encodes a 202-aa polypeptide. Using qRT-PCR, PTTG1 mRNA expression was observed to be maintained at high levels in GV- and MII-stage oocytes. The transcript levels in oocytes were also significantly higher than those in embryos from the zygote to blastocyst stages. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that porcine PTTG1 was primarily localized to the cytoplasm and partially localized to the nucleus. Furthermore, the PTTG1 protein levels in MII-stage oocytes and zygotes were significantly higher than those in embryos from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. After fertilization, the level of this protein began to decrease gradually until the blastocyst stage. The results of our study suggest that porcine PTTG1 is a new candidate maternal effect gene (MEG) that may participate in the processes of oocyte maturation and zygotic genome activation during porcine embryogenesis. PMID:27058238

  15. [Study of disease burden of chronic hepatitis B and C patients in Shanghai based on Bronfenbrenner' s ecological systems theory: a community-based survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H; Shi, Y; Meng, W; Hu, J Y; Chen, Y H; Pan, Q C

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To systemically analyze family burden, quality of life of chronic hepatitis B and C patients in Shanghai and related influencing factors. Methods: A representative sample of chronic hepatitis patients (n=1 478) and their family members (n=1 478) was randomly selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 communities in 10 districts of Shanghai. One patient and one family member of each family were interviewed using different questionnaires to collect related information. Based on Bronfenbrenner' s ecological systems, psychological measurement, two-level random intercept model and multivariable structural equation model were applied to determine the effects and directions of the factors between life quality of chronic hepatitis patients and family burden. Results: The mean score of quality of life of chronic hepatitis patients in Shanghai was 78.70 ± 13.25, the score of " specific module" was highest and the score of " social function" was lowest. Additionally, the mean score of burden reported by the family members was 12.62±10.74, the score of " financial burden" was highest, and the score of " effect on family member' s health" was lowest. Multivariable structural equation model indicated that eight factors were related with life quality and family burden of patients with chronic hepatitis. Among them, HCV infection, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase level, average monthly cost for patient >3 000 yuan (RMB) and poor health of family members were the direct risk factors for the life quality of the patients as well as family burden. The factor of drinking more than once a week influenced the patients' life quality directly and family burden indirectly. On the contrary, the factors of local household registration, hospitalization and family member's indifferent attitude to hepatitis B vaccination influenced the family burden of the chronic hepatitis patients directly and the life quality of the patients indirectly. Conclusion: The

  16. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  17. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghua Xue

    Full Text Available Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  18. Attitudes toward the use of animals in chronic versus acute pain research: results of a web-based forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Griffin, Gilly

    2016-09-01

    When asked about the use of animals in biomedical research, people often state that the research is only acceptable if pain and distress are minimised. However, pain is caused when the aim is to study pain itself, resulting in unalleviated pain for many of the animals involved. Consequently, the use of animals in pain research is often considered contentious. To date, no research has explored people's views toward different types of animal-based pain research (e.g. chronic or acute pain). This study used a web-based survey to explore people's willingness to support the use of mice in chronic versus acute pain research. The majority of the participants opposed the use of mice for either chronic (68.3%) or acute (63.1%) pain research. There was no difference in the levels of support or opposition for chronic versus acute pain research. Unsupportive participants justified their opposition by focusing on the perceived lack of scientific merit, or the existence of non-animal alternatives. Supporters emphasised the potential benefits that could arise, with some stating that the benefits outweigh the costs. The majority of the participants were opposed to pain research involving mice, regardless of the nature and duration of the pain inflicted, or the perceived benefit of the research. A better understanding of public views toward animal use in pain research may provide a stronger foundation for the development of policy governing the use of animals in research where animals are likely to experience unalleviated pain.

  19. Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Amris, Kirstine; Fisher, Anne G

    2010-01-01

    . The investigated psychometric properties of the AMPS included discrimination between a sample of healthy women and those with chronic widespread pain, as well as stability when no intervention was provided and sensitivity to change following intervention. Data were obtained based on a repeated measures design......-report and performance-based assessment of ADL offer distinct but complementary information about ability. The present study, therefore, investigated the applicability of a performance-based measure of ADL ability, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), among 50 women with chronic widespread pain...... performing AMPS evaluations twice pre- and twice post-rehabilitation. Results indicated that the ADL motor ability measures of the participants were significantly lower than those of healthy women of same age, the ADL motor and ADL process ability measures remained stable when no intervention was provided...

  20. Steroids for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: evidence base and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, R; Hiew, F L; Rajabally, Y A

    2016-04-01

    Evidence-based therapies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) consist of corticosteroids, intravenous immunglobulins (IVIg), and plasma exchange. Steroids represent the oldest treatment used historically. In countries where readily available and affordable, IVIg tends to be favored as first-line treatment. The reason for this preference, despite substantially higher costs, is the perception that IVIg is more efficacious and safer than corticosteroids. However, the unselected use of IVIg as a first-line treatment option in all cases of CIDP raises issues of cost-effectiveness in the long-term. Furthermore, serious although rare, particularly thromboembolic side effects may result from their use. Recent data from randomized trials suggest pulsed corticosteroids to have a higher potential in achieving therapy-free remission or longer remission-free periods compared with IVIg, as well as relatively low rates of serious side effects when given as pulsed intravenous infusions during short periods of time. These specific advantages suggest that pulsed steroids could in many cases be used, as the first, rather than second choice of treatment when initiating immunomodulation in CIDP, primarily in hopes of achieving a remission after the short-term use. This article reviews the evidence base for the use of corticosteroids in its various forms in CIDP and factors that may influence clinicians' choice between IVIg and pulsed steroid treatment. The issue of efficacy, relapse rate and time, and side effect profile are analyzed, and some aspects from the authors' experience are discussed in relation to the possibility of using the steroid option as first-line therapy in a large proportion of patients with CIDP.

  1. [Chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Barrios, R

    1995-01-01

    Medical literature about chronic hepatitis is reviewed. This unresolving disease caused by viruses, drugs or unknown factors may progress to in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. A classification based on liver biopsy histology into chronic persistent and chronic active types has been largely abandoned and emphasis is placed on recognizing the etiology of the various types. One is associated with continuing hepatitis B virus infection; another is related to chronic hepatitis C virus infection and the third is termed autoinmune, because of the association with positive serum autoantibodies. A fourth type with similar clinical functional and morphologic features is found with some drug reactions. Long term corticoesteroid therapy is usually successful in autoinmune type. Associations between antibodies to liver-kidney microsomes and the hepatitis C virus can cause diagnostic difficulties. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C with interpheron alfa is employed, controlling symptoms and abnormal biochemistry and the progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer in 30 to 40% patients. Alternative therapies or combinations with interpheron are being evaluated waiting for final results.

  2. A docking-based receptor library of antibiotics and its novel application in predicting chronic mixture toxicity for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xianghong; Lin, Zhifen; Deng, Ziqing; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-06-01

    As organisms are typically exposed to chemical mixtures over long periods of time, chronic mixture toxicity is the best way to perform an environmental risk assessment (ERA). However, it is difficult to obtain the chronic mixture toxicity data due to the high expense and the complexity of the data acquisition method. Therefore, an approach was proposed in this study to predict chronic mixture toxicity. The acute (15 min exposure) and chronic (24 h exposure) toxicity of eight antibiotics and trimethoprim to Vibrio fischeri were determined in both single and binary mixtures. The results indicated that the risk quotients (RQs) of antibiotics should be based on the chronic mixture toxicity. To predict the chronic mixture toxicity, a docking-based receptor library of antibiotics and the receptor-library-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model were developed. Application of the developed QSAR model to the ERA of antibiotic mixtures demonstrated that there was a close affinity between RQs based on the observed chronic toxicity and the corresponding RQs based on the predicted data. The average coefficients of variations were 46.26 and 34.93 % and the determination coefficients (R (2)) were 0.999 and 0.998 for the low concentration group and the high concentration group, respectively. This result convinced us that the receptor library would be a promising tool for predicting the chronic mixture toxicity of antibiotics and that it can be further applied in ERA.

  3. Biochemical characterization of exercise-trained porcine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M H; Hale, C C; Novela, L; Gute, D; Hamilton, N; Ianuzzo, C D

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cardiac biochemical adaptations are induced by chronic exercise training (ET) of miniature swine. Female Yucatan miniature swine were trained on a treadmill or were cage confined (C) for 16-22 wk. After training, the ET pigs had increased exercise tolerance, lower heart rates during exercise at submaximal intensities, moderate cardiac hypertrophy, increased coronary blood flow capacity, and increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Myosin from both the C and ET hearts was 100% of the V3 isozyme, and there were no differences between the myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or myofibrillar ATPase activities of C and ET hearts. Also, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange activity of sarcolemmal vesicles were the same in cardiac muscle of C and ET hearts. Finally, the glycolytic and oxidative capacity of ET cardiac muscle was not different from control, since phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were the same in cardiac tissue from ET and C pigs. We conclude that endurance exercise training does not provide sufficient stress on the heart of a large mammal to induce changes in any of the three major cardiac biochemical systems of the porcine myocardium: the contractile system, the Ca2+ regulatory systems, or the metabolic system.

  4. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Pia H; Bendix, Tom; Manniche, Claus

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model with...

  5. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair;

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  6. Non-participation in breast cancer screening for persons with chronic diseases and multimorbidity: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases and multimorbidity are common in western countries and associated with increased breast cancer mortality. This study aims to investigate non-participation in breast cancer screening among women with chronic diseases and multimorbidity and the role of time...... in this association. Method This population-based cohort study used regional and national registries. Women who were invited to the first breast cancer screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09 were included (n = 149,234). Selected chronic diseases and multimorbidity were assessed up to 10 years before......-participation was found for women with cancer (PR = 1.50, 95 % CI: 1.40–1.60), mental illness (PR = 1.51, 95 % CI: 1.42–1.60), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PR = 1.51, 95 % CI: 1.42–1.62), neurological disorders (PR = 1.24, 95 % CI: 1.12–1.37) and kidney disease (PR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.49–1.94), whereas women...

  7. PredyCLU: a prediction system for chronic leg ulcers based on fuzzy logic; part I - exploring the venous side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franciscis, Stefano; Fregola, Salvatore; Gallo, Alessandro; Argirò, Giuseppe; Barbetta, Andrea; Buffone, Gianluca; Caliò, Francesco G; De Caridi, Giovanni; Amato, Bruno; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) are a common occurrence in the western population and are associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients. They also cause a substantial burden on the health budget. The pathogenesis of leg ulceration is quite heterogeneous, and chronic venous ulceration (CVU) is the most common manifestation representing the main complication of chronic venous disease (CVD). Prevention strategies and early identification of the risk represent the best form of management. Fuzzy logic is a flexible mathematical system that has proved to be a powerful tool for decision-making systems and pattern classification systems in medicine. In this study, we have elaborated a computerised prediction system for chronic leg ulcers (PredyCLU) based on fuzzy logic, which was retrospectively applied on a multicentre population of 77 patients with CVD. This evaluation system produced reliable risk score patterns and served effectively as a stratification risk tool in patients with CVD who were at the risk of developing CVUs.

  8. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...... either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated....... In comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation...

  9. A novel community-based model to enhance health promotion, risk factor management and chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shannon Ryan; Carr, Caroline; Kohler, Graeme; Edwards, Lynn; Gibson, Rick; Sampalli, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is a highly expensive but preventable problem to the healthcare system. Evidence suggests that impacting modifiable behaviours and risk management factors in the areas of physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, stress and obesity can alleviate the burden of chronic disease problem to a large extent. Despite this recognition, the challenge is embedding these recognized priorities into the community and in primary care in a sustainable and meaningful manner. Primary Health Care in Capital Health responded to this challenge by developing and implementing a free, interprofessional and community-based service, namely, the Community Health Teams (CHTs), that offers health and wellness, risk factor management, wellness navigation and behaviour-based programming. In this paper, the development and implementation of the CHTs are discussed. Preliminary outcomes for the model are significant and promising. Formal and large-scale studies are planned to validate these outcomes with additional research rigour.

  10. Construction of a chimeric hepatitis C virus replicon based on a strain isolated from a chronic hepatitis C patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huang; Zhu, Wandi; Han, Qingxia; Pei, Rongjuan; Chen, Xinwen

    2014-02-01

    Subgenomic replicons of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been widely used for studying HCV replication. Here, we report a new subgenomic replicon based on a strain isolated from a chronically infected patient. The coding sequence of HCV was recovered from a Chinese chronic hepatitis C patient displaying high serum HCV copy numbers. A consensus sequence designated as CCH strain was constructed based on the sequences of five clones and this was classified by sequence alignment as belonging to genotype 2a. The subgenomic replicon of CCH was replication-deficient in cell culture, due to dysfunctions in NS3 and NS5B. Various JFH1/CCH chimeric replicons were constructed, and specific mutations were introduced. The introduction of mutations could partially restore the replication of chimeric replicons. A replication-competent chimeric construct was finally obtained by the introduction of NS3 from JFH1 into the backbone of the CCH strain.

  11. Getting better at chronic care in remote communities: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled of community based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence and incidence of diabetes and other common comorbid conditions (hypertension, coronary heart disease, renal disease and chronic lung disease are extremely high among Indigenous Australians. Recent measures to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous community settings, while apparently successful at increasing screening and routine check-up rates, have shown only modest or little improvements in appropriate care such as the introduction of insulin and other scaled-up drug regimens in line with evidence-based guidelines, together with support for risk factor reduction. A new strategy is required to ensure high quality integrated family-centred care is available locally, with continuity and cultural safety, by community-based care coordinators with appropriate system supports. Methods/design The trial design is open parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. The objective of this pragmatic trial is to test the effectiveness of a model of health service delivery that facilitates integrated community-based, intensive chronic condition management, compared with usual care, in rural and remote Indigenous primary health care services in north Queensland. Participants are Indigenous adults (aged 18–65 years with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>=8.5 and at least one other chronic condition. The intervention is to employ an Indigenous Health Worker to case manage the care of a maximum caseload of 30 participants. The Indigenous Health Workers receive intensive clinical training initially, and throughout the study, to ensure they are competent to coordinate care for people with chronic conditions. The Indigenous Health Workers, supported by the local primary health care (PHC team and an Indigenous Clinical Support Team, will manage care, including coordinating access to multidisciplinary team care based on best practice standards. Allocation by cluster to the intervention and control groups is by simple

  12. Sleep assessment in a population-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Michele

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disabling condition that affects approximately 800,000 adult Americans. The pathophysiology remains unknown and there are no diagnostic markers or characteristic physical signs or laboratory abnormalities. Most CFS patients complain of unrefreshing sleep and many of the postulated etiologies of CFS affect sleep. Conversely, many sleep disorders present similarly to CFS. Few studies characterizing sleep in unselected CFS subjects have been published and none have been performed in cases identified from population-based studies. Methods The study included 339 subjects (mean age 45.8 years, 77% female, 94.1% white identified through telephone screen in a previously described population-based study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas. They completed questionnaires to assess fatigue and wellness and 2 self-administered sleep questionnaires. Scores for five of the six sleep factors (insomnia/hypersomnia, non-restorative sleep, excessive daytime somnolence, sleep apnea, and restlessness in the Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology's Sleep Assessment Questionnaire© (SAQ© were dichotomized based on threshold. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was used as a continuous variable. Results 81.4% of subjects had an abnormality in at least one SAQ© sleep factor. Subjects with sleep factor abnormalities had significantly lower wellness scores but statistically unchanged fatigue severity scores compared to those without SAQ© abnormality. CFS subjects had significantly increased risk of abnormal scores in the non-restorative (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 28.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 7.4–107.0 and restlessness (OR = 16.0; 95% CI = 4.2–61.6 SAQ© factors compared to non-fatigued, but not for factors of sleep apnea or excessive daytime somnolence. This is consistent with studies finding that, while fatigued, CFS subjects are not sleepy. A strong correlation (0.78 of Epworth score was found only for the excessive

  13. MEG-based detection and localization of perilesional dysfunction in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron K.O. Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke impairment is associated not only with structural lesions, but also with dysfunction in surviving perilesional tissue. Previous studies using equivalent current dipole source localization of MEG/EEG signals have demonstrated a preponderance of slow-wave activity localized to perilesional areas. Recent studies have also demonstrated the utility of nonlinear analyses such as multiscale entropy (MSE for quantifying neuronal dysfunction in a wide range of pathologies. The current study utilized beamformer-based reconstruction of signals in source space to compare spectral and nonlinear measures of electrical activity in perilesional and healthy cortices. Data were collected from chronic stroke patients and healthy controls, both young and elderly. We assessed relative power in the delta (1–4 Hz, theta (4–7 Hz, alpha (8–12 Hz and beta (15–30 Hz frequency bands, and also measured the nonlinear complexity of electrical activity using MSE. Perilesional tissue exhibited a general slowing of the power spectrum (increased delta/theta, decreased beta as well as a reduction in MSE. All measures tested were similarly sensitive to changes in the posterior perilesional regions, but anterior perilesional dysfunction was detected better by MSE and beta power. The findings also suggest that MSE is specifically sensitive to electrophysiological dysfunction in perilesional tissue, while spectral measures were additionally affected by an increase in rolandic beta power with advanced age. Furthermore, perilesional electrophysiological abnormalities in the left hemisphere were correlated with the degree of language task-induced activation in the right hemisphere. Finally, we demonstrate that single subject spectral and nonlinear analyses can identify dysfunctional perilesional regions within individual patients that may be ideal targets for interventions with noninvasive brain stimulation.

  14. Chronic Kidney Pain in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease : A Case Report of Successful Treatment by Catheter-Based Renal Denervation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; de Jager, Rosa L.; Neeleman, M. Peer; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common concern in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We report what to our knowledge is the first catheter-based renal denervation procedure in a patient with ADPKD resulting in successful management of chronic pain. The patient was a 43-year-old wo

  15. Inhibition of Porcine Small Intestinal Sucrase by Validamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑裕国; 申屠旭萍; 沈寅初

    2005-01-01

    As an important medicinal intermediate with broad uses, validamine, an aminocyclitol, isolated from the enzymolysis broth of validamycins, has gained more and more attention. The absolute configuration of validamine is similar to that of α-D-glucose, and it demonstrates powerful inhibition activity on glycosidase. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was investigated. Validamine was found to be a potent, competitive inhibitor to porcine small intestinal sucrase in vitro with an IC50 value of 6.85 × 10-4 mol·L-1. Validamine exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition effect on porcine small intestinal sucrase, whereby the inhibition interaction of validamine and porcine small intestinal sucrase was a fast binding process. The inhibition of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was pH-dependent.

  16. The MyHealthService approach for chronic disease management based on free open source software and low cost components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vognild, Lars K; Burkow, Tatjana M; Luque, Luis Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to building personal health services, supporting following-up, physical exercising, health education, and psychosocial support for the chronically ill, based on free open source software and low-cost computers, mobile devices, and consumer health and fitness devices. We argue that this will lower the cost of the systems, which is important given the increasing number of people with chronicle diseases and limited healthcare budgets.

  17. The evaluation of gluomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease patients based on serum CysC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the applicability of several formulas for gluomerular filtration rate(GFR)evaluation based on serum CystatinC(CysC)in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD).Methods According to the method of laboratory appliance reseach,three hundred and four hospitalized CKD patients(162 males,142 females,aged from 14-year-old to 80-year-old)in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University hospital dating from October 2010 to October 2011 were selected.

  18. Identification of porcine alveolar macrophage glycoproteins involved in infection of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, E.H.J.; Wijk, van H.A.R.; Pol, J.M.A.; Godeke, G.J.; Rijn, van P.A.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the receptor(s) for PRRSV on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against these cells. Hybridoma supernatants were selected for their ability to block PRRSV infection. Four MAbs, 1-8D2, 9.4C7, 9.9F2, and 3-3H2 inhibited i

  19. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Svensmark, B.;

    2006-01-01

    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying...

  20. Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease Based on Support Vector Machine by Feature Selection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Huseyin; Danaei Mehr, Homay; Cetin, Aydin

    2017-04-01

    As Chronic Kidney Disease progresses slowly, early detection and effective treatment are the only cure to reduce the mortality rate. Machine learning techniques are gaining significance in medical diagnosis because of their classification ability with high accuracy rates. The accuracy of classification algorithms depend on the use of correct feature selection algorithms to reduce the dimension of datasets. In this study, Support Vector Machine classification algorithm was used to diagnose Chronic Kidney Disease. To diagnose the Chronic Kidney Disease, two essential types of feature selection methods namely, wrapper and filter approaches were chosen to reduce the dimension of Chronic Kidney Disease dataset. In wrapper approach, classifier subset evaluator with greedy stepwise search engine and wrapper subset evaluator with the Best First search engine were used. In filter approach, correlation feature selection subset evaluator with greedy stepwise search engine and filtered subset evaluator with the Best First search engine were used. The results showed that the Support Vector Machine classifier by using filtered subset evaluator with the Best First search engine feature selection method has higher accuracy rate (98.5%) in the diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease compared to other selected methods.

  1. Role of Leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast in the treatment of chronic urticaria: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic urticaria is a disabling disease which may be refractory to standard therapies. Leukotriene receptor antagonists like montelukast have been tried in allergic diseases like asthma and find mention as a therapeutic option in chronic urticaria. Purposes: A randomized single-blinded non-placebo controlled study to evaluate the role of montelukast, in addition to the adjunctive role of non-sedating antihistamine levocetirizine (H1, was conducted in patients with chronic urticaria.Methods: Thirty-five patients with chronic urticaria were enrolled. Medication was given for a period of twelve weeks. Montelukast 10mg/day in an adult and 5mg in the age group 6-13 years,4 mg 2-6 years and levocetirizine 5 mg once a day was added, if patient had new weals while on therapy. The improvement was monitored by estimating the episodes of wheals and pruritus in any two weeks period.Results: Twenty-two patients showed a good response with occasional wheals at the end of 2 weeks and no weals at the end of 12 weeks. These included all 8 patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Four of these patients relapsed on discontinuation of therapy.Conclusion: Montelukast is effective in chronic refractory urticaria especially in patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with occasional add-on use of a non-sedating anti-histamine.

  2. Association between chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rosamma; Rajappan, Sreeraj; Nath, Sameera G; Paul, Binoy J

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with remarkable pathological and clinical similarities. A lot of similarities exist between RA and periodontitis at cellular and molecular levels. The relationship between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is still unclear. This case-control study was undertaken to determine the possible association between chronic inflammatory diseases like RA and periodontitis. The case group consisted of 100 patients attending the Rheumatology clinic who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA group). Age- and gender-matched 112 patients without RA attending the Outpatient wing of Department of General Medicine formed the control group (NRA group). The number of missing teeth, gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were evaluated in both the groups. Rheumatoid disease activity was assessed by DAS-28 score system. Systemic markers of inflammation like erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference in GI, OHI-S, PPD, CAL, ESR and CRP levels between cases (RA group) and controls (NRA group) (P < 0.05). Among subjects with RA, there was no association between the rheumatoid disease activity and the severity of periodontal disease. The occurrence and severity of periodontitis was found to be higher in RA subjects as compared to subjects without RA, suggesting a positive relation between these two chronic inflammatory diseases.

  3. Managing chronic pathologies with a stepped mHealth-based approach in clinical psychology and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of ehealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies. Possible applications include stepped mHealth approach, where patients can be monitored and treated in their everyday contexts. Unfortunately, many barriers for the spread of mHealth are still present. Due the significant impact of psychosocial factors on disease evolution, psychotherapies have to be included into the chronic disease protocols. Existing psychological theories of health behavior change have to be adapted to the new technological contexts and requirements. In conclusion, clinical psychology and medicine have to face the chronic care management challenge in both traditional and mHealth settings.

  4. Correction of tear trough deformity with novel porcine collagen dermal filler (Dermicol-P35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David J

    2009-01-01

    Deformity of the tear trough region, which can occur during the aging process, can result in dark shadows under the eyes and a fatigued appearance. Augmentation of the tear trough is challenging because of the thin skin and lack of fat in the region. Adding volume to the tear trough region with a dermal filler is a nonsurgical procedure with minimal discomfort to the patient. Dermicol-P35 (Evolence; Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ) is a new, ribose crosslinked, highly purified, porcine-based collagen filler that does not require prior skin testing and has shown improved persistence compared with bovine collagen-based dermal fillers. In this article, we present the clinical outcomes of patients who have received treatment with a novel ribose crosslinked porcine collagen dermal filler for the correction of tear trough deformity.

  5. Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions for the Management of Pediatric Chronic Pain: New Directions in Research and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Rachael; Wihak, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 20 years our knowledge about evidence-based psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain has dramatically increased. Overall, the evidence in support of psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain is strong, demonstrating positive psychological and behavioral effects for a variety of children with a range of pain conditions. However, wide scale access to effective psychologically-based pain management treatments remains a challenge for many children who suffer with pain. Increasing access to care and reducing persistent biomedical biases that inhibit attainment of psychological services are a central focus of current pain treatment interventions. Additionally, as the number of evidence-based treatments increase, tailoring treatments to a child or family’s particular needs is increasingly possible. This article will (1) discuss the theoretical frameworks as well as the specific psychological skills and strategies that currently hold promise as effective agents of change; (2) review and summarize trends in the development of well-researched outpatient interventions over the past ten years; and (3) discuss future directions for intervention research on pediatric chronic pain. PMID:28165415

  6. Resolution of Chronic Aspiration Pneumonitis Following Endoscopic Endonasal Repair of Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistula of the Skull Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Justin; Babadjouni, Arash; Wrobel, Bozena B; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to a skull base defect requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Multiple surgical options are available for repairing the fistula, including the two-layer "fascial apposition" method and use of a pedicled nasal-septal flap. A 44-year-old obese woman presented with 4 months of progressive cough, exertional dyspnea, hoarseness, and intermittent fluid drainage from the right nostril. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging and bronchoscopy showed chronic pneumonitis, which was confirmed by pulmonary wedge resection. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the skull base, as well as laboratory analysis of the nasal fluid for β2-transferrin, confirmed a skull base defect causing CSF rhinorrhea. During surgery, insertion of a lumbar drain with the intrathecal fluorescein administration was performed, followed by endoscopic endonasal repair using an autologous fascial apposition graft and pedicled nasal-septal flap. Both the CSF leak and the pulmonary complications resolved following the operation with no symptoms at 11-month follow-up. This is the first reported case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea complicated by chronic aspiration and pneumonitis. Increased diagnostic complexity due to chronic pulmonary complications resulted in unnecessary interventions and treatment delays. Prompt recognition of spontaneous CSF leaks is essential to prevent potentially harmful complications.

  7. Actions of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone versus porcine bone only on osteointegration of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; López-Marí, Laura; Guardia, Javier; Marínez-González, José María; Barone, Antonio; Tresguerres, Isabel F; Paredes, Sergio D; Fuentes-Breto, Lorena

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the topical application of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone on the osteointegration on the rough discrete calcium deposit (DCD) surface implants in Beagle dogs 3 months after their insertion. In preparation for subsequent insertion of dental implants, lower molars were extracted from 12 Beagle dogs. Each mandible received two parallel wall expanded platform implants with a DCD surface of 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length. The implants were randomly assigned to the distal sites on each mandible in the molar area and the gaps were filled with 5 mg lyophilized powdered melatonin and porcine bone and collagenized porcine bone alone. Ten histological sections per implant were obtained for histomorphometric studies. After a 4-wk treatment period, melatonin plus porcine bone significantly increased the perimeter of bone that was in direct contact with the treated implants (P < 0.0001), bone density (P < 0.0001), and new bone formation (P < 0.0001) in comparison with porcine bone alone around the implants. Melatonin plus collagenized porcine bone on DCD surface may act as a biomimetic agent in the placement of endo-osseous dental implants and enhance the osteointegration. Melatonin combined with porcine bone on DCD implants reveals more bone in implant contact at 12 wk (84.5 +/- 1.5%) compared with porcine bone alone treated area (67.17 +/- 1.2%).

  8. An easy to use and affordable home-based personal eHealth system for chronic disease management based on free open source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkow, Tatjana M; Vognild, Lars K; Krogstad, Trine; Borch, Njål; Ostengen, Geir; Bratvold, Astrid; Risberg, Marijke Jongsma

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an easy to use home-based eHealth system for chronic disease management. We present the design and implementation of a prototype for home based education, exercises, treatment and following-up, with the TV and a remote control as user interface. We also briefly describe field trials of the system for patients with COPD and diabetes, and their experience with the technology.

  9. [Systemic karyomegaly with chronic interstitial nephritis. Discussion of the disease picture based on an autopsy case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, H; Spöndlin, M; Schmassmann, A; Mihatsch, M J

    1994-02-01

    Systemic karyomegaly associated with interstitial nephritis was first described in 1978 by Mihatsch. Seven cases have been reported to date. We give an account of an autopsy case of systemic karyomegaly in a 30-year-old Italian man. Bizarre enlargement of nuclei was found in renal tubular epithelial cells, Schwann cells and in smooth muscle cells of vessels and bowel and, less obviously, in endothelial and adventitial cells of vessels, in alveolar epithelial cells and in astrocytes of the brain. These findings were associated with chronic interstitial nephritis, nonspecific hepatopathy, adenocarcinoma of the rectum and multiple sclerosis. The clinical course was marked by chronic renal failure, chronic haemodialysis and renal transplantation. The patient died 8 years after diagnosis in septic-toxic shock. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease are discussed.

  10. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertension in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Janis M

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is common in children with chronic kidney disease and early evidence suggests that it is a modifiable risk factor for renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Recommendations for blood pressure management in children with chronic kidney disease can be found in various clinical practice guidelines including the 4th Task Force Report, the European Society of Hypertension pediatric recommendations, and the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Unfortunately, as pediatric trial evidence is limited, there are discrepancies in the recommendations that may lead to inconsistent clinical care and practice variation. This article reviews the strength of evidence behind each of the clinical practice guideline recommendations regarding blood pressure assessment, treatment targets, and first-line antihypertensive medications. The benefits and cautions of use of clinical practice guidelines are described with emphasis on the importance of reading beyond the summary statements.

  11. Does multimorbidity influence the occurrence rates of chronic conditions? A claims data based comparison of expected and observed prevalence rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon with an almost endless number of possible disease combinations with unclear implications. One important aspect in analyzing the clustering of diseases is to distinguish between random coexistence and statistical dependency. We developed a model to account for random coexistence based on stochastic distribution. We analyzed if the number of diseases of the patients influences the occurrence rates of chronic conditions. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of 121,389 persons aged 65+ using a list of 46 chronic conditions. Expected prevalences were simulated by drawing without replacement from all observed diseases using observed overall prevalences as initial probability weights. To determine if a disease occurs more or less frequently than expected by chance we calculated observed-minus-expected deltas for each disease. We defined clinical relevance as |delta| ≥ 5.0%. 18 conditions were excluded because of a prevalence < 5.0%. RESULTS: We found that (1 two chronic conditions (e.g. hypertension were more frequent than expected in patients with a low number of comorbidities; (2 four conditions (e.g. renal insufficiency were more frequent in patients with many comorbidities; (3 six conditions (e.g. cancer were less frequent with many comorbidities; and (4 16 conditions had an average course of prevalences. CONCLUSION: A growing extent of multimorbidity goes along with a rapid growth of prevalences. This is for the largest part merely a stochastic effect. If we account for this effect we find that only few diseases deviate from the expected prevalence curves. Causes for these deviations are discussed. Our approach also has methodological implications: Naive analyses of multimorbidity might easily be affected by bias, because the prevalence of all chronic conditions necessarily increases with a growing extent of multimorbidity. We should therefore always examine and discuss the stochastic interrelations

  12. Murine pulmonary responses after sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamcakova-Dodd Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers (AO nanowhiskers have been used in manufacturing processes as catalyst supports, flame retardants, adsorbents, or in ceramic, metal and plastic composite materials. They are classified as high aspect ratio nanomaterials. Our aim was to assess in vivo toxicity of inhaled AO nanowhisker aerosols. Methods Primary dimensions of AO nanowhiskers specified by manufacturer were 2–4 nm x 2800 nm. The aluminum content found in this nanomaterial was 30% [mixed phase material containing Al(OH3 and AlOOH]. Male mice (C57Bl/6 J were exposed to AO nanowhiskers for 4 hrs/day, 5 days/wk for 2 or 4 wks in a dynamic whole body exposure chamber. The whiskers were aerosolized with an acoustical dry aerosol generator that included a grounded metal elutriator and a venturi aspirator to enhance deagglomeration. Average concentration of aerosol in the chamber was 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/m3 and the mobility diameter was 150 ± 1.6 nm. Both groups of mice (2 or 4 wks exposure were necropsied immediately after the last exposure. Aluminum content in the lung, heart, liver, and spleen was determined. Pulmonary toxicity assessment was performed by evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid (enumeration of total and differential cells, total protein, activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and cytokines, blood (total and differential cell counts, lung histopathology and pulmonary mechanics. Results Following exposure, mean Al content of lungs was 0.25, 8.10 and 15.37 μg/g lung (dry wt respectively for sham, 2 wk and 4 wk exposure groups. The number of total cells and macrophages in BAL fluid was 2-times higher in animals exposed for 2 wks and 6-times higher in mice exposed for 4 wks, compared to shams (p p  Conclusions Sub-chronic inhalation exposures to aluminum-oxide based nanowhiskers induced increased lung macrophages, but no inflammatory or toxic responses were observed.

  13. Prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and assessment of sanitary conditions of pig slaughter slabs in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs.

  14. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  15. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    the mortality and reduces the daily weight gain in weaner pig and/or in finishing pigs. Post‐weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome can be transmitted by pig‐to‐pig contact and some studies point at airborne transmission as a possibility. Studies in Europe have shown several risk factors that either increase...... Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...

  16. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  17. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  18. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.;

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory infections are among the most important diseases of growing pigs. In order to elucidate the multifactorial aetiology of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Denmark, lungs from 148 finishing pigs with cranioventral bronchopneumonia (case group) and 60 pigs without lung lesions......), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC...

  19. Enzymatic engineering of the porcine genome with transposons and recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Daniel F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine is an important agricultural commodity and biomedical model. Manipulation of the pig genome provides opportunity to improve production efficiency, enhance disease resistance, and add value to swine products. Genetic engineering can also expand the utility of pigs for modeling human disease, developing clinical treatment methodologies, or donating tissues for xenotransplantation. Realizing the full potential of pig genetic engineering requires translation of the complete repertoire of genetic tools currently employed in smaller model organisms to practical use in pigs. Results Application of transposon and recombinase technologies for manipulation of the swine genome requires characterization of their activity in pig cells. We tested four transposon systems- Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, piggyBac, and Passport in cultured porcine cells. Transposons increased the efficiency of DNA integration up to 28-fold above background and provided for precise delivery of 1 to 15 transgenes per cell. Both Cre and Flp recombinase were functional in pig cells as measured by their ability to remove a positive-negative selection cassette from 16 independent clones and over 20 independent genomic locations. We also demonstrated a Cre-dependent genetic switch capable of eliminating an intervening positive-negative selection cassette and activating GFP expression from episomal and genome-resident transposons. Conclusion We have demonstrated for the first time that transposons and recombinases are capable of mobilizing DNA into and out of the porcine genome in a precise and efficient manner. This study provides the basis for developing transposon and recombinase based tools for genetic engineering of the swine genome.

  20. Optimal management of chronic cyclical pelvic pain: an evidence-based and pragmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Ryun Won

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ha Ryun Won, Jason AbbottDepartment of Endo-Gynecology, Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: This article reviews the literature on management of chronic cyclical pelvic pain (CCPP. Electronic resources including Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Current Contents, and EMBASE were searched using MeSH terms including all ­subheadings and keywords: “cyclical pelvic pain”, “chronic pain”, “dysmenorrheal”, “nonmenstrual ­pelvic pain”, and “endometriosis”. There is a dearth of high-quality evidence for this common ­problem. Chronic pelvic pain affects 4%–25% of women of reproductive age. Dysmenorrhea of varying degree affects 60% of women. Endometriosis is the commonest pathologic cause of CCPP. Other gynecological causes are adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic floor myalgia, although other systems disease such as irritable bowel syndrome or interstitial cystitis may be responsible. ­Management options range from simple to invasive, where simple medical ­treatment such as the combined oral contraceptive pill may be used as a first-line treatment prior to invasive ­management. This review outlines an approach to patients with CCPP through history, physical examination, and investigation to identify the cause(s of the pain and its optimal management.Keywords: cyclical pelvic pain, chronic pain, dysmenorrhea, nonmenstrual pelvic pain, endometriosis

  1. Treatment of Chronic Pain in Older People Evidence-Based Choice of Strong-Acting Opioids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ojik, Annette L.; Jansen, Paul A. F.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; van Roon, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic malignant and non-malignant pain, opioids are used as strong analgesics. Frail elderly patients often have multiple comorbidities and use multiple medicines, leading to an increased risk of clinically relevant drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Age-related changes a

  2. Chronic ischaemic mitral regurgitation. Current treatment results and new mechanism-based surgical approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Zijlstra, Felix; Mariani, Massimo A.; Ebels, Tjark

    2010-01-01

    Chronic ischaemic mitral regurgitation (CIMR) remains one of the most complex and unresolved aspects in the management of ischaemic heart disease. This review provides an overview of the present knowledge about the different aspects of CIMR with an emphasis on mechanisms, current surgical treatment

  3. Illness experiences of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: self-perceived efficacy of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria de Sousa Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores the illness experiences, the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation as perceived by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and their rationale for improvements in health. 23 patients participated in a daily, three-month home-based pulmonary rehabilitation. A pre-post self-perceived assessment of efficacy was conducted. Semi-structured interviews, illness narratives and participant-observation provided a “dense description” of patients' lived-experience before and after the program. Interviews and narratives were tape-recorded, transcribed and coded. Qualitative data was subjected to “thematic content analysis” and “contextualized semantic interpretation”. Patients compare functional status before and after falling ill, experience loss, stigma and depression, describe health improvements and judge the pulmonary rehabilitation’s efficacy. Giving voice to chronically-ill patients, as individuals, is needed. To reduce clinical conflicts, health professionals should encourage illness narratives and value their patients’ lived-experience.

  4. Illness experiences of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: self-perceived efficacy of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Juliana Maria de Sousa; Martín-Nogueras, Ana; Nations, Marilyn

    2014-06-01

    This qualitative study explores the illness experiences, the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation as perceived by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their rationale for improvements in health. 23 patients participated in a daily, three-month home-based pulmonary rehabilitation. A pre-post self-perceived assessment of efficacy was conducted. Semi-structured interviews, illness narratives and participant-observation provided a "dense description" of patients' lived-experience before and after the program. Interviews and narratives were tape-recorded, transcribed and coded. Qualitative data was subjected to "thematic content analysis" and "contextualized semantic interpretation". Patients compare functional status before and after falling ill, experience loss, stigma and depression, describe health improvements and judge the pulmonary rehabilitation's efficacy. Giving voice to chronically-ill patients, as individuals, is needed. To reduce clinical conflicts, health professionals should encourage illness narratives and value their patients' lived-experience.

  5. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi A Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA, is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  6. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus based on the ORF3 gene%猪流行性腹泻病毒RT-PCR检测与ORF3基因分子流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦鹏; 白娟; 范宝超; 李玉峰; 姜平

    2013-01-01

    为调查乳仔猪腹泻引起疫情的病原,本研究自2011年2月至2012年3月收集华东地区47个规模猪场共153份腹泻病料样品,采用RT-PCR检测猪流行性腹泻病毒(PEDV),并进行ORF3基因序列分析.结果显示:26个猪场的88份样品为PEDV阳性,猪场阳性率达到55.32%,病料阳性率达到57.52%.ORF3基因测序分析显示:11个流行病毒株ORF3全基因序列大小均为675bp,编码224个氨基酸.11个流行株ORF3基因同源性为95.9%~99.9%,编码氨基酸同源性为96.4%~100%.与欧洲代表性强毒株CV777基因同源性为96.3%~97.0%,编码氨基酸同源性为95.1%~96.4%,与CV777弱毒疫苗株基因同源性为96.8%~97.6%,编码氨基酸同源性为92.3 %~93.4%,并且无疫苗病毒株ORF3基因的49个碱基缺失.与韩国病毒株比较,其基因同源性为95.0 %~98.5%,编码氨基酸同源性为95.5%~99.6%.基因遗传进化树分析表明,国内外PEDV株可分为4群.我国主要流行病毒株属于第1群,与韩国病毒袜亲缘关系较近,而与我国疫苗病毒株存在较大差异.该研究表明,PEDV可能是目前我国仔猪腹泻的主要病原之一,我国PEDV流行病毒株存在明显基因变异.%Since the end of 2010,a disease characterized by diarrhea has been prevailing in sucking piglets in many provinces in China,resulting in heavy economic losses in swine industry.In order to identify the major pathogens of the disease,a total of 153 samples of diarrhea suckling piglets were collected from 47 pig farms and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was detected by RT-PCR.The results showed that 88 samples from 26 pig farms were positive.The farm positive rate was 55.32% and the sample positive rate was 57.52%.ORF3 genes of 11 isolates were cloned into pMDt8-T and sequenced.The result of sequencing showed that all the ORF3 genes were 675 bp which encoded 224 amino acids.The nucleotide homologies of the 11 isolates were 95.9% to 99

  8. An evidence-based review on urate-lowering treatments: implications for optimal treatment of chronic hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bove M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Marilisa Bove, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Maddalena Veronesi, Claudio Borghi Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Several studies suggest that chronic hyperuricemia, the main precursor of gout, is involved in the pathogenesis of different systemic disorders that affect cardiovascular and renal systems, such as hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, chronic heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Recent epidemiological evidence has shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in the Western world: a number of population-based studies estimate a prevalence of up to 21% for hyperuricemia and 1%–4% for gout. As such, early detection and careful management of this pathological condition is required, starting from lifestyle changes (mainly based on a diet low in red meat, sugars, and alcoholic beverages, with increased intake of vegetables, water, and vitamin C sources, adding specific drugs to lead serum uric acid (SUA levels under the target value of 7 mg/dL. In particular, nonselective and selective XO inhibitors (allopurinol, oxypurinol, febuxostat reduce SUA levels and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, mainly related to XO overactivity that often causes inflammatory damage to the vascular endothelium. The effect of lowering SUA levels via XO inhibition includes an attenuation of oxidative stress and related endothelial dysfunction that largely contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the inhibition of XO overactivation seems to be an excellent therapeutic option to limit the harmful effects of excess UA and reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, rapid diagnosis and correct therapy for hyperuricemia may also improve the prevention and/or treatment of serious and multifactorial diseases. The available evidence supports the importance of

  9. Generating Porcine Chimeras Using Inner Cell Mass Cells and Parthenogenetic Preimplantation Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Masahito; Matsunari, Hitomi; Matsuda, Taisuke; Honda, Kasumi; Maehara, Miki; Kanai, Takahiro; Hayashida, Gota; Kobayashi, Mirina; Kuramoto, Momoko; Arai, Yoshikazu; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Fujishiro, Shuh-hei; Mizukami, Yoshihisa; Nagaya, Masaki; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background The development and validation of stem cell therapies using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be optimized through translational research using pigs as large animal models, because pigs have the closest characteristics to humans among non-primate animals. As the recent investigations have been heading for establishment of the human iPS cells with naïve type characteristics, it is an indispensable challenge to develop naïve type porcine iPS cells. The pluripotency of the porcine iPS cells can be evaluated using their abilities to form chimeras. Here, we describe a simple aggregation method using parthenogenetic host embryos that offers a reliable and effective means of determining the chimera formation ability of pluripotent porcine cells. Methodology/Significant Principal Findings In this study, we show that a high yield of chimeric blastocysts can be achieved by aggregating the inner cell mass (ICM) from porcine blastocysts with parthenogenetic porcine embryos. ICMs cultured with morulae or 4–8 cell-stage parthenogenetic embryos derived from in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes can aggregate to form chimeric blastocysts that can develop into chimeric fetuses after transfer. The rate of production of chimeric blastocysts after aggregation with host morulae (20/24, 83.3%) was similar to that after the injection of ICMs into morulae (24/29, 82.8%). We also found that 4–8 cell-stage embryos could be used; chimeric blastocysts were produced with a similar efficiency (17/26, 65.4%). After transfer into recipients, these blastocysts yielded chimeric fetuses at frequencies of 36.0% and 13.6%, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Our findings indicate that the aggregation method using parthenogenetic morulae or 4–8 cell-stage embryos offers a highly reproducible approach for producing chimeric fetuses from porcine pluripotent cells. This method provides a practical and highly accurate system for evaluating pluripotency of undifferentiated cells, such

  10. Morphologic studies of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring porcine circovirus type 2 diseases in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif

    of an outbreak of naturally occurring PCV2 associated reproductive failure in a Danish herd. In stillborn and Summary VIII mummified foetuses PCV2 was detected mainly in the heart and bone marrow, by IHC, and replication was detected in myocardiocytes, by ISH. The study showed that measurements of total....... • Manuscript IV is an update on the pathology and pathogens present in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Danish finishing pigs. Multiple pathogens were detected, including PCV2, confirming the previously reported pathogen profile and multifactorial aetiology of PRDC. The histopathology was very......This Ph.D. thesis presents different aspects of porcine circovirus diseases (PCVDs), based upon work performed at The Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark and at The National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark. The introduction, chapter 1, briefly presents...

  11. Web-based support for daily functioning of people with mild intellectual disabilities or chronic psychiatric disorders: A feasibility study in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica de Wit

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The initial results of the use of web-based support for this client population seem promising and justify further research on online support for clients with mild intellectual disabilities or chronic psychiatric disorders.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) for chronic, treatment-resistant depression: study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cladder-Micus, M.B.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Becker, E.S.; Donders, A.R.T.; Spijker, J.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major depression is a common psychiatric disorder, frequently taking a chronic course. Despite provision of evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medication and psychological treatments like cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy, a substantial amount of pati

  13. A novel approach to population-based risk stratification, comprising individualized lifestyle intervention in Danish general practice to prevent chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using......) identification of patients already diagnosed with a lifestyle-related chronic disease, and (4) risk estimation and stratification of apparently healthy patients using questionnaire and electronic patient record data on validated risk estimation models. We show that it is feasible to implement a novel...

  14. Internet-based guided self-help intervention for chronic pain based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Veehof, Martine M; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2015-02-01

    Acceptance-based psychological interventions can potentially minimize the burden of chronic pain. This randomized controlled trial evaluated an internet-delivered, guided self-help intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). A total of 238 chronic pain sufferers from the general population were randomly allocated to either ACT (n = 82), an internet-based control condition Expressive Writing (n = 79) or a waiting list condition (n = 77). Participants completed measures at baseline, posttreatment (3 months) and at a 3-month follow-up. At follow-up, ACT participants had improved in pain interference in daily life (primary outcome) compared to participants in Expressive Writing (Cohen's d = .47), but not compared to waiting list participants (p value = .11). Those who adhered to the ACT-intervention (48%) did improve significantly compared to waiting list participants (d = .49). ACT-participants also showed superior improvement on depression, pain intensity, psychological inflexibility and pain catastrophizing (d: .28-.60). Significant clinical improvement was present. Especially, 28% of ACT-participants showed general clinically relevant improvement in pain interference, as well as in pain intensity and depression (vs. Expressive Writing and waiting list 5%). Given these findings, internet-based ACT programs may be a promising treatment modality for chronic pain.

  15. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  16. Analysis of porcine MHC expression profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Fanbo; CHEN Chen; DENG Yajun; YU Jun; HU Songnian

    2005-01-01

    The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC, also named swine leukocyte antigen, SLA) is associated not only with immune responsibility and disease susceptibility, but also with some reproductive and productive traits such as growth rate and carcass composition. As yet systematical research on SLA expression profile is not reported. In order to illustrate SLA expression comprehensively and deepen our understanding of its function, we outlined the expression profile of SLA in 51 tissues of Landrace by analyzing a large amount of ESTs produced by "Sino-Danish Porcine Genome Project". In addition, we also compared the expression profile of SLA in several tissues from different development stages and from another breed (Erhualian). The result shows: (i) classical SLA genes are highly expressed in immune tissues and middle part of intestine; (ii) although SLA-3 is an SLA Ia gene, its expression abundance and pattern are quite different from those of the other two SLA Ia genes. The same phenomenon is seen in HLA-C expression, suggesting that the two genes may function similarly and undergo convergent evolution; (iii) except in jejunum, the antigen presenting genes are more highly expressed in breed Erhualian than in Landrace. The difference might associate with the higher resistance to bad conditions (including pathogens) of Erhualian and higher growth rates of Landrace.

  17. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L

    2015-01-01

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity.

  18. Tissue Remodelling following Resection of Porcine Liver

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    Ingvild Engdal Nygård

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study genes regulating the extracellular matrix (ECM and investigate the tissue remodelling following liver resection in porcine. Methods. Four pigs with 60% partial hepatectomy- (PHx- induced liver regeneration were studied over six weeks. Four pigs underwent sham surgery and another four pigs were used as controls of the normal liver growth. Liver biopsies were taken upon laparotomy, after three and six weeks. Gene expression profiles were obtained using porcine-specific oligonucleotide microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and a proliferative index was assessed. Results. More differentially expressed genes were associated with the regulation of ECM in the resection group compared to the sham and control groups. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC and collagen 1, alpha 2 (COL1A2 were both upregulated in the early phase of liver regeneration, validated by immunopositive cells during the remodelling phase of liver regeneration. A broadened connective tissue was demonstrated by Masson’s Trichrome staining, and an immunohistochemical staining against pan-Cytokeratin (pan-CK demonstrated a distinct pattern of migrating cells, followed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA positive nuclei. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates both a distinct pattern of PCNA positive nuclei and a deposition of ECM proteins in the remodelling phase of liver regeneration.

  19. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Perceived Pain Intensity and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad; Amirani, Ahmadreza; Amirifard, Hamed; Shahrakipoor, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress reduction (MBSR) on perceived pain intensity and quality of life in patients with chronic headache. Thus, forty patients based on the diagnosis of a neurologist and diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS) for migraine and chronic tension-type headache were selected and randomly assigned to the intervention group and control group, respectively. The participants completed the Pain and q...

  20. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miessen Katrin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. Results We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. Conclusions We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material.

  1. Utilization of evidence-based treatment in elderly patients with chronic heart failure: using Korean Health Insurance claims database

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    Kim Ju-Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure accounts for a great deal of the morbidity and mortality in the aging population. Evidence-based treatments include angiotensin-2 receptor blockers (ARBs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists. Underutilization of these treatments in heart failure patients were frequently reported, which could lead to increase morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of evidence-based treatments and their related factors for elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Methods This is retrospective observational study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. We identified prescription of evidence based treatment to elderly patients who had been hospitalized for chronic heart failure between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006. Results Among the 28,922 elderly patients with chronic heart failure, beta-blockers were prescribed to 31.5%, and ACE-I or ARBs were prescribed to 54.7% of the total population. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that the prescription from outpatient clinic (prevalent ratio, 4.02, 95% CI 3.31–4.72, specialty of the healthcare providers (prevalent ratio, 1.26, 95% CI, 1.12–1.54, residence in urban (prevalent ratio, 1.37, 95% CI, 1.23–1.52 and admission to tertiary hospital (prevalent ratio, 2.07, 95% CI, 1.85–2.31 were important factors associated with treatment underutilization. Patients not given evidence-based treatment were more likely to experience dementia, reside in rural areas, and have less-specialized healthcare providers and were less likely to have coexisting cardiovascular diseases or concomitant medications than patients in the evidence-based treatment group. Conclusions Healthcare system factors, such as hospital type, healthcare provider factors, such as specialty, and patient factors, such as comorbid cardiovascular disease, systemic disease with

  2. Phenotypic and Functional Analysis of Porcine T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 陈应华

    2001-01-01

    Porcine and other higher mammals express clusters of differentiation (CD) antigens on the surface of T lymphocytes, such as CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, etc. However, in porcine, a high percentage of the CD4+ CD8-T lymphocyte subpopulation exist in the peripheral blood and the ratio of the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulations is reversed. These differences bring new challenges to better understanding of the phenotype and function of porcine T lymphocytes in antigen recognition and immune response.

  3. Sequence conservation between porcine and human LRRK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2009-01-01

     Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the ROCO protein superfamily (Ras of complex proteins (Roc) with a C-terminal Roc domain). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene lead to autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. We have cloned the porcine LRRK2 cDNA in an attempt to characterize conserved...... and expression patterns are conserved across species. The porcine LRRK2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5q25. The results obtained suggest that the LRRK2 gene might be of particular interest in our attempt to generate a transgenic porcine model for Parkinson's disease...

  4. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...

  5. Network pharmacology-based identification of key pharmacological pathways of Yin–Huang–Qing–Fei capsule acting on chronic bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Yanqiong; Ren, Weiqiong; Dong, Ling; Li, Junfang; Geng, Ya; Zhang, Yi; Li, Defeng; Xu, Haiyu; Yang, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    For decades in China, the Yin–Huang–Qing–Fei capsule (YHQFC) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, with good curative effects. Owing to the complexity of traditional Chinese herbal formulas, the pharmacological mechanism of YHQFC remains unclear. To address this problem, a network pharmacology-based strategy was proposed in this study. At first, the putative target profile of YHQFC was predicted using MedChem Studio, based on structural and functional similarities of all available YHQFC components to the known drugs obtained from the DrugBank database. Then, an interaction network was constructed using links between putative YHQFC targets and known therapeutic targets of chronic bronchitis. Following the calculation of four topological features (degree, betweenness, closeness, and coreness) of each node in the network, 475 major putative targets of YHQFC and their topological importance were identified. In addition, a pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database indicated that the major putative targets of YHQFC are significantly associated with various pathways involved in anti-inflammation processes, immune responses, and pathological changes caused by asthma. More interestingly, eight major putative targets of YHQFC (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, FCER1G, CCL11, and EPX) were demonstrated to be associated with the inflammatory process that occurs during the progression of asthma. Finally, a molecular docking simulation was performed and the results exhibited that 17 pairs of chemical components and candidate YHQFC targets involved in asthma pathway had strong binding efficiencies. In conclusion, this network pharmacology-based investigation revealed that YHQFC may attenuate the inflammatory reaction of chronic bronchitis by regulating its candidate targets, which may be implicated in the major pathological processes of the asthma pathway. PMID:28053519

  6. The evidence base for oxygen for chronic refractory breathlessness: issues, gaps, and a future work plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miriam J; Abernethy, Amy P; Currow, David C

    2013-04-01

    Breathlessness or "shortness of breath," medically termed dyspnea, is a common and distressing symptom featuring strongly in advanced lung, cardiac, and neuromuscular diseases; its prevalence and intensity increase as death approaches. However, despite the increasing understanding in the genesis of breathlessness, as well as an increasing portfolio of treatment options, breathlessness is still difficult to manage and engenders helplessness in caregivers and health care professionals and fear for patients. Although hypoxemia does not appear to be the dominant driver for breathlessness in advanced disease, the belief that oxygen is important for the relief of acute, chronic, and acute-on-chronic shortness of breath is firmly embedded in the minds of patients, caregivers, and health care professionals. This article presents current understanding of the use of oxygen for treating refractory breathlessness in advanced disease. The objective is to highlight what is still unknown, set a research agenda to resolve these questions, and highlight methodological issues for consideration in planned studies.

  7. Participation in Leisure Activity and Exercise of Chronic Stroke Survivors Using Community-Based Rehabilitation Services in Seongnam City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tae Im; Lee, Ko Eun; Ha, Seung A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify how participation in leisure activities and exercise by chronic stroke survivors differs before and after a stroke. Methods Sixty chronic stroke survivors receiving community-based rehabilitation services from a health center in Seongnam City were recruited. They completed a questionnaire survey regarding their demographic characteristics and accompanying diseases, and on the status of their leisure activities and exercise. In addition, their level of function (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index score), risk of depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (SF-8) were measured. Results After their stroke, most of the respondents had not returned to their pre-stroke levels of leisure activity participation. The reported number of leisure activities declined from a mean of 3.9 activities before stroke to 1.9 activities post-stroke. In addition, many participants became home-bound, sedentary, and non-social after their stroke. The most common barriers to participation in leisure activities were weakness and poor balance, lack of transportation, and cost. The respondents reported a mean daily time spent on exercise of 2.6±1.3 hours. Pain was the most common barrier to exercise participation. Conclusion Chronic stroke survivors need information on leisure activities and appropriate pain management. PMID:25932420

  8. The Potential Role of Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Chronic and End-Stage Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Schlaich, Markus P

    2016-07-01

    Sympathetic activation is a hallmark of chronic and end-stage renal disease and adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis. Hypertension is present in the vast majority of these patients and plays a key role in the progressive deterioration of renal function and the high rate of cardiovascular events in this patient cohort. Augmentation of renin release, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renal vascular resistance are direct consequences of efferent renal sympathetic nerve stimulation and the major components of neural regulation of renal function. Renal afferent nerve activity directly influences sympathetic outflow to the kidneys and other highly innervated organs involved in blood pressure control via hypothalamic integration. Renal denervation of the kidney has been shown to reduce blood pressure in many experimental models of hypertension. Targeting the renal nerves directly may therefore be specifically useful in patients with chronic and end-stage renal disease. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of catheter-based renal denervation in patients with impaired kidney function and also reflect on the potential impact on other cardiovascular conditions commonly associated with chronic kidney disease such as heart failure and arrhythmias.

  9. The Trajectory of Chronic Pain: Can a Community-Based Exercise/Education Program Soften the Ride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Dubin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire primary care record of six patients attending a community-based education/exercise self-management program for chronic noncancer pain (YMCA Pain Exercise/Education Program [Y-PEP] was reviewed. Medical visits, consultations and hospital admissions were coded as related or unrelated to their pain diagnoses. Mood disruption, financial concerns, conflicts with employers/insurers, analgesic doses, medication side effects and major life events were also recorded. The ‘chronic pain trajectory’ resembled a roller coaster with increased health care visits at the time of initial injuries and during ‘crises’ (reinjury, conflict with insurers/employers, failed back-to-work attempts and life events. Visits decreased when conflicts were resolved. Analgesic doses increased during ‘crises’ but did not fall after resolution. After attending Y-PEP, health care use fell for four of six patients and two returned to work. Primary care physicians need to recognize the functional limitations and psychosocial complications experienced by their chronic pain patients. A program such as Y-PEP may promote active self-management strategies resulting in lowered health care use.

  10. How a Better Understanding of Spontaneous Mental Imagery Linked to Pain Could Enhance Imagery-Based Therapy in Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Chantal; Tracey, Irene; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Therapy with mental images is prevalent in the field of chronic pain, and this has been the case for centuries. Yet few of the recent advances in the cognitive behavioural understanding of spontaneous (i.e. intrusive) mental imagery have been translated to this field. Such advances include imagery as a component of a psychopathological process, as an emotional amplifier and as a cognitive therapeutic target in its own right. Hence very little is known about the contents, prevalence and emotional impact of spontaneous mental imagery in the context of chronic pain. This article discusses the evidence in favour of spontaneous imagery being a potentially important part of patients’ pain experience, and makes a case, based on neurophysiological findings, for imagery having an impact on pain perception. Furthermore, it presents how mental imagery has been used in the treatment of chronic pain. A case report illustrates further how spontaneous negative imagery linked to pain can be distressing, and how this might be addressed in therapy. Additionally, the case report demonstrates the spontaneous use of coping imagery, and raises a discussion of how this might be enhanced. PMID:26457174

  11. Incidence of chronic knee lesions in long-distance runners based on training level: Findings at MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: claudia.schueller-weidekamm@meduniwien.ac.at; Schueller, Gerd [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Uffmann, Martin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bader, Till [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic knee changes in long-distance runners based on the training status, including distance, running frequency, training pace, and running experience. Methods: MRI of the knee was performed in 26 non-professional runners 5 days after their last training unit. Lesions of the menisci and cartilage (5-point scale), bone marrow and ligaments (3-point scale), and joint effusion were evaluated. A total score comprising all knee lesions in each runner was evaluated. The incidence of the knee changes was correlated with the training level, gender, and age of the runners. Results: Grade 1 lesions of the menisci were found in six runners with a high training level, and in only four runners with a low training level. Grade 1 cartilage lesions were found in three high-trained runners and in one low-trained runner, and grade 2 lesions were found in one high-trained runner and in two low-trained runners, respectively. Grade 1 anterior cruciate ligament lesions were seen in three runners with a high- and in two runners with a low-training level. Runners with a higher training level showed a statistically significant higher score for all chronic knee lesions than those with a lower training level (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI findings indicate that a higher training level in long-distance runners is a risk factor for chronic knee lesions.

  12. Aerobic bacteriology of chronic suppurative otitis media: a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asifa Nazir

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Otitis media linked with high levels of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major health concern in all age groups of the study population. An appropriate knowledge of the etiology and antibacterial susceptibility of microorganisms would contribute to a rational antibiotic use and the success of treatment for chronic supportive otitis media. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1521-1525

  13. An animal model of schizophrenia based on chronic LSD administration: old idea, new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, Charles D; Nichols, David E

    2011-09-01

    Many people who take LSD experience a second temporal phase of LSD intoxication that is qualitatively different, and was described by Daniel Freedman as "clearly a paranoid state." We have previously shown that the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD in rats also occur in two temporal phases, with initial effects mediated by activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors (LSD30), and the later temporal phase mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors (LSD90). Surprisingly, we have now found that non-competitive NMDA antagonists produced full substitution in LSD90 rats, but only in older animals, whereas in LSD30, or in younger animals, these drugs did not mimic LSD. Chronic administration of low doses of LSD (>3 months, 0.16 mg/kg every other day) induces a behavioral state characterized by hyperactivity and hyperirritability, increased locomotor activity, anhedonia, and impairment in social interaction that persists at the same magnitude for at least three months after cessation of LSD treatment. These behaviors, which closely resemble those associated with psychosis in humans, are not induced by withdrawal from LSD; rather, they are the result of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the brain during the chronic administration of LSD. These persistent behaviors are transiently reversed by haloperidol and olanzapine, but are insensitive to MDL-100907. Gene expression analysis data show that chronic LSD treatment produced significant changes in multiple neurotransmitter system-related genes, including those for serotonin and dopamine. Thus, we propose that chronic treatment of rats with low doses of LSD can serve as a new animal model of psychosis that may mimic the development and progression of schizophrenia, as well as model the established disease better than current acute drug administration models utilizing amphetamine or NMDA antagonists such as PCP.

  14. Personality features and personality disorders in chronic fatigue syndrome: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Nater, U.M.; Jones, J F; Lin, J-M S; Maloney, E; Reeves, W. C.; Heim, C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. Personality may be a risk factor for CFS and may contribute to the maintenance of the illness. METHODS: 501 study participants were identified from the general population of Georgia: 113 people with CFS, 264 with unexplained unwellness but not CFS (insufficient fatigue, ISF) and 124 well controls. We used the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, 4th edition, to evaluate DSM-IV personality disorde...

  15. Antidepressant Drugs for Chronic Urological Pelvic Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Papandreou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antidepressant drugs for the management of chronic pelvic pain has been supported in the past. This study aimed to evaluate the available evidence for the efficacy and acceptability of antidepressant drugs in the management of urological chronic pelvic pain. Studies were selected through a comprehensive literature search. We included all types of study designs due to the limited evidence. Studies were classified into levels of evidence according to their design. Ten studies were included with a total of 360 patients. Amitriptyline, sertraline, duloxetine, nortriptyline, and citalopram are the antidepressants that have been reported in the literature. Only four randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified (two for amitriptyline and two for sertraline with mixed results. We conclude that the use of antidepressants for the management of chronic urological pelvic pain is not adequately supported by methodologically sound RCTs. From the existing studies amitriptyline may be effective in interstitial cystitis but publication bias should be considered as an alternative explanation. All drugs were generally well tolerated with no serious events reported.

  16. Activation of porcine cytomegalovirus, but not porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus, in pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nicolas J; Livingston, Christine; Knosalla, Christoph; Barth, Rolf N; Yamamoto, Shin; Gollackner, Bernd; Dor, Frank J M F; Buhler, Leo; Sachs, David H; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Cooper, David K C; Fishman, Jay A

    2004-05-01

    Tissue-invasive disease due to porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) has been demonstrated after pig-to-baboon solid-organ xenotransplantation. Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV)-1 is associated with B cell proliferation and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in swine but has not been observed in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Activation of PCMV and PLHV-1 was investigated in 22 pig-to-baboon xenotransplants by use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PCMV was found in all xenografts; increased viral replication occurred in 68% of xenografts during immunosuppression. PLHV-1 was found in 12 xenografts (55%); no increases in viral replication occurred during immunosuppression. Control immunosuppressed swine coinfected with PCMV and PLHV-1 had activation of PCMV but not PLHV-1. PCMV, but not PLHV-1, is activated in solid-organ xenotransplantation.

  17. Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Beach, Nathan M; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2012-01-01

    Safety and quality are important issues for vaccines. Whereas reversion to virulence poses a safety risk with live attenuated vaccines, the potential for the presence of adventitious agents is also an issue of vaccine quality. The recent detection or porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in human vaccines has further highlighted the importance of quality control in vaccine production. The purpose of this study was to use a novel conventional PCR to detect PCV1, and subsequently screen materials used in the manufacture of vaccines at Bharat Biotech International Limited, India. The genome or gene fragments of PCV1 were not detected in any of the vaccines and materials tested, including the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine candidate ROTAVAC(®). Further, the identity of the cells and the viruses used as starting materials in the manufacture of these vaccines was confirmed by species-specific PCR or virus-specific RT-PCR, and no cross-contamination was detected in any case. The methods can be applied for regular in-house quality control screening of raw materials and seeds/banks, as well as formulated vaccines.

  18. Interphase chromosome positioning in in vitro porcine cells and ex vivo porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Helen A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In interphase nuclei of a wide range of species chromosomes are organised into their own specific locations termed territories. These chromosome territories are non-randomly positioned in nuclei which is believed to be related to a spatial aspect of regulatory control over gene expression. In this study we have adopted the pig as a model in which to study interphase chromosome positioning and follows on from other studies from our group of using pig cells and tissues to study interphase genome re-positioning during differentiation. The pig is an important model organism both economically and as a closely related species to study human disease models. This is why great efforts have been made to accomplish the full genome sequence in the last decade. Results This study has positioned most of the porcine chromosomes in in vitro cultured adult and embryonic fibroblasts, early passage stromal derived mesenchymal stem cells and lymphocytes. The study is further expanded to position four chromosomes in ex vivo tissue derived from pig kidney, lung and brain. Conclusions It was concluded that porcine chromosomes are also non-randomly positioned within interphase nuclei with few major differences in chromosome position in interphase nuclei between different cell and tissue types. There were also no differences between preferred nuclear location of chromosomes in in vitro cultured cells as compared to cells in tissue sections. Using a number of analyses to ascertain by what criteria porcine chromosomes were positioned in interphase nuclei; we found a correlation with DNA content.

  19. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  20. Approaching chronic sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarber, Kathleen M; Dion, Gregory Robert; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a common disease that encompasses a number of syndromes that are characterized by sinonasal mucosal inflammation. Chronic sinusitis can be defined as two or more of the following symptoms lasting for more than 12 consecutive weeks: discolored rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, nasal obstruction, facial pressure or pain, or decreased sense of smell. Chronic sinusitis is further classified as chronic sinusitis with polyposis, chronic sinusitis without polyposis, or allergic fungal sinusitis using physical examination, and histologic and radiographic findings. Treatment methods for chronic sinusitis are based upon categorization of the disease and include oral and inhaled corticosteroids, nasal saline irrigations, and antibiotics in selected patients. Understanding the various forms of chronic sinusitis and managing and ruling out comorbidities are key to successful management of this common disorder.

  1. Regular physical activity reduces hospital admission and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M;

    2006-01-01

    mortality in COPD subjects. METHODS: From a population-based sample recruited in Copenhagen in 1981-3 and 1991-4, 2386 individuals with COPD (according to lung function tests) were identified and followed until 2000. Self-reported regular physical activity at baseline was classified into four categories......BACKGROUND: Information about the influence of regular physical activity on the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce. A study was undertaken to examine the association between regular physical activity and both hospital admissions for COPD and all-cause and specific...

  2. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia is grouped into phases: Chronic Accelerated Blast crisis The chronic phase can last for ...

  3. Location of the coenzyme binding site in the porcine mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu Chu; Colman, Roberta F

    2005-08-26

    The structure of crystalline porcine mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) has been determined in complex with Mn2+-isocitrate. Based on structural alignment between this porcine enzyme and seven determined crystal structures of complexes of NADP with bacterial IDHs, Arg83, Thr311, and Asn328 were chosen as targets for site-directed mutagenesis of porcine IDH. The circular dichroism spectra of purified wild-type and mutant enzymes are similar. The mutant enzymes exhibit little change in Km for isocitrate or Mn2+, showing that these residues are not involved in substrate binding. In contrast, the Arg83 mutants, Asn328 mutants, and T311A exhibit 3-20-fold increase in the Km(NADP). We propose that Arg83 enhances NADP affinity by hydrogen bonding with the 3'-OH of the nicotinamide ribose, whereas Asn328 hydrogen bonds with N1 of adenine. The pH dependence of Vmax for Arg83 and Asn328 mutants is similar to that of wild-type enzyme, but for all the Thr311 mutants, pK(es) is increased from 5.2 in the wild type to approximately 6.0. We have previously attributed the pH dependence of Vmax to the deprotonation of the metal-bound hydroxyl of isocitrate in the enzyme-substrate complex, prior to the transfer of a hydride from isocitrate to NADP's nicotinamide moiety. Thr311 interacts with the nicotinamide ribose and is the closest of the target amino acids to the nicotinamide ring. Distortion of the nicotinamide by Thr311 mutation will likely be transmitted to Mn2+-isocitrate resulting in an altered pK(es). Because porcine and human mitochondrial NADP-IDH have 95% sequence identity, these results should be applicable to the human enzyme.

  4. Optimization of culture conditions for maintaining porcine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Guo, Yanjie; Duan, Anqin; Cheng, De; Zhang, Shiqiang; Wang, Huayan

    2014-01-01

    Ground state porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs), which retain the potential to generate chimeric animal and germline transmission, are difficult to produce. This study investigated morphological and biological progression at the early stage of porcine somatic cell reprogramming, and explored suitable conditions to increase the induction efficiency of piPSCs. A cocktail of defined transcription factors was used to generate piPSCs. The amphotropic retrovirus, which carried human OCT4 (O), SOX2 (S), KLF4 (K), C-MYC (M), TERT (T), and GFP, were used to infect porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs). The number of clones derived from OSKM (4F) and OSKMT (4F+T) was significantly higher than that from SKM (3F) and SKMT (3F+T), suggesting that OCT4 played a critical role in regulating porcine cell reprogramming. The number of alkaline phosphatase-positive clones from a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (M1 medium) was significantly higher than that with insulin and 2i PD0325901/CHIR99021 (M2 medium), indicating that insulin and 2i could not effectively maintain piPSC propagation. In the M1 medium, piPSC lines could not maintain the typical self-renewal morphology on gelatin-coated and Matrigel-coated plates. Without the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder, piPSCs started to simultaneously differentiate. Based on the potential for self-renewal and activation of pluripotent markers, we found that the culture condition of 4F+T plus LIF and bFGF plus MEF feeder promoted PEF reprogramming more efficiently than the other conditions tested here. Two piPSC lines (IB-1 and IB-2) were derived and maintained for up to 20 passages in vitro.

  5. Effects of sorbitol on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Jin Yu; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Jin, Dong-Il

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a porcine system was supplemented with sorbitol during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC), and the effects of sorbitol on oocyte maturation and embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation were assessed. Porcine immature oocytes were treated with different concentrations of sorbitol during IVM, and the resultant metaphase II stage oocytes were activated and cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) for 7 days. No significant difference was observed in cumulus expansion and the nuclear maturation between the control and sorbitol-treated groups, with the exception of the 100 mM group, which showed significantly decreased nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion. There was no significant difference in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels between oocytes matured with 10 or 20 mM sorbitol and control groups, but 50 and 100 mM groups had significantly higher ROS levels than other groups. The 20 mM group showed significant increases in intracellular glutathione and subsequent blastocyst formation rates following parthenogenetic activation compared with the other groups. During IVC, supplementation with sorbitol significantly reduced blastocyst formation and increased the apoptotic index compared with the control. The apoptotic index of blastocysts from the sorbitol-treated group for entire culture period was significantly higher than those of the partially sorbitol-exposed groups. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the addition of a low concentration of sorbitol (20 mM) during IVM of porcine oocytes benefits subsequent blastocyst development and improves embryo quality, whereas sorbitol supplement during IVC has a negative effect on blastocyst formation.

  6. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masahito [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Nakauchi Stem Cell and Organ Regeneration Project, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Umeyama, Kazuhiro [Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); International Cluster for Bio-Resource Research, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Matsunari, Hitomi [Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Takayanagi, Shuko [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Nakauchi Stem Cell and Organ Regeneration Project, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Haruyama, Erika; Nakano, Kazuaki; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Ikezawa, Yuka [Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Nakauchi Stem Cell and Organ Regeneration Project, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo University, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); and others

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. {yields} ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. {yields} Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor the exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  7. Evaluation of porcine stem cell competence for somatic cell nuclear transfer and production of cloned animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Jan O; Liu, Ying; Petkov, Stoyan; Luo, Yonglun; Li, Dong; Hall, Vanessa J; Schmidt, Mette; Callesen, Henrik; Bentzon, Jacob F; Sørensen, Charlotte B; Freude, Kristine K; Hyttel, Poul

    2017-03-01

    Porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been used extensively to create genetically modified pigs, but the efficiency of the methodology is still low. It has been hypothesized that pluripotent or multipotent stem cells might result in increased SCNT efficacy as these cells are closer than somatic cells to the epigenetic state found in the blastomeres and therefore need less reprogramming. Our group has worked with porcine SCNT during the last 20 years and here we describe our experience with SCNT of 3 different stem cell lines. The porcine stem cells used were: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) created by lentiviral doxycycline-dependent reprogramming and cultered with a GSK3β- and MEK-inhibitor (2i) and leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF) (2i LIF DOX-iPSCs), iPSCs created by a plasmid-based reprogramming and cultured with 2i and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) (2i FGF Pl-iPSCs) and embryonic germ cells (EGCs), which have earlier been characterized as being multipotent. The SCNT efficiencies of these stem cell lines were compared with that of the two fibroblast cell lines from which the iPSC lines were derived. The blastocyst rates for the 2i LIF DOX-iPSCs were 14.7%, for the 2i FGF Pl-iPSC 10.1%, and for the EGCs 34.5% compared with the fibroblast lines yielding 36.7% and 25.2%. The fibroblast- and EGC-derived embryos were used for embryo transfer and produced live offspring at similar low rates of efficiency (3.2 and 4.0%, respectively) and with several instances of malformations. In conclusion, potentially pluripotent porcine stem cells resulted in lower rates of embryonic development upon SCNT than multipotent stem cells and differentiated somatic cells.

  8. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay of Porcine Leydig Cell DNA Damage Induced by Zearalenone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwei ZHEN; Qincl LIU; Jianhong GU; Yan YUAN; Xuezhong LIU; Handong WANG; Zongping LIU; Jianchun BIAN

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of zearalenone (ZEN) on DNA damage of porcine leydig cells. [Method] Porcine leydig cells cultured in vitro were collected to determine the median lethal dose (LD~o) of ZEN with tetra- zolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay). Comet assay was carried out to de- tect the DNA damage of porcine leydig cells exposed to at 0 (negative group), 1, 5, 10, 20, 40 tJmol/L of ZEN. [Result] The percentage of cell tail was 16.67%, 34.00%, 40.67%. 52.00% and 64.67% under 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 ~mo~/L o~ ZEN, respectively; the differences between the percentages of celt tail in various experimental groups had extremely significant statistical significance compared with the negative group (P〈0.01), showing a significant dose-effect relationship; Tail length in various groups was 57.60_+4.78, 57.75_+6.25, 78.97_+5.83, 100.50~6.94 and 146.83_+12.31 ~m, re- spectively; Tail DNA % in various groups was 21.29_+2.25%, 22.24_+2.43%, 31.21_+ 6.27%, 37.45_+4.33% and 60.68_+9.83%, respectively; Tail length and Tail DNA % in experimental groups with ZEN concentration above 5 ~mo~/L showed significant dif- ferences (P〈0.05) compared with the negative group, which showed an upward trend with the increase of ZEN concentration. [Conclusion] ZEN has genotoxic effect on porcine leydig cells, which can cause DNA damage, with a significant dose-effect relationship.

  9. Three types of polymorphisms in exon 14 in porcine Mx1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, T; Sumantri, C; Nakajima, E; Kobayashi, E; Asano, A; Oishi, T; Mitsuhashi, T; Watanabe, T; Hamasima, N

    2001-08-01

    Much is known about the antiviral activity of Mx proteins in species such as mouse and human. In the mouse, loss of resistability to influenza virus has been shown to be due to specific polymorphisms in the Mx gene. This gene is therefore an interesting candidate gene for disease resistance in farm animals. The porcine Mx1 gene has already been identified and characterized based on its homology with mouse Mx1; however, until now no evidence of polymorphisms in the porcine gene has been reported. In this study, we have found two new polymorphisms in exon 14 of porcine Mx1 by DNA sequencing and confirmed their presence in different breeds, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) with NarI and NaeI restriction enzymes. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence, one allele contains a deletion that may result in a frameshift to yield several amino acid substitutions and extension of the carboxyl terminal region of Mx1 protein. The deletion allele, Mx1c, was found to be segregating in Landrace, Berkshire, Duroc, Hampshire, and Yucatan miniature pig. A second point mutation, Mx1b, was detected in Meishan and two Vietnamese native pig breeds. All other breeds tested were fixed for the Mx1a allele that is identical to the sequence reported previously. It will be interesting to determine if the Mx1c deletion is associated with variation in resistance to the myxovirus family in the pig.

  10. Porcine EPCs downregulate stem cell markers and upregulate endothelial maturation markers during in vitro cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci-Adali, Meltem; Nolte, Andrea; Simon, Perikles; Ziemer, Gerhard; Wendel, Hans P

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, interest in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has increased tremendously. However, each clinical stem cell application requires prior validation through animal experiments. This study investigates the isolation and characterization of porcine EPCs from peripheral blood and the change of their cell surface marker expression during in vitro cultivation. RT-PCR demonstrated that the EPCs express stem cell markers CD34 and CD133, which decrease with in vitro cultivation time. Throughout the cultivation process EPCs did not express monocytic (CD14) or haematopoietic marker (CD45). Surprisingly, the CD31 and VE-cadherin expression in EPCs was significantly higher than in endothelial cells (ECs). In contrast, the VEGFR2 and E-selectin expression was significantly lower than in ECs, but increased during the expansion process. This study clarifies the characteristic properties of porcine EPCs during cell culture and may help to improve the impact of EPC-based therapies in porcine animal studies.

  11. Long-Term Survival of Neonatal Porcine Islets Without Sertoli Cells in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vald and eacute;s-Gonz and aacute;lez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy is a promising treatment for metabolic disorders such as type-1 diabetes. Transplantation protocols have investigated several anatomical sites for cell implantation; however, some of these procedures, such as intraportal infusion, can cause organ failure or thrombosis secondarily. Bio-artificial organs could be the choice, although concerns still remain. Using a subcutaneous device, we are able to preserve neonatal porcine islets without sertoli cells in healthy New Zealand rabbits. Devices were implanted in the back of the animals underneath the skin, and after 3 months the islets were transplanted. Histology showed the presence of inflammatory cells, predominantly eosinophils; however, insulin- and glucagon-positive cell clusters were identified inside the device at different time points for at least 90 days, and porcine C-peptide was also detected during the follow-up, indicating graft functionality. We have found that our device induces the deposition of a fibrous matrix enriched in blood vessels, which forms a good place for cell grafting, and this model is probably able to induce an immunoprivileged site. Under these conditions, transplanted porcine islet cells have the capability of producing insulin and glucagon for at least three months. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 101-108

  12. Changes in germinal vesicle (GV) chromatin configurations during growth and maturation of porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-Shen; Liu, Yong; Yue, Kui-Zhong; Ma, Suo-Feng; Tan, Jing-He

    2004-10-01

    Changes in germinal vesicle (GV) chromatin configurations during growth and maturation of porcine oocytes were studied using a new method that allows a clearer visualization of both nucleolus and chromatin after Hoechst staining. The GV chromatin of porcine oocytes was classified into five configurations, based on the degree of chromatin condensation, and on nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappearance. While the GV1 to 4 configurations were similar to those reported by previous studies, the GV0 configuration was distinct by the diffuse, filamentous pattern of chromatin in the whole nuclear area. Most of the oocytes were at the GV0 stage in the layers of cumulus cells and those with less than one layer or no cumulus cells. Overall, our results suggested that (i) the GV0 configuration in porcine oocytes corresponded to the "nonsurrounded nucleolus" pattern in mice and other species; (ii) all the oocytes were synchronized at the GV1 stage before GVBD and this pattern might, therefore, represent a nonatretic state; (iii) the GV3 and GV4 configurations might represent stages toward atresia, or transient events prior to GVBD that could be switched toward either ovulation or atresia, depending upon circumstances; (iv) the in vitro systems currently used were not favorable for oocytes to switch toward ovulation (or final maturation); (v) the number of cumulus cells was not correlated with the chromatin configuration of oocytes, indicating that the beneficial effect of cumulus cells on oocyte maturation and development may simply be attributed to their presence during in vitro culture.

  13. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo

    2014-11-01

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection.

  14. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: vet@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE.

  15. Self-management programs based on the social cognitive theory for Koreans with chronic disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Yoo, Hyera

    2012-02-01

    Self-management programs based on social cognitive theory are useful to improve health care outcomes for patients with chronic diseases in Western culture. The purpose of this review is to identify and synthesize published research on the theory to enhance self-efficacy in disease management and examine its applicability to Korean culture regarding the learning strategies used. Ultimately, it was to identify the optimal use of these learning strategies to improve the self-efficacy of Korean patients in self-management of their hypertension and diabetic mellitus. The authors searched the Korean and international research databases from January 2000 to September 2009. Twenty studies were selected and reviewed. The most frequently used learning strategies of social cognitive theory was skill mastery by practice and feedback (N = 13), followed by social or verbal persuasion by group members (N = 7) and, however, observation learning and reinterpretation of symptoms by debriefing or discussion were not used any of the studies. Eight studies used only one strategy to enhance self-efficacy and six used two. A lack of consistency regarding the content and clinical efficacy of the self-efficacy theory-based self-management programs is found among the reviewed studies on enhancing self-efficacy in Koreans with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Further research on the effectiveness of these theory-based self-management programs for patients with chronic diseases in Korea and other countries is recommended.

  16. Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxins selectively digest porcine desmoglein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fudaba, Y.; Nishifuji, K.; Andresen, Lars Ole;

    2005-01-01

    . Recently, genes for ExhA, ExhB, ExhC and ExhD were cloned. Exfoliative toxins produced by S. aureus have been shown to selectively cleave human or mouse desmoglein 1, a desmosomal adhesion molecule, that when inactivated results in blisters. In this study, we attempted to identify the molecular target...... of Exhs in porcine skin. Each of recombinant Exhs injected in the skin of pigs caused superficial epidermal blisters or crust formation. Cell surface staining of desmoglein 1, but not that of desmoglein 3, was abolished when cryosections of normal porcine skin were incubated with one of Exhs suggesting......, injection of ExhA and ExhC at high concentration caused superficial blisters in neonatal mice. These findings strongly suggest that Exhs cause blister formation of porcine skin by digesting porcine desmoglein I in a similar fashion to exfoliative toxins from S. aureus....

  17. Porcine radial artery decellularization by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Many types of decellularized tissues have been studied and some have been commercially used in clinics. In this study, small-diameter vascular grafts were made using HHP to decellularize porcine radial arteries. One decellularization method, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), has been used to prepare the decellularized porcine tissues. Low-temperature treatment was effective in preserving collagen and collagen structures in decellularized porcine carotid arteries. The collagen and elastin structures and mechanical properties of HHP-decellularized radial arteries were similar to those of untreated radial arteries. Xenogeneic transplantation (into rats) was performed using HHP-decellularized radial arteries and an untreated porcine radial artery. Two weeks after transplantation into rat carotid arteries, the HHP-decellularized radial arteries were patent and without thrombosis. In addition, the luminal surface of each decellularized artery was covered by recipient endothelial cells and the arterial medium was fully infiltrated with recipient cells.

  18. STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS UNDERGOING HAEMODIALYSIS: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasulu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic renal failure (CRF is decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR to 3 consecut ive months with multiple etiologies. CRF results in profound lipid disorder which stems largely from dysregulation of high density lipoproteins (HDL & triglyceride - rich lipoprotein metabolism. Many a time CRF patients live on hemodialysis on regular basis . Present study was done to know whether hemodialysis has any impact on the lipid profile of the CRF patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study were divided into 7 groups, Group - 1: healthy controls (40, Group - 2: CRF patients who never undergone hemodialysis (40, Group - 3: CRF patients on hemodialysis (40, Group - 4: Healthy males (28, Group - 5: Healthy females (12, Group - 6: males with chronic renal failure (28, Group - 7: females with chronic renal failure (12. Sample analysed for high density lipoproteins (H DL, low density lipoproteins (LDL & very low density lipoproteins (VLDL. RESULTS: Among the various parameters tested triglyceride and VLDL levels were significantly higher in group - 2 and3 as compared to controls (p<0.0001. HDL levels were significant ly lower in group - 2 compared to Group - 1(p <0.0001. HDL level was found reduced in group - 3 as compare to Group - 2(p=0.0035. There was no significant change (p=0.132 observed in total cholesterol between healthy controls and CRF patients with hemodialysis. There is a significant change (p=0.0309 observed in LDL - c between CRF patients and controls and no significant change observed (P=0.6070 between Group - 2 and Group - 3. CONCLUSION: CRF patients are at risk of cardiovascular diseases due to the elevation of various forms of lipids. Prescribing lipid lowering treatment in CRF patients with dyslipidemias for preventing future episode of cardiovascular events and will a lso preserve renal function.

  19. Chronic renal disease in diabetic and prediabetic subjects:a community-based study in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文霞

    2006-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of chronic renal disease in hyperglycetnic population of Shanghai Caoyang Community. Methods Microalbuminuria was determined by measuring urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from fasting serum creatinine. Results A total of 406 Shanghainese, with the average age of 67.5±13.8 years (244 with diabetes mellitus and 162 with impaired glucose regulation) from the established hyperglycemic cohort were

  20. Porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, R E

    2001-11-01

    Porcine Skin Flow-Through Diffusion Cell System (Ronald E. Baynes, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). Porcine skin can be used in a diffusion cell apparatus to study the rate and extent of absorption of topically applied chemicals through the skin. Although the skin of a number of animals can be used in this system, that of the pig most closely approximates human skin anatomically and physiologically.

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...... heterogeneity, PRRSV is divided into two genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 PRRS viruses are further divided into at least 3 subtypes. The virus evolves rapidly and reports of high pathogenic variants of both Type 1 and Type 2 appearing in Europe, North America, and Asia have been reported within recent years...... confirmed that only Type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV is circulating in the Danish pig population. The examination of the Danish PRRS field viruses confirmed that there is a high overall diversity among Type 1 viruses in Europe. The phylogenetic study also indicated the presence of two Danish virus clusters, one...

  2. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2006-02-01

    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  3. Porcine UCHL1: genomic organization, chromosome localization and expression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    to and protection from Parkinson’s disease. Here we report cloning, characterization, expression analysis and mapping of porcine UCHL1. The UCHL1 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The porcine cDNA codes...... for a protein of 223 amino acids which shows a very high similarity to human (98%) and to mouse (97%) UCHL1. In addition, the genomic organization of the porcine UCHL1 gene was determined. The porcine UCHL1 gene was mapped to chromosome 8(½p21)–p23. Three SNPs were found in the porcine UCHL1 sequence....... Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR demonstrated that porcine UCHL1 mRNA is differentially expressed in various organs and tissues and similar to its human counterpart. UCHL1 transcript is most abundant in brain tissues and in the spinal cord. The UCHL1 mRNA expression was also investigated...

  4. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  5. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) technology. PMID:27527207

  6. Optical absorption and scattering properties of bulk porcine muscle phantoms from interstitial radiance measurements in 650-900 nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabtchak, Serge; Montgomery, Logan G.; Whelan, William M.

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrated the application of relative radiance-based continuous wave (cw) measurements for recovering absorption and scattering properties (the effective attenuation coefficient, the diffusion coefficient, the absorption coefficient and the reduced scattering coefficient) of bulk porcine muscle phantoms in the 650-900 nm spectral range. Both the side-firing fiber (the detector) and the fiber with a spherical diffuser at the end (the source) were inserted interstitially at predetermined locations in the phantom. The porcine phantoms were prostate-shaped with ˜4 cm in diameter and ˜3 cm thickness and made from porcine loin or tenderloin muscles. The described method was previously validated using the diffusion approximation on simulated and experimental radiance data obtained for homogenous Intralipid-1% liquid phantom. The approach required performing measurements in two locations in the tissue with different distances to the source. Measurements were performed on 21 porcine phantoms. Spectral dependences of the effective attenuation and absorption coefficients for the loin phantom deviated from corresponding dependences for the tenderloin phantom for wavelengths tissues and organs for interstitial optical interrogation.

  7. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label.

  8. Development of primers for detection of heat-treated cetacean materials in porcine meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Naoki; Yoshida, Tomotaro; Kusama, Toyoko; Takagi, Masami; Onodera, Takashi; Sugiura, Katsuaki

    2009-07-01

    The feed ban introduced after the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in 2001 in Japan has been modified to allow some of the previously prohibited animal materials to be used in animal feed. Recently, porcine materials were allowed to be used in feed for pigs, poultry, and fish. Materials from other mammals, including whales, remain prohibited. In the absence of a method to detect the prohibited whale materials in porcine materials, there is a possibility that the whale materials are being used for feed for pigs, poultry, and fish. To detect illegal use of whale materials mixed with porcine materials, we have developed PCR primers specific to a group of most cetacean species, using a computer-based method we developed previously. The primer sets were capable of detecting whale meat meal that had been autoclaved at 133 degrees C for up to 20 min. The detection limit of whale material in porcine meat and bone meal was 0.1%.

  9. Comparison between Mt-DNA D-Loop and Cyt B primers for porcine DNA detection in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhana; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products in the market using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercial PCR-southern hybridization analysis. Porcine DNA detection in meat products was tested due to some issues associated with the adulteration of food products in Malaysia. This is an important issue especially for Halal authentication which is required for some religious practices such as in Islam and Hinduisms. Many techniques have been developed for determining the Halal status of food products. In this paper, mt-DNA D-loop primer and cytochrome (cyt) b were used to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products. Positive and negative controls were always present for each batch of extraction. DNA of raw pork meat was used as a positive control while nucleus free water is used as negative control. A pair of oligonucleotide primer was used namely Pork1 and Pork2 which produced amplicon of 531 base pair (bp) in size. While, PCR-southern hybridization was conducted using primers readily supplied by commercial PCR-Southern hybridization and produced amplicon with 276 bp in size. In the present study, demonstrated that none of the samples were contaminated with porcine residuals but selected samples with pork meat were positive. The species-specific PCR amplification yielded excellent results for identification of pork derivatives in food products and it is a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for Halal certification.

  10. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training. PMID:27799706

  11. Factors associated with the response to interferon-based antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirayuki; Enomoto; Shuhei; Nishiguchi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection is a major health concern worldwide. Interferon-α(IFN-α) therapy has been the main antiviral treatment for more than 20 years. Because of its established antitumor effects, IFNbased treatments for chronic HCV infection still have a clinical impact, particularly for patients with high risk conditions of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, such as older age and advanced liver fibrosis. As a result of exhaustive research, several viral factors, including NS5 A amino acid mutations such as the IFN sensitivitydetermining region and the IFN/ribavirin resistancedetermining region, and mutations of amino acids in the core protein region(core 70 and 91) were shown to be associated with the response to IFN-α treatment. In addition, among the host factors related to the response to IFN-α treatment, polymorphisms of the interleukin-28 B gene were identified to be the most important factor. In this article, we review the factors associated with the efficacy of IFN-α treatment for chronic HCV infection. In addition, our recent findings regarding the possible involvement of anti-IFN-α neutralizing antibodies in a non-response to pegylated-IFN-α treatment are also described.

  12. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Budhrani-Shani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation.

  13. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcari, Patricia; Langevin, Helene; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi) for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation. PMID:27446610

  14. Porcine models for the metabolic syndrome, digestive and bone disorders: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litten-Brown, J C; Corson, A M; Clarke, L

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the role of pigs as a biomedical model for humans. The usefulness and limitations of porcine models have been discussed in terms of metabolic, cardiovascular, digestive and bone diseases in humans. Domestic pigs and minipigs are the main categories of pigs used as biomedical models. One drawback of minipigs is that they are in short supply and expensive compared with domestic pigs, which in contrast cost more to house, feed and medicate. Different porcine breeds show different responses to the induction of specific diseases. For example, ossabaw minipigs provide a better model than Yucatan for the metabolic syndrome as they exhibit obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension, all of which are absent in the Yucatan. Similar metabolic/physiological differences exist between domestic breeds (e.g. Meishan v. Pietrain). The modern commercial (e.g. Large White) domestic pig has been the preferred model for developmental programming due to the 2- to 3-fold variation in body weight among littermates providing a natural form of foetal growth retardation not observed in ancient (e.g. Meishan) domestic breeds. Pigs have been increasingly used to study chronic ischaemia, therapeutic angiogenesis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and abdominal aortic aneurysm as their coronary anatomy and physiology are similar to humans. Type 1 and II diabetes can be induced in swine using dietary regimes and/or administration of streptozotocin. Pigs are a good and extensively used model for specific nutritional studies as their protein and lipid metabolism is comparable with humans, although pigs are not as sensitive to protein restriction as rodents. Neonatal and weanling pigs have been used to examine the pathophysiology and prevention/treatment of microbial-associated diseases and immune system disorders. A porcine model mimicking various degrees of prematurity in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition has been established to

  15. Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Efficacy of DispersinB (registered trademark)-KSL-W Peptide-Based Wound Gel Against Chronic Wound Infection Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-21

    16, 21–23]. The DispersinB-KSL-W wound gel exhibited a sus- tained antibacterial activity over a period of 72 h against all the chronic wound...Antibiofilm and Antimicrobial Efficacy of DispersinB-KSL-W Peptide-Based Wound Gel Against Chronic Wound Infection Associated Bacteria Purushottam V...and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, the wound gel formulation comprising DispersinB, KSL-W peptide, and a gelling agent Pluronic F-127 showed a

  16. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Body Awareness in Patients with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marasha; Lazar, Sara W.; Hug, Kiran; Mehling, Wolf E.; Hölzel, Britta K.; Sack, Alexander T.; Peeters, Frenk; Ashih, Heidi; Mischoulon, David; Gard, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Body awareness has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms of mindfulness interventions, and it has been shown that chronic pain and depression are associated with decreased levels of body awareness. We investigated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid active depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 31). Body awareness was measured by a subset of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales deemed most relevant for the population. These included: Noticing, Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, and Self-Regulation. In addition, pain catastrophizing was measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). These scales had adequate to high internal consistency in the current sample. Depression severity was measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Clinician rated (QIDS-C16). Increases in the MBCT group were significantly greater than in the TAU group on the “Self-Regulation” and “Not Distracting” scales. Furthermore, the positive effect of MBCT on depression severity was mediated by “Not Distracting.” These findings provide preliminary evidence that a mindfulness-based intervention may increase facets of body awareness as assessed with the MAIA in a population of pain patients with depression. Furthermore, they are consistent with a long hypothesized mechanism for mindfulness and emphasize the clinical relevance of body awareness. PMID:27445929

  17. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection on the clearance of Haemophilus parasuis by porcine alveolar macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Solano, G I; Bautista, E.; Molitor, T W; Segales, J.; Pijoan, C

    1998-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in young piglets is frequently associated with secondary infection due to various pathogens, especially those of the respiratory tract. One of the most important mechanisms in respiratory diseases is related to the alteration of function of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The objective of this study was to determine how PRRS virus infection affects the capabilities of PAMs in the phagocytosis and destruction of Haemoph...

  18. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Del Donno, Mario; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    to the Italian context; the document of the Agency for Regional Healthcare Services (AGE.NA.S) is a more suited compendium for consultation, and the recent joint statement on integrated COPD management of the three major Italian scientific Associations in the respiratory area together with the contribution of a Society of General Medicine deals prevalently with some critical issues (appropriateness of diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, rehabilitation, continuing care); also the document "Care Continuity: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)" of the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)-Italy does not treat in depth the issue of early diagnosis. The present document - produced by the AIMAR (Interdisciplinary Association for Research in Lung Disease) Task Force for early diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model and on available evidence and expertise -after a general examination of the main epidemiologic aspects, proposes to integrate the above-mentioned existing documents. In particular: a) it formally indicates on the basis of the available evidence the modalities and the instruments necessary for carrying out secondary prevention at the primary care level (a pro-active,'case-finding'approach; assessment of the individual's level of risk of COPD; use of short questionnaires for an initial screening based on symptoms; use of simple spirometry for the second level of screening); b) it identifies possible ways of including these activities within primary care practice; c) it places early diagnosis within the "systemic", consequential management of chronic respiratory diseases, which will be briefly described with the aid of schemes taken from the Italian and international reference documents.

  19. The relationship between hospital market competition, evidence-based performance measures, and mortality for chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Jared Lane K; Lo Sasso, Anthony T

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Joint Commission's ORYX initiative and the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review file from 2003 to 2006, this study employed a fixed-effects approach to examine the relationship between hospital market competition, evidence-based performance measures, and short-term mortality at seven days, 30 days, 90 days, and one year for patients with chronic heart failure. We found that, on average, higher adherence with most of the Joint Commission's heart failure performance measures was not associated with lower mortality; the level of market competition also was not associated with any differences in mortality. However, higher adherence with the discharge instructions and left ventricular function assessment indicators at the 80th and 90th percentiles of the mortality distribution was associated with incrementally lower mortality rates. These findings suggest that targeting evidence-based processes of care might have a stronger impact in improving patient outcomes.

  20. Hospital contacts for chronic diseases among danish seafarers and fishermen: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Dahl, Søren; Nielsen, Per Sabro

    2007-01-01

    and the SHCR for chronic heart diseases was statistically significantly higher in the 1999 than in the 1994 cohort. For both time periods high SHCR values were found for bronchitis, emphysema, cancer of the lung, alcohol-related liver diseases, and diabetes among male non-officers, and lung cancer among male...... Danish seafarers (officers and non-officers) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority (DMA) 1989-98 and fishermen retrieved from a pension registry 1989-98 were linked to the nationwide Occupational Hospitalization Registry (OHR) and followed up for incident diseases in two five-year time periods......, from 1 January 1994 and 1 January 1999, respectively, using rates specific for age and calendar time for the entire Danish workforce as a reference. RESULTS: The SHCRs for lung and cardiovascular diseases were high for non-officers. Among male officers, the SHCR for diabetes was high in the 1999 cohort...

  1. [Understanding and treatment strategy of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease based on chronic inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged inflammation continuously promotes the infiltration of macrophages in the organization and chronically induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-1. In periodontal tissues, these inflammatory cytokines enhance the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, which cause destruction of the alveolar bone. Therefore, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production leads to the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease. IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that strongly enhances the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. Elucidation of mechanisms for the production of IL-1 is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This paper reviews recent findings of the molecular mechanisms regulating IL-1 production and focuses on inflammasome.

  2. Telemedicine-Based Treatment Versus Hospitalization in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Exacerbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lone; Østergaard, Birte; Rasmussen, Lars S;

    2014-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized study was a substudy of the "Virtual Hospital," a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome in this substudy was cognitive function, evaluated 3 days and 6 weeks after discharge using a neuropsychological test battery comprising four tests and seven......OBJECTIVES: Telemedicine is gaining ground in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because telemedicine often requires both participation and engagement of the patients, it is important to take differences in cognitive ability into account...... Examination score, 27.5 (SD 1.6) points. The performance in all seven neuropsychological test variables tended to be better in the group allocated to virtual admission 3 days and 6 weeks after discharge, but the difference was not significant after Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS...

  3. [Evidence-based medicine: treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Liege Study Group on Viral Hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwaide, J; Gérard, C

    2000-05-01

    The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people in the world. The major characteristic of virus C is its tendency to chronicity in more than 85% of cases. Generally asymptomatic, HCV infection may also evolve with time to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. During the last few years, HCV-related end-stage cirrhosis has become the first cause of liver transplantation. In 10 years only, very significant progress has been made in the knowledge of the virus, not only in the field of diagnosis but also in therapy. Several consensus conferences taking last discoveries into account have been organized in order to promote recommendations useful for the management of hepatitis C patients. The aim of this short overview is to summarize practical recommendations that emerged recently from consensus meetings.

  4. Two-photon spectral fluorescence lifetime and second-harmonic generation imaging of the porcine cornea with a 12-femtosecond laser microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten

    2016-03-01

    Five dimensional microscopy with a 12-fs laser scanning microscope based on spectrally resolved two-photon autofluorescence lifetime and second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging was used to characterize all layers of the porcine cornea. This setup allowed the simultaneous excitation of both metabolic cofactors, NAD(P)H and flavins, and their discrimination based on their spectral emission properties and fluorescence decay characteristics. Furthermore, the architecture of the stromal collagen fibrils was assessed by SHG imaging in both forward and backward directions. Information on the metabolic state and the tissue architecture of the porcine cornea were obtained with subcellular resolution, and high temporal and spectral resolutions.

  5. Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and -12 in Porcine Lung Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, C. S.; Leifsson, P. S.; Johansen, L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a variety of roles during organogenesis, in the immune response and during acute and chronic diseases as well as in tissue remodelling. During the last decade, the pig has become used increasingly as a model for human diseases; however, studies on the express...... expressions were seen in the alveolar epithelium (MMP-9) and alveolar macrophages (MMP-12). These results are in accordance with studies of human lungs....... on the expression of porcine MMPs are limited. In the present study species-specific antibodies were produced to investigate the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-12 immunohistochemically in lungs from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus. The immunolabelling...... of lung tissues (one infected and one control pig representing each infection) was evaluated for cellular distribution and intensity, which was scored semiquantitatively. When compared with healthy, non-infected controls, the expression of both MMP-9 and MMP-12 was higher in infected lungs. The highest...

  6. Nanomedicine and mammalian sperm: Lessons from the porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalina, Natalia; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology allows us to engineer versatile nanosized platforms that are comparable in size to biological molecules and intracellular organelles. These platforms can be loaded with large amounts of biological cargo, administered systemically and act at a distance, target specific cell populations, undergo intracellular internalization via endogenous uptake mechanisms, and act as contrast agents or release cargo for therapeutic purposes. Over recent years, nanomaterials have been increasingly viewed as favorable candidates for intragamete delivery. Particularly in the case of sperm, nanomaterial-based approaches have been shown to improve the efficacy of existing techniques such as sperm-mediated gene transfer, loading sperm with exogenous proteins, and tagging sperm for subsequent sex- or function-based sorting. In this short review, we provide an outline of the current state of nanotechnology for biomedical applications in reproductive biology and present highlights from a series of our studies evaluating the use of specialized silica nanoparticles in boar sperm as a potential delivery vehicle into mammalian gametes. The encouraging data obtained already from the porcine model in our laboratory have formed the basis for ethical approval of similar experiments in human sperm, thereby bringing us a step closer toward the potential use of this novel technology in the clinical environment.

  7. Neuronal injury in the motor cortex after chronic stroke and lower limb motor impairment:a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandria M. Reynolds; Denise M. Peters; Jennifer M. C. Vendemia; Lenwood P. Smith; Raymond C. Sweet; Gordon C. Baylis; Debra Krotish; Stacy L Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined motor impairments using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping, but few are reported regarding the corresponding relationship between cerebral cortex injury and lower limb motor impairment analyzed using this technique. This study correlated neuro-nal injury in the cerebral cortex of 16 patients with chronic stroke based on a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping analysis. Neuronal injury in the corona radiata, caudate nucleus and putamen of patients with chronic stroke could predict walking speed. The behavioral measure scores were consistent with motor deifcits expected after damage to the cortical motor system due to stroke. These ifndings suggest that voxel-based lesion symptom mapping may provide a more accurate prognosis of motor recovery from chronic stroke according to neuronal injury in cerebral motor cortex.

  8. Options for basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on chronic disease endpoints: report from a joint US-/Canadian-sponsored working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Greene-Finestone, Linda S; Garza, Cutberto; Ard, Jamy D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Bier, Dennis M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Harlan, William R; Hattis, Dale; King, Janet C; Krewski, Daniel; O'Connor, Deborah L; Prentice, Ross L; Rodricks, Joseph V; Wells, George A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used in Canada and the United States in planning and assessing diets of apparently healthy individuals and population groups. The approaches used to establish DRIs on the basis of classical nutrient deficiencies and/or toxicities have worked well. However, it has proved to be more challenging to base DRI values on chronic disease endpoints; deviations from the traditional framework were often required, and in some cases, DRI values were not established for intakes that affected chronic disease outcomes despite evidence that supported a relation. The increasing proportions of elderly citizens, the growing prevalence of chronic diseases, and the persistently high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which predispose to chronic disease, highlight the importance of understanding the impact of nutrition on chronic disease prevention and control. A multidisciplinary working group sponsored by the Canadian and US government DRI steering committees met from November 2014 to April 2016 to identify options for addressing key scientific challenges encountered in the use of chronic disease endpoints to establish reference values. The working group focused on 3 key questions: 1) What are the important evidentiary challenges for selecting and using chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews, 2) what intake-response models can future DRI committees consider when using chronic disease endpoints, and 3) what are the arguments for and against continuing to include chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews? This report outlines the range of options identified by the working group for answering these key questions, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each option.

  9. Hepatic differentiation of porcine embryonic stem cells for translational research of hepatocyte transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K M; Hussein, K H; Ghim, J H; Ahn, C; Cha, S H; Lee, G S; Hong, S H; Yang, S; Woo, H M

    2015-04-01

    Porcine embryonic stem cells (ES) are considered attractive preclinical research tools for human liver diseases. Although several studies previously reported generation of porcine ES, none of these studies has described hepatic differentiation from porcine ES. The aim of this study was to generate hepatocytes from porcine ES and analyze their characteristics. We optimized conditions for definitive endoderm induction and developed a 4-step hepatic differentiation protocol. A brief serum-free condition with activin A efficiently induced definitive endoderm differentiation from porcine ES. The porcine ES-derived hepatocyte-like cells highly expressed hepatic markers including albumin and α-fetoprotein, and displayed liver characteristics such as glycogen storage, lipid production, and low-density lipoprotein uptake. For the first time, we describe a highly efficient protocol for hepatic differentiation from porcine ES. Our findings provide valuable information for translational liver research using porcine models, including hepatic regeneration and transplant studies, drug screening, and toxicology.

  10. Time to gain trust and change--experiences of attachment and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy among patients with chronic pain and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peilot, Birgitta; Andréll, Paulin; Samuelsson, Anita; Mannheimer, Clas; Frodi, Ann; Sundler, Annelie J

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of patients with chronic pain disorders is complex. In the rehabilitation of these patients, coping with chronic pain is seen as important. The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of attachment and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (CT) among patients with chronic pain and psychiatric co-morbidity. A phenomenological approach within a lifeworld perspective was used. In total, 10 patients were interviewed after completion of 7- to 13-month therapy. The findings reveal that the therapy and the process of interaction with the therapist were meaningful for the patients' well-being and for a better management of pain. During the therapy, the patients were able to initiate a movement of change. Thus, CT with focus on attachment and mindfulness seems to be of value for these patients. The therapy used in this study was adjusted to the patients' special needs, and a trained psychotherapist with a special knowledge of patients with chronic pain might be required.

  11. Biomechanical in vitro evaluation of the complete porcine spine in comparison with data of the human spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Geppert, Jürgen; Kienle, Annette

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative biomechanical properties of the whole porcine spine and compare them with data from the literature on the human spine. Complete spines were sectioned into single joint segments and tested in a spine tester with pure moments in the three main anatomical planes. Range of motion, neutral zone and stiffness parameters of the spine were determined in flexion/extension, right/left lateral bending and left/right axial rotation. Comparison with data of the human spine reported in the literature showed that certain regions of the porcine spine exhibit greater similarities than others. The cervical area of C1-C2 and the upper and middle thoracic sections exhibited the most similarities. The lower thoracic and the lumbar area are qualitatively similar to the human spine. The remaining cervical section from C3 to C7 appears to be less suitable as a model. Based on the biomechanical similarities of certain regions of the porcine and human spines demonstrated by this study results, it appears that the use of the porcine spine could be an alternative to human specimens in the field of in vitro research. However, it has to be emphasized that the porcine spine is not a suitable biomechanics surrogate for all regions of the human spinal column, and it should be carefully considered whether other specimens, for example from the calf or sheep spine, represent a better alternative for a specific scientific question. It should be noted that compared with human specimens each animal model always only represents a compromise.

  12. Differences in brain structure in patients with distinct sites of chronic pain A voxel-based morphometric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Mao; Longxiao Wei; Qiuli Zhang; Xia Liao; Xiaoli Yang; Ming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in gray matter volume is common in patients with chronic back pain, and different types of pain are associated with gray matter abnormalities in distinct brain regions. To examine ences in brain morphology in patients with low back pain or neck and upper back pain, we gated changes in gray matter volume in chronic back pain patients having different sites of pain using voxel-based morphometry. A reduction in cortical gray matter volume was found primarily in the left postcentral gyrus and in the left precuneus and bilateral cuneal cortex of patients with low back pain. In these patients, there was an increase in subcortical gray matter volume in the bilateral putamen and accumbens, right pal idum, right caudate nucleus, and left amygdala. In upper back pain patients, reduced cortical gray matter volume was found in the left precentral and left tral cortices. Our findings suggest that regional gray matter volume abnormalities in low back pain patients are more extensive than in upper back pain patients. Subcortical gray matter volume in-creases are found only in patients with low back pain.

  13. Outcome of experimental porcine circovirus type 1 infections in mid-gestational porcine foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducatelle Richard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1 has been described as a non-cytopathic contaminant of the PK-15 cell line. Several experimental infections with PCV1 failed to reproduce disease in pigs. Therefore, PCV1 is generally accepted as non-pathogenic to pigs. To our knowledge, nothing is known about the outcome of PCV1 infections in porcine foetuses. This was examined in the present study. Results Nine foetuses from three sows were inoculated at 55 days of gestation: three with 104.3 TCID50 of the PCV1 cell culture strain ATCC-CCL33, three with 104.3 TCID50 of the PCV1 field strain 3384 and three with cell culture medium (mock-inoculated. At 21 days post-inoculation, all 6 PCV1-inoculated and all 3 mock-inoculated foetuses had a normal external appearance. Microscopic lesions characterized by severe haemorrhages were observed in the lungs of two foetuses inoculated with CCL33. High PCV1 titres (up to 104.7 TCID50/g tissue were found in the lungs of the CCL33-inoculated foetuses. All other organs of the CCL33-inoculated foetuses and all the organs of the 3384-inoculated foetuses were negative (1.7 TCID50/g tissue by virus titration. PCV1-positive cells (up to 121 cells/10 mm2 in CCL33-inoculated foetuses and up to 13 cells/10 mm2 in 3384-inoculated foetuses were found in the heart, lungs, spleen, liver, thymus and tonsils. PCR and DNA sequencing of Rep recovered CCL33 or 3384 sequences from CCL33- or 3384-inoculated foetuses, respectively. Conclusions From this study, it can be concluded that cell culture PCV1 can replicate efficiently and produce pathology in the lungs of porcine foetuses inoculated at 55 days of foetal life.

  14. Integrating an ecological approach into an Aboriginal community-based chronic disease prevention program: a longitudinal process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maypilama Elaine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health promotes an ecological approach to chronic disease prevention, however, little research has been conducted to assess the integration of an ecological approach in community-based prevention programs. This study sought to contribute to the evidence base by assessing the extent to which an ecological approach was integrated into an Aboriginal community-based cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes prevention program, across three-intervention years. Methods Activity implementation forms were completed by interview with implementers and participant observation across three intervention years. A standardised ecological coding procedure was applied to assess participant recruitment settings, intervention targets, intervention strategy types, extent of ecologicalness and organisational partnering. Inter-rater reliability for two coders was assessed at Kappa = 0.76 (p Results 215 activities were implemented across three intervention years by the health program (HP with some activities implemented in multiple years. Participants were recruited most frequently through organisational settings in years 1 and 2, and organisational and community settings in year 3. The most commonly utilised intervention targets were the individual (IND as a direct target, and interpersonal (INT and organisational (ORG environments as indirect targets; policy (POL, and community (COM were targeted least. Direct (HP→ IND and indirect intervention strategies (i.e., HP→ INT→ IND, HP→ POL → IND were used most often; networking strategies, which link at least two targets (i.e., HP→[ORG-ORG]→IND, were used the least. The program did not become more ecological over time. Conclusions The quantity of activities with IND, INT and ORG targets and the proportion of participants recruited through informal cultural networking demonstrate community commitment to prevention. Integration of an ecological approach would have been

  15. Impact of obesity on the clinical profile of a population-based sample with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García-Rio

    Full Text Available AIMS: To characterize the distribution of BMI in a population-based sample of COPD patients and to evaluate the impact of obesity on their health status, exercise tolerance, systemic inflammation and comorbidity. METHODS: A population-based sample of 3,797 subjects aged 40-80 years from the EPI-SCAN study was selected. Subjects were categorized according their body mass index (BMI as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2, normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2 or obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2. Subjects were evaluated with post-bronchodilator spirometry and 6-minute walk tests. Smoking habits, respiratory symptoms, generic and specific quality of life, daily physical activities, comorbidities and systemic inflammatory biomarkers were recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity or being overweight was higher in the 382 COPD patients than in the subjects without airflow limitation (29.4%, 95%CI 24.8-33.9% vs. 24.3, 95%CI 22.9-25.8; and 44.7%, 95%CI 39.7-49.6% vs. 43.0%, 95%CI 41.3-44.6, respectively; p = 0.020. In the COPD subgroup, obese subjects presented more dyspnea and less chronic cough, chronic bronchitis or chronic phlegm than normal-weight patients, as well as a worse health status. Moreover, reduced exercise tolerance and higher plasmatic C-reactive protein levels were found in the obese patients, who also presented a greater prevalence of cardiovascular disease (adjusted odds ratio 4.796, 95%CI 1.806-12.736, p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based sample, obesity is more prevalent in COPD patients than in subjects without airflow limitation. Furthermore, obesity affects the clinical manifestations, quality of life and exercise tolerance of COPD patients, and it may contribute to a phenotype characterized by increased systemic inflammation and greater frequency of cardiovascular comorbidity.

  16. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation program: Effect on exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem Maha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is pulmonary rehabilitation (PR, the corner stone of which is exercise training. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of a two-months, home-based PR program with outpatient supervision every two weeks, on exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life (HRQL using Arabic-translated standardized generic and specific questionnaires in COPD patients recently recovered from acute exacerbation, Design: Randomized clinical trial. Setting and Subjects: A total of 39 COPD patients who recovered from acute exacerbation were randomly allocated either a two-month home-based PR program in addition to standard medical therapy or standard medical therapy alone in the period between July 2008 and March 2009. Methods: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs, six-minute walk distance (6-MWD test, Arabic-translated chronic respiratory disease questionnaire-self administered standardized format (CRQ-SAS and quality of life scale Short Form (SF-36 were compared between 25 patients with moderate to severe COPD who underwent a two-month PR program (group 1 and 14 COPD patients who did not (group 2. Results: Group 1 showed significant improvement in the 6-MWD, and HRQL scores at two months compared with the usual care patients in group 2 (P less than 0.05. Improvement in both CRQ-SAS and SF-36 scores were statistically significant and comparable in group 1. Conclusion: The supervised, post discharge, two-month home-based PR program is an effective non pharmacological intervention in the management of stable patients with COPD. The 6-MWD is a simple, inexpensive and safe test to assess physical and functional capabilities among COPD patients. HRQL can be measured in patients with COPD either by disease-specific tools that have been specifically designed for use in patients with respiratory system disorders or by generic HRQL tools that can be used across

  17. A STUDY TO ANALYSE THE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PILATES BASED EXERCISES AND THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.Albert Anand,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal symptoms seen in 85 % of individuals in their life time. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Modified Pilates based exercises for patients with Chronic Non Specific Low Back Pain. Design: A randomized controlled trial, pre test-post test design Setting: The study was conducted in Out Patient Department of physiotherapy, K.G Hospital, Coimbatore, India. Patients: Fifty– two physically active subjects between 18 – 60 years old with Chronic Non specific Low Specific Pain of more than 12 weeks’ duration were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Interventions: Group A subjects underwent a Modified specific Pilates based exercises with Flexibility Exercises & Group B Subjects underwent a Therapeutic Exercises with Flexibility Exercises were conducted over of 8 weeks. Measurements: Back specific Functional Status outcome were measured with the Oswestry Disability Index and pain intensity were measured with Visual analogue scale. Conclusion: The study concluded that the Modified specific Pilates based exercises helps in reducing the pain, improve the back specific function, improve general health, personal Care, Social Life and flexibility in individuals with non specific chronic low back pain than the therapeutic exercise group.

  18. Development of hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of chronic myelogenous leukocytes from microscopic image of peripheral blood smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Madhumala; Chakraborty, Chandan; Konar, Amit; Ray, Ajoy K

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces a hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of leukocytes in case of chronic myelogenous leukemia using light microscopic images of peripheral blood smears. The concept of modified discrimination measure is applied to develop the measure of divergence based on Shannon exponential entropy and Yager's measure of entropy. These two measures of divergence are compared with the existing literatures and validated by ground truth images. Finally, it is found that hedge operator based divergence measure using Yager's entropy achieves better segmentation accuracy i.e., 98.29% for normal and 98.15% for chronic myelogenous leukocytes. Furthermore, Jaccard index has been performed to compare the segmented image with ground truth ones where it is found that that the proposed scheme leads to higher Jaccard index (0.39 for normal, 0.24 for chronic myelogenous leukemia).

  19. The geography of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Thomas; Martinussen, Pål E

    2014-06-01

    Research on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that includes geographic information is important in order to improve care and appropriate allocation of resources to patients suffering from COPD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geography of COPD and factors associated with the spatial patterns of COPD prevalence. Particular emphasis is put on the role of the local socioeconomic environment. Utilising information from the Norwegian Prescription Database on all lung medication prescribed in 2009 we identified 62,882 persons with COPD in the Norwegian population. Patterns of spatial clustering in the prevalence of COPD are clearly evident, even when age and gender are controlled for. Gender and age are strongly related to COPD risk. Socio-economic characteristics of the community such as education and unemployment are also significantly correlated with COPD risk. People living in rural parts of the country are generally associated with less risk than people in urban settings, and in particular people living in communities with high levels of farm and fisheries employment.

  20. Identification of novel biomarkers in chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) by microarray-based serum protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Gürkan; Futschik, Matthias E; Hartl, Daniela; Ringel, Frauke; Kamhieh-Milz, Julian; Sterzer, Viktor; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Alhamdani, Mohamed S S; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2016-02-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying the development of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are unclear and its diagnosis remains a process of exclusion. Currently, there are no known specific biomarkers for ITP to support differential diagnosis and treatment decisions. Profiling of serum proteins may be valuable for identifying such biomarkers. Sera from 46 patients with primary chronic ITP and 34 healthy blood donors were analysed using a microarray of 755 antibodies. We identified 161 differentially expressed proteins. In addition to oncoproteins and tumour-suppressor proteins, including apoptosis regulator BCL2, breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1), Fanconi anaemia complementation group C (FANCC) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), we detected six anti-nuclear autoantibodies in a subset of ITP patients: anti-PCNA, anti-SmD, anti-Ro/SSA60, anti-Ro/SSA52, anti-La/SSB and anti-RNPC antibodies. This finding may provide a rational explanation for the association of ITP with malignancies and other autoimmune diseases. While RUNX1mRNA expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients was significantly downregulated, an accumulation of RUNX1 protein was observed in the platelets of ITP patients. This may indicate dysregulation of RUNX1 expression in PBMC and megakaryocytes and may lead to an imbalanced immune response and impaired thrombopoiesis. In conclusion, we provide novel insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of ITP that warrant further exploration.

  1. NMR-based metabolomics Reveals Alterations of Electro-acupuncture Stimulations on Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Zheng, Xujuan; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Chang, Xiaorong; Shen, Guiping; Liu, Mi; Wang, Yadong; Shen, Jiacheng; Zhang, Yuan; He, Qida; Dong, Jiyang; Yang, Zongbao

    2017-01-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a common gastrointestinal disease which has been considered as precancerous lesions of gastric carcinoma. Previously, electro-acupuncture stimulation has been shown to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of CAG. However the underlying mechanism of this beneficial treatment is yet to be established. In the present study, an integrated histopathological examination along with molecular biological assay, as well as 1H NMR analysis of multiple biological samples (urine, serum, stomach, cortex and medulla) were employed to systematically assess the pathology of CAG and therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulation at Sibai (ST 2), Liangmen (ST 21), and Zusanli (ST 36) acupoints located in the stomach meridian using a rat model of CAG. The current results showed that CAG caused comprehensive metabolic alterations including the TCA cycle, glycolysis, membrane metabolism and catabolism, gut microbiota-related metabolism. On the other hand, electro-acupuncture treatment was found able to normalize a number of CAG-induced metabolomics changes by alleviating membrane catabolism, restoring function of neurotransmitter in brain and partially reverse the CAG-induced perturbation in gut microbiota metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the biochemistry of CAG and mechanism of the therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture stimulations. PMID:28358020

  2. Molecular bases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in light of new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Davide; Ciardullo, Carmela; Spina, Valeria; Gaidano, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The human genome era heralded a fundamental progress in the field of cancer genetics that shifted from a candidate gene approach toward global views of genomes and transcriptomes. Whole genome/exome sequencing has disclosed the genetic landscape of several hematologic tumors, providing comprehensive catalogs of somatic mutations and new insights into the genes that contribute to cellular transformation. Thanks to these technical progresses, research on the molecular pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has also advanced at a sustained pace in recent times revealing NOTCH1, SF3B1, BIRC3, and MYD88 as the most recurrently (>5%) mutated genes that have been identified in CLL. Beside mutations of cancer related genes, another mechanism involved in disease initiation and progression of mature B-cell tumors, including CLL, is represented by B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. The BCR plays a central role in disease pathogenesis and, consequently, BCR signaling might represent a suitable target for therapy in many patients. Currently, the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, which acts downstream the BCR signaling pathway, appears to be particularly promising and shows important clinical activity in CLL.

  3. Chronic effects of temperature on mortality in the Southeastern USA using satellite-based exposure metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Wang, Yan; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kosheleva, Anna; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-07-01

    Climate change may affect human health, particularly for elderly individuals who are vulnerable to temperature changes. While many studies have investigated the acute effects of heat, only a few have dealt with the chronic ones. We have examined the effects of seasonal temperatures on survival of the elderly in the Southeastern USA, where a large fraction of subpopulation resides. We found that both seasonal mean temperature and its standard deviation (SD) affected long-term survival among the 13 million Medicare beneficiaries (aged 65+) in this region during 2000-2013. A 1 °C increase in summer mean temperature corresponded to an increase of 2.5% in death rate. Whereas, 1 °C increase in winter mean temperature was associated with a decrease of 1.5%. Increases in seasonal temperature SD also influence mortality. We decomposed seasonal mean temperature and its temperature SD into long-term geographic contrasts between ZIP codes and annual anomalies within ZIP code. Effect modifications by different subgroups were also examined to find out whether certain individuals are more vulnerable. Our findings will be critical to future efforts assessing health risks related to the future climate change.

  4. Biological Characteristics and Etiological Significance of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus(PRCV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiuping; FENG Li; SHI Hongyan; CHEN Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), a spike (S) gene natural deletion mutant of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), causes porcine respiratory disease complex. Research advances on porcine respiratory coronavirus were reviewed from four aspects of biological character, the model function for SARS-CoV research, contribution of the immunity to PRCV to protection against TGEV challenge exposure and other etiological significance.

  5. CpG distribution and methylation pattern in porcine parvovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Tóth

    Full Text Available Based on GC content and the observed/expected CpG ratio (oCpGr, we found three major groups among the members of subfamily Parvovirinae: Group I parvoviruses with low GC content and low oCpGr values, Group II with low GC content and high oCpGr values and Group III with high GC content and high oCpGr values. Porcine parvovirus belongs to Group I and it features an ascendant CpG distribution by position in its coding regions similarly to the majority of the parvoviruses. The entire PPV genome remains hypomethylated during the viral lifecycle independently from the tissue of origin. In vitro CpG methylation of the genome has a modest inhibitory effect on PPV replication. The in vitro hypermethylation disappears from the replicating PPV genome suggesting that beside the maintenance DNMT1 the de novo DNMT3a and DNMT3b DNA methyltransferases can't methylate replicating PPV DNA effectively either, despite that the PPV infection does not seem to influence the expression, translation or localization of the DNA methylases. SNP analysis revealed high mutability of the CpG sites in the PPV genome, while introduction of 29 extra CpG sites into the genome has no significant biological effects on PPV replication in vitro. These experiments raise the possibility that beyond natural selection mutational pressure may also significantly contribute to the low level of the CpG sites in the PPV genome.

  6. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  7. Chronic calcium imaging of neurons in the mouse visual cortex using a troponin C-based indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandre Ferrão; Hübener, Mark

    2014-05-01

    This protocol describes the use of the genetically encoded troponin C-based calcium indicator TN-XXL to chronically monitor the functional properties of single neocortical neurons in the mouse visual cortex. A cranial window is implanted over the brain of a mouse expressing TN-XXL in pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex. Several days later, the visual cortex is mapped and photographed to facilitate repeated imaging of the same region using two-photon microscopy. Initial two-photon imaging may be done ∼2 wk after the window is implanted. We show the application of this technique for long-term in vivo imaging of stimulus response properties. Beyond providing functional information, long-term imaging of TN-XXL-labeled neurons also enables the simultaneous monitoring of structural properties down to the level of single dendritic spines.

  8. Non surgical laser and light in the treatment of chronic diseases: a review based on personal experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, L.

    2010-11-01

    Since many years some effects of non surgical laser and light on biological tissue have been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo. This review is based on the results obtained by me and my colleagues/follower in Italy. Aim of our study is to verify the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non surgical laser and light therapy on patients with chronic diseases not good treatable with traditional therapies, as diabetes, and central nervous system injuries. In addition, many clinical data have emerged from double-blind trials on laser treatment of rheumatic diseases and in sports medicine. So, we would like to do a review on the state of the art of non surgical laser treatment in medicine, included aesthetic laser and light therapy field. We discuss the indications and limitations of aesthetic laser medicine, as concluded from the data analysis of the published literature and from over thirty years of personal experiences.

  9. Regular physical activity reduces hospital admission and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M

    2006-01-01

    .97). Low, moderate and high levels of regular physical activity were associated with an adjusted lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 0.76, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90) and respiratory mortality (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.02). No effect modification was found for sex, age group, COPD severity......BACKGROUND: Information about the influence of regular physical activity on the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce. A study was undertaken to examine the association between regular physical activity and both hospital admissions for COPD and all-cause and specific...... mortality in COPD subjects. METHODS: From a population-based sample recruited in Copenhagen in 1981-3 and 1991-4, 2386 individuals with COPD (according to lung function tests) were identified and followed until 2000. Self-reported regular physical activity at baseline was classified into four categories...

  10. Clinical Signs, Causes, and Risk Factors of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Diseases: a Hospital-based Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This retrospective study aimed to determine the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of chronic kidney diseases (CKD in patients < 18 years old at a single referral center. Materials and Methods In a hospital-based case control study, 66 CKD patients less than 18 years old were compared to 81 control patients (also under 18 without CKD. A patient was defined as a CKD case with renal injury and/or had a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of Results Fever, chills, and urinary tract infections were the most common clinical signs in the referred patients. Urinary tract infection (39.5% and growth failure (12.9% were the most important causes in referred pediatric CKD. After controlling the effect of confounding variables, household income, using packed water for drinking, percentile of body mass index (BMI, and gestational age were the significant predictors of pediatric CKD (P

  11. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens.

  12. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystitis - chronic ... Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks are caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. These ...

  13. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  14. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem you need to take care of. Chronic pain is different. The pain signals go on ... there is no clear cause. Problems that cause chronic pain include Headache Low back strain Cancer Arthritis ...

  15. Effects of proactive population-based nephrologist oversight on progression of chronic kidney disease: a retrospective control analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Brian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benefits of early nephrology care are well-established, but as many as 40% of U.S. patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD do not see a nephrologist before its onset. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of proactive, population-based nephrologist oversight (PPNO on chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. Methods Retrospective control analysis of Kaiser Permanente Hawaii members with CKD using propensity score matching methods. We matched 2,938 control and case pairs of individuals with stage 3a CKD for the pre-PPNO period (2001–2004 and post-PPNO period (2005–2008 that were similar in other characteristics: age, gender, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension. After three years, we classified the stage outcomes for all individuals. We assessed the PPNO effect across all stages of progression with a χ2- test. We used the z-score test to assess the proportional differences in progression within a stage. Results The progression within the post-PPNO period was less severe and significantly different from the pre-PPNO period (p = 0.027. Within the stages, there were 2.6% more individuals remaining in 3a in the post-period (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5% to 3.8%; P value P value = 0.0017, 3a to 4/5 was 0.2% less (95% CI, 0.0% to 0.87%; P value = 0.26, and 3a to ESRD was 0.24% less (95% CI, 0.0% to 0.66%, P value = 0.10. Conclusions Proactive, population-based nephrologist oversight was associated with a statistically significant decrease in progression. With enabling health information technology, risk stratification and targeted intervention by collaborative primary and specialty care achieves population-level care improvements. This model may be applicable to other chronic conditions.

  16. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population.

  17. Influenza Vaccination Reduces Dementia Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Kao, Pai-Feng; Hao, Wen-Rui; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lin, Chao-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Taiwan has the highest prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) worldwide. CKD, a manifestation of vascular diseases, is associated with a high risk of dementia. Here, we estimated the association between influenza vaccination and dementia risk in patients with CKD. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study cohort included all patients diagnosed with CKD (according to International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes) at healthcare facilities in Taiwan (n = 32,844) from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007. Each patient was followed up to assess dementia risk or protective factors: demographic characteristics of age and sex; comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular diseases, parkinsonism, epilepsy, substance and alcohol use disorders, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, and sleep disorder; urbanization level; monthly income; and statin, metformin, aspirin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use. A propensity score was derived using a logistic regression model for estimating the effect of vaccination by accounting for covariates that predict receiving the intervention (vaccine). A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of dementia among vaccinated and unvaccinated CKD patients. The study population comprised 11,943 eligible patients with CKD; 5745 (48%) received influenza vaccination and the remaining 6198 (52%) did not. The adjusted HRs (aHRs) of dementia decreased in vaccinated patients compared with those in unvaccinated patients (influenza season, noninfluenza season, and all seasons: aHRs = 0.68, 0.58, and 0.64; P dementia in various models. A stronger protective effect against dementia risk was demonstrated during the noninfluenza season. Regardless of comorbidities or drug use, influenza vaccination was an independent protective factor and

  18. A population-based study on chronic pain and the use of opioids in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Mendonça, Liliane; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Castro-Lopes, José Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Although increasing doubts exist regarding the long-term effectiveness and safety of opioids in patients with chronic pain (CP), most guidelines still recognize opioids as an option in effective management of CP. We aimed to describe the prevalence and factors associated with opioid use in subjects with CP in Portugal and to evaluate satisfaction and self-assessed treatment effectiveness. A nationwide study was conducted in a representative sample of the adult Portuguese population. The 5094 participants were selected using random digit dialing and estimates were adequately weighted for the population. The prevalence of opioid use by subjects with CP was 4.37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4-5.5); and in subjects experiencing CP with and without cancer, it was 10.13% and 4.24%, respectively. Use of strong opioids was reported by only 0.17% of CP subjects. Sex, pain severity and symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly associated with opioid use; however, in multivariate modeling, only pain-related disability remained significant. No significant differences among users and nonusers of opioids were observed regarding treatment satisfaction and self-assessed effectiveness. Although extremely high rates of use of opioids exist in a few countries, it should not be seen as a ubiquitous problem. Indeed, we showed that in Portugal, as in many other regions in the world, opioids are used much less frequently than in those few countries. Moreover, we did not find significant differences among users and nonusers of opioids regarding satisfaction and self-assessed effectiveness, eventually showing the results to be in line with reports that show doubt about opioids' effectiveness. Further research and particular attention to and continuous monitoring of the trends of use and abuse of opioids worldwide are recommended.

  19. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shyamali C Dharmage,1 Jennifer L Perret,1,2, John A Burgess,1 Caroline J Lodge,1 David P Johns,3 Paul S Thomas,4 Graham G Giles,1,5 John L Hopper,1,6 Michael J Abramson,7,8 E Haydn Walters,3,9, Melanie C Matheson1 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS, Melbourne, VIC, 3“Breathe Well” Center of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Ageing, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 4Inflammation and Infection Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 5Cancer Epidemiology Center, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Department of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 8School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 9School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background and objective: Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age.Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583. Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729, from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389 underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate

  20. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brian; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  1. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  2. Transorbital target localization in the porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Michael P.; Mawn, Louise A.; Galloway, Robert L.

    2013-03-01

    Current pharmacological therapies for the treatment of chronic optic neuropathies such as glaucoma are often inadequate due to their inability to directly affect the optic nerve and prevent neuron death. While drugs that target the neurons have been developed, existing methods of administration are not capable of delivering an effective dose of medication along the entire length of the nerve. We have developed an image-guided system that utilizes a magnetically tracked flexible endoscope to navigate to the back of the eye and administer therapy directly to the optic nerve. We demonstrate the capabilities of this system with a series of targeted surgical interventions in the orbits of live pigs. Target objects consisted of NMR microspherical bulbs with a volume of 18 μL filled with either water or diluted gadolinium-based contrast, and prepared with either the presence or absence of a visible coloring agent. A total of 6 pigs were placed under general anesthesia and two microspheres of differing color and contrast content were blindly implanted in the fat tissue of each orbit. The pigs were scanned with T1-weighted MRI, image volumes were registered, and the microsphere containing gadolinium contrast was designated as the target. The surgeon was required to navigate the flexible endoscope to the target and identify it by color. For the last three pigs, a 2D/3D registration was performed such that the target's coordinates in the image volume was noted and its location on the video stream was displayed with a crosshair to aid in navigation. The surgeon was able to correctly identify the target by color, with an average intervention time of 20 minutes for the first three pigs and 3 minutes for the last three.

  3. Population management, systems-based practice, and planned chronic illness care: integrating disease management competencies into primary care to improve composite diabetes quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Joe; DaSilva, Karen; Marshall, Richard

    2008-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic illnesses in the United States requires a fundamental redesign of the primary care delivery system's structure and processes in order to meet the changing needs and expectations of patients. Population management, systems-based practice, and planned chronic illness care are 3 potential processes that can be integrated into primary care and are compatible with the Chronic Care Model. In 2003, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, a multispecialty ambulatory physician group practice based in Boston, Massachusetts, began implementing all 3 processes across its primary care practices. From 2004 to 2006, the overall diabetes composite quality measures improved from 51% to 58% for screening (HgA1c x 2, low-density lipoprotein, blood pressure in 12 months) and from 13% to 17% for intermediate outcomes (HgA1c system integrated these disease management functions into the front lines of primary care and the positive impact of those changes on overall diabetes quality of care.

  4. A novel approach to population-based risk stratification, comprising individualized lifestyle intervention in Danish general practice to prevent chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    ) identification of patients already diagnosed with a lifestyle-related chronic disease, and (4) risk estimation and stratification of apparently healthy patients using questionnaire and electronic patient record data on validated risk estimation models. We show that it is feasible to implement a novel......Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using...... a combination of questionnaire and electronic patient record data. The intervention comprises four elements: (1) collection of information on lifestyle risk factors using a short 15-item questionnaire, (2) electronic transfer of questionnaire data to the general practitioners’ electronic patient records, (3...

  5. Structure and Function of a Nonruminant Gut: A Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Aminov, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    In many aspects, the anatomical, physiological, and microbial diversity features of the ruminant gut are different from that of the monogastric animals. Thus, the main aim of this chapter is to give a comparative overview of the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of a nonruminant...... monogastric animal, and here it is represented by a pig model. In this chapter, we describe and discuss (i) microbial diversity in different parts of the porcine gut; (ii) differences between the ruminant and nonruminant gut; (iii) main events during colonization and succession of microbiota in the porcine...... gut; (iv) effects of various feed additives including antibiotics, phages, probiotics, and prebiotics on pigs; and (v) the use of the porcine model in translational medicine....

  6. THE USE OF PREPARATIONS BASED ON BACTERIAL LYSATES IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kolyada T.І.; Tupotіlov A.V.; Vdovіchenko N.І; Litvinenko O.Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the therapy of decompensated form of chronic tonsillitis (CT) were used as immunomodulatory agents IRS and Ismigen. These bacterial lysates differ in the bacterial setting, the method of preparation (chemical, mechanical) and the method of application.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the important factors that could significantly complicate the therapy of chronic tonsillitis. RA is a chronic immune inflammatory disease that progressively affects connective tissue...

  7. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Oka, Hiroyuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Background Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1) chronic pain prevalence, 2) multisite pain (≥3 sites) prevalence, and 3) multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms) among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01) in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01) in women. Among women with chronic pain, early-life adversity was associated with multisite pain and multiple somatic symptoms; multivariable ORs were 1.78 (1.22–2.60, p<0.01) for multisite pain and 1.89 (1.27–2.83, p<0.01) for ≥3 somatic symptoms. No associations were observed between early-life adversity and chronic multisite pain or multiple somatic symptoms among men with chronic pain. Conclusion Early-life adversity may be linked to a higher prevalence of chronic pain among both sexes and to multisite pain and somatizing tendency among women with chronic pain. PMID:28243147

  8. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an

  9. Circovirose suína Porcine circovirosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana do Nascimento França

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura pertinente foram coligidos e são apresentados os principais dados relativos aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo e histopatológicos observados na infecção por Circovírus Porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2 em suínos. São abordados a Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica dos Suínos Desmamados (SDMDS, o Tremor Congênito Suíno (TCS, a Síndrome da Nefropatia e Dermatite Porcina (SNDP, bem como outras enfermidades associadas ou correlatas, a Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Porcina (SRRP, a Pneumonia Necrotizante Proliferativa (PNP e as falhas reprodutivas. Uma vez que a SDMSD já foi registrada na Região Sul do Brasil e no Estado do Rio de Janeiro esse estudo objetiva chamar a atenção para o especial significado dessa virose para a suinocultura brasileira, em função dos prejuízos econômicos por ela determinados.The literature of Porcine Circovirosis, including the main data on epidemiology and clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the infection of swine by Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV-2, is reviewed. There are various forms of infection: the [Porcine] Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS, Porcine Congenital Tremor, Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome, and other associated or correlated diseases as the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Proliferative Necrotizing Pneumonia, and reproductive disorders. As PMWS already has been reported from southern Brazil and from the state of Rio de Janeiro, the objective of this review is to draw attention to the implications of this virosis for swine production in Brazil and its economical importance.

  10. AMFR gene silencing inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Z; Zhu, Y N; Chai, M L; Dai, L S; Gao, Y; Jiang, H; Zhang, L J; Ding, Y; Liu, S Y; Li, Q Y; Lu, W F; Zhang, J B

    2016-04-07

    Our study clarifies the role of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) gene in porcine preadipocyte differentiation. AMFR-siRNA was transfected into porcine preadipocytes and the preadipocytes were induced to differentiation. Subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted to examine changes in mRNA expression of a series of genes in porcine preadipocytes, including AMFR, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP1a), SREBP2, insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), and Insig2. Expression changes in the mRNA of genes regulating adipocyte differentiation were also analyzed using qRT-PCR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Western blot analysis was conducted to examine the changes in AMFR protein expression in porcine preadipocytes. Additionally, morphological changes in differentiated porcine preadipocytes were examined by oil red O staining, and changes in optical density (OD) values were measured using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. At 24 h after transfection with AMFR-siRNA, AMFR mRNA expression significantly reduced (P SREBP1a, SREBP2, Insig1, and C/EBPα was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). After induction of preadipocyte differentiation, the number of lipid droplets decreased in the AMFR-silenced group, and the OD value markedly reduced (P < 0.05). In addition, the expression of C/EBPα mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA considerably increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, silencing of the AMFR gene inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

  11. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation improves clinical features and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Eloisa Sanches Pereira; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Dias, Fernanda Dultra; Gomes, Evelim Leal Freitas Dantas; Greiffo, Flavia Regina; Ligeiro de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Stirbulov, Roberto; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease characterized by chronic airflow limitation that leads beyond the pulmonary changes to important systemic effects. COPD is characterized by pulmonary and systemic inflammation. However, increases in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in plasma are found even when the disease is stable. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves physical exercise capacity and quality of life and decreases dyspnea. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR) program improves exercise tolerance in COPD patients, as well as health-related quality of life and systemic inflammation. This prospective study was conducted at the Laboratory of Functional Respiratory Evaluation, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, Brazil. After anamnesis, patients were subjected to evaluations of health-related quality of life and dyspnea, spirometry, respiratory muscle strength, upper limbs incremental test, incremental shuttle walk test, and blood test for quantification of systemic inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and IL-8). At the end of the evaluations, patients received a booklet containing the physical exercises to be performed at home, three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Around 25 patients were enrolled, and 14 completed the pre- and post-HBPR ratings. There was a significant increase in the walked distance and the maximal inspiratory pressure, improvements on two components from the health-related quality-of-life questionnaire, and a decrease in plasma IL-8 levels after the intervention. The HBPR is an important and viable alternative to pulmonary rehabilitation for the treatment of patients with COPD; it improves exercise tolerance, inspiratory muscle strength, quality of life, and systemic inflammation in COPD patients.

  12. Increased Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis Associated with Cardiovascular Complications - A National Population-Based Cohort Study.

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    Hsien-Yi Chiu

    Full Text Available There have been few large population-based studies of the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA and chronic kidney disease (CKD and glomerulonephritis. This nationwide cohort study investigated the risks of developing CKD and glomerulonephritis in patients with RA, and the associated risks for cardiovascular complications.From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified a study cohort of 12,579 patients with RA and randomly selected 37,737 subjects without RA as a control cohort. Each subject was individually followed for up for 5 years, and the risk of CKD was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models.During the follow-up period, after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors RA was independently associated with a significantly increased risk of CKD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-1.40 and glomerulonephritis (aHR 1.55; 95% CI 1.37-1.76. Increased risk of CKD was also associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, glucocorticoids, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclophosphamide. Patients with comorbidities had even greater increased risk of CKD. Moreover, RA patients with concurrent CKD had significantly higher likelihood of developing ischemic heart disease and stroke.RA patients had higher risk of developing CKD and glomerulonephritis, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Their increased risk of CKD may be attributed to glomerulonephritis, chronic inflammation, comorbidities, and renal toxicity of antirheumatic drugs. Careful monitoring of renal function in RA patients and tight control of their comorbid diseases and cardiovascular risk factors are warranted.

  13. Health beliefs before and after participation on an exercised-based rehabilitation programme for chronic knee pain: Doing is believing

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    Britten Nicky

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the health beliefs, experiences, treatment and expectations of people with chronic knee pain, and investigate if, how and why these change after taking part on an integrated exercise-based rehabilitation programme - Enabling Self-management and Coping with Arthritis knee Pain through Exercise, ESCAPE-knee pain. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with chronic knee pain, before (n = 29 and after (n = 23 participation on the programme. Thematic analysis was used to document people's baseline health beliefs, attitudes and cognitions, and to see if how and why these changed after completing the programme. Results Initially people had poor understanding and negative, fatalistic beliefs about the management or prognosis for knee pain. Following the programme the majority of participants had positive experiences describing improvement in pain, physical and psychosocial functioning, greater knowledge and understanding of their condition and treatment options, and in their ability to use exercise to control symptoms. Beliefs about the causation and prognosis of knee pain were unchanged, but their concerns about possible dangers of exercise had decreased, they appreciated how exercise could reduce symptoms (treatment beliefs and their confidence in their ability to use exercise to effect improvements (exercise self-efficacy increased. These improvements were attributed to the content and structure of the programme, and the care and guidance of the physiotherapist. Several expressed a need for on-going support. Conclusions ESCAPE-knee pain appears to achieve improvements by increasing people's treatment belief in safety and the utility of exercise to control symptoms, rather than alteration in their beliefs about causation or prognosis. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN94658828

  14. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

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    Schuengel Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with a chronic illness (CI challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the intervention program may enhance the use of learned coping strategies in daily life, especially on the long-term. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral based group intervention (called 'Op Koers' 1 for children with CI and of a parallel intervention for their parents. A secondary objective is to investigate why and for whom this intervention works, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the intervention effect. Methods/design This study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants are children (8 to 18 years of age with a chronic illness, and their parents, recruited from seven participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomly allocated to two intervention groups (the child intervention group and the child intervention combined with a parent program and a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes are child psychosocial functioning, wellbeing and child disease related coping skills. Secondary outcomes are child quality of life, child general coping skills, child self-perception, parental stress, quality of parent-child interaction, and parental perceived vulnerability. Outcomes are evaluated at baseline, after 6 weeks of treatment, and at a 6 and 12-month follow-up period. The analyses will be performed on the basis of an intention-to-treat population. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a group intervention improving psychosocial functioning in children with CI and their parents. If proven effective, the intervention will be implemented in clinical practice. Strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed

  15. Alcohol consumption, physical activity, and chronic disease risk factors: a population-based cross-sectional survey

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    Djoussé Luc

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the association of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is the product of confounding and the degree to which this concern applies to other behaviors are unclear. Methods Using the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the US, we compared chronic disease risk factors between 123,359 abstainers and 126,674 moderate drinkers, defined as intake of ≤ 2 drinks per day among men and ≤ 1 drink per day among women, using age- and sex- and multivariable-adjusted models. We also compared sedentary and active individuals, defined as moderate physical activity ≥ 30 minutes per day for ≥ 5 days per week, or vigorous activity for ≥ 20 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days. Results Chronic disease risk factors and features of unhealthy lifestyle were generally more prevalent among abstainers than drinkers in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, but these differences were generally attenuated or eliminated by additional adjustment for race and education. For low fruit and vegetable intake, divorced marital status, and absence of a personal physician, adjustment for race and education reversed initially positive age- and sex-adjusted associations with abstention. Comparison of sedentary and active individuals produced similar findings, with generally lower levels of risk factors among more physical active individuals. Conclusion The differences between abstainers and drinkers are attenuated after adjustment for limited sociodemographic features, and sedentary and active individuals share a similar pattern. Although observational studies of both factors may be susceptible to uncontrolled confounding, our results provide no evidence that moderate drinking is unique in this regard. Ultimately, randomized trials of all such lifestyle factors will be needed to answer these questions definitively.

  16. Preparation of porcine hemoglobin microcapsules of chitosan-sodium alginate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; ZHANG Jijuan; ZHAO Xinjuan; YU Yan

    2007-01-01

    Using an emulsification-gelation method,chitosansodium alginate-porcine hemoglobin microcapsules were prepared.Results show that these microcapsules have better forms and small granules with 1 μm size of the mean particle size.They possess a relatively narrow and normal Gaussian distribution.The loading efficiency of porcine hemoglobin (pHb) in microcapsules is more than 90%.The pHb released from microcapsules is extended for more than one month.Chitosan-sodium alginate-hemoglobin microcapsules are expected to become an artificial oxygen-carrying therapeutic agent with sustained release for intravenous injection.

  17. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    The presence of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) was studied in extracts of porcine pancreata. Gel filtration and high-pressure liquid chromatographic profiles of these extracts as monitored with both C-terminally and N-terminally directed radioimmunoassays against GRP showed pancreatic GRP...... in particular. Some fibers were found penetrating into pancreatic islets also. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies as well as fibers were found within intrapancreatic ganglia. The potency of GRP in stimulating exocrine as well as endocrine secretion from the porcine pancreas, its presence in close contact...

  18. Detection of porcine rotavirus from tissue and faecal specimens

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    Prabha Suji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine small intestinal sub-mucosa is a cell-free collagen matrix that has demonstrated its ability as a scaffold material. Transplantation poses special hazards because grafted tissues and organs transmit pathogens efficiently, especially viruses. Rotavirus is thought to be confined to the intestine, causing acute diarrhoea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the porcine intestinal tissue scaffold for Rotavirus and to study the incidence of this virus among pig herds. Only one isolate was successfully adapted to grow in cell line MA 104 from faecal samples. This isolate was further confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis.

  19. Long-Term Impact of an Electronic Health Record-Enabled, Team-Based, and Scalable Population Health Strategy Based on the Chronic Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Anstrom, Kevin J; Anderson, John B; Bosworth, Hayden B; Lobach, David F; McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Shang, Howard; Yarnall, Kimberly S H

    2016-01-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is a promising framework for improving population health, but little is known regarding the long-term impact of scalable, informatics-enabled interventions based on this model. To address this challenge, this study evaluated the long-term impact of implementing a scalable, electronic health record (EHR)- enabled, and CCM-based population health program to replace a labor-intensive legacy program in 18 primary care practices. Interventions included point-of-care decision support, quality reporting, team-based care, patient engagement, and provider education. Among 6,768 patients with diabetes receiving care over 4 years, hemoglobin A1c levels remained stable during the 2-year pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (0.03% and 0% increases, respectively), compared to a 0.42% increase expected based on A1c progression observed in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study long-term outcomes cohort. The results indicate that an EHR-enabled, team- based, and scalable population health strategy based on the CCM may be effective and efficient for managing population health.

  20. A randomized controlled trial of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioural intervention for non-specific chronic pain : An effectiveness and cost-effectiveness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.J.; Versteegen, G. J.; Vermeulen, K. M.; Sanderman, R.; Struys, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioural treatment can nowadays be delivered through the Internet. This form of treatment can have various advantages with regard to availability and accessibility. Previous studies showed that Internet-based treatment for chronic pain is effective compared to waiting-list c

  1. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  2. Web-based, self-management enhancing interventions with e-diaries and personalized feedback for persons with chronic illness: a tale of three studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, A.A.G.; Eide, H.; Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chronic illness places high demands on patients. Interventions supporting self-management and providing personalized feedback might help patients to gain new perspectives and enhance use of constructive self-management strategies. We developed three comparable web-based CBT-grounded inter

  3. Web-based, self-management enhancing interventions with e-diaries and personalized feedback for persons with chronic illness: A tale of three studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, A.A.; Eide, H.; Kristjansdottir, O.B.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic illness places high demands on patients. Interventions supporting self-management and providing personalized feedback might help patients to gain new perspectives and enhance use of constructive self-management strategies. We developed three comparable web-based CBT-grounded inter

  4. Does Virtual Reality-based Kinect Dance Training Paradigm Improve Autonomic Nervous System Modulation in Individuals with Chronic Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Subramaniam, Savitha; Arena, Ross; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and low resting heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with an increased cardiovascular deconditioning, risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Aerobic dance is a multidimensional physical activity and recent research supports its application as a valid alternative cardiovascular training. Furthermore, technological advances have facilitated the emergence of new approaches for exercise training holding promise, especially those methods that integrate rehabilitation with virtual gaming. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic modulation in individuals with chronic stroke post-training using a virtual reality – based aerobic dance training paradigm. Methods Eleven community-dwelling individuals with hemiparetic stroke [61.7( ± 4.3) years] received a virtual reality-based dance paradigm for 6 weeks using the commercially available Kinect dance video game “Just Dance 3.” The training was delivered in a high-intensity tapering method with the first two weeks consisting of 5 sessions/week, next two weeks of 3 sessions/week and last two weeks of 2 sessions/week, with a total of 20 sessions. Data obtained for HRV analysis pre- and post-intervention consists of HRV for ten minutes in (1) supine resting position; (2) quiet standing. High-frequency (HF) power measures as indicators of cardiac parasympathetic activity, low-frequency (LF) power of parasympathetic-sympathetic balance and LF/HF of sympatho-vagal balance were calculated. YMCA submaximal cycle Ergometer test was used to acquire VO2 max pre- and post-intervention. Changes in physical activity during dance training were assessed using Omran HJ-321 Tri-Axis Pedometer. Results After training, participants demonstrated a significant improvement in autonomic modulation in the supine position, indicating an improvement in LF=48.4 ( ± 20.1) to 40.3 ( ± 8.0), p=0.03; HF=51.5 ( ± 19) to 59.7 ( ± 8), p= 0.02 and LF/HF=1.6 ( ± 1.9) to 0.8 ( ± 0

  5. Chronic Disease Risk Reduction with a Community-Based Lifestyle Change Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Greenlaw, Roger L; Salberg, Audrey; Englert, Heike

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess whether reduced health risks resulting from the Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) persist through 18 months. Methods: The CHIP is a four-week health education course designed to help individuals reduce cardiovascular risk by improving nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Analyses were based on 211 CHIP enrollees,…

  6. Acceptance and Values-Based Action in Chronic Pain: A Study of Treatment Effectiveness and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowles, Kevin E.; McCracken, Lance M.

    2008-01-01

    Developing approaches within cognitive behavioral therapy are increasingly process-oriented and based on a functional and contextual framework that differs from the focus of earlier work. The present study investigated the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (S. C. Hayes, K. Strosahl, & K. G. Wilson, 1999) in the treatment of…

  7. A Web-Based Therapeutic Workplace for the Treatment of Drug Addiction and Chronic Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J.; Grabinski, Michael J.; Hampton, Jacqueline; Sylvest, Christine E.; Dillon, Erin M.; Wentland, R. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a Web-based therapeutic workplace intervention designed to promote heroin and cocaine abstinence and train and employ participants as data entry operators. Patients are paid to participate in training and then to perform data entry jobs in a therapeutic workplace business. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients…

  8. Effectiveness of the introduction of a Chronic Care Model-based program for type 2 diabetes in Belgium

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    De Maeseneer Jan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During a four-year action research project (2003-2007, a program targeting all type 2 diabetes patients was implemented in a well-defined geographical region in Belgium. The implementation of the program resulted in an increase of the overall Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC score from 1.45 in 2003 to 5.5 in 2007. The aim of the follow-up study in 2008 was to assess the effect of the implementation of Chronic Care Model (CCM elements on the quality of diabetes care in a country where the efforts to adapt primary care to a more chronic care oriented system are still at a starting point. Methods A quasi-experimental study design involving a control region with comparable geographical and socio-economic characteristics and health care facilities was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention in the region. In collaboration with the InterMutualistic Agency (IMA and the laboratories from both regions a research database was set up. Study cohorts in both regions were defined by using administrative data from the Sickness Funds and selected from the research database. A set of nine quality indicators was defined based on current scientific evidence. Data were analysed by an institution experienced in longitudinal data analysis. Results In total 4,174 type 2 diabetes patients were selected from the research database; 2,425 patients (52.9% women with a mean age of 67.5 from the intervention region and 1,749 patients (55.7% women with a mean age of 67.4 from the control region. At the end of the intervention period, improvements were observed in five of the nine defined quality indicators in the intervention region, three of which (HbA1c assessment, statin therapy, cholesterol target improved significantly more than in the control region. Mean HbA1c improved significantly in the intervention region (7.55 to 7.06%, but this evolution did not differ significantly (p = 0.4207 from the one in the control region (7.44 to 6

  9. 1H NMR-based metabolite profiling of plasma in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

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    Ju-Ae Kim

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by the gradual loss of the kidney function to excrete wastes and fluids from the blood. (1H NMR-based metabolomics was exploited to investigate the altered metabolic pattern in rats with CKD induced by surgical reduction of the renal mass (i.e., 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx, particularly for identifying specific metabolic biomarkers associated with early of CKD. Plasma metabolite profiling was performed in CKD rats (at 4- or 8-weeks after 5/6 Nx compared to sham-operated rats. Principle components analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA score plots showed a significant separation between the groups. The resulting metabolic profiles demonstrated significantly increased plasma levels of organic anions, including citrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, acetate, acetoacetate, and formate in CKD. Moreover, levels of alanine, glutamine, and glutamate were significantly higher. These changes were likely to be associated with complicated metabolic acidosis in CKD for counteracting systemic metabolic acidosis or increased protein catabolism from muscle. In contrast, levels of VLDL/LDL (CH2n and N-acetylglycoproteins were decreased. Taken together, the observed changes of plasma metabolite profiles in CKD rats provide insights into the disturbed metabolism in early phase of CKD, in particular for the altered metabolism of acid-base and/or amino acids.

  10. Smoking and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis among women and men: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Kristiansen, Louise; Becker, Ulrik;

    2009-01-01

    . Information on incident cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis were obtained by record linkage with the Danish national registries. RESULTS: A total of 235 cases of pancreatitis occurred during follow-up. A dose-response association between smoking and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis was observed...

  11. Chronic penile strangulation

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    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  12. The Porcine TSPY Gene Is Tricopy but Not a Copy Number Variant.

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    Anh T Quach

    Full Text Available The testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY gene is situated on the mammalian Y-chromosome and exhibits some remarkable biological characteristics. It has the highest known copy number (CN of all protein coding genes in the human and bovine genomes (up to 74 and 200, respectively and also shows high individual variability. Although the biological function of TSPY has not yet been elucidated, its specific expression in the testis and several identified binding domains within the protein suggests roles in male reproduction. Here we describe the porcine TSPY, as a multicopy gene with three copies located on the short arm of the Y-chromosome with no variation at three exon loci among 20 animals of normal reproductive health from four breeds of domestic pigs (Piétrain, Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire. To further investigate the speculation that porcine TSPY is not a copy number variant, we have included five Low-fertility boars and five boars with exceptional High-fertility records. Interestingly, there was no difference between the High- and Low-fertile groups, but we detected slightly lower TSPY CN at all three exons (2.56-2.85 in both groups, as compared to normal animals, which could be attributed to technical variability or somatic mosaicism. The results are based on both relative quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR. Chromosomal localization of the porcine TSPY was done using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with gene specific PCR probes.

  13. Analysis of the Binding Sites of Porcine Sialoadhesin Receptor with PRRSV

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    Yibo Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV can infect pigs and cause enormous economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Porcine sialoadhesin (pSN and CD163 have been identified as key viral receptors on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM, a main target cell infected by PRRSV. In this study, the protein structures of amino acids 1–119 from the pSN and cSN (cattle sialoadhesin N-termini (excluding the 19-amino acid signal peptide were modeled via homology modeling based on mSN (mouse sialoadhesin template structures using bioinformatics tools. Subsequently, pSN and cSN homology structures were superposed onto the mSN protein structure to predict the binding sites of pSN. As a validation experiment, the SN N-terminus (including the wild-type and site-directed-mutant-types of pSN and cSN was cloned and expressed as a SN-GFP chimera protein. The binding activity between SN and PRRSV was confirmed by WB (Western blotting, FAR-WB (far Western blotting, ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay. We found that the S107 amino acid residue in the pSN N-terminal played a crucial role in forming a special cavity, as well as a hydrogen bond for enhancing PRRSV binding during PRRSV infection. S107 may be glycosylated during PRRSV infection and may also be involved in forming the cavity for binding PRRSV along with other sites, including W2, Y44, S45, R97, R105, W106 and V109. Additionally, S107 might also be important for pSN binding with PRRSV. However, the function of these binding sites must be confirmed by further studies.

  14. Repeated Gene Transfection Impairs the Engraftment of Transplanted Porcine Neonatal Pancreatic Cells

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    Min Koo Seo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPreviously, we reported that neonatal porcine pancreatic cells transfected with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF gene in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-based plasmid (pEBVHGF showed improved proliferation and differentiation compared to those of the control. In this study, we examined if pancreatic cells transfected repeatedly with pEBVHGF can be successfully grafted to control blood glucose in a diabetes mouse model.MethodsNeonatal porcine pancreatic cells were cultured as a monolayer and were transfected with pEBVHGF every other day for a total of three transfections. The transfected pancreatic cells were re-aggregated and transplanted into kidney capsules of diabetic nude mice or normal nude mice. Blood glucose level and body weight were measured every other day after transplantation. The engraftment of the transplanted cells and differentiation into beta cells were assessed using immunohistochemistry.ResultsRe-aggregation of the pancreatic cells before transplantation improved engraftment of the cells and facilitated neovascularization of the graft. Right before transplantation, pancreatic cells that were transfected with pEBVHGF and then re-aggregated showed ductal cell marker expression. However, ductal cells disappeared and the cells underwent fibrosis in a diabetes mouse model two to five weeks after transplantation; these mice also did not show controlled blood glucose levels. Furthermore, pancreatic cells transplanted into nude mice with normal blood glucose showed poor graft survival regardless of the type of transfected plasmid (pCEP4, pHGF, or pEBVHGF.ConclusionFor clinical application of transfected neonatal porcine pancreatic cells, further studies are required to develop methods of overcoming the damage for the cells caused by repeated transfection and to re-aggregate them into islet-like structures.

  15. Drug adsorption on bovine and porcine sclera studied with streaming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtomäki, Lasse; Vainikka, Tuomas; Pescina, Silvia; Nicoli, Sara

    2013-07-01

    The affinity of a drug to a biological membrane can affect the distribution and the availability of the active compound to its target. Adsorption is usually determined with in vitro distribution studies based on partitioning of the drug between buffer and tissue, which have limitations such as the high variability of the uptake data and the need for high accuracy in the measurement of drug concentration. Furthermore, distribution studies yield solute concentrations in the bulk of the tissue, whereas electrokinetic phenomena such as streaming potential and electroosmosis reflect the electric charge density on a membrane surface. Streaming potential thus can be used in studying the conditions, by which the charge sign and density can be regulated. That, in turn, has significance to electroosmotic transport mechanism during iontophoresis. In this communication, the adsorption of model compounds methylprednisolone sodium succinate, propranolol, and cytochrome C on bovine and porcine sclera is determined as a function of their concentration by measuring streaming potential. Both membranes had negative streaming potential, proving that they carry negative charge, but had different values at negative and positive pressure differences, which is addressed to the structural asymmetry of these membranes. Bovine sclera had a clearly higher value of streaming potential, ca. -26 nV/Pa, than porcine sclera, ca. -7 nV/Pa (10 mM NaCl solution). All the model compounds were adsorbed on bovine and porcine sclera already in the millimolar concentration range and can have an impact to electroosmosis during transscleral iontophoresis. The results obtained help to better elucidate the phenomena involved in transscleral transport, both in passive diffusion and in iontophoresis, supporting the future application of iontophoresis to the noninvasive delivery of drugs to the posterior segment of the human eye.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of a Home Based Intervention for Secondary Prevention of Readmission with Chronic Heart Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Byrnes

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to consider the cost-effectiveness of a nurse-led, home-based intervention (HBI in cardiac patients with private health insurance compared to usual post-discharge care. A within trial analysis of the Young @ Heart multicentre, randomized controlled trial along with a micro-simulation decision analytical model was conducted to estimate the incremental costs and quality adjusted life years associated with the home based intervention compared to usual care. For the micro-simulation model, future costs, from the perspective of the funder, and effects are estimated over a twenty-year time horizon. An Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio, along with Incremental Net Monetary Benefit, is evaluated using a willingness to pay threshold of $50,000 per quality adjusted life year. Sub-group analyses are conducted for men and women across three age groups separately. Costs and benefits that arise in the future are discounted at five percent per annum. Overall, home based intervention for secondary prevention in patients with chronic heart disease identified in the Australian private health care sector is not cost-effective. The estimated within trial incremental net monetary benefit is -$3,116 [95% CI: -11,145, $4,914]; indicating that the costs outweigh the benefits. However, for males and in particular males aged 75 years and above, home based intervention indicated a potential to reduce health care costs when compared to usual care (within trial: -$10,416 [95% CI: -$26,745, $5,913]; modelled analysis: -$1,980 [95% CI: -$22,843, $14,863]. This work provides a crucial impetus for future research to understand for whom disease management programs are likely to benefit most.

  17. Waiting for Treatment for Chronic Pain – a Survey of Existing Benchmarks: Toward Establishing Evidence-Based Benchmarks for Medically Acceptable Waiting Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Lynch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As medical costs escalate, health care resources must be prioritized. In this context, there is an increasing need for benchmarks and best practices in wait time management. In December 2005, the Canadian Pain Society struck a Task Force to identify benchmarks for acceptable wait times for treatment of chronic pain. The task force mandate included a systematic review and survey to identify national or international wait time benchmarks for chronic pain, proposed or in use, along with a review of the evidence upon which they are based. An extensive systematic review of the literature and a survey of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapter Presidents and key informants has identified that there are no established benchmarks or guidelines for acceptable wait times for the treatment of chronic pain in use in the world. In countries with generic guidelines or wait time standards that apply to all outpatient clinics, there have been significant challenges faced by pain clinics in meeting the established targets. Important next steps are to ensure appropriate additional research and the establishment of international benchmarks or guidelines for acceptable wait times for the treatment of chronic pain. This will facilitate advocacy for improved access to appropriate care for people suffering from chronic pain around the world.

  18. Daily home-based spirometry during withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroid in severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Roisin R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin,1 Kay Tetzlaff,2,3 Henrik Watz,4 Emiel FM Wouters,5 Bernd Disse,2 Helen Finnigan,6 Helgo Magnussen,4 Peter MA Calverley7 1Respiratory Institute, Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Clínic IDIBAPS-CIBERES, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim, Germany; 3Department of Sports Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; 4Pulmonary Research Institute at Lung Clinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 6Department of Biostatistics and Data Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell, UK; 7Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, Aintree University Hospital, Liverpool, UK Abstract: The WISDOM study (NCT00975195 reported a change in lung function following withdrawal of fluticasone propionate in patients with severe to very severe COPD treated with tiotropium and salmeterol. However, little is known about the validity of home-based spirometry measurements of lung function in COPD. Therefore, as part of this study, following suitable training, patients recorded daily home-based spirometry measurements in addition to undergoing periodic in-clinic spirometric testing throughout the study duration. We subsequently determined the validity of home-based spirometry for detecting changes in lung function by comparing in-clinic and home-based forced expiratory volume in 1 second in patients who underwent stepwise fluticasone propionate withdrawal over 12 weeks versus patients remaining on fluticasone propionate for 52 weeks. Bland–Altman analysis of these data confirmed good agreement between in-clinic and home-based measurements, both across all visits and at the individual visits at study weeks 6, 12, 18, and 52. There was a measurable difference between the forced expiratory volume

  19. A cerium oxide nanoparticle-based device for the detection of chronic inflammation via optical and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaittanis, Charalambos; Santra, Santimukul; Asati, Atul; Perez, J. Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Monitoring of microenvironmental parameters is critical in healthcare and disease management. Harnessing the antioxidant activity of nanoceria and the imaging capabilities of iron oxide nanoparticles in a device setup, we were able to image changes in the device's aqueous milieu. The device was able to convey and process changes in the microenvironment's pH and reactive oxygen species' concentration, distinguishing physiological from abnormal levels. As a result under physiological and transient inflammatory conditions, the device's fluorescence and magnetic resonance signals, emanating from multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles, were similar. However, under chronic inflammatory conditions that are usually associated with high local concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pH decrease, the device's output was considerably different. Specifically, the device's fluorescence emission significantly decreased, while the magnetic resonance signal T2 increased. Further studies identified that the changes in the device's output are attributed to inactivation of the sensing component's nanoceria that prevents it from successfully scavenging the generated free radicals. Interestingly, the buildup of free radical excess led to polymerization of the iron oxide nanoparticle's coating, with concomitant formation of micron size aggregates. Our studies indicate that a nanoceria-based device can be utilized for the monitoring of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, having important applications in the management of numerous ailments while eliminating nanoparticle toxicity issues.Monitoring of microenvironmental parameters is critical in healthcare and disease management. Harnessing the antioxidant activity of nanoceria and the imaging capabilities of iron oxide nanoparticles in a device setup, we were able to image changes in the device's aqueous milieu. The device was able to convey and process changes in the microenvironment's pH and reactive oxygen species' concentration

  20. A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist-feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain. Part 2: 11-month follow-up results of a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Fors, E.A.; Eide, E.; Finset, A.; Stensrud, T.L.; Dulmen, S. van; Wigers, S.H.; Eide, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internet-based interventions are increasingly used to support self-management of individuals with chronic illnesses. Web-based interventions may also be effective in enhancing self-management for individuals with chronic pain, but little is known about long-term effects. Research on Web-

  1. A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain. part 2: 11-month follow-up results of a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjansdottir, O.B.; Fors, E.A.; Eide, E.; Finset, A.; Stensrud, T.L.; Dulmen, S. van; Wigers, S.H.; Eide, H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internet-based interventions are increasingly used to support self-management of individuals with chronic illnesses. Web-based interventions may also be effective in enhancing self-management for individuals with chronic pain, but little is known about long-term effects. Research on Web-

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analyses of porcine MAP1LC3A in the granulosa cells of normal and miniature pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sang H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The members of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (MAP1LC family, especially those of the LC3 family (MAP1LC3A, B, C, are known to induce autophagy upon localization onto the autophagosomal membrane. In this regard, LC3 can be utilized as a marker for the formation of autophagosomes during the process of autophagy. The aims of this study are to clone porcine MAP1LC3A, and analyze the pattern of its expression in the ovarian tissues of normal and miniature pig ovary in an attempt to understand the distinct mode of apoptosis between two strains. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE were used to obtain the 5′ and 3′ ends of the porcine MAP1LC3A full length cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine MAP1LC3A. The localization of MAP1LC3A in the ovary was determined by In situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemical staining. Results We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine MAP1LC3A and identified an open reading frame of 980 bp encoding 121 amino acids. Based on its homology to known mammalian proteins (98% this novel cDNA was designated as porcine MAP1LC3A and registered to the GenBank (Accession No. GU272221. We compared the expression of MAP1LC3A in the Graafian follicles of normal and miniature pigs by in situ hybridization at day 15 of the estrus cycle. While normal pigs showed a stronger expression of MAP1LC3A mRNA than miniature pigs in the theca cell area, the expression was lower in the granulosa cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of the MAP1LC3A fusion reporter protein showed the subcellular localization of porcine MAP1LC3A and ATG5 as a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of porcine granulosa cells under stress conditions. In addition, the expressions of MAP1LC3A and ATG5 were higher in normal pigs than in miniature pigs both in the presence and absence of rapamycin. Conclusions The newly cloned porcine

  3. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-07-07

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain.

  4. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Yamada,1,2 Ko Matsudaira,3,4 Eizaburo Tanaka,1,5 Hiroyuki Oka,3 Junji Katsuhira,3,6 Hiroyasu Iso1 1Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Center for Pain Management, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, 3Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japan Labour Health & Welfare Organization, Tokyo, 5Hyogo Institute for Traumatic Stress, Kobe, 6Department of Prosthetics & Orthotics and Assistive Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan Background: Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the ­sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods: We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1 chronic pain prevalence, 2 multisite pain (≥3 sites prevalence, and 3 multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results: The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01 in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01 in women. Among women with chronic pain, early

  5. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  6. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    2003-01-01

    mild clinical signs in piglets despite the excretion of high numbers of oocysts. Concomitant infection with rotavirus, however, caused a dramatic aggravation of the clinical signs, and 5 of 6 experimentally infected piglets died. CPP-13 appeared to be adapted to porcine hosts as illustrated by the lack...

  7. Porcine circovirus: transcription and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review summarizes the molecular studies pertaining to porcine circovirus (PCV) transcription and DNA replication. The genome of PCV is circular, single-stranded DNA and contains 1759-1768 nucleotides. Both the genome-strand (packaged in the virus particle) and the complementary-strand (synthesi...

  8. Dystrophin deficiency-induced changes in porcine skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel porcine stress syndrome was detected in the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center’s swine research population when two sibling barrows died of apparent stress symptoms (open mouth breathing, vocalization, and refusal to move or stand) after transport at 12 weeks of age. At eight weeks of age, the...

  9. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  10. Age and nursing affect the neonatal porcine uterine transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated be...

  11. Factors influencing transmission of porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Wendy, Harrison; Magnussen, Pascal

    Understanding the factors contributing to the transmission of Taenia solium in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for control. This study aimed to elucidate factors concerning the transmission of porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area. A longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys...

  12. Shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2014-04-01

    The epitheliochorial nature of the porcine placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity. Therefore, ingestion of the colostrum immediately after birth is crucial for neonatal piglets to acquire passive immunity from the sow. We performed a shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine milk to reveal in detail the protein composition of porcine milk. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, 113 and 118 proteins were identified in the porcine colostrum and mature milk, respectively, and 50 of these proteins were common to both samples. Some immune-related proteins, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), were unique to the colostrum. The IL-18 concentration in the colostrum and mature milk of four sows was measured to validate the proteomic analysis, and IL-18 was only detected in the colostrum (191.0 ± 53.9 pg/mL) and not in mature milk. In addition, some proteins involved in primary defense, such as azurocidin, which has never been detected in any other mammal's milk, were also identified in the colostrum.

  13. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...

  14. Associations between psychological factors and the effect of home-based physical exercise in women with chronic neck and shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exercise is often used in the treatment of chronic neck and shoulder muscle pain. It is likely that psychological aspects have an impact on the results of exercise-based treatments. Objectives: (1) To examine the associations between psychological factors and the effect of a home-based physical exercise intervention. (2) To examine differences in psychological factors at baseline between (a) subjects who continued in the trial and those who did not and (b) subjects who completed t...

  15. Low back pain patterns over one year among 842 workers in the DPhacto study and predictors for chronicity based on repetitive measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Bay, Hans; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2016-01-01

    one year. METHODS: There were 842 workers from 15 companies in the DPhacto study participating in this study. Demographic, work- and health-related factors, and back endurance were measured at baseline, while 14 monthly repeated text message assessments of LBP intensity were prospectively collected......) (p classification of the course of LBP based on repetitive measurements over a year, and revealed the predicting factors for chronic LBP based on repetitive measurements in a working population....

  16. CD49d Is the Strongest Flow Cytometry–Based Predictor of Overall Survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Pietro; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Fegan, Chris; Zucchetto, Antonella; Cro, Lilla; Nückel, Holger; Baldini, Luca; Kurtova, Antonina V.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Pepper, Chris; Rossi, Davide; Gattei, Valter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although CD49d is an unfavorable prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), definitive validation evidence is lacking. A worldwide multicenter analysis was performed using published and unpublished CLL series to evaluate the impact of CD49d as an overall (OS) and treatment-free survival (TFS) predictor. Patients and Methods A training/validation strategy was chosen to find the optimal CD49d cutoff. The hazard ratio (HR) for death and treatment imposed by CD49d was estimated by pooled analysis of 2,972 CLLs; Cox analysis stratified by center and stage was used to adjust for confounding variables. The importance of CD49d over other flow cytometry–based prognosticators (eg, CD38, ZAP-70) was ranked by recursive partitioning. Results Patients with ≥ 30% of neoplastic cells expressing CD49d were considered CD49d+. Decrease in OS at 5 and 10 years among CD49d+ patients was 7% and 23% (decrease in TFS, 26% and 25%, respectively). Pooled HR of CD49d for OS was 2.5 (2.3 for TFS) in univariate analysis. This HR remained significant and of similar magnitude (HR, 2.0) in a Cox model adjusted for clinical and biologic prognosticators. Hierarchic trees including all patients or restricted to those with early-stage disease or those age ≤ 65 years always selected CD49d as the most important flow cytometry–based biomarker, with negligible additional prognostic information added by CD38 or ZAP-70. Consistently, by bivariate analysis, CD49d reliably identified patient subsets with poorer outcome independent of CD38 and ZAP-70. Conclusion In this analysis of approximately 3,000 patients, CD49d emerged as the strongest flow cytometry–based predictor of OS and TFS in CLL. PMID:24516016

  17. Understanding of HLA-conferred susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B infection requires HLA genotyping-based association analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Nao; Ohashi, Jun; Khor, Seik-Soon; Sugiyama, Masaya; Tsuchiura, Takayo; Sawai, Hiromi; Hino, Keisuke; Honda, Masao; Kaneko, Shuichi; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu; Koike, Kazuhiko; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Izumi, Namiki; Korenaga, Masaaki; Kang, Jong-Hon; Tanaka, Eiji; Taketomi, Akinobu; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Tamori, Akihiro; Sakaida, Isao; Hige, Shuhei; Itoh, Yoshito; Mochida, Satoshi; Mita, Eiji; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Ide, Tatsuya; Hiasa, Yoichi; Kojima, Hiroto; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakamura, Minoru; Saji, Hiroh; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Kanto, Tatsuya; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Mizokami, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Associations of variants located in the HLA class II region with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection have been identified in Asian populations. Here, HLA imputation method was applied to determine HLA alleles using genome-wide SNP typing data of 1,975 Japanese individuals (1,033 HBV patients and 942 healthy controls). Together with data of an additional 1,481 Japanese healthy controls, association tests of six HLA loci including HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1, were performed. Although the strongest association was detected at a SNP located in the HLA-DP locus in a SNP-based GWAS using data from the 1,975 Japanese individuals, HLA genotyping-based analysis identified DQB1*06:01 as having the strongest association, showing a greater association with CHB susceptibility (OR = 1.76, P = 6.57 × 10−18) than any one of five HLA-DPB1 alleles that were previously reported as CHB susceptibility alleles. Moreover, HLA haplotype analysis showed that, among the five previously reported HLA-DPB1 susceptibility and protective alleles, the association of two DPB1 alleles (DPB1*09:01, and *04:01) had come from linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes, DRB1*15:02-DQB1*06:01 and DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04, respectively. The present study showed an example that SNP-based GWAS does not necessarily detect the primary susceptibility locus in the HLA region. PMID:27091392

  18. Mindfulness-and body-psychotherapy-based group treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound in absence of an external acoustic source, impairs the quality of life in 2% of the population. Since in most cases causal treatment is not possible, the majority of therapeutic attempts aim at developing and strengthening individual coping and habituation strategies. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular in the treatment of stress-related disorders. Here we conducted a randomized, controlled clinical study to investigate the efficacy of a specific mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy based program in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Methods Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this pilot study. The treatment was specifically developed for tinnitus patients and is based on mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Treatment was performed as group therapy at two training weekends that were separated by an interval of 7 weeks (eleven hours/weekend and in four further two-hour sessions (week 2, 9, 18 and 22. Patients were randomized to receive treatment either immediately or after waiting time, which served as a control condition. The primary study outcome was the change in tinnitus complaints as measured by the German Version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Results ANOVA testing for the primary outcome showed a significant interaction effect time by group (F = 7.4; df = 1,33; p = 0.010. Post hoc t-tests indicated an amelioration of TQ scores from baseline to week 9 in both groups (intervention group: t = 6.2; df = 17; p  Conclusions Our results suggest that this mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy-based approach is feasible in the treatment of tinnitus and merits further evaluation in clinical studies with larger sample sizes. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540357.

  19. [Xenogeneic cell therapeutics: Treatment of type 1 diabetes using porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godehardt, Antonia W; Schilling-Leiß, Dagmar; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Tönjes, Ralf R

    2015-11-01

    In view of the existing shortage of human donor organs and tissues, xenogeneic cell therapeutics (xCT) offer an alternative for adequate treatment. In particular, porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells have already entered the field of experimental therapy for type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Thereby, xCT depict challenging products with a glance on medical, ethical, and regulatory questions. With cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation), the risk of immunological graft rejection as well as the risk of infectious transmission of microbial and viral pathogens must be considered. This includes the bidirectional transmission of microorganisms from graft to host as well as from host to graft. Crossing the border of species requires a critical risk-benefit evaluation as well as a thorough longtime surveillance of transplant recipients after treatment. The international legal and regulatory requirements for xCT are inter alia based on the World Health Organization criteria summarized in the Changsha Communiqué (2008). In the European Union, they were reflected by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guideline on Xenogeneic Cell-based Medicinal Products following the implementation of the Regulation on Advanced Therapies (ATMP). On the basis of this regulation, the first non-clinical and clinical experiences were obtained for porcine islets. The results suggest that supportive treatment of T1DM risk patients with xCT may be an alternative to established allogeneic organ transplantation in the future.

  20. 猪去细胞心脏瓣膜的免疫原性%Immunogenicity of decellularized porcine heart valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋泽; 徐志云; 黄盛东; 张宝仁; 杨立信; 刘晓红; 袁扬; 龚德军

    2009-01-01

    inflammatory response in humans during clinical application of decellularized porcine heart valve (synergraft valves). An early inflammatory reaction severely weakens matrix structure of valve wall, leading to structural rupture and decay of grafts. From Synergraft's event, the decellularized porcine heart valves still had immunogenicity, especially for pediatric patients. The mechanisms by which the ECM triggers this immune process need to be further evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To find the difference of gene sequence between human and porcine ECM and to identify the ECM immunogenicity based on bioinformatics. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A contrast study between human and porcine ECM based on type IV collagen was performed at the Laboratory of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from June 2008 to February May.MATERIALS: The fresh porcine heart valves were obtained from Shanghai Wufengshangshi Slaughter House. Decellularized porcine aortic valves, hybridoma cells, and monoclonal antibodies were provided by our laboratory. METHODS: Similar region and conservative site of gene sequence among human, porcine, and rat were compared so as to look for common similar region, site, and sequence difference and investigate the segment which caused common and different gene sequence. Type IV collagen monoclonal antibody was used to evaluate the persistence of ECM of decellularized porcine heart valve following immunohistochemical staining. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Type IV collagen gene sequence; efficacy of self-made antibody using immunohistochemistry; effect of self-made antibody on type IV collage of decellularized porcine heart valve. RESULTS: The differential gene serial in type IV collagen protein was found out by bioinformatics method. Monoclonal antibodies were successfully produced by human-mouse hybridoma technique. Residual porcine ECM was observed on decellularized porcine heart valve. CONCLUSION: Residual porcine ECM was

  1. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  2. The economic impact of chronic pain: a nationwide population-based cost-of-illness study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Mendonça, Liliane; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Castro-Lopes, José M

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its high frequency and relevant individual and social impact, chronic pain (CP) has been shown to be a major contributor to increased healthcare utilisation, reduced labour productivity, and consequently large direct and indirect costs. In the context of a larger nationwide study, we aimed to assess the total annual direct and indirect costs associated with CP in Portugal. A population-based study was conducted in a representative sample of the Portuguese adult population. The 5,094 participants were selected using random digit dialling and contacted by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Questionnaires included the brief pain inventory and pain disability index. Estimates were adequately weighted for the population. From all CP subjects identified, a subsample (n = 562) accepted to participate in this economic study. Mean total annualised costs per CP subject of €1,883.30 were observed, amounting to €4,611.69 million nationally, with 42.7% direct and 57.3% indirect costs, and corresponding to 2.71% of the Portuguese annual GDP in 2010. Only socio-demographic variables were significantly and independently associated with CP costs, and not CP severity, raising the possibility of existing inequalities in the distribution of healthcare in Portugal. The high economic impact of CP in Portugal was comprehensively demonstrated. Given the high indirect costs observed, restricting healthcare services is not a rational response to these high societal costs; instead improving the quality of CP prevention and management is recommended.

  3. Participant Preferences for Pharmacologic Chronic Pain Treatment Trial Characteristics: An ACTTION Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon M; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Kitt, Rachel A; Markman, John D; Vaughan, Janet A; Cowan, Penney; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; Sadosky, Alesia; Tive, Leslie; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-11-01

    Barriers to clinical trial recruitment can delay study completion, potentially resulting in increased costs and an unrepresentative sample. In the current study of 150 participants with chronic pain, we used a computerized adaptive choice-based conjoint survey that included 8 characteristics that may affect enrollment in pharmacologic pain treatment trials (ie, treatment allocation, frequency of pain ratings, treatment administration method, current medications, number of study visits, availability of evening and weekend visits, invasiveness of laboratory procedures, payment). These data were analyzed using Sawtooth Software ver. 8.4.8 (Sawtooth Software, Inc, Orem, UT), which identifies the characteristics that dominate participants' decisions across multiple sets of potential trials. Three characteristics had the largest relative importance in participants' trial preferences: 1) invasiveness of required laboratory procedures (ie, 22%), with no procedures or blood tests preferred over ice-water sensory testing or skin biopsy; 2) ability to continue current pain medications (21%); and 3) payment for study participation (21%), with higher payment preferred. The fourth most important characteristic was number of study visits (13%), with participants preferring fewer in-person visits and more phone contacts. Understanding the preferences of potential participants is an important step toward enhancing enrollment in pain treatment trials.

  4. Alcohol consumption and chronic atrophic gastritis: population-based study among 9,444 older adults from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Weck, Melanie N; Stegmaier, Christa; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-12-15

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to facilitate elimination of Helicobacter pylori infection which is a key risk factor for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and gastric cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the association of alcohol consumption with CAG among older adults from Germany. In the baseline examination of ESTHER, a population-based study conducted in Saarland, serological measurements of pepsinogen I and II (for CAG definition) and H. pylori antibodies were taken in 9,444 subjects aged 50-74 years. Moderate current (<60 g/week) and lifetime (

  5. Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, C Douglas; Arthanat, Sajay; Macri, Vincent J

    2014-01-01

    Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual's ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive rehabilitation program called PreMotor Exercise Games (PEGs). Manual muscle, goniometric range of motion, and dynamometer assessments were used to determine motor functioning while the Executive Function Performance Test measured cognitive functioning. A three-level repeated measures design was conducted to determine changes pre- and postintervention. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in shoulder (p = 0.01) and wrist (p = 0.01) range of motion and clinically relevant improvement for elbow range of motion. Participants demonstrated clinically relevant improvement in shoulder, elbow, and wrist strength. Finally, participants demonstrated significant improvement in executive functioning (p rehabilitation and warrants further study.

  6. Flow Cytometry and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Analyses of Minimal Residual Disease in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Uhrmacher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies developed recently for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL have led to remarkable treatment response rates and complete hematological remissions. This means highly sensitive and specific techniques are increasingly needed to evaluate minimal residual disease (MRD in CLL patients. Quantitative MRD levels can be used as prognostic markers, where total MRD eradication is associated with prolonged survival. Nowadays, PCR and flow cytometry techniques used to detect MRD in CLL patients can generate reliable and quantitative results with the highest sensitivity. MRD Flow is based on four-color flow cytometry using specific antibody combinations. For allele specific oligonucleotide real-time quantification (ASO RQ PCR individual primers are designed to detect a specific immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH rearrangement in each patient clone. Five comprehensive studies investigated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of both methods. Groups of patients receiving different therapies were analyzed at different time points to generate quantitative MRD levels and MRD kinetics. All studies confirmed that both methods generate equivalent results with regard to sensitivity and MRD quantification, although each method has advantages and disadvantages in the daily routine of a standard hematological laboratory. Here, we review these investigations and compare their results in the light of modern therapies.

  7. Association between chronic viral hepatitis infection and breast cancer risk: a nationwide population-based case-control study

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    Su Fu-Hsiung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Taiwan, there is a high incidence of breast cancer and a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. In this case-control study, we used a population-based insurance dataset to evaluate whether breast cancer in women is associated with chronic viral hepatitis infection. Methods From the claims data, we identified 1,958 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer during the period 2000-2008. A randomly selected, age-matched cohort of 7,832 subjects without cancer was selected for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to calculate odds ratios of breast cancer associated with viral hepatitis after adjustment for age, residential area, occupation, urbanization, and income. The age-specific ( Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV, or the prevalence of combined HBC/HBV infection between breast cancer patients and control subjects (p = 0.48. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, however, revealed that age Conclusions HCV infection, but not HBV infection, appears to be associated with early onset risk of breast cancer in areas endemic for HCV and HBV. This finding needs to be replicated in further studies.

  8. Effect of a Home-based Balance Training Protocol on Dynamic Postural Control in Subjects with Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, R; Willems, T M; Vanrenterghem, J; Roosen, P

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the presence of postural deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and to assess the effect of an 8-week balance training program on dynamic postural control. A total of 43 subjects with CAI and 31 controls participated in this case-control study. Participants with CAI performed an 8-week home-based balance training, including 3 sessions a week. As main outcome measure, postural control was quantified after a vertical drop by means of the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI). Perceptual outcomes were documented using the FADI, FADI-Sport and VAS scales. At baseline, subjects with CAI displayed higher anterior/posterior and vertical postural instability, a poorer DPSI, and lower subjective stability scores compared to the control group. After balance training, all subjective stability scores improved significantly, although no changes were noted for the stability indices. In conclusion, subjects with CAI have an impaired postural control. As a treatment modality, balance training exhibits the capability of improving the subjective feeling of instability in subjects with CAI. However, there was no effect on dynamic postural control. Further research on the explanatory mechanisms of balance training is warranted, and other training modalities should be considered.

  9. Elastic compression treatment of chronic superficial venous insufficiency of the lower limbs based on Doppler venous pressure index measurements

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    Leonardo Corcos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ineffectiveness or discomfort from graduated elastic compression stockings (GES in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI and/or varicose veins of the lower limbs (VVLL can depend of inappropriate counter pressure applied. Counter pressure was calculated by Doppler venous pressure index (VPI. The aim of this study was to verify the value VPI in the choice of GES. A total of 1212 LL of 606 patients subjected to VPI measurements VPI correlated with the various sites of reflux (R and C of Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP classification. The difference between standing VPI the and normal values=counter pressure to be applied by GES. Questionnaire to 96 patients with CVI/VVLL wearing GES. Mean VPI values: greater saphenous (GSV>smaller saphenous; GSV with isolated venous reflux (R at the leg>GSV at the thigh; additional R in perforators increases VPI in all the districts; superficial R increases VPI in PT. Relation between VPI/C of CEAP: P<0.05-0.0001; 81/83/96 (97.5% patients improved; 0 complained. R in GSV at the leg and in perforators increases VPI in deep veins. Few discrepancies VPI/CEAP can be expected. Standing VPI is highly predictive. The best choice of GES can be based on the VPI measurement.

  10. Biochar-based constructed wetlands to treat reverse osmosis rejected concentrates in chronic kidney disease endemic areas in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athapattu, B C L; Thalgaspitiya, T W L R; Yasaratne, U L S; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-03-13

    The objectives were to investigate the potential remedial measures for reverse osmosis (RO) rejected water through constructed wetlands (CWs) with low-cost materials in the media established in chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) prevalent area in Sri Lanka. A pilot-scale surface and subsurface water CWs were established at the Medawachchiya community-based RO water supply unit. Locally available soil, calicut tile and biochar were used in proportions of 81, 16.5 and 2.5% (w/w), respectively, as filter materials in the subsurface. Vetiver grass and Scirpus grossus were selected for subsurface wetland while water lettuce and water hyacinth were chosen for free water surface CWs. Results showed that the CKDu sensitive parameters; total dissolved solids, hardness, total alkalinity and fluoride were reduced considerably (20-85%) and most met desirable levels of stipulated ambient standards. Biochar seemed to play a major role in removing fluoride from the system which may be due to the existing and adsorbed K(+), Ca(+2), Mg(+2), etc. on the biochar surface via chemisorption. The least reduction was observed for alkalinity. This study indicated potential purification of aforesaid ions in water which are considerably present in RO rejection. Therefore, the invented bio-geo constructed wetland can be considered as a sustainable, economical and effective option for reducing high concentrations of CKDu sensitive parameters in RO rejected water before discharging into the inland waters.

  11. Sensor-based arm skill training in chronic stroke patients: results on treatment outcome, patient motivation, and system usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Annick A A; Seelen, Henk A M; Geers, Richard P J; Saini, Privender K; Winter, Stefan; te Vrugt, Juergen; Kingma, Herman

    2010-06-01

    As stroke incidence increases, therapists' time is under pressure. Technology-supported rehabilitation may offer new opportunities. The objective of this study was to evaluate patient motivation for and the feasibility and effects of a new technology-supported task-oriented arm training regime (T-TOAT). Nine chronic stroke patients performed T-TOAT (2 x 30 min/day, four days/week) during eight weeks. A system including movement tracking sensors, exercise board, and software-based toolkit was used for skill training. Measures were recorded at baseline, after four and eight weeks of training, and six months posttraining. T-TOAT improved arm-hand performance significantly on Fugl-Meyer, Action Research Arm Test, and Motor Activity Log. Training effects lasted at least six months posttraining. Health-related-quality-of-life had improved significantly after eight weeks of T-TOAT with regard to perceived physical health, but not to perceived mental health (SF-36). None of the EuroQol-5D components showed significant differences before and after training. Participants were intrinsically motivated and felt competent to use the system. Furthermore, system usability was rated very good. However, exercise challenge as perceived by participants decreased significantly over eight weeks of training. The results of this study indicate that T-TOAT is feasible. Despite the small number of stroke patients tested, significant and clinically relevant improvements in skilled arm-hand performance were found.

  12. Outpatient-Based Therapy of Oral Fludarabine and Subcutaneous Alemtuzumab for Asian Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

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    William Y. K. Hwang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intravenous alemtuzumab and fludarabine are effective in combination for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, but require hospital visits for intravenous injection. We performed a pilot study to assess the safety and efficacy of outpatient-based oral fludarabine with subcutaneous alemtuzumab (OFSA for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL. Results. Depending on their response, patients were given two to six 28-day cycles of subcutaneous alemtuzumab 30 mg on days 1,3, and 5 and oral fludarabine 40 mg/m2/day for 5 days. Median patient age was 74. The lymphocyte counts of all five patients fell after the 1st cycle of treatment and reached normal/low levels on completion of 2 to 6 cycles of therapy. Platelet counts and hemoglobin were unaffected. All five patients achieved complete hematological remission, while two attained minimal residual disease negativity on 4-color flow cytometry. Conclusions. Our OFSA regimen was effective in elderly Asian patients with relapsed/refractory CLL, and it should be investigated further.

  13. Comparative Study of TCM Syndrome Scale for Liver Disease and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire Based on Assessment of Posthepatitic Cirrhosis

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    Hua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare and analyze the relevance and applied value of chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ and Traditional Chinese Medicine liver disease questionnaire (TCMLDQ in patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis. Methods. The data of 146 patients' scales of CLDQ and TCMLDQ which based on the characteristics of chinese medical symptoms were collected. We made comparative analysis of the relationship between these two scales by the linear regression model and canonical correlation method and evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of two scales about its items setting and dimension definition. Result. There is a negative correlation in total scores between the two scales and the linear regression equation: CLDQ=239.38−1.232TCMLDQ. The further canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze the two extracted canonical correlative variables with significances (P<0.05, and the results showed that the overall negative correlation between the two scales mainly came from contributions of both the four dimensions of TCMLDQ (CS, GSYX, GYPX, and OS and the five dimensions of CLDQ (AS, FA, SS, AC, and EF. Conclusion. These two scales have good consistency in the evaluation of severity and life quality of liver cirrhosis patients, so we suggested that TCMLDQ can be used to evaluate the severity and life quality of patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis.

  14. Sperm capacitation in the porcine oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienthai, P; Johannisson, A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2004-01-01

    In vitro studies suggests that sperm capacitation occurs in the sperm reservoir (SR) of the pig, with spermatozoa progressing towards the ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ) around ovulation as a consequence of capacitation/hyperactivation. In contrast, in vivo studies are scarce. Consequently, we determined the degree of capacitation in boar spermatozoa that were retrieved from the SR of sows at well-defined periods of spontaneous standing oestrus, namely pre-, peri- and post-ovulation, using flow cytometry of Merocyanine-540/Yo-Pro-1-loaded spermatozoa. SR-spermatozoa retrieved and incubated in non-capacitating medium (bicarbonate-free mBO [mBO-]) were largely viable (70-85%) and uncapacitated (69-73%), irrespective of the stage of oestrus considered. Those undergoing capacitation were a minor proportion (1-5%) during pre- and peri-ovulation, but they significantly increased (14%) in post-ovulation oestrus. To clarify whether these SR-spermatozoa were able to undergo capacitation under stimuli, sperm aliquots were challenged in vitro either by incubation in a bicarbonate-rich medium (capacitation medium, mBO+), then further in mBO+ with 20% (v/v) of in vivo collected homologous pre-ovulatory isthmic oviductal fluid (IOF), or incubation with hyaluronan (HA, 500 microg/ml). Exposure to mBO+ significantly increased the sub-population of capacitated spermatozoa from the pre- and peri-ovulation SR, indicating that the uncapacitated SR-spermatozoa were responsive to the effector/inducer bicarbonate at levels recorded in peri-ovulatory AIJ/ampulla in vivo. While addition of IOF or HA to SR-spermatozoa incubated in capacitating medium (mBO+) maintained sperm viability without obviously inducing capacitation in pre- or peri-ovulatory SR-spermatozoa, they significantly increased these percentages during post-ovulation, when compared to baseline values of control incubations (mBO-). The results suggest that massive sperm capacitation does not occur in vivo in the porcine SR

  15. A human type 5 adenovirus-based Trypanosoma cruzi therapeutic vaccine re-programs immune response and reverses chronic cardiomyopathy.

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    Isabela Resende Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a prototypical neglected tropical disease. Specific immunity promotes acute phase survival. Nevertheless, one-third of CD patients develop chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC associated with parasite persistence and immunological unbalance. Currently, the therapeutic management of patients only mitigates CCC symptoms. Therefore, a vaccine arises as an alternative to stimulate protective immunity and thereby prevent, delay progression and even reverse CCC. We examined this hypothesis by vaccinating mice with replication-defective human Type 5 recombinant adenoviruses (rAd carrying sequences of amastigote surface protein-2 (rAdASP2 and trans-sialidase (rAdTS T. cruzi antigens. For prophylactic vaccination, naïve C57BL/6 mice were immunized with rAdASP2+rAdTS (rAdVax using a homologous prime/boost protocol before challenge with the Colombian strain. For therapeutic vaccination, rAdVax administration was initiated at 120 days post-infection (dpi, when mice were afflicted by CCC. Mice were analyzed for electrical abnormalities, immune response and cardiac parasitism and tissue damage. Prophylactic immunization with rAdVax induced antibodies and H-2Kb-restricted cytotoxic and interferon (IFNγ-producing CD8+ T-cells, reduced acute heart parasitism and electrical abnormalities in the chronic phase. Therapeutic vaccination increased survival and reduced electrical abnormalities after the prime (analysis at 160 dpi and the boost (analysis at 180 and 230 dpi. Post-therapy mice exhibited less heart injury and electrical abnormalities compared with pre-therapy mice. rAdVax therapeutic vaccination preserved specific IFNγ-mediated immunity but reduced the response to polyclonal stimuli (anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, CD107a+ CD8+ T-cell frequency and plasma nitric oxide (NO levels. Moreover, therapeutic rAdVax reshaped immunity in the heart tissue as reduced the number of perforin+ cells

  16. [Chronicity, chronicization, systematization of delusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapet, P; Fernandez, C; Galtier, M C; Gisselmann, A

    1984-05-01

    Chronicity in psychopathology is indicative of a term, a decay. Chronicization only leads the way to this term. Here, chronicization is taken literally as an inscription in the time course of delusions. The mechanism of systematization seems to be a central mark in the approach to chronic delusions. It is not an alienation or an irreversible closing but an attempted accommodation with reality in the life of psychotic subjects, irrespective of the delusional structure. The role of therapy and drug treatment as a follow-up may in that case assume another meaning.

  17. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  18. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  19. In depth global analysis of gene expression levels in porcine alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Infection of the preferential target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not understood. Serial Analysis of Gene Ex...

  20. In depth global analysis of transcript abundance levels in porcine alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Infection of the primary target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not under...

  1. Treatment Efficacy and Safety of Tenofovir-Based Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis B: A Real Life Cohort Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Song, Myeong Jun; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims We evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based therapy in naïve and treatment-experienced chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients for 96 weeks in Korean real life practice. Methods A total of 209 CHB patients with a prescription for TDF at the Seoul and Daejeon St. Mary’s hospitals were enrolled from December 2012 to October 2014. We compared the virological responses and evaluated the renal safety of treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients. Results An overall complete virological response (CVR) was achieved in 80.4% and 84.6% of patients at weeks 48 and 96, respectively. In a subgroup analysis, CVR at week 96 was present in 88.4%, 75.0%, 75.5%, and 83.3% of participants in the lamivudine-resistant (LAM-R) group, adefovir-resistant (ADV-R) group, multidrug-resistant (MDR) group, and suboptimal response group, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, ADV-R, MDR, hepatitis B virus DNA, and hepatitis B e antigen were independent predictors for CVR. With regard to renal safety, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, and an initial low estimated glomerular filtration rate were independent factors affecting creatinine elevation (≥0.5 mg/dL). Moreover, two patients with DM and cirrhosis experienced TDF-related Fanconi syndrome. Conclusions TDF-based therapy demonstrated sustained viral suppression and favorable safety during a 2-year treatment period. The LAM-R and suboptimal response groups showed comparable efficacy to the naïve group, while the ADV-R and MDR groups were significantly associated with a low CVR. Close monitoring of renal safety should be mandatory when treating CHB patients receiving TDF, particularly those with DM and cirrhosis. PMID:28114428

  2. Impact of hepatitis C virus core mutations on the response to interferon-based treatment in chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camelia; Oprişan, Gabriela; Teleman, Monica Delia; Dinu, Sorin; Oprea, Cristiana; Voiculescu, Mihai; Ruta, Simona

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) core substitutions play a role in the response to interferon-based treatment in Caucasian patients. METHODS One hundred eight HCV chronically infected patients initiating treatment with pegylated IFN plus ribavirin for 48 wk were tested for baseline substitutions at codons 70 and 91 of the viral core protein (BigDye Terminator vers.3.1, Applied Biosystems,) and for genetic polymorphisms in host IL28B gene rs12979860 (Custom TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination assay; Applied Biosystems). RESULTS Of the patients, all were infected with HCV genotype 1b, 44.4% had low baseline HCV viral load, and 37.9% had mild/moderate fibrosis. Only 38.9% achieved therapeutic success, defined as sustained virological response (SVR). Eighty-eight percent of the patients presented at least one substitution at core position 70 (R70Q/H) or/and position 91 (L91M). The favorable IL28B CC polymorphism was detected in only 17.6% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, young age (P < 0.001), urban residence (P = 0.004), IL28B CC genotype (P < 0.001), absence of core mutations (P = 0.005), achievement of rapid virologic response (P < 0.001) and early virological response (P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with SVR. A multivariate analysis revealed three independent predictors of therapeutic success: young age (P < 0.001), absence of core substitutions (P = 0.04) and IL28B CC genotype (P < 0.001); the model correctly classified 75.9% of SVR cases with a positive predictive value of 80.7%. CONCLUSION HCV core mutations can help distinguish between patients who can still benefit from the affordable IFN-based therapy from those who must be treated with DAAs to prevent the evolution towards end-stage liver disease. PMID:27729747

  3. PU.1 antisense lncRNA against its mRNA translation promotes adipogenesis in porcine preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, N; Wang, Y; Xu, R-X; Wang, G-Q; Xiong, Y; Yu, T-Y; Yang, G-S; Pang, W-J

    2015-04-01

    Antisense long non-coding RNAs (AS lncRNAs) play important roles in refined regulation of animal gene expression. However, their functions and molecular mechanisms for domestic animal adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here, we found a novel AS lncRNA transcribed from the porcine PU.1 gene (also known as SPI1) by strand-specific RT-PCR. Results showed that PU.1 AS lncRNA was expressed and generally lower than the level of PU.1 mRNA in porcine subcutaneous adipose, heart, liver, spleen, lympha, skeletal muscle and kidney tissues. We further found that the levels of PU.1 mRNA and PU.1 protein were significantly lower in subcutaneous and intermuscular adipose than in mesenteric and greater omentum adipose, whereas the levels of PU.1 AS lncRNA showed no difference in porcine adipose tissues from four different parts of the body. During porcine adipogenesis, levels of PU.1 mRNA increased at day 2 and then gradually decreased. Meanwhile, PU.1 AS lncRNA exhibited an expression trend similar to PU.1 mRNA but sharply decreased after day 2. Interestingly, PU.1 protein level rose during differentiation. In addition, at day 6 after differentiation, knockdown of endogenous PU.1 promoted adipogenesis, whereas knockdown of endogenous PU.1 AS lncRNA had the opposite effect. Moreover, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were significantly upregulated in the PU.1 shRNA treatment group (P PU.1 AS shRNA treatment group (P PU.1 mRNA/PU.1 AS lncRNA duplex was detected by an endogenous ribonuclease protection assay combined with RT-PCR. Based on the above results, we suggest that PU.1 AS lncRNA (vs. its mRNA translation) promotes adipogenesis through the formation of a sense-antisense RNA duplex with PU.1 mRNA.

  4. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Thoracolumbar Fascia Injury and Movement Restriction in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James H; Fox, James R; Maple, Rhonda; Loretan, Caitlin; Badger, Gary J; Henry, Sharon M; Vizzard, Margaret A; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of back pain following acute back "sprains" is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experimentally in a porcine model by combining a local injury of fascia with movement restriction using a "hobble" device linking one foot to a chest harness for 8 weeks. Ultrasound measurements of thoracolumbar fascia thickness and shear plane mobility (shear strain) during passive hip flexion were made at the 8 week time point on the non-intervention side (injury and/or hobble). Injury alone caused both an increase in fascia thickness (p = .007) and a decrease in fascia shear strain on the non-injured side (p = .027). Movement restriction alone did not change fascia thickness but did decrease shear strain on the non-hobble side (p = .024). The combination of injury plus movement restriction had additive effects on reducing fascia mobility with a 52% reduction in shear strain compared with controls and a 28% reduction compared to movement restriction alone. These results suggest that a back injury involving fascia, even when healed, can affect the relative mobility of fascia layers away from the injured area, especially when movement is also restricted.

  5. Prevalence of chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in outpatients - a cross-sectional hospital based survey in urban China

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    Wang Weibing

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic complications are the major outcome of type 2 diabetes mellitus progress, which reduce the quality of life of patients, incur heavy burdens to the health care system, and increase diabetic mortality. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of chronic complications among urban Chinese type 2 diabetic outpatients; and to analyze the associations between chronic complications and patients' demographics, diabetic related clinical characteristics. Methods This cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out in 4 major Chinese cities: - Shanghai, Chengdu, Beijing and Guangzhou. The survey was conducted from March to July in 2007 among 1,524 type 2 diabetic outpatients. The subjects were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers using a questionnaire to capture information on demographics, disease presentations and complications. All the subjects were invited to have a HbA1c test free of charge by the standardized method with Bio-Rad Variant II. Results Of the 1,524 study subjects, 637 (41.8% were male, and the mean age was 63.3 ± 10.2 years. At least one chronic complication was diagnosed in 792 individuals (52.0% of the study subjects; 509 (33.4% presented with macrovascular complications and 528 (34.7% with microvascular complications. The prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions, neuropathy, nephropathy, ocular lesions and foot disease were 30.1%, 6.8%, 17.8%, 10.7%, 14.8% and 0.8%, respectively. The prevalence of chronic complications varied between cities, and significantly increased with age and duration of diagnosed diabetes. The mean of HbA1c in diabetic patients with chronic complications was 8.2% ± 1.6% and 63.0% of the subjects with type 2 diabetes related complications had a poor glycemic control with the HbA1c > 7.5%. Conclusions Chronic complications are highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic outpatients, the glycemic control of diabetic patients with chronic

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of a corporectomy in porcine lumbar specimens using flexible polymer belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran-Fernandez, J A; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Ruiz-Munoz, E; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G [Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME) Unidad Zacatenco, Edificio 5, 3er Piso, 07738, D.F., Mexico, Tel.: 52(55)57296000, ext. 54691 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rebattu, A [Hospital Regional ISSSTE 10 de Octubre, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Num. 1669, Col. Magdalena de las Salinas, 07760 (Mexico); RodrIguez-Canizo, R G [Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica (ESIME) Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. Granjas No. 682 Col. Sta. Catarina, 02550 (Mexico); Hernandez-Moreno, H, E-mail: jbeltran@ipn.m, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.co, E-mail: edrm_ipn@hotmail.co, E-mail: janosclub@hotmail.co, E-mail: ricname@hotmail.co, E-mail: guiurri@hotmail.co, E-mail: hihernandezm@ipn.m

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a biomechanical evaluation in lumbar porcine specimens (L2-L4), instrumented with flexible polymer belts, under fatigue and tensile loading. The clinical effect called facetary arthrosis is evaluated. An experimental analysis was carried on 3 lumbar porcine specimens. In two of them, polyamide belts are fixed on the interspinous ligament from L2 to L4. Specimens are taken from pigs which are 6 month old. For the present work, the stiffness reduction of the spine and the biomechanical behaviour of the belts in conjunction with the interspinous ligament are evaluated. The purpose is to determine the failure conditions for the elements of the specimen (vertebral disk, supra and intraspinous ligament and vertebral body). Under static loading, which is the base line case, the elements of the specimen failed as a typical healthy structure. While in the fatigue combined with static loading, the element failed in different order. Additionally, the stiffness changed in accordance with the fatigue loading conditions. Because of the simplicity of this alternative technique, a high level of the structural integrity is preserved, as no holes are made on the spinous process in order to insert the fixation screws. Furthermore, there is a cost reduction.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of porcine Cytomegalovirus (PCMV in Sichuan Province, China: 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits the immune function of the macrophage and T-cell lymphatic systems, and has caused huge economic losses to the porcine breeding industry. Molecular epidemiological investigation of PCMV is important for prevention and treatment, and this study is the first such investigation in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. A PCMV positive infection rate of 84.4% (865/1025 confirmed that PCMV is widely distributed in Sichuan Province. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the PCMV glycoprotein B gene (gB nucleotide and amino acid sequences from 24 novel Sichuan isolates and 18 other PCMV gB sequences from Genbank. PCMV does not appear to have evolved into different serotypes, and two distinct sequence groups were identified (A and B. However, whether PCMV from this region has evolved into different genotypes requires further research. Analysis of the amino acid sequences confirmed the conservation of gB, but amino acid substitutions in the major epitope region have caused antigenic drift, which may have altered the immunogenicity of PCMV.

  8. Cloning of Porcine Lactoferrin Gene and Construction of Expression System in Recombinant Lactobacillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xiaolin; HA Zhuo; ZHAO Lili; LIU Diqiu; QIAO Xinyuan; JIANG Yanping; GE Junwei; LI Yijing; TANG Lijie

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus was selected as a bacterial carrier for expression of N-lobe of porcine lactoferrin (PLFN). A pair of primers was designed with Oligo6.0 and used to amplify PLFN gene. It was in accordance with the characters of translational fusions from gene and expression vector plasmid. A 1 077 bp fragment of the gene from PLF was cloned from mammary gland tissue of the lactating sow on the third day by RT-PCR; the gene was connected with the vector plasmid pPG612.1 and transformed into the host strain JM109. The recombinant expression vector plasmid pPG612-PLFN was created and identified by using plasmid extraction, PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequence analysis. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Lactobacillus casei ATCC393, Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS 1.0344, Lactobacillus paracasei KLDS 1.0652 and Lactobacillus pentosus KLDS 1.0413 by electroporation, and produced the recombinant strains of pPG612-PLFN/L, casei, pPG612-PLFN/L, plantarum, pPG612-PLFN/ L. paracasei and pPG612-PLFN/L, pentosus, respectively. The results indicated that PLFN gene had inserted into the expression vectors and achieved multiple Laetobacillus expression systems. It electes the base for the expression and production of recombinant porcine lactoferrin in Lactobaeillus

  9. Relatedness of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis clinical isolates of human and porcine origins assessed by MLVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Célia; Canto, Ana; Machado, Diana; Sanches, Ilda Santos; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João; Botelho, Ana

    2014-09-17

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an important opportunistic pathogen, infecting humans and animals, notably pigs. Several methods have been used to characterize MAH strains. RFLP and PFGE typing techniques have been used as standard methods but are technically demanding. In contrast, the analysis of VNTR loci is a simpler, affordable and highly reliable PCR-based technique, allowing a numerical and reproductive digitalization of typing data. In this study, the analysis of Mycobacterium avium tandem repeats (MATRs) loci was adapted to evaluate the genetic diversity of epidemiological unrelated MAH clinical strains of human (n=28) and porcine (n=69) origins, collected from diverse geographical regions across mainland Portugal. These MAH isolates were found to be genetically diverse and genotypes are randomly distributed across the country. Some of the human strains shared identical VNTR profiles with porcine isolates. Our study shows that the VNTR genotyping using selected MATR loci is a useful analysis technique for assessing the genetic diversity of MAH isolates from Portugal. This typing method could be successfully applied in other countries toward the implementation of a worldwide open-access database of MATR-VNTR profiles of MAH isolates, allowing a better assessment of the global epidemiology traits of this important pathogenic species.

  10. Fine Structure of Glycosaminoglycans from Fresh and Decellularized Porcine Cardiac Valves and Pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cigliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac valves are dynamic structures, exhibiting a highly specialized architecture consisting of cells and extracellular matrix with a relevant proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan content, collagen and elastic fibers. Biological valve substitutes are obtained from xenogenic cardiac and pericardial tissues. To overcome the limits of such non viable substitutes, tissue engineering approaches emerged to create cell repopulated decellularized scaffolds. This study was performed to determine the glycosaminoglycans content, distribution, and disaccharides composition in porcine aortic and pulmonary valves and in pericardium before and after a detergent-based decellularization procedure. The fine structural characteristics of galactosaminoglycans chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate were examined by FACE. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of decellularized pericardium and its propensity to be repopulated by in vitro seeded fibroblasts were investigated. Results show that galactosaminoglycans and hyaluronan are differently distributed between pericardium and valves and within heart valves themselves before and after decellularization. The distribution of glycosaminoglycans is also dependent from the vascular district and topographic localization. The decellularization protocol adopted resulted in a relevant but not selective depletion of galactosaminoglycans. As a whole, data suggest that both decellularized porcine heart valves and bovine pericardium represent promising materials bearing the potential for future development of tissue engineered heart valve scaffolds.

  11. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy; Ndawi, Benedict; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-09-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. "Track-and-treat" of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤ 15) from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17-0.89), compared to baseline (4.1%). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8%) had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.76) in this district compared to baseline (13%), whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with 'track-and-treat' contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on adults in treated

  12. Pathology, Tissue Metalloproteinase Transcription and Haptoglobin Responses in Mice after Experimental Challenge with Different Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Obtained from Cases of Porcine Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, S. E.; Chadfield, M. S.; Sørensen, D. B.;

    2011-01-01

    ). Three groups were infected with one of three isolates of P. multocida isolated from clinical cases of chronic porcine pneumonia with necrotizing, suppurative and non-suppurative lesions, respectively. The fourth group served as uninfected controls. Mice were killed 24h postinfection and samples were...... performed. P. multocida was found in the lung and spleen. Lung lesions were characterized by deposition of fibrin in alveoli and bronchioles, perivascular oedema, suppuration and necrosis. The cellular infiltration was mainly of neutrophils. Splenic neutrophilic infiltration was also evident. Minor...

  13. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Varanda Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain among elderly people of the community and to analyze associations with the self-perceived health status.METHOD: cross-sectional study with a populational sample (n=934, conducted through household interviews in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The intensity of chronic pain (existing for 6 months or more was measured using a numerical scale (0-10 and the self-perceived health through a verbal scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor. For the statistical analysis, the absolute frequency and percentage, CI (95%, Chi-square test, Odds ratio, and regression analysis were used. Significance of 5%.RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 52.8% [CI (95%:49.4-56.1]; most frequently located in the lower limbs (34.5% and lumbar region (29.5%; with high or the worst possible intensity for 54.6% of the elderly people. The occurrence of chronic pain was associated with (p<0.0001 a worse self-perception of health (OR=4.2:2.5-7.0, a greater number of chronic diseases (OR=1.8:1.2-2.7, joint disease (OR=3.5:2.4-5.1 and the female gender (OR=2.3:1.7-3.0. A lower intensity of chronic pain was associated with a better self-perception of health (p<0.0001.CONCLUSION: the majority of the elderly people of the community reported chronic pain, of a severe intensity, and located in areas related to movement activities, thus influencing the morbidity and mortality of this population.

  14. Chemiluminescence immunoassay for the rapid and sensitive detection of antibody against porcine parvovirus by using horseradish peroxidase/detection antibody-coated gold nanoparticles as nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Rui; Hu, Yonggang

    2014-06-01

    A rapid, simple, facile, sensitive and enzyme-amplified chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) method to detect antibodies against porcine parvovirus has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the detection antibody were simultaneously co-immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles using the electrostatic method to form gold nanoparticle-based nanoprobes. This nanoprobe was employed in a sandwich-type CLIA, which enables CL signal readout from enzymatic catalysis and results in signal amplification. The presence of porcine parvovirus infection was determined in porcine parvovirus antibodies by measuring the CL intensity caused by the reaction of HRP-luminol with H2 O2 . Under optimal conditions, the obtained calibration plot for the standard positive serum was approximately linear within the dilution range of 1:80 to 1:5120. The limit of detection for the assay was 1:10,240 (S/N = 3), which is much lower than that typically achieved with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (1:160; S/N = 3). A series of repeatability measurements using 1:320-fold diluted standard positive serum gave reproducible results with a relative standard deviation of 4.9% (n = 11). The ability of the immunosensor to analyze clinical samples was tested on porcine sera. The immunosensor had an efficiency of 90%, a sensitivity of 93.3%, and a specificity of 87.5% relative to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results.

  15. Crystal structure of porcine mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase complexed with Mn2+ and isocitrate. Insights into the enzyme mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Christopher; Grodsky, Neil B; Ariyaratne, Nandana; Colman, Roberta F; Bahnson, Brian J

    2002-11-08

    The crystal structure of porcine heart mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) complexed with Mn2+ and isocitrate was solved to a resolution of 1.85 A. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein, and cleaved with thrombin to yield homogeneous enzyme. The structure was determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing using selenium substitution in the form of selenomethionine as the anomalous scatterer. The porcine NADP+-IDH enzyme is structurally compared with the previously solved structures of IDH from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis that share 16 and 17% identity, respectively, with the mammalian enzyme. The porcine enzyme has a protein fold similar to the bacterial IDH structures with each monomer folding into two domains. However, considerable differences exist between the bacterial and mammalian forms of IDH in regions connecting core secondary structure. Based on the alignment of sequence and structure among the porcine, E. coli, and B. subtilis IDH, a putative phosphorylation site has been identified for the mammalian enzyme. The active site, including the bound Mn2+-isocitrate complex, is highly ordered and, therefore, mechanistically informative. The consensus IDH mechanism predicts that the Mn2+-bound hydroxyl of isocitrate is deprotonated prior to its NADP+-dependent oxidation. The present crystal structure has an active site water that is well positioned to accept the proton and ultimately transfer the proton to solvent through an additional bound water.

  16. Time to gain trust and change—Experiences of attachment and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy among patients with chronic pain and psychiatric co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Peilot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with chronic pain disorders is complex. In the rehabilitation of these patients, coping with chronic pain is seen as important. The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of attachment and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (CT among patients with chronic pain and psychiatric co-morbidity. A phenomenological approach within a lifeworld perspective was used. In total, 10 patients were interviewed after completion of 7- to 13-month therapy. The findings reveal that the therapy and the process of interaction with the therapist were meaningful for the patients’ well-being and for a better management of pain. During the therapy, the patients were able to initiate a movement of change. Thus, CT with focus on attachment and mindfulness seems to be of value for these patients. The therapy used in this study was adjusted to the patients’ special needs, and a trained psychotherapist with a special knowledge of patients with chronic pain might be required.

  17. A genetic validation study reveals a role of vitamin D metabolism in the response to interferon-alfa-based therapy of chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To perform a comprehensive study on the relationship between vitamin D metabolism and the response to interferon-α-based therapy of chronic hepatitis C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Associations between a functionally relevant polymorphism in the gene encoding the vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1-1260 rs10877012 and the response to treatment with pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin were determined in 701 patients with chronic hepatitis C. In addition, associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 (25[OH]D(3 and treatment outcome were analysed. CYP27B1-1260 rs10877012 was found to be an independent predictor of sustained virologic response (SVR in patients with poor-response IL28B genotypes (15% difference in SVR for rs10877012 genotype AA vs. CC, p = 0.02, OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.061-2.188, but not in patients with favourable IL28B genotype. Patients with chronic hepatitis C showed a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25[OH]D(3<20 ng/mL during all seasons, but 25(OHD(3 serum levels were not associated with treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests a role of bioactive vitamin D (1,25[OH](2D(3, calcitriol in the response to treatment of chronic hepatitis C. However, serum concentration of the calcitriol precursor 25(OHD(3 is not a suitable predictor of treatment outcome.

  18. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  19. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  20. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa ) Hind Limb Ischemia/reperfusion Injury CAPT Thomas J...porcine model of hind limb ischemia. Method: Swine (Sus Scrofa ; 76 +/-6kg) were randomly assigned to no fasciotomy or prophylactic fasciotomy after...of ischemic intervals on neuromuscular recovery in a porcine (Sus scrofa ) survival model of extremity vascular injury. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Jan;53(1):165