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Sample records for based chronic porcine

  1. Characterization of a porcine model of chronic superficial varicose veins.

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    Jones, Gregory T; Grant, Mark W; Thomson, Ian A; Hill, B Geraldine; van Rij, André M

    2009-06-01

    Previous animal models of venous disease, while inducing venous hypertension and valvular insufficiency, do not produce superficial varicose veins. In this study, we aimed to develop and characterize a pig-based model of superficial varicose veins. Right femoral arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) were surgically fashioned in young adult pigs. Animals were examined at postoperative times up to 15 weeks to determine the development of varicose veins and measurement of both blood pressure and flow velocities within the superficial thigh veins. Histology and vascular corrosion casts were used to characterize the resulting structural venous alterations. Porcine pathophysiological features were compared with those of human primary superficial varicose veins. Gross superficial varicosities developed over the ipsilateral medial thigh region after an initial lag period of 1-2 weeks. Veins demonstrated retrograde filling with valvular incompetence, and a moderate, non-pulsatile, venous hypertension, which was altered by changes in posture and Valsalva. Venous blood flow velocities were elevated to 15-30 cm/s in varicose veins. Structurally, pig varicose veins were enlarged, tortuous, had valvular degeneration, and regions of focal medial atrophy with or without overlying intimal thickening. The superficial varicose veins, which developed within this model, have a pathophysiology that is consistent with that observed in humans. The porcine femoral AVF model is proposed as a suitable experimental model to evaluate the pathobiology of superficial venous disease. It may also be suitable for the evaluation of treatment interventions including drug therapy.

  2. Porcine (Sus scrofa) Chronic Myocardial Infarction Model Development

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    2015-04-03

    Myocardial Infarction Model Development.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Lt Col. Daren Danielson DEPARTMENT: 60MSGS/SGCH...invasively, a myocardial infarction that was isolated to the mid-anterior, left ventricular wall. In doing so, we were able to create an infarct that...be used to investigate new methodologies for treatment of chronic myocardial infarction in individuals afflicted with chronic ischemic

  3. Allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia

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    Kimura M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amniotic membrane contains a multipotential stem cell population and is expected to possess the machinery to regulate immunological reactions. We investigated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (AMSC transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia as a preclinical trial. Methods. Porcine AMSCs were isolated from amniotic membranes obtained by cesarean section just before delivery and were cultured to increase their numbers before transplantation. Chronic myocardial ischemia was induced by implantation of an ameroid constrictor around the left circumflex coronary artery. Four weeks after ischemia induction, nine swine were assigned to undergo either allogeneic AMSC transplantation or normal saline injection. Functional analysis was performed by echocardiography, and histological examinations were carried out by immunohistochemistry 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Results. Echocardiography demonstrated that left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly improved and left ventricular dilatation was well attenuated 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Histological assessment showed a significant reduction in percentage of fibrosis in the AMSC transplantation group. Injected allogeneic green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing AMSCs were identified in the immunocompetent host heart without the use of any immunosuppressants 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry revealed that GFP colocalized with cardiac troponin T and cardiac troponin I. Conclusions. We have demonstrated that allogeneic AMSC transplantation produced histological and functional improvement in the impaired myocardium in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. The transplanted allogeneic AMSCs survived without the use of any immunosuppressants and gained cardiac phenotype through either their transdifferentiation or cell fusion.

  4. Computerized tomography-based anatomic description of the porcine liver.

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    Bekheit, Mohamed; Bucur, Petru O; Wartenberg, Mylene; Vibert, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of the anatomic features is imperative for successful modeling of the different surgical situations. This study aims to describe the anatomic features of the porcine using computerized tomography (CT) scan. Thirty large, white, female pigs were included in this study. The CT image acquisition was performed in four-phase contrast study. Subsequently, analysis of the images was performed using syngo.via software (Siemens) to subtract mainly the hepatic artery and its branches. Analysis of the portal and hepatic veins division pattern was performed using the Myrian XP-Liver 1.14.1 software (Intrasense). The mean total liver volume was 915 ± 159 mL. The largest sector in the liver was the right medial one representing around 28 ± 5.7% of the total liver volume. Next in order is the right lateral sector constituting around 24 ± 5%. Its volume is very close to the volume of the left medial sector, which represents around 22 ± 4.7% of the total liver volume. The caudate lobe represents around 8 ± 2% of the total liver volume.The portal vein did not show distinct right and left divisions rather than consecutive branches that come off the main trunk. The hepatic artery frequently trifurcates into left trunk that gives off the right gastric artery and the artery to the left lateral sector, the middle hepatic artery that supplies both the right and the left medial sectors and the right hepatic artery trunk that divides to give anterior branch to the right lateral lobe, branch to the right medial lobe, and at least a branch to the caudate lobe. Frequently, there is a posterior branch that crosses behind the portal vein to the right lateral lobe. The suprahepatic veins join the inferior vena cava in three distinct openings. There are communications between the suprahepatic veins that drain the adjacent sectors. The vein from the right lateral and the right medial sectors drains into a common trunk. The vein from the left lateral and from the left

  5. Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts.

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    Bukara, Katarina; Drvenica, Ivana; Ilić, Vesna; Stančić, Ana; Mišić, Danijela; Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš; Vučetić, Dušan; Kiekens, Filip; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-12-20

    The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel porcine cell culture based protocol for the propagation of hepatitis E virus

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    Walter Chingwaru

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a comprehensive protocol for the processing of hepatitis E virus (HEV infected samples and propagation of the virus in primary cell cultures. Methods: Hepatitis E was extracted from porcine liver and faecal samples following standard protocols. The virus was then allowed to attach in the presence of trypsin to primary cells that included porcine and bovine intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages over a period of up to 3 h. The virus was propagated by rotational passaging through the cell cultures. Propagation was confirmed by immunoblotting. Results: We developed a comprehensive protocol to propagate HEV in porcine cell model that includes (i rotational culturing of the virus between porcine cell types, (ii pre-incubation of infected cells for 210 min, (iii use of a semi-complete cell culture medium supplemented with trypsin (0.33 µg/mL and (iv the use of simple immunoblot technique to detect the amplified virus based on the open reading frame 2/3. Conclusions: This protocol opens doors towards systematic analysis of the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of HEV in vitro. Using our protocol, one can complete the propagation process within 6 to 9 d.

  7. 1997 Volvo Award winner in biomechanical studies. Kinematic behavior of the porcine lumbar spine: a chronic lesion model.

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    Kaigle, A M; Holm, S H; Hansson, T H

    1997-12-15

    Experimental models of intervertebral disc and facet joint degeneration were created in vivo in the porcine lumbar spine for studying spinal kinematics, using a dynamic technique. To quantify the changes in spinal kinematics and the stabilizing capacity of the lumbar musculature caused by chronic lesions in the intervertebral disc and facet joints. Segmental kinematics are detrimentally altered by acute injury to passive structures of the motion segment. However, stimulation of the surrounding musculature adds stability to the motion segment. The in vivo kinematics of a degenerated lumbar motion segment and the stabilizing function of the surrounding musculature have not been quantified dynamically. Forty-four pigs were used in six chronic lesions models: sham, disc anulus, disc nucleus, facet capsule, facet joint slit, and facet joint wedge. Three months after injury, an instrumented linkage was used to measure continuously the sagittal kinematics of the L3-L4 motion segment during flexion-extension, with and without stimulation of the lumbar paraspinal musculature. Flexion-extension end point and maximum ranges of motion, and hysteresis were analyzed. Significant alterations in the kinematics caused by chronic lesions were observed, particularly when using the maximum range of motion and when comparing changes in axial translation. Muscular stimulation reduced the hysteresis in the sham, facet capsule, and disc nucleus groups; however, increased hysteresis was observed in the remaining lesion groups. The kinematic behavior of motion segments with chronic lesions was established. The maximum range of motion, which must be measured using a dynamic technique, was a more sensitive parameter for identifying changes in segmental kinematics caused by chronic lesions than was the end range of motion. The lumbar musculature was less efficient overall in stabilizing the motion segment, possibly because of altered mechanisms in the neuromuscular feedback system.

  8. A cucumber mosaic virus based expression system for the production of porcine circovirus specific vaccines.

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    Akos Gellért

    Full Text Available Potential porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 capsid protein epitopes, suitable for expression on the surface of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV particles were determined by a thorough analysis of the predicted PCV capsid protein structure. The ab initio protein structure prediction was carried out with fold recognition and threading methods. The putative PCV epitopes were selected on the basis of PCV virion models and integrated into the plant virus coat protein, after amino acid position 131. The recombinants were tested for infectivity and stability on different Nicotiana species and stable recombinant virus particles were purified. The particles were tested for their ability to bind to PCV induced porcine antibodies and used for specific antibody induction in mice and pigs. The results showed that PCV epitopes expressed on the CMV surface were recognized by the porcine antibodies and they were also able to induce PCV specific antibody response. Challenge experiment with PCV2 carried out in immunized pigs showed partial protection against the infection. Based on these results it was concluded that specific antiviral vaccine production for the given pathogen was feasible, offering an inexpensive way for the mass production of such vaccines.

  9. A cucumber mosaic virus based expression system for the production of porcine circovirus specific vaccines.

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    Gellért, Akos; Salánki, Katalin; Tombácz, Kata; Tuboly, Tamás; Balázs, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    Potential porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein epitopes, suitable for expression on the surface of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) particles were determined by a thorough analysis of the predicted PCV capsid protein structure. The ab initio protein structure prediction was carried out with fold recognition and threading methods. The putative PCV epitopes were selected on the basis of PCV virion models and integrated into the plant virus coat protein, after amino acid position 131. The recombinants were tested for infectivity and stability on different Nicotiana species and stable recombinant virus particles were purified. The particles were tested for their ability to bind to PCV induced porcine antibodies and used for specific antibody induction in mice and pigs. The results showed that PCV epitopes expressed on the CMV surface were recognized by the porcine antibodies and they were also able to induce PCV specific antibody response. Challenge experiment with PCV2 carried out in immunized pigs showed partial protection against the infection. Based on these results it was concluded that specific antiviral vaccine production for the given pathogen was feasible, offering an inexpensive way for the mass production of such vaccines.

  10. RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs.

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    Li, Li; Li, Qiuyan; Bao, Yonghua; Li, Jinxiu; Chen, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiuling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

    2014-02-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease causing heavy losses to the swine industry worldwide. Many studies have shown that transient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or adenovirus-mediated RNA interfere (RNAi) could potentially inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication in vivo and in vitro. Here, we applied RNAi to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed PRRSV-specific siRNA derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). First, we evaluated siRNA expression in the founding and F1 generation pigs and confirmed stable transmission. Then, we detected the expression of IFN-β and protein kinase R (PKR) and found no difference among TG, non-transgenic (NTG), and wild-type pigs. Lastly, the F1 generation pigs, including TG and NTG piglets, were challenged with 3×10⁴·⁵ TCID₅₀ of JXA1, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Our results showed that the in vivo siRNA expression substantially reduced the serum HP-PRRSV titers and increased survival time by 3 days when TG pigs were compared with the NTG controls. These data suggested that RNAi-based genetic modification might be used to breed viral-resistant livestock with stable siRNA expression with no complications of siRNA toxicity. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A prostacyclin agonist and an omental flap increased myocardial blood flow in a porcine chronic ischemia model.

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    Yajima, Shin; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Sakai, Yoshiki; Isohashi, Kayako; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Horitsugi, Genki; Harada, Akima; Sakaniwa, Ryoto; Hatazawa, Jun; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2018-03-11

    We hypothesized that therapeutic efficacy may be augmented by a combination of placing a sheet immersed in ONO-1301SR, a slow-release synthetic prostacyclin agonist-inducing multiproangiogenic cytokines, over the left ventricle and a pedicled omental flap in a chronic myocardial infarct heart. A minipig chronic myocardial infarction was generated by placing an ameroid constrictor ring around the left anterior descending artery for 4 weeks. The minipigs were then assigned into 4 groups of 6 each: sham, omental flap only, ONO-1301SR only, and ONO-1301SR combined with an omental flap (combined). Four weeks after treatment, therapeutic efficacy was evaluated histologically and via several modalities used in the clinical setting. In an angiogram and pressure wire study, the combined group induced development of collateral arteries to decrease the resistance and increase the flow reserve of microvasculature in the left circumflex territory. In a 13 N-ammonia positron emission tomography study, the combined group displayed a prominent increase in myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve in the left circumflex territory, particularly at the infarct-border region. Consequently, the combined group showed greater regional cardiac function in the left circumflex territory particularly at the infarct-border region, contributing to a greater global ejection fraction with a smaller left ventricular endosystolic volume. Pathologically, attenuated fibrosis, nonswollen myocytes, and upgraded capillary density and proangiogenic cytokines were prominent in the combined group. ONO-1301SR combined with a pedicled omental flap synergistically promoted myocardial angiogenesis, leading to function recovery in a porcine chronic myocardial infarction model. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic DON exposure and acute LPS challenge: effects on porcine liver morphology and function.

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    Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Frahm, Jana; Barta-Böszörményi, Anikó; Kluess, Jeannette; Kersten, Susanne; Schönfeld, Peter; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of chronic deoxynivalenol (DON) exposition on the liver morphology and function in combination with pre- and post-hepatic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in young pigs fed for 4 weeks with a DON-contaminated diet (4.59 mg/kg feed). At the end of the experiment, LPS (7.5 μg/kg BW) was administered for 1 h pre-hepatically (Vena portae hepatis) or post-hepatically (Vena jugularis). Liver morphology was macroscopically checked and showed haemorrhage in all LPS groups, significantly higher relative liver weights, accompanied by marked oedema in the gallbladder wall. Histological changes were judged by a modified histology activity index (HAI). Liver HAI score was significantly increased in all LPS groups compared to placebo, primarily due to neutrophil infiltration and haemorrhage. DON feed alone was without effect on the liver HAI. Liver function was characterized by (i) hepatic biochemical markers, (ii) mitochondrial respiration and (iii) Ca 2+ accumulation capacity of isolated mitochondria. Clinical chemical parameters characterizing liver function were initially (liver mitochondria was not impaired by chronic DON exposure, acute LPS challenge or combined treatments. DON-contaminated feed did not change macroscopy and histology of the liver, but modified the function under LPS stress. The different function was not linked to modifications of liver mitochondria.

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound induces angiogenesis and ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia.

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    Kenichiro Hanawa

    Full Text Available Although a significant progress has been made in the management of ischemic heart disease (IHD, the number of severe IHD patients is increasing. Thus, it is crucial to develop new, non-invasive therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we aimed to develop low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS therapy for the treatment of IHD.We first confirmed that in cultured human endothelial cells, LIPUS significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF with a peak at 32-cycle (P<0.05. Then, we examined the in vivo effects of LIPUS in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (n = 28. The heart was treated with either sham (n = 14 or LIPUS (32-cycle with 193 mW/cm2 for 20 min, n = 14 at 3 different short axis levels. Four weeks after the treatment, LVEF was significantly improved in the LIPUS group (46±4 to 57±5%, P<0.05 without any adverse effects, whereas it remained unchanged in the sham group (46±5 to 47±6%, P = 0.33. Capillary density in the ischemic region was significantly increased in the LIPUS group compared with the control group (1084±175 vs. 858±151/mm2, P<0.05. Regional myocardial blood flow was also significantly improved in the LIPUS group (0.78±0.2 to 1.39±0.4 ml/min/g, P<0.05, but not in the control group (0.84±0.3 to 0.97±0.4 ml/min/g. Western blot analysis showed that VEGF, eNOS and bFGF were all significantly up-regulated only in the LIPUS group.These results suggest that the LIPUS therapy is promising as a new, non-invasive therapy for IHD.

  14. Preclinical detection of porcine circovirus type 2 infection using an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay.

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    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. Preclinical identification of PCV2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of PCV2-associated diseases. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (UNDP-PCR for PCV2 detection. Magnetic microparticles coated with PCV2 specific DNA probes were used to enrich PCV2 DNA from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with PCV2 specific oligonucleotides were added to form a sandwich nucleic acid-complex. After the complex was formed, the oligonucleotides were released and characterized by PCR. This assay exhibited about 500-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 2 copies of purified PCV2 genomic DNA and 10 viral copies of PCV2 in serum. The assay has a wide detection range for all of PCV2 genotypes with reliable reproducibility. No cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses including porcine circovirus type 1, porcine parvovirus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and classical swine fever virus. The positive detection rate of PCV2 specific UNDP-PCR in 40 preclinical field samples was 27.5%, which appeared greater than that by conventional and real-time PCR and appeared application potency in evaluation of the viral loads levels of preclinical infection samples. The UNDP-PCR assay reported here can reliably rule out false negative results from antibody-based assays, provide a nucleic acid extraction free, specific, ultrasensitive, economic and rapid diagnosis method for preclinical PCV2 infection in field, which may help prevent large-scale outbreaks.

  15. Relationship between Porcine Sperm Motility and Sperm Enzymatic Activity using Paper-based Devices

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    Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P coupled with catalysis of GAPDH and was promoted by electron transfer from NADH. Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay.

  16. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  17. A Key Gene, PLIN1, Can Affect Porcine Intramuscular Fat Content Based on Transcriptome Analysis

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    Bojiang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is an important indicator for meat quality evaluation. However, the key genes and molecular regulatory mechanisms affecting IMF deposition remain unclear. In the present study, we identified 75 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the higher (H and lower (L IMF content of pigs using transcriptome analysis, of which 27 were upregulated and 48 were downregulated. Notably, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that the DEG perilipin-1 (PLIN1 was significantly enriched in the fat metabolism-related peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway. Furthermore, we determined the expression patterns and functional role of porcine PLIN1. Our results indicate that PLIN1 was highly expressed in porcine adipose tissue, and its expression level was significantly higher in the H IMF content group when compared with the L IMF content group, and expression was increased during adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, our results confirm that PLIN1 knockdown decreases the triglyceride (TG level and lipid droplet (LD size in porcine adipocytes. Overall, our data identify novel candidate genes affecting IMF content and provide new insight into PLIN1 in porcine IMF deposition and adipocyte differentiation.

  18. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial.

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    Sanne J Jansen of Lorkeers

    Full Text Available Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls.Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes.We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA. Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals.Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

  19. Identification of co-expression gene networks, regulatory genes and pathways for obesity based on adipose tissue RNA Sequencing in a porcine model

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    Kogelman, Lisette; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Zhernakova, Daria V.

    2014-01-01

    interactions. Identification of co-expressed and regulatory genes in RNA extracted from relevant tissues representing lean and obese individuals provides an entry point for the identification of genes and pathways of importance to the development of obesity. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is an excellent model...... in a porcine model. Methods We selected 36 animals for RNA Sequencing from a previously created F2 pig population representing three extreme groups based on their predicted genetic risks for obesity. We applied Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to detect clusters of highly co-expressed genes...... in humans and rodents, e.g. CSF1R and MARC2. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply systems biology approaches using porcine adipose tissue RNA-Sequencing data in a genetically characterized porcine model for obesity. We revealed complex networks, pathways, candidate and regulatory...

  20. Chronic constipation: an evidence-based review.

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    Leung, Lawrence; Riutta, Taylor; Kotecha, Jyoti; Rosser, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a common condition seen in family practice among the elderly and women. There is no consensus regarding its exact definition, and it may be interpreted differently by physicians and patients. Physicians prescribe various treatments, and patients often adopt different over-the-counter remedies. Chronic constipation is either caused by slow colonic transit or pelvic floor dysfunction, and treatment differs accordingly. To update our knowledge of chronic constipation and its etiology and best-evidence treatment, information was synthesized from articles published in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Levels of evidence and recommendations were made according to the Strength of Recommendation taxonomy. The standard advice of increasing dietary fibers, fluids, and exercise for relieving chronic constipation will only benefit patients with true deficiency. Biofeedback works best for constipation caused by pelvic floor dysfunction. Pharmacological agents increase bulk or water content in the bowel lumen or aim to stimulate bowel movements. Novel classes of compounds have emerged for treating chronic constipation, with promising clinical trial data. Finally, the link between senna abuse and colon cancer remains unsupported. Chronic constipation should be managed according to its etiology and guided by the best evidence-based treatment.

  1. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for porcine parvovirus 4 detection and quantification in reproductive tissues of sows

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    Porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4) is a DNA virus, and a member of the Parvoviridae family within the Bocavirus genera. It was recently detected in swine, but its epidemiology and pathology remain unclear. A TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting a conserved region of the O...

  2. A magnetic nanoparticle-based multiple-gene delivery system for transfection of porcine kidney cells.

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    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for gene delivery into mammalian somatic cells and may be useful for reproductive cloning using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. However, limited investigations of their potential applications in animal genetics and breeding, particularly multiple-gene delivery by magnetofection, have been performed. Here, we developed a stable, targetable and convenient system for delivering multiple genes into the nuclei of porcine somatic cells using magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as gene carriers. After surface modification by polyethylenimine, the spherical magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed strong binding affinity for DNA plasmids expressing the genes encoding a green (DNAGFP or red (DNADsRed fluorescent protein. At weight ratios of DNAGFP or DNADsRed to magnetic nanoparticles lower than or equal to 10∶1 or 5∶1, respectively, the DNA molecules were completely bound by the magnetic nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy analyses confirmed binding of the spherical magnetic nanoparticles to stretched DNA strands up to several hundred nanometers in length. As a result, stable and efficient co-expression of GFP and DsRed in porcine kidney PK-15 cells was achieved by magnetofection. The results presented here demonstrate the potential application of magnetic nanoparticles as an attractive delivery system for animal genetics and breeding studies.

  3. Understanding PRRSV infection in porcine lung based on genome-wide transcriptome response identified by deep sequencing.

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    Shuqi Xiao

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has been one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide and causes great economic losses each year. PRRS virus (PRRSV replicates mainly in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs and dendritic cells (DCs and develops persistent infections, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE, interstitial pneumonia and immunosuppression. But the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV infection still are poorly understood. Here we report on the first genome-wide host transcriptional responses to classical North American type PRRSV (N-PRRSV strain CH 1a infection using Solexa/Illumina's digital gene expression (DGE system, a tag-based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing method, and analyse systematically the relationship between pulmonary gene expression profiles after N-PRRSV infection and infection pathology. Our results suggest that N-PRRSV appeared to utilize multiple strategies for its replication and spread in infected pigs, including subverting host innate immune response, inducing an anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory state as well as developing ADE. Upregulation expression of virus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and inflammatory enzymes and inflammatory cells, antibodies, complement activation were likely to result in the development of inflammatory responses during N-PRRSV infection processes. N-PRRSV-induced immunosuppression might be mediated by apoptosis of infected cells, which caused depletion of immune cells and induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine response in which they were unable to eradicate the primary infection. Our systems analysis will benefit for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of N-PRRSV infection, developing novel antiviral therapies and identifying genetic components for swine resistance/susceptibility to PRRS.

  4. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films

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    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N. [Institute of Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia); Hashim, U., E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia); School of Microelctronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  5. Protective immunity conferred by porcine circovirus 2 ORF2-based DNA vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Seydou; Cong, Yan-Long; Sun, Yi-Xue; Yang, Gui-Lian; Ding, Xue-Mei; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Long; Yang, Minnan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Ding, Zhuang

    2014-07-01

    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has caused the swine industry significant health challenges and economic damage. Although inactivated and subunit vaccines against PMWS have been used widely, so far no DNA vaccine is available. In this study, with the aim of exploring a new route for developing a vaccine against PCV2, the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine was evaluated in mice. The pEGFP-N1 vector was used to construct a PCV2 Cap gene recombinant vaccine. To assess the immunogenicity of pEGFP-Cap, 80 BALB/c mice were immunized three times at 2 weekly intervals with pEGFP-Cap, LG-strain vaccine, pEGFP-N1 vector or PBS and then challenged with PCV2. IgG and cytokines were assessed by indirect ELISA and ELISA, respectively. Specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques were examined histopathologically. It was found that vaccination of the mice with the pEGFP-Cap induced solid protection against PCV2 infection through induction of highly specific serum IgG antibodies and cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10), and a small PCV2 viral load. The mice treated with the pEGFP-Cap and LG-strain developed no histopathologically detectable lesions (HE stain) and IHC techniques revealed only a few positive cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that recombinant pEGFP-Cap substantially alleviates PCV2 infection in mice and provides evidence that a DNA vaccine could be an alternative to PCV2 vaccines against PMWS. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Development of one-step real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR-based assays for the rapid and simultaneous detection of four viruses causing porcine diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Tsuneyuki; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Ashiba, Tomoko; Yamasato, Hiroshi; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Porcine diarrhea caused by viruses is a major problem of the pig farming industry and can result in substantial losses of revenue. Thus, diagnosing the infectious agents is important to prevent and control diseases in pigs. We developed novel one-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) assays that can detect four porcine diarrheal viruses simultaneously: porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and porcine group A ...

  7. Characterisation of an in vitro blood-brain barrier model based on primary porcine capillary endothelial cells in monoculture or co-culture with primary rat or porcine astrocytes and pericytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Moos, Torben

    to in vivo such as efflux transporters, tight junction proteins, and high transendothelial electric resistance (TEER). Primary BCECs are isolated from a variety of mammals such as rats, mice, cattle and pigs. Often bovine and porcine BCECs are cultured in monoculture or in co-culture with rat astrocytes......In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) in monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are often applied for studying physiology of the BBB. Primary BCECs retain many morphological and biochemical properties similar...... obtained from neonatal rats which have been shown to strengthen the barrier properties of the BCECs. In this study, brain endothelial cells (PBECs), astrocytes and pericytes are isolated from pig brains donated by the local abattoir. The brains are from 6 month old domestic pigs. The availability and high...

  8. CT-based liver volumetry in a porcine model: impact on clinical volumetry prior to living donated liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frericks, B.B.J.; Kiene, T.; Stamm, G.; Shin, H.; Galanski, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Exact preoperative determination of the liver volume is of great importance prior to hepatobiliary surgery, especially in living donated liver transplantation (LDLT). In the current literature, a strong correlation between preoperatively calculated and intraoperatively measured liver volumes has been described. Such accuracy seems questionable, primarily due to a difference in the perfusion state of the liver in situ versus after explantation. Purpose of the study was to asses the influence of the perfusion state on liver volume and the validity of the preoperative liver volumetry prior to LDLT. Methods: In an experimental study, 20 porcine livers were examined. The livers were weighted and their volumes were determined by water displacement prior and after fluid infusion to achieve a pressure physiologically found in the liver veins. The liver volumes in the different perfusion states were calculated based on CT-data. The calculated values were compared with the volume measured by water displacement and the weight of the livers. Results: Assessment of calculated CT volumes and water displacements at identical perfusion states showed a tight correlation and differed on average by 4 ± 5%. However, livers before and after fluid infusion showed a 33 ± 8% (350 ± 150 ml) difference in volume. Conclusion: CT-volumetry acquires highly accurate data as confirmed by water displacement studies. However, the perfusion state has major impact on liver volume, which has to be accounted for in clinical use. (orig.) [de

  9. Meat product based on porcine hearts and aortas ameliorates serum lipid profile and inflammation in hyperlipidemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernukha, I. M.; Kotenkova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The biological effect of porcine hearts and aortas in a hyperlipidemic rat model was confirmed. Porcine heart and aorta mixture in a 3:1 ratio was blended, canned and sterilized at 115°C and 0.23 Mpa for 40 min. Administration of experimental meat product to the animal model decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and cholesterol low density lipoproteins by 31.8% (Panimals. The granulocyte/leucocyte ratio was also reduced by an average of 38.6% (Ppeople with lipid disorders or atherosclerosis.

  10. Evidence based practice of chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management.

  11. Development and Validation of Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigen Capture ELISA for Detection of Group A Porcine Rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Atta Muhammad; Bhuyan, Anjuman Ara; Chen, Fangzhou; Guo, Xiaozhen; Menghwar, Harish; Zhu, Yinxing; Ku, Xugang; Chen, Shuhua; Li, Zhonghua; He, Qigai

    2017-05-01

    Porcine rotavirus-A (PoRVA) is one of the common causes of mild to severe dehydrating diarrhea, leading to losses in weaning and postweaning piglets. A rapid, highly specific, and sensitive antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was developed for detection of PoRVA, by using VP6 (a highly conserved and antigenic protein of group-A rotavirus)-directed rabbit polyclonal antibodies (capture antibody) and murine monoclonal antibodies (detector antibody). The detection limit of AC-ELISA was found to be equal to that of conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; about 10 2.5 TCID 50 /mL). For validation of the in-house AC-ELISA, 295 porcine fecal/diarrhea samples, collected from different provinces of China, were evaluated and compared with conventional RT-PCR and TaqMan RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR). The sensitivity and specificity of this in-house AC-ELISA relative to RT-qPCR were found to be 91.67% and 100%, respectively, with the strong agreement (kappa = 0.972) between these two techniques. Total detection rate with AC-ELISA, conventional RT-PCR, and RT-qPCR were found to be 11.2%, 11.5%, and 12.2%, respectively, without any statistical significant difference. Moreover, AC-ELISA failed to detect any cross-reactivity with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, pseudorabies virus, and porcine circovirus-2. These results suggested that our developed method was rapid, highly specific, and sensitive, which may help in large-scale surveillance, timely detection, and preventive control of rotavirus infection in porcine farms.

  12. The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of multigene constructs into single cells is important for improving the performance of domestic animals, as well as understanding basic biological processes. In particular, multigene constructs allow the engineering and integration of multiple genes related to xenotransplantation into the porcine genome. The piggyBac (PB transposon system allows multiple genes to be stably integrated into target genomes through a single transfection event. However, to our knowledge, no attempt to introduce multiple genes into a porcine genome has been made using this system. In this study, we simultaneously introduced seven transposons into a single porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF. PEFs were transfected with seven transposons containing genes for five drug resistance proteins and two (red and green fluorescent proteins, together with a PB transposase expression vector, pTrans (experimental group. The above seven transposons (without pTrans were transfected concomitantly (control group. Selection of these transfected cells in the presence of multiple selection drugs resulted in the survival of several clones derived from the experimental group, but not from the control. PCR analysis demonstrated that approximately 90% (12/13 tested of the surviving clones possessed all of the introduced transposons. Splinkerette PCR demonstrated that the transposons were inserted through the TTAA target sites of PB. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using a PEF clone with multigene constructs demonstrated successful production of cloned blastocysts expressing both red and green fluorescence. These results indicate the feasibility of this PB-mediated method for simultaneous transfer of multigene constructs into the porcine cell genome, which is useful for production of cloned transgenic pigs expressing multiple transgenes.

  13. Impact of Detergent-Based Decellularization Methods on Porcine Tissues for Heart Valve Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens, Annelies; Somers, Pamela; De Somer, Filip; Carriel, Victor; Van Nooten, Guido; Cornelissen, Ria

    2016-09-01

    To date an optimal decellularization protocol of heart valve leaflets (HVL) and pericardia (PER) with an adequate preservation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is still lacking. This study compares a 4 day Triton X-100-based protocol with faster SDC-based protocols for the decellularization of cardiac tissues. Decellularized and non-treated HVL and PER were processed for histological, biochemical and mechanical analysis to determine the effect of these agents on the structure, ECM components, and biomechanical properties. Tissues treated with SDC-based protocols still showed nuclear material, whereas tissues treated with Triton X-100 1% + ENZ ± TRYP were completely cell free. For both decellularized tissues, an almost complete washout of glycosaminoglycans, a reduction of soluble collagen and an alteration of the surface ultrastructure was observed. Interestingly, only the elastic fibers of pericardial tissue were affected and this tissue had a decreased maximum load. This study showed that both detergents had a similar impact on the ECM. However, Triton X-100 1% +DNase/RNase (ENZ) ± Trypsin (TRYP) is the only protocol that generated completely cell free bioscaffolds. Also, our study clearly demonstrated that the decellularization agents have more impact on pericardial tissues than on heart valve leaflets. Thus, for the purpose of tissue engineering of heart valves, it is advisable to use valvular rather than pericardial matrices.

  14. Met-myoglobin formation, accumulation, degradation, and myoglobin oxygenation monitoring based on multiwavelength attenuance measurement in porcine meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Phan, Kien Nguyen; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method to investigate formation, accumulation, and degradation of met-myoglobin (met-Mb) and myoglobin oxygenation from the interior of porcine meat. For the experiment, color photos and attenuance spectra of porcine meat (well-bled muscle, fat, and mixed) were collected daily to perform colorimetric analysis and to obtain the differences of attenuance between 578 and 567 nm (A578-A567) and between 615 and 630 nm (A630-A615), respectively. Oxy-, deoxy-, and met-myoglobin concentration changes over storage time were also calculated using Beer-Lamberts' law with reflectance intensities at 557, 582, and 630 nm. The change of A578-A567 was well matched with the change of myoglobin oxygenation, and the change of A630-A615 corresponded well with the formation and degradation of met-Mb. In addition, attenuation differences, A578-A567 and A630-A615, were able to show the formation of met-Mb earlier than colorimetric analysis. Therefore, the attenuance differences between wavelengths can be indicators for estimating myoglobin oxygenation and met-Mb formation, accumulation, and degradation, which enable us to design a simple device to monitor myoglobin activities in porcine meat.

  15. Improved Method for the Establishment of an In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model Based on Porcine Brain Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Simone S E; Siupka, Piotr; Georgian, Ana; Preston, Jane E; Tóth, Andrea E; Yusof, Siti R; Abbott, N Joan; Nielsen, Morten S

    2017-09-24

    The aim of this protocol presents an optimized procedure for the purification and cultivation of pBECs and to establish in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on pBECs in mono-culture (MC), MC with astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM), and non-contact co-culture (NCC) with astrocytes of porcine or rat origin. pBECs were isolated and cultured from fragments of capillaries from the brain cortices of domestic pigs 5-6 months old. These fragments were purified by careful removal of meninges, isolation and homogenization of grey matter, filtration, enzymatic digestion, and centrifugation. To further eliminate contaminating cells, the capillary fragments were cultured with puromycin-containing medium. When 60-95% confluent, pBECs growing from the capillary fragments were passaged to permeable membrane filter inserts and established in the models. To increase barrier tightness and BBB characteristic phenotype of pBECs, the cells were treated with the following differentiation factors: membrane permeant 8-CPT-cAMP (here abbreviated cAMP), hydrocortisone, and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, RO-20-1724 (RO). The procedure was carried out over a period of 9-11 days, and when establishing the NCC model, the astrocytes were cultured 2-8 weeks in advance. Adherence to the described procedures in the protocol has allowed the establishment of endothelial layers with highly restricted paracellular permeability, with the NCC model showing an average transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of 1249 ± 80 Ω cm 2 , and paracellular permeability (Papp) for Lucifer Yellow of 0.90 10 -6 ± 0.13 10 -6 cm sec -1 (mean ± SEM, n=55). Further evaluation of this pBEC phenotype showed good expression of the tight junctional proteins claudin 5, ZO-1, occludin and adherens junction protein p120 catenin. The model presented can be used for a range of studies of the BBB in health and disease and, with the highly restrictive paracellular permeability, this model is suitable for studies

  16. Experimental assessment of CT-based thermometry during laser ablation of porcine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, E; Saccomandi, P; Giurazza, F; Caponero, M A; Mortato, L; Di Matteo, F M; Panzera, F; Del Vescovo, R; Beomonte Zobel, B; Silvestri, S

    2013-08-21

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is employed to destroy tumors in organs, and its outcome strongly depends on the temperature distribution inside the treated tissue. The recent introduction of computed tomography (CT) scan thermometry, based on the CT number dependence of the tissue with temperature, overcomes the invasiveness of other techniques used to monitor temperature during LITT. The averaged CT number (ROI = 0.02 cm(2)) of an ex vivo swine pancreas is monitored during LITT (Nd:YAG laser power of 3 W, treatment time: 120 s) at different distances from the applicator (from 4 to 30 mm). The averaged CT number shows a clear decrease during treatment: it is highest at 4 mm from the applicator (mean variation in the whole treatment of -0.256 HU s(-1)) and negligible at 30 mm, since the highest temperature increase is present close to the applicator (i.e., 45 °C at 4 mm and 25 °C at 6 mm). To obtain the relationship between CT numbers and pancreas temperature, the reference temperature was measured by 12 fiber Bragg grating sensors. The CT number decreases as a function of temperature, showing a nonlinear trend with a mean thermal sensitivity of -0.50 HU °C(-1). Results here reported are the first assessment of pancreatic CT number dependence on temperature, at the best of our knowledge. Findings can be useful to further investigate CT scan thermometry during LITT on the pancreas.

  17. Experimental assessment of CT-based thermometry during laser ablation of porcine pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, E.; Saccomandi, P.; Giurazza, F.; Caponero, M. A.; Mortato, L.; Di Matteo, F. M.; Panzera, F.; Del Vescovo, R.; Beomonte Zobel, B.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-08-01

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is employed to destroy tumors in organs, and its outcome strongly depends on the temperature distribution inside the treated tissue. The recent introduction of computed tomography (CT) scan thermometry, based on the CT number dependence of the tissue with temperature, overcomes the invasiveness of other techniques used to monitor temperature during LITT. The averaged CT number (ROI = 0.02 cm2) of an ex vivo swine pancreas is monitored during LITT (Nd:YAG laser power of 3 W, treatment time: 120 s) at different distances from the applicator (from 4 to 30 mm). The averaged CT number shows a clear decrease during treatment: it is highest at 4 mm from the applicator (mean variation in the whole treatment of -0.256 HU s-1) and negligible at 30 mm, since the highest temperature increase is present close to the applicator (i.e., 45 °C at 4 mm and 25 °C at 6 mm). To obtain the relationship between CT numbers and pancreas temperature, the reference temperature was measured by 12 fiber Bragg grating sensors. The CT number decreases as a function of temperature, showing a nonlinear trend with a mean thermal sensitivity of -0.50 HU °C-1. Results here reported are the first assessment of pancreatic CT number dependence on temperature, at the best of our knowledge. Findings can be useful to further investigate CT scan thermometry during LITT on the pancreas.

  18. Lentiviral Vector Gene Transfer to Porcine Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L Sinn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE. Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1–based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF.

  19. Catalog of 199 register-based definitions of chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidberg, Michael F; Johnsen, Søren P; Glümer, Charlotte; Petersen, Karin D; Olesen, Anne V; Ehlers, Lars

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to present and discuss a broad range of register-based definitions of chronic conditions for use in register research, as well as the challenges and pitfalls when defining chronic conditions by the use of registers. The definitions were defined based on information from nationwide Danish public healthcare registers. Medical and epidemiological specialists identified and grouped relevant diagnosis codes that covered chronic conditions, using the International Classification System version 10 (ICD-10). Where relevant, prescription and other healthcare data were also used to define the chronic conditions. We identified 199 chronic conditions and subgroups, which were divided into four groups according to a medical judgment of the expected duration of the conditions, as follows. Category I: Stationary to progressive conditions (maximum register inclusion time of diagnosis since the start of the register in 1994). Category II: Stationary to diminishing conditions (10 years of register inclusion after time of diagnosis). Category III: Diminishing conditions (5 years of register inclusion after time of diagnosis). Category IV: Borderline conditions (2 years of register inclusion time following diagnosis). The conditions were primarily defined using hospital discharge diagnoses; however, for 35 conditions, including common conditions such as diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease and allergy, more complex definitions were proposed based on record linkage between multiple registers, including registers of prescribed drugs and use of general practitioners' services. CONCLUSIONS THIS STUDY PROVIDED A CATALOG OF REGISTER-BASED DEFINITIONS FOR CHRONIC CONDITIONS FOR USE IN HEALTHCARE PLANNING AND RESEARCH, WHICH IS, TO THE AUTHORS' KNOWLEDGE, THE LARGEST CURRENTLY COMPILED IN A SINGLE STUDY. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Catalog of 199 register-based definitions of chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Michael F; Johnsen, Søren P; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current study was to present and discuss a broad range of register-based definitions of chronic conditions for use in register research, as well as the challenges and pitfalls when defining chronic conditions by the use of registers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The definit......INTRODUCTION: The aim of the current study was to present and discuss a broad range of register-based definitions of chronic conditions for use in register research, as well as the challenges and pitfalls when defining chronic conditions by the use of registers. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: The definitions were defined based on information from nationwide Danish public healthcare registers. Medical and epidemiological specialists identified and grouped relevant diagnosis codes that covered chronic conditions, using the International Classification System version 10 (ICD-10). Where relevant...... conditions (maximum register inclusion time of diagnosis since the start of the register in 1994). Category II: Stationary to diminishing conditions (10 years of register inclusion after time of diagnosis). Category III: Diminishing conditions (5 years of register inclusion after time of diagnosis). Category...

  1. Improving Medical Students' Application of Knowledge and Clinical Decision-Making Through a Porcine-Based Integrated Cardiac Basic Science Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Martyn Charles; Gooseman, Michael Richard; Briffa, Norman Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the concerted effort of modern undergraduate curriculum designers, the ability to integrate basic sciences in clinical rotations is an ongoing problem in medical education. Students and newly qualified doctors themselves report worry about the effect this has on their clinical performance. There are examples in the literature to support development of attempts at integrating such aspects, but this "vertical integration" has proven to be difficult. We designed an expert-led integrated program using dissection of porcine hearts to improve the use of cardiac basic sciences in clinical medical students' decision-making processes. To our knowledge, this is the first time in the United Kingdom that an animal model has been used to teach undergraduate clinical anatomy to medical students to direct wider application of knowledge. Action research methodology was used to evaluate the local curriculum and assess learners needs, and the agreed teaching outcomes, methods, and delivery outline were established. A total of 18 students in the clinical years of their degree program attended, completing precourse and postcourse multichoice questions examinations and questionnaires to assess learners' development. Student's knowledge scores improved by 17.5% (p = 0.01; students t-test). Students also felt more confident at applying underlying knowledge to decision-making and diagnosis in clinical medicine. An expert teacher (consultant surgeon) was seen as beneficial to students' understanding and appreciation. This study outlines how the development of a teaching intervention using porcine-based methods successfully improved both student's knowledge and application of cardiac basic sciences. We recommend that clinicians fully engage with integrating previously learnt underlying sciences to aid students in developing decision-making and diagnostic skills as well as a deeper approach to learning. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by

  2. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwelwa Chembensofu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than

  3. Cell-based therapies for chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppen, A.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314088350

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may lead to end-stage renal failure, requiring renal replacement strategies. Development of new therapies to reduce progression of CKD is therefore a major global public health target. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether cell-based therapies have the

  4. Establishment of a chronic activity-based anorexia rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frintrop, Linda; Trinh, Stefanie; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Kas, Martien J.; Tolba, Rene; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    AbstractBackground Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often a chronic eating disorder characterised by body image disturbance and low body weight often associated with starvation-induced amenorrhoea and excessive exercise. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model representing many somatic aspects of

  5. Establishment of a chronic activity-based anorexia rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frintrop, Linda; Trinh, Stefanie; Liesbrock, Johanna; Paulukat, Lisa; Kas, Martien J; Tolba, Rene; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Beyer, Cordian; Seitz, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often a chronic eating disorder characterised by body image disturbance and low body weight often associated with starvation-induced amenorrhoea and excessive exercise. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an animal model representing many somatic aspects of this

  6. Mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain: Evidence and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammad Hassan; Ali, Ali Ahsan; Sudak, Donna M

    2018-02-01

    Chronic pain is estimated to occur in from 5.5% to 33% of the world's adult population (Gureje et al., 1998). Chronic pain is frequently treated with opiates, which has produced an opiate addiction crisis (Dowell et al., 2016). Several non-pharmacological treatment alternatives can help manage chronic pain. There is moderate evidence that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) such as meditation, yoga, and stress reduction lower the perception of pain, increase mobility, improve functioning and well-being. By integrating MBIs and other therapeutic interventions in a multi-disciplinary pain management plan, clinicians can improve treatment outcomes and potentially decrease pain-related medication utilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  8. Evolutionary and epidemiological analyses based on spike genes of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus circulating in Thailand in 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Christopher J; Temeeyasen, Gun; Tripipat, Thitima; Kaewprommal, Pavita; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Piriyapongsa, Jittima; Nilubol, Dachrit

    2017-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been endemic causing sporadic outbreaks in Thailand since 2007. In 2014-2015, several herds had experienced severe PED outbreaks and the reason of the re-current outbreaks was unknown. Whether or not the introduction of exotic strains or continual evolution of existing PEDV, genetic analyses would provide a more understanding in its evolutionary pattern. In the study, 117 complete spike gene sequences of Thai PED virus (PEDV) collected from 2008 to 2015 were clustered along with 95 references of PEDV spike sequences, and analyzed with the US sequences dataset (n=99). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Thai PEDV spike sequences were genetically diverse and had been influenced by multiple introduction of exotic strains. Although Thai PEDV have been evolved into 6 subgroups (TH1-6), Subgroup TH1 strains with the unique 9 nucleotides (CAA GGG AAT) insertion between 688th-689th position of spike (changing amino acid from N to TREY) insertion has become the dominant subgroup since 2014. Thai PEDV spike gene have higher evolutionary rate compare to that of the US sequences. One contributing factor would be the intra-recombination between subgroups. Thailand endemic strain should be assigned into new subclade of G2 (Thai pandemic variant). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2014-01-01

    introns, as does its human and mouse counterparts. RT-PCR cloning revealed two SLITRK1 transcripts: a full-length mRNA and a transcript variant that results in a truncated protein. The encoded SLITRK1 protein, consisting of 695 amino acids, displays a very high homology to human SLITRK1 (99%). The porcine...

  10. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  11. Quantification of intervertebral displacement with a novel MRI-based modeling technique: Assessing measurement bias and reliability with a porcine spine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Niladri K; Montuelle, Stephane; Goubeaux, Craig; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based modeling technique for measuring intervertebral displacements. Here, we present the measurement bias and reliability of the developmental work using a porcine spine model. Porcine lumbar vertebral segments were fitted in a custom-built apparatus placed within an externally calibrated imaging volume of an open-MRI scanner. The apparatus allowed movement of the vertebrae through pre-assigned magnitudes of sagittal and coronal translation and rotation. The induced displacements were imaged with static (T 1 ) and fast dynamic (2D HYCE S) pulse sequences. These images were imported into animation software, in which these images formed a background 'scene'. Three-dimensional models of vertebrae were created using static axial scans from the specimen and then transferred into the animation environment. In the animation environment, the user manually moved the models (rotoscoping) to perform model-to-'scene' matching to fit the models to their image silhouettes and assigned anatomical joint axes to the motion-segments. The animation protocol quantified the experimental translation and rotation displacements between the vertebral models. Accuracy of the technique was calculated as 'bias' using a linear mixed effects model, average percentage error and root mean square errors. Between-session reliability was examined by computing intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and the coefficient of variations (CV). For translation trials, a constant bias (β 0 ) of 0.35 (±0.11) mm was detected for the 2D HYCE S sequence (p=0.01). The model did not demonstrate significant additional bias with each mm increase in experimental translation (β 1 Displacement=0.01mm; p=0.69). Using the T 1 sequence for the same assessments did not significantly change the bias (p>0.05). ICC values for the T 1 and 2D HYCE S pulse sequences were 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. For rotation trials, a constant bias (

  12. Development of a stochastic agent-based model to evaluate surveillance strategies for detection of emergent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Poljak, Z; Knowles, D; McLean, A

    2017-06-12

    The objective of the current study was to develop a stochastic agent-based model using empirical data from Ontario (Canada) swine sites in order to evaluate different surveillance strategies for detection of emerging porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains at the regional level. Four strategies were evaluated, including (i) random sampling of fixed numbers of swine sites monthly; (ii) risk-based sampling of fixed numbers, specifically of breeding sites (high-consequence sites); (iii) risk-based sampling of fixed numbers of low biosecurity sites (high-risk); and (iv) risk-based sampling of breeding sites that are characterized as low biosecurity sites (high-risk/high-consequence). The model simulated transmission of a hypothetical emerging PRRSV strain between swine sites through three important industry networks (production system, truck and feed networks) while considering sites' underlying immunity due to past or recent exposure to heterologous PRRSV strains, as well as demographic, geographic and biosecurity-related PRRS risk factors. Outcomes of interest included surveillance system sensitivity and time to detection of the three first cases over a period of approximately three years. Surveillance system sensitivities were low and time to detection of three first cases was long across all examined scenarios. Traditional modes of implementing high-risk and high-consequence risk-based surveillance based on site's static characteristics do not appear to substantially improve surveillance system sensitivity. Novel strategies need to be developed and considered for rapid detection of this and other emerging swine infectious diseases. None of the four strategies compared herein appeared optimal for early detection of an emerging PPRSV strain at the regional level considering model assumptions, the underlying population of interest, and absence of other forms of surveillance.

  13. OmpA protein sequence-based typing and virulence-associated gene profiles of Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia and porcine pneumonic pasteurellosis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E-Kobon, Teerasak; Leeanan, Ratiporn; Pannoi, Saengtian; Anuntasomboon, Pornchai; Thongkamkoon, Pacharee; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip

    2017-08-16

    Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes economically significant infections of a broad range of animal species. Pneumonic and septicaemic pasteurellosis caused by this bacterium remain important problems in pigs, cattle, and water buffaloes in Thailand. The aim of this study was to characterise the virulence-associated gene profiles and to develop an OmpA molecular typing scheme for classifying 191 bovine and porcine isolates of P. multocida collected between 1989 and 2012 in Thailand using polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), nucleotide sequencing, and sequence and structural bioinformatics analyses. PCR screening successfully characterised the profiles of 25 virulence-associated genes in all isolates. The gene profiles separated these isolates into bovine and porcine clusters based on eight genes (hgbB, hsf1, tadD, nanH, pfhA, plpE, pmHAS, and tbpA). Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide and protein sequences corresponding to the ompA gene, which encodes a major outer membrane surface protein, showed two major bovine and porcine clusters. Structural prediction and analysis of the dN/dS ratio revealed four hypervariable extracellular loops of the OmpA transmembrane domains. These four loops were used to develop an OmpA typing scheme. This scheme classified 186 isolates into five major loop sequence types (LST8, LST12, LST15, LST18, and LST19), consistent with the phylogenetic results. The loop regions of the bovine isolates were predicted to be more antigenic than those of the porcine isolates. Thus, molecular evolution of the OmpA proteins could be used to classify P. multocida isolates into different capsular types, host types, and, possibly, pathogenicity levels. Together with the virulence-associated gene profiles, the typing reported in this work provides a better understanding of P. multocida virulence. Effective monitoring and potential strain-specific subunit vaccines could be developed based on these loop oligopeptides.

  14. Towards Additive Manufacture of Functional, Spline-Based Morphometric Models of Healthy and Diseased Coronary Arteries: In Vitro Proof-of-Concept Using a Porcine Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the additive manufacture of morphometric models of healthy and diseased coronary arteries. Using a dissected porcine coronary artery, a model was developed with the use of computer aided engineering, with splines used to design arteries in health and disease. The model was altered to demonstrate four cases of stenosis displaying varying severity, based on published morphometric data available. Both an Objet Eden 250 printer and a Solidscape 3Z Pro printer were used in this analysis. A wax printed model was set into a flexible thermoplastic and was valuable for experimental testing with helical flow patterns observed in healthy models, dominating the distal LAD (left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries. Recirculation zones were detected in all models, but were visibly larger in the stenosed cases. Resin models provide useful analytical tools for understanding the spatial relationships of blood vessels, and could be applied to preoperative planning techniques, but were not suitable for physical testing. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop blood vessel models enabling experimental work; further, through additive manufacture of bio-compatible materials, there is the possibility of manufacturing customized replacement arteries.

  15. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a novel TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of porcine boca-like virus (Pbo-likeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaomin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recently discovered porcine boca-like virus (Pbo-likeV is a member of the Parvoviridae family, genus Bocavirus, and it is potentially associated with swine disease. Several studies have associated Pbo-likeV with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs, but the full spectrum of clinical disease and the epidemiology of Pbo-likeV infection remain unclear. The availability of rapid and reliable molecular diagnostics would aid future studies of this novel virus. Thus, we developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay to target the Pbo-likeV NP1 gene. The assay reproducibly detected 20 copies of a recombinant DNA plasmid containing the NP1 gene, with a dynamic range of six orders of magnitude (102-107 copies. The assay did not cross-react with other animal viruses. Clinical evaluation found that Pbo-likeV was present in Chinese swine herds at a frequency of 44.2% (114/258. Higher infection rates were found in diseased pigs (56.1%, 101/180 compared with healthy pigs (16.7%, 13/78 (P

  17. Development of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-like-particle-based vaccine and evaluation of its immunogenicity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Lakshmanappa, Yashavanth Shaan; Longchao, Zhu; Dhakal, Santosh; Hiremath, Jagadish; Ouyang, Kang; Shyu, Duan-Liang; Arcos, Jesus; Pengcheng, Shang; Gilbertie, Aaron; Zuckermann, Federico; Torrelles, Jordi B; Jackwood, Daral; Fang, Ying; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a leading cause of economic burden to the pork industry worldwide. The routinely used modified live PRRS virus vaccine (PRRS-MLV) induces clinical protection, but it has safety concerns. Therefore, in an attempt to develop a safe and protective inactivated PRRSV vaccine, we generated PRRS-virus-like-particles (PRRS-VLPs) containing the viral surface proteins GP5-GP4-GP3-GP2a-M or GP5-M using a novel baculovirus expression system. Our in vitro results indicated that the desired PRRSV proteins were incorporated in both the VLPs preparations based on their reactivity in immunogold electron microscopy and ELISA. To boost their immunogenicity in pigs, we entrapped the PRRS-VLPs in PLGA nanoparticles and coadministered them intranasally with a potent adjuvant. We then evaluated their efficacy in pigs against a viral challenge using a virulent heterologous field isolate. Our results indicated that PRRS-VLPs induced an anamnestic immune response, since we observed boosted IgG and IFN-γ production in vaccinated and virus-challenged animals, but not during the pre-challenge period. Importantly, a two-log reduction in the lung viral load was detected in PRRS-VLP-vaccinated animals. In conclusion, we generated PRRS-VLPs containing up to five viral surface proteins and demonstrated their immunogenicity in pigs, but further studies are required to improve its immunogenicity and efficacy as a vaccine candidate.

  18. Repopulation of porcine kidney scaffold using porcine primary renal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolbashari, Mehran; Agcaoili, Sigrid M; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Ko, In Kap; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Jackson, John D; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The only definitive treatment for end stage renal disease is renal transplantation, however the current shortage of organ donors has resulted in a long list of patients awaiting transplant. Whole organ engineering based on decellularization/recellularization techniques has provided the possibility of creating engineered kidney constructs as an alternative to donor organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated that small units of engineered kidney are able to maintain function in vivo. However, an engineered kidney with sufficient functional capacity to replace normal renal function has not yet been developed. One obstacle in the generation of such an organ is the development of effective cell seeding methods for robust colonization of engineered kidney scaffolds. We have developed cell culture methods that allow primary porcine renal cells to be efficiently expanded while maintaining normal renal phenotype. We have also established an effective cell seeding method for the repopulation of acellular porcine renal scaffolds. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrate that a majority of the expanded cells are proximal tubular cells, and the seeded cells formed tubule-like structures that express normal renal tubule phenotypic markers. Functional analysis revealed that cells within the kidney construct demonstrated normal renal functions such as re-adsorption of sodium and protein, hydrolase activity, and production of erythropoietin. These structural and functional outcomes suggest that engineered kidney scaffolds may offer an alternative to donor organ transplant. Kidney transplantation is the only definitive treatment for end stage renal disease, however the current shortage of organ donors has limited the treatment. Whole organ engineering based on decellularization/recellularization techniques has provided the possibility of creating engineered kidney constructs as an alternative to donor organ transplantation. While previous studies have

  19. Evaluation of the Cross-Protective Efficacy of a Chimeric Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Constructed Based on Two Field Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Nadeem; Khatun, Amina; Nazki, Salik; Kim, Bumseok; Choi, Eun-Jin; Sun, Dong; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Won-Il

    2016-08-22

    One of the major hurdles to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccinology is the limited or no cross-protection conferred by current vaccines. To overcome this challenge, a PRRS chimeric virus (CV) was constructed using an FL12-based cDNA infectious clone in which open reading frames (ORFs) 3-4 and ORFs 5-6 were replaced with the two Korean field isolates K08-1054 and K07-2273,respectively. This virus was evaluated as a vaccine candidate to provide simultaneous protection against two genetically distinct PRRS virus (PRRSV) strains. Thirty PRRS-negative three-week-old pigs were divided into five groups and vaccinated with CV, K08-1054, K07-2273, VR-2332, or a mock inoculum. At 25 days post-vaccination (dpv), the pigs in each group were divided further into two groups and challenged with either K08-1054 or K07-2273. All of the pigs were observed until 42 dpv and were euthanized for pathological evaluation. Overall, the CV-vaccinated group exhibited higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression and of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies compared with the other groups after vaccination and also demonstrated better protection levels against both viruses compared with the challenge control group. Based on these results, it was concluded that CV might be an effective vaccine model that can confer a broader range of cross-protection to various PRRSV strains.

  20. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  1. Spatial analysis and temporal trends of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Denmark from 2007 to 2010 based on laboratory submission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been a cause for great concern to the Danish pig industry since it was first diagnosed in 1992. The causative agent of PRRS is an RNA virus which is divided into different genotypes. The clinical signs, as well as its morbidity and mortality...

  2. Evaluation of Control Strategies for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Swine Breeding Herds Using a Discrete Event Agent-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Andréia Gonçalves; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Greer, Amy; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a discrete event agent-based stochastic model to explore the likelihood of the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in swine herds with different PRRS control measures in place. The control measures evaluated included vaccination with a modified-live attenuated vaccine and live-virus inoculation of gilts, and both were compared to a baseline scenario where no control measures were in place. A typical North American 1,000-sow farrow-to-wean swine herd was used as a model, with production and disease parameters estimated from the literature and expert opinion. The model constructed herein was not only able to capture individual animal heterogeneity in immunity to and shedding of the PRRS virus, but also the dynamic animal flow and contact structure typical in such herds under field conditions. The model outcomes included maximum number of females infected per simulation, and time at which that happened and the incidence of infected weaned piglets during the first year of challenge-virus introduction. Results showed that the baseline scenario produced a larger percentage of simulations resulting in outbreaks compared to the control scenarios, and interestingly some of the outbreaks occurred over long periods after virus introduction. The live-virus inoculation scenario showed promising results, with fewer simulations resulting in outbreaks than the other scenarios, but the negative impacts of maintaining a PRRS-positive population should be considered. Finally, under the assumptions of the current model, neither of the control strategies prevented the infection from spreading to the piglet population, which highlights the importance of maintaining internal biosecurity practices at the farrowing room level. PMID:27875546

  3. An Ultrasound Image-Based Dynamic Fusion Modeling Method for Predicting the Quantitative Impact of In Vivo Liver Motion on Intraoperative HIFU Therapies: Investigations in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Apoutou N'Djin

    Full Text Available Organ motion is a key component in the treatment of abdominal tumors by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU, since it may influence the safety, efficacy and treatment time. Here we report the development in a porcine model of an Ultrasound (US image-based dynamic fusion modeling method for predicting the effect of in vivo motion on intraoperative HIFU treatments performed in the liver in conjunction with surgery. A speckle tracking method was used on US images to quantify in vivo liver motions occurring intraoperatively during breathing and apnea. A fusion modeling of HIFU treatments was implemented by merging dynamic in vivo motion data in a numerical modeling of HIFU treatments. Two HIFU strategies were studied: a spherical focusing delivering 49 juxtapositions of 5-second HIFU exposures and a toroidal focusing using 1 single 40-second HIFU exposure. Liver motions during breathing were spatially homogenous and could be approximated to a rigid motion mainly encountered in the cranial-caudal direction (f = 0.20 Hz, magnitude > 13 mm. Elastic liver motions due to cardiovascular activity, although negligible, were detectable near millimeter-wide sus-hepatic veins (f = 0.96 Hz, magnitude 75%. Fusion modeling predictions were preliminarily validated in vivo and showed the potential of using a long-duration toroidal HIFU exposure to accelerate the ablation process during breathing (from 0.5 to 6 cm3 · min(-1. To improve HIFU treatment control, dynamic fusion modeling may be interesting for assessing numerically focusing strategies and motion compensation techniques in more realistic conditions.

  4. Novel Nsp2 deletion based on molecular epidemiology and evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Shandong Province from 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Xue; Qin, Li-Ting; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xing; Sun, Na; Yang, Yong; Chen, Ting; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ren, Jing-Qiang; Sun, Ying-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine disease affecting swine worldwide. In this study, a total of 385 samples were collected from Shandong pig farms during 2013 and 2014, when pigs were not inoculated with any vaccine. Results indicated that, out of 385 samples, 47 (12.21%) were PRRSV-RNA-positive. The gene sequence analysis of 12 ORF5, 12 ORF7, and 8 Nsp2 of these samples was used to determine the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV in different parts of China's Shandong Province. The phylogenetic tree based on these 3 genes indicated that the Chinese PRRSV strains could be divided into five subgroups and two large groups. The 8 study strains were clustered into subgroup IV, another 4 strains into subgroup I. The first 8 strains shared considerable homology with VR-2332 in ORF5 (96-97.5%), the other 4 strains shared considerable homology with JXA1 (94-98%). Phylogenetic tree of GP5 showed that the eight isolates formed a tightly novel clustered branch, subgroup V, which resembled but differed from isolate VR-2332. When examined using Nsp2 alone, the first 8 strains showed considerable homology with a U.S. vaccine strain, Ingelvac MLV (89.6-98.4%). One novel pattern of deletion was observed in Nsp2. The genetic diversity of genotype 2 PRRSV tended to vary in the field. The emergence of novel variants will probably be the next significant branch of PRRSV study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Control Strategies for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Swine Breeding Herds Using a Discrete Event Agent-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Andréia Gonçalves; Friendship, Robert; Carpenter, Jane; Greer, Amy; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a discrete event agent-based stochastic model to explore the likelihood of the occurrence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in swine herds with different PRRS control measures in place. The control measures evaluated included vaccination with a modified-live attenuated vaccine and live-virus inoculation of gilts, and both were compared to a baseline scenario where no control measures were in place. A typical North American 1,000-sow farrow-to-wean swine herd was used as a model, with production and disease parameters estimated from the literature and expert opinion. The model constructed herein was not only able to capture individual animal heterogeneity in immunity to and shedding of the PRRS virus, but also the dynamic animal flow and contact structure typical in such herds under field conditions. The model outcomes included maximum number of females infected per simulation, and time at which that happened and the incidence of infected weaned piglets during the first year of challenge-virus introduction. Results showed that the baseline scenario produced a larger percentage of simulations resulting in outbreaks compared to the control scenarios, and interestingly some of the outbreaks occurred over long periods after virus introduction. The live-virus inoculation scenario showed promising results, with fewer simulations resulting in outbreaks than the other scenarios, but the negative impacts of maintaining a PRRS-positive population should be considered. Finally, under the assumptions of the current model, neither of the control strategies prevented the infection from spreading to the piglet population, which highlights the importance of maintaining internal biosecurity practices at the farrowing room level.

  6. Cannabis-based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, Martin; Phillips, Tudor; Radbruch, Lukas; Petzke, Frank; Häuser, Winfried

    2018-03-07

    This review is one of a series on drugs used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Estimates of the population prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic components range between 6% and 10%. Current pharmacological treatment options for neuropathic pain afford substantial benefit for only a few people, often with adverse effects that outweigh the benefits. There is a need to explore other treatment options, with different mechanisms of action for treatment of conditions with chronic neuropathic pain. Cannabis has been used for millennia to reduce pain. Herbal cannabis is currently strongly promoted by some patients and their advocates to treat any type of chronic pain. To assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabis-based medicines (herbal, plant-derived, synthetic) compared to placebo or conventional drugs for conditions with chronic neuropathic pain in adults. In November 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trials registries for published and ongoing trials, and examined the reference lists of reviewed articles. We selected randomised, double-blind controlled trials of medical cannabis, plant-derived and synthetic cannabis-based medicines against placebo or any other active treatment of conditions with chronic neuropathic pain in adults, with a treatment duration of at least two weeks and at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Three review authors independently extracted data of study characteristics and outcomes of efficacy, tolerability and safety, examined issues of study quality, and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. For efficacy, we calculated the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for pain relief of 30% and 50% or greater, patient's global impression to be much or very much improved, dropout rates due to lack of efficacy, and the standardised mean differences for pain intensity, sleep problems, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and psychological distress. For

  7. Megavoltage Image-Based Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking of a NiTi Stent in Porcine Lungs on a Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Per R., E-mail: perpolse@rm.dk [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Nielsen, Martin S.; Thomsen, Jakob B. [Department of Medical Physics, Aalborg Hospital, University of Aarhus, Aalborg (Denmark); Jensen, Henrik K. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Aalborg Hospital, University of Aarhus, Aalborg (Denmark); Kjaergaard, Benedict; Zepernick, Peter R. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital, University of Aarhus, Aalborg (Denmark); Worm, Esben; Fledelius, Walther [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Cho, Byungchul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sawant, Amit [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and potential limitations of MV image-based dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking in a porcine model on a linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: A thermo-expandable NiTi stent designed for kilovoltage (kV) X-ray visualization of lung lesions was inserted into the bronchia of three anaesthetized Goettingen minipigs. A four-dimensional computed tomography scan was used for planning a five-field conformal treatment with circular multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures. A 22.5 Gy single fraction treatment was delivered to the pigs. The peak-to-peak stent motion was 3 to 8 mm, with breathing periods of 1.2 to 4 s. Before treatment, X-ray images were used for image-guided setup based on the stent. During treatment delivery, continuous megavoltage (MV) portal images were acquired at 7.5 Hz. The stent was segmented in the images and used for continuous adaptation of the MLC aperture. Offline, the tracking error in beam's eye view of the treatment beam was calculated for each MV image as the difference between the MLC aperture center and the segmented stent position. The standard deviations of the systematic error {Sigma} and the random error {sigma} were determined and compared with the would-be errors for a nontracking treatment with pretreatment image-guided setup. Results: Reliable stent segmentation was obtained for 11 of 15 fields. Segmentation failures occurred when image contrast was dominated by overlapping anatomical structures (ribs, diaphragm) rather than by the stent, which was designed for kV rather than MV X-ray visibility. For the 11 fields with reliable segmentation, {Sigma} was 0.5 mm/0.4 mm in the two imager directions, whereas {sigma} was 0.5 mm/1.1 mm. Without tracking, {Sigma} and {sigma} would have been 1.7 mm/1.4 mm and 0.8 mm/1.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, in vivo DMLC tracking has been demonstrated on a linear accelerator showing the potential for improved targeting accuracy

  8. Community-based exercise training for people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease: a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; McKeough, Zoe J; Mo, Laura R; Dallimore, Jamie T; Dennis, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    Poor uptake and adherence are problematic for hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation programs, often because of access difficulties. The aims of this mixed-methods study were to determine the feasibility of a supervised exercise training program in a community gymnasium in people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease, to explore the experiences of participants and physiotherapists and to determine if a community venue improved access and adherence to rehabilitation. Adults with chronic respiratory and/or chronic cardiac disease referred to a hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation program were screened to determine their suitability to exercise in a community venue. Eligible patients were offered the opportunity to attend supervised exercise training for 8 weeks in a community gymnasium. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and physiotherapists at the completion of the program. Thirty-one people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease (34% males, mean [standard deviation] age 72 [10] years) commenced the community-based exercise training program. Twenty-two (71%) completed the program. All participants who completed the program, and the physiotherapists delivering the program, were highly satisfied, with reports of the community venue being well-equipped, convenient, and easily accessible. Using a community gymnasium promoted a sense of normality and instilled confidence in some to continue exercising at a similar venue post rehabilitation. However, factors such as cost and lack of motivation continue to be barriers. The convenience and accessibility of a community venue for rehabilitation contributed to high levels of satisfaction and a positive experience for people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease and physiotherapists.

  9. Acid-base disorders in calves with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, M; Kupczyński, R; Sobiech, P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze disorders of acid-base balance in calves with chronic diarrhea caused by mixed, viral, bacterial and Cryptosporydium parvum infection. We compared results ob- tained with the classic model (Henderson-Hasselbalch) and strong ion approach (the Steward model). The study included 36 calves aged between 14 and 21 days. The calves were allocated to three groups: I - (control) non-diarrheic calves, group II - animals with compensated acid-base imbalance and group III calves with compensated acid-base disorders and hypoalbuminemia. Plasma concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl-, C12+, Mg2+, P, albumin and lactate were measured. In the classic model, acid-base balance was determined on the basis of blood pH, pCO2, HCO3-, BE and anion gap. In the strong ion model, strong ion difference (SID), effective strong anion difference, total plasma concentration of nonvolatile buffers (A(Tot)) and strong ion gap (SIG) were measured. The control calves and the animals from groups II and III did not differ significantly in terms of their blood pH. The plasma concentration of HCO3-, BE and partial pressure of CO2 in animals from the two groups with chronic diarrhea were significantly higher than those found in the controls. The highest BE (6.03 mmol/l) was documented in calves from group II. The animals from this group presented compensation resulted from activation of metabolic mechanisms. The calves with hypoal- buminemia (group III) showed lower plasma concentrations of albumin (15.37 g/L), Cl (74.94 mmol/L), Mg2+ (0.53 mmol/L), P (1.41 mmol/L) and higher value of anion gap (39.03 mmol/L). This group III presented significantly higher SID3 (71.89 mmol/L), SID7 (72.92 mmol/L) and SIG (43.53 mmol/L) values than animals from the remaining groups (P acid-base disturbance in these cases suggests that classic model have some limitations. This model can not be recommended for use whenever serum albumin or phosphate concentrations are markedly abnormal.

  10. Firstline treatment for chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients should be based on a holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2015-02-01

    New selective and more potent drugs for the cure of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients are now available: physicians in some countries must decide the best option, selecting one of the drugs available. What the main prognostic factors are in order to make this selection remains a matter of discussion. Introducing a 'holistic approach' for the first time in chronic myeloid leukemia, as practiced in other diseases, and looking at the patient in a complete picture, considering several variables, such as comorbidities, age, concomitant drugs, lifestyle and patient expectations, may be of help to understand, patient by patient, the best therapeutic strategy.

  11. Spatial analysis and temporal trends of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Denmark from 2007 to 2010 based on laboratory submission data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Ana Carolina Lopes; Halasa, Tariq; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Larsen, Lars Erik; Toft, Nils

    2015-12-21

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been a cause for great concern to the Danish pig industry since it was first diagnosed in 1992. The causative agent of PRRS is an RNA virus which is divided into different genotypes. The clinical signs, as well as its morbidity and mortality, is highly variable between herds and regions. Two different genotypes of PRRS virus (PRRSV) are found in Denmark: type 1 and type 2. Approximately 40% of Danish swine herds are seropositive for one or both PRRSV types. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal trend and spatial distribution of PRRSV in Danish swine herds from 2007 to 2010, based on type-specific serological tests from the PRRS surveillance and control program in Denmark using the results stored in the information management system at the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Vet). The average monthly seroprevalence of PRRSV type 1 was 9% (minimum of 5%; maximum of 13%) in breeding herds, and 20% (minimum of 14%; maximum of 26%) in production herds; PRRSV type 2 had an average seroprevalence of 3% (minimum of 1%; maximum of 9%) in breeding herds and of 9% (minimum of 5%; maximum of 13%) within production herds. The seroconversion rate followed a similar and consistent pattern, being higher for type 1 than for type 2 for both PRRSV types. Regarding the spatiotemporal results, the relative risk distribution maps changed over time as a consequence of the changes in PRRSV seroprevalence, suggesting a general decline in the extent of areas with higher relative risk for both type 1 and 2. Local spatial analysis results demonstrated the existence of statistically significant clusters in areas where the relative risk was higher for both herds. PRRSV type 1 seroprevalence was constantly higher than for PRRSV type 2 in both herd types. Significant spatial clusters were consistently found in Denmark, suggesting that PRRSV is endemic in these areas. Furthermore, relative

  12. Transdiagnostic group-based occupational rehabilitation for participants with chronic pain, chronic fatigue and common mental disorders. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Karen Walseth; Borchgrevink, Petter Christian; Jacobsen, Henrik Børsting; Fimland, Marius Steiro; Rise, Marit By; Gismervik, Sigmund; Woodhouse, Astrid

    2017-06-29

    established. This study indicates that it is feasible to introduce a novel transdiagnostic group-based occupational rehabilitation program for mixed groups of sick-listed participants with chronic pain, chronic fatigue and/or common mental disorders.

  13. Pathology and biofilms in a porcine model of heamatogenous osteomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Louise Kruse

    Aim Discriminative animal models in which bacterial virulence factors and the impact on the host can be studied are desirable. Therefore, a porcine model of haematogenous osteomyelitis based on intraarterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus was developed. In the model, the pathology of osteom......Aim Discriminative animal models in which bacterial virulence factors and the impact on the host can be studied are desirable. Therefore, a porcine model of haematogenous osteomyelitis based on intraarterial inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus was developed. In the model, the pathology....... The formation of a biofilm by S. aureus affects the pathology, since the consistent release of planktonic bacteria induces an ongoing inflammatory reaction. The presented discriminative porcine model presents an attractive model for studying the nature and role of biofilm formation in vivo and how to diagnose...

  14. Porcine models of biofilm infections with focus on pathomorphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Johansen, Anne Sofie Boyum; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation is one of the main reasons for a negative treatment outcome and a high recurrence rate for many chronic infections in humans. The optimal way to study both the biofilm forming bacteria and the host response simultaneously is by using discriminative, reliable, and repro......Bacterial biofilm formation is one of the main reasons for a negative treatment outcome and a high recurrence rate for many chronic infections in humans. The optimal way to study both the biofilm forming bacteria and the host response simultaneously is by using discriminative, reliable......, physiology, and immune system to humans. Furthermore, conventional pigs spontaneously develop many of the same chronic bacterial infections as seen in humans. Therefore, in this review porcine models of five different infectious diseases all associated with biofilm formation and chronicity in humans...... are described. The infectious diseases are: chronic wounds, endocarditis, pyelonephritis, hematogenous osteomyelitis, and implant-associated osteomyelitis (IAO)....

  15. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): Pathogenesis and Interaction with the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunney, Joan K; Fang, Ying; Ladinig, Andrea; Chen, Nanhua; Li, Yanhua; Rowland, Bob; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis, and control. Worldwide, PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic mechanisms, and host immunity, with a special focus on immune factors that modulate PRRSV infections during the acute and chronic/persistent disease phases. We address genetic control of host resistance and probe effects of PRRSV infection on reproductive traits. A major goal is to identify cellular/viral targets and pathways for designing more effective vaccines and therapeutics. Based on progress in viral reverse genetics, host transcriptomics and genomics, and vaccinology and adjuvant technologies, we have identified new areas for PRRS control and prevention. Finally, we highlight the gaps in our knowledge base and the need for advanced molecular and immune tools to stimulate PRRS research and field applications.

  16. Home-based exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Branislava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of rehabilitation programmes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is to lower dyspnoea, improve exercise tolerance and quality of life. Objective We have developed a short-course, home-based, rehabilitation programme of physical exercise for lower limb muscles, based on walking at patients’ fastest pace. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of such a programme regarding the exercise tolerance, pulmonary functions and quality of life. Method Twenty-nine individuals with stable COPD (22 males, 7 females, with a mean age of 59.6±8.9 years participated in the study. Subjects were assessed before and after the 8-week rehabilitation programme using the six-minute walking test (6MWT, Borg breathlessness score, oxygen saturation, St. George’s Hospital Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and spirometry. Results The 6MWT distance improved significantly from 337 to 362 m, representing 8.3% (25 m improvement over baseline. SGRQ activity, impact and total scores improved significantly after the rehabilitation programme (p<0.01 and quality of life, too. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly lower than the baseline (p<0.01, as well as dyspnoea sensation (p<0.01. Pulmonary function improved after an eight-week exercise programme, too (p<0.01. Conclusion This short-term and simple home-based exercise programme improved health status in COPD. It also improved exercise tolerance, breathlessness sensation and quality of life in COPD patients.

  17. Home-based chronic care. An expanded integrative model for home health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Paula; Hennessey, Beth; Harrison, Gregory; Fagan, Martha; Norman, Barbara; Suter, W Newton

    2008-04-01

    The Chronic Care Model (CCM) developed by is an influential and accepted guide for the care of patients with chronic disease. Wagner acknowledges a current healthcare focus on acute care needs that often circumvents chronic care coordination. He identifies the need for a "division of labor" to assist the primary care physician with this neglected function. This article posits that the role of chronic care coordination assistance and disease management fits within the purview of home healthcare and should be central to home health chronic care delivery. An expanded Home-Based Chronic Care Model (HBCCM) is described that builds on Wagner's model and integrates salient theories from fields beyond medicine. The expanded model maximizes the potential for disease self-management success and is intended to provide a foundation for home health's integral role in chronic disease management.

  18. Factors influencing transmission of porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Wendy, Harrison; Magnussen, Pascal

    Understanding the factors contributing to the transmission of Taenia solium in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for control. This study aimed to elucidate factors concerning the transmission of porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area. A longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys...... (March/April 2012, October/November 2012, and July/August 2013) and a case-control study (July 2014) were carried out in in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. During the cross-sectional surveys venous blood was collected from pigs in 22 villages and analysed for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA (B158/B60......). The case-control study consisted of questionnaire interviews and observational surveys of study households, that were allocated into cases or controls based on porcine cysticercosis presence or absence in the cross-sectional surveys. This resulted in 43 farmers in the case group and 50 farmers...

  19. Community-based exercise training for people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease: a mixed-methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara RJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Renae J McNamara,1,2 Zoe J McKeough,3 Laura R Mo,3 Jamie T Dallimore,4 Sarah M Dennis3 1Physiotherapy Department, 2Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Department, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, 3Discipline of Physiotherapy, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, 4Eastern Sydney Medicare Local, Rosebery, NSW, Australia Background: Poor uptake and adherence are problematic for hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation programs, often because of access difficulties. The aims of this mixed-methods study were to determine the feasibility of a supervised exercise training program in a community gymnasium in people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease, to explore the experiences of participants and physiotherapists and to determine if a community venue improved access and adherence to rehabilitation. Methods: Adults with chronic respiratory and/or chronic cardiac disease referred to a hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation program were screened to determine their suitability to exercise in a community venue. Eligible patients were offered the opportunity to attend supervised exercise training for 8 weeks in a community gymnasium. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and physiotherapists at the completion of the program. Results: Thirty-one people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease (34% males, mean [standard deviation] age 72 [10] years commenced the community-based exercise training program. Twenty-two (71% completed the program. All participants who completed the program, and the physiotherapists delivering the program, were highly satisfied, with reports of the community venue being well-equipped, convenient, and easily accessible. Using a community gymnasium promoted a sense of normality and instilled confidence in some to continue exercising at a similar venue post rehabilitation. However, factors such as cost and lack of motivation continue to be barriers

  20. Reactivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Structural Proteins to Antibodies against Porcine Enteric Coronaviruses: Diagnostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Zhang, Jianqiang; Carrillo-Avila, Jose Antonio; Chen, Qi; Magtoto, Ronaldo; Poonsuk, Korakrit; Baum, David H; Piñeyro, Pablo; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    The development of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) antibody-based assays is important for detecting infected animals, confirming previous virus exposure, and monitoring sow herd immunity. However, the potential cross-reactivity among porcine coronaviruses is a major concern for the development of pathogen-specific assays. In this study, we used serum samples ( n = 792) from pigs of precisely known infection status and a multiplex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay and/or enzyme-linked immunoassay platform to characterize the antibody response to PEDV whole-virus (WV) particles and recombinant polypeptides derived from the four PEDV structural proteins, i.e., spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and envelope (E). Antibody assay cutoff values were selected to provide 100% diagnostic specificity for each target. The earliest IgG antibody response, mainly directed against S1 polypeptides, was observed at days 7 to 10 postinfection. With the exception of nonreactive protein E, we observed similar antibody ontogenies and patterns of seroconversion for S1, N, M, and WV antigens. Recombinant S1 provided the best diagnostic sensitivity, regardless of the PEDV strain, with no cross-reactivity detected against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), or porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) pig antisera. The WV particles showed some cross-reactivity to TGEV Miller and TGEV Purdue antisera, while N protein presented some cross-reactivity to TGEV Miller. The M protein was highly cross-reactive to TGEV and PRCV antisera. Differences in the antibody responses to specific PEDV structural proteins have important implications in the development and performance of antibody assays for the diagnosis of PEDV enteric disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Helena A; Kassuku, Ayub A; Carabin, Hélène; Mlangwa, James E D; Mlozi, Malongo R S; Mbilinyi, Boniface P; Willingham, Arve L

    2010-04-06

    Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8) months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each) and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4) months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784). The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km. The prevalence study did not reveal any significant

  2. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  3. In vivo response to an implanted shape memory polyurethane foam in a porcine aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N; Clubb, Fred J; Wilson, Thomas S; Miller, Matthew W; Fossum, Theresa W; Hartman, Jonathan; Tuzun, Egemen; Singhal, Pooja; Maitland, Duncan J

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral aneurysms treated by traditional endovascular methods using platinum coils have a tendency to be unstable, either due to chronic inflammation, compaction of coils, or growth of the aneurysm. We propose to use alternate filling methods for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using polyurethane-based shape memory polymer (SMP) foams. SMP polyurethane foams were surgically implanted in a porcine aneurysm model to determine biocompatibility, localized thrombogenicity, and their ability to serve as a stable filler material within an aneurysm. The degree of healing was evaluated via gross observation, histopathology, and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy imaging after 0, 30, and 90 days. Clotting was initiated within the SMP foam at time 0 (<1 h exposure to blood before euthanization), partial healing was observed at 30 days, and almost complete healing had occurred at 90 days in vivo, with minimal inflammatory response. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In vivo tissue response following implantation of shape memory polyurethane foam in a porcine aneurysm model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Clubb, Fred J.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Miller, Matthew W.; Fossum, Theresa W.; Hartman, Jonathan; Tuzun, Egemen; Singhal, Pooja; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms treated by traditional endovascular methods using platinum coils have a tendency to be unstable, either due to chronic inflammation, compaction of coils, or growth of the aneurysm. We propose to use alternate filling methods for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms using polyurethane based shape memory polymer (SMP) foams. SMP polyurethane foams were surgically implanted in a porcine aneurysm model to determine biocompatibility, localized thrombogenicity, and their ability to serve as a stable filler material within an aneurysm. The degree of healing was evaluated via gross observation, histopathology and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) imaging after zero, thirty and ninety days. Clotting was initiated within the SMP foam at time zero (less than one hour exposure to blood prior to euthanization), partial healing was observed at thirty days, and almost complete healing had occurred at ninety days in vivo, with minimal inflammatory response. PMID:23650278

  5. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  6. Computed tomography-based subclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Asger; Wille, Mathilde M W

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways...... disease) and distal to the airways with destruction and loss of lung parenchyma (emphysema). However, segmentation of airways is still experimental; with contemporary high-resolution CT (HRCT) we can just see the "entrance" of small airways, and until now changes in airway morphology that have been...... observed in COPD are subtle. Furthermore, recent results indicate that emphysema may also be the essential pathophysiologic mechanism behind the airflow limitation of COPD. The definition of COPD excludes bronchiectasis as a symptomatic subtype of COPD, and CT findings in chronic bronchitis...

  7. A web based application for surveillance and quality management in chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovac, Ivo; Cadonna, Bruno; Beck, Peter; Vogel, Wolfgang; Brunner, Harald; Haushofer, Alexander C; Bauer, Bernd

    2007-10-11

    Nearly 130 millions of people around the world are affected by chronic virus Hepatitis C infection. We have developed a web-based application for epidemiological surveillance and quality management in chronic Hepatitis C. Functionality offered by the system includes data collection and execution of predefined queries relevant in quality management. Application is available at www.healthgate.at.

  8. Impact of an occupation-based self-management programme on chronic disease management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Lynn

    2013-02-01

    There is a need for the development and evaluation of occupational therapy interventions enabling participation and contributing to self-management for individuals with multiple chronic conditions. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility and potential impact of an occupation-based self-management programme for community living individuals with multiple chronic conditions.

  9. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  10. Optimizing Interferon Alfa Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Roomer (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis C virus was first discovered in 1989 as the major cause of chronic non-A non-B hepatitis. The hepatitis C virus is a single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family of flaviviruses. The primary target of the hepatitis C virus are hepatocytes where viral

  11. Exercise and chronic disease: an evidence-based approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saxton, John, Prof

    2011-01-01

    ..., and written by a team of leading international researchers and medical and health practitioners, the book explores the evidence across a wide range of chronic diseases, including: * * * * cancer diabetes stroke Parkinson disease * * * heart disease multiple sclerosis asthma Each chapter addresses the frequency, intensity, duration and modality of ...

  12. A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A.; Hiscox, Julian A.

    2008-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus

  13. Advanced Therapeutic Strategies for Chronic Lung Disease Using Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Yhee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lung diseases include a variety of obstinate and fatal diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cystic fibrosis (CF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and lung cancers. Pharmacotherapy is important for the treatment of chronic lung diseases, and current progress in nanoparticles offers great potential as an advanced strategy for drug delivery. Based on their biophysical properties, nanoparticles have shown improved pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and controlled drug delivery, gaining great attention. Herein, we will review the nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Various types of nanoparticles will be introduced, and recent innovative efforts to utilize the nanoparticles as novel drug carriers for the effective treatment of chronic lung diseases will also be discussed.

  14. Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers.Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series.PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION: an evidence based analysisThe cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation)MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC PRESSURE ULCERS: an evidence-based analysis The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions?Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by as much as 400%, to increase the frequency

  15. Adult chronic sleepwalking and its treatment based on polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Kirisoglu, Ceyda; Bao, Gang; Arias, Viola; Chan, Allison; Li, Kasey K

    2005-05-01

    Adult sleepwalking affects 2.5% of the general population and may lead to serious injuries. Fifty young adults with chronic sleepwalking were studied prospectively. Clinical evaluation, questionnaires from patients and bed partners, and polysomnography were obtained on all subjects in comparison with 50 age-matched controls. Subjects were examined for the presence of psychiatric anxiety, depression and any other associated sleep disorder. Isolated sleepwalking or sleepwalking with psychiatric disorders was treated with medication. All other patients with other sleep disorders were treated only for their associated problem. Prospective follow-up lasted 12 months after establishment of the most appropriate treatment. Patients with only sleepwalking, treated with benzodiazepines, dropped out of follow-up testing and reported persistence of sleepwalking, as did patients with psychiatric-related treatment. Chronic sleepwalkers frequently presented with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). All these patients were treated only for their SDB, using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). All nasal CPAP-compliant patients had control of sleepwalking at all stages of follow-up. Non-compliant nasal CPAP patients had persistence of sleepwalking. They were offered surgical treatment for SDB. Those successfully treated with surgery also had complete resolution of sleepwalking. Successful treatment of SDB, which is frequently associated with chronic sleepwalking, controlled the syndrome in young adults.

  16. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in central China based on the ORF3 gene and the S1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunfang; Liu, Yunchao; Chen, Yumei; Zhao, Baolei; Ji, Pengchao; Xing, Guangxu; Jiang, Dawei; Liu, Chang; Song, Yapeng; Wang, Guoqiang; Li, Dongliang; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhang, Gaiping

    2016-11-25

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has increased in severity in China since 2010. To investigate further the infectivity, genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of its causative agent, the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), we assessed 129 clinical samples, which were the intestinal tissue of piglets with severe diarrhea, from 17 cities in central China. Both the spike (S) glycoprotein (S1, 1-789 amino acids (aa)) and the full-length ORF3 gene of 21 representative field strains from 21 farms in 11 cities were sequenced and analysed. PEDV was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and S1 and ORF3 sequences were processed by the Clustal W method via DNAMAN 8 software, and phylogenetic trees were constructed by the neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6 software. The prevalence of PEDV was 92.25% and was detected in 119 of 129 samples, with 94.03% (63 of 67) of pig farms harbouring the disease. According to the phylogenetic analysis of the S1 genes, our isolates all fell into group G2 (variants) and showed a close relationship to isolates from Chinese (HN1303, CH/ZMDZY/11 and AJ1102), Korean (AD01), American (MN, IA1, IA2 and 13-019349) sources, and these isolates differed genetically from other Chinese (LZC, CH/HNZZ/2011 and SD-M) and Korean (SM98) strains as well Japanese (83-P5 and MK) strains. In addition, our isolates differed from attenuated vaccine strains, CV777 (used in China) and DR13 (used in Korea). According to our derived amino acid sequence analysis, we detected one novel variant PEDV, viz: CH/HNLY, with 4-aa insertion/deletion (RSSS/T) at position 375 and 1-aa (D) deletion at position 430 compared to the CV777 attenuated strain. These mutations were located on the receptor binding domain. Our ORF3 gene analyses showed that the prevalent PEDV isolates were variants, and the isolated strains differed genetically from the vaccine strains. These findings illustrated the existence of genetic diversity among

  17. A Multi-Modal Digital Game-Based Learning Environment for Hospitalized Children with Chronic Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jui-Chih; Tsuei, Mengping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the digital game-based learning for children with chronic illnesses in the hospital settings. The design-based research and qualitative methods were applied. Three eight-year-old children with leukemia participated in this study. In the first phase, the multi-user game-based learning system was developed and…

  18. Determination of benzophenones in lipophilic extract of Brazilian red propolis, nanotechnology-based product and porcine skin and mucosa: Analytical and bioanalytical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolo, Daniel; Bergold, Ana Maria; von Poser, Gilsane; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2016-05-30

    Lipophilic compounds of Brazilian Red Propolis (BRP) have received increasing attention due to some interesting findings regarding their biological activities. This study was first aimed at evaluating the chemical composition of BRP n-hexane extract (HEXred) by UPLC-MS-PDA. Chemical investigation mainly resulted in the identification of polyprenylated benzophenones (PPBs) in this extract, named oblongifolin A, guttiferone E, and/or xanthochymol. After that, an isocratic HPLC-UV method was validated for the determination of total content of PPBs (at 260 nm) expressed as garcinol, a commercially available guttiferone E diastereoisomer. The method showed to be specific, precise, accurate, and linear (0.1-10 μg/mL) for the determination of PPBs in HEXred, BRP-loaded nanoemulsions, as well as, in porcine skin and mucosa samples after permeation/retention studies. The matrix effect was determined for all complex matrices, demonstrating low effect during the analysis. The stability-indicating method was verified by submitting HEXred to acidic, alkaline, oxidative, and thermal stress conditions. No interference of degradation products was detected during analysis. Therefore, the proposed analytical and bioanalytical methods proved to be simple and reliable for the determination of PPBs in the presence of different matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social In

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and the NCI’s Center for Global Health held a workshop entitled “Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social Interventions”, which took place in Bridgetown, Barbados from July 21 to 24, 2015. The objectives of the workshop were to encourage the generation of research to more rapidly accelerate chronic disease prevention and management.

  20. Evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemistry for the detection of European and North American Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and a comparison with in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kiwon; Seo, Hwi Won; Oh, Yeonsu; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Changhoon; Kang, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Kwon, Byungjoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2012-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of 2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; SDOW17 and SR30) to detect types 1 and 2 Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to compare the immunohistochemical results with in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) detection techniques. Lungs from 30 experimentally infected pigs (15 pigs with each genotype of PRRSV) and 20 naturally infected pigs (10 pigs with each genotype of PRRSV) with types 1 and 2 PRRSV, respectively, were used for the IHC, ISH, and RT-nPCR analyses. The SR30 mAb-based IHC detected significantly more type 1 PRRSV-positive cells in the accessory and caudal lobes from the experimentally infected pigs at 7 (P = 0.025) and 14 (P = 0.018) days postinoculation, respectively, compared to the SDOW17 mAb-based IHC. The results demonstrated that SR30 mAb-based IHC is useful for detecting both types 1 and 2 PRRSV antigen in FFPE lung tissues.

  1. Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondup, Tsering; Qian, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Kidneys play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regulation of acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis, which is the prerequisite for numerous metabolic processes and organ functions in the human body. Chronic kidney diseases compromise the regulatory functions, resulting in alterations in electrolyte and acid-base balance that can be life-threatening. In this review, we discuss the renal regulations of electrolyte and acid-base balance and several common disorders including metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, dysnatremia, dyskalemia, and dysmagnesemia. Common disorders in chronic kidney disease are also discussed. The most recent and relevant advances on pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management of these conditions have been incorporated.

  2. Prevalence of chronic pancreatitis: Results of a primary care physician-based population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Pasquali, Piera; Aceti, Alessandro; Balducci, Paolo; Bianchi, Patrizia; Buono, Francesco; Camerucci, Stefano; Cantarini, Rosanna; Centofanti, Sergio; Colantonio, Patrizia; Cremaschi, Riccarda; Crescenzi, Sergio; Di Mauro, Caterina; Di Renzi, Davide; Filabozzi, Andrea; Fiorillo, Alfonso; Giancaspro, Giuseppe; Giovannetti, Paola; Lanna, Giuseppe; Medori, Claudio; Merletti, Emilio; Nunnari, Enzo; Paris, Francesca; Pavone, Marco; Piacenti, Angela; Rossi, Almerindo; Scamuffa, Maria Cristina; Spinelli, Giovanni; Taborchi, Marco; Valente, Biagio; Villanova, Antonella; Chiriatti, Alberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2017-05-01

    Data on chronic pancreatitis prevalence are scanty and usually limited to hospital-based studies. Investigating chronic pancreatitis prevalence in primary care. Participating primary care physicians reported the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis among their registered patients, environmental factors and disease characteristics. The data were centrally reviewed and chronic pancreatitis cases defined according to M-ANNHEIM criteria for diagnosis and severity and TIGAR-O classification for etiology. Twenty-three primary care physicians participated in the study. According to their judgment, 51 of 36.401 patients had chronic pancreatitis. After reviewing each patient data, 11 turned out to have definite, 5 probable, 19 borderline and 16 uncertain disease. Prevalence was 30.2/100.000 for definite cases and 44.0/100.000 for definite plus probable cases. Of the 16 patients with definite/probable diagnosis, 8 were male, with mean age of 55.6 (±16.7). Four patients had alcoholic etiology, 5 post-acute/recurrent pancreatitis, 6 were deemed to be idiopathic. Four had pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, 10 were receiving pancreatic enzymes, and six had pain. Most patients had initial stage and non-severe disease. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis in primary care. Results suggest that the prevalence in this context is higher than in hospital-based studies, with specific features, possibly representing an earlier disease stage. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biology Based Lung Cancer Model for Chronic Low Radon Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truta-Popa, Lucia-Adina; Hofmann, Werner; Fakir, Hatim; Cosma, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    Low dose effects of alpha particles at the tissue level are characterized by the interaction of single alpha particles, affecting only a small fraction of the cells within that tissue. Alpha particle intersections of bronchial target cells during a given exposure period were simulated by an initiation-promotion model, formulated in terms of cellular hits within the cycle time of the cell (dose-rate) and then integrated over the whole exposure period (dose). For a given average number of cellular hits during the lifetime of bronchial cells, the actual number of single and multiple hits was selected from a Poisson distribution. While oncogenic transformation is interpreted as the primary initiation step, stimulated mitosis by killing adjacent cells is assumed to be the primary radiological promotion event. Analytical initiation and promotion functions were derived from experimental in vitro data on oncogenic transformation and cellular survival.To investigate the shape of the lung cancer risk function at chronic, low level exposures in more detail, additional biological factors describing the tissue response and operating specifically at low doses were incorporated into the initiation-promotion model. These mechanisms modifying the initial response at the cellular level were: adaptive response, genomic instability, induction of apoptosis by surrounding cells, and detrimental as well as protective bystander mechanisms. To quantify the effects of these mechanisms as functions of dose, analytical functions were derived from the experimental evidence presently available. Predictions of lung cancer risk, including these mechanisms, exhibit a distinct sublinear dose-response relationship at low exposures, particularly for very low exposure rates

  4. Molecular characterization, sequence analysis and tissue expression of a porcine gene – MOSPD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The full-length cDNA sequence of a porcine gene, MOSPD2, was amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method based on a pig expressed sequence tag sequence which was highly homologous to the coding sequence of the human MOSPD2 gene. Sequence prediction analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 491 amino acids that has high homology with the motile sperm domain-containing protein 2 (MOSPD2 of five species: horse (89%, human (90%, chimpanzee (89%, rhesus monkey (89% and mouse (85%; thus, it could be defined as a porcine MOSPD2 gene. This novel porcine gene was assigned GeneID: 100153601. This gene is structured in 15 exons and 14 introns as revealed by computer-assisted analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the porcine MOSPD2 gene has a closer genetic relationship with the MOSPD2 gene of horse. Tissue expression analysis indicated that the porcine MOSPD2 gene is generally and differentially expressed in the spleen, muscle, skin, kidney, lung, liver, fat and heart. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on the porcine MOSPD2 gene.

  5. Episode-Based Payment, Evaluating the Impact on Chronic...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Policy makers are interested in aggregating fee-for-service reimbursement into episode-based bundle payments, hoping it will lead to greater efficiency in the...

  6. Cytokine-based Predictive Models to Estimate the Probability of Chronic Periodontitis: Development of Diagnostic Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, I; Arias-Bujanda, N; Alonso-Sampedro, M; Casares-de-Cal, M A; Sánchez-Sellero, C; Suárez-Quintanilla, D; Balsa-Castro, C

    2017-09-14

    Although a distinct cytokine profile has been described in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis, there is no evidence of GCF cytokine-based predictive models being used to diagnose the disease. Our objectives were: to obtain GCF cytokine-based predictive models; and develop nomograms derived from them. A sample of 150 participants was recruited: 75 periodontally healthy controls and 75 subjects affected by chronic periodontitis. Sixteen mediators were measured in GCF using the Luminex 100™ instrument: GMCSF, IFNgamma, IL1alpha, IL1beta, IL2, IL3, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p40, IL12p70, IL13, IL17A, IL17F and TNFalpha. Cytokine-based models were obtained using multivariate binary logistic regression. Models were selected for their ability to predict chronic periodontitis, considering the different role of the cytokines involved in the inflammatory process. The outstanding predictive accuracy of the resulting smoking-adjusted models showed that IL1alpha, IL1beta and IL17A in GCF are very good biomarkers for distinguishing patients with chronic periodontitis from periodontally healthy individuals. The predictive ability of these pro-inflammatory cytokines was increased by incorporating IFN gamma and IL10. The nomograms revealed the amount of periodontitis-associated imbalances between these cytokines with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects in terms of a particular probability of having chronic periodontitis.

  7. The design of a theory-based intervention to improve medication adherence in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Leon; Stronks, Dirk L; Huygen, Frank J P M

    2017-07-01

    Non-adherence to pain medication is common in chronic pain patients and may result in unfavorable treatment outcomes. Interventions to improve adherence behavior often fail to significantly change medication use. In this report, we describe the application of a theoretical psychological model of behavior change in order to design an intervention to improve medication adherence in chronic pain patients. This study applies the Behavior Change Wheel framework and the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy to design a theory-based intervention to improve pain medication use. Available literature was used to extract determinants of adherence in chronic pain patients. Selected target behaviors to improve medication adherence are: share agreement on follow up policy, monitor medication adherence, provide patient education routinely, discuss attitudes and concerns towards pain medication, develop medication taking habits and use medication reminders. The intervention consists of three components in which relevant behavior change techniques are applied: (1) changes in the electronic patient data management systems to enable medical staff to apply target behaviors; (2) bi-annual education of medical staff to commit the team to the proposed intervention and provide feedback; (3) routine and mandatory education of chronic pain patients following prescription of pain medication. To improve medication adherence in chronic pain patients, most interventions should be focused on providers of pain therapy. Prescribing chronic pain medication should be seen as part of a larger treatment regimen including adequate follow-up, adherence monitoring and patient education during the course of treatment.

  8. Prevalence of Chronic Pain, Treatments, Perception, and Interference on Life Activities: Brazilian Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotti, Dirce Maria Navas; de Oliveira Junior, Jose Oswaldo; da Fonseca, Paulo Renato Barreiros; Posso, Irimar de Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic pain affects between 30% and 50% of the world population. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Brazil, describe and compare differences between pain types and characteristics, and identify the types of therapies adopted and the impact of pain on daily life. Methods Cross-sectional study of a population-based survey with randomized sample from a private database. The interviews were conducted by phone. 78% of the respondents aged 18 years or more agreed to be interviewed, for a total of 723 respondents distributed throughout the country. Independent variables were demographic data, pain and treatment characteristics, and impact of pain on daily life. Comparative and associative statistical analyses were conducted to select variables for nonhierarchical logistic regression. Results Chronic pain prevalence was 39% and mean age was 41 years with predominance of females (56%). We found higher prevalence of chronic pain in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Pain treatment was not specific to gender. Dissatisfaction with chronic pain management was reported by 49% of participants. Conclusion 39% of interviewed participants reported chronic pain, with prevalence of females. Gender-associated differences were found in intensity perception and interference of pain on daily life activities. PMID:29081680

  9. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  11. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    ), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC...

  12. Internet-based therapy for adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: long-term follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, S.L.; Priesterbach, L.P.; Uiterwaal, C.S.; Bleijenberg, G.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Putte, E.M. van de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be an effective treatment of adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but its availability is limited. Fatigue in Teenagers on the Internet (FITNET), an Internet-based CBT program for adolescents with CFS, has been developed as an

  13. [Practical guidelines for the prevention of chronic symptoms after a whiplash injury, based on published evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vendrig, A A; Castro, W H; Scholten-Peeters, G G; van Akkerveeken, P F

    2004-01-01

    Recently, systematic reviews and evidence-based guidelines on whiplash have appeared, from which preventive recommendations can be derived. Fear of moving, catastrophic thoughts and avoidance of activity seem to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic symptoms. Early

  14. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers…

  15. Homecare-based motor rehabilitation in musculoskeletal chronic graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tendas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD is a frequent complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Extensive musculoskeletal and skin involvement may induce severe functional impairment, disability and quality of life deterioration. Physical rehabilitation is recommended as ancillary therapy in these forms, but experiences are sparse. A 39-year-old man affected by musculoskeletal and skin chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD was treated with a homecare-based motor rehabilitation program during palliation for disease progression. Significant functional improvement was obtained. Motor rehabilitation should be strongly considered for patients with musculoskeletal cGVHD, both in the palliative and in the curative phase of disease.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of porcine thymus following porcine cytomegalovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV is a major immunosuppressive virus that mainly affects the immune function of T lymphocytes and macrophages. Despite being widely distributed around the world, no significantly different PCMV serotypes have been found. Moreover, the molecular immunosuppressive mechanisms of PCMV, along with the host antiviral mechanisms, are still not well characterized. To understand the potential impact of PCMV on the function of immune organs, we examined the transcriptome of PCMV-infected thymuses by microarray analysis. We identified 5,582 genes that were differentially expressed as a result of PCMV infection. Of these, 2,161 were upregulated and 3,421 were downregulated compared with the uninfected group. We confirmed the expression of 13 differentially expressed immune-related genes using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and further confirmed the expression of six of those cytokines by western blot. Gene ontology, gene interaction networks, and KEGG pathway analysis of our results indicated that PCMV regulates multiple functional pathways, including the immune system, cellular and metabolic processes, networks of cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, the TGF-β signaling pathway, the lymphocyte receptor signaling pathway, and the TNF-α signaling pathway. Our study is the first comprehensive attempt to explore the host transcriptional response to PCMV infection in the porcine immune system. It provides new insights into the immunosuppressive molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis of PCMV. This previously unrecognized endogenous antiviral mechanism has implications for the development of host-directed strategies for the prevention and treatment of immunosuppressive viral diseases.

  17. Mindfulness-based Intervention for Female Adolescents with Chronic Pain: A Pilot Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadi, Nicholas; McMahon, Audrey; Vadnais, Majorie; Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Catherine; Djemli, Anissa; Dobkin, Patricia L; Lacroix, Jacques; Luu, Thuy Mai; Haley, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    To test the feasibility of a randomized-controlled trial measuring the impact of an adapted mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in female adolescents with chronic pain. This was a single center, single-blind, prospective, experimental, longitudinal trial conducted in a pediatric tertiary care center. Participants had a history of chronic pain during at least three months. They were randomized into an intervention group or a wait-list control group. Both groups successively followed an adapted eight-week MBI designed specifically for adolescents with chronic pain. Pre-determined criteria were established to assess the feasibility, validity and acceptability of the study model. Data evaluating changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, psychological distress and salivary cortisol were collected throughout the 4-month study period. Nineteen female participants completed the study and had a mean age of 15.8 years (range 13.9 -17.8). Attrition rate was low (17%). Attendance to mindfulness sessions (84%) and compliance to study protocol (100%) were high. All participants reported a positive change in the way they coped with pain. No changes in quality of life, depression, anxiety, pain perception, and psychological distress were detected. Significant reductions in pre-and post-mindfulness session salivary cortisol levels were observed (padolescents with chronic pain. Our study indicates the feasibility of conducting such interventions in teenage girls. A large trial is needed to demonstrate the efficacy and bio-physiological impacts of MBIs in teenagers with chronic pain.

  18. Evidence-based review of silver dressing use on chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Lily W; Macera, Liz

    2011-04-01

    Use of silver containing dressings has become prevalent in clinical practice to manage chronic wounds at risk for infections. This literature review examines the evidence for the efficacy of using silver dressings in the chronic wound management. Relevant in vitro articles on antimicrobial activity of silver dressings, relevant randomized controlled studies (RCTs), and one retrospective cohort study were selected to assess the effectiveness of silver dressings on human chronic wounds. The emerging evidence base for this use of silver dressings in clinical practice on chronic wounds does not provide absolute evidence of antimicrobial efficacy because there are limited large, well-designed RCTs. To supplement this gap, more rigorously controlled long-term, randomized studies of human subjects with chronic wounds are needed. It is essential that advanced practice nurses (APNs) be knowledgeable of the wound bacterial balance continuum. For deciding appropriate wound healing strategies, they also need to critically appraise the current literature as it changes for the latest information on antimicrobial efficacy of silver dressings. Until research clarifies the inconclusive evidence, APNs must provide holistic and accurate assessments of both the patient and the wound before selecting silver dressings. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is associated with chronic rhinosinusitis: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, S H; Lin, H C; Kao, L T; Wu, C S; Chung, S D

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association of chronic rhinosinusitis with sudden sensorineural hearing loss using a population-based database. Sampled subject data were obtained from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. A total of 3325 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were identified and 9975 controls were randomly selected. A conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for having been previously diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis, for cases and controls. The adjusted odds ratio of having prior chronic rhinosinusitis among cases compared to controls was 1.36 (95 per cent confidence interval = 1.16-1.60). The significant relationship between sudden sensorineural hearing loss and chronic rhinosinusitis was most pronounced among those patients aged 44 years or less (compared to controls) (odds ratio = 2.18; 95 per cent confidence interval = 1.63-2.92). However, the significant relationship between sudden sensorineural hearing loss and prior chronic rhinosinusitis was not sustained for patients older than 60 years compared to controls.

  20. Transgenesis and nuclear transfer using porcine embryonic germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Yang, Hong Seok; Shim, Hosup

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic germ (EG) cells are undifferentiated stem cells isolated from cultured primordial germ cells (PGC). Porcine EG cell lines with capacities of both in vitro and in vivo differentiation have been established. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may be more suitable for nuclear donor cells in nuclear transfer (NT) than somatic cells that have limited lifespan in primary culture. Use of EG cells could be particularly advantageous to provide an inexhaustible source of transgenic cells for NT. In this study the efficiencies of transgenesis and NT using porcine fetal fibroblasts and EG cells were compared. The rate of development to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher in EG cell NT than somatic cell NT (94 of 518, 18.2% vs. 72 of 501, 14.4%). To investigate if EG cells can be used for transgenesis in pigs, green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was introduced into porcine EG cells. Nuclear transfer embryos using transfected EG cells gave rise to blastocysts (29 of 137, 21.2%) expressing GFP based on observation under fluorescence microscope. The results obtained from the present study suggest that EG cell NT may have advantages over somatic cell NT, and transgenic pigs may be produced using EG cells.

  1. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... secretion, whereas somatostatin secretion was unaffected. The effect of substance P on insulin, glucagon, and exocrine secretion was blocked by the NK-1 receptor antagonist. The effect of electrical stimulation of vagus nerves on insulin and exocrine secretion was not influenced by tachykinin receptor...... antagonists. We conclude that tachykinins stimulate both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic functions through NK-1 receptors. Tachykinins are not involved in vagal regulation of pancreatic secretion in pigs but could constitute part of an alternative stimulatory system....

  2. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  3. Porcine heart interatrial septum anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holda, Mateusz K; Holda, Jakub; Koziej, Mateusz; Piatek, Katarzyna; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa

    2018-02-16

    The left-sided atrial septal pouch (SP), a recently re-discovered anatomical structure within the human interatrial septum, has emerged as a possible source of thrombi formation and a trigger for atrial fibrillation, thereby potentially increasing the risk for ischemic stroke. In many studies, the swine interatrial septum has been used as model of the human heart. Also, possible new strategies and devices for management of the SPs may first be tested in this pig model. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate swine interatrial septum morphology and to compare it with the human analog, especially in the light of SP occurrence. A total of 75 swine (Sus scrofa f. domestica) hearts were examined. The interatrial septum morphology was assessed, and SPs were measured. The most common variant of the interatrial septum was smooth septum (26.6%) followed by the patent foramen ovale channel and right SP (both 22.7%). No left or double SPs were observed. In 28.0% of all cases the fold of tissue (left septal ridge) was observed on the left side of the interatrial septum in the location where the left-sided SP should be expected. The mean length of the patent foramen ovale channel was 7.1±1.5mm. The mean right SP depth was 6.3±2.2mm, and its ostium width and height were 5.8±1.2 and 5.3±1.6mm, respectively. There are significant differences between human and porcine interatrial septum morphology that should be taken into account during experimental studies. The absence of the left SP in swine results in the inability to use porcine heart as an experimental model for left-sided SP management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia in Swine Associated with Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP is a chronic respiratory disease. Although the pathogenesis of BOOP is still incompletely understood, BOOP is responsive to steroids and has a good prognosis. In our five pigs with chronic postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, typical BOOP lesions were revealed. All five porcine lungs showed typical intraluminal plugs, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 was identified. They also exhibited similar pathologic findings such as proliferation of type II pneumocytes and myofibroblasts (MFBs, extracellular collagen matrix (ECM deposition, and fragmentation of elastic fibers. MFBs migration correlative molecules, for instance, gelatinase A, B and osteopontin, appeared strongly in the progressing marginal area of polypoid intraluminal plugs of fibrotic lesion. These molecules colocalized with the active MFBs. Both gelatinase activity and intercellular level of active MFBs were significantly increased (<.05. Porcine chronic bronchopneumonia leads to BOOP and it is associated with PCV2 persistent infection. Swine BOOP demonstrates similar cellular constituents with human BOOP. Perhaps their molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis operate in a similar way. Thus we infer that the swine BOOP can be considered as a potential animal model for human BOOP associated with natural viral infection. Moreover, it is more convenient to obtain samples.

  5. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in Homa Bay District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshitera Eric E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Cysticercosis poses a serious public health risk and leads to economic losses to the pig production industry. Due to scarcity of data on the epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in Kenya, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis within Homa Bay district. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010, and a total of 392 pigs were recruited in a household survey, with all being tested by ante-mortem lingual palpation (together with questionnaire data on pig production, occurrence and transmission of porcine cysticercosis, risk factors and awareness of porcine cysticercosis collected from the households from which pigs were sampled. Sufficient serum was collected from 232 of the pigs to be tested for the presence of circulating parasite antigen using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA. Results Seventy six pigs were found positive by the Ag-ELISA (32.8%, 95% C.I. 26.8-39.2%, while by tongue inspection cysticerci were detected in 22/ 392 pigs (5.6% 95% C.I. 3.6-8.4%. The most important risk factor for porcine cysticercosis in the Homa Bay area was for pigs to belong to a farm where latrine use by members of the household was not evident (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37. Conclusion The present findings indicate that porcine cysticercosis is endemic in Homa Bay District, and that latrine provision, in conjunction with free-range pig keeping contributes significantly to porcine cysticercosis transmission.

  6. Efficient Generation of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Competent Porcine Cells with Mutated Alleles at Multiple Target Loci by Using CRISPR/Cas9 Combined with Targeted Toxin-Based Selection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancement in genome editing such a CRISPR/Cas9 system has enabled isolation of cells with knocked multiple alleles through a one-step transfection. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been frequently employed as one of the efficient tools for the production of genetically modified (GM animals. To use GM cells as SCNT donor, efficient isolation of transfectants with mutations at multiple target loci is often required. The methods for the isolation of such GM cells largely rely on the use of drug selection-based approach using selectable genes; however, it is often difficult to isolate cells with mutations at multiple target loci. In this study, we used a novel approach for the efficient isolation of porcine cells with at least two target loci mutations by one-step introduction of CRISPR/Cas9-related components. A single guide (sg RNA targeted to GGTA1 gene, involved in the synthesis of cell-surface α-Gal epitope (known as xenogenic antigen, is always a prerequisite. When the transfected cells were reacted with toxin-labeled BS-I-B4 isolectin for 2 h at 37 °C to eliminate α-Gal epitope-expressing cells, the surviving clones lacked α-Gal epitope expression and were highly expected to exhibit induced mutations at another target loci. Analysis of these α-Gal epitope-negative surviving cells demonstrated a 100% occurrence of genome editing at target loci. SCNT using these cells as donors resulted in the production of cloned blastocysts with the genotype similar to that of the donor cells used. Thus, this novel system will be useful for SCNT-mediated acquisition of GM cloned piglets, in which multiple target loci may be mutated.

  7. Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Health Coaching for Patients with Chronic Conditions: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Härter

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, heart disease and cancer are leading causes of death and disability. These conditions are at least partially preventable or modifiable, e.g. by enhancing patients' self-management. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of telephone-based health coaching (TBHC in chronically ill patients.This prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compares an intervention group (IG of participants in TBHC to a control group (CG without TBHC. Endpoints were assessed two years after enrolment. Three different groups of insurees with 1 multiple conditions (chronic campaign, 2 heart failure (heart failure campaign, or 3 chronic mental illness conditions (mental health campaign were targeted. The telephone coaching included evidence-based information and was based on the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making, and collaborative goal setting. Patients received an average of 12.9 calls. Primary outcome was time from enrolment until hospital readmission within a two-year follow-up period. Secondary outcomes comprised the probability of hospital readmission, number of daily defined medication doses (DDD, frequency and duration of inability to work, and mortality within two years. All outcomes were collected from routine data provided by the statutory health insurance. As informed consent was obtained after randomization, propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize selection bias introduced by decliners. For the analysis of hospital readmission and mortality, we calculated Kaplan-Meier curves and estimated hazard ratios (HR. Probability of hospital readmission and probability of death were analysed by calculating odds ratios (OR. Quantity of health service use and inability to work were analysed by linear random effects regression models. PSM resulted in patient samples of 5,309 (IG: 2,713; CG: 2,596 in the chronic campaign, of 660 (IG: 338; CG: 322 in the heart failure campaign, and of

  8. Correntropy-based Analysis of Respiratory Patterns with Chronic Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Garde Martínez, Ainara; Sörnmo, Leif; Jané Campos, Raimon; Giraldo Giraldo, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    A correntropy-based technique is proposed for the analysis and characterization of respiratory flow signals in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with both periodic and nonperiodic breathing (PB and nPB), and healthy subjects. Correntropy is a novel similarity measure which provides information on temporal structure and statistical distribution simultaneously. Its properties lend itself to the definition of the correntropy spectral density (CSD). An interesting result from CS...

  9. Correntropy-based spectral characterization of respiratory Patterns in patients with chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Garde Martínez, Ainara; Sörnmo, Leif; Jané Campos, Raimon; Giraldo Giraldo, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    A correntropy-based technique is proposed for the characterization and classification of respiratory flow signals in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with periodic or nonperiodic breathing (PB or nPB, respectively) and healthy subjects. The correntropy is a recently introduced, generalized correlation measure whose properties lend themselves to the definition of a correntropybased spectral density (CSD). Using this technique, both respiratory and modulation frequencies can be reliably ...

  10. Mass lesions in chronic pancreatitis: benign or malignant? An "evidence-based practice" approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerstenmaier, Jan F

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion in the presence of chronic pancreatitis can be extremely challenging. At the same time, a high level of certainty about the diagnosis is necessary for appropriate management planning. The aim of this study was to establish current best evidence about which imaging methods reliably differentiate a benign from a malignant lesion, and show how that evidence is best applied. A diagnostic algorithm based on Bayesian analysis is proposed.

  11. Internet-based guided self-help intervention for chronic pain based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Veehof, M.M.; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis

    2015-01-01

    Acceptance-based psychological interventions can potentially minimize the burden of chronic pain. This randomized controlled trial evaluated an internet-delivered, guided self-help intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). A total of 238 chronic pain sufferers from the general

  12. CT radiation dose and image quality optimization using a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarb, Francis; McEntee, Mark F; Rainford, Louise

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate potential radiation dose savings and resultant image quality effects with regard to optimization of commonly performed computed tomography (CT) studies derived from imaging a porcine (pig) model. Imaging protocols for 4 clinical CT suites were developed based on the lowest milliamperage and kilovoltage, the highest pitch that could be set from current imaging protocol parameters, or both. This occurred before significant changes in noise, contrast, and spatial resolution were measured objectively on images produced from a quality assurance CT phantom. The current and derived phantom protocols were then applied to scan a porcine model for head, abdomen, and chest CT studies. Further optimized protocols were developed based on the same methodology as in the phantom study. The optimization achieved with respect to radiation dose and image quality was evaluated following data collection of radiation dose recordings and image quality review. Relative visual grading analysis of image quality criteria adapted from the European guidelines on radiology quality criteria for CT were used for studies completed with both the phantom-based or porcine-derived imaging protocols. In 5 out of 16 experimental combinations, the current clinical protocol was maintained. In 2 instances, the phantom protocol reduced radiation dose by 19% to 38%. In the remaining 9 instances, the optimization based on the porcine model further reduced radiation dose by 17% to 38%. The porcine model closely reflects anatomical structures in humans, allowing the grading of anatomical criteria as part of image quality review without radiation risks to human subjects. This study demonstrates that using a porcine model to evaluate CT optimization resulted in more radiation dose reduction than when imaging protocols were tested solely on quality assurance phantoms.

  13. Do over 200 million healthy altitude residents really suffer from chronic Acid-base disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo; Zubieta-Castillo, Gustavo; Zubieta-Calleja, Luis; Ardaya-Zubieta, Gustavo; Paulev, Poul-Erik

    2011-01-01

    As the oxygen tension of inspired air falls with increasing altitude in normal subjects, hyperventilation ensues. This acute respiratory alkalosis, induces increased renal excretion of bicarbonate, returning the pH back to normal, giving rise to compensated respiratory alkalosis or chronic hypocapnia. It seems a contradiction that so many normal people at high altitude should permanently live as chronic acid-base patients. Blood gas analyses of 1,865 subjects at 3,510 m, reported a P(a)CO(2) (arterial carbon dioxide tension ± SEM) = 29.4 ± 0.16 mmHg and pH = 7.40 ± 0.005. Base excess, calculated with the Van Slyke sea level equation, is -5 mM (milliMolar or mmol/l) as an average, suggesting chronic hypocapnia. THID, a new term replacing "Base Excess" is determined by titration to a pH of 7.40 at a P(a)CO(2) of 5.33 kPa (40 mmHg) at sea level, oxygen saturated and at 37°C blood temperature. Since our new modified Van Slyke equations operate with normal values for P(a)CO(2) at the actual altitude, a calculation of THID will always result in normal values-that is, zero.

  14. Under Pressure: Applying Practice-Based Learning and Improvement to the Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapolti, Mihaela; Wu, Cindy; Schuth, Olga A; Hultman, Charles Scott

    2017-10-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain after burn injury may have multiple causes, such as direct nerve injury, nerve compression, or neuroma formation, and can significantly impair quality of life and limit functional recovery. Management includes a team-based approach that involves close collaboration between occupational and physical therapists, plastic surgeons, and experts in chronic pain, from neurology, anesthesia, psychiatry, and physiatry. Carefully selected patients with an anatomic cause of chronic neuropathic pain unequivocally benefit from surgical intervention. Self-reflection and analysis yield improvement in both efficiency and effectiveness when managing patients with burns with chronic neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Telephone-based health coaching for chronically ill patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinger, Sarah; Dirmaier, Jörg; Herbarth, Lutz; König, Hans-Helmut; Eckardt, Matthias; Kriston, Levente; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2013-10-17

    The rising prevalence of chronic conditions constitutes a major burden for patients and healthcare systems and is predicted to increase in the upcoming decades. Improving the self-management skills of patients is a strategy to steer against this burden. This could lead to better outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Health coaching is one method for enhancing the self-management of patients and can be delivered by phone. The effects of telephone-based health coaching are promising, but still inconclusive. Economic evaluations and studies examining the transferability of effects to different healthcare systems are still rare. Aim of this study is to evaluate telephone-based health coaching for chronically ill patients in Germany. The study is a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of telephone-based health coaching with usual care during a 4-year time period. Data are collected at baseline and after 12, 24 and 36 months. Patients are selected based on one of the following chronic conditions: diabetes, coronary artery disease, asthma, hypertension, heart failure, COPD, chronic depression or schizophrenia. The health coaching intervention is carried out by trained nurses employed by a German statutory health insurance. The frequency and the topics of the health coaching are manual-based but tailored to the patients' needs and medical condition, following the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making and evidence-based-medicine. Approximately 12,000 insurants will be enrolled and randomized into intervention and control groups. Primary outcome is the time until hospital readmission within two years after enrolling in the health coaching, assessed by routine data. Secondary outcomes are patient-reported outcomes like changes in quality of life, depression and anxiety and clinical values assessed with questionnaires. Additional secondary outcomes are further economic evaluations like health service use as well as costs and

  16. Chronic pain, overweight, and obesity: findings from a community-based twin registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lisa Johnson; Schur, Ellen; Noonan, Carolyn; Ahumada, Sandra; Buchwald, Dedra; Afari, Niloofar

    2010-07-01

    Chronic pain and obesity, and their associated impairments, are major health concerns. We estimated the association of overweight and obesity with 5 distinct pain conditions and 3 pain symptoms, and examined whether familial influences explained these relationships. We used data collected from 3,471 twins in the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Twins reported sociodemographic data, current height and weight, chronic pain diagnoses and symptoms, and lifetime depression. Overweight and obese were defined as body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2) and >or= 30.0 kg/m(2), respectively. Generalized estimating equation regression models, adjusted for age, gender, depression, and familial/genetic factors, were used to examine the relationship between chronic pain, and overweight and obesity. Overall, overweight and obese twins were more likely to report low back pain, tension-type or migraine headache, fibromyalgia, abdominal pain, and chronic widespread pain than normal-weight twins after adjustment for age, gender, and depression. After further adjusting for familial influences, these associations were diminished. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are likely diverse and multifactorial, yet this study demonstrates that the associations can be partially explained by familial and sociodemographic factors, and depression. Future longitudinal research can help to determine causality and underlying mechanisms. This article reports on the familial contribution and the role of psychological factors in the relationship between chronic pain, and overweight and obesity. These findings can increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these 2 commonly comorbid sets of conditions.

  17. Existence of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swine are expected to be utilized as xenograft donors for both whole organ and cellular transplantation. A major concern in using porcine organs for transplantation is the potential of transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV. Tissue-engineered or decellularised heart valves have already been implanted in humans and have been marketed by certain companies after Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval. The aim of this study was to examine the existence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV in fresh and decellularised porcine tissues. Methods: Porcine tissues (both fresh and decellularised were analysed using validated assays specific for PERV: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results: PERV specific GAG sequences were found in the porcine heart tissue samples using PCR for DNA and RT- PCR for RNA. All tissue samples (both fresh and treated tissues like aortic valve, pulmonary valve and heart muscle showed the presence of PERV DNA. RT PCR for PERV was positive in all fresh tissues and was found to be negative in decellularised treated tissues. Conclusions: PCR is a rapid, specific test for the detection of PERV virus in xenografts. These findings have demonstrated that the presence of proviral DNA form of PERV in porcine tissues needs to be carefully considered when the infectious disease potential of xenotransplantation is being assessed.

  18. A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hung, Shu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment.

  19. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism.

  20. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kashiwakura

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8. Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  1. Mapping the antigenic structure of porcine parvovirus at the level of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Langeveld, Jan; Bøtner, Anette

    1998-01-01

    The antigenic structure of the capsid proteins of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was investigated. A total of nine linear epitopes were identified by Pepscan using porcine or rabbit anti-PPV antisera. No sites were identified with a panel of neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All epitopes were...... located in the region corresponding to the major capsid protein VP2. Based on this information, and on analogy to other autonomous parvoviruses, 24 different peptides were synthesised, coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and used to immunise rabbits. Most antisera were able to bind viral protein...

  2. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  3. Vitality training-A mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Heidi A; Haugli, Liv

    2017-11-01

    Chronic non-malign pain has a substantial impact on all parts of an individual's life. Mindfulness- and acceptance- based interventions are increasingly offered to help people manage their pain and strengthening their health promoting resources. In this paper, we present a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention, the Vitality Training Programme (VTP), to mitigating pain and accompanying symptoms and increasing pain coping abilities. Based on a clinical case presentation, we discuss how the VTP can help individuals to live a better life with pain. The VTP has been evaluated in two randomised controlled trials and two qualitative studies. Existing evidence is presented. Finally, based on a recently published theoretical model, we present some possible common explanatory mechanisms across various mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions that might also apply to the VTP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. From viral genome to specific peptide epitopes: methods for identifying porcine T cell epitopes based on in silico predictions, in vitro identification and ex vivo verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Rasmussen, Michael; Harndah, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The affinity with which major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules bind peptides is instrumental to presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We analyzed three swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) molecules for complete nonamer peptide-based binding matrices in orde...

  5. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan

    2007-01-01

    )â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  6. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...... varied greatly (range: 5.2-40.3 mm) and was significantly different in pigs and in humans (12.2 ± 3.2 mm versus 19.2 mm; p animal studies, despite various anatomic differences being noted between porcine...

  7. Preliminary structural MRI based brain classification of chronic pelvic pain: A MAPP network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarinao, Epifanio; Johnson, Kevin A; Martucci, Katherine T; Ichesco, Eric; Farmer, Melissa A; Labus, Jennifer; Ness, Timothy J; Harris, Richard; Deutsch, Georg; Apkarian, A Vania; Mayer, Emeran A; Clauw, Daniel J; Mackey, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that changes in brain morphology often accompany chronic pain conditions. However, brain biomarkers that are sensitive and specific to chronic pelvic pain (CPP) have not yet been adequately identified. Using data from the Trans-MAPP Research Network, we examined the changes in brain morphology associated with CPP. We used a multivariate pattern classification approach to detect these changes and to identify patterns that could be used to distinguish participants with CPP from age-matched healthy controls. In particular, we used a linear support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to differentiate gray matter images from the 2 groups. Regions of positive SVM weight included several regions within the primary somatosensory cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, hippocampus, and amygdala were identified as important drivers of the classification with 73% overall accuracy. Thus, we have identified a preliminary classifier based on brain structure that is able to predict the presence of CPP with a good degree of predictive power. Our regional findings suggest that in individuals with CPP, greater gray matter density may be found in the identified distributed brain regions, which are consistent with some previous investigations in visceral pain syndromes. Future studies are needed to improve upon our identified preliminary classifier with integration of additional variables and to assess whether the observed differences in brain structure are unique to CPP or generalizable to other chronic pain conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A guideline-based computerised decision support system (CDSS to influence general practitioners management of chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Toth-Pal

    2008-05-01

    Conclusion Using a guideline-based CDSS for the GPs' own patient cases had an impact on the GPs' confidence in the diagnosis of chronic heart failure and their considerations about investigations and medications: they also perceived substantial support in every third case. Applying a CDSS developed using evidence-based guidelines for chronic heart failure in primary care could have a significant influence on GPs' disease management.

  9. Risk factors for infection of sow herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was u...

  10. Directed differentiation of porcine epiblast-derived neural progenitor cells into neurons and glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Carter, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases; however, safety concerns must be addressed through transplantation studies in large animal models, such as the pig. The aim of this study was to derive NPCs from porcine blastocysts...

  11. Gel-based phosphoproteomics analysis of sarcoplasmic proteins in postmortem porcine muscle with pH decline rate and time differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Karlsson, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    Meat quality development is highly influenced by the pH decline caused by the postmortem (PM) glycolysis. Protein phosphorylation is an important mechanism in regulating the activity of glycometabolic enzymes. Here, a gel-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the protein...... observed in most individual bands in 1-DE. The protein phosphorylation levels of 12 bands were significantly affected by the synergy effects of pH and time (p...... phosphorylation in sarcoplasmic proteins from three groups of pigs with different pH decline rates from PM 1 to 24¿h. Globally, the fast pH decline group had the highest phosphorylation level at PM 1¿h, but lowest at 24¿h, whereas the slow pH decline group showed the reverse case. The same pattern was also...

  12. 'I have cystic fibrosis': an analysis of web-based disclosures of a chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D; Crowell, Toni L

    2008-11-01

    This study examined instances where individuals with cystic fibrosis disclosed their illness on the World Wide Web, better understand their experiences and needs across stages of the lifespan. Disclosing one's chronic illness is typically done purposefully, so examining those disclosures allows a naturalistic window into individuals' experiences and needs. This study is unique to Internet-based studies of chronic illness in that data are not limited to interactions at health-related websites, but include disclosure instances gathered across a variety of Internet contexts. Qualitative content analysis with a summative component was used. A web-based search engine was used to identify all web pages containing the phrases 'I have cystic fibrosis' and 'I have cf' (n = 277). Constant comparative analysis methods were used to identify thematic categories of context. Quantitative methods were used to examine age-related differences in the distribution of those disclosure statements. Findings were interpreted within a framework of Erikson's lifespan psychosocial theory. Adolescents (13-18 years) most frequently expressed psychosocial concerns and enlisted social support. Emerging adults (19-25 years) tended to present cystic fibrosis as just one of many self-characteristics. Adults (>25 years) tended to reach out to support others with cystic fibrosis. The study identified age-related differences in the types of illness disclosures found among individuals with cystic fibrosis. It also demonstrated that web-based research into chronic illness need not be limited to analysis of illness-specific online communities. Findings suggest that psychosocial interventions for individuals with cystic fibrosis across the lifespan might focus on (a) facilitating social support and incorporating illness into one's emerging identity among adolescents, (b) supporting emerging adults in presenting and incorporating themselves into larger social networks and (c) partnering with

  13. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  14. A novel collaborative representation and SCAD based classification method for fibrosis and inflammatory activity analysis of chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaxin; Chen, Tingting; Li, Yan; Zhu, Nenghui; Qiu, Xuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to analysis the fibrosis stage and inflammatory activity grade of chronic hepatitis C, a novel classification method based on collaborative representation (CR) with smoothly clipped absolute deviation penalty (SCAD) penalty term, called CR-SCAD classifier, is proposed for pattern recognition. After that, an auto-grading system based on CR-SCAD classifier is introduced for the prediction of fibrosis stage and inflammatory activity grade of chronic hepatitis C. The proposed method has been tested on 123 clinical cases of chronic hepatitis C based on serological indexes. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines for the classification of fibrosis stage and inflammatory activity grade of chronic hepatitis C.

  15. Facilitating superior chronic disease management through a knowledge-based systems development model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Goldberg, Steve

    2008-01-01

    To date, the adoption and diffusion of technology-enabled solutions to deliver better healthcare has been slow. There are many reasons for this. One of the most significant is that the existing methodologies that are normally used in general for Information and Communications Technology (ICT) implementations tend to be less successful in a healthcare context. This paper describes a knowledge-based adaptive mapping to realisation methodology to traverse successfully from idea to realisation rapidly and without compromising rigour so that success ensues. It is discussed in connection with trying to implement superior ICT-enabled approaches to facilitate superior Chronic Disease Management (CDM).

  16. Accurate Depth of Radiofrequency-Induced Lesions in Renal Sympathetic Denervation Based on a Fine Histological Sectioning Approach in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaoka, Atsushi; Terao, Hisako; Nakamura, Shintaro; Hagiwara, Hitomi; Furukawa, Toshihito; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Sakakura, Kenichi

    2018-02-01

    Ablation lesion depth caused by radiofrequency-based renal denervation (RDN) was limited to radiofrequency-RDN cannot ablate a substantial percentage of renal sympathetic nerves. We aimed to define the true lesion depth achieved with radiofrequency-RDN using a fine sectioning method and to investigate biophysical parameters that could predict lesion depth. Radiofrequency was delivered to 87 sites in 14 renal arteries from 9 farm pigs at various ablation settings: 2, 4, 6, and 9 W for 60 seconds and 6 W for 120 seconds. Electric impedance and electrode temperature were recorded during ablation. At 7 days, 2470 histological sections were obtained from the treated arteries. Maximum lesion depth increased at 2 to 6 W, peaking at 6.53 (95% confidence interval, 4.27-8.78) mm under the 6 W/60 s condition. It was not augmented by greater power (9 W) or longer duration (120 seconds). There were statistically significant tendencies at 6 and 9 W, with higher injury scores in the media, nerves, arterioles, and fat. Maximum lesion depth was positively correlated with impedance reduction and peak electrode temperature (Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.59 and 0.53, respectively). Lesion depth was 6.5 mm for radiofrequency-RDN at 6 W/60 s. The impedance reduction and peak electrode temperature during ablation were closely associated with lesion depth. Hence, these biophysical parameters could provide prompt feedback during radiofrequency-RDN procedures in the clinical setting. © 2018 The Authors.

  17. Impact of preoperative chronic renal failure on liver transplantation: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung PC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peter Chi-Ho Chung,1,2 Hsiu-Pin Chen,1,2 Jr-Rung Lin,3,4 Fu-Chao Liu,1,2 Huang-Ping Yu1,2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2College of Medicine, 3Clinical Informatics and Medical Statistics Research Center, 4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative chronic renal failure (CRF affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. Methods: This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2,931 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of preoperative CRF. Results: The overall estimated survival rate of liver transplantation recipients (LTRs with preoperative CRF was significantly lower than that of patients without preoperative CRF (P=0.0085. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of duration of intensive care unit stay, total hospital stay, bacteremia, postoperative bleeding, and pneumonia during hospitalization. Long-term adverse effects, including cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease, were not different between patients with versus without CRF. Conclusion: These findings suggest that LTRs with preoperative CRF have a higher rate of mortality. Keywords: chronic renal failure, cohort study, survival rate, liver transplantation, population-based study

  18. Evaluation of post mortem stability of porcine skeletal muscle RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, L; Colombo, M; Beretti, F; Russo, V

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of postmortem times on the quality of porcine skeletal muscle total RNA in order to consider the possibility to use postmortem material for gene expression analysis. Samples of Musculus semimembranosus were collected at 20min, 2h, 6h, 24h and 48h postmortem from the left legs of four commercial heavy pigs. Total RNA was analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide and by microfluidic capillary electrophoresis on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer instrument obtaining 28S:18S rRNA peak ratios and RIN values. The average RIN values of the analysed samples were 7.45±0.13, 7.43±0.15, 7.45±0.10, 7.33±0.15 and 3.95±0.58 for the same postmortem times, respectively, indicating that RNA degradation was present at 48h postmortem. In a similar experiment, carried out by other authors on beef cattle muscle total RNA extracted at different postmortem times, RNA was stable up to 8days after death as indicated by intact 28S and 18S rRNA bands. Thus, differences among species or other environmental factors might affect the level of RNA degradation. In the porcine postmortem samples, qualitative assessment of GAPDH transcripts by PCR amplification of different cDNA fragments indicated that postmortem stages did not affect the possibility of analysing this housekeeping gene. Thus, postmortem porcine skeletal muscle can be an useful tissue to obtain gene expression based information.

  19. Community analysis of chronic wound bacteria using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing: impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance B Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonization is hypothesized to play a pathogenic role in the non-healing state of chronic wounds. We characterized wound bacteria from a cohort of chronic wound patients using a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach and assessed the impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prospectively enrolled 24 patients at a referral wound center in Baltimore, MD; sampled patients' wounds by curette; cultured samples under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; and pyrosequenced the 16S rRNA V3 hypervariable region. The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed an average of 10 different bacterial families in wounds--approximately 4 times more than estimated by culture-based analyses. Fastidious anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Clostridiales family XI were among the most prevalent bacteria identified exclusively by 16S rRNA gene-based analyses. Community-scale analyses showed that wound microbiota from antibiotic treated patients were significantly different from untreated patients (p = 0.007 and were characterized by increased Pseudomonadaceae abundance. These analyses also revealed that antibiotic use was associated with decreased Streptococcaceae among diabetics and that Streptococcaceae was more abundant among diabetics as compared to non-diabetics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed complex bacterial communities including anaerobic bacteria that may play causative roles in the non-healing state of some chronic wounds. Our data suggest that antimicrobial therapy alters community structure--reducing some bacteria while selecting for others.

  20. ECG-based 4D-dose reconstruction of cardiac arrhythmia ablation with carbon ion beams: application in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Daniel; Lehmann, H Immo; Eichhorn, Anna; Constantinescu, Anna M; Kaderka, Robert; Prall, Matthias; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Takami, Mitsuru; Thomas, Dierk; Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco; Packer, Douglas L; Graeff, Christian

    2017-08-04

    Noninvasive ablation of cardiac arrhythmia by scanned particle radiotherapy is highly promising, but especially challenging due to cardiac and respiratory motion. Irradiations for catheter-free ablation in intact pigs were carried out at the GSI Helmholtz Center in Darmstadt using scanned carbon ions. Here, we present real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) data to estimate time-resolved (4D) delivered dose. For 11 animals, surface ECGs and temporal structure of beam delivery were acquired during irradiation. R waves were automatically detected from surface ECGs. Pre-treatment ECG-triggered 4D-CT phases were synchronized to the R-R interval. 4D-dose calculation was performed using GSI's in-house 4D treatment planning system. Resulting dose distributions were assessed with respect to coverage (D95 and V95), heterogeneity (HI  =  D5-D95) and normal tissue exposure. Final results shown here were performed offline, but first calculations were started shortly after irradiation The D95 for TV and PTV was above 95% for 10 and 8 out of 11 animals, respectively. HI was reduced for PTV versus TV volumes, especially for some of the animals targeted at the atrioventricular junction, indicating residual interplay effects due to cardiac motion. Risk structure exposure was comparable to static and 4D treatment planning simulations. ECG-based 4D-dose reconstruction is technically feasible in a patient treatment-like setting. Further development of the presented approach, such as real-time dose calculation, may contribute to safe, successful treatments using scanned ion beams for cardiac arrhythmia ablation.

  1. ECG-based 4D-dose reconstruction of cardiac arrhythmia ablation with carbon ion beams: application in a porcine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Daniel; Immo Lehmann, H.; Eichhorn, Anna; Constantinescu, Anna M.; Kaderka, Robert; Prall, Matthias; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Takami, Mitsuru; Thomas, Dierk; Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco; Packer, Douglas L.; Graeff, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive ablation of cardiac arrhythmia by scanned particle radiotherapy is highly promising, but especially challenging due to cardiac and respiratory motion. Irradiations for catheter-free ablation in intact pigs were carried out at the GSI Helmholtz Center in Darmstadt using scanned carbon ions. Here, we present real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) data to estimate time-resolved (4D) delivered dose. For 11 animals, surface ECGs and temporal structure of beam delivery were acquired during irradiation. R waves were automatically detected from surface ECGs. Pre-treatment ECG-triggered 4D-CT phases were synchronized to the R-R interval. 4D-dose calculation was performed using GSI’s in-house 4D treatment planning system. Resulting dose distributions were assessed with respect to coverage (D95 and V95), heterogeneity (HI  =  D5-D95) and normal tissue exposure. Final results shown here were performed offline, but first calculations were started shortly after irradiation The D95 for TV and PTV was above 95% for 10 and 8 out of 11 animals, respectively. HI was reduced for PTV versus TV volumes, especially for some of the animals targeted at the atrioventricular junction, indicating residual interplay effects due to cardiac motion. Risk structure exposure was comparable to static and 4D treatment planning simulations. ECG-based 4D-dose reconstruction is technically feasible in a patient treatment-like setting. Further development of the presented approach, such as real-time dose calculation, may contribute to safe, successful treatments using scanned ion beams for cardiac arrhythmia ablation.

  2. Tailored implementation of evidence-based practice for patients with chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wensing

    Full Text Available When designing interventions and policies to implement evidence based healthcare, tailoring strategies to the targeted individuals and organizations has been recommended. We aimed to gather insights into the ideas of a variety of people for implementing evidence-based practice for patients with chronic diseases, which were generated in five European countries.A qualitative study in five countries (Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, United Kingdom was done, involving overall 115 individuals. A purposeful sample of four categories of stakeholders (healthcare professionals, quality improvement officers, healthcare purchasers and authorities, and health researchers was involved in group interviews in each of the countries to generate items for improving healthcare in different chronic conditions per country: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, depression in elderly people, multi-morbidity, obesity. A disease-specific standardized list of determinants of practice in these conditions provided the starting point for these groups. The content of the suggested items was categorized in a pre-defined framework of 7 domains and specific themes in the items were identified within each domain.The 115 individuals involved in the study generated 812 items, of which 586 addressed determinants of practice. These largely mapped onto three domains: individual health professional factors, patient factors, and professional interactions. Few items addressed guideline factors, incentives and resources, capacity of organizational change, or social, political and legal factors. The relative numbers of items in the different domains were largely similar across stakeholder categories within each of the countries. The analysis identified 29 specific themes in the suggested items across countries.The type of suggestions for improving healthcare practice was largely similar across different stakeholder groups, mainly addressing healthcare

  3. Chronic headache and comorbidities: a two-phase, population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ariovaldo; Costa, Esther Coelho; Gomes, João Bosco; Leite, Frederico Motta; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; Vasconcelos, Luiz Paulo; Krymchantowski, Abouch; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking. To estimate the 1-year prevalence of CDH, as well as the presence of associated psychiatric and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comorbidities, on the entire population of a city representative of the rural area of Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based, 2-phase study. In the first phase, health agents interviewed all individuals older than 10 years, in a rural area of Brazil. In the second stage, all individuals who reported headaches on 4 or more days per week were then evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. CDH were classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). Medication overuse headache was diagnosed, as per the ICHD-2, after detoxification trials. Psychiatric comorbidities and TMD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV and on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders criteria, respectively. A total of 1631 subjects participated in the direct interviews. Of them, 57 (3.6%) had CDH. Chronic migraine was the most common of the CDH (21, 36.8%). Chronic tension-type headache (10, 17.5%), medication overuse headache (13, 22.8%) and probable medication overuse headache (10, 17.5%) were also common. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 38 (67.3%) of the CDH subjects. TMD were seen in 33 (58.1)% of them. The prevalence of CDH in the rural area of Brazil is similar to what has been reported in previous studies. A significant proportion of them have psychiatric comorbidities and/or TMD. In this sample, comorbidities were as frequent as reported in convenience samples from tertiary headache centers.

  4. Chronic Musculoskeletal Disabilities following Snake Envenoming in Sri Lanka: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subashini Jayawardana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite is a major public health problem in agricultural communities in the tropics leading to acute local and systemic impairments with resultant disabilities. Snakebite related long-term musculoskeletal disabilities have been a neglected area of research. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study in an agricultural community to describe the chronic musculoskeletal disabilities of snake envenoming.A sample representative of residents of a single district in a region of high incidence of snake envenoming was recruited to identify ever snakebite victims. They were evaluated for chronic musculoskeletal disabilities that had developed immediately or within four weeks after the snakebite and persisted over three months. In-depth interviews, validated musculoskeletal functional assessment criteria and specialists' examinations were utilised. Among the 816 victims, 26 (3.2%, 95% confidence interval: 2.2-4.6% had musculoskeletal disabilities, persisting on average for 13.4 years (SD = 14.4. The disabilities were mostly in lower limbs (61.5% and ranged from swelling (34.6%, muscle wasting (46.1%, reduced motion (61.5%, reduced muscle power (50%, impaired balance (26.9%, chronic non-healing ulcers (3.85%, abnormal gait (3.85%, fixed deformities (19.2% to amputations (15.4%. Based on disability patterns, six snakebite-related musculoskeletal syndromes were recognised. The offending snakes causing disabilities were cobra (30.8%, Russell's viper (26.9% and hump-nosed viper (7.7%. Cobra bites manifested muscle wasting (87.5%, reduced muscle power (87.5%, joint stiffness (62.5% and deformities (37.5% while viper bites manifested impaired balance (42.8%, pain (71.4% and swelling (71.4%.Snakebite envenoming is associated with considerable long-term musculoskeletal disabilities. Facilities for specialized care and rehabilitation need to be established in high risk areas.

  5. porcine anaesthesia for advanced trauma operative management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2008-09-01

    Sep 1, 2008 ... 120. PORCINE ANAESTHESIA FOR ADVANCED TRAUMA OPERATIVE. MANAGEMENT (ATOM). H. BADDOO, F. AHIAKU, E. FORDJUOR, I. WULFF, D. AKUOKU and D. KWAMI. Department of Anaesthesia, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana. Author for correspondence: Dr Henry Baddoo.

  6. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...

  7. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis | Onawunmi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1977) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Experimentally induced Porcine Coccidiosis. OA Onawunmi. Abstract. No abstract.

  8. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.18 Porcine... purposes as seed stock and included in the breeding herd; and (c) a market hog, slaughtered by the producer...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The... purposes as seedstock and included in the breeding herd; and (c) As a market hog, slaughtered by the...

  10. Autonomic control of vasomotion in the porcine coronary circulation during treadmill exercise: evidence for feed-forward beta-adrenergic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); R. Stubenitsky (René); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractTo date, no studies have investigated coronary vasomotor control of myocardial O2 delivery (MDO2) and its modulation by the autonomic nervous system in the porcine heart during treadmill exercise. We studied 8 chronically instrumented swine under resting

  11. A randomized trial of telephone-based motivational interviewing for adolescent chronic headache with medication overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Hayes, John; Pakalnis, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Nearly 2% of youths suffer from chronic migraine or chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). A contributing factor in approximately 20%-50% of these youths is medication overuse, which involves taking analgesics three or more times per week for three months. The objective of this study was to test motivational interviewing (MI) as an approach to promote adherence to recommendations regarding not only analgesic overuse but also other aspects of treatment plans. A randomized controlled trial was conducted comparing the experimental condition (standard of care clinic-based treatment with supplemental MI phone calls; N = 24) to a control condition (standard of care clinic-based treatment without these supplemental MI phone calls; N = 23). Four months after enrollment, a research assistant who was blinded to study condition telephoned adolescents inquiring about headache frequency, headache severity, and disability. Headache frequency was lower in the experimental condition versus control condition for those with relatively lower initial levels of headache frequency. In contrast, we did not find greater improvement in headache severity and disability for the experimental condition relative to the control condition. Our findings provided some preliminary, albeit limited, support for MI as an approach to improve outcomes for adolescent medication-overuse headache (MOH).

  12. The impact of multiple chronic diseases on ambulatory care use; a population based study in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Muggah, Elizabeth; Graves, Erin; Bennett, Carol; Manuel, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of multiple chronic diseases is increasing and is a common problem for primary health care providers. This study sought to determine the patient and health system burden of multiple chronic diseases among adults in Ontario, Canada, with a focus on the ambulatory health care system (outpatient primary health care and specialist services). Methods This population-based study used linked health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. Individuals, aged 20 year...

  13. Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: A Virtue Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Han; McMahon, Brian T; Hawley, Carolyn; Brickham, Dana; Gonzalez, Rene; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-03-01

    Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) is an area of study where a positive psychology perspective, especially the study of virtues and character strengths, can be implemented within the rehabilitation framework. A carefully developed theory to guide future interdisciplinary research is now timely. A traditional literature review between philosophy and rehabilitation psychology was conducted in order to develop a virtue-based psychosocial adaptation theory, merging important perspectives from the fields of rehabilitation and positive psychology. The virtue-based psychosocial adaptation model (V-PAM) to CID is proposed in the present study. The model involves five qualities or constructs: courage, practical wisdom, commitment to action, integrity and emotional transcendence. Each of these components of virtue contributes to an understanding of psychosocial adaptation. The present study addresses the implications and applications of V-PAM that will advance this understanding.

  14. Similarities in the immunoglobulin response and VH gene usage in rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to porcine hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borie Dominic C

    2006-03-01

    not been previously identified, and encodes xenoantibodies at later time points post-transplant. Sequencing of IgG clones revealed increased usage of the monkey germline progenitor most similar to human IGHV3-11 and the onset of mutations. Conclusion The small number of IGVH genes encoding xenoantibodies to porcine hepatocytes in non-human primates and humans is highly conserved. Rhesus monkeys are an appropriate preclinical model for testing novel reagents such as those developed using structure-based drug design to target and deplete antibodies to porcine xenografts.

  15. Topical therapies in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis: an evidence-based review with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke; Hoy, Monica; Schlosser, Rodney J; Harvey, Richard J; Welch, Kevin C; Lund, Valerie; Smith, Timothy L

    2013-04-01

    Topical therapies have become an integral component in the management plan for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Several topical therapy strategies have been evaluated, but a formal comprehensive evaluation of the evidence has never been performed. The purpose of this article is to provide an evidence-based approach for the utilization of topical therapies in the management of CRS. A systematic review of the literature was performed and the guidelines for development of an evidence-based review with recommendations were followed. Study inclusion criteria were: adult population >18 years old; chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) based on published diagnostic criteria; and clearly defined primary clinical end-point. We focused on reporting higher-quality studies (level 2b or higher), but reported on lower-level studies if the topic contained insufficient evidence. We excluded drug-eluting spacer and stent therapy from this review. This review identified and evaluated the literature on 5 topical therapy strategies for CRS: saline irrigation, topical steroid, topical antibiotic, topical antifungal, and topical alternatives (surfactant, manuka honey, and xylitol irrigations). Based on the available evidence, sinonasal saline irrigation and standard topical nasal steroid therapy are recommended in the topical treatment of CRS. Nonstandard (off-label) topical sinonasal steroid therapies can be an option for managing CRS. The evidence recommends against the use of topical antifungal therapy and topical antibiotic therapy delivered using nebulized and spray techniques in routine cases of CRS. There is insufficient clinical research to provide recommendations for alternative therapies or topical antibiotic therapy delivered using other delivery methods (eg, irrigations). © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. Improved methods for chronic light-based motor mapping in mice: automated movement tracking with accelerometers, and chronic EEG recording in a bilateral thin-skull preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silasi, Gergely; Boyd, Jamie D; Ledue, Jeff; Murphy, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic stimulation of the mouse cortex can be used to generate motor maps that are similar to maps derived from electrode-based stimulation. Here we present a refined set of procedures for repeated light-based motor mapping in ChR2-expressing mice implanted with a bilateral thinned-skull chronic window and a chronically implanted electroencephalogram (EEG) electrode. Light stimulation is delivered sequentially to over 400 points across the cortex, and evoked movements are quantified on-line with a three-axis accelerometer attached to each forelimb. Bilateral maps of forelimb movement amplitude and movement direction were generated at weekly intervals after recovery from cranial window implantation. We found that light pulses of ~2 mW produced well-defined maps that were centered approximately 0.7 mm anterior and 1.6 mm lateral from bregma. Map borders were defined by sites where light stimulation evoked EEG deflections, but not movements. Motor maps were similar in size and location between mice, and maps were stable over weeks in terms of the number of responsive sites, and the direction of evoked movements. We suggest that our method may be used to chronically assess evoked motor output in mice, and may be combined with other imaging tools to assess cortical reorganization or sensory-motor integration.

  17. A population-based cohort study on chronic pain: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Grønbæk, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera Irina

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were 2-fold: (1) to investigate the consequences of opioid use in individuals with chronic pain in the Danish population, and (2) to investigate the development of and recovery from chronic pain from 2000 to 2005.......The aims of this study were 2-fold: (1) to investigate the consequences of opioid use in individuals with chronic pain in the Danish population, and (2) to investigate the development of and recovery from chronic pain from 2000 to 2005....

  18. Barrier Functionality of Porcine and Bovine Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Nakhlband

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, isolated cell based blood-brain barrier (BBB models have been widely used for brain drug delivery and targeting, due to their relatively proper bioelectrical and permeability properties. However, primary cultures of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs isolated from different species vary in terms of bioelectrical and permeability properties. Methods: To pursue this, in the current investigation, primary porcine and bovine BCECs (PBCECs and BBCECs, respectively were isolated and used as an in vitro BBB model. The bioelectrical and permeability properties were assessed in BCECs co-cultured with C6 cells with/without hydrocortisone (550 nM. The bioelectrical properties were further validated by means of the permeability coefficients of transcellular and paracellular markers. Results: The primary PBCECs displayed significantly higher trans-endothelial electrical resistance (~900 W.cm2 than BBCECs (~700 W.cm2 - both co-cultured with C6 cells in presence of hydrocortisone. Permeability coefficients of propranolol/diazepam and mannitol/sucrose in PBCECs were ~21 and ~2 (×10-6 cm.sec-1, where these values for BBCECs were ~25 and ~5 (×10-6 cm.sec-1. Conclusion: Upon our bioelectrical and permeability findings, both models display discriminative barrier functionality but porcine BCECs seem to provide a better platform than bovine BCECs for drug screening and brain targeting.

  19. Computer-based interactive health communications for people with chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey LM

    2014-04-01

    regimens designed to both treat and manage CDs. However, it is important to recognize that the technological development and effective implementation of an ICHA is a complex multidisciplinary operation that needs to take into account the needs of the various stakeholders as well as making use of the most suitable technology. Keywords: chronic disease, computer-based, interactive health communication

  20. Development of disaster pamphlets based on health needs of patients with chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Emi; Mori, Kikuko; Kaji, Hidesuke; Nonami, Yoko; Fukano, Chika; Kayano, Tomonori; Kawada, Terue; Kimura, Yukari; Yasui, Kumiko; Ueki, Hiroko; Ugai, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a pamphlet that would enable patients with diabetes, rheumatic diseases, chronic respiratory disease, and dialysis treatment to be aware of changes in their physical conditions at an early stage of a disaster, cope with these changes, maintain self-care measures, and recover their health. Illness-specific pamphlets were produced based on disaster-related literature, news articles, surveys of victims of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster and Typhoon Tokage, and other sources. Each pamphlet consisted of seven sections-each section includes items common to all illnesses as well as items specific to each illness. The first section, "Physical Self-Care", contains a checklist of 18 common physical symptoms as well as symptoms specific to each illness, and goes on to explain what the symptoms may indicate and what should be done about them. The main aim of the "Changes in Mental Health Conditions" section is to detect posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at an early stage. The section "Preventing the Deterioration of Chronic Illnesses" is designed to prevent the worsening of each illness through the provision of information on cold prevention, adjustment to the living environment, and ways of coping with stress. In the sections, "Medication Control" and "Importance of Having Medical Examinations", spaces are provided to list medications currently being used and details of the hospital address, in order to ensure the continued use of medications. The section, "Preparing for Evacuations" gives a list of everyday items and medical items needed to be prepared for a disaster. Finally, the "Methods of Contact in an Emergency" section provides details of how to use the voicemail service. The following content-specific to each illness also was explained in detail: (1) for diabetes, complications arising from the deterioration of the illness, attention to nutrition, and insulin management; (2) for rheumatic diseases, a checklist of

  1. Predialysis chronic kidney disease correlates with increased risk of pyogenic liver abscess: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan appears to be much higher than that in western countries. However, little is known about the incidence of pyogenic liver abscess among patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease. The objective of this study was to assess the association between predialysis chronic kidney disease and the risk of pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan. This population-based, retrospective, cohort study was conducted to analyse the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 81118 subjects aged 20-84 years with newly diagnosed chronic kidney disease as the predialysis chronic kidney disease group since 2000-2010, and 81118 randomly selected subjects without chronic kidney disease as the nonchronic kidney disease group. The predialysis chronic kidney disease group and the nonchronic kidney disease group were matched with sex, age and comorbidities. The incidence of pyogenic liver abscess at the end of 2013 was calculated in both groups. Subjects who currently received dialysis therapy before the endpoint were excluded from the study. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of pyogenic liver abscess associated with predialysis chronic kidney disease and other comorbidities including alcohol-related disease, biliary stone, chronic liver disease and diabetes mellitus. The overall incidence of pyogenic liver abscess was 1·65-fold higher in the predialysis chronic kidney disease group than that in the nonchronic kidney disease group (1·38 vs. 0·83 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 1·59, 1·71). After adjustment for covariables, the adjusted HR of pyogenic liver abscess was 1·51(95% CI 1·30, 1·76) for the predialysis chronic kidney disease group, comparing with the nonchronic kidney disease group. In addition, the adjusted HR would increase to 3·31 (95% CI 2·61, 4·19) for subjects with predialysis chronic

  2. Managing inadequate responses to frontline treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: a case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixby, Dale L

    2013-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib are the standard of care for treating patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Compared with interferon-based treatment, the previous standard of care, imatinib is associated with significantly higher cytogenetic response rates and prolonged overall survival. Nilotinib and dasatinib, both newer and more potent TKIs, significantly improve cytogenetic and molecular response rates compared with imatinib. Despite significant advances in CML treatment enabled by the TKIs, a fraction of patients who receive frontline treatment with a TKI demonstrate inadequate response. The reasons for this vary, but in many cases, inadequate response can be attributed to non-adherence to the treatment regimen, intolerance to the drug, intrinsic or acquired resistance to the drug, or a combination of reasons. More often than not, strategies to improve response necessitate a change in treatment plan, either a dose adjustment or a switch to an alternate drug, particularly in the case of drug intolerance or drug resistance. Improved physician-patient communication and patient education are effective strategies to address issues relating to adherence and intolerance. Because inadequate response to TKI treatment correlates with poor long-term outcomes, it is imperative that patients who experience intolerance or who fail to achieve appropriate responses are carefully evaluated so that appropriate treatment modifications can be made to maximize the likelihood of positive long-term outcome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Chronic Childhood Trauma, Mental Health, Academic Achievement, and School-Based Health Center Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Satu; Chapman, Susan; Spetz, Joanne; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-09-01

    Children and adolescents exposed to chronic trauma have a greater risk for mental health disorders and school failure. Children and adolescents of minority racial/ethnic groups and those living in poverty are at greater risk of exposure to trauma and less likely to have access to mental health services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be one strategy to decrease health disparities. Empirical studies between 2003 and 2013 of US pediatric populations and of US SBHCs were included if research was related to childhood trauma's effects, mental health care disparities, SBHC mental health services, or SBHC impact on academic achievement. Eight studies show a significant risk of mental health disorders and poor academic achievement when exposed to childhood trauma. Seven studies found significant disparities in pediatric mental health care in the US. Nine studies reviewed SBHC mental health service access, utilization, quality, funding, and impact on school achievement. Exposure to chronic childhood trauma negatively impacts school achievement when mediated by mental health disorders. Disparities are common in pediatric mental health care in the United States. SBHC mental health services have some showed evidence of their ability to reduce, though not eradicate, mental health care disparities. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  4. Onset of Celiac Disease after Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C with Interferon Based Triple Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients treated with interferon (IFN based therapies may develop exacerbation of autoimmune disease. We herein present the case of a 53-year-old female patient who developed celiac disease (CD as a result of triple therapy (interferon, ribavirin, and boceprevir for chronic HCV. Case. 53-year-old Caucasian female with past medical history of IV drug abuse was referred for abnormal LFTs. Laboratory data showed HCV RNA of 4,515,392 IU/mL, HCV genotype 1a, with normal LFTs. She was treated with 4 weeks of pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, followed by triple therapy using boceprevir for a total of 28 weeks. Approximately 4 weeks after initiation of triple therapy patient developed loose nonbloody bowel movements and was also found to have anemia. Biopsies from first and second portions of the duodenum were consistent with CD. The patient was treated with a gluten-free diet. Her intestinal symptoms improved and the hemoglobin returned to normal. Conclusion. Chronic HCV patients being treated with interferon alfa can develop celiac disease during or after therapy. For patients with positive autoantibodies, all-oral-IFN-free regimens should be considered. Celiac disease should be considered in patients who develop CD-like symptoms while on and shortly after cessation of interferon alfa therapy.

  5. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 3: Porcine islet product manufacturing and release testing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayat, Gina R; Gazda, Lawrence S; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Hering, Bernhard J; Hosking, Peter; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Rajotte, Ray V

    2016-01-01

    In the 2009 IXA consensus, the requirements for the quality and control of manufacturing of porcine islet products were based on the U.S. regulatory framework where the porcine islet products fall within the definition of somatic cell therapy under the statutory authority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, porcine islet products require pre-market approval as a biologic product under the Public Health Services Act and they meet the definition of a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Thus, they are subject to applicable provisions of the law and as such, control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, safety of porcine islet products, and characterization of porcine islet products must be met before proceeding to clinical trials. In terms of control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, the manufacturing facility must be in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines appropriate for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials. Sponsors intending to conduct a Phase 1/2 trial of islet xenotransplantation products must be able to demonstrate the safety of the product through the establishment of particular quality assurance and quality control procedures. All materials (including animal source and pancreas) used in the manufacturing process of the porcine islet products must be free of adventitious agents. The final porcine islet product must undergo tests for the presence of these adventitious agents including sterility, mycoplasma (if they are cultured), and endotoxin. Assessments of the final product must include the safety specifications mentioned above even if the results are not available until after release as these data would be useful for patient diagnosis and treatment if necessary. In addition, a plan of action must be in place for patient notification and treatment in case the

  6. Effect of national schistosomiasis control programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control...... Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi...... and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood...

  7. Effectiveness of a home-based physical therapy program in patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SÎRBU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To demonstrate the effectiveness of a home-based physical therapy program on pain, spine mobility and quality of daily activities in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP. We also want to show that patients who undergo this program decreased their intake in analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Methods: 18 patients with chronic low back pain were assessed with the following tests: VAS pain scale, Schober’s test and Rolland-Morris questionnaire. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID consumption was recorded. Over a period of six months all subjects participated in a 45 minutes home-based physical therapy program, three times per week. Before starting this intervention all patients were instructed and exercises were demonstrated in front of them by a physical therapist. Moreover, they received written brochures in order to exercise correctly at home. Follow-up examinations took place at baseline and six months later. Results: We obtained significant differences between pre- and post-intervention assessments of pain (p=0.001, lumbar flexion (p=0.0001 and functional status (p=0.0005 in our group. Moreover, the number of patients who were taken analgesics decreased from 7 (39% to 5 patients (28%. Likewise the number of patients who were taken anti-inflammatory drugs decreased from 11 (61% to 8 (44%. Conclusion: The home-based rehabilitation program was effective in improving the ranges of active lumbar flexion and in decreasing the physical disability caused by low back pain, as well as in reducing the levels of pain. We note that a larger number of patients have given up to the intake of NSAIDs comparative to those who have given up to analgesics.

  8. High efficient differentiation of functional hepatocytes from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ao

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte transplantation is considered to be a promising therapy for patients with liver diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide an unlimited source for the generation of functional hepatocytes. In this study, we generated iPSCs from porcine ear fibroblasts (PEFs by overexpressing Sox2, Klf4, Oct4, and c-Myc (SKOM, and developed a novel strategy for the efficient differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from porcine iPSCs by following the processes of early liver development. The differentiated cells displayed the phenotypes of hepatocytes, exhibited classic hepatocyte-associated bio-functions, such as LDL uptake, glycogen storage and urea secretion, as well as possessed the metabolic activities of cytochrome P-450 (CYP 3A and 2C. Furthermore, we compared the hepatocyte differentiation efficacy of our protocol with another published method, and the results demonstrated that our differentiation strategy could significantly improve the generation of morphological and functional hepatocyte-like cells from porcine iPSCs. In conclusion, this study establishes an efficient method for in vitro generation of functional hepatocytes from porcine iPSCs, which could represent a promising cell source for preclinical testing of cell-based therapeutics for liver failure and for pharmacological applications.

  9. Morphological assessment of sucrose preservation for porcine heart valves.

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, P J; Olsen, E G; Ross, D N

    1982-01-01

    Porcine aortic valves stored in various concentrations of sucrose (50-80%) for up to 52 weeks were examined both histologically and by electron microscopy. The valves were compared with porcine aortic valves stored in a nutrient and antibiotic medium for 12 weeks. Overall preservation was better in those porcine valves stored in sucrose solution than in nutrient and antibiotic medium, the best preservation being in 50% sucrose. Despite wide separation of collagen at that concentration seen on...

  10. Morphogenesis and proliferative rule of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenhui; Dai, Xianjin; Ye, Cuifang; Li, Yuntian; Wang, Li; Hu, Yang

    2016-12-01

    To gain a better understanding of the replication, proliferation and infection characteristics of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), this study established a cell model of IECs infected with the Chongqing (CQ) strain of TGEV. The morphogenesis and proliferative rule of TGEV in porcine IECs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence assays and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Observations under the TEM indicated that the enveloped viral particles were roughly spherical, with diameters of between 80 and 120nm. The virions entered porcine IECs by membrane fusion and the mature viruses in the vacuoles were transported to the cell membrane before release. The results also showed that from 0 to 12h after TGEV infection of porcine IECs, the intracellular viral RNA content did not change significantly. Logarithmic growth occurred from 12 to 36h, after which it gradually decreased. Moreover, the extracellular RNA content began to rise at 24h after inoculation and then reduced gradually at approximately 48h. This study provided a theoretical foundation for further study on the infection characteristics of TGEV in target cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacist Web-Based Training Program on Medication Use in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Impact on Knowledge, Skills, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legris, Marie-eve; Seguin, Noemie Charbonneau; Desforges, Katherine; Sauve, Patricia; Lord, Anne; Bell, Robert; Berbiche, Djamal; Desrochers, Jean-Francois; Lemieux, Jean-Philippe; Morin-Belanger, Claudia; Paradis, Francois Ste-Marie; Lalonde, Lyne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are multimorbid elderly at high risk of drug-related problems. A Web-based training program was developed based on a list of significant drug-related problems in CKD patients requiring a pharmaceutical intervention. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of the program on community…

  12. Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Chronic Tic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro S. De Nadai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much progress has been made in pharmacotherapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and chronic tic disorders (CTDs. What were previously considered relatively intractable conditions now have an array of efficacious medicinal (and psychosocial interventions available at clinicians' disposal, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, atypical antipsychotics, and alpha-2 agonists. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence base for pharmacotherapy with pediatric OCD and CTDs with regard to efficacy, tolerability, and safety, and to put this evidence in the context of clinical management in integrated behavioral healthcare. While there is no single panacea for these disorders, there are a variety of medications that provide considerable relief for children with these disabling conditions.

  13. Evidence-Based Pharmacotherapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Chronic Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Storch, Eric A.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in pharmacotherapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and chronic tic disorders (CTDs). What were previously considered relatively intractable conditions now have an array of efficacious medicinal (and psychosocial) interventions available at clinicians’ disposal, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, atypical antipsychotics, and alpha-2 agonists. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence base for pharmacotherapy with pediatric OCD and CTDs with regard to efficacy, tolerability, and safety, and to put this evidence in the context of clinical management in integrated behavioral healthcare. While there is no single panacea for these disorders, there are a variety of medications that provide considerable relief for children with these disabling conditions. PMID:23861643

  14. Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: From Molecular Bases to Practical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ripellino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, in which both cellular and humoral immune responses are involved. The disease is clinically heterogeneous with some patients displaying pure motor form and others also showing a variable degree of sensory dysfunction; disease evolution may also differ from patient to patient, since monophasic, progressive, and relapsing forms are reported. Underlying such clinical variability there is probably a broad spectrum of molecular dysfunctions that are and will be the target of therapeutic strategies. In this review we first explore the biological bases of current treatments and subsequently we focus on the practical management that must also take into account pharmacoeconomic issues.

  15. Economic evaluation of community-based case management of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sabrina S; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla M

    2017-01-01

    was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) from the perspective of the healthcare sector. Costs were valued in British Pounds (£) at price level 2016. Scenario analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted in order to assess uncertainty......Objectives: To analyse the cost effectiveness of community-based case management for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: The study took place in the third largest municipality in Denmark and was conducted as a randomised controlled trial with 12 months...... of follow-up. A total of 150 patients with COPD were randomised into two groups receiving usual care and case management in addition to usual care. Case management included among other things self care proficiency, medicine compliance, and care coordination. Outcome measure for the analysis...

  16. Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Amris, Kirstine; Fisher, Anne G

    2010-01-01

    -report and performance-based assessment of ADL offer distinct but complementary information about ability. The present study, therefore, investigated the applicability of a performance-based measure of ADL ability, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), among 50 women with chronic widespread pain......Functional ability, including the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), is considered a core outcome domain in chronic pain clinical trials and is usually assessed through generic or disease-specific self-report questionnaires. Research, however, indicates that self....... The investigated psychometric properties of the AMPS included discrimination between a sample of healthy women and those with chronic widespread pain, as well as stability when no intervention was provided and sensitivity to change following intervention. Data were obtained based on a repeated measures design...

  17. CD-KES: An Ontology Based Knowledge Education System for Patients with Chronic Diseases and Its Constructing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengkai; Gou, Ling; Wang, Yu; Shang, Yong; Tian, Yu; Li, Jing-Song

    2017-01-01

    Patients' participation plays a crucial role in the management of chronic diseases. Educating patients about their diseases allows patients to self-regulate their daily health conditions more reasonably and effectively. This study focuses on an informative way to develop daily education and guidance among patients. We provide a systematic approach to establish, process, and present the knowledge map of chronic diseases. An ontology technique is used to model clinical knowledge and rules. Rule-based inference service is constructed based on the RETE reasoning algorithm. Several considerations in semantic visualization and interaction are listed as recommendations. A prototype of Chronic Disease Knowledge Education System (CD-KES) based on this approach has been built for diabetes mellitus. With the prototype, comparative evaluations for system performances in knowledge querying and browsing are taken. The results shows the system can help patients to more easily understand medical knowledge and avoid potential negative consequences.

  18. The impact of multiple chronic diseases on ambulatory care use; a population based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggah, Elizabeth; Graves, Erin; Bennett, Carol; Manuel, Douglas G

    2012-12-10

    The prevalence of multiple chronic diseases is increasing and is a common problem for primary health care providers. This study sought to determine the patient and health system burden of multiple chronic diseases among adults in Ontario, Canada, with a focus on the ambulatory health care system (outpatient primary health care and specialist services). This population-based study used linked health administrative data from Ontario, Canada. Individuals, aged 20 years or older, who had a valid health card, were included. Validated case definitions were used to identify persons with at least one of the following nine chronic diseases: diabetes, congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, peripheral vascular disease and end stage renal failure. Prevalence estimates for chronic diseases were calculated for April 1, 2009. Ambulatory physician billing records for the two-year period, April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2010, were used to identify the number of outpatient ambulatory care visits. In 2009, 26.3% of Ontarians had one chronic disease, 10.3% had two diseases, and 5.6% had three or more diseases. Annual mean primary health care use increased significantly with each additional chronic disease. Overall, there were twice as many patient visits to primary health care providers compared to specialists across all chronic disease counts. Among those with multiple diseases, primary health care visits increased with advancing age, while specialist care dropped off. While persons with three or more diseases accounted for a disproportionate share of primary health care visits, the largest number of visits were made by those with no or one chronic disease. The burden of care for persons with multiple chronic diseases is considerable and falls largely on the primary health care provider. However persons with no or one chronic disease are responsible for the largest number of ambulatory health care visits

  19. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    %) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel...... splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....... with α-synuclein in LBs. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine synphilin-1 and isoforms hereof with the future perspective to use the pig as a model for Parkinson's disease. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. The spatial expression of SNCAIP mRNA...

  20. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1994-01-01

    In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine...... and purified to homogeneity three porcine peptides which were subjected to mass spectrometry and sequencing. One peptide was PG 64-69. The second was PG 72-108, as determined by mass spectrometry, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and specific radioimmunoassays. The third had a molecular size of approximately...... PG 72-158 = 9971) was isolated from human pancreas together with small amounts of a peptide corresponding to PG 72-107 amide. Thus, the pancreatic processing of the C-terminal flanking peptide in proglucagon includes the formation of equimolar (to glucagon) amounts of PG 64-69 and PG 72-158 (major...

  1. The ontogeny of the porcine immune system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2009), s. 273-283 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/07/0087; GA ČR GA523/07/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ontogeny of the porcine immune system * swine adaptive immunity * development of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009

  2. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  3. Laparoscopic fixation of biologic mesh at the hiatus with fibrin or polyethylene glycol sealant in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Eric D; Lerdsirisopon, Sopon; Costello, Kevin P; Melman, Lora; Greco, Suellen C; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D; Deeken, Corey R

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the acute and chronic fixation strengths achieved by fibrin or polyethylene glycol (PEG) sealants to secure biologic mesh at the esophageal hiatus in a porcine model. For this study, 32 female domestic pigs were divided into four groups of 8 each. The four groups respectively received acute fibrin sealant, acute PEG sealant, chronic fibrin sealant, and chronic PEG sealant. Laparoscopically, a 5.5 × 8.5-cm piece of Biodesign Surgisis Hiatal Hernia Graft (porcine small intestine submucosa) was oriented with the U-shaped cutout around the gastroesophageal junction and the short axis in the craniocaudal direction to simulate hiatal reinforcement with a biologic mesh. The mesh then was secured with 2 ml of either fibrin sealant or PEG sealant. The pigs in the acute groups were maintained alive for 2 h to allow for complete polymerization of the sealants, and the pigs in the chronic group were maintained alive for 14 days. After the pigs were euthanized, specimens of the mesh-tissue interface were subjected to lap shear testing to determine fixation strength, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides were evaluated for evidence of remodeling. No significant differences were observed between the acute and chronic fixation strengths or the remodeling characteristics of the two sealants. However, fixation strength increased significantly over time for both types of sealant. Evidence of remodeling also was significantly more pronounced in the chronic specimens than in the acute specimens. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using fibrin or PEG sealants to secure biologic mesh at the hiatus in a porcine model.

  4. Web-Based Tools for Text-Based Patient-Provider Communication in Chronic Conditions: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Teja; Grunfeld, Eva; Makuwaza, Tutsirai; Bender, Jacqueline L

    2017-10-27

    Patients with chronic conditions require ongoing care which not only necessitates support from health care providers outside appointments but also self-management. Web-based tools for text-based patient-provider communication, such as secure messaging, allow for sharing of contextual information and personal narrative in a simple accessible medium, empowering patients and enabling their providers to address emerging care needs. The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a systematic search of the published literature and the Internet for Web-based tools for text-based communication between patients and providers; (2) map tool characteristics, their intended use, contexts in which they were used, and by whom; (3) describe the nature of their evaluation; and (4) understand the terminology used to describe the tools. We conducted a scoping review using the MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) and EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database) databases. We summarized information on the characteristics of the tools (structure, functions, and communication paradigm), intended use, context and users, evaluation (study design and outcomes), and terminology. We performed a parallel search of the Internet to compare with tools identified in the published literature. We identified 54 papers describing 47 unique tools from 13 countries studied in the context of 68 chronic health conditions. The majority of tools (77%, 36/47) had functions in addition to communication (eg, viewable care plan, symptom diary, or tracker). Eight tools (17%, 8/47) were described as allowing patients to communicate with the team or multiple health care providers. Most of the tools were intended to support communication regarding symptom reporting (49%, 23/47), and lifestyle or behavior modification (36%, 17/47). The type of health care providers who used tools to communicate with patients were predominantly allied health professionals of various disciplines (30%, 14

  5. Porcine Is a Positional Candidate Gene Associated with Growth and Fat Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Hwan Choi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between Korean and Landrace pigs have revealed a large quantitative trait loci (QTL region for fat deposition in a region (89 cM of porcine chromosome 4 (SSC4. To more finely map this QTL region and identify candidate genes for this trait, comparative mapping of pig and human chromosomes was performed in the present study. A region in the human genome that corresponds to the porcine QTL region was identified in HSA1q21. Furthermore, the LMNA gene, which is tightly associated with fat augmentation in humans, was localized to this region. Radiation hybrid (RH mapping using a Sus scrofa RH panel localized LMNA to a region of 90.3 cM in the porcine genome, distinct from microsatellite marker S0214 (87.3 cM. Two-point analysis showed that LMNA was linked to S0214, SW1996, and S0073 on SSC4 with logarithm (base 10 of odds scores of 20.98, 17.78, and 16.73, respectively. To clone the porcine LMNA gene and to delineate the genomic structure and sequences, including the 3′untranslated region (UTR, rapid amplification of cDNA ends was performed. The coding sequence of porcine LMNA consisted of 1,719 bp, flanked by a 5’UTR and a 3’UTR. Two synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in exons 3 and 7. Association tests showed that the SNP located in exon 3 (A193A was significantly associated with weight at 30 wks (p<0.01 and crude fat content (p<0.05. This association suggests that SNPs located in LMNA could be used for marker-assisted selection in pigs.

  6. Spatio-temporal regulation of circular RNA expression during porcine embryonic brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venø, Morten T; Hansen, Thomas B; Venø, Susanne T; Clausen, Bettina H; Grebing, Manuela; Finsen, Bente; Holm, Ida E; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-11-05

    Recently, thousands of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been discovered in various tissues and cell types from human, mouse, fruit fly and nematodes. However, expression of circRNAs across mammalian brain development has never been examined. Here we profile the expression of circRNA in five brain tissues at up to six time-points during fetal porcine development, constituting the first report of circRNA in the brain development of a large animal. An unbiased analysis reveals a highly complex regulation pattern of thousands of circular RNAs, with a distinct spatio-temporal expression profile. The amount and complexity of circRNA expression was most pronounced in cortex at day 60 of gestation. At this time-point we find 4634 unique circRNAs expressed from 2195 genes out of a total of 13,854 expressed genes. Approximately 20 % of the porcine splice sites involved in circRNA production are functionally conserved between mouse and human. Furthermore, we observe that "hot-spot" genes produce multiple circRNA isoforms, which are often differentially expressed across porcine brain development. A global comparison of porcine circRNAs reveals that introns flanking circularized exons are longer than average and more frequently contain proximal complementary SINEs, which potentially can facilitate base pairing between the flanking introns. Finally, we report the first use of RNase R treatment in combination with in situ hybridization to show dynamic subcellular localization of circRNA during development. These data demonstrate that circRNAs are highly abundant and dynamically expressed in a spatio-temporal manner in porcine fetal brain, suggesting important functions during mammalian brain development.

  7. Interventional techniques in the management of chronic spinal pain: evidence-based practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Mark V; Shah, Rinoo V; Everett, Clifford R; Sehgal, Nalini; McKenzie Brown, Ann Marie; Abdi, Salahadin; Bowman, Richard C; Deer, Timothy R; Datta, Sukdeb; Colson, James D; Spillane, William F; Smith, Howard S; Lucas, Linda F; Burton, Allen W; Chopra, Pradeep; Staats, Peter S; Wasserman, Ronald A; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2005-01-01

    The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain has been reported as 54% to 80%, with as many as 60% of patients continuing to have chronic pain five years or longer after the initial episode. Spinal pain is associated with significant economic, societal, and health impact. Available evidence documents a wide degree of variance in the definition and the practice of interventional pain management. To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the management of chronic spinal pain, with utilization of all types of evidence, applying an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of specialists from academic and clinical practices. A systematic review of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions applied in managing chronic spinal pain by a policy committee. Design consisted of formulation of essentials of guidelines and a series of potential evidence linkages representing conclusions, and statements about relationships between clinical interventions and outcomes. The elements of the guideline preparation process included literature searches, literature synthesis, systematic review, consensus evaluation, open forum presentation, formal endorsement by the Board of Directors of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP), and blinded peer review. Methodologic quality evaluation criteria utilized included AHRQ criteria, QUADAS criteria, and Cochrane review criteria. The designation of levels of evidence was from Level I (conclusive), Level II (strong), Level III (moderate), Level IV (limited), to Level V (indeterminate). The accuracy of facet joint nerve blocks was strong in the diagnosis of lumbar and cervical facet joint pain, whereas, it was moderate in the diagnosis of thoracic facet joint pain. The evidence was strong for lumbar discography, whereas, the evidence was limited for cervical and thoracic discography. The evidence was moderate for transforaminal epidural injections or selective nerve root blocks in

  8. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity among elderly people in Kosovo: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerliu, Naim; Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Ramadani, Naser; Brand, Helmut

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity in the elderly population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including a representative sample of 1890 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (949 men, mean age 73 ± 6 years; 941 women, mean age 74 ± 7 years; response rate: 83%). A structured questionnaire inquired about the presence and the number of self-reported chronic diseases among elderly people, and their access to medical care. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with chronic conditions. In this nationwide population-based sample in Kosovo, 42% of elderly people were unable to access medical care, of whom 88% due to unaffordable costs. About 83% of the elderly people reported at least one chronic condition (63% cardiovascular diseases), and 45% had at least two chronic diseases. In multivariable-adjusted models, factors associated with the presence of chronic conditions and/or multimorbidity were female sex, older age, self-perceived poverty and the inability to access medical care. This study provides important evidence on the magnitude and distribution of chronic conditions among the elderly population of Kosovo. Our findings suggest that, in this sample of elderly people from Kosovo, the oldest-old (especially women) and the poor endure the vast majority of chronic conditions. These findings point to the urgent need to establish a social health insurance scheme including the marginalized segments of elderly people in this transitional country.

  9. Silicon-Based Microfabrication of Free-Floating Neural Probes and Insertion Tool for Chronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schander

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional neural interfaces for multi-channel, high-density recording and electrical stimulation of neural activity in the central nervous system are fundamental tools for neuroscience and medical applications. Especially for clinical use, these electrical interfaces must be stable over several years, which is still a major challenge due to the foreign body response of neural tissue. A feasible solution to reduce this inflammatory response is to enable a free-floating implantation of high-density, silicon-based neural probes to avoid mechanical coupling between the skull and the cortex during brain micromotion. This paper presents our latest development of a reproducible microfabrication process, which allows a monolithic integration of a highly-flexible, polyimide-based cable with a silicon-stiffened neural probe at a high resolution of 1 µm. For a precise and complete insertion of the free-floating probes into the cortex, a new silicon-based, vacuum-actuated insertion tool is presented, which can be attached to commercially available electrode drives. To reduce the electrode impedance and enable safe and stable microstimulation an additional coating with the electrical conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is used. The long-term stability of the presented free-floating neural probes is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The promising results suggest the feasibility of these neural probes for chronic applications.

  10. Symptom-Based Clustering in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Relates to History of Aspirin Sensitivity and Postsurgical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divekar, Rohit; Patel, Neil; Jin, Jay; Hagan, John; Rank, Matthew; Lal, Devyani; Kita, Hirohito; O'Brien, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms burden in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be assessed by interviews or by means of validated tools such as the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). However, when only the total SNOT-22 scores are used, the pattern of symptom distribution and heterogeneity in patient symptoms is lost. To use a standardized symptom assessment tool (SNOT-22) on preoperative symptoms to understand symptom heterogeneity in CRS and to aid in characterization of distinguishing clinical features between subgroups. This was a retrospective review of 97 surgical patients with CRS. Symptom-based clusters were derived on the basis of presurgical SNOT-22 scores using unsupervised analysis and network graphs. Comparison between clusters was performed for clinical and demographic parameters, postsurgical symptom scores, and presence or absence of a history of aspirin sensitivity. Unsupervised analysis reveals coclustering of specific symptoms in the SNOT-22 tool. Using symptom-based clustering, patients with CRS were stratified into severe overall (mean total score, 90.8), severe sinonasal (score, 62), moderate sinonasal (score, 40), moderate nonsinonasal (score, 37) and mild sinonasal (score, 16) clusters. The last 2 clusters were associated with lack of history of aspirin sensitivity. The first cluster had a rapid relapse in symptoms postoperatively, and the last cluster demonstrated minimal symptomatic improvement after surgery. Symptom-based clusters in CRS reveal a distinct grouping of symptom burden that may relate to aspirin sensitivity and treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A population-based cohort study on chronic pain: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Grønbæk, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were 2-fold: (1) to investigate the consequences of opioid use in individuals with chronic pain in the Danish population, and (2) to investigate the development of and recovery from chronic pain from 2000 to 2005. METHODS: Data derived from the Danish Health.......4%, respectively. Increasing age up to 64 years, short education, poor self-rated health, high body mass index, and physical strain at work were predictors of chronic pain. The odds of recovery from chronic pain were almost 4 times higher among individuals not using opioids compared with individuals using opioids....... In addition, use of strong opioids was associated with poor health-related quality of life. Furthermore, the results indicated that individuals with chronic pain using strong opioids pain had a higher risk of death than individuals without chronic pain (HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.03-2.70). However, this study cannot...

  12. A regulatory gene network related to the porcine umami taste receptor (TAS1R1/TAS1R3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Ren, D; Reverter, A; Roura, E

    2016-02-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in the mediation of food choices in mammals. The first porcine taste receptor genes identified, sequenced and characterized, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, were related to the dimeric receptor for umami taste. However, little is known about their regulatory network. The objective of this study was to unfold the genetic network involved in porcine umami taste perception. We performed a meta-analysis of 20 gene expression studies spanning 480 porcine microarray chips and screened 328 taste-related genes by selective mining steps among the available 12,320 genes. A porcine umami taste-specific regulatory network was constructed based on the normalized coexpression data of the 328 genes across 27 tissues. From the network, we revealed the 'taste module' and identified a coexpression cluster for the umami taste according to the first connector with the TAS1R1/TAS1R3 genes. Our findings identify several taste-related regulatory genes and extend previous genetic background of porcine umami taste. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. Mobile Web-based monitoring and coaching: feasibility in chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbi, Marjolijn J; Mak, Sander B; Houtveen, Jan H; Kleiboer, Annet M; van Doornen, Lorenz J P

    2007-12-31

    The Internet can facilitate diary monitoring (experience sampling, ecological momentary assessment) and behavioral coaching. Online digital assistance (ODA) is a generic tool for mobile Web-based use, intended as an adjuvant to face-to-face or Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatment based. A current ODA application was designed to support home-based training of behavioral attack prevention in chronic migraine, focusing on the identification of attack precursors and the support of preventive health behaviour. The aim was to establish feasibility of the ODA approach in terms of technical problems and participant compliance, and ODA acceptability on the basis of ratings of user-friendliness, potential burden, and perceived support of the training for behavioral attack prevention in migraine. ODA combines mobile electronic diary monitoring with direct human online coaching of health behavior according to the information from the diary. The diary contains three parts covering the following: (1) migraine headache and medication use, (2) attack precursors, and (3) self-relaxation and other preventive behavior; in addition, menstruation (assessed in the evening diary) and disturbed sleep (assessed in the morning diary) is monitored. The pilot study consisted of two runs conducted with a total of five women with chronic migraine without aura. ODA was tested for 8.5 days (range 4-12 days) per participant. The first test run with three participants tested 4-5 diary prompts per day. The second run with another three participants (including one subject who participated in both runs) tested a reduced prompting scheme (2-3 prompts per day) and minor adaptations to the diary. Online coaching was executed twice daily on workdays. ODA feasibility was established on the basis of acceptable data loss (1.2% due to the personal digital assistant; 5.6% due to failing Internet transmission) and good participant compliance (86.8% in the second run). Run 1 revealed some annoyance with

  14. Efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management - An overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, W; Petzke, F; Fitzcharles, M A

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis has already entered mainstream medicine in some countries. This systematic review (SR) aimed at evaluating the efficacy, acceptability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management. Qualitative systematic review of SRs of randomized controlled trials with cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management. The Cochrane databases of SRs, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and PubMed were searched for SR published in the period January 2009 to January 2017. Assessment of the methodological quality of SR was performed by the AMSTAR checklist. Out of 748 papers identified, 10 SRs met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality was high in four and moderate in six SRs. There were inconsistent findings of four SRs on the efficacy of cannabis-based medicines in neuropathic pain and of one SR for painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. There were consistent results that there was insufficient evidence of any cannabis-based medicine for pain management in patients with rheumatic diseases (three SRs) and in cancer pain (two SRs). Cannabis-based medicines undoubtedly enrich the possibilities of drug treatment of chronic pain conditions. It remains the responsibility of the health care community to continue to pursue rigorous study of cannabis-based medicines to provide evidence that meets the standard of 21st century clinical care. We provide an overview of systematic reviews on the efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management. There are inconsistent findings of the efficacy of cannabinoids in neuropathic pain and painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. There are inconsistent results on tolerability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for any chronic pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  15. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernanda Dultra; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; da Silva, Graziela Alves; Gomes, Évelim L F Dantas; do Nascimento, Eloisa Sanches Pereira; Alves, Vera Lucia Santos; Stirbulov, Roberto; Costa, Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with the goal of improving the functional capacity and quality of life, as well as maintaining the clinical stability of COPD sufferers. However, not all patients are available for such a program despite discomfort with their condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a home-based PR (HBPR) program on functional ability, quality of life, and respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Patients with COPD according to the Global Initiative of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease were randomized (double-blind) into two groups. One group performed a protocol at home with aerobic and muscle strength exercises and was called the intervention group; the other group received only instructions to perform breathing and stretching exercises, characterizing it as the control group (CG). We assessed the following variables at baseline and 2 months: exercise tolerance (incremental shuttle walk test and upper limb test), respiratory muscle (strength and endurance test), and health-related quality of life (Airways Questionnaire 20). There were no significant changes after the intervention in either of the two groups in exercise tolerance and quality of life. However, the intervention group had improved respiratory endurance compared with the CG, while the CG presented a decrease in the load sustained by the respiratory muscles after the HBPR. A program of HBPR with biweekly supervision (although not enough to provide significant improvements in physical capacity or quality of life) played an important role in maintaining the stability of the clinical features of patients with COPD; the patients had no worsening of symptoms during the intervention period according to the daily log.

  16. An epidemiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A community-based study in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different definitions used for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD preclude getting reliable prevalence estimates. Study objective was to find the prevalence of COPD as per standard Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, risk factors associated, and treatment seeking in adults >30 years. Methodology: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Delhi, among 1200 adults, selected by systematic random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was used to interview all subjects and screen for symptoms of COPD. Postbronchodilator spirometry was done to confirm COPD. Statistical Analysis: Adjusted odds ratio (aOR was calculated by multivariable analysis to examine the association of risk factors with COPD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was developed to assess predictability. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5, 11.9%. Tobacco smoking was the strongest risk factor associated (aOR 9.48; 95% CI 4.22, 14.13 followed by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, occupational exposure, age, and biomass fuel. Each pack-year of smoking increased 15% risk of COPD. Ex-smokers had 63% lesser risk compared to current smokers. Clinical allergy seems to preclude COPD (aOR 0.06; 95% CI 0.02, 0.37. ROC analysis showed 94.38% of the COPD variability can be assessed by this model (sensitivity 57.4%; positive predictive value 93.3%. Only 48% patients were on treatment. Treatment continuation was impeded by its cost. Conclusion: COPD prevalence in the region of Delhi, India, is high, and our case-finding population study identified a high rate of patients who were not on any treatment. Our study adds to creating awareness on the importance of smoking cessation, early diagnosis of COPD, and the need for regular treatment.

  17. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy as a Treatment for Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Laurence; Marks, Elizabeth M; Hallsworth, Christopher A; Schaette, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus is experienced by up to 15% of the population and can lead to significant disability and distress. There is rarely a medical or surgical target and psychological therapies are recommended. We investigated whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) could offer an effective new therapy for tinnitus. This single-site randomized controlled trial compared MBCT to intensive relaxation training (RT) for chronic, distressing tinnitus in adults. Both treatments involved 8 weekly, 120-min sessions focused on either relaxation (RT) or mindfulness meditation (MBCT). Assessments were completed at baseline and at treatment commencement 8 weeks later. The primary outcomes were tinnitus severity (Tinnitus Questionnaire) and psychological distress (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Non-Risk, CORE-NR), 16 weeks after baseline. The analysis utilized a modified intention-to-treat approach. A total of 75 patients were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 39) or RT (n = 36). Both groups showed significant reductions in tinnitus severity and loudness, psychological distress, anxiety, depression, and disability. MBCT led to a significantly greater reduction in tinnitus severity than RT, with a mean difference of 6.3 (95% CI 1.3-11.4, p = 0.016). Effects persisted 6 months later, with a mean difference of 7.2 (95% CI 2.1-2.3, p = 0.006) and a standardized effect size of 0.56 (95% CI 0.16-0.96). Treatment was effective regardless of initial tinnitus severity, duration, or hearing loss. MBCT is effective in reducing tinnitus severity in chronic tinnitus patients compared to intensive RT. It also reduces psychological distress and disability. Future studies should explore the generalizability of this approach and how outcome relates to different aspects of the intervention. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Chronic exposure to carbon monoxide in two elderly patients using a kotatsu, a traditional Japanese charcoal-based heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshinori; Setsu, Koutaro; Takahashi, Tohru; Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Murata, Shiho; Hanihara, Tokiji; Amano, Naoji

    2016-09-01

    We report on two elderly patients with cognitive impairments, for whom chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure was suspected based on elevated carboxyhaemoglobin levels in their serum. On their initial visits, cognitive impairment and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in both patients were compatible with the diagnosis of Alzheimer's-type dementia. However, after discontinuation of the use of a kotatsu, a charcoal-based heater, their serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels normalized and their physical symptoms resolved. Their cognitive function also slightly improved. The causal relationship between physical symptoms and cognitive impairment after chronic CO poisoning is uncertain; however, it is possible that chronic exposure to low CO levels exacerbated the clinical manifestation in our patients. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  20. Chronic Total Occlusion Crossing Approach Based on Plaque Cap Morphology: The CTOP Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Fadi; Jaff, Michael R; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J; Engen, Gwennan D; McGoff, Theresa N; Adams, George; Al-Dadah, Ashraf; Goodney, Philip P; Khawaja, Farhan; Mustapha, Jihad A

    2018-02-01

    To present the chronic total occlusion (CTO) crossing approach based on plaque cap morphology (CTOP) classification system and assess its ability to predict successful lesion crossing. A retrospective analysis was conducted of imaging and procedure data from 114 consecutive symptomatic patients (mean age 69±11 years; 84 men) with claudication (Rutherford category 3) or critical limb ischemia (Rutherford category 4-6) who underwent endovascular interventions for 142 CTOs. CTO cap morphology was determined from a review pf angiography and duplex ultrasonography and classified into 4 types (I, II, III, or IV) based on the concave or convex shape of the proximal and distal caps. Statistically significant differences among groups were found in patients with rest pain, lesion length, and severe calcification. CTOP type II CTOs were most common and type III lesions the least common. Type I CTOs were most likely to be crossed antegrade and had a lower incidence of severe calcification. Type IV lesions were more likely to be crossed retrograde from a tibiopedal approach. CTOP type IV was least likely to be crossed in an antegrade fashion. Access conversion, or need for an alternate access, was commonly seen in types II, III, and IV lesions. Distinctive predictors of access conversion were CTO types II and III, lesion length, and severe calcification. CTOP type I lesions were easiest to cross in antegrade fashion and type IV the most difficult. Lesion length >10 cm, severe calcification, and CTO types II, III, and IV benefited from the addition of retrograde tibiopedal access.

  1. Correntropy-based analysis of respiratory patterns in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Ainara; Sörnmo, Leif; Jané, Raimon; Giraldo, Beatriz F

    2009-01-01

    A correntropy-based technique is proposed for the analysis and characterization of respiratory flow signals in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with both periodic and nonperiodic breathing (PB and nPB), and healthy subjects. Correntropy is a novel similarity measure which provides information on temporal structure and statistical distribution simultaneously. Its properties lend itself to the definition of the correntropy spectral density (CSD). An interesting result from CSD-based spectral analysis is that both the respiratory frequency and modulation frequency can be detected at their original positions in the spectrum without prior demodulation of the flow signal. The respiratory pattern is characterized by a number of spectral parameters extracted from the respiratory and modulation frequency bands. The results show that the power of the modulation frequency band offers excellent performance when classifying CHF patients versus healthy subjects, with an accuracy of 95.3%, and nPB patients versus healthy subjects with 90.7%. The ratio between the power in the modulation and respiration frequency bands provides the best results classifying CHF patients into PB and nPB, with an accuracy of 88.9%.

  2. Correntropy-based spectral characterization of respiratory patterns in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Ainara; Sörnmo, Leif; Jané, Raimon; Giraldo, Beatriz F

    2010-08-01

    A correntropy-based technique is proposed for the characterization and classification of respiratory flow signals in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with periodic or nonperiodic breathing (PB or nPB, respectively) and healthy subjects. The correntropy is a recently introduced, generalized correlation measure whose properties lend themselves to the definition of a correntropy-based spectral density (CSD). Using this technique, both respiratory and modulation frequencies can be reliably detected at their original positions in the spectrum without prior demodulation of the flow signal. Single-parameter classification of respiratory patterns is investigated for three different parameters extracted from the respiratory and modulation frequency bands of the CSD, and one parameter defined by the correntropy mean. The results show that the ratio between the powers in the modulation and respiratory frequency bands provides the best result when classifying CHF patients with either PB or nPB, yielding an accuracy of 88.9%. The correntropy mean offers excellent performance when classifying CHF patients versus healthy subjects, yielding an accuracy of 95.2% and discriminating nPB patients from healthy subjects with an accuracy of 94.4%.

  3. Testing the effectiveness of group-based memory rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie A; Radford, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Memory complaints are common after stroke, yet there have been very few studies of the outcome of memory rehabilitation in these patients. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new manualised, group-based memory training programme. Forty outpatients with a single-stroke history and ongoing memory complaints were enrolled. The six-week course involved education and strategy training and was evaluated using a wait-list crossover design, with three assessments conducted 12 weeks apart. Outcome measures included: tests of anterograde memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: RAVLT; Complex Figure Test) and prospective memory (Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test); the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire and self-report of number of strategies used. Significant training-related gains were found on RAVLT learning and delayed recall and on CAPM informant report. Lower baseline scores predicted greater gains for several outcome measures. Patients with higher IQ or level of education showed more gains in number of strategies used. Shorter time since onset was related to gains in prospective memory, but no other stroke-related variables influenced outcome. Our study provides evidence that a relatively brief, group-based training intervention can improve memory functioning in chronic stroke patients and clarified some of the baseline factors that influence outcome.

  4. Analysis of Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders Based on the Latest Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svechtarov V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the distribution of the most common diagnoses observed in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders, based on the new diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD adopted in 2014. The previous Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD adopted in 1992, consisted of three main groups of eight diagnostic subgroups and is currently transformed into two main groups and twelve subgroups, respectively. All subgroups correspond to the nomenclature of the ICD-10. The new clinical diagnostic indices are also modified. The analysis showed a prevalence of Pain-Related TMD compared with that of intra-articular disorders in ratio 57.89% to 42.10%. In Pain-Related TMD arthralgia was represented in 55% of cases; local myalgia - in 12%, myofascial pain - in 18%, myofascial pain with referral - in 14%, headache attributed to TMD - in 1%. In Intra-articular TMD disc displacement with reduction was found in 23% of the cases, disc displacement with reduction with intermittent locking - in 3%, disc displacement without reduction with limited opening - in 25%, disc displacement without reduction and without limited opening - in 8%. Degenerative diseases were found in 14.28%, and hypermobility and subluxations - in 26.98%. These analyzes differ and can only partly be compared with previous analyzes based on RDC system. The changes in the diagnostic criteria require new clinical studies in order to refine the picture of temporomandibular pathology in accordance with the modern views on the matter.

  5. Evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by BAC-based microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Lisa D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a highly variable disease with life expectancies ranging from months to decades. Cytogenetic findings play an integral role in defining the prognostic significance and treatment for individual patients. Results We have evaluated 25 clinical cases from a tertiary cancer center that have an established diagnosis of CLL and for which there was prior cytogenetic and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH data. We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based microarray designed for the detection of known constitutional genetic syndromes. In 15 of the 25 cases, aCGH detected all copy number imbalances identified by prior cytogenetic and/or FISH studies. For the majority of those not detected, the aberrations were present at low levels of mosaicism. Furthermore, for 15 of the 25 cases, additional abnormalities were detected. Four of those cases had deletions that mapped to intervals implicated in inherited predisposition to CLL. For most cases, aCGH was able to detect abnormalities present in as few as 10% of cells. Although changes in ploidy are not easily discernable by aCGH, results for two cases illustrate the detection of additional copy gains and losses present within a mosaic tetraploid cell population. Conclusions Our results illustrate the successful evaluation of CLL using a microarray optimized for the interrogation of inherited disorders and the identification of alterations with possible relevance to CLL susceptibility.

  6. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...

  7. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2003-01-01

    Genetic studies have demonstrated profound differences between the 'porcine' genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum, versus 'human' and 'bovine' genotypes. The study analysed infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype (CPP-13 isolate) of C. parvum, and compared the results with published...... evidence for the existence of a new species of Cryptosporidium adapted to pigs....

  8. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  9. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Pia H; Bendix, Tom; Manniche, Claus

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model with...... with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP), activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs), physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients.......In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model...

  10. Development of Feeling Better: A web-based pain management programme for children with chronic pain and their parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline M Traynor

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: It is feasible to create an evidence-based and theory driven online self-management intervention to support children with chronic pain and their parents. Service users can be involved in the design and conduct of research in a meaningful way. An exploratory trial to test the feasibility of acceptability of Feeling Better is underway.

  11. Intervention Mapping to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based intervention for chronic pain tailored to individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Young, Sarah R; Johnson, Mallory O; Saag, Michael; Demonte, William; Kerns, Robert; Bair, Matthew J; Kertesz, Stefan; Turan, Janet M; Kilgore, Meredith; Clay, Olivio J; Pekmezi, Dorothy; Davies, Susan

    2018-06-01

    Chronic pain is an important comorbidity among individuals with HIV. Behavioral interventions are widely regarded as evidence-based, efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions for chronic pain in the general population. An accepted principle in behavioral science is that theory-based, systematically-developed behavioral interventions tailored to the unique needs of a target population are most likely to be efficacious. Our aim was to use Intervention Mapping to systematically develop a Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based intervention for chronic pain tailored to individuals with HIV that will improve pain intensity and pain-related functional impairment. Our Intervention Mapping process was informed by qualitative inquiry of 24 patients and seven providers in an HIV primary care clinic. The resulting intervention includes group and one-on-one sessions and peer and staff interventionists. We also developed a conceptual framework that integrates our qualitative findings with SCT-based theoretical constructs. Using this conceptual framework as a guide, our future work will investigate the intervention's impact on chronic pain outcomes, as well as our hypothesized proximal mediators of the intervention's effect.

  12. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about the presence of chronic morbidity in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients at disease onset. Previous studies have been mainly performed in established IA patients or they focus on isolated co-morbid diseases. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic

  13. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Protein phosphorylation can regulate most of the important processes in muscle, such as metabolism and contraction. The postmortem (PM) metabolism and rigor mortis have essential effects on meat quality. In order to identify and characterize the protein phosphorylation events involved...... in meat quality development, a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the porcine muscle within 24h PM using dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. In total 305 unique proteins were identified, including 160...... phosphoproteins with 784 phosphorylation sites. Among these, 184 phosphorylation sites on 93 proteins had their phosphorylation levels significantly changed. The proteins involved in glucose metabolism and muscle contraction were the two largest clusters of phosphoproteins with significantly changed...

  14. Community-based exercise training for people with chronic respiratory and chronic cardiac disease: a mixed-methods evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Renae J; McKeough, Zoe J; Mo, Laura R; Dallimore, Jamie T; Dennis, Sarah M

    2016-01-01

    Renae J McNamara,1,2 Zoe J McKeough,3 Laura R Mo,3 Jamie T Dallimore,4 Sarah M Dennis3 1Physiotherapy Department, 2Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Department, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, 3Discipline of Physiotherapy, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, 4Eastern Sydney Medicare Local, Rosebery, NSW, Australia Background: Poor uptake and adherence are problematic for hospital-based pulmonary and heart failure rehabilitation programs, often because of access difficulties. The aims of th...

  15. A sensitive duplex nanoparticle-assisted PCR assay for identifying porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Liang, Lin; Luo, Yakun; Wang, Guihua; Wang, Chunren; Cui, Yudong; Ai, Xia; Cui, Shangjin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a novel duplex nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoPCR) assay was developed to detect porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). Two pairs of primers were designed based on the conserved region within the N gene of PEDV and TGEV. In a screening of 114 clinical samples from four provinces in China for PEDV and TGEV, 48.2 and 3.5 % of the samples, respectively, tested positive. Under optimized conditions, the duplex nanoPCR assay had a detection limit of 7.6 × 10 1 and 8.5 × 10 1 copies μL -1 for PEDV and TGEV, respectively. The sensitivity of the duplex nanoPCR assay was ten times higher than that of a conventional PCR assay. Moreover, no fragments were amplified when the duplex nanoPCR assay was used to test samples containing other porcine viruses. Our results indicate that the duplex nanoPCR assay described here is useful for the rapid detection of PEDV and TGEV and can be applied in clinical diagnosis.

  16. Interventional techniques: evidence-based practice guidelines in the management of chronic spinal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Mark V; Trescot, Andrea M; Datta, Sukdeb; Schultz, David M; Hansen, Hans C; Abdi, Salahadin; Sehgal, Nalini; Shah, Rinoo V; Singh, Vijay; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Patel, Vikram B; Buenaventura, Ricardo M; Colson, James D; Cordner, Harold J; Epter, Richard S; Jasper, Joseph F; Dunbar, Elmer E; Atluri, Sairam L; Bowman, Richard C; Deer, Timothy R; Swicegood, John R; Staats, Peter S; Smith, Howard S; Burton, Allen W; Kloth, David S; Giordano, James; Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2007-01-01

    The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation by specialists from academic and clinical practices. Study design consisted of formulation of essentials of guidelines and a series of potential evidence linkages representing conclusions and statements about relationships between clinical interventions and outcomes. The elements of the guideline preparation process included literature searches, literature synthesis, systematic review, consensus evaluation, open forum presentation, and blinded peer review. Methodologic quality evaluation criteria utilized included the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) criteria, Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) criteria, and Cochrane review criteria. The designation of levels of evidence was from Level I (conclusive), Level II (strong), Level III (moderate), Level IV (limited), to Level V (indeterminate). Among the diagnostic interventions, the accuracy of facet joint nerve blocks is strong in the diagnosis of lumbar and cervical facet joint pain, whereas, it is moderate in the diagnosis of thoracic facet joint pain. The evidence is strong for lumbar discography, whereas, the evidence is limited for cervical and thoracic discography. The evidence for transforaminal epidural injections or selective nerve root blocks in the preoperative evaluation of patients with negative or inconclusive imaging studies is moderate. The evidence for diagnostic sacroiliac joint injections is moderate. The evidence for therapeutic lumbar intraarticular facet injections is moderate for short-term and long-term improvement, whereas, it is

  17. Quantifying the impact of transient joint symptoms, chronic joint symptoms, and arthritis: a population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H

    2009-10-15

    To estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, chronic joint symptoms (pain, aching, stiffness, or swelling on most days for a month), and transient joint symptoms (pain, aching, stiffness, or swelling but not on most days for a month), and to compare the sociodemographic characteristics, activity limitations, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people with joint conditions with those who have no self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and no joint symptoms. Data from the 2004 population-based South Australian Health Omnibus Survey (n = 2,840, ages 18-96 years) were used in the study. Activity limitations were assessed using 10 activity limitations questions from the Short Form 36 health survey. HRQOL was assessed using the Assessment of Quality of Life scale. Half of all respondents reported having joint problems, with 26%, 11%, and 13% reporting self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, chronic joint symptoms, and transient joint symptoms, respectively. Chronic joint conditions (self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and chronic joint symptoms) accounted for 74% of all joint problems and were associated with higher odds of activity limitations and poorer HRQOL. The frequency of transient and chronic joint symptoms was highest among middle-aged participants (ages 45-54 years for transient and 45-64 years for chronic joint symptoms) and those who had a body mass index in the obese range. Prevalence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis increased with age and was higher among women and those who were overweight or obese. This study documented the high prevalence and impact of joint conditions in the community. Chronic joint conditions affect daily life and are substantial barriers for effective public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity and inactivity.

  18. Chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and risk of non-melanoma skin cancers-A population based study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Ø; Olesen, Anne B; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    We examined the associations between chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) in a population-based case-control study of 4,187 patients diagnosed with a first primary NMSC in 1995 in Denmark. From the National Patient Registry covering all Danish...... incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Although no overall association was found between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and hospitalization for chronic diseases, an elevated IRR for BCC was found among patients with connective tissue disease (IRR 1.34 (95% CI: 0.99-1.82)), transplants...

  19. Synthesis of biologically active porcine secretin and [ITyr10] porcine secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans

    1991-01-01

    Porcine secretin, [Tyr10] secretin, and [Tyr13] secretin were synthesized by solid phase methodology and purified by stepwise gradient elution from a short reversed-phase column with ethanol and acetic acid as organic modifiers. [Tyr10] secretin and [Tyr13] secretin were iodinated by the chloramine...

  20. Identification of a novel porcine OASL variant exhibiting antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changjing; Zheng, Sheng; Zhu, Dan; Lian, Xue; Liu, Weiting; Hu, Feng; Chen, Puyan; Cao, Ruibing

    2018-01-15

    2', 5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase-lilke (OASL) protein is an atypical oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family member, which possesses antiviral activity but lacks 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity. Here, a novel variant of porcine OASL (pOASL2) was identified through RT-PCR amplification. This gene is distinguishable from the previously described wild-type porcine OASL (pOASL1). The gene appears to be derived from a truncation of exon 4 plus 8 nucleotides of exon 5 with a premature termination, measuring only 633 bp in length, although its position corresponds to that of pOASL1. Given this novel gene appears to be a variant of pOASL, we assayed for antiviral activity of the protein. We demonstrated that pOASL2 could inhibit Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) proliferation as well as pOASL1 in a transient overexpression assay of pOASL1 and pOASL2 in PK-15 and Vero cells. In addition to JEV, pOASL1 and pOASL2 also decreased the proliferations of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), but did not exhibit antiviral activity against pseudorabies virus (PRV). Structural analysis showed that the pOASL2 gene retained only the first three exons at the 5'-. To investigate the role of the αN4 helix in pOASL in antiviral responses like that in hOASL, we mutated key residues in the anchor domain of the αN4 helix in pOASL2, based on the domain's location in hOASL. However, the antiviral activity of pOASL2 was not affected. Thus, the αN4 helix of pOASL likely does not play a significant role in its antiviral activity. In conclusion, pOASL2 acts as a new splice isoform of pOASL that plays a role in resistance to infection of several kinds of RNA viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Pia H; Bendix, Tom; Manniche, Claus

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model with...... with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP), activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs), physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients....

  2. Cellular cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Changhee

    2017-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are porcine nidoviruses that are considered emerging and re-emerging viral pathogens of pigs that pose a significant economic threat to the global pork industry. Although cholesterol is known to affect the replication of a broad range of viruses in vitro, its significance and role in porcine nidovirus infection remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether cellular or/and viral cholesterol levels play a role in porcine nidovirus infection. Our results showed that depletion of cellular cholesterol by treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) dose-dependently suppressed the replication of both nidoviruses. Conversely, cholesterol depletion from the viral envelope had no inhibitory effect on porcine nidovirus production. The addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells moderately restored the infectivity of porcine nidoviruses, indicating that the presence of cholesterol in the target cell membrane is critical for viral replication. The antiviral activity of MβCD on porcine nidovirus infection was found to be predominantly exerted when used as a treatment pre-infection or prior to the viral entry process. Furthermore, pharmacological sequestration of cellular cholesterol efficiently blocked both virus attachment and internalization and, accordingly, markedly affected subsequent post-entry steps of the replication cycle, including viral RNA and protein biosynthesis and progeny virus production. Taken together, our data indicate that cell membrane cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus entry into cells, and pharmacological drugs that hamper cholesterol-dependent virus entry may have antiviral potential against porcine nidoviruses.

  3. Clinical benefits of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Pinto, Juliana M; Martín-Nogueras, Ana M; Calvo-Arenillas, José I; Ramos-González, Jacinto

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the benefits of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomized clinical trial involving 58 patients. Pulmonary function, quality of life evaluated by the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire, breathlessness evaluated by the London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale, and exercise tolerance evaluated by 6-minute walk distance were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. The program consisted of 2 weekly visits by a physiotherapist in the first 2 weeks, followed by visits twice a month, as well as weekly telephone calls. Training included breathing and stretching exercises and strength exercises (upper and lower limbs), along with endurance training, including walking, stair climbing, cycling, and treadmill walking, depending on available patient resources. The treatment group (TG; n = 23) and control group (CG; n = 18) completed the study. Following the intervention, no statistically significant differences were found in pulmonary function in the TG and CG. The TG exhibited statistically significant differences in the activity domain (P = .008), impact domain (P Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (P < .001). In addition, the TG demonstrated statistically significant differences in all domains of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale and no differences were observed in the CG after 12 weeks. There was a statistically significant difference in the 6-Minute Walk Distance in the TG after rehabilitation (P = .008). This study offers evidence that home-based PR promotes benefits in the quality of life, breathlessness in activities of daily living, and exercise capacity in patients with severe and very severe COPD. Home-based PR must be considered as part of the treatment for patients who live far from hospitals even in severe COPD.

  4. An IL28B genotype-based clinical prediction model for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R O'Brien

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in IL28B and other factors are associated with sustained virological response (SVR after pegylated-interferon/ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Using data from the HALT-C Trial, we developed a model to predict a patient's probability of SVR based on IL28B genotype and clinical variables.HALT-C enrolled patients with advanced CHC who had failed previous interferon-based treatment. Subjects were re-treated with pegylated-interferon/ribavirin during trial lead-in. We used step-wise logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR and create the predictive model. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to predict a priori probabilities of SVR and determine area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC.Among 646 HCV genotype 1-infected European American patients, 14.2% achieved SVR. IL28B rs12979860-CC genotype was the strongest predictor of SVR (aOR, 7.56; p10% (43.3% of subjects had an SVR rate of 27.9% and accounted for 84.8% of subjects actually achieving SVR. To verify that consideration of both IL28B genotype and clinical variables is required for treatment decisions, we calculated AUC values from published data for the IDEAL Study.A clinical prediction model based on IL28B genotype and clinical variables can yield useful individualized predictions of the probability of treatment success that could increase SVR rates and decrease the frequency of futile treatment among patients with CHC.

  5. Packaging of human endogenous retrovirus sequences is undetectable in porcine endogenous retrovirus particles produced from human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suling, Kristen; Quinn, Gary; Wood, James; Patience, Clive

    2003-01-01

    The chronic shortage of human donor organs and tissues for allotransplantation could be relieved if clinical xenotransplantation were to become a viable clinical therapy. Balanced against the benefits of xenotransplantation are the possible consequences of zoonotic infections, and in particular, infection by porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An often-proclaimed risk of PERV infection is the possible recombination of PERV with human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) . To address this issue, we examined the potential for HERV sequences to be cross-packaged into PERV particles produced from infected human 293 cells. Although HERV-K, W, E, R, and ERV-9 RNA transcripts are expressed in 293 cells, we did not detect cross-packaging of any of these HERV groups. Quantitative analysis indicated that less than approximately 1 in 10 4 -10 7 PERV particles might contain HERV sequences. In comparison, we found that murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vector transcripts were cross-packaged at a rate of approximately one copy in 10 4 PERV particles. Our results indicate that the potential for recombination of PERV and HERV sequences is low and that novel viruses generated by this mechanism are unlikely to represent a significant risk for xenotransplantation

  6. Expression and diagnostic use of recombinant M protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Frölichová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix M protein combined with nucleocapsid N protein could be a promising combination of virus antigens for diagnosing the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. The goal of this work was to express the recombinant M protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Escherichia coli cells and compare its serological reactivity with the N protein of the virus. The gene coding for the M protein was cloned into the pDest17 vector. The resulting protein was purified by metalochelating affinity chromatography. Recombinant M protein was applied as an antigen in immunoblot test and compared on a panel of porcine sera with N protein based IDEXX test. Of 120 examined samples, the majority (78.3% gave identical results using both compared tests. From the group of discrepant results, IDEXX test identified considerably more positive sera (17.5% than M protein based test (4.2%. The main contribution of the work is finding that although IDEXX test proved to be more sensitive than M protein based test, 4.2% of sera would escape detection by serological test based on N protein. Further development and purification of the M protein for the use in Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay format test could increase the performance of serological testing.

  7. [Effects of a Multi-disciplinary Approached, Empowerment Theory Based Self-management Intervention in Older Adults with Chronic Illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chorong; Song, Misoon; Cho, Belong; Lim, Jaeyoung; Song, Wook; Chang, Heekyung; Park, Yeon-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-disciplinary self-management intervention based on empowerment theory and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention for older adults with chronic illness. A randomized controlled trial design was used with 43 Korean older adults with chronic illness (Experimental group=22, Control group=21). The intervention consisted of two phases: (1) 8-week multi-disciplinary, team guided, group-based health education, exercise session, and individual empowerment counseling, (2) 16-week self-help group activities including weekly exercise and group discussion to maintain acquired self-management skills and problem-solving skills. Baseline, 8-week, and 24-week assessments measured health empowerment, exercise self-efficacy, physical activity, and physical function. Health empowerment, physical activity, and physical function in the experimental group increased significantly compared to the control group over time. Exercise self-efficacy significantly increased in experimental group over time but there was no significant difference between the two groups. The self-management program based on empowerment theory improved health empowerment, physical activity, and physical function in older adults. The study finding suggests that a health empowerment strategy may be an effective approach for older adults with multiple chronic illnesses in terms of achieving a sense of control over their chronic illness and actively engaging self-management.

  8. TelePain: Primary care chronic pain management through weekly didactic and case‐based telementoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Flynn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a significant problem among military personnel and a priority of the military health system. The U.S. Army Surgeon General's Pain Management Task Force recommends using telehealth capabilities to enhance pain management. This article describes the development and evaluation of a telehealth intervention (TelePain designed to improve access to pain specialist consultation in the military health system. The study uses a wait-list cluster controlled clinical trial to test: 1 effectiveness of the intervention, and 2 interviews to assess barriers and facilitators of the intervention implementation. The intervention involves a didactic presentation based on the Joint Pain Education Curriculum followed by patient case presentations and multi-disciplinary discussion via videoconference by clinicians working in the military health system. A panel of pain specialists representing pain medicine, internal medicine, anesthesiology, rehabilitation medicine, psychiatry, addiction medicine, health psychology, pharmacology, nursing, and complementary and integrative pain management provide pain management recommendations for each patient case. We use the Pain Assessment Screening Tool and Outcomes Registry (PASTOR to measure patient outcomes, including pain, sleep, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. This article reports some of the challenges and lessons learned during early implementation of the TelePain intervention. Weekly telephone meetings among the multisite research team were instrumental in problem solving, identifying problem areas, and developing solutions. Solutions for recruitment challenges included additional outreach and networking to military health providers, both building on existing relationships and new relationships.

  9. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marise de Freitas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA nanoparticles (MB-NP and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT—in planktonic and biofilm phases—with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL at 20 J/cm2 in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm2 in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82% on gingival bleeding index (GBI compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment.

  10. Model-Based Analysis of FGF23 Regulation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yokota

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of FGF23 action in calcium/phosphorus metabolism of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD was studied using a mathematical model and clinical data in a public domain. We have previously built a physiological model that describes interactions of PTH, calcitriol, and FGF23 in mineral metabolism encompassing organs such as bone, intestine, kidney, and parathyroid glands. Since an elevated FGF23 level in serum is a characteristic symptom of CKD patients, we evaluate herein potential metabolic alterations in response to administration of a neutralizing antibody against FGF23. Using the parameters identified from available clinical data, we observed that a transient decrease in the FGF23 level elevated the serum concentrations of PTH, calcitriol, and phosphorus. The model also predicted that the administration reduced a urinary output of phosphorous. This model-based prediction indicated that the therapeutic reduction of FGF23 by the neutralizing antibody did not reduce phosphorus burden of CKD patients and decreased the urinary phosphorous excretion. Thus, the high FGF23 level in CKD patients was predicted to be a failure of FGF23-mediated phosphorous excretion. The results herein indicate that it is necessary to understand the mechanism in CKD in which the level of FGF23 is elevated without effectively regulating phosphorus.

  11. Building the evidence base for chronic disease self-management support interventions across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sharon; Liddy, Clare; Mill, Karina; Irving, Hannah

    2012-11-06

    The objective of this project was to determine how to improve evaluation of self-management support (SMS) in Canada to generate high-quality evidence to guide policy-makers, implementers, providers and participants. This project used a multi-method approach, including a scoping and a focused literature review, an internet scan, interviews with key stakeholders, a review of existing theoretical evaluation frameworks and a consensus meeting with experts. Four themes were identified through the collection and analysis of data: 1) diverse SMS interventions are identifiable; 2) emerging evaluation activity in Canada is limited to mostly disease-specific, clinic-based programs; 3) there is little evaluation capacity among program implementers in Canada; and 4) there is a gap between the evidence and expectations. Policy-makers, community organizations and health care teams, regional health authorities and, most importantly, people living with chronic conditions, need better evidence about how to support self-management in their communities. Measuring outcomes must be an explicit part of program implementation and development and requires coordinated support. A common evaluation framework may provide researchers, practitioners and decision- or policy-makers with a systems approach to understanding the possible structural and process factors that can affect self-management outcomes, and could support capacity building in evaluation.

  12. Risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The article describes the relative frequency ok of risk and protective behaviors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs in adults residing in Viçosa, Brazil. A cross-section-al population-based study including 1,226 adults living in the municipality. We used a structured questionnaire containing questions sociodemographic and behavioral The risk and protection factors evaluated were: smoking, physical activity, excessive consumption of alcohol and food consumption. The proportion of risk and protection factors was calculated in the total population, according to gender, education and socioeconomic status. The studied population has a high frequency of risk factors for NCDs, such as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, habit of consuming whole milk, habit of eating meat with visible fat, regular consumption of soft drinks and 78.5% did not achieve the minimum recommendation for physical activity in leisure time. With regard to protective factors, 86.2% of the population reported regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, and 73%, of beans. It was found the highest frequency of risk factors in among males, in younger people and middle socioeconomic status. This population has an urgent need for public policy of municipal planning to change this current scenario.

  13. Sub-chronic toxicity study of a novel herbal-based formulation (Semelil on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzamfar B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a novel herbal-based compound containing extract of Melilotus officinalis, was formulated for treatment of chronic wounds, especially diabetic foot ulcer. The purpose of this study was to investigate safety and toxicity effects of intramuscular administration of Semelil in dogs. "nPreliminary one-month study with Semelil was performed on 8 male and female dogs divided into 2 groups, test and control, four animals each. Semelil was administered intramuscularlyat a dose of 0.07 ml/kg body wt. once a day to the animals of the test group, while the control group received sterile saline. During experiments, general state of the animals including the dynamics of body weight changes, appetite, motor activity and behavior, hair condition, ECG parameters, rectal temperature of animals and data of hematological and biochemical tests were monitored for signs of toxicity and side-effects. Finally, morphology and histology analyses were performed using standard methods."nNo adverse health or toxicity effects were observed through the course of the study. No damaging consequences of Semelil injections on the functional state of main organs of the experimental animals were found. This observation gave a good evidence of a favorable safety profile compatible with potential therapeutic use of Semelil.

  14. Predictors of Recurrence and Complications After Chronic Subdural Hematoma Surgery: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartek, Jiri; Sjåvik, Kristin; Kristiansson, Helena; Ståhl, Fredrik; Fornebo, Ida; Förander, Petter; Jakola, Asgeir S

    2017-10-01

    To investigate predictors of recurrence and moderate to severe complications after burr-hole surgery for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). A retrospective review was conducted in a Scandinavian single-center population-based cohort of 759 adult patients with cSDH operated with burr-hole surgery between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010. Possible predictors of recurrence and complications, assessed using a standardized reporting system of adverse events, were identified and analyzed in univariable analyses. Variables with a P value hematoma (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-3.35; P hematoma diameter in millimeters (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P 1 (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.10-4.75; P = 0.03) were independent predictors of moderate to severe complications. Recurrence after cSDH surgery is more often encountered in patients with radiologically more extensive disease reflected by bilateral hematoma and large hematoma diameter. On the other hand, moderate to severe complications are more often seen in patients in a worse clinical condition, reflected by decreased level of consciousness and more comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Internet-based social networking and its role in the evolution of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Chido; Herr, Allen; Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Ginsburg, Lauren; Siskin, Gary P

    2012-06-01

    The Internet is being seen as a growing resource for health-related information for a large number of patients. It is undeniable that its widespread presence has led to the growth of awareness that chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as an entity that may contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Social networking and file-sharing Web sites have brought patients with MS together from all over the world and have facilitated the distribution of personal experiences and information derived from medical research as it relates to CCSVI. As a result, there has been an accelerated growth in the number of patients seeking treatment for this syndrome in light of the possibility that it may improve their present condition. This article will review this phenomenon, the Internet-based resources available to MS patients seeking information about CCSVI, and the responsibilities of physicians as they participate in these online discussions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advantages of porcine blood plasma as a component of functional drinks

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kriger

    2014-01-01

    The composition and properties of blood plasma obtained from slaughtered farm animals and intended for use in the manufacturing of foods for the prevention of oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) are analyzed in the present paper. The use of aerated functional products (oxygen cocktails) is an efficient approach to hypoxia prevention. Protein-based foaming agents are known to form the most stable foams. Porcine blood plasma is a rich source of high molecular weight proteins. A method of processing of ...

  17. Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in community-based annual lung cancer screening: Chiba Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Lung Cancer Screening Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yasuo; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Suzuki, Kiminori; Tsutatani, Shuko; Kubota, Kazuko; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Isobe, Yuji; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is crucial in the management of COPD. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a community-based lung cancer screening for detecting COPD. In Japan, community-based lung cancer screening for residents who are 40 years or older using chest radiography is well established. A screening system in Chiba City, Japan, was used to detect COPD. The criteria to consider COPD at screening included age of 60 years or older, a smoking history and chronic respiratory symptoms. Participants fulfilling these criteria were referred for diagnostic evaluation consisting of pulmonary function testing (PFT) and chest computed tomography (CT). Of 89,100 Chiba City residents who underwent lung cancer screening, 72,653 residents were 60 years or older. Among them, 878 (1.0%) were identified with suspected COPD and referred for further evaluation. Of those identified, a total of 567 residents (64.6%, 567/878) underwent further evaluations, and 161 (28.4%) were reported to have COPD, with 38.5% of them requiring COPD treatment. To verify the diagnoses from the secondary evaluation centres, PFT and CT data were collected from 228 study participants, and 24.9% were diagnosed with COPD. CT findings classified according to the Goddard classification revealed that 20.1% of these participants had moderate to severe emphysema. COPD screening added to a community-based lung cancer screening programme may be effective in the detection of patients with COPD. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Association between chronic kidney disease and urinary calculus by stone location: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Joseph J; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Disease prevalence study (cohort design) Level of Evidence 2a. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. We found that patients with CKD were consistently more likely than comparison subjects to have been previously diagnosed with kidney calculus (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-2.27), ureter calculus (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51-1.85), bladder calculus (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.98), and unspecified calculus (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74-2.06). We concluded that there was an association between CKD and UC regardless of stone location. • To explore the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with prior kidney calculus, ureter calculus, and bladder calculus using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with CKD. However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. • We identified 21,474 patients who received their first-time diagnosis of CKD between 2001 and 2009. • The 21,474 controls were frequency-matched with cases for sex, age group, and index year. • We used conditional logistic regression analyses to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an estimation of association between CKD and having been previously diagnosed with UC. • The results show that compared with controls, the OR of prior UC for cases was 1

  19. Biochemical and biomechanical characterization of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS): a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Ronfard, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS [Oasis(®)]) is an acellular, biological extracellular matrix (ECM) that has been found to significantly improve the healing of difficult-to-heal or chronic wounds in humans. Like dermal ECM, SIS contains collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and growth factors that play important roles in healing. Preclinical studies have shown that numerous cell types attach to SIS, proliferate and migrate into the matrix, and differentiate. In addition, SIS can reduce the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-endogenous proteolytic enzymes whose levels and activities are increased in chronic wounds. Compared to the original single-layer SIS, multi-layer SIS has stronger mechanical properties and is more slowly degraded in wounds. Together, these SIS products provide flexibility in the selection of biologically-active ECMs that may be useful for the repair of diverse wound types.

  20. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets...... higher litter size. More complete information is needed in future scientific articles about these in vitro manipulation techniques to establish a more solid basis for the evaluation of their status and to reveal and further investigate any eventual problems...

  1. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  2. Individual-based analysis of hair corticosterone reveals factors influencing chronic stress in the American pika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Matthew D; Sjodin, Bryson; Ray, Chris; Erb, Liesl; Wilkening, Jennifer; Russello, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are often measured in wildlife to assess physiological responses to environmental or ecological stress. Hair, blood, saliva, or fecal samples are generally used depending on the timescale of the stress response being investigated and species-specific considerations. Here, we report the first use of hair samples to measure long-term corticosterone levels in the climate-sensitive American pika ( Ochotona princeps ). We validated an immunoassay-based measurement of corticosterone extracted from hair samples and compared corticosterone estimates obtained from plasma, hair, and fecal samples of nine pikas. To demonstrate an ecological application of this technique, we characterized physiological stress in 49 pikas sampled and released at eight sites along two elevational transects. Microclimate variation was measured at each site using both ambient and subsurface temperature sensors. We used an information theoretic approach to compare support for linear, mixed-effects models relating corticosterone estimates to microclimate, body size, and sex. Corticosterone was measured accurately in pika hair samples after correcting for the influence of sample mass on corticosterone extraction efficiency. Hair- and plasma-based estimates of corticosterone were weakly correlated. The best-supported model suggested that corticosterone was lower in larger, male pikas, and at locations with higher ambient temperatures in summer. Our results are consistent with a general negative relationship between body mass and glucocorticoid concentration observed across mammalian species, attributed to the higher mass-specific metabolic rates of smaller bodied animals. The higher corticosterone levels in female pikas likely reflected the physiological demands of reproduction, as observed in a wide array of mammalian species. Additionally, we establish the first direct physiological evidence for thermal stress in the American pika through nonlethal sampling of corticosterone

  3. A simple and rapid identification method for newly emerged porcine Deltacoronavirus with loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. Results In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections. The detection limit of RT-LAMP assay was 1 × 101 copies of PDCoV, which was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than gel-based one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. This assay could specifically amplify PDCoV and had no cross amplification with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, porcine kobuvirus (PKoV, porcine astrovirus (PAstV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, classic swine fever virus (CSFV, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. By screening a panel of clinical specimens (N = 192, this method presented a similar sensitivity with nested RT-PCR and was 1–2 log more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR in detection of PDCoV. Conclusions The RT-LAMP assay established in this study is a potentially valuable tool, especially in low-resource laboratories and filed settings, for a rapid diagnosis, surveillance, and molecular epidemiology investigation of PDCoV infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for detection of newly emerged PDCoV with LAMP technology.

  4. Enzymatic engineering of the porcine genome with transposons and recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Daniel F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine is an important agricultural commodity and biomedical model. Manipulation of the pig genome provides opportunity to improve production efficiency, enhance disease resistance, and add value to swine products. Genetic engineering can also expand the utility of pigs for modeling human disease, developing clinical treatment methodologies, or donating tissues for xenotransplantation. Realizing the full potential of pig genetic engineering requires translation of the complete repertoire of genetic tools currently employed in smaller model organisms to practical use in pigs. Results Application of transposon and recombinase technologies for manipulation of the swine genome requires characterization of their activity in pig cells. We tested four transposon systems- Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, piggyBac, and Passport in cultured porcine cells. Transposons increased the efficiency of DNA integration up to 28-fold above background and provided for precise delivery of 1 to 15 transgenes per cell. Both Cre and Flp recombinase were functional in pig cells as measured by their ability to remove a positive-negative selection cassette from 16 independent clones and over 20 independent genomic locations. We also demonstrated a Cre-dependent genetic switch capable of eliminating an intervening positive-negative selection cassette and activating GFP expression from episomal and genome-resident transposons. Conclusion We have demonstrated for the first time that transposons and recombinases are capable of mobilizing DNA into and out of the porcine genome in a precise and efficient manner. This study provides the basis for developing transposon and recombinase based tools for genetic engineering of the swine genome.

  5. Increased risk of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jer-Hwa; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. We used a random sample of 766,427 subjects aged ≥18 years from the National Health Research Institute database in the year 2005. Subjects with at least one primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 2005 were identified. Patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of chronic liver disease were also defined. We compared the prevalence and associated factors of chronic liver disease between patients with bipolar disorder and the general population in 2005. We also compared the incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder and the general population from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder (13.9%) was 2.68 times higher than that of the general population (5.8%) in 2005. The average annual incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder from 2006 to 2010 was also higher than that of the general population (2.95% vs. 1.73%; risk ratio: 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.01). Patients with bipolar disorder had a significantly higher prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease than those in the general population, and younger patients with bipolar disorder have a much higher prevalence and incidence than those in the general population. Male sex, second-generation antipsychotic or antidepressant use, and hyperlipidemia were associated factors for chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing chronic pathologies with a stepped mHealth-based approach in clinical psychology and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo; Gianluca eCastelnuovo; Italo eZoppis; Eugenio eSantoro; Martina eCeccarini; Martina eCeccarini; Giada ePietrabissa; Giada ePietrabissa; Gian Mauro eManzoni; Gian Mauro eManzoni; Stefania eCorti; Stefania eCorti; Maria eBorrello; Emanuele Maria eGiusti; Roberto eCattivelli

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of ehealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the...

  7. The three-way relationship of polymorphisms of porcine genes encoding terminal complement components, their differential expression, and health-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Klaus; Khoa, Do Vo Anh; Schütze, Sabine; Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2011-06-03

    The complement system is an evolutionary ancient mechanism that plays an essential role in innate immunity and contributes to the acquired immune response. Three modes of activation, known as classical, alternative and lectin pathway, lead to the initiation of a common terminal lytic pathway. The terminal complement components (TCCs: C6, C7, C8A, C8B, and C9) are encoded by the genes C6, C7, C8A, C8B, C8G, and C9. We aimed at experimentally testing the porcine genes encoding TCCs as candidate genes for immune competence and disease resistance by addressing the three-way relationship of genotype, health related phenotype, and mRNA expression. Comparative sequencing of cDNAs of animals of the breeds German Landrace, Piétrain, Hampshire, Duroc, Vietnamese Potbelly Pig, and Berlin Miniature Pig (BMP) revealed 30 SNPs (21 in protein domains, 12 with AA exchange). The promoter regions (each ~1.5 kb upstream the transcription start sites) of C6, C7, C8A, C8G, and C9 exhibited 29 SNPs. Significant effects of the TCC encoding genes on hemolytic complement activity were shown in a cross of Duroc and BMP after vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky disease virus and PRRSV by analysis of variance using repeated measures mixed models. Family based association tests (FBAT) confirmed the associations. The promoter SNPs were associated with the relative abundance of TCC transcripts obtained by real time RT-PCR of 311 liver samples of commercial slaughter pigs. Complement gene expression showed significant relationship with the prevalence of acute and chronic lung lesions. The analyses point to considerable variation of the porcine TCC genes and promote the genes as candidate genes for disease resistance.

  8. Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Amris, Kirstine; Fisher, Anne G

    2010-01-01

    -report and performance-based assessment of ADL offer distinct but complementary information about ability. The present study, therefore, investigated the applicability of a performance-based measure of ADL ability, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), among 50 women with chronic widespread pain....... The investigated psychometric properties of the AMPS included discrimination between a sample of healthy women and those with chronic widespread pain, as well as stability when no intervention was provided and sensitivity to change following intervention. Data were obtained based on a repeated measures design...... performing AMPS evaluations twice pre- and twice post-rehabilitation. Results indicated that the ADL motor ability measures of the participants were significantly lower than those of healthy women of same age, the ADL motor and ADL process ability measures remained stable when no intervention was provided...

  9. Attitudes toward the use of animals in chronic versus acute pain research: results of a web-based forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Griffin, Gilly

    2016-09-01

    When asked about the use of animals in biomedical research, people often state that the research is only acceptable if pain and distress are minimised. However, pain is caused when the aim is to study pain itself, resulting in unalleviated pain for many of the animals involved. Consequently, the use of animals in pain research is often considered contentious. To date, no research has explored people's views toward different types of animal-based pain research (e.g. chronic or acute pain). This study used a web-based survey to explore people's willingness to support the use of mice in chronic versus acute pain research. The majority of the participants opposed the use of mice for either chronic (68.3%) or acute (63.1%) pain research. There was no difference in the levels of support or opposition for chronic versus acute pain research. Unsupportive participants justified their opposition by focusing on the perceived lack of scientific merit, or the existence of non-animal alternatives. Supporters emphasised the potential benefits that could arise, with some stating that the benefits outweigh the costs. The majority of the participants were opposed to pain research involving mice, regardless of the nature and duration of the pain inflicted, or the perceived benefit of the research. A better understanding of public views toward animal use in pain research may provide a stronger foundation for the development of policy governing the use of animals in research where animals are likely to experience unalleviated pain. 2016 FRAME.

  10. Analysis of Chronic Illnesses and Disability in a Community-Based Sample of Elderly People in South-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwirlej-Sozańska, Agnieszka; Wilmowska-Pietruszyńska, Anna; Sozański, Bernard; Wiśniowska-Szurlej, Agnieszka

    2018-03-07

    BACKGROUND The proportion of elderly people living in Poland has risen in recent years. With rising life expectancy, there is likely to be a concurrent increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and disabilities. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases and disability of the elderly in order to help guide strategies of prevention and public health control. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 randomly-selected residents living in the Podkarpackie region of Poland. The WHODAS 2.0 questionnaire was used to assess the disability and functioning of the participants across six domains of functioning using the following scores: no disability (0-4%), mild disability (5-24%), moderate disability (25-49%), severe disability (50-95%), and extreme disability (96-100%). RESULTS The presence of at least one chronic disease was identified in 84.1% of participants. The most common diseases were: circulatory diseases (59.10%), spinal pain syndromes (51.50%), degenerative joint diseases (50.30%), and rheumatic diseases (23.90%). Severe or extreme disability was found in 8.46% of patients with circulatory disease, 9.32% of patients with spinal pain syndromes, 9.34% of patients with degenerative joint diseases, and 12.13% of patients with rheumatic diseases. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, we recommend an emphasis be placed on early diagnosis of chronic diseases. We also recommend implementing methods of primary and secondary prevention aimed at reducing or eliminating disability resulting from chronic diseases. Our research highlights the need to plan targeted support and prevention programs using strategies that optimize social participation of older people with various chronic diseases.

  11. Genome analysis and in vivo virulence of porcine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain PCN033.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Canying; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Minjun; Xu, Zhuofei; Wang, Xiangru; Wei, Liuya; Tang, Biao; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Yanyan; Ding, Yi; Tang, Xibiao; Wu, Bin; Johnson, Timothy J; Chen, Huanchun; Tan, Chen

    2015-09-21

    Strains of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) can invade and colonize extraintestinal sites and cause a wide range of infections. Genomic analysis of ExPEC has mainly focused on isolates of human and avian origins, with porcine ExPEC isolates yet to be sequenced. To better understand the genomic attributes underlying the pathogenicity of porcine ExPEC, we isolated two E. coli strains PCN033 and PCN061 from pigs, assessed their in vivo virulence, and completed and compared their genomes. Animal experiments demonstrated that strain PCN033, but not PCN061, was pathogenic in a pig model. The chromosome of PCN033 was 384 kb larger than that of PCN061. Among the PCN033-specific sequences, genes encoding adhesins, unique lipopolysaccharide, unique capsular polysaccharide, iron acquisition and transport systems, and metabolism were identified. Additionally, a large plasmid PCN033p3 harboring many typical ExPEC virulence factors was identified in PCN033. Based on the genetic variation between PCN033 and PCN061, corresponding phenotypic differences in flagellum-dependent swarming motility and metabolism were verified. Furthermore, the comparative genomic analyses showed that the PCN033 genome shared many similarities with genomic sequences of human ExPEC strains. Additionally, comparison of PCN033 genome with other nine characteristic E. coli genomes revealed 425 PCN033-special coding sequences. Genes of this subset included those encoding type I restriction-modification (R-M) system, type VI secretion system (T6SS) and membrane-associated proteins. The genetic and phenotypic differences between PCN033 and PCN061 could partially explain their differences in virulence, and also provide insight towards the molecular mechanisms of porcine ExPEC infections. Additionally, the similarities between the genomes of PCN033 and human ExPEC strains suggest that some connections between porcine and human ExPEC strains exist. The first completed genomic sequence for

  12. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  13. Characterisation of a behavioural protocol for the assessment of nociception in normal and inflamed porcine skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo

    2012-01-01

    of behavioural cutaneous nociception was performed via the assessment of differences in cutaneous pain sensitivity as determined by the body size of the animals, the anatomical locations of interest and the sensory modalities involved. Consequently, this new protocol allowed measuring the change in cutaneous...... investigation were associated to specific behavioural responses unique to the two anatomical locations of interest and clearly discernible from spontaneous movements. Based on this approach, the behavioural assays of nociception in pigs are considered reliable assessment tools to investigate porcine cutaneous...... to ultraviolet-B irradiation and, although less consistently, to capsaicin. Although the results on thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia were affected by high levels of variability, they clearly support the value of the porcine model in future investigations of the mechanisms behind the two inflammatory processes...

  14. Tissue Remodelling following Resection of Porcine Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Engdal Nygård

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study genes regulating the extracellular matrix (ECM and investigate the tissue remodelling following liver resection in porcine. Methods. Four pigs with 60% partial hepatectomy- (PHx- induced liver regeneration were studied over six weeks. Four pigs underwent sham surgery and another four pigs were used as controls of the normal liver growth. Liver biopsies were taken upon laparotomy, after three and six weeks. Gene expression profiles were obtained using porcine-specific oligonucleotide microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and a proliferative index was assessed. Results. More differentially expressed genes were associated with the regulation of ECM in the resection group compared to the sham and control groups. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC and collagen 1, alpha 2 (COL1A2 were both upregulated in the early phase of liver regeneration, validated by immunopositive cells during the remodelling phase of liver regeneration. A broadened connective tissue was demonstrated by Masson’s Trichrome staining, and an immunohistochemical staining against pan-Cytokeratin (pan-CK demonstrated a distinct pattern of migrating cells, followed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA positive nuclei. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates both a distinct pattern of PCNA positive nuclei and a deposition of ECM proteins in the remodelling phase of liver regeneration.

  15. Observations on the epidemiology of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R H; Donaldson-Wood, C; Allender, U

    1976-02-01

    Evidence presented suggests that porcine parvovirus is highly stable and infective. Introduction of virus to susceptible herds results in 100% infection rate within the following 3 months. Active immunity is associated with high persistent levels of haemagglutination-inhibitating (HI) antibody (greater than 256), piglets suckling immune sows acquiring HI titres between 10,000 and 40,000. Loss of passive immunity, measured by HI, occurs in a majority of pigs between 14 and 26 weeks of age (mean 21 weeks), whilst an average of 25% (2-47%) of pigs lose HI titres between 26 and 36 weeks of age. Susceptibility to challenge with virus does not occur until 3-5 weeks following loss of HI titres. In endemically infected herds 98-100% of adult pigs show serological evidence of active immunity. A significant proportion of gilts may not be actively immune to porcine parvovirus at the time of first service, and subsequent infection may occur while these gilts are pregnant.

  16. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miessen Katrin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. Results We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. Conclusions We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material.

  17. Development of putative probiotics as feed additives: validation in a porcine-specific gastrointestinal tract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Soyoung; Lee, Suro; Park, Hyunjoon; Shin, Heuynkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Huh, Chul Sung

    2016-12-01

    Enforced restrictions on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production have prompted investigations into alternative feed additives in recent decades. Probiotics are currently the main feed additive used in livestock. However, the selection of probiotic candidates relies on human-based methods and little is known about the verification criteria for host-specific selection. We investigated the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from fed pig feces for their use as porcine feed additives. Two methods were developed that simulated the pig gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the intestinal epithelium, and these were compared with human-based in vitro methods and used for selecting porcine probiotics. Lactobacillus salivarius strain LS6 was identified as a promising probiotic strain for potential use as a porcine feed additive. This strain prevented disruption of the epithelial integrity of pig small intestine (PSI) cells by inhibiting the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. It also showed high survival rates in the in vitro pig GI tract model and good adhesion to PSI cells. We propose that host target-specific screening and validation methods are important tools in the development of effective probiotic feed additives, and this approach may support future-oriented agriculture.

  18. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miessen, Katrin; Einspanier, Ralf; Schoen, Jennifer

    2012-03-19

    Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material.

  19. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hannah E; Vallejo, Zayda; Rasmussen, Jessica; Crowe, Katherine; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-03-01

    In this pilot study we sought to develop and test a modified form of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-tics) for the treatment of Tourette Syndrome (TS) and Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Our specific aims were: 1) To determine the feasibility and acceptability of an 8-week trial of MBSR-tics in individuals 16 and older with TS or CTD and 2) To determine the efficacy of an 8-week trial of MBSR-tics in individuals 16 and older with TS or CTD. Eighteen individuals age 16-67 completed an uncontrolled open trial of MBSR-tics. The intervention consisted of 8 weekly 2-hour classes and one 4hour retreat in the fifth or sixth week of the program. Symptomatic assessments were performed at baseline, post-treatment, and one-month follow-up. MBSR-tics proved to be a feasible and acceptable intervention. It resulted in significant improvement in tic severity and tic-related impairment. 58.8% of subjects were deemed treatment responders. Therapeutic gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. Improvements in tic severity were correlated with increases in self-reported levels of mindfulness. This small open pilot study provides preliminary support for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of MBSR-tics for individuals 16 or older with TS or CTD. A larger randomized controlled trial with blind assessment is necessary to confirm these initial, promising findings. Trial Registration Partners Clinical Trials Registry Number 2011P000606 (clinicaltrials.partners.org). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic neck pain following car crashes: a population-based study from Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameratunga, S; Tin, S T; Connor, J; Norton, R

    2010-10-01

      In a setting with a 'no fault' universal government-funded accident compensation system, we undertook a study to (i) estimate the prevalence and predictors of chronic neck pain in car occupants surviving serious injury-producing crashes and (ii) compare the longer-term health-related quality of life of crash survivors with and without neck discomfort.   A prospective cohort study recruited hospitalized survivors aged ≥16 years and non-hospitalized drivers of cars involved in serious crashes in Auckland over a 10-month period. Participants completed a structured questionnaire at recruitment and 5 and 18 months later.   Of the 268 participants, 50 (18.7%) reported neck pain or stiffness at 5 and 18 months following the crash. Of these, 70% noted the discomfort led to limitations in work and recreation. Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms at 5 months were associated with an increased risk of moderate to severe neck discomfort at 18 months. Participants with and without neck discomfort had significantly reduced health-related quality of life based on Short Form-36 scores.   Significant neck discomfort limiting usual function is relatively common up to 18 months following crashes. The reductions in health status among crash survivors with and without neck pain reveal the complexities in attributing longer-term adverse outcomes to a particular condition in the absence of an appropriate comparison group. The findings indicate the need to manage judiciously comorbid conditions while prioritizing efforts to support crash survivors' return to their usual social roles and activities. © 2010 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Human Kidney Tubule-Specific Gene Expression Based Dissection of Chronic Kidney Disease Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Pazit; Qiu, Chengxiang; Park, Jihwan; Ledo, Nora; Ko, Yi-An; Park, Ae-Seo Deok; Han, Sang-Youb; Choi, Peter; Palmer, Matthew; Susztak, Katalin

    2017-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has diverse phenotypic manifestations including structural (such as fibrosis) and functional (such as glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria) alterations. Gene expression profiling has recently gained popularity as an important new tool for precision medicine approaches. Here we used unbiased and directed approaches to understand how gene expression captures different CKD manifestations in patients with diabetic and hypertensive CKD. Transcriptome data from ninety-five microdissected human kidney samples with a range of demographics, functional and structural changes were used for the primary analysis. Data obtained from 41 samples were available for validation. Using the unbiased Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) we identified 16 co-expressed gene modules. We found that modules that strongly correlated with eGFR primarily encoded genes with metabolic functions. Gene groups that mainly encoded T-cell receptor and collagen pathways, showed the strongest correlation with fibrosis level, suggesting that these two phenotypic manifestations might have different underlying mechanisms. Linear regression models were then used to identify genes whose expression showed significant correlation with either structural (fibrosis) or functional (eGFR) manifestation and mostly corroborated the WGCNA findings. We concluded that gene expression is a very sensitive sensor of fibrosis, as the expression of 1654 genes correlated with fibrosis even after adjusting to eGFR and other clinical parameters. The association between GFR and gene expression was mostly mediated by fibrosis. In conclusion, our transcriptome-based CKD trait dissection analysis suggests that the association between gene expression and renal function is mediated by structural changes and that there may be differences in pathways that lead to decline in kidney function and the development of fibrosis, respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  2. The microbiology and the efficacy of antibiotic-based medical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C W D; Yeak, C L S; Wang, D Y

    2010-12-01

    Medical therapy including appropriate antibiotic treatment is advocated for the management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), with sinus surgery reserved for treatment failures. This study investigates the microbiology of CRS and their response to culture-directed antibiotic treatment. Sinus aspirates of mucopus from 172 consecutive CRS patients, with (n=89) and without (n=83) previous antibiotic treatment, were obtained for bacterial culture at their first visit. Medical treatment which included initial empirical and subsequent culture-directed antibiotics was instituted. Endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) was performed for patients with persistent CRS and/or complications of CRS. A follow-up of 12 months was scheduled for all patients. One hundred and twenty (69.8%) patients were treated successfully by with antibiotic-based medical therapy. Thirty-eight patients (22.1%) did not respond to medical treatment and eventually underwent FESS. The incidence of CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) was higher in FESS group (n=13, 34.2%) than patients with medical treatment only (n=9, 6.7%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen (n=43, 25%) and amongst patients with no prior antibiotic treatment, the incidence was higher in patients with CRSwNP (n=8, 53 %) than CRS without NP (CRSwoNP) (n=20, 27%). The rate of sensitivity of the cultured microbes to amoxicillin with clavulanate and cephalosporins was 78% and 70%, respectively. The microbiology of CRS in Singapore is described. Staphylococcus aureus appears to be the most common bacterial isolates in both CRS with and without nasal polyps. Medical treatment with CRS using culture-directed antibiotics is effective in the majority of patients, especially in patients without nasal polyps.

  3. Sequence conservation between porcine and human LRRK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2009-01-01

     Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the ROCO protein superfamily (Ras of complex proteins (Roc) with a C-terminal Roc domain). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene lead to autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. We have cloned the porcine LRRK2 cDNA in an attempt to characterize conserved...... and expression patterns are conserved across species. The porcine LRRK2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5q25. The results obtained suggest that the LRRK2 gene might be of particular interest in our attempt to generate a transgenic porcine model for Parkinson's disease...

  4. Porcine UCHL1: genomic organization, chromosome localization and expression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    to and protection from Parkinson’s disease. Here we report cloning, characterization, expression analysis and mapping of porcine UCHL1. The UCHL1 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The porcine cDNA codes...... in developing porcine embryos. UCHL1 transcript was detected as early as 40 days of gestation. A significant decrease in UCHL1 transcript was detected in basal ganglia from day 60 to day 115 of gestation...

  5. Role of Leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast in the treatment of chronic urticaria: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic urticaria is a disabling disease which may be refractory to standard therapies. Leukotriene receptor antagonists like montelukast have been tried in allergic diseases like asthma and find mention as a therapeutic option in chronic urticaria. Purposes: A randomized single-blinded non-placebo controlled study to evaluate the role of montelukast, in addition to the adjunctive role of non-sedating antihistamine levocetirizine (H1, was conducted in patients with chronic urticaria.Methods: Thirty-five patients with chronic urticaria were enrolled. Medication was given for a period of twelve weeks. Montelukast 10mg/day in an adult and 5mg in the age group 6-13 years,4 mg 2-6 years and levocetirizine 5 mg once a day was added, if patient had new weals while on therapy. The improvement was monitored by estimating the episodes of wheals and pruritus in any two weeks period.Results: Twenty-two patients showed a good response with occasional wheals at the end of 2 weeks and no weals at the end of 12 weeks. These included all 8 patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Four of these patients relapsed on discontinuation of therapy.Conclusion: Montelukast is effective in chronic refractory urticaria especially in patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with occasional add-on use of a non-sedating anti-histamine.

  6. Managing chronic pathologies with a stepped mHealth-based approach in clinical psychology and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of ehealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies. Possible applications include stepped mHealth approach, where patients can be monitored and treated in their everyday contexts. Unfortunately, many barriers for the spread of mHealth are still present. Due the significant impact of psychosocial factors on disease evolution, psychotherapies have to be included into the chronic disease protocols. Existing psychological theories of health behavior change have to be adapted to the new technological contexts and requirements. In conclusion, clinical psychology and medicine have to face the chronic care management challenge in both traditional and mHealth settings.

  7. Sofosbuvir based treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 infections-A Scandinavian real-life study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Olav; Weiland, Ola; Noraberg, Geir

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 infection with advanced liver disease has emerged as the most challenging to treat. We retrospectively assessed the treatment outcome of sofosbuvir (SOF) based regimes for treatment of HCV genotype 3 infections in a real life setting...... was similar for all treatment regimens, but lower in men (p = 0.042), and in patients with decompensated liver disease (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: We found that sofosbuvir based treatment in a real-life setting could offer SVR rates exceeding 90% in patients with HCV genotype 3 infection and advanced liver...... in Scandinavia. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic HCV genotype 3 infection were enrolled at 16 treatment centers in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. Patients who had received a SOF containing regimen were included. The fibrosis stage was evaluated by liver biopsy or transient liver elastography...

  8. Psycho-educational interventions for children with chronic disease, parents and siblings: an overview of the research evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J H; Ellard, D R

    2004-11-01

    The role of psycho-educational interventions in facilitating adaptation to chronic disease has received growing recognition and is in keeping with policy developments advocating greater involvement of patients in their own care. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current literature regarding the effectiveness of psycho-educational interventions for children and adolescents with chronic disease, their parents and siblings. Electronic searches were conducted using AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, DARE, HTA, MEDLINE, NHS EED, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and PubMED. Inclusion criteria were systematic reviews, meta-analyses and overviews based on traditional reviews of published literature. The titles of papers were reviewed, abstracts were obtained and reviewed, and full copies of selected papers were obtained. No reviews of psycho-educational interventions were found for either parents or siblings. Twelve reviews of interventions for children and adolescents were identified: chronic disease in general (three); chronic pain (one); asthma (three); chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) (one); diabetes (two); juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (one) and one informational intervention for paediatric cancer patients. The main focus was on disease management (particularly in asthma and diabetes) with less attention being paid to psychosocial aspects of life with a chronic condition. Overall, there is evidence of effectiveness for interventions incorporating cognitive-behavioural techniques on variables such as self-efficacy, self-management of disease, family functioning, psychosocial well-being, reduced isolation, social competence, knowledge, hope, pain (for chronic headache), lung function (asthma), days absent from school (asthma), visits to A & E (asthma), fatigue (CFS), and metabolic control (diabetes). A number of gaps and limitations were identified across all disease categories, such as inadequate description of interventions

  9. Non-participation in breast cancer screening for persons with chronic diseases and multimorbidity: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    –96 %). Higher non-participation was also observed for women with severe multimorbidity (PR = 1.53, 95 % CI: 1.23–1.90) and mental-physical multimorbidity (PR = 1.54, 95 % CI: 1.36–1.75). Conclusion In conclusion, we found a strong association between non-participation in breast cancer screening for some chronic......Background Chronic diseases and multimorbidity are common in western countries and associated with increased breast cancer mortality. This study aims to investigate non-participation in breast cancer screening among women with chronic diseases and multimorbidity and the role of time...... in this association. Method This population-based cohort study used regional and national registries. Women who were invited to the first breast cancer screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09 were included (n = 149,234). Selected chronic diseases and multimorbidity were assessed up to 10 years before...

  10. PredyCLU: a prediction system for chronic leg ulcers based on fuzzy logic; part I - exploring the venous side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franciscis, Stefano; Fregola, Salvatore; Gallo, Alessandro; Argirò, Giuseppe; Barbetta, Andrea; Buffone, Gianluca; Caliò, Francesco G; De Caridi, Giovanni; Amato, Bruno; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-12-01

    Chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) are a common occurrence in the western population and are associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients. They also cause a substantial burden on the health budget. The pathogenesis of leg ulceration is quite heterogeneous, and chronic venous ulceration (CVU) is the most common manifestation representing the main complication of chronic venous disease (CVD). Prevention strategies and early identification of the risk represent the best form of management. Fuzzy logic is a flexible mathematical system that has proved to be a powerful tool for decision-making systems and pattern classification systems in medicine. In this study, we have elaborated a computerised prediction system for chronic leg ulcers (PredyCLU) based on fuzzy logic, which was retrospectively applied on a multicentre population of 77 patients with CVD. This evaluation system produced reliable risk score patterns and served effectively as a stratification risk tool in patients with CVD who were at the risk of developing CVUs. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An easy to use and affordable home-based personal eHealth system for chronic disease management based on free open source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkow, Tatjana M; Vognild, Lars K; Krogstad, Trine; Borch, Njål; Ostengen, Geir; Bratvold, Astrid; Risberg, Marijke Jongsma

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an easy to use home-based eHealth system for chronic disease management. We present the design and implementation of a prototype for home based education, exercises, treatment and following-up, with the TV and a remote control as user interface. We also briefly describe field trials of the system for patients with COPD and diabetes, and their experience with the technology.

  12. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 from Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A–1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A–2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population. PMID:23738099

  13. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population?based study using cortisol in scalp hair

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Sarah E.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing evidence for weight?based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Methods Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ?30 kg/m2) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrat...

  14. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertension in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Janis M

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is common in children with chronic kidney disease and early evidence suggests that it is a modifiable risk factor for renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Recommendations for blood pressure management in children with chronic kidney disease can be found in various clinical practice guidelines including the 4th Task Force Report, the European Society of Hypertension pediatric recommendations, and the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Unfortunately, as pediatric trial evidence is limited, there are discrepancies in the recommendations that may lead to inconsistent clinical care and practice variation. This article reviews the strength of evidence behind each of the clinical practice guideline recommendations regarding blood pressure assessment, treatment targets, and first-line antihypertensive medications. The benefits and cautions of use of clinical practice guidelines are described with emphasis on the importance of reading beyond the summary statements.

  15. Familial Risks of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders. A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Cols, David; Isomura, Kayoko; Pérez-Vigil, Ana; Chang, Zheng; Rück, Christian; Larsson, K Johan; Leckman, James F; Serlachius, Eva; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorders (CTDs), are assumed to be strongly familial and heritable. Although gene-searching efforts are well under way, precise estimates of familial risk and heritability are lacking. Previous controlled family studies were small and typically conducted within specialist clinics, resulting in potential ascertainment biases. They were also underpowered to disentangle genetic from environmental factors that contribute to the observed familiality. Twin studies have been either very small or based on parent-reported tics in population-based (nonclinical) twin samples. To provide unbiased estimates of familial risk and heritability of tic disorders at the population level. In this population cohort, multigenerational family study, we used a validated algorithm to identify 4826 individuals diagnosed as having TS or CTDs (76.2% male) in the Swedish National Patient Register from January 1, 1969, through December 31, 2009. We studied risks for TS or CTDs in all biological relatives of probands compared with relatives of unaffected individuals (matched on a 1:10 ratio) from the general population. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the heritability of tic disorders. The risk for tic disorders among relatives of probands with tic disorders increased proportionally to the degree of genetic relatedness. The risks for first-degree relatives (odds ratio [OR], 18.69; 95% CI, 14.53-24.05) were significantly higher than for second-degree relatives (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 3.22-6.52) and third-degree relatives (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.08-4.51). First-degree relatives at similar genetic distances (eg, parents, siblings, and offspring) had similar risks for tic disorders despite different degrees of shared environment. The risks for full siblings (50% genetic similarity; OR, 17.68; 95% CI, 12.90-24.23) were significantly higher than those for maternal half siblings (25% genetic similarity; OR, 4.41; 95

  16. Nonapnea sleep disorders and incident chronic kidney disease: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Yang, Te-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASDs) are associated with an increased risk of stroke, diabetes, and hypertension. No longitudinal study has yet examined the association between NASD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by using epidemiologic study methods. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of NASD on the incidence of CKD in a large population-based retrospective cohort study. Based on a retrospective cohort study of a general population sample of 128 to 436 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2001, 42 to 812 NASD patients were followed up for 10.2 ± 3.12 years, and additional 85 to 624 individuals had no NASD at baseline. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification was used to identify the diagnosis of disease. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the association between NASD and subsequent CKD risk. The incidence rate of CKD was significantly higher in the NASD cohort than in the comparison cohort (2.68 vs 1.88 per 1000 person-years, respectively). After we adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of developing CKD was significant for patients with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.22; P types of NASDs, patients with sleep disturbance associated disorders had a 14% increased risk of developing CKD (95% CI = 1.03-1.26; P < 0.01), whereas patients with insomnia had a 13% increased risk of subsequent CKD (95% CI = 1.02-1.25; P < 0.05) compared with the non-NASD cohort. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the CKD-free rate was 1% lower in the NASD cohort than in the comparison cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). Our study provides evidence that patients with NASD have an increased risk of developing subsequent CKD compared with patients without NASD; men, elderly people, and patients with concomitant comorbidities are at the greatest

  17. A population-based study of the clinical course of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Michele

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS presents a challenge for patients, health care providers, and health insurance groups because of its incapacitating nature, unknown cause, and poorly understood prognosis. We conducted a longitudinal population-based study to characterize the clinical course of CFS. Methods Sixty-five CFS subjects were identified from a random-digit-dialing survey of Wichita, Kansas residents and followed for up to 3 years. We evaluated changes in CFS classification (partial or total remission, alternative medical or psychiatric diagnoses, CFS case-defining criteria, wellness scores, hours of activities and sleep, and treatments used to reduce fatigue. Associations between risk factors and outcomes were determined by use of logistic regression and generalized estimating equations models. Results Only 20%-33% of the subjects were classified as having CFS at follow-up, 56.9% ever experienced partial or total remission, 10% sustained total remission, and 23.1% received alternative diagnoses, of which 20% were sleep disorders. Higher fatigue severity scores and total number of symptoms were negatively associated with ever remitting. Duration of illness ≤ 2 years was positively associated with sustained remission. Unrefreshing sleep persisted in at least 79% of the subjects across all periods but, as with most of the CFS symptoms, tended to be less frequent over time. The number of activities affected by fatigue decreased over time, while wellness scores increased. At any follow-up, more than 35% of subjects reporting reduced fatigue used complementary and alternative medicine therapies, and of those subjects, at least 50% thought these therapies were responsible for reducing their fatigue. Conclusions The clinical course of CFS was characterized by an intermittent pattern of relapse and remission. Remission rates documented by our population-based study were similar to those reported in clinical studies. Shorter

  18. Improvement in balance using a virtual reality-based stepping exercise: a randomized controlled trial involving individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloréns, Roberto; Gil-Gómez, José-Antonio; Alcañiz, Mariano; Colomer, Carolina; Noé, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    To study the clinical effectiveness and the usability of a virtual reality-based intervention compared with conventional physical therapy in the balance recovery of individuals with chronic stroke. Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient neurorehabilitation unit. A total of 20 individuals with chronic stroke. The intervention consisted of 20 one-hour sessions, five sessions per week. The experimental group combined 30 minutes with the virtual reality-based intervention with 30 minutes of conventional training. The control group underwent one hour conventional therapy. Balance performance was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the trial using the Berg Balance Scale, the balance and gait subscales of the Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment, the Brunel Balance Assessment, and the 10-m Walking Test. Subjective data of the virtual reality-based intervention were collected from the experimental group, with a feedback questionnaire at the end of the trial. The results revealed a significant group-by-time interaction in the scores of the Berg Balance Scale (p Virtual reality interventions can be an effective resource to enhance the improvement of balance in individuals with chronic stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions for the Management of Pediatric Chronic Pain: New Directions in Research and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Rachael; Wihak, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 20 years our knowledge about evidence-based psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain has dramatically increased. Overall, the evidence in support of psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain is strong, demonstrating positive psychological and behavioral effects for a variety of children with a range of pain conditions. However, wide scale access to effective psychologically-based pain management treatments remains a challenge for many children who suffer with pain. Increasing access to care and reducing persistent biomedical biases that inhibit attainment of psychological services are a central focus of current pain treatment interventions. Additionally, as the number of evidence-based treatments increase, tailoring treatments to a child or family’s particular needs is increasingly possible. This article will (1) discuss the theoretical frameworks as well as the specific psychological skills and strategies that currently hold promise as effective agents of change; (2) review and summarize trends in the development of well-researched outpatient interventions over the past ten years; and (3) discuss future directions for intervention research on pediatric chronic pain. PMID:28165415

  20. Evidence-Based Psychological Interventions for the Management of Pediatric Chronic Pain: New Directions in Research and Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Coakley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years our knowledge about evidence-based psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain has dramatically increased. Overall, the evidence in support of psychological interventions for pediatric chronic pain is strong, demonstrating positive psychological and behavioral effects for a variety of children with a range of pain conditions. However, wide scale access to effective psychologically-based pain management treatments remains a challenge for many children who suffer with pain. Increasing access to care and reducing persistent biomedical biases that inhibit attainment of psychological services are a central focus of current pain treatment interventions. Additionally, as the number of evidence-based treatments increase, tailoring treatments to a child or family’s particular needs is increasingly possible. This article will (1 discuss the theoretical frameworks as well as the specific psychological skills and strategies that currently hold promise as effective agents of change; (2 review and summarize trends in the development of well-researched outpatient interventions over the past ten years; and (3 discuss future directions for intervention research on pediatric chronic pain.

  1. [Tic suppression is a new evidence-based non-farmacological treatment of chronic tic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Camilla Birgitte; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte; Miranda, Maria J

    2017-03-06

    Chronic tic disorder and Tourette syndrome are both chronic and impairing neurobiological disorders starting in childhood with a prevalence between 0.4 and 1.6%. Traditionally, pharmacological therapies have been first-line treatment but are often associated with adverse effects. Recently behavioural therapy has shown to be effective in treating tics and today both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ERP) are recommended as first-line treatments. HR and ERP are now available for Danish patients. This article describes the evidence and recommendations for both therapies.

  2. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that 125 I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of 125 I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of 125 I-pPRL was bound. 125 I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites

  3. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  4. Chronic Kidney Pain in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease : A Case Report of Successful Treatment by Catheter-Based Renal Denervation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; de Jager, Rosa L.; Neeleman, M. Peer; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Chronic pain is a common concern in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We report what to our knowledge is the first catheter-based renal denervation procedure in a patient with ADPKD resulting in successful management of chronic pain. The patient was a 43-year-old

  5. Development and application of an ELISA for the detection of porcine deltacoronavirus IgG antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Thachil

    Full Text Available Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV, also known as porcine coronavirus HKU15, was first detected in North America in early 2014 and associated with enteric disease in pigs, resulting in an urgent need to further investigate the ecology of this virus. While assays detecting nucleic acids were implemented quickly, assays to detect anti-PDCoV antibodies have not been available. In this study, an indirect anti-PDCoV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based on the putative S1 portion of the spike protein was developed and utilized to determine the prevalence of anti-PDCoV IgG in U.S. pigs. The diagnostic sensitivity of the PDCoV ELISA was 91% with a diagnostic specificity of 95%. A total of 968 serum samples were tested including samples with confirmed infection with PDCoV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus or porcine respiratory coronavirus. There was no cross-reactivity with any of the other coronaviruses. Among 355 arbitrarily selected serum samples collected in 2014 and originating from 51 farms across 18 U.S. states, anti-PDCoV IgG antibodies were detected in 8.7% of the samples and in 25.5% of the farms whereas anti-PEDV IgG was detected in 22.8% of the samples and in 54.9% of the farms. In addition, anti-PDCoV IgG antibodies were detected in archived samples collected in 2010, perhaps indicating an earlier undetected introduction into the U.S. pig population. Overall, the obtained data suggest that PDCoV seroprevalence in U.S. pigs is lower compared to PEDV and PDCoV may have been introduced to the U.S. prior to PEDV.

  6. Low concentrations of MEM vitamins during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes improves subsequent parthenogenetic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Kenji; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Young Min; Chang, Suk Min; Lee, Hye Ran; Park, Chang Sik; Jin, Dong Il

    2007-01-15

    To investigate the effects of water-soluble vitamin supplementation for IVM/IVC of porcine oocytes and evaluate maturation and developmental capacity in vitro, porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) was matured in NCSU-23-based medium with water-soluble vitamins for 44 h and then cultured in PZM-3 for 7 days following activation. The COCs were allocated into five treatment groups and matured in various concentrations of MEM vitamins (control, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 1x). Metaphase II plates of the cumulus-free oocytes were observed following Hoechest 33258 staining. The COCs were allocated into four treatment groups, matured in various concentrations of MEM vitamins (control, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4x) and cultured in PZM-3 following activation. Also, COCS were matured without MEM vitamins and cultured in PZM-3 with various concentrations (control, 0.1, 0.4, 1.0, and 2.0 x) of MEM vitamins. Furthermore, 2 x 2 factorial (IVM/IVC) experiments were performed in IVM medium with or without 0.05 x MEM vitamins and IVC medium with or without 0.4x MEM vitamins to examine the in vitro development of parthenogenetic embryos. Maturation rates of COCs treated with MEM vitamins did not differ significantly among groups. However, compared to the control group, oocytes matured with the addition of 0.05 x MEM vitamins developed to blastocysts at a higher percentage (Pvitamins. Total cell number of blastocysts was significantly higher in the 0.05 x group. Addition of 0.4x MEM vitamins decreased (Pvitamins-treated group. In contrast, addition of vitamins to PZM-3 medium for in vitro culture of activated porcine oocytes did not affect development. In conclusion, addition of a low concentration of MEM vitamins to IVM medium for porcine oocytes enhanced subsequent development and improved embryo quality.

  7. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Matsunari, Hitomi; Takayanagi, Shuko; Haruyama, Erika; Nakano, Kazuaki; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Ikezawa, Yuka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. → ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. → Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor the exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  8. Refrigeration and freezing of porcine tissue does not affect the retardation of fragment simulating projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Carr, D J; Mabbott, A; Beckett, S; Clasper, J C

    2015-05-01

    Explosively propelled fragments are the most common cause of injury to UK service personnel in modern conflicts. Numerical injury models to simulate such injuries utilise algorithms based upon gelatin and animal tissue testing but data is limited on many fragment simulating projectiles and these simulants cannot represent human anatomy. Testing with post mortem specimens may overcome this limitation but no information exists about how post mortem tissue changes and storage conditions in humans or animals may affect projectile penetration. Two chisel nosed cylinders (0.49 g and 1.10 g) and a 0.51 g (5 mm) sphere were fired into three groups of porcine tissue (fresh, refrigerated and frozen then refrigerated) and compared to 20% gelatin. Depth of projectile penetration was ascertained with the assistance of computed tomography and kinetic energy absorption by tissues measured using Doppler radar and high speed photography. No difference in depth of penetration was found between porcine tissue stored in the different manners compared with 20% gelatin by impact velocities less than 100 m/s. Insufficient numbers of projectiles were retained in tissue at higher velocities for statistical analysis to be undertaken. Energy absorbed per millimetre of tissue ranged between 0.42 and 0.98 J/mm for different porcine tissue despite differing storage. This pilot study would suggest that the effect of refrigerating or freezing porcine tissue followed by thawing has no effect on its ability to retard these projectiles. Further research is required to ascertain if these results occur at greater velocities and for other types of projectile. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An ontology-based approach to patient follow-up assessment for continuous and personalized chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Gou, Ling; Zhou, Tian-Shu; Lin, De-Nan; Zheng, Jing; Li, Ye; Li, Jing-Song

    2017-08-01

    Chronic diseases are complex and persistent clinical conditions that require close collaboration among patients and health care providers in the implementation of long-term and integrated care programs. However, current solutions focus partially on intensive interventions at hospitals rather than on continuous and personalized chronic disease management. This study aims to fill this gap by providing computerized clinical decision support during follow-up assessments of chronically ill patients at home. We proposed an ontology-based framework to integrate patient data, medical domain knowledge, and patient assessment criteria for chronic disease patient follow-up assessments. A clinical decision support system was developed to implement this framework for automatic selection and adaptation of standard assessment protocols to suit patient personal conditions. We evaluated our method in the case study of type 2 diabetic patient follow-up assessments. The proposed framework was instantiated using real data from 115,477 follow-up assessment records of 36,162 type 2 diabetic patients. Standard evaluation criteria were automatically selected and adapted to the particularities of each patient. Assessment results were generated as a general typing of patient overall condition and detailed scoring for each criterion, providing important indicators to the case manager about possible inappropriate judgments, in addition to raising patient awareness of their disease control outcomes. Using historical data as the gold standard, our system achieved a rate of accuracy of 99.93% and completeness of 95.00%. This study contributes to improving the accessibility, efficiency and quality of current patient follow-up services. It also provides a generic approach to knowledge sharing and reuse for patient-centered chronic disease management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitive DNA impedance biosensor for detection of cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, based on gold nanoparticles/gold modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali A., E-mail: ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taei, M. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, H.R. [Department of Animal Science, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khayamian, T. [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > Chronic lymphocytic leukemia causes an increase in the number of white blood cells. > We introduced a highly sensitive biosensor for the detection of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. > A suitable 25-mer ssDNA probe was immobilized on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. > We used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a suitable tool for the detection. > Detection of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in blood sample was checked using the sensor. - Abstract: A simple and sensitive DNA impedance sensor was prepared for the detection of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The DNA electrochemical biosensor is worked based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) detection of the sequence-specific DNA related to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The ssDNA probe was immobilized on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. Compared to the bare gold electrode, the gold nanoparticles-modified electrode could improve the density of the probe DNA attachment and hence the sensitivity of the DNA sensor greatly. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed in a solution containing 1.0 mmol L{sup -1} K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]/K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] and 50 mmol L{sup -1} phosphate buffer saline pH 6.87 plus 50 mmol L{sup -1} KCl. In the CV studied, the potential was cycled from 0.0 to +0.65 V with a scan rate of 50 mV s{sup -1}. Using EIS, the difference of the electron transfer resistance ({Delta}R{sub et}) was linear with the logarithm of the complementary oligonucleotides sequence concentrations in the range of 7.0 x 10{sup -12}-2.0 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}, with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10{sup -12} mol L{sup -1}. In addition, the DNA sensor showed a good reproducibility and stability during repeated regeneration and hybridization cycles.

  11. Structural investigation of porcine stomach mucin by X-ray fiber diffraction and homology modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veluraja, K., E-mail: veluraja@msuniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu 627012 (India); Vennila, K.N. [CAS in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600025 (India); Umamakeshvari, K.; Jasmine, A. [Department of Physics, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu 627012 (India); Velmurugan, D. [CAS in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600025 (India)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Techniques to get oriented mucin fibre. {yields} X-ray fibre diffraction pattern for mucin. {yields} Molecular modeling of mucin based on X-ray fibre diffraction pattern. -- Abstract: The basic understanding of the three dimensional structure of mucin is essential to understand its physiological function. Technology has been developed to achieve orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules. X-ray fiber diffraction of partially orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules show d-spacing signals at 2.99, 4.06, 4.22, 4.7, 5.37 and 6.5 A. The high intense d-spacing signal at 4.22 A is attributed to the antiparallel {beta}-sheet structure identified in the fraction of the homology modeled mucin molecule (amino acid residues 800-980) using Nidogen-Laminin complex structure as a template. The X-ray fiber diffraction signal at 6.5 A reveals partial organization of oligosaccharides in porcine stomach mucin. This partial structure of mucin will be helpful in establishing a three dimensional structure for the whole mucin molecule.

  12. Genomic structure, expression and association study of the porcine FSD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyu-Sang; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Lee, Si-Woo; Chai, Han-Ha; Jang, Gulwon; Hong, Ki-Chang; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2016-09-01

    The fibronectin type III and SPRY domain containing 2 (FSD2) on porcine chromosome 7 is considered a candidate gene for pork quality, since its two domains, which were present in fibronectin and ryanodine receptor. The fibronectin type III and SPRY domains were first identified in fibronectin and ryanodine receptor, respectively, which are candidate genes for meat quality. The aim of this study was to elucidate the genomic structure of FSD2 and functions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within FSD2 that are related to meat quality in pigs. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome clone sequence, we revealed that porcine FSD2 consisted of 13 exons encoding 750 amino acids. In addition, FSD2 was expressed in heart, longissimus dorsi muscle, psoas muscle, and tendon among 23 kinds of porcine tissues tested. A total of ten SNPs, including four missense mutations, were identified in the exonic region of FSD2, and two major haplotypes were obtained based on the SNP genotypes of 633 Berkshire pigs. Both haplotypes were associated significantly with intramuscular fat content (IMF, P meat color, affecting yellowness (P = 0.002). These haplotype effects were further supported by the alteration of putative protein structures with amino acid substitutions. Taken together, our results suggest that FSD2 haplotypes are involved in regulating meat quality including IMF, MP, and meat color in pigs, and may be used as meaningful molecular makers to identify pigs with preferable pork quality.

  13. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in Europe: In-Detail Analyses of Disease Dynamics and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Dennis; Pohlmann, Anne; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Höper, Dirk; Stadler, Julia; Ritzmann, Mathias; Steinrigl, Adi; Schwarz, Bernd-Andreas; Akimkin, Valerij; Fux, Robert; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2017-07-06

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease of swine caused by the eponymous virus (PEDV) which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus within the Coronaviridae virus family. Following the disastrous outbreaks in Asia and the United States, PEDV has been detected also in Europe. In order to better understand the overall situation, the molecular epidemiology, and factors that might influence the most variable disease impact; 40 samples from swine feces were collected from different PED outbreaks in Germany and other European countries and sequenced by shot-gun next-generation sequencing. A total of 38 new PEDV complete coding sequences were generated. When compared on a global scale, all investigated sequences from Central and South-Eastern Europe formed a rather homogeneous PEDV S INDEL cluster, suggesting a recent re-introduction. However, in-detail analyses revealed two new clusters and putative ancestor strains. Based on the available background data, correlations between clusters and location, farm type or clinical presentation could not be established. Additionally, the impact of secondary infections was explored using the metagenomic data sets. While several coinfections were observed, no correlation was found with disease courses. However, in addition to the PEDV genomes, ten complete viral coding sequences from nine different data sets were reconstructed each representing new virus strains. In detail, three pasivirus A strains, two astroviruses, a porcine sapelovirus, a kobuvirus, a porcine torovirus, a posavirus, and an enterobacteria phage were almost fully sequenced.

  15. Microencapsulation of porcine thyroid cell organoids within a polymer microcapsule construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yipeng; Opara, Emmanuel C; Liu, Yingbin; Atala, Anthony; Zhao, Weixin

    2017-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common condition of hormone deficiency, and oral administration of thyroid hormones is currently the only available treatment option. However, there are some disadvantages with this treatment modality including compliance challenges to patients. Therefore, a physiologically based alternative therapy for hypothyroidism with little or no side-effects is needed. In this study, we have developed a method for microencapsulating porcine thyroid cells as a thyroid hormone replacement approach. The hybrid wall of the polymer microcapsules permits thyroid hormone release while preventing immunoglobulin antibodies from entry. This strategy could potentially enable implantation of the microcapsule organoids containing allogeneic or xenogeneic thyroid cells to secret hormones over time without the need for immunosuppression of recipients. Porcine thyroid cells were isolated and encapsulated in alginate-poly-L-ornithine-alginate microcapsules using a microfluidic device. The porcine thyroid cells formed three-dimensional follicular spheres in the microcapsules with decent cell viability and proliferation. Thyroxine release from the encapsulated cells was higher than from unencapsulated cells ( P 28 days). These results suggest that the microencapsulated thyroid cell organoids may have the potential to be used for therapy and/or drug screening.

  16. Evaluation of a smartphone-based assessment system in subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Lan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chueh-Ho; Hou, You-Ruei; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury, and approximately 80% of patients studied suffered recurrent sprains. These repeated ankle injuries could cause chronic ankle instability, a decrease in sports performance, and a decrease in postural control ability. At the present time, smartphones have become very popular and powerful devices, and smartphone applications (apps) that have been shown to have good validity have been designed to measure human body motion. However, the app focusing on ankle function assessment and rehabilitation is still not widely used and has very limited functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of smartphone-based systems in the assessment of postural control ability for patients with chronic ankle instability. Fifteen physically active adults (6 male, 9 female; aged = 23.4 ± 5.28 years; height = 167.13 ± 7.3 cm; weight = 62.06 ± 10.82 kg; BMI = 22.08 ± 2.57 kg/ m 2 ) were recruited, and these participants had at least one leg that was evaluated as scoring lower than 27 points according to the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT). The smartphone used in the study was ASUS Zenfone 2, and an app developed using MIT App Inventor was used to record built-in accelerometer data during the assessment process. Subjects were asked to perform single leg stance for 20 s in eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions with each leg. The smartphone was fixed in an upright position on the middle of the shin, using an exercise armband, with the screen facing forward. The average of recorded acceleration data was used to represent the postural control performance, and higher values indicated more instability. Data were analyzed with a paired t-test with SPSS 17.0, and the statistical significance was set as alpha <0.05. A significant difference was found between CAIT scores from the healthier leg and injured leg (healthier leg 23.07 ± 3.80 vs. injured leg 18.27 ± 3

  17. Acupuncture and chronic pain: a criteria-based meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Riet, G.; Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.

    1990-01-01

    A literature search revealed 51 controlled clinical studies on the effectiveness of acupuncture in chronic pain. These studies were reviewed using a list of 18 predefined methodological criteria. A maximum of 100 points for study design could be earned in four main categories: (a) comparability of

  18. Optimal management of chronic cyclical pelvic pain: an evidence-based and pragmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Ryun Won

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ha Ryun Won, Jason AbbottDepartment of Endo-Gynecology, Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: This article reviews the literature on management of chronic cyclical pelvic pain (CCPP. Electronic resources including Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Current Contents, and EMBASE were searched using MeSH terms including all ­subheadings and keywords: “cyclical pelvic pain”, “chronic pain”, “dysmenorrheal”, “nonmenstrual ­pelvic pain”, and “endometriosis”. There is a dearth of high-quality evidence for this common ­problem. Chronic pelvic pain affects 4%–25% of women of reproductive age. Dysmenorrhea of varying degree affects 60% of women. Endometriosis is the commonest pathologic cause of CCPP. Other gynecological causes are adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic floor myalgia, although other systems disease such as irritable bowel syndrome or interstitial cystitis may be responsible. ­Management options range from simple to invasive, where simple medical ­treatment such as the combined oral contraceptive pill may be used as a first-line treatment prior to invasive ­management. This review outlines an approach to patients with CCPP through history, physical examination, and investigation to identify the cause(s of the pain and its optimal management.Keywords: cyclical pelvic pain, chronic pain, dysmenorrhea, nonmenstrual pelvic pain, endometriosis

  19. Treatment of chronic pain in older people: Evidence-based choice of strong-acting opioids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ojik, Annette L.; Jansen, Paul A. F.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; van Roon, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic malignant and non-malignant pain, opioids are used as strong analgesics. Frail elderly patients often have multiple comorbidities and use multiple medicines, leading to an increased risk of clinically relevant drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Age-related changes

  20. The effectiveness of a history-based diagnostic approach in chronic urticaria and angioedema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozel, M. M.; Mekkes, J. R.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Bos, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of extensive laboratory screening for the identification of causes in patients with chronic urticaria and/or angioedema. DESIGN: In a prospective study involving 220 patients, 2 diagnostic strategies were compared: the combination of detailed history taking and limited

  1. Array-based genomic screening at diagnosis and during follow-up in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Rebeqa; Mansouri, Larry; Isaksson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution genomic microarrays enable simultaneous detection of copy-number aberrations such as the known recurrent aberrations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia [del(11q), del(13q), del(17p) and trisomy 12], and copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity. Moreover, comparison of genomic...

  2. IgE-Related Chronic Diseases and Anti-IgE-Based Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau Navinés-Ferrer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IgE is an immunoglobulin that plays a central role in acute allergic reactions and chronic inflammatory allergic diseases. The development of a drug able to neutralize this antibody represents a breakthrough in the treatment of inflammatory pathologies with a probable allergic basis. This review focuses on IgE-related chronic diseases, such as allergic asthma and chronic urticaria (CU, and on the role of the anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, omalizumab, in their treatment. We also assess the off-label use of omalizumab for other pathologies associated with IgE and report the latest findings concerning this drug and other new related drugs. To date, omalizumab has only been approved for severe allergic asthma and unresponsive chronic urticaria treatments. In allergic asthma, omalizumab has demonstrated its efficacy in reducing the dose of inhaled corticosteroids required by patients, decreasing the number of asthma exacerbations, and limiting the effect on airway remodeling. In CU, omalizumab treatment rapidly improves symptoms and in some cases achieves complete disease remission. In systemic mastocytosis, omalizumab also improves symptoms and its prophylactic use to prevent anaphylactic reactions has also been discussed. In other pathologies such as atopic dermatitis, food allergy, allergic rhinitis, nasal polyposis, and keratoconjunctivitis, omalizumab significantly improves clinical manifestations. Omalizumab acts in two ways: by sequestering free IgE and by accelerating the dissociation of the IgE-Fcε receptor I complex.

  3. Prevalence of chronic kidney diseases in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: assessment based on glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine and cystatin C levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Yoshizawa,1,2 Kazuyoshi Okada,3 Sachiko Furuichi,1,2 Toshihiko Ishiguro,1 Akitaka Yoshizawa,1 Toshiki Akahoshi,2 Yasuhiro Gon,2 Tsuneto Akashiba,2 Yoshifumi Hosokawa,1,2 Shu Hashimoto2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Kanamecho Hospital, Toshima-ku, 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 3Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and depression are identified comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but there have been few reports of chronic kidney disease (CKD as a comorbidity of COPD. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CKD in COPD patients using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR based on creatinine (Cr and cystatin C (Cys levels. Methods: The prevalence of CKD and the values of various CKD-related parameters were compared between 108 stable COPD outpatients (COPD group and a non-COPD control group consisting of 73 patients aged 60 years or more without a history of COPD or kidney disease. CKD was defined as an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: The Cr level was significantly higher in the COPD group, but eGFR based on serum Cr (eGFRCr was not significantly different between the two groups (73.3±25.3 vs 79.7±15.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. The Cys level was significantly higher and eGFR based on serum Cys (eGFRCys was significantly lower in the COPD group (60.0±19.4 vs 74.0±13.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, P<0.0001. The prevalence of CKD evaluated based on eGFRCr was 31% in the COPD group and 8% in the non-COPD group with an odds ratio of 4.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.94–12.46, P=0.0008, whereas the evaluated prevalence based on eGFRCys was 53% in the COPD group and 15% in the non-COPD group with an odds ratio of 6.30 (95% confidence interval, 2.99–13.26, P<0.0001, demonstrating a higher prevalence of

  4. Migraine and subsequent chronic kidney disease risk: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shuo-Chun; Wu, Chia-Lin; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chia-Chu; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2017-12-27

    We compared the incidence and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) between subjects with new-onset migraine and matched controls without migraine in this large-scale retrospective cohort study. Population-based cohort study. 8880 subjects with migraine and 503 070 subjects without migraine were enrolled between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2013, all diagnosed to be without kidney disease. All the participants were registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database. Finally, data from 7156 subjects with migraine and 7156 propensity-score-matched control subjects were analysed. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate adjusted HRs for incident CKD; subgroup analyses were performed to assess the interactive effects of migraine with demographics, comorbidities and long-term medications. The incidence of CKD was higher in the migraine group than in the control group. The risk of developing CKD was significantly higher in subjects with migraine than without migraine (P=0.031). Subjects with migraine aged <65 years (age 40-64 (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.35; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.73); age <40 (aHR 1.55; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.36)), with ≥1 comorbid diseases (1-2 diseases (aHR 1.30; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.68); ≥3 diseases (aHR 1.45; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.07)), and not receiving anti-migraine agents (aHR 1.26; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.54) were at a higher risk of developing CKD compared with the control subjects. The interaction between migraine and comorbidities was not significant; age, male gender and long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were independent risk factors for CKD in subjects with migraine. Migraine may be an independent risk factor for CKD. Young subjects with migraine, and those with comorbid conditions or without medical control, are likely to be at higher risk for CKD. Ageing, male sex and NSAIDs tend to have an association with CKD in subjects with migraine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  5. Second-generation H1-antihistamines in chronic urticaria: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavosh, Eric R; Khan, David A

    2011-12-01

    The effects of urticaria are predominantly mediated by histamine release; therefore, H1-antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Second-generation H1-antihistamines, compared with their first-generation counterparts, have demonstrated improved peripheral H1-receptor selectivity and decreased lipophilicity (which minimizes CNS adverse effects), and antiallergic properties in addition to being histamine inverse agonists. Evidence of clinical efficacy and tolerability of second-generation H1-antihistamines available in the US for the treatment of chronic urticaria (CU) was analyzed using the GRADE system to develop the strength of recommendations for particular therapies. The evidence for the safety and efficacy of the majority of second-generation H1-antihistamines available in the US is of high quality and leads to a strong recommendation for their use in CU. There is a limited amount of data of variable quality comparing the efficacy between various second-generation H1-antihistamines in CU leading to weak recommendations for using cetirizine over fexofenadine and levocetirizine over desloratadine. Limited data of variable quality exist for the efficacy of higher doses of second-generation H1-antihistamines in CU patients not responsive to standard doses. These limited data lead to a strong recommendation that higher than recommended doses of fexofenadine do not offer greater efficacy in control of CU and a weak recommendation that higher doses of levocetirizine and desloratadine are more effective in CU unresponsive to standard doses. More studies of higher quality are required to make any firm recommendations regarding second-generation H1-antihistamines in the treatment of physical urticarias. All second-generation H1-antihistamines appear to be very well tolerated in CU patients, with rare reports of adverse effects. Due to the relatively large gaps in the quantity and quality of evidence, particularly for choice of H1-antihistamines, use of higher doses

  6. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  7. Periodontal Pocket Depth, Hyperglycemia, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Feng; Yeh, Jih-Chen; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Liou, Jian-Chiun; Hsiung, Jing-Ru; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    No large epidemiological study has been conducted to investigate the interaction and joint effects of periodontal pocket depth and hyperglycemia on progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with periodontal diseases. Periodontal pocket depth was utilized for the grading severity of periodontal disease in 2831 patients from January 2002 to June 2013. Progression of chronic kidney disease was defined as progression of color intensity in glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria grid of updated Kidney Disease-Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) in various models were presented across different levels of periodontal pocket depth and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in forest plots and 3-dimensional histograms. During 7621 person-years of follow-up, periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C levels were robustly associated with incremental risks for progression of chronic kidney disease (aHR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-4.6 for periodontal pocket depth >4.5 mm, and 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.4 for HbA1C >6.5%, respectively). The interaction between periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C on progression of chronic kidney disease was strong (P periodontal pocket depth (>4.5 mm) and higher HbA1C (>6.5%) had the greatest risk (aHR 4.2; 95% CI, 1.7-6.8) compared with the lowest aHR group (periodontal pocket depth ≤3.8 mm and HbA1C ≤6%). Our study identified combined periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C as a valuable predictor of progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with periodontal diseases. While considering the interaction between periodontal diseases and hyperglycemia, periodontal survey and optimizing glycemic control are warranted to minimize the risk of worsening renal function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Half-life of porcine antibodies absorbed from a colostrum supplement containing porcine immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, J; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J; Rodríguez, C; Pujol, N; Navarro, N; Pujols, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of immunoglobulins (Ig) at birth from colostrum is essential for piglet survival. The objective was to evaluate the half-life of antibodies absorbed in the bloodstream of newborn piglets orally fed a colostrum supplement (CS) containing energy (fat and carbohydrates) and IgG from porcine plasma. Viable piglets (n = 23; 900 to 1,800 g BW) from 6 sows were colostrum deprived and blood sampled and within the next 2 h of life randomly allocated to either control group (n = 9) providing 30 mL of Ig-free milk replacer or a group (n = 14) receiving 30 mL of CS by oral gavage. Piglets were transported to a Biosafety Level 3 facility (Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Spain) and fed Ig-free milk replacer every 3 to 4 h for 15 d. Survival, weight, plasma IgG content by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhy), and swine influenza virus (SIV) were determined by specific ELISA before treatment administration, at 24 h, and weekly for 56 d. Clinical symptoms were not observed for either group. Mortality index was lower (17 vs. 38%; P d. In the CS group, efficiency of PCV2 and PPV antibody transfer was high. For PCV2, all animals remained positive by day 56 and the calculated HLAC was 17.7 d. For PPV, 72.7% of piglets were ELISA positive by day 35 and HLAC was 12.0 d. For PRRS, all piglets remained positive by day 14 and the calculated HLAC was 11.9 d. For Mhy and SIV the calculated HLAC were 8.4 and 3.0 d. In summary, half-life of antibodies derived from blood plasma in the bloodstream of newborn piglets varied from 3.0 to 17.7 d. The study also confirm that antibodies derived from porcine plasma were well absorbed and can be an useful tool for providing protection against several or specific pathogens and can be a good alternative to formulate CS for newborn piglets.

  9. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...... heterogeneity, PRRSV is divided into two genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 PRRS viruses are further divided into at least 3 subtypes. The virus evolves rapidly and reports of high pathogenic variants of both Type 1 and Type 2 appearing in Europe, North America, and Asia have been reported within recent years...... confirmed that only Type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV is circulating in the Danish pig population. The examination of the Danish PRRS field viruses confirmed that there is a high overall diversity among Type 1 viruses in Europe. The phylogenetic study also indicated the presence of two Danish virus clusters, one...

  10. Mechanical characterization of porcine abdominal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsutaka; Omori, Kiyoshi; Miki, Kazuo; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2002-11-01

    Typical automotive related abdominal injuries occur due to contact with the rim of the steering wheel, seatbelt and armrest, however, the rate is less than in other body regions. When solid abdominal organs, such as the liver, kidneys and spleen are involved, the injury severity tends to be higher. Although sled and pendulum impact tests have been conducted using cadavers and animals, the mechanical properties and the tissue level injury tolerance of abdominal solid organs are not well characterized. These data are needed in the development of computer models, the improvement of current anthropometric test devices and the enhancement of our understanding of abdominal injury mechanisms. In this study, a series of experimental tests on solid abdominal organs was conducted using porcine liver, kidney and spleen specimens. Additionally, the injury tolerance of the solid organs was deduced from the experimental data.

  11. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...... or decrease the risk for a pig herd to be affected by PMWS. At the pig level, studies have shown the importance of maternal immunity as protection for subsequent development of PMWS. To control PMWS, good production management and control of other diseases are crucial. Since 2004, commercial vaccines against...... of the vaccines in significantly reducing mortality and increasing weight gain of the pigs....

  12. A Novel Porcine Graft for Regeneration of Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone regeneration procedures require alternative graft biomaterials to those for autogenous bone. Therefore, we developed a novel porcine graft using particle sizes of 250–500 μm and 500–1000 μm in rabbit calvarial bone defects and compared the graft properties with those of commercial hydroxyapatite (HA/beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP over eight weeks. Surgery was performed in 20 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. During a standardized surgical procedure, four calvarial critical-size defects of 5 mm diameter and 3 mm depth were prepared. The defects were filled with HA/β-TCP, 250–500 μm or 500–1000 μm porcine graft, and control defects were not filled. The animals were grouped for sacrifice at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-surgery. Subsequently, sample blocks were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT scanning and histological sectioning. Similar bone formations were observed in all three treatment groups, although the 250–500 μm porcine graft performed slightly better. Rabbit calvarial bone tissue positively responded to porcine grafts and commercial HA/β-TCP, structural analyses showed similar crystallinity and porosity of the porcine and HA/β-TCP grafts, which facilitated bone formation through osteoconduction. These porcine grafts can be considered as graft substitutes, although further development is required for clinical applications.

  13. Personality traits predict and moderate the outcome of Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstäuber, Maria; Weise, Cornelia; Andersson, Gerhard; Probst, Thomas

    2018-01-31

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the Big Five personality traits predict the outcome of Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and whether they moderate the outcome between ICBT and face-to-face group cognitive behavioural therapy (GCBT). This study investigated the Big Five personality traits as predictors and moderators of the outcome (tinnitus handicap) in a trial comparing ICBT and GCBT for chronic tinnitus. N = 84 patients with chronic tinnitus were randomised to either ICBT (n = 41) or GCBT (n = 43). A multilevel model for discontinuous change was performed. Higher scores on the "openness" scale of the Big Five Personality Inventory (BFI-10) predicted a lower tinnitus handicap (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI) at post-treatment in ICBT (p self-motivation by the patient in order to have an impact.

  14. Porcine circovirus diseases: a review of PMWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekbo, P; Kristensen, C S; Larsen, L E

    2012-03-01

    This article is a review on post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), the first described disease among the porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome has, since its appearance in Canada in 1991, been seen in all major pig producing countries. To diagnose PMWS at herd level typical clinical appearance consisting of wasting and increased mortality must be combined with finding at autopsy of diseased pigs, where typical microscopic findings in the lymphatic tissue must be present. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome significantly increases the mortality and reduces the daily weight gain in weaner pig and/or in finishing pigs. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome can be transmitted by pig-to-pig contact and some studies point at airborne transmission as a possibility. Studies in Europe have shown several risk factors that either increase or decrease the risk for a pig herd to be affected by PMWS. At the pig level, studies have shown the importance of maternal immunity as protection for subsequent development of PMWS. To control PMWS, good production management and control of other diseases are crucial. Since 2004, commercial vaccines against Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta-analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy of the vaccines in significantly reducing mortality and increasing weight gain of the pigs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  16. Comparison between Mt-DNA D-Loop and Cyt B primers for porcine DNA detection in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhana; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products in the market using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercial PCR-southern hybridization analysis. Porcine DNA detection in meat products was tested due to some issues associated with the adulteration of food products in Malaysia. This is an important issue especially for Halal authentication which is required for some religious practices such as in Islam and Hinduisms. Many techniques have been developed for determining the Halal status of food products. In this paper, mt-DNA D-loop primer and cytochrome (cyt) b were used to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products. Positive and negative controls were always present for each batch of extraction. DNA of raw pork meat was used as a positive control while nucleus free water is used as negative control. A pair of oligonucleotide primer was used namely Pork1 and Pork2 which produced amplicon of 531 base pair (bp) in size. While, PCR-southern hybridization was conducted using primers readily supplied by commercial PCR-Southern hybridization and produced amplicon with 276 bp in size. In the present study, demonstrated that none of the samples were contaminated with porcine residuals but selected samples with pork meat were positive. The species-specific PCR amplification yielded excellent results for identification of pork derivatives in food products and it is a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for Halal certification.

  17. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Nicotine Patch Administration Among Nonsmokers Based on Acute and Chronic Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo; Kodet, Jonathan; Robertson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount that is known about the physical health effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure, little is known about the behavioral health effects. Nicotine, the principle psychoactive substance in SHS, elicits subjective mood and physiological responses in nonsmokers. However, no studies have examined the subjective mood or physiological responses to nicotine in nonsmokers while accounting for prior chronic or acute SHS exposure. A 7-mg nicotine patch was administered to 17 adult nonsmokers for 2 hr. Main outcome measures obtained at ½ hr, 1 hr, and 2 hr were subjective behavioral drug effects (based on eleven 10-cm Visual Analog Scales [VASs]) and the physiological measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and serum nicotine levels. Analysis of outcome data was based on participants' chronic (using hair nicotine) or acute (using saliva cotinine) SHS exposure. Greater chronic SHS exposure was negatively associated with pleasurable responses to nicotine administration ("drug feels good" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = -.65, p < .004), whereas greater acute SHS exposure was associated with positive responses ("like feeling of drug" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = .63, p < .01). There were no associations between chronic or acute exposure and physiological changes in response to nicotine administration. The findings of this study may be useful in providing preliminary empirical data for future explorations of the mechanism whereby SHS exposure can influence behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. Such studies can inform future interventions to reduce the physical and behavioral health risks associated with SHS exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. An evidence-based review on urate-lowering treatments: implications for optimal treatment of chronic hyperuricemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bove M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Marilisa Bove, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Maddalena Veronesi, Claudio Borghi Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Several studies suggest that chronic hyperuricemia, the main precursor of gout, is involved in the pathogenesis of different systemic disorders that affect cardiovascular and renal systems, such as hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, chronic heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Recent epidemiological evidence has shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in the Western world: a number of population-based studies estimate a prevalence of up to 21% for hyperuricemia and 1%–4% for gout. As such, early detection and careful management of this pathological condition is required, starting from lifestyle changes (mainly based on a diet low in red meat, sugars, and alcoholic beverages, with increased intake of vegetables, water, and vitamin C sources, adding specific drugs to lead serum uric acid (SUA levels under the target value of 7 mg/dL. In particular, nonselective and selective XO inhibitors (allopurinol, oxypurinol, febuxostat reduce SUA levels and the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, mainly related to XO overactivity that often causes inflammatory damage to the vascular endothelium. The effect of lowering SUA levels via XO inhibition includes an attenuation of oxidative stress and related endothelial dysfunction that largely contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the inhibition of XO overactivation seems to be an excellent therapeutic option to limit the harmful effects of excess UA and reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, rapid diagnosis and correct therapy for hyperuricemia may also improve the prevention and/or treatment of serious and multifactorial diseases. The available evidence supports the importance of

  20. A randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a classification-based system for subacute and chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apeldoorn, Adri T; Ostelo, Raymond W; van Helvoirt, Hans; Fritz, Julie M; Knol, Dirk L; van Tulder, Maurits W; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2012-07-15

    A randomized controlled trial. To assess the effectiveness of Delitto's classification-based treatment approach compared with usual physical therapy care in patients with subacute or chronic low back pain. No trial has evaluated this approach in patients with subacute and chronic low back pain. Before randomization, all patients were classified by research physical therapists according to a modified version of Delitto's classification-based system. Randomization was computer-generated, with centralized allocation concealment. The statistician and the physical therapists were unblinded. Patients and assistants who collected follow-up questionnaires were blinded. Follow-up assessments were completed at 8, 26, and 52 weeks. The primary analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle, using multilevel analysis. The main outcomes were global perceived effect, disability (Oswestry Disability Index, 0-100), and pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale, 0-10). Secondary outcomes were quality of life, fear-avoidance beliefs, and psychosocial status. RESULTS.: A total of 156 patients were included (classification-based group, n = 74; usual physical therapy group, n = 82). There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups for any of the outcomes at any of the follow-up time points. After 8 weeks, patients in the classification-based group had greater global perceived effect scores; adjusted odds ratio of 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 3.28), and higher adjusted Oswestry Disability Index and Numerical Rating Scale scores; mean adjusted differences of 0.48 points (95% CI, -4.59 to 3.63) and 0.49 points (95% CI, -1.34 to 0.37) respectively, but all differences were statistically nonsignificant. The classification-based system used in this study was not effective for improving physical therapy care outcomes in a population of patients with subacute and chronic low back pain.

  1. The impact of age and gender on the ICF-based assessment of chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrmann, Elisabeth; Kotulla, Simone; Fischer, Linda; Kienbacher, Thomas; Tuechler, Kerstin; Mair, Patrick; Ebenbichler, Gerold; Paul, Birgit

    2018-01-12

    To evaluate the impact of age and gender on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF)-based assessment for chronic low back pain. Two hundred forty-four chronic low back pain patients (52% female) with a mean age of 49 years (SD =17.64) were interviewed with the comprehensive ICF core set for activities and participation, and environmental factors. After conducting explorative factor analysis, the impact of age and gender on the different factors was analyzed using analyzes of variances. Results revealed that older patients experienced more limitations within "self-care and mobility" and "walking" but less problems with "transportation" compared to younger patients. Older or middle-aged low back pain patients further perceived more facilitation through "architecture and products for communication", "health services", and "social services and products for mobility" than younger patients. Regarding gender differences, women reported more restriction in "housework" than men. An interaction effect between age and gender was found for "social activities and recreation" with young male patients reporting the highest impairment. The study demonstrated that the comprehensive ICF core set classification for chronic low back pain is influenced by age and gender. This impact is relevant for ICF-based assessments in clinical practice, and should be considered in intervention planning for rehabilitative programs. Implications for rehabilitation It is important to consider age and gender differences when classifying with the ICF. The intervention planning based on the ICF should focus on improvement of bodily functioning and mobility in older patients, facilitation of household activities in women, consideration of work-life balance and recreation (e.g., through mindfulness based stress reduction), and reduction of dissatisfaction with rehabilitation in younger patients. It is important to offer patients the opportunity to participate in

  2. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Symptoms of chronic pain Chronic ... itself often leads to other symptoms. These include low self-esteem, anger, depression, anxiety, or frustration. What causes chronic ...

  3. Telemedicine-Based Treatment Versus Hospitalization in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Exacerbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lone; Østergaard, Birte; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Telemedicine is gaining ground in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because telemedicine often requires both participation and engagement of the patients, it is important to take differences in cognitive ability into account, as there is evid......OBJECTIVES: Telemedicine is gaining ground in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because telemedicine often requires both participation and engagement of the patients, it is important to take differences in cognitive ability into account....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized study was a substudy of the "Virtual Hospital," a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome in this substudy was cognitive function, evaluated 3 days and 6 weeks after discharge using a neuropsychological test battery comprising four tests and seven...

  4. Building a new life: a chaplain's theory based case study of chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, James L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case study of spiritual care for a patient suffering from Parkinson's disease who was referred to the chaplain in an out-patient depression research program. The chaplain's interventions were informed by an application of narrative theory, and the article demonstrates how this theory enabled the chaplain to help a patient develop new coping strategies for dealing with chronic disease. Using narrative theory, the chaplain assisted the patient to develop a new sense of identity as a spiritual, contingent self as the disease eroded his physical self and former life. The article includes a description of a patient's spiritual needs, chaplain interventions, and an outcomes measure of those interventions. The author argues that narrative theory provides chaplains with a language to identify and craft the unique intervention that spiritual care has in the life trajectory of this Parkinson's patient and other patients dealing with chronic illnesses.

  5. Porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) is not an acellular collagenous matrix and contains porcine DNA: possible implications in human implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M H; Chen, J; Kirilak, Y; Willers, C; Xu, J; Wood, D

    2005-04-01

    Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has been recommended as a cell-free, biocompatible biomaterial for the repair of rotator cuff tendon tear. However, we have observed noninfectious edema and severe pain in patients who have undergone SIS implantation for tendon repair. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent assessment of the safety and efficacy of Restore SIS membrane. The Restore orthobiologic implant was examined by histology and the nested PCR technique using porcine immunoreceptor DAP12 gene to examine if SIS membrane contained porcine cells or DNA, respectively. The material was also implanted into mice and rabbits for the evaluation of biological reaction and inflammatory response. Restore SIS was found to contain multiple layers of porcine cells. Chloroacetate esterase staining showed that some of these cells were mast cells. Nested PCR of the DAP12 gene demonstrated that Restore SIS contained porcine DNA material. Subcutaneous implantation of Restore SIS membrane in mice, and in rabbits for rotator cuff tendon repair, showed that the membrane caused an inflammatory reaction characterized by massive lymphocyte infiltration. In conclusion, Restore SIS is not an acellular collagenous matrix, and contains porcine DNA. Our results contradict the current view that Restore SIS is a cell-free biomaterial, and that no inflammatory response is elicited by its implantation. We suggest that further studies should be conducted to evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of SIS implant biomaterials. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Human Kidney Tubule-Specific Gene Expression Based Dissection of Chronic Kidney Disease Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Pazit Beckerman; Chengxiang Qiu; Jihwan Park; Nora Ledo; Yi-An Ko; Ae-Seo Deok Park; Sang-Youb Han; Peter Choi; Matthew Palmer; Katalin Susztak

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has diverse phenotypic manifestations including structural (such as fibrosis) and functional (such as glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria) alterations. Gene expression profiling has recently gained popularity as an important new tool for precision medicine approaches. Here we used unbiased and directed approaches to understand how gene expression captures different CKD manifestations in patients with diabetic and hypertensive CKD. Transcriptome data from ni...

  7. Medical Nutrition Therapy based on Nutrition Intervention for a Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Seung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability, and according to statistics from the World Health Organization, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death overall in the face of decades, and expected to be increased. In 2005, the reported prevalence of COPD in Korea was 17.2% of adults over the age of 45. Malnutrition is a common problem in papatients with COPD. And several nutritional intervention studies showed a significant improvement in physical and functional...

  8. AN ANIMAL MODEL OF SCHIZOPHRENIA BASED ON CHRONIC LSD ADMINISTRATION: OLD IDEA, NEW RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, Charles D.; Nichols, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Many people who take LSD experience a second temporal phase of LSD intoxication that is qualitatively different, and was described by Daniel Freedman as “clearly a paranoid state.” We have previously shown that the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD in rats also occur in two temporal phases, with initial effects mediated by activation of 5-HT2A receptors (LSD30), and the later temporal phase mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors (LSD90). Surprisingly, we have now found that non-competitive NMDA antagonists produced full substitution in LSD90 rats, but only in older animals, whereas in LSD30, or in younger animals, these drugs did not mimic LSD. Chronic administration of low doses of LSD (>3 months, 0.16 mg/kg every other day) induces a behavioral state characterized by hyperactivity and hyperirritability, increased locomotor activity, anhedonia, and impairment in social interaction that persists at the same magnitude for at least three months after cessation of LSD treatment. These behaviors, which closely resemble those associated with psychosis in humans, are not induced by withdrawal from LSD; rather, they are the result of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the brain during the chronic administration of LSD. These persistent behaviors are transiently reversed by haloperidol and olanzapine, but are insensitive to MDL-100907. Gene expression analysis data show that chronic LSD treatment produced significant changes in multiple neurotransmitter system-related genes, including those for serotonin and dopamine. Thus, we propose that chronic treatment of rats with low doses of LSD can serve as a new animal model of psychosis that may mimic the development and progression of schizophrenia, as well as model the established disease better than current acute drug administration models utilizing amphetamine or NMDA antagonists such as PCP. PMID:21352832

  9. Outpatient Treatment Based on Self-Management Strategies for Chronic Drooling in Two Children

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruijn, Tessa W. P.; Sohier, Jody; van der Burg, Jan J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Drooling is a distressing condition, which is often caused by reduced oral motor control associated with a neurological disorder. It has significant medical, practical and psychosocial impact on children or youth and their families. Therefore, treatment is necessary. Although behavioural therapy for drooling shows promising results, it is generally time- and cost-intensive. For this reason, alternative ways to provide behavioural treatment for chronic drooling need to be explored. In a pair o...

  10. Antidepressant Drugs for Chronic Urological Pelvic Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Papandreou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antidepressant drugs for the management of chronic pelvic pain has been supported in the past. This study aimed to evaluate the available evidence for the efficacy and acceptability of antidepressant drugs in the management of urological chronic pelvic pain. Studies were selected through a comprehensive literature search. We included all types of study designs due to the limited evidence. Studies were classified into levels of evidence according to their design. Ten studies were included with a total of 360 patients. Amitriptyline, sertraline, duloxetine, nortriptyline, and citalopram are the antidepressants that have been reported in the literature. Only four randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified (two for amitriptyline and two for sertraline with mixed results. We conclude that the use of antidepressants for the management of chronic urological pelvic pain is not adequately supported by methodologically sound RCTs. From the existing studies amitriptyline may be effective in interstitial cystitis but publication bias should be considered as an alternative explanation. All drugs were generally well tolerated with no serious events reported.

  11. Chronic Statin Use and Long-Term Rates of Sepsis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E; Griffin, Russell; Shapiro, Nathan I; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M

    2016-07-01

    "Statins" have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and may attenuate the risk of infections. We sought to determine the association between chronic statin use and long-term rates of sepsis events. We used data from 30 183 adult (≥45 years old) community-dwelling participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. The primary exposure was statin use. The primary outcome was hospitalization or emergency department treatment for sepsis. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we determined associations between statin use and first sepsis events, adjusting for patients demographics, health behaviors, chronic medical conditions, degree of medication adherence, baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and propensity for statin use. Approximately one-third of participants reported statin use (n = 9475, 31.4%). During the 10-year follow-up period from 2003 to 2012, there were 1500 incident sepsis events. Statin use was not associated with rates of sepsis after multivariable adjustment for demographics, health behaviors, chronic medical conditions, medication adherence, abnormal hsCRP, and propensity for statin use, hazard ratio 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-1.06). Statin use was not similarly associated with rates of sepsis when stratified by propensity for statin use or medication adherence. In the REGARDS cohort, statin use at baseline was not associated with rates of future sepsis events. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Observing the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Meditation on Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, Kim

    2015-09-01

    People whose chronic pain limits their independence are especially likely to become anxious and depressed. Mindfulness training has shown promise for stress-related disorders. Chronic pain patients who complained of anxiety and depression and who scored higher than moderate in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as moderate in Quality of Life Scale (QOLS) were observed for eight weeks, three days a week for an hour of Mindfulness Meditation training with an hour daily home Mindfulness Meditation practice. Pain was evaluated on study entry and completion, and patients were given the Patients' Global Impression of Change (PGIC) to score at the end of the training program. Forty-seven patients (47) completed the Mindfulness Meditation Training program. Over the year-long observation, patients demonstrated noticeable improvement in depression, anxiety, pain, and global impression of change. Chronic pain patients who suffer with anxiety and depression may benefit from incorporating Mindfulness Meditation into their treatment plans.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) for chronic, treatment-resistant depression: study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cladder-Micus, M.B.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Becker, E.S.; Donders, A.R.T.; Spijker, J.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major depression is a common psychiatric disorder, frequently taking a chronic course. Despite provision of evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medication and psychological treatments like cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy, a substantial amount of

  14. A randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) for chronic, treatment-resistant depression: study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cladder-Micus, M.B.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Becker, E.S.; Donders, A.R.T.; Spijker, J.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major depression is a common psychiatric disorder, frequently taking a chronic course. Despite provision of evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medication and psychological treatments like cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy, a substantial amount of

  15. Natural history of chronic HBV infection in West Africa: a longitudinal population-based study from The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, Yusuke; Lemoine, Maud; Njai, Harr Freeya; Bottomley, Christian; Ndow, Gibril; Goldin, Robert D; Jatta, Abdoulie; Jeng-Barry, Adam; Wegmuller, Rita; Moore, Sophie E; Baldeh, Ignatius; Taal, Makie; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Whittle, Hilton; Njie, Ramou; Thursz, Mark; Mendy, Maimuna

    2016-12-01

    The natural history of chronic HBV infection in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Data are required to inform WHO guidelines that are currently based on studies in Europe and Asia. Between 1974 and 2008, serosurveys were repeated in two Gambian villages, and an open cohort of treatment-naive chronic HBV carriers was recruited. Participants were followed to estimate the rates of hepatitis B e (HBeAg) and surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance and incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 2012-2013, a comprehensive liver assessment was conducted to estimate the prevalence of severe liver disease. 405 chronic carriers (95% genotype E), recruited at a median age of 10.8 years, were followed for a median length of 28.4 years. Annually, 7.4% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.8%) cleared HBeAg and 1.0% (0.8% to 1.2%) cleared HBsAg. The incidence of HCC was 55.5/100 000 carrier-years (95% CI 24.9 to 123.5). In the 2012-2013 survey (n=301), 5.5% (95% CI 3.4% to 9.0%) had significant liver fibrosis. HBV genotype A (versus E), chronic aflatoxin B1 exposure and an HBsAg-positive mother, a proxy for mother-to-infant transmission, were risk factors for liver fibrosis. A small proportion (16.0%) of chronic carriers were infected via mother-to-infant transmission; however, this population represented a large proportion (63.0%) of the cases requiring antiviral therapy. The incidence of HCC among chronic HBV carriers in West Africa was higher than that in Europe but lower than rates in East Asia. High risk of severe liver disease among the few who are infected by their mothers underlines the importance of interrupting perinatal transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Participation in Leisure Activity and Exercise of Chronic Stroke Survivors Using Community-Based Rehabilitation Services in Seongnam City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tae Im; Lee, Ko Eun; Ha, Seung A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify how participation in leisure activities and exercise by chronic stroke survivors differs before and after a stroke. Methods Sixty chronic stroke survivors receiving community-based rehabilitation services from a health center in Seongnam City were recruited. They completed a questionnaire survey regarding their demographic characteristics and accompanying diseases, and on the status of their leisure activities and exercise. In addition, their level of function (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index score), risk of depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (SF-8) were measured. Results After their stroke, most of the respondents had not returned to their pre-stroke levels of leisure activity participation. The reported number of leisure activities declined from a mean of 3.9 activities before stroke to 1.9 activities post-stroke. In addition, many participants became home-bound, sedentary, and non-social after their stroke. The most common barriers to participation in leisure activities were weakness and poor balance, lack of transportation, and cost. The respondents reported a mean daily time spent on exercise of 2.6±1.3 hours. Pain was the most common barrier to exercise participation. Conclusion Chronic stroke survivors need information on leisure activities and appropriate pain management. PMID:25932420

  17. Incidence of chronic knee lesions in long-distance runners based on training level: Findings at MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Schueller, Gerd; Uffmann, Martin; Bader, Till

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic knee changes in long-distance runners based on the training status, including distance, running frequency, training pace, and running experience. Methods: MRI of the knee was performed in 26 non-professional runners 5 days after their last training unit. Lesions of the menisci and cartilage (5-point scale), bone marrow and ligaments (3-point scale), and joint effusion were evaluated. A total score comprising all knee lesions in each runner was evaluated. The incidence of the knee changes was correlated with the training level, gender, and age of the runners. Results: Grade 1 lesions of the menisci were found in six runners with a high training level, and in only four runners with a low training level. Grade 1 cartilage lesions were found in three high-trained runners and in one low-trained runner, and grade 2 lesions were found in one high-trained runner and in two low-trained runners, respectively. Grade 1 anterior cruciate ligament lesions were seen in three runners with a high- and in two runners with a low-training level. Runners with a higher training level showed a statistically significant higher score for all chronic knee lesions than those with a lower training level (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI findings indicate that a higher training level in long-distance runners is a risk factor for chronic knee lesions

  18. The Trajectory of Chronic Pain: Can a Community-Based Exercise/Education Program Soften the Ride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Dubin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire primary care record of six patients attending a community-based education/exercise self-management program for chronic noncancer pain (YMCA Pain Exercise/Education Program [Y-PEP] was reviewed. Medical visits, consultations and hospital admissions were coded as related or unrelated to their pain diagnoses. Mood disruption, financial concerns, conflicts with employers/insurers, analgesic doses, medication side effects and major life events were also recorded. The ‘chronic pain trajectory’ resembled a roller coaster with increased health care visits at the time of initial injuries and during ‘crises’ (reinjury, conflict with insurers/employers, failed back-to-work attempts and life events. Visits decreased when conflicts were resolved. Analgesic doses increased during ‘crises’ but did not fall after resolution. After attending Y-PEP, health care use fell for four of six patients and two returned to work. Primary care physicians need to recognize the functional limitations and psychosocial complications experienced by their chronic pain patients. A program such as Y-PEP may promote active self-management strategies resulting in lowered health care use.

  19. The Potential Role of Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Chronic and End-Stage Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Schlaich, Markus P

    2016-07-01

    Sympathetic activation is a hallmark of chronic and end-stage renal disease and adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis. Hypertension is present in the vast majority of these patients and plays a key role in the progressive deterioration of renal function and the high rate of cardiovascular events in this patient cohort. Augmentation of renin release, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renal vascular resistance are direct consequences of efferent renal sympathetic nerve stimulation and the major components of neural regulation of renal function. Renal afferent nerve activity directly influences sympathetic outflow to the kidneys and other highly innervated organs involved in blood pressure control via hypothalamic integration. Renal denervation of the kidney has been shown to reduce blood pressure in many experimental models of hypertension. Targeting the renal nerves directly may therefore be specifically useful in patients with chronic and end-stage renal disease. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of catheter-based renal denervation in patients with impaired kidney function and also reflect on the potential impact on other cardiovascular conditions commonly associated with chronic kidney disease such as heart failure and arrhythmias. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A STUDY TO ANALYSE THE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PILATES BASED EXERCISES AND THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

    OpenAIRE

    U.Albert Anand,; P.Mariet Caroline,; B.Arun,; G.Lakshmi Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal symptoms seen in 85 % of individuals in their life time. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP) is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Modified Pilates based exercises for patients with ...

  1. Creatinine-based equation to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in Japanese children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Osamu; Nagai, Takuhito; Ishikura, Kenji; Ito, Shuichi; Hataya, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Fujita, Naoya; Akioka, Yuko; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Honda, Masataka

    2014-08-01

    Renal inulin clearance is the gold standard for evaluation of kidney function, but cannot be measured easily in children. Therefore, we utilize the serum creatinine (Cr)-based estimated GFR (eGFR) measuring serum Cr by the enzymatic method, and we have reported simple serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese children aged between 2 and 11 years old. Furthermore, we should use serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese adolescents as well as children with chronic kidney disease for evaluation of renal function. The inulin clearance and serum Cr level determined by an enzymatic method were measured in 131 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients between the ages of 2 and 18 years old with no underlying disease affecting renal function except CKD to determine the serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese children and adolescents. We offer the complex estimated GFR equation using polynomial formulae for reference serum creatinine levels with body length in Japanese children except infants, resulting in the following equation:[Formula: see text] Reference serum Cr levels (y) are shown by the following two equations of body length (x):[Formula: see text] The new polynomial eGFR formula showing the relationship with body length and serum Cr level may be applicable for clinical screening of renal function in Japanese children and adolescents aged between 2 and 18 years.

  2. Nanomedicine and mammalian sperm: Lessons from the porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalina, Natalia; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology allows us to engineer versatile nanosized platforms that are comparable in size to biological molecules and intracellular organelles. These platforms can be loaded with large amounts of biological cargo, administered systemically and act at a distance, target specific cell populations, undergo intracellular internalization via endogenous uptake mechanisms, and act as contrast agents or release cargo for therapeutic purposes. Over recent years, nanomaterials have been increasingly viewed as favorable candidates for intragamete delivery. Particularly in the case of sperm, nanomaterial-based approaches have been shown to improve the efficacy of existing techniques such as sperm-mediated gene transfer, loading sperm with exogenous proteins, and tagging sperm for subsequent sex- or function-based sorting. In this short review, we provide an outline of the current state of nanotechnology for biomedical applications in reproductive biology and present highlights from a series of our studies evaluating the use of specialized silica nanoparticles in boar sperm as a potential delivery vehicle into mammalian gametes. The encouraging data obtained already from the porcine model in our laboratory have formed the basis for ethical approval of similar experiments in human sperm, thereby bringing us a step closer toward the potential use of this novel technology in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effectiveness of a semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention to optimise chronic care management in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2014-01-01

    ; and in the Capital Region of Denmark a facilitator-based intervention was undertaken to support the implementation of the programmes in general practice. The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention. METHOD: The study was a stepped-wedge, randomised...... indicate that a semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention of relatively low intensity is unlikely to add substantially to the implementation of disease management programmes for DM2 and COPD in a context marked by important concurrent initiatives (including financial incentives and mandatory registry......BACKGROUND: The Danish health care sector is reorganising based on disease management programmes designed to secure integrated and high quality chronic care across hospitals, general practitioners and municipalities. The disease management programmes assign a central role to general practice...

  4. Beliefs About a Complementary and Alternative Therapy-Based Chronic Pain Management Program for a Medicaid Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Ranney, Megan L; Patry, Emily J; McKenzie, Michelle; Baird, Janette; Green, Traci C

    2017-09-01

    Rhode Island Medicaid offers high emergency department utilizers the opportunity to take part in the Chronic Pain Program, an integrated treatment approach that includes free complementary therapies (massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture). The aim of the current analysis was to understand beliefs about the Rhode Island Chronic Pain Program from the perspective of the patient receiving services, the provider delivering services, and the administrator implementing the program. A qualitative interview-based study. Patients (N = 24), providers (N = 13), and administrators (N = 11) who were already involved, or were eligible to be involved, in the Chronic Pain Program. Semistructured interviews were conducted to elicit information about experiences with the program. Transcriptions of audio recordings were analyzed according to principles of deductive thematic analysis. Patient interviews revealed five themes: 1) relationship between stress and pain, 2) trusting patient-provider relationships, 3) increased quality of life, 4) temporary pain relief, and 5) anxiety and discomfort associated with acupuncture. Provider interviews revealed three themes: 1) a way to reach the disenfranchised, 2) not enough visits with patients, and 3) opportunity to build relationships with patients. Administrator interviews revealed two themes: 1) a means to offer a range of support services to complicated patients and 2) unanswered questions over whether the program adequately serves patients with the greatest needs. Key stakeholders in this new initiative agree that the Rhode Island Chronic Pain Program shows promise and that the holistic approach may be a good match for this hard-to-reach population. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Treatment outcome in a population-based, 'real-world' cohort of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Inge G P; Thielen, Noortje; Janssen, Jeroen J W M; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Roosma, Tanja J A; Willemsen, Sten P; Visser, Otto; Cornelissen, Jan J; Westerweel, Peter E

    2017-11-01

    Evaluations of the 'real-world' efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are scarce. A nationwide, population-based, chronic myeloid leukemia registry was analyzed to evaluate (deep) response rates to first and subsequent treatment lines and eligibility for a treatment cessation attempt in adults diagnosed between January 2008 and April 2013 in the Netherlands. The registry covered 457 patients; 434 in chronic phase (95%) and 15 (3%) in advanced disease phase. Seventy-five percent of the patients in chronic phase were treated with imatinib and 25% with a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor. At 3 years 44% of patients had discontinued their first-line treatment, mainly due to intolerance (21%) or treatment failure (19%). At 18 months 73% of patients had achieved a complete cytogenetic response and 63% a major molecular response. Deep molecular responses (MR 4.0 and MR 4.5 ) were achieved in 69% and 56% of patients, respectively, at 48 months. All response milestones were achieved faster in patients treated upfront with a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but ultimately patients initially treated with imatinib also reached similar levels of responses. The 6-year cumulative incidence of eligibility for a tyrosine kinase cessation attempt, according to EURO-SKI criteria, was 31%. Our findings show that in a 'real-world' setting the long-term outcome of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is excellent and the conditions for an attempt to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are met by a third of the patients. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  6. Treatment outcome in a population-based, ‘real-world’ cohort of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Inge G.P.; Thielen, Noortje; Janssen, Jeroen J.W.M.; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Roosma, Tanja J.A.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Visser, Otto; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Westerweel, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluations of the ‘real-world’ efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are scarce. A nationwide, population-based, chronic myeloid leukemia registry was analyzed to evaluate (deep) response rates to first and subsequent treatment lines and eligibility for a treatment cessation attempt in adults diagnosed between January 2008 and April 2013 in the Netherlands. The registry covered 457 patients; 434 in chronic phase (95%) and 15 (3%) in advanced disease phase. Seventy-five percent of the patients in chronic phase were treated with imatinib and 25% with a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor. At 3 years 44% of patients had discontinued their first-line treatment, mainly due to intolerance (21%) or treatment failure (19%). At 18 months 73% of patients had achieved a complete cytogenetic response and 63% a major molecular response. Deep molecular responses (MR4.0 and MR4.5) were achieved in 69% and 56% of patients, respectively, at 48 months. All response milestones were achieved faster in patients treated upfront with a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but ultimately patients initially treated with imatinib also reached similar levels of responses. The 6-year cumulative incidence of eligibility for a tyrosine kinase cessation attempt, according to EURO-SKI criteria, was 31%. Our findings show that in a ‘real-world’ setting the long-term outcome of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is excellent and the conditions for an attempt to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are met by a third of the patients. PMID:28860339

  7. Karyotype characterization of in vivo- and in vitro-derived porcine parthenogenetic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Manling; Hou, Dongxia; Han, Xuejie; Jin, Yong; Zhao, Lihua; Nie, Xiaowei; Zhou, Xin; Yun, Ting; Zhao, Yuhang; Huang, Xianghua; Hou, Daorong; Yang, Ning; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Li, Xueling; Li, Rongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian haploid cell lines provide useful tools for both genetic studies and transgenic animal production. To derive porcine haploid cells, three sets of experiments were conducted. First, genomes of blastomeres from 8-cell to 16-cell porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were examined by chromosome spread analysis. An intact haploid genome was maintained by 48.15% of blastomeres. Based on this result, two major approaches for amplifying the haploid cell population were tested. First, embryonic stem-like (ES-like) cells were cultured from PA blastocyst stage embryos, and second, fetal fibroblasts from implanted day 30 PA fetuses were cultured. A total of six ES-like cell lines were derived from PA blastocysts. No chromosome spread with exactly 19 chromosomes (the normal haploid complement) was found. Four cell lines showed a tendency to develop to polyploidy (more than 38 chromosomes). The karyotypes of the fetal fibroblasts showed different abnormalities. Cells with 19-38 chromosomes were the predominant karyotype (59.48-60.91%). The diploid cells were the second most observed karyotype (16.17%-22.73%). Although a low percentage (3.45-8.33%) of cells with 19 chromosomes were detected in 18.52% of the fetus-derived cell lines, these cells were not authentic haploid cells since they exhibited random losses or gains of some chromosomes. The haploid fibroblasts were not efficiently enriched via flow cytometry sorting. On the contrary, the diploid cells were efficiently enriched. The enriched parthenogenetic diploid cells showed normal karyotypes and expressed paternally imprinted genes at extremely low levels. We concluded that only a limited number of authentic haploid cells could be obtained from porcine cleavage-stage parthenogenetic embryos. Unlike mouse, the karyotype of porcine PA embryo-derived haploid cells is not stable, long-term culture of parthenogenetic embryos, either in vivo or in vitro, resulted in abnormal karyotypes. The porcine PA

  8. Identification and genomic characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus (PPV6) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianqiang; Qiao, Caixia; Han, Xue; Han, Tao; Kang, Wenhua; Zi, Zhanchao; Cao, Zhen; Zhai, Xinyan; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-12-02

    Parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the Densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. In recent years, a number of novel parvoviruses belonging to the subfamily Parvovirinae have been identified from various animal species and humans, including human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), porcine hokovirus, ovine partetravirus, porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4), and porcine parvovirus 5 (PPV5). Using sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA), a novel parvovirus within the subfamily Parvovirinae that was distinct from any known parvoviruses was identified and five full-length genome sequences were determined and analyzed. A novel porcine parvovirus, provisionally named PPV6, was initially identified from aborted pig fetuses in China. Retrospective studies revealed the prevalence of PPV6 in aborted pig fetuses and piglets(50% and 75%, respectively) was apparently higher than that in finishing pigs and sows (15.6% and 3.8% respectively). Furthermore, the prevalence of PPV6 in finishing pig was similar in affected and unaffected farms (i.e. 16.7% vs. 13.6%-21.7%). This finding indicates that animal age, perhaps due to increased innate immune resistance, strongly influences the level of PPV6 viremia. Complete genome sequencing and multiple alignments have shown that the nearly full-length genome sequences were approximately 6,100 nucleotides in length and shared 20.5%-42.6% DNA sequence identity with other members of the Parvovirinae subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PPV6 was significantly distinct from other known parvoviruses and was most closely related to PPV4. Our findings and review of published parvovirus sequences suggested that a novel porcine parvovirus is currently circulating in China and might be classified into the novel genus Copiparvovirus within the subfamily Parvovirinae. However, the clinical manifestations of PPV6 are still unknown in that the

  9. Characterization of serotonergic receptors in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen C; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A; Bernstein, Audrey M

    2003-10-01

    To characterize the serotonin (5-HT) receptors linked to the modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae. Serotonin receptor-subtype expression was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and receptor subtype-specific polyclonal antibodies for the immunofluorescent labeling of conjunctival cryosections. In addition, measurements of the effects of serotonergics on the short-circuit current (I(sc)) across rabbit and porcine conjunctivae were contrasted. RT-PCR assays indicated the expression of 5-HT(1B ) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, subtypes negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, in the rabbit conjunctiva. This approach also suggested the co-expression of 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(1F), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) mRNA's in the porcine conjunctiva, and 5-HT( 1D), 5-HT(1F) and 5-HT(7) in the human conjunctiva. Since the 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptors are positively linked to adenylyl cyclase, these results implied that the porcine and human tissues exhibited subtypes both positively and negatively linked to the enzyme. However, immunohistochemical observations, using currently available antibodies solely localized the 5-HT(7) moiety in the porcine and human epithelia, suggested that the 1B/1D forms may be minor elements. Consistent with this prospect, 5-HT was a stimulant of the transepithelial I(sc) across the porcine conjunctiva, an opposite response from earlier findings that demonstrated inhibitory effects by 5-HT on the rabbit I(sc), which are now explained by the localization of the 1B/1D receptors in the rabbit stratified epithelium. The 5-HT receptors expressed by mammalian conjunctivae are not identical. In terms of 5-HT receptor expression, the porcine tissue may be a more appropriate model for human, than is the rabbit, in that 5-HT may serve as a secretagogue in the human epithelium.

  10. Continuity of care to optimize chronic disease management in the community setting: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This evidence-based analysis reviews relational and management continuity of care. Relational continuity refers to the duration and quality of the relationship between the care provider and the patient. Management continuity ensures that patients receive coherent, complementary, and timely care. There are 4 components of continuity of care: duration, density, dispersion, and sequence. The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to determine if continuity of care is associated with decreased health resource utilization, improved patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database were searched for studies on continuity of care and chronic disease published from January 2002 until December 2011. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies were eligible if they assessed continuity of care in adults and reported health resource utilization, patient outcomes, or patient satisfaction. Eight systematic reviews and 13 observational studies were identified. The reviews concluded that there is an association between continuity of care and outcomes; however, the literature base is weak. The observational studies found that higher continuity of care was frequently associated with fewer hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Three systematic reviews reported that higher continuity of care is associated with improved patient satisfaction, especially among patients with chronic conditions. Most of the studies were retrospective cross-sectional studies of large administrative databases. The databases do not capture information on trust and confidence in the provider, which is a critical component of relational continuity of care. The definitions for the selection of patients from the databases varied across studies. There is low quality evidence that: Higher continuity of care is associated with decreased health service utilization.There is

  11. A longitudinal study of cell-mediated immunity in pigs infected with porcine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is an ubiquitous pathogen causing reproductive failure in swine. Protection against reproductive failure caused by acute PPV infection has commonly been related to the presence of specific antibodies in the dam. However, the role of cell-mediated immunity during chronic PPV......-mediated immune response, a longitudinal infection experiment was performed, using swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) class I characterized growing pigs (haplotype H7/H7). Pigs were intranasally inoculated with PPV at 0, 80, and 136 days. At predetermined time points, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were......-cell subset of PBMC proliferated in response to virus antigen, in keeping with the assumed role for these cells in immunological memory. This is, to our knowledge, the first indication of a cellular immune response following PPV infection. A weak CTL activity, which peaked on days 80 and 87, was observed...

  12. Synthesis of biologically active porcine secretin and [ITyr10] porcine secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans

    1991-01-01

    Porcine secretin, [Tyr10] secretin, and [Tyr13] secretin were synthesized by solid phase methodology and purified by stepwise gradient elution from a short reversed-phase column with ethanol and acetic acid as organic modifiers. [Tyr10] secretin and [Tyr13] secretin were iodinated by the chloramine......-T method and nonmono-, and di-iodinated products separated and isolated by reversed-phase HPLC. Batch incubation analysis is isolated mouse pancreatic islets revealed that secretin and the [Tyr10] analogue were indistinguishable in their effect on the glucose-induced insulin release and cAMP accumulation...

  13. Sequential and base rate analysis of emotional validation and invalidation in chronic pain couples: patient gender matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Laura E M; Cano, Annmarie; Johansen, Ayna B

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which communication patterns that foster or hinder intimacy and emotion regulation in couples were related to pain, marital satisfaction, and depression in 78 chronic pain couples attempting to problem-solve an area of disagreement in their marriage. Sequences and base rates of validation and invalidation communication patterns were almost uniformly unrelated to adjustment variables unless patient gender was taken into account. Male patient couples' reciprocal invalidation was related to worse pain, but this was not found in female patient couples. In addition, spouses' validation was related to poorer patient pain and marital satisfaction, but only in couples with a male patient. It was not only the presence or absence of invalidation and validation that mattered (base rates), but the context and timing of these events (sequences) that affected patients' adjustment. This research demonstrates that sequences of interaction behaviors that foster and hinder emotion regulation should be attended to when assessing and treating pain patients and their spouses. This article presents analyses of both sequences and base rates of chronic pain couples' communication patterns, focusing on validation and invalidation. These results may potentially improve psychosocial treatments for these couples, by addressing sequential interactions of intimacy and empathy. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-management programs based on the social cognitive theory for Koreans with chronic disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Yoo, Hyera

    2012-02-01

    Self-management programs based on social cognitive theory are useful to improve health care outcomes for patients with chronic diseases in Western culture. The purpose of this review is to identify and synthesize published research on the theory to enhance self-efficacy in disease management and examine its applicability to Korean culture regarding the learning strategies used. Ultimately, it was to identify the optimal use of these learning strategies to improve the self-efficacy of Korean patients in self-management of their hypertension and diabetic mellitus. The authors searched the Korean and international research databases from January 2000 to September 2009. Twenty studies were selected and reviewed. The most frequently used learning strategies of social cognitive theory was skill mastery by practice and feedback (N = 13), followed by social or verbal persuasion by group members (N = 7) and, however, observation learning and reinterpretation of symptoms by debriefing or discussion were not used any of the studies. Eight studies used only one strategy to enhance self-efficacy and six used two. A lack of consistency regarding the content and clinical efficacy of the self-efficacy theory-based self-management programs is found among the reviewed studies on enhancing self-efficacy in Koreans with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Further research on the effectiveness of these theory-based self-management programs for patients with chronic diseases in Korea and other countries is recommended.

  15. Effects of Kinect-based virtual reality game training on upper extremity motor recovery in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşkın, Ayhan; Atar, Emel; Koçyiğit, Hikmet; Tosun, Aliye

    2018-03-13

    Therapeutic benefits of Kinect-based virtual reality (VR) game training in rehabilitation encourage its use to improve motor function. To assess the effects of Kinect-based VR training on motor recovery of the upper extremity and functional outcomes in patients with chronic stroke. In this randomized controlled trial, group A received 20 sessions of physical therapy (PT) + 20 sessions of Kinect-based VR training and group B received only 20 sessions of PT. Clinical outcome measures were assessed at baseline and at the end of the treatments. Primary outcome measures that assess stroke patients' motor function included upper extremity (UE) Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). Secondary outcome measures were Brunnstrom Recovery Stages (BRS), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Box and Block test (BBT), Motricity index (MI), and active range of motion (AROM) measurement. Statistically significant improvements in game scores (p VR training may contribute to the improvement of UE motor function and AROM in chronic stroke patients. Further studies with a larger number of subjects with longer follow-up periods are needed to establish its effectiveness in neurorehabilitation.

  16. Effectiveness of home-based exercise in older patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A 3-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ritsuko; Kusunoki, Yuji; Hattori, Kumiko; Motegi, Takashi; Furutate, Ryuko; Itoh, Aki; Jones, Rupert Cm; Hyland, Michael E; Kida, Kozui

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether home-based exercise can improve clinical outcomes in older patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using long-term oxygen therapy. Information was provided to improve chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management before the onset of the present prospective 3-year cohort study. Patients selected either home-based exercise using a lower-limb cycle machine (ergo-bicycle; group E), or usual exercise (group U). To assess self-management, the Lung Information Needs Questionnaire was evaluated every 6 months. Clinical outcomes included the 6-min walk test, pulmonary function tests, the body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea and exercise index, St. George's respiratory questionnaire, and the number of exacerbations and hospitalizations. A total of 136 patients (group E = 72; group U = 64), with a mean age of 74.2 years were enrolled. Total Lung Information Needs Questionnaire scores improved over 3 years for group E (P = 0.003). The distance of the 6-min walk test was well maintained in group E, but significantly decreased in group U (P obstruction, dyspnea and exercise index significantly worsened in both groups over 3 years (group E: P = 0.011; group U: P Patients who undertook home-based exercise using an ergo-bicycle were able to maintain clinical outcomes including 6-min walk test distance and percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s predicted, and recorded fewer exacerbations over 3 years. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 42-49. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training.

  18. DNA-based MRI probes for specific detection of chronic exposure to amphetamine in living brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Christina H; Ren, Jia Q; Yang, Jinsheng; Liu, Charng-ming; Mandeville, Joseph B; Rosen, Bruce R; Bhide, Pradeep G; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Liu, Philip K

    2009-08-26

    We designed phosphorothioate-modified DNA probes linked to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of fosB and Delta fosB mRNA after amphetamine (AMPH) exposure in mice. Specificity of both the fosB and Delta fosB probes was verified by in vitro reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification to a single fragment of total cDNA obtained from acutely AMPH-exposed mouse brains. We confirmed time-dependent uptake and retention profiles of both probes in neurons of GAD67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice. MRI signal of SPION-labeled fosB probe delivered via intracerebroventricular route was elevated in both acutely and chronically AMPH-exposed mice; the signal was suppressed by dopaminergic receptor antagonist pretreatment. SPION-labeled Delta fosB probe signal elevation occurred only in chronically AMPH-exposed mice. The in vivo target specificity of these probes permits reliable MRI visualization of AMPH-induced differential elevations of fosB and Delta fosB mRNA in living brains.

  19. Diffraction-enhanced imaging of a porcine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael E; Coupal, Dustin J; Beavis, R Cole; Schultke, Elisabeth; Romanchuk, Kenneth; Juurlink, Bernhard H J; Zhong, Zhong; Chapman, L Dean

    2007-10-01

    Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) is a synchrotron-based x-ray imaging technique that has dramatically improved contrast over standard x-ray imaging techniques. It is possible to acquire images that analyze the x-ray refraction and the apparent absorption (elimination of small-angle scattering) of the object. Three formalin-fixed porcine eyes were studied at the National Synchrotron Light Source using DEI. Conventional absorption-type radiography was conducted for comparison. Conventional absorption radiography did not yield significant detail of the eye anatomy. DEI showed excellent characterization of many ocular structures. The cornea, iris, lens, retina, optic nerve, as well as choroidal vasculature and the ampullae of the vortex veins could all be visualized. DEI represents a novel, high-resolution imaging technique that has excellent characterization of ocular anatomy. Further application of this imaging modality will be undertaken to study cataract and choroidal tumors and to examine ocular surface structures, such as the extraocular muscle insertions, more closely.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of porcine lung lesions associated with Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Susanne E; Hansen, Mette S; Bisgaard, Magne; Jensen, Henrik E; Iburg, Tine M

    2013-08-01

    Infectious bronchopneumonia is a widespread disease in modern commercial pig production and Pasteurella multocida is frequently associated with the lesions. To evaluate porcine lung lesions associated with P. multocida, populations of inflammatory cells were examined by immunohistochemistry in necrotic lung lesions from nine pigs and exudative lung lesions from eleven pigs. Lungs from five pigs served as controls. All cases were selected from naturally infected pigs using co-infection based criteria to make them as comparable as possible. The inflammatory cells demonstrated by immunohistochemistry were T-lymphocytes (CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets), B-lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and IgA(+), IgM(+) and IgG(+) cells. The results showed that (1) a significant increase in all inflammatory cells was found in lesions associated with P. multocida, (2) necrotic lesions had a larger number of CD3(+) T-lymphocytes and IgA(+) cells, and (3) cases with exudative lesions had a more CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. No differences in the numbers of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, IgG(+) and IgM(+) positive cells were found between necrotic and exudative cases. The results show that P. multocida significantly alters the inflammatory response in the lung and that lesions associated with P. multocida display diverse inflammatory responses according to their distinct morphological pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivation of porcine pluripotent stem cells for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yang, Jenn-Rong; Liao, Yu-Jing; Kuo, Ting-Yung; Liao, Chia-Hsin; Kang, Ching-Hsun; Tai, Chein; Anderson, Gary B; Chen, Lih-Ren

    2016-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), embryonic germ cells (EGCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are capable of self-renew and limitlessly proliferating in vitro with undifferentiated characteristics. They are able to differentiate in vitro, spontaneously or responding to suitable signals, into cells of all three primary germ layers. Consequently, these pluripotent stem cells will be valuable sources for cell replacement therapy in numerous disorders. However, the promise of human ESCs and EGCs is cramped by the ethical argument about destroying embryos and fetuses for cell line creation. Moreover, there are still carcinogenic risks existing toward the goal of clinical application for human ESCs, EGCs, and iPSCs. Therefore, a suitable animal model for stem cell research will benefit the further development of human stem cell technology. The pigs, on the basis of their similarity in anatomy, immunology, physiology, and biochemical properties, have been wide used as model animals in the study of various human diseases. The development of porcine pluripotent stem cell lines will hold the opportunity to provide an excellent material for human counterpart to the transplantation in biomedical research and further development of cell-based therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  3. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Haagsman, Henk P.; Roelen, Bernard A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  4. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Porcine and bovine surgical products: Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Catherine; Maddern, Guy

    2008-04-01

    To determine the acceptability of porcine and bovine surgical implants among persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths whose beliefs prohibit them from consuming porcine and bovine products. An evaluation of current literature concerning religious beliefs among persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths was undertaken to determine if animal-derived surgical implants are permitted for use in these religions. Because of the limited published literature about this topic, the opinions of religious leaders in Australia were sought. Religious and cultural beliefs can conflict with and limit treatment options, especially in surgery. Approximately 81 porcine and bovine surgical implants are regularly used in Australia. It is deemed acceptable for members of the Jewish faith to undergo surgery using porcine products. In dire situations and only after all other options have been exhausted, followers of the Muslim faith are permitted to use porcine surgical products. Hindu religious leaders did not accept the use of bovine surgical implants. Australia comprises a multicultural society; therefore, it is necessary to consider religious beliefs of all patients. As part of a surgeon's duty of care, the informed consent process should include a discussion about animal-derived surgical implants to avoid religious distress and possible litigation. A greater understanding of religious views would enhance the medical care of persons of Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu faiths.

  6. Should individuals with chronic aphasia be treated with dedicated PC-based training? Considerations about a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Rosaria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Reitano, Simone; Digangi, Giuseppina; Bertè, Francesco; Sergi, Giuseppa; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an emerging rehabilitative tool ("Power-AFA" - software) in the recovery of a patient with chronic non-fluent aphasia. A 56-year-old woman, affected by post-stroke severe expressive aphasia, underwent two different intensive rehabilitation trainings, including either standard language rehabilitation alone or a proper PC based speech training in addition to conventional treatment. We evaluated her cognitive and psychological profile in two separate sessions, before and after the two different trainings, by using a proper psychometric battery, to assess cognitive status, language abilities, and to estimate the presence of mood alterations and coping strategies. The overall PC-program was articulated in 6 sessions/weekly for 3 months. Only at the end of the PC-training, we observed an important improvement in peculiar cognitive domains (attention and memory functions), in denomination, in verbal understanding ability, in written, in communication skills as well as an optimization of the mood and coping styles. Computer-based cognitive and language rehabilitation, using proper and dedicated software, may be a valuable tool in improving either communication or cognitive skills in patient affected by aphasia, even in the chronic state.

  7. The use of a home exercise program based on a computer system in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores, Jeffrey; Marolda, Corliss; Haggerty, Margaret; Gerstenhaber, Brett; Zuwallack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of a home exercise program based on a user-friendly, computer system, the Nintendo Wii Fit. In this longitudinal study, 25 clinically stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease began a 6-week nonintervention (baseline) period followed by 12 weeks of Wii exercise training at home. Patients were instructed to exercise 5 or more days per week. Exercise capacity, health status, and dyspnea were evaluated after home exercise training. Evaluable data were available in 20 patients after home exercise training; their force expiratory volume in 1 second was 45 ± 16%. Following 12 weeks of Wii exercise training, the Endurance Shuttle Walk Test increased by 131 ± 183 seconds over the baseline determination (P = .005). Significant improvements were also noted in arm-lift and sit-to-stand repetitions, the total score, and the emotion dimension of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire. Men had significantly greater increases in the Endurance Shuttle Walk Test than women, although their self-reported exercise durations were similar. There were no significant adverse outcomes. This study suggests that 12 weeks of regular, home exercise based on an interactive entertainment computer system can lead to positive short-term outcomes.

  8. Picosecond laser ablation of porcine sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, Wojciech S.; Harvey, Eleanor M.; Dhillon, Baljean; Parson, Simon H.; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2013-03-01

    Lasers have been shown to be successful in certain medical procedures and they have been identified as potentially making a major contribution to the development of minimally invasive procedures. However, the uptake is not as widespread and there is scope for many other applications where laser devices may offer a significant advantage in comparison to the traditional surgical tools. The purpose of this research is to assess the potential of using a picosecond laser for minimally invasive laser sclerostomy. Experiments were carried out on porcine scleral samples due to the comparable properties to human tissue. Samples were prepared with a 5mm diameter trephine and were stored in lactated Ringer's solution. After laser machining, the samples were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, then dried and investigated under SEM. The laser used in the experiments is an industrial picosecond TRUMPF TruMicro laser operating at a wavelength of 1030nm, pulse length of 6ps, repetition rate of 1 kHz and a focused spot diameter of 30μm. The laser beam was scanned across the samples with the use of a galvanometer scan head and various ablation patterns were investigated. Processing parameters (pulse energy, spot and line separation) which allow for the most efficient laser ablation of scleral tissue without introducing any collateral damage were investigated. The potential to create various shapes, such as linear incisions, square cavities and circular cavities was demonstrated.

  9. Ultrafast laser machining of porcine sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, W. S.; Carter, R. M.; Dhillon, B.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    The use of ultrafast lasers (pulsed lasers with pulse lengths of a few picoseconds or less) offers the possibility for minimally invasive removal of soft ophthalmic tissue. The potential for using pico- and femtosecond pulses for modification of scleral tissue has been reported elsewhere [1-6] and has resulted in the introduction of new, minimally invasive, procedures into clinical practice [3, 5-10]. Our research is focused on finding optimal parameters for picosecond laser machining of scleral tissue without introducing any unwanted collateral damage to the tissue. Experiments were carried out on hydrated porcine sclera in vitro, which has similar collagen organization, histology and water content (~70%) to human tissue. In this paper we present a 2D finite element ablation model which employs a one-step heating process. It is assumed that the incident laser radiation that is not reflected is absorbed in the tissue according to the Beer-Lambert law and transformed into heat energy. The experimental setup uses an industrial picosecond laser (TRUMPF TruMicro 5x50) with 5.9 ps pulses at 1030 nm, with pulse energies up to 125 μJ and a focused spot diameter of 35 μm. The use of a scan head allows flexibility in designing various scanning patterns. We show that picosecond pulses are capable of modifying scleral tissue without introducing collateral damage. This offers a possible route for minimally invasive sclerostomy. Many scanning patterns including single line ablation, square and circular cavity removal were tested.

  10. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, István; Olasz, Ferenc; Cságola, Attila; Tijssen, Peter; Zádori, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology. PMID:29261104

  11. Porcine deltacoronavirus: histological lesions and genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leyi; Hayes, Jeff; Sarver, Craig; Byrum, Beverly; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    First identified in 2012 in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a proposed member of the genus Deltacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. In February of 2014, PDCoV was detected in pigs with clinical diarrheal symptoms for the first time in the USA. Since then, it has been detected in more than 20 states in the USA and in other countries, including Canada, South Korea, and mainland China. So far, histological lesions in the intestines of pigs naturally infected with PDCoV under field conditions have not been reported. In this report, we describe the characteristic histological lesions in the small intestine that were associated with PDCoV infection, as evidenced by detection of viral nucleic acid by RT-PCR. In addition, we performed genomic analysis to determine the genetic relationship of all PDCoV strains from the four countries. We found that PDCoV mainly caused histological lesions in the small intestines of naturally infected piglets. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the PDCoV strains of different countries are closely related and shared high nucleotide sequence similarity; however, deletion patterns in the spike and 3' untranslated regions are different among the strains from mainland China, Hong Kong, the USA, and South Korea. Our study highlights the fact that continual surveillance is needed to trace the evolution of this virus.

  12. Classification of Airflow Limitation Based on z-Score Underestimates Mortality in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Elena; Prats, Eva; Casitas, Raquel; Galera, Raúl; Pardo, Paloma; Gavilán, Adelaida; Martínez-Cerón, Elisabet; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Del Peso, Luis; García-Río, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Global Lung Function Initiative recommends reporting lung function measures as z-score, and a classification of airflow limitation (AL) based on this parameter has recently been proposed. To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the AL classifications based on z-score or percentage predicted of FEV 1 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 2,614 patients with COPD recruited outside the hospital setting was examined after a mean (± SD) of 57 ± 13 months of follow-up, totaling 10,322 person-years. All-cause mortality was analyzed, evaluating the predictive capacity of several AL staging systems. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, 461 patients (17.6%) had mild, 1,452 (55.5%) moderate, 590 (22.6%) severe, and 111 (4.2%) very severe AL. According to z-score classification, 66.3% of patients remained with the same severity, whereas 23.7% worsened and 10.0% improved. Unlike other staging systems, patients with severe AL according to z-score had higher mortality than those with very severe AL (increase of risk by 5.2 and 3.9 times compared with mild AL, respectively). The predictive capacity for 5-year survival was slightly higher for FEV 1 expressed as percentage of predicted than as z-score (area under the curve: 0.714-0.760 vs. 0.649-0.708, respectively). A severity-dependent relationship between AL grades by z-score and mortality was only detected in patients younger than age 60 years. In patients with COPD, the AL classification based on z-score predicts worse mortality than those based on percentage of predicted. It is possible that the z-score underestimates AL severity in patients older than 60 years of age with severe functional impairment.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease candidate gene prioritization based on metabolic networks and functional information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a multi-factor disease, in which metabolic disturbances played important roles. In this paper, functional information was integrated into a COPD-related metabolic network to assess similarity between genes. Then a gene prioritization method was applied to the COPD-related metabolic network to prioritize COPD candidate genes. The gene prioritization method was superior to ToppGene and ToppNet in both literature validation and functional enrichment analysis. Top-ranked genes prioritized from the metabolic perspective with functional information could promote the better understanding about the molecular mechanism of this disease. Top 100 genes might be potential markers for diagnostic and effective therapies.

  14. [Understanding and treatment strategy of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease based on chronic inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged inflammation continuously promotes the infiltration of macrophages in the organization and chronically induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-1. In periodontal tissues, these inflammatory cytokines enhance the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, which cause destruction of the alveolar bone. Therefore, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production leads to the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease. IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that strongly enhances the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. Elucidation of mechanisms for the production of IL-1 is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This paper reviews recent findings of the molecular mechanisms regulating IL-1 production and focuses on inflammasome.

  15. Logotherapy as an adjunctive treatment for chronic combat-related PTSD: a meaning-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Gilmartin, Robin; McDonough, Patrick; Morrissey, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Combat-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is often highly debilitating and affects nearly all areas of psychosocial functioning. Veterans with PTSD re-experience their traumas in the form of haunting intrusive memories, nightmares and flashbacks, and have chronic difficulty modulating arousal. As a way to cope with these symptoms, many survivors live isolated and avoidant lives, self-medicate with alcohol and substances of abuse, and numb themselves to emotional experiences and relationships with family and friends. Additionally, many combat veterans report survivor guilt, depression, affect dysregulation, and an altered world view in which fate is seen as uncontrollable and life is viewed as devoid of meaning. In this report we describe the use of logotherapy (healing through meaning) for the treatment of combat-related PTSD

  16. Concurrent conditions in patients with chronic constipation: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation (CC is a common condition but its concurrent conditions are not well characterized. We measured the prevalence and risk of developing 15 pre-specified concurrent conditions in patients with CC. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using the Medicaid database of California, utilizing ICD-9 codes for detection of cases (CC, controls (patients with GERD and concurrent conditions. Study period was 01/01/1995 to 06/30/2005. Index date was the date 3 months before the first physician visit for CC. Pre-index time (12 months was compared to post-index time (12 months to assess the association of every concurrent condition within each cohort. To account for ascertainment bias, an adjusted odds ratio was calculated by comparing the odds ratio for every concurrent condition in the CC cohort to that in the GERD cohort. RESULTS: 147,595 patients with CC (mean age 54.2 years; 69.7% women; 36.2% white and 142,086 patients with GERD (mean age 56.3 years; 65.3% women; 41.6% white were evaluated. The most prevalent concurrent conditions with CC were hemorrhoids (7.6%, diverticular disease (5.9%, ano-rectal hemorrhage (4.7%, irritable bowel syndrome (3.5% and fecal impaction (2%. When adjusted for ascertainment bias, the most notable associations with CC were Hirschsprung's disease, fecal impaction and ano-rectal conditions such as fissure, fistula, hemorrhage and ulcers. CONCLUSION: Chronic constipation is associated with several concurrent conditions of variable risk and prevalence. To reduce the overall burden of CC, these concurrent conditions need to be addressed.

  17. The ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT): an evidence-based and multidimensional approach to classifying chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, Roger B; Bruehl, Stephen; Dworkin, Robert H; Dworkin, Samuel F; Loeser, John D; Turk, Dennis C; Widerstrom-Noga, Eva; Arnold, Lesley; Bennett, Robert; Edwards, Robert R; Freeman, Roy; Gewandter, Jennifer; Hertz, Sharon; Hochberg, Marc; Krane, Elliot; Mantyh, Patrick W; Markman, John; Neogi, Tuhina; Ohrbach, Richard; Paice, Judith A; Porreca, Frank; Rappaport, Bob A; Smith, Shannon M; Smith, Thomas J; Sullivan, Mark D; Verne, G Nicholas; Wasan, Ajay D; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Current approaches to classification of chronic pain conditions suffer from the absence of a systematically implemented and evidence-based taxonomy. Moreover, existing diagnostic approaches typically fail to incorporate available knowledge regarding the biopsychosocial mechanisms contributing to pain conditions. To address these gaps, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS) have joined together to develop an evidence-based chronic pain classification system called the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy. This paper describes the outcome of an ACTTION-APS consensus meeting, at which experts agreed on a structure for this new taxonomy of chronic pain conditions. Several major issues around which discussion revolved are presented and summarized, and the structure of the taxonomy is presented. ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial, and functional consequences; and 5) putative neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms, risk factors, and protective factors. In coming months, expert working groups will apply this taxonomy to clusters of chronic pain conditions, thereby developing a set of diagnostic criteria that have been consistently and systematically implemented across nearly all common chronic pain conditions. It is anticipated that the availability of this evidence-based and mechanistic approach to pain classification will be of substantial benefit to chronic pain research and treatment. The ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy is an evidence-based chronic pain classification system designed to classify chronic pain along the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial

  18. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the Italian context; the document of the Agency for Regional Healthcare Services (AGE.NA.S) is a more suited compendium for consultation, and the recent joint statement on integrated COPD management of the three major Italian scientific Associations in the respiratory area together with the contribution of a Society of General Medicine deals prevalently with some critical issues (appropriateness of diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, rehabilitation, continuing care); also the document “Care Continuity: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)” of the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)-Italy does not treat in depth the issue of early diagnosis. The present document – produced by the AIMAR (Interdisciplinary Association for Research in Lung Disease) Task Force for early diagnosis of chronic respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model and on available evidence and expertise –after a general examination of the main epidemiologic aspects, proposes to integrate the above-mentioned existing documents. In particular: a) it formally indicates on the basis of the available evidence the modalities and the instruments necessary for carrying out secondary prevention at the primary care level (a pro-active,‘case-finding’approach; assessment of the individual’s level of risk of COPD; use of short questionnaires for an initial screening based on symptoms; use of simple spirometry for the second level of screening); b) it identifies possible ways of including these activities within primary care practice; c) it places early diagnosis within the “systemic”, consequential management of chronic respiratory diseases, which will be briefly described with the aid of schemes taken from the Italian and international reference documents. PMID:25473523

  19. Selection of method is crucial for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 associated reproductive failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    During a 2-month period a newly repopulated Danish pig herd experienced an increase in numbers of stillborn and mummies, caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive failure. Based on recordings of data over time, the progression of the clinical outbreak was studied......, it is suggested that IHC only is suited for diagnosing acute stages of reproductive failure, whereas quantitative PCR can be used as a sensitive diagnostic method within a wider time span. It seems that IgG measurements are unpredictable as indication of intrauterine infection with PCV2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier...

  20. Phosphoproteomics analysis of postmortem porcine muscle with pH decline rate and time difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin R; Karlsson, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the protein phosphorylation in postmortem (PM) muscle and reveal the change during meat quality development. The gel-based phosphoproteomic analysis of PM porcine muscle was performed in three pig groups with different pH decline rates from PM 1h to 24 h....... The sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions were analyzed using gel electrophoresis in combination with a phosphoprotein specific staining. Globally, the group with fast pH decline rate had the highest phosphorylation level at PM 1 h, but lowest at PM 24 h, whereas the group with slow pH decline rate showed...

  1. Method for determining the average degree of substitution of o-vanillin derivatized porcine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Thomas R; Morris, Ronald; Horan, George J; Pezzullo, Linda H; Stroh, Justin G

    2006-01-23

    Electrospray mass spectral observation directly on a sample of a derivatized protein, such as porcine somatotropin (pST), affords a method for evaluating the degree of substitution of this protein. Derivatization of the lysine residues and the terminal amino residue here by formation of a Schiff base with a small aromatic aldehyde (in this case, o-vanillin) affords stabilization of the protein so that it may be used in a controlled release veterinary pharmaceutical formulation. This method permits direct observation of substitutions, optimization of manufacturing procedures for producing a commercial product, and permits quality evaluation of material.

  2. Surgical induction of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a reproducible surgical technique for the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the subretinal space of porcine eyes and to analyse the resulting CNV clinically and histologically. METHODS: Two different modifications of a surgical technique previously described...... were compared with the original method. In ten porcine eyes retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were removed using a silicone tipped cannula, in ten porcine eyes Bruch's membrane was perforated once with a retinal perforator without prior RPE removal and in ten eyes RPE removal was followed...... by a single perforation of Bruch's membrane. Fifteen of the eyes, five from each group, were enucleated 30 minutes after surgery, while the remaining eyes were enucleated after 14 days. Prior to enucleation, at day 14, fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms were obtained. Eyes were examined by light...

  3. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...... inserted surgically, one in a. carotis communis and one in v. jugularis externa. All pigs received 106 CFU/kg body weight S. aureus through the arterial catheter. Bacteria were either suspended in isotonic saline infused at constant flow for 60 minutes (two pigs) or given as a bolus injection of autologoue...

  4. Structure and Function of a Nonruminant Gut: A Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajima, Kiyoshi; Aminov, Rustam

    2015-01-01

    In many aspects, the anatomical, physiological, and microbial diversity features of the ruminant gut are different from that of the monogastric animals. Thus, the main aim of this chapter is to give a comparative overview of the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract of a nonruminant...... monogastric animal, and here it is represented by a pig model. In this chapter, we describe and discuss (i) microbial diversity in different parts of the porcine gut; (ii) differences between the ruminant and nonruminant gut; (iii) main events during colonization and succession of microbiota in the porcine...... gut; (iv) effects of various feed additives including antibiotics, phages, probiotics, and prebiotics on pigs; and (v) the use of the porcine model in translational medicine....

  5. Equipment-based Pilates reduces work-related chronic low back pain and disability: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Dana Duval; Vinson, David R; Hampton, Michelle De Coux

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated effectiveness of an equipment-based Pilates protocol for reducing pain and disability in individuals with work-related chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twelve workers with non-specific CLBP participated in a quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-posttest pilot study of supervised 6-week equipment-based Pilates exercise. Pain severity was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Physical function was assessed using the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The Pilates intervention significantly reduced pain (mean decrease in VAS 30.75 ± 20.27, p Pilates exercise reduced pain and disability in workers with CLBP. Further research is needed to investigate Pilates exercise for rehabilitation of work-related injuries in large populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Usability study of a computer-based self-management system for older adults with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Calvin; Tao, Da

    2012-11-08

    Usability can influence patients' acceptance and adoption of a health information technology. However, little research has been conducted to study the usability of a self-management health care system, especially one geared toward elderly patients. This usability study evaluated a new computer-based self-management system interface for older adults with chronic diseases, using a paper prototype approach. Fifty older adults with different chronic diseases participated. Two usability evaluation methods were involved: (1) a heuristics evaluation and (2) end-user testing with a think-aloud testing method, audio recording, videotaping, and interviewing. A set of usability metrics was employed to determine the overall system usability, including task incompletion rate, task completion time, frequency of error, frequency of help, satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Interviews were used to elicit participants' comments on the system design. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were analyzed for content. The participants were able to perform the predesigned self-management tasks with the current system design and they expressed mostly positive responses about the perceived usability measures regarding the system interface. However, the heuristics evaluation, performance measures, and interviews revealed a number of usability problems related to system navigation, information search and interpretation, information presentation, and readability. Design recommendations for further system interface modifications were discussed. This study verified the usability of the self-management system developed for older adults with chronic diseases. Also, we demonstrated that our usability evaluation approach could be used to quickly and effectively identify usability problems in a health care information system at an early stage of the system development process using a paper prototype. Conducting a

  7. Usability Study of a Computer-Based Self-Management System for Older Adults with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da

    2012-01-01

    Background Usability can influence patients’ acceptance and adoption of a health information technology. However, little research has been conducted to study the usability of a self-management health care system, especially one geared toward elderly patients. Objective This usability study evaluated a new computer-based self-management system interface for older adults with chronic diseases, using a paper prototype approach. Methods Fifty older adults with different chronic diseases participated. Two usability evaluation methods were involved: (1) a heuristics evaluation and (2) end-user testing with a think-aloud testing method, audio recording, videotaping, and interviewing. A set of usability metrics was employed to determine the overall system usability, including task incompletion rate, task completion time, frequency of error, frequency of help, satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Interviews were used to elicit participants’ comments on the system design. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data were analyzed for content. Results The participants were able to perform the predesigned self-management tasks with the current system design and they expressed mostly positive responses about the perceived usability measures regarding the system interface. However, the heuristics evaluation, performance measures, and interviews revealed a number of usability problems related to system navigation, information search and interpretation, information presentation, and readability. Design recommendations for further system interface modifications were discussed. Conclusions This study verified the usability of the self-management system developed for older adults with chronic diseases. Also, we demonstrated that our usability evaluation approach could be used to quickly and effectively identify usability problems in a health care information system at an early stage of the system development

  8. Primary care physicians’ perspectives on computer-based health risk assessment tools for chronic diseases: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Voruganti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Health risk assessment tools compute an individual’s risk of developing a disease. Routine use of such tools by primary care physicians (PCPs is potentially useful in chronic disease prevention. We sought physicians’ awareness and perceptions of the usefulness, usability and feasibility of performing assessments with computer-based risk assessment tools in primary care settings.Methods Focus groups and usability testing with a computer-based risk assessment tool were conducted with PCPs from both university-affiliated and community-based practices. Analysis was derived from grounded theory methodology.Results PCPs (n = 30 were aware of several risk assessment tools although only select tools were used routinely. The decision to use a tool depended on how use impacted practice workflow and whether the tool had credibility. Participants felt that embedding tools in the electronic medical records (EMRs system might allow for health information from the medical record to auto-populate into the tool. User comprehension of risk could also be improved with computer-based interfaces that present risk in different formats.Conclusions In this study, PCPs chose to use certain tools more regularly because of usability and credibility. Despite there being differences in the particular tools a clinical practice used, there was general appreciation for the usefulness of tools for different clinical situations. Participants characterised particular features of an ideal tool, feeling strongly that embedding risk assessment tools in the EMR would maximise accessibility and use of the tool for chronic disease management. However, appropriate practice workflow integration and features that facilitate patient understanding at point-of-care are also essential. 

  9. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an

  10. AMFR gene silencing inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Z; Zhu, Y N; Chai, M L; Dai, L S; Gao, Y; Jiang, H; Zhang, L J; Ding, Y; Liu, S Y; Li, Q Y; Lu, W F; Zhang, J B

    2016-04-07

    Our study clarifies the role of the autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) gene in porcine preadipocyte differentiation. AMFR-siRNA was transfected into porcine preadipocytes and the preadipocytes were induced to differentiation. Subsequently, qRT-PCR was conducted to examine changes in mRNA expression of a series of genes in porcine preadipocytes, including AMFR, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP1a), SREBP2, insulin-induced gene 1 (Insig1), and Insig2. Expression changes in the mRNA of genes regulating adipocyte differentiation were also analyzed using qRT-PCR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Western blot analysis was conducted to examine the changes in AMFR protein expression in porcine preadipocytes. Additionally, morphological changes in differentiated porcine preadipocytes were examined by oil red O staining, and changes in optical density (OD) values were measured using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. At 24 h after transfection with AMFR-siRNA, AMFR mRNA expression significantly reduced (P SREBP1a, SREBP2, Insig1, and C/EBPα was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). After induction of preadipocyte differentiation, the number of lipid droplets decreased in the AMFR-silenced group, and the OD value markedly reduced (P < 0.05). In addition, the expression of C/EBPα mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of KLF2 mRNA considerably increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, silencing of the AMFR gene inhibits the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes.

  11. Circovirose suína Porcine circovirosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana do Nascimento França

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura pertinente foram coligidos e são apresentados os principais dados relativos aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo e histopatológicos observados na infecção por Circovírus Porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2 em suínos. São abordados a Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica dos Suínos Desmamados (SDMDS, o Tremor Congênito Suíno (TCS, a Síndrome da Nefropatia e Dermatite Porcina (SNDP, bem como outras enfermidades associadas ou correlatas, a Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Porcina (SRRP, a Pneumonia Necrotizante Proliferativa (PNP e as falhas reprodutivas. Uma vez que a SDMSD já foi registrada na Região Sul do Brasil e no Estado do Rio de Janeiro esse estudo objetiva chamar a atenção para o especial significado dessa virose para a suinocultura brasileira, em função dos prejuízos econômicos por ela determinados.The literature of Porcine Circovirosis, including the main data on epidemiology and clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the infection of swine by Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV-2, is reviewed. There are various forms of infection: the [Porcine] Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS, Porcine Congenital Tremor, Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome, and other associated or correlated diseases as the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Proliferative Necrotizing Pneumonia, and reproductive disorders. As PMWS already has been reported from southern Brazil and from the state of Rio de Janeiro, the objective of this review is to draw attention to the implications of this virosis for swine production in Brazil and its economical importance.

  12. United European Gastroenterology evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pancreatitis (HaPanEU)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhr, J. Matthias; Dominguez-Munoz, Enrique; Rosendahl, Jonas; Besselink, Marc; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Haas, Stephan; Akisik, Fatih; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Keller, Jutta; Boermeester, Marja; Werner, Jens; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Fockens, Paul; Drewes, Asbjorn; Ceyhan, Gürlap; Lindkvist, Björn; Drenth, Joost; Ewald, Nils; Hardt, Philip; de Madaria, Enrique; Witt, Heiko; Schneider, Alexander; Manfredi, Riccardo; Brøndum, Frøkjer J.; Rudolf, Sasa; Bollen, Thomas; Bruno, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background:There have been substantial improvements in the management of chronic pancreatitis, leading to the publication of several national guidelines during recent years. In collaboration with United European Gastroenterology, the working group on Harmonizing diagnosis and treatment of chronic

  13. United European Gastroenterology evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pancreatitis (HaPanEU)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohr, J.M.; Dominguez-Munoz, E.; Rosendahl, J.; Besselink, M.; Mayerle, J.; Lerch, M.M.; Haas, S.; Akisik, F.; Kartalis, N.; Iglesias-Garcia, J.; Keller, J.; Boermeester, M.; Werner, J.; Dumonceau, J.M.; Fockens, P.; Drewes, A.; Ceyhan, G.; Lindkvist, B.; Drenth, J.P.; Ewald, N.; Hardt, P.; Madaria, E. de; Witt, H.; Schneider, A.; Manfredi, R.; Brondum, F.J.; Rudolf, S.; Bollen, T.; Bruno, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been substantial improvements in the management of chronic pancreatitis, leading to the publication of several national guidelines during recent years. In collaboration with United European Gastroenterology, the working group on 'Harmonizing diagnosis and treatment of chronic

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) epidemic in Denmark using laboratory submission data

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Toft, Nils; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infects domestic swine populations causing production losses in many European countries. The virus has two different strains designated as European (EU) and American (US) strain. It has been assumed that 30% of Danish swine herds are sero-positive with one or both PRRS strains. The PRRS surveillance program is based on serology tests performed in a monthly or annual basis for the breeding and intensive production herds respectively. T...

  15. Pathology, Tissue Metalloproteinase Transcription and Haptoglobin Responses in Mice after Experimental Challenge with Different Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Obtained from Cases of Porcine Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, S. E.; Chadfield, M. S.; Sørensen, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a major cause of porcine pneumonia, but the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to further understand the host response to infection by use of a mouse model of P. multocida pneumonia. Twenty female mice were divided into four groups (n=5......). Three groups were infected with one of three isolates of P. multocida isolated from clinical cases of chronic porcine pneumonia with necrotizing, suppurative and non-suppurative lesions, respectively. The fourth group served as uninfected controls. Mice were killed 24h postinfection and samples were...... collected for bacteriology, histopathology and in-situ hybridization for detection of P. multocida. Measurements of expression of genes encoding matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) in lung tissue and quantification of serum haptoglobin concentration were...

  16. Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxins selectively digest porcine desmoglein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fudaba, Y.; Nishifuji, K.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2005-01-01

    Virulent strains of Staphylococcus hyicus can cause exudative epidermitis in pigs. The major symptom of this disease is exfoliation of the skin in the upper stratum spinosum. Exfoliation of the skin is strongly associated with exfoliative toxin including ExhA, ExhB, ExhC, ExhD, SHETA, and SHETB. ......, injection of ExhA and ExhC at high concentration caused superficial blisters in neonatal mice. These findings strongly suggest that Exhs cause blister formation of porcine skin by digesting porcine desmoglein I in a similar fashion to exfoliative toxins from S. aureus....

  17. Redesigning care for chronic conditions: improving hospital-based ambulatory care for people with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C A; Amatya, B; Gordon, B; Tosti, T; Gorelik, A

    2010-06-01

    Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee is a highly prevalent chronic condition in Australia that commonly affects older people who have other comorbidities. We report the pilot implementation of a new chronic disease management osteoarthritis service, which was multidisciplinary, evidence-based, supported patient self-management and care coordination. A musculoskeletal coordinator role was pivotal to service redesign and osteoarthritis pathway implementation. Impact evaluation included: service utilization, patient and general practitioner service experience, a 'before and after' audit of clinician adherence to recommendations, and 3- and 6-month patient health outcomes (pain, physical function, patient and physician global health (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Multi-Attribute Prioritisation Tool), Partners in Health Scale and body mass index). A total of 123 patients, median age of 66 years, were assessed. Documentation of osteoarthritis assessment and management improved for all parameters. At 3 months there were improvements in self-reported pain (P preferences for therapy. The cost implications for implementation were low. The osteoarthritis service model is feasible to implement, is well received by patients and staff, and provides a template for translation into other settings.

  18. Optimization model research on efficacy in treatment of chronic urticaria by Chinese and Western medicine based on a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Macheng; Ye, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yuquan; Cai, Xi; Fu, Yanhua; Yang, Xuming

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the potential rules and knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) treatment on chronic urticaria (CU) based on data-mining methods. Sixty patients with chronic urticaria, treated with TCM and WM, were selected. Gray correlation analyses were adopted to determine therapeutic efficacy. Association algorithms were utilized to ascertain the correlation between the disease course and treatment results. A genetic algorithm was applied to discover the optimization model in the TCM and WM treatment on CU. The total symptom scores after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment in the TCM spleen-strengthening group correlated highly with the pretreatment total symptom score. The duration of treatment showed the greatest impact on the total symptom score. A quartic equation was established (y = - 1.6403 x 10 - 6 x(4) + 0.00025576x(3) + 0.0012819 x2 - 1.024x + 79.5879, and x = 106.9518, y = 83.0036) using the genetic algorithm. TCM treatment had a better effect in the later stage, whereas WM was better in the early stage. The duration of disease course had an impact on the effects of treatment. If the average total symptom score before treatment was < or = 83.0036, TCM or WM treatment could achieve better efficacy.

  19. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population-based study using cortisol in scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for weight-based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp-nearest 2-cm hair segment. Height and weight were objectively measured. ANCOVAs tested associations between perceived weight discrimination and hair cortisol concentration overall and by degree of obesity. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and BMI. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were 33% higher in those who had experienced weight discrimination than those who had not (mean log pg/mg 1.241 vs. 0.933, F = 12.01, P = 0.001). The association between weight discrimination and hair cortisol was particularly pronounced in individuals with severe (class II/III) obesity (1.402 vs. 0.972, F = 11.58, P = 0.001). Weight discrimination is associated with the experience of stress at a biological level. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of cortisol may play a role in generating a vicious circle of weight gain and discrimination and contribute to obesity-associated health conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  20. Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: A population‐based study using cortisol in scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is increasing evidence for weight‐based discrimination against persons with obesity. This study aimed to examine the physiological impact of perceived weight discrimination on cortisol in hair, an indicator of chronic stress exposure. Methods Data were from 563 nonsmoking individuals with obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥30 kg/m2) participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Experiences of discrimination were reported via questionnaire, and hair cortisol concentrations were determined from the scalp‐nearest 2‐cm hair segment. Height and weight were objectively measured. ANCOVAs tested associations between perceived weight discrimination and hair cortisol concentration overall and by degree of obesity. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and BMI. Results Mean hair cortisol concentrations were 33% higher in those who had experienced weight discrimination than those who had not (mean log pg/mg 1.241 vs. 0.933, F = 12.01, P = 0.001). The association between weight discrimination and hair cortisol was particularly pronounced in individuals with severe (class II/III) obesity (1.402 vs. 0.972, F = 11.58, P = 0.001). Conclusions Weight discrimination is associated with the experience of stress at a biological level. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of cortisol may play a role in generating a vicious circle of weight gain and discrimination and contribute to obesity‐associated health conditions. PMID:27740706

  1. Agency orientation and chronic musculoskeletal pain: effects of a group learning program based on the personal construct theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugli, L; Steen, E; Laerum, E; Finset, A; Nygaard, R

    2000-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a group learning program on patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and high absenteeism and investigates what characterizes those patients who may benefit from such a program. The learning program was based on personal construct theory. The theory included the following: (1) participation in an educational program is related to a favorable outcome across the outcome measures (pain, pain coping, management of daily life, absenteeism, and use of health care), (2) patients with high agency orientation (i.e., inner-directed) cope with their pain and manage daily life in a better manner than do patients with low agency orientation (i.e., outer-directed), and (3) patients with high personal control, measured in terms of agency orientation, in terms of health locus of control, or in both terms, will benefit more from the educational program than will patients with low personal control. The study was a randomized controlled study. One hundred and sixteen patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and high absenteeism answered a questionnaire before and after the intervention program. The intervention group (n = 61) consisted of nine subgroups geographically spread through the eastern part of Norway and met for four hours every 2 weeks from February 1997 to October 1997. A total of 12 meetings were held. The intervention group reported a significantly higher score for the variable "management of everyday life" (p absenteeism than did those patients with low agency orientation (p <0.05).

  2. Incidence and Natural History of Idiopathic Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: A Population-Based Study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsteinsdottir, Brynhildur; Olafsson, Elias

    2016-01-01

    We report a population-based study conducted in Iceland to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and prognosis of idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) during a 21-year period. Cases were identified from the records of all practicing neurologists in the country, the only neurology department in the country and both neurophysiology laboratories. All index cases met the 2010 European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society criteria for CIDP. Nineteen individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria during the study period. The average annual incidence was 0.3/100,000 (95% CI 0.04-2.47). There were 14 men (74%) in a gender ratio of 1:2.8. The mean age at diagnosis was 57 (range 19-81 years): women, 36 years and men, 63 years; p = 0.0006. The disease course was remitting-relapsing in 21% and chronic progressive or monophasic in 79%. The average length of follow-up was 6.9 years. The standardized mortality ratio for the 21-year study period was 0.9 (95% CI 0.3-2.2). We believe we have identified all diagnosed with CIDP in Iceland during a 21-year period. Many had no or only limited disease progression over the years and mortality is not increased compared with the general population. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Increased risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with rosacea: A nationwide population-based matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yi Chiu

    Full Text Available Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder. Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the etiopathogenesis of rosacea and chronic kidney disease (CKD. This study aimed to investigate the association between rosacea and CKD.This population-based cohort study identified 277 patients with rosacea in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2001-2005. These patients were matched for age, sex, and comorbidities with 2216 patients without rosacea. All subjects were individually followed-up for 8-12 years to identify those who subsequently developed CKD.The incidence rates of CKD per 1000 person-years were 16.02 in patients with rosacea and 10.63 in the non-rosacea reference population. After adjusting for other covariates and considering the competing risk of mortality, patients with rosacea remained at increased risk of CKD (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio (aSD-HR 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05-3.82. The aSD-HRs (95% CI for CKD were 1.82 (0.83-4.00 and 2.53 (1.11-5.75 for patients with mild and moderate-to-severe rosacea, respectively.Rosacea is an independent risk factor for CKD. High rosacea severity and old age further increased CKD risk in patients with rosacea. Careful monitoring for CKD development should be included as part of integrated care for patients with rosacea.

  4. An MRI assessment of chronic synovial-based inflammation in gout and its correlation with serum urate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John D; Patelli, Michelle; Anderson, Scott R; Prakash, Neelesh; Rodriquez, Ernesto J; Bateman, Helen; Sterrett, Ashley; Valeriano, Joanne; Ricca, Louis R

    2015-02-01

    It is unclear when the synovial-based inflammatory process of gout begins. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of patients with inter-critical gout who have chronic synovial-based inflammation as evidenced by synovial pannus on a contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their most involved joint and determine if the presence and/or severity correlates with their serum urate levels. All patients received a 3 T MRI of their index joint, serum urate level, CRP, and creatinine. The primary endpoint was to determine the prevalence of synovial pannus and the correlation of serum urate levels with the presence and/or severity of the synovial pannus on that same joint. MRI erosions, tophi, swelling, effusion, and osteitis were also documented. Seventy-two of 74 subjects (90% men) completed the protocol. Fifty-three of 72 (74%) index joints were the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Thirty-nine (54.2%) of the patients were on urate-lowering therapy; 15 (20.8%) and 7 (9.7%) were taking colchicine or a NSAID daily, respectively. Of the 72 subjects, 63 (87.5%) had synovial pannus on their MRI with good inter-reader agreement between the two radiologists. The mean serum urate level was 7.93 mg/dL. There was no correlation with the presence (p = 0.33) or severity (p = 0.34) of synovial pannus and serum urate levels. There was also no correlation with the presence or severity of synovial pannus and the secondary endpoints. The majority of patients with inter-critical gout have evidence of chronic synovial-based inflammation. However, the presence and severity of this inflammation do not appear to correlate with serum urate levels.

  5. Periodontal progression based on radiographic records: An observational study in chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onabolu, Olanrewaju; Donos, Nikos; Tu, Yu-Kang; Darbar, Ulpee; Nibali, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    The current classification assumes that aggressive periodontitis (AgP) has a faster rate of progression than chronic periodontitis (CP). However, this has not been clearly proven and difficulties exist in establishing progression. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of retrospectively utilising previous records for clinical diagnosis of periodontal diseases and to assess if two different patterns of disease progression exist between AgP and CP. Previous radiographic records of a cohort of 235 patients clinically diagnosed with AgP or CP were requested from the referring general dental practitioners (GDPs). Comparable radiographic records were analysed in order to assess progression patterns and associate these with clinical diagnosis, by multilevel analysis. 43 patients out of the initial 235 had comparable radiographs retrieved from the GDPs. 858 sites were followed for an average 6.6 years. Radiographically, AgP showed a faster linear pattern of progression than CP (0.31mm/year vs. 0.20mm/year, pperiodontal disease progression and may have an impact on the clinical management of aggressive periodontitis, since our findings show that there is continuous destruction in patients with aggressive periodontitis if left untreated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from unjustified nihilism to evidence-based optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Bartolome R

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with a nihilistic attitude. On the basis of current evidence, this nihilistic attitude is totally unjustified. The disease must be viewed through the lens of a new paradigm: one that accepts COPD as not only a pulmonary disease but also as one with important measurable systemic consequences. COPD is not only preventable but also treatable. Smoking cessation, oxygen for hypoxemic patients, lung reduction surgery for selected patients with emphysema, and noninvasive ventilation during severe exacerbations have all been shown to impact on mortality. In addition, pulmonary rehabilitation, pharmacologic therapy, and lung transplantation improve patient-centered outcomes such as health-related quality of life, dyspnea, exercise capacity, and even exacerbations and hospitalizations. Caregivers should familiarize themselves with the multiple complementary forms of treatment and individualize therapy to the particular situation of each patient. The future for patients with this disease is bright as its pathogenesis and clinical and phenotypic manifestations are unraveled. The advent of newer and more effective therapies will lead to a decline in the contribution of this disease to poor world health.

  7. Preventing chronic disease among the aged: a call for evidence-based design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderber, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The quality of the built environment and the public health and well-being of its inhabitants are profoundly interwoven. Among all age groups, the aged are particularly susceptible to disengagement or avoidance of the built environment and the physical exercise options it affords; this can have a deleterious influence on personal health. In this discussion, concepts drawn from the fields of architecture, landscape research, urban and regional planning, and environmental gerontology are drawn together in the context of a hybrid conceptual and operative model. This model is put forth to assist in the acquisition of knowledge in the field to further understanding of how chronic diseases among the aged can be reduced through the provision and utilization of sufficiently supportive outdoor physical activity options in the everyday environment. This hybrid model, the Prospect-Refuge Competency Index (PRCI), combines key elements of prospect-refuge theory and environmental press-competency theory. It can be applied to diverse settings and user constituencies. The discussion concludes with the presentation of a set of hypotheses for the neighborhood/community level and the residential/exterior environs level of inquiry. ©2009 VENDOME GROUP, LLC

  8. Correntropy-based nonlinearity test applied to patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Ainara; Sornmo, Leif; Jane, Raimon; Giraldo, Beatriz F

    2010-01-01

    In this study we propose the correntropy function as a discriminative measure for detecting nonlinearities in the respiratory pattern of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with periodic or nonperiodic breathing pattern (PB or nPB, respectively). The complexity seems to be reduced in CHF patients with higher risk level. Correntropy reflects information on both, statistical distribution and temporal structure of the underlying dataset. It is a suitable measure due to its capability to preserve nonlinear information. The null hypothesis considered is that the analyzed data is generated by a Gaussian linear stochastic process. Correntropy is used in a statistical test to reject the null hypothesis through surrogate data methods. Various parameters, derived from the correntropy and correntropy spectral density (CSD) to characterize the respiratory pattern, presented no significant differences when extracted from the iteratively refined amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (IAAFT) surrogate data. The ratio between the powers in the modulation and respiratory frequency bands R was significantly different in nPB patients, but not in PB patients, which reflects a higher presence of nonlinearities in nPB patients than in PB patients.

  9. Regional Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in Germany: Results From Two Population-Based Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Aumann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Due to the increasing prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD, kidney dysfunction becomes a major public health problem. We investigated the CKD prevalence and determined to what extent the variation of risk factors explains the different CKD prevalence in Germany. Methods: We analyzed data from 6,054 participants, aged 31 to 82 years, from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1 in Northeast Germany and the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA F4 Study in Southern Germany. Regional differences in selected percentiles corresponding to the cutpoints for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 2 and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, ≥30 mg/g were tested using quantile regression models that adjusted for CKD risk factors. Results: The prevalence of decreased eGFRcreatinine-cystatinC (5.9 vs. 3.1 %, p creatinine-cystatinC and high ACR. Conclusions: The CKD prevalence is higher in Northeast than in Southern Germany. Differences in the prevalence of risk factors partly explain the higher disease burden of CKD in Northeast than in Southern Germany.

  10. Randomised feasibility study of a novel experience-based internet intervention to support self-management in chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Nikki; Martin, Angela; Jawad, Sena; Yu, Ly-Mee; Davoudianfar, Mina; Locock, Louise; Ziebland, Sue; Powell, John

    2016-12-28

    To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effects of an experience-based website as a resource for the self-management of chronic asthma. Feasibility, single-blind RCT in 2 regions of England. Randomisation used computer-generated random number sequence in a 1:1 ratio, after baseline data collection, to website access for 2 weeks. Adults (age ≥18 years), with clinically diagnosed asthma as coded in their primary care electronic record, prescribed inhaled corticosteroids for at least 3 months in the previous year, were recruited from 9 general practices. The EXPERT asthma intervention is an interactive PC/laptop/tablet/smartphone compatible website designed with extensive input from adults with asthma. It provides experience-based information and aims to support subjective perception of self-efficacy, self-management and improve health status. Primary outcomes were consent/recruitment, website usage and completion of outcome measures. Secondary outcomes included Partners in Health (PIH) questionnaire, the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale, the SF36 and the E-Health Impact Questionnaire. Participant blinding postrandomisation was not possible. The analysis was blind to allocation. Recruitment target exceeded. 148 participants randomised (73 intervention group). Age range 19-84 years; 59% female. 121 of 148 (84%; 62 intervention group) followed up. The median number of logins was 2 (IQR 2-3, range 1-48). Minimal differences of change from baseline between groups; both showed improvement in health state or management of their condition with no significant differences between arms. No adverse events. Recruitment and retention confirmed feasibility. The trends towards improved outcomes suggest that further research on digital interventions based on exposure to others' personal experiences may be of value in the self-management of chronic asthma. ISRCTN29549695; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  11. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation program: Effect on exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem Maha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is pulmonary rehabilitation (PR, the corner stone of which is exercise training. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of a two-months, home-based PR program with outpatient supervision every two weeks, on exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life (HRQL using Arabic-translated standardized generic and specific questionnaires in COPD patients recently recovered from acute exacerbation, Design: Randomized clinical trial. Setting and Subjects: A total of 39 COPD patients who recovered from acute exacerbation were randomly allocated either a two-month home-based PR program in addition to standard medical therapy or standard medical therapy alone in the period between July 2008 and March 2009. Methods: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs, six-minute walk distance (6-MWD test, Arabic-translated chronic respiratory disease questionnaire-self administered standardized format (CRQ-SAS and quality of life scale Short Form (SF-36 were compared between 25 patients with moderate to severe COPD who underwent a two-month PR program (group 1 and 14 COPD patients who did not (group 2. Results: Group 1 showed significant improvement in the 6-MWD, and HRQL scores at two months compared with the usual care patients in group 2 (P less than 0.05. Improvement in both CRQ-SAS and SF-36 scores were statistically significant and comparable in group 1. Conclusion: The supervised, post discharge, two-month home-based PR program is an effective non pharmacological intervention in the management of stable patients with COPD. The 6-MWD is a simple, inexpensive and safe test to assess physical and functional capabilities among COPD patients. HRQL can be measured in patients with COPD either by disease-specific tools that have been specifically designed for use in patients with respiratory system disorders or by generic HRQL tools that can be used across

  12. Diagnostic investigation of porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome: lack of compelling evidence linking to common porcine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Gauvreau, Henry; Harding, John

    2012-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS), an increasingly recognized syndrome in the swine industry of North America, is characterized by the anorexia of nursery pigs noticeable within 1 week of weaning, and progressive loss of body condition and lethargy during the next 1-2 weeks. Morbidity caused by PFTS is moderate, but case fatality is high. The etiology of PFTS is presently unknown and may include infectious agent(s), noninfectious factors, or both. PFTS was identified in a high health status farm with good management in early 2007. A diagnostic investigation was undertaken to identify the pathological lesions of, and infectious agents associated with, pigs demonstrating typical clinical signs. Affected (PFTS-SICK) and unaffected (PFTS-HLTHY) pigs from an affected farm, and unaffected pigs from 2 unaffected farms, were examined. The most prevalent lesions in PFTS-SICK pigs were superficial lymphocytic fundic gastritis, atrophic enteritis, superficial colitis, lymphocytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, and thymic atrophy. Rotavirus A and Betacoronavirus 1 (Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus) were identified only in PFTS-SICK pigs, but the significance of the viruses is uncertain because PFTS is not consistent with the typical presentation following infection by these pathogens. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Porcine circovirus-2, Influenza A virus, Alphacoronavirus 1 (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus), Torque teno virus 1, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and Brachyspira pilosicoli were not identified in PFTS-SICK pigs. Suid herpesvirus 2 (Porcine cytomegalovirus), Porcine enteric calicivirus, Torque teno virus 2, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and coccidia were detected in both PFTS-SICK and PFTS-HLTHY pigs. It was concluded that there is a lack of compelling evidence that PFTS is caused by any of these pathogens.

  13. Contemporary management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease: an evidence-based review with recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joshua M.; Rudmik, Luke; Peters, Anju T.; Wise, Sarah K.; Rotenberg, Brian W.; Smith, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) represents a recalcitrant form of sinonasal inflammation for which a multidisciplinary consensus on patient management has not been reached. Several medical interventions have been investigated, but a formal comprehensive evaluation of the evidence has never been performed. The purpose of this article is to provide an evidence-based approach for the multidisciplinary management of CRS in AERD. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed and the guidelines for development of an evidence-based review with recommendations were followed. Study inclusion criteria included: adult population>18 years old; CRS based on published diagnostic criteria and a presumptive diagnosis of AERD. We focused on reporting higher-quality studies (level 2 or higher) when available, but reported lower-quality studies if the topic contained insufficient evidence. Treatment recommendations were based on American Academy of Otolaryngology guidelines, with defined grades of evidence and evaluation of research quality and risk/benefits associated with each treatment. Results This review identified and evaluated the literature on 3 treatment strategies for CRS in AERD: dietary salicylate avoidance, leukotriene modification and desensitization with daily aspirin therapy. Conclusion Based on the available evidence, dietary salicylate avoidance and leukotriene modifying drugs are options following appropriate treatment with nasal corticosteroids and saline irrigation. Desensitization with daily aspirin therapy is recommended following revision ESS. PMID:27480830

  14. Options for basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on chronic disease endpoints: report from a joint US-/Canadian-sponsored working group123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Greene-Finestone, Linda S; Garza, Cutberto; Ard, Jamy D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Bier, Dennis M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Harlan, William R; Hattis, Dale; King, Janet C; Krewski, Daniel; O’Connor, Deborah L; Prentice, Ross L; Rodricks, Joseph V; Wells, George A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used in Canada and the United States in planning and assessing diets of apparently healthy individuals and population groups. The approaches used to establish DRIs on the basis of classical nutrient deficiencies and/or toxicities have worked well. However, it has proved to be more challenging to base DRI values on chronic disease endpoints; deviations from the traditional framework were often required, and in some cases, DRI values were not established for intakes that affected chronic disease outcomes despite evidence that supported a relation. The increasing proportions of elderly citizens, the growing prevalence of chronic diseases, and the persistently high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which predispose to chronic disease, highlight the importance of understanding the impact of nutrition on chronic disease prevention and control. A multidisciplinary working group sponsored by the Canadian and US government DRI steering committees met from November 2014 to April 2016 to identify options for addressing key scientific challenges encountered in the use of chronic disease endpoints to establish reference values. The working group focused on 3 key questions: 1) What are the important evidentiary challenges for selecting and using chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews, 2) what intake-response models can future DRI committees consider when using chronic disease endpoints, and 3) what are the arguments for and against continuing to include chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews? This report outlines the range of options identified by the working group for answering these key questions, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each option. PMID:27927637

  15. Repeated Gene Transfection Impairs the Engraftment of Transplanted Porcine Neonatal Pancreatic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Koo Seo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPreviously, we reported that neonatal porcine pancreatic cells transfected with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF gene in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-based plasmid (pEBVHGF showed improved proliferation and differentiation compared to those of the control. In this study, we examined if pancreatic cells transfected repeatedly with pEBVHGF can be successfully grafted to control blood glucose in a diabetes mouse model.MethodsNeonatal porcine pancreatic cells were cultured as a monolayer and were transfected with pEBVHGF every other day for a total of three transfections. The transfected pancreatic cells were re-aggregated and transplanted into kidney capsules of diabetic nude mice or normal nude mice. Blood glucose level and body weight were measured every other day after transplantation. The engraftment of the transplanted cells and differentiation into beta cells were assessed using immunohistochemistry.ResultsRe-aggregation of the pancreatic cells before transplantation improved engraftment of the cells and facilitated neovascularization of the graft. Right before transplantation, pancreatic cells that were transfected with pEBVHGF and then re-aggregated showed ductal cell marker expression. However, ductal cells disappeared and the cells underwent fibrosis in a diabetes mouse model two to five weeks after transplantation; these mice also did not show controlled blood glucose levels. Furthermore, pancreatic cells transplanted into nude mice with normal blood glucose showed poor graft survival regardless of the type of transfected plasmid (pCEP4, pHGF, or pEBVHGF.ConclusionFor clinical application of transfected neonatal porcine pancreatic cells, further studies are required to develop methods of overcoming the damage for the cells caused by repeated transfection and to re-aggregate them into islet-like structures.

  16. Porcine cartilage model for simulation of nasal tip aesthetics and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chark, Davin; Oliaei, Sepehr; Manuel, Cyrus; Wong, Brian J

    2011-07-01

    The aesthetics of the human nose is highly dependent on the complex structure of the lower lateral cartilages (LLC). Understanding optimum shape and mechanical properties of the LLC is pivotal to achieving satisfactory results in nasal tip rhinoplasty. The authors introduce an ex vivo animal model to replicate the shape and mechanics of human nasal LLC as a tool for research and surgical education. Seven fresh pig heads were obtained from a local butcher shop. Nasal cartilage was harvested in a replicable manner and fashioned into appropriate shapes and dimensions based on the authors' human cadaver studies. Sutures were placed to approximate the cartilage pairs into appropriate human anatomical position. The porcine cartilage model replicated analogous structures, including the medial crura and the lateral crura, with appropriate cephalic orientation and domal angles. The anterior-posterior dimensions of the medial crura, intermediate crura, and lateral crura were 4 mm, 6 mm, and 10 mm, respectively. Cartilage thickness was approximately 1 mm throughout the specimen. Cephalic orientation of the lateral crura was sculpted to 45°. The average angle of divergence was 54° and varied according to the physiological shape of the porcine nasal vault (range, 43-74°). Average interdomal distance was 13.3 mm (range, 9-18 mm), and average domal width was 6.2 mm (range, 5-7 mm). This novel porcine model mimics human LLC and is inexpensive, easy to construct, and highly replicable. This model can be used as a valuable educational resource for training novice surgeons in the principles of nasal tip rhinoplasty. Additionally, our construct has broad applications in studying LLC geometry and mechanics.

  17. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Svensmark, B.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying...... in the submucosa, lamina propria and crypt epithelium, as well as in the lymphoid tissue of the ileum and colon. Multinucleated giant cells, however, were seen in both infections. PCV2 was about three times more likely to be detected in L. intracellularis-negative than in L. intracellularis-positive samples (P ... intensity was diagnosed in 64 of the pigs. Of these 64 animals, 34 (18%) were infected with both PCV2 and L. intracellularis. Of the remaining 30 cases of enteritis, 23 (77%) were attributed to PCV2 infection alone. The PCV2-associated enteritis cases showed necrotizing ileitis and colitis...

  18. Shared decision making in chronic care in the context of evidence based practice in nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen-Storms, J.H.; Bours, G.J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Beurskens, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the decision-making environment of evidence-based practice, the following three sources of information must be integrated: research evidence of the intervention, clinical expertise, and the patient's values. In reality, evidence-based practice usually focuses on research evidence (which may be

  19. Shared decision making in chronic care in the context of evidence based practice in nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T van der Weijden; AJ Beurskens; GJ Bours; JH Friesen-Storms

    2015-01-01

    In the decision-making environment of evidence-based practice, the following three sources of information must be integrated: research evidence of the intervention, clinical expertise, and the patient’s values. In reality, evidence-based practice usually focuses on research evidence (which may be

  20. Hospital-based prevalence of chronic kidney disease among the newly registered patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Khanam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is proved to be a major public health issue worldwide and an important contributor to the overall non-communicable disease burden. It increases risk of mortality, end-stage renal disease and accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD. Diabetes is the biggest contributor to CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. In Bangladesh, very few data on CKD is available. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of CKD among the newly registered diabetic patients at BIRDEM (Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, a referral center for diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods: The study included all diabetic patients aged 18 - 80 years and were registered in the year 2012. Socio-demographic (age, sex, residence, income, literacy, clinical (obesity, blood pressure and biochemical (blood glucose, lipids, eGFR information were collected from the BIRDEM registry. CKD was defined according to the K/ DOQI guidelines. Results: A total of 1317 type 2 diabetic patients of age 18 to 80 years were studied. Of them, men and women were 54.7% and 45.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of CKD (eGFR ≤60 (ml/min/m2 was 13.9%. The prevalence was significantly higher in women than men (21.3 v. 7.8%, p50y, higher sBP (≥140mmHg and taking oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA were significant. Conclusions: Thus, the study concludes that the prevalence of CKD among the newly registered diabetic patients is quite high in Bangladesh. The female diabetic patients with older age and with higher SBP bear the brunt of CKD. Considering high prevalence of CKD with severe lifelong complications it is of utmost importance for early detection and intervention at the primary health care (PHC level.

  1. Support vector machine-based differentiation between aggressive and chronic periodontitis using microbial profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Magda; Louzoun, Yoram; Haber, Simi; Faveri, Marcelo; Figueiredo, Luciene C; Levin, Liran

    2018-02-01

    The existence of specific microbial profiles for different periodontal conditions is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that 40 bacterial species could be used to classify patients, utilising machine learning, into generalised chronic periodontitis (ChP), generalised aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and periodontal health (PH). Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from patients with AgP, ChP and PH and analysed for their content of 40 bacterial species using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation. Two stages of machine learning were then performed. First of all, we tested whether there was a difference between the composition of bacterial communities in PH and in disease, and then we tested whether a difference existed in the composition of bacterial communities between ChP and AgP. The data were split in each analysis to 70% train and 30% test. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used with a linear kernel and a Box constraint of 1. The analysis was divided into two parts. Overall, 435 patients (3,915 samples) were included in the analysis (PH = 53; ChP = 308; AgP = 74). The variance of the healthy samples in all principal component analysis (PCA) directions was smaller than that of the periodontally diseased samples, suggesting that PH is characterised by a uniform bacterial composition and that the bacterial composition of periodontally diseased samples is much more diverse. The relative bacterial load could distinguish between AgP and ChP. An SVC classifier using a panel of 40 bacterial species was able to distinguish between PH, AgP in young individuals and ChP. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) After Previous Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy Is Feasible and Safe in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Luke F; Frelich, Matthew J; Gould, Jon C; Dua, Kulwinder S; Jensen, Eric S; Kastenmeier, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and difficulty of performing the per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure in the setting of a prior Heller myotomy using a survival porcine model. Four pigs underwent laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor partial anterior fundoplication followed by the POEM performed 4 weeks later. Two additional pigs served as controls, undergoing only the POEM. All procedures were completed without complications. The revisional POEM was not significantly more difficult than POEM controls based on procedure time, POEM procedure components, or procedure difficulty scores. Revisional POEM had a longer mean operative time when compared with Heller myotomy (126.0 vs. 83.8 min; Pmyotomy is safe and feasible in the porcine model and has potential as an option for patients suffering from recurrent or persistent symptoms after failed surgical myotomy.

  3. Non surgical laser and light in the treatment of chronic diseases: a review based on personal experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, L.

    2010-11-01

    Since many years some effects of non surgical laser and light on biological tissue have been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo. This review is based on the results obtained by me and my colleagues/follower in Italy. Aim of our study is to verify the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non surgical laser and light therapy on patients with chronic diseases not good treatable with traditional therapies, as diabetes, and central nervous system injuries. In addition, many clinical data have emerged from double-blind trials on laser treatment of rheumatic diseases and in sports medicine. So, we would like to do a review on the state of the art of non surgical laser treatment in medicine, included aesthetic laser and light therapy field. We discuss the indications and limitations of aesthetic laser medicine, as concluded from the data analysis of the published literature and from over thirty years of personal experiences.

  4. Regular physical activity reduces hospital admission and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the influence of regular physical activity on the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce. A study was undertaken to examine the association between regular physical activity and both hospital admissions for COPD and all-cause and specific...... mortality in COPD subjects. METHODS: From a population-based sample recruited in Copenhagen in 1981-3 and 1991-4, 2386 individuals with COPD (according to lung function tests) were identified and followed until 2000. Self-reported regular physical activity at baseline was classified into four categories...... (very low, low, moderate, and high). Dates and causes of hospital admissions and mortality were obtained from Danish registers. Adjusted associations between physical activity and hospital admissions for COPD and mortality were obtained using negative binomial and Cox regression models, respectively...

  5. [Scientific foundations for medical treatment based on modifying diet, lifestyle habits, and patient attitudes in chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csendes, Attila; Burdiles, Patricio

    2007-02-01

    In most patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, treatment is medical. Among the main elements involved in treatment are general dietary measures, lifestyle habits, and patients' attitudes to symptom control. The present article summarizes the scientific foundations that support these measures: head elevation during nighttime sleep, smoking cessation, losing weight, avoiding rigorous exercise, and reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption. Dietary therapy is mainly based on avoiding fatty foods, chocolate, coffee, mint, and irritating fizzy drinks. Although each patient's response to these measures is highly individual, the mechanisms through which symptoms are reproduced is gradually becoming clearer: a large percentage of patients with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease will gain considerable relief simply by eliminating some of these habits.

  6. Clinical Signs, Causes, and Risk Factors of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Diseases: a Hospital-based Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This retrospective study aimed to determine the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of chronic kidney diseases (CKD in patients < 18 years old at a single referral center. Materials and Methods In a hospital-based case control study, 66 CKD patients less than 18 years old were compared to 81 control patients (also under 18 without CKD. A patient was defined as a CKD case with renal injury and/or had a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of Results Fever, chills, and urinary tract infections were the most common clinical signs in the referred patients. Urinary tract infection (39.5% and growth failure (12.9% were the most important causes in referred pediatric CKD. After controlling the effect of confounding variables, household income, using packed water for drinking, percentile of body mass index (BMI, and gestational age were the significant predictors of pediatric CKD (P

  7. Non surgical laser and light in the treatment of chronic diseases: a review based on personal experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, L

    2010-01-01

    Since many years some effects of non surgical laser and light on biological tissue have been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo. This review is based on the results obtained by me and my colleagues/follower in Italy. Aim of our study is to verify the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non surgical laser and light therapy on patients with chronic diseases not good treatable with traditional therapies, as diabetes, and central nervous system injuries. In addition, many clinical data have emerged from double-blind trials on laser treatment of rheumatic diseases and in sports medicine. So, we would like to do a review on the state of the art of non surgical laser treatment in medicine, included aesthetic laser and light therapy field. We discuss the indications and limitations of aesthetic laser medicine, as concluded from the data analysis of the published literature and from over thirty years of personal experiences

  8. Income level and chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions in adults: a multicity population-based study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabiti, Nera; Pirani, Monica; Schifano, Patrizia; Cesaroni, Giulia; Davoli, Marina; Bisanti, Luigi; Caranci, Nicola; Costa, Giuseppe; Forastiere, Francesco; Marinacci, Chiara; Russo, Antonio; Spadea, Teresa; Perucci, Carlo A

    2009-12-11

    A relationship between quality of primary health care and preventable hospitalizations has been described in the US, especially among the elderly. In Europe, there has been a recent increase in the evaluation of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) as an indicator of health care quality, but evidence is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether income level is associated with higher hospitalization rates for ACSC in adults in a country with universal health care coverage. From the hospital registries in four Italian cities (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Rome), we identified 9384 hospital admissions for six chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma) among 20-64 year-olds in 2000. Case definition was based on the ICD-9-CM coding algorithm suggested by the Agency for Health Research and Quality - Prevention Quality Indicators. An area-based (census block) income index was used for each individual. All hospitalization rates were directly standardised for gender and age using the Italian population. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between income level (quintiles) and hospitalization rates (RR, 95% CI) separately for the selected conditions controlling for age, gender and city of residence. Overall, the ACSC age-standardized rate was 26.1 per 10.000 inhabitants. All conditions showed a statistically significant socioeconomic gradient, with low income people being more likely to be hospitalized than their well off counterparts. The association was particularly strong for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (level V low income vs. level I high income RR = 4.23 95%CI 3.37-5.31) and for congestive heart failure (RR = 3.78, 95% CI = 3.09-4.62). With the exception of asthma, males were more vulnerable to ACSC hospitalizations than females. The risks were higher among 45-64 year olds than in younger people. The socioeconomic

  9. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation improves clinical features and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento ESP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eloisa Sanches Pereira do Nascimento,1 Luciana Maria Malosá Sampaio,1 Fabiana Sobral Peixoto-Souza,1 Fernanda Dultra Dias,1 Evelim Leal Freitas Dantas Gomes,1 Flavia Regina Greiffo,2 Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira,2 Roberto Stirbulov,3 Rodolfo Paula Vieira,2 Dirceu Costa11Laboratory of Functional Respiratory Evaluation (LARESP, 2Laboratory of Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology (LABPEI, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Pneumology, Santa Casa University Hospital, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a respiratory disease characterized by chronic airflow limitation that leads beyond the pulmonary changes to important systemic effects. COPD is characterized by pulmonary and systemic inflammation. However, increases in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in plasma are found even when the disease is stable. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves physical exercise capacity and quality of life and decreases dyspnea. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR program improves exercise tolerance in COPD patients, as well as health-related quality of life and systemic inflammation. This prospective study was conducted at the Laboratory of Functional Respiratory Evaluation, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, Brazil. After anamnesis, patients were subjected to evaluations of health-related quality of life and dyspnea, spirometry, respiratory muscle strength, upper limbs incremental test, incremental shuttle walk test, and blood test for quantification of systemic inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and IL-8. At the end of the evaluations, patients received a booklet containing the physical exercises to be performed at home, three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Around 25 patients were enrolled, and 14 completed the pre- and post-HBPR ratings. There was a significant increase in the walked distance and the maximal

  10. The relationship between body system-based chronic conditions and dental utilization for Medicaid-enrolled children: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental care is the most common unmet health care need for children with chronic conditions. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that not all children with chronic conditions encounter difficulties accessing dental care. The goals of this study are to evaluate dental care use for Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions and to identify the subgroups of children with chronic conditions that are the least likely to use dental care services. Methods This study focused on children with chronic conditions ages 3-14 enrolled in the Iowa Medicaid Program in 2005 and 2006. The independent variables were whether a child had each of the following 10 body system-based chronic conditions (no/yes): hematologic; cardiovascular; craniofacial; diabetes; endocrine; digestive; ear/nose/throat; respiratory; catastrophic neurological; or musculoskeletal. The primary outcome measure was use of any dental care in 2006. Secondary outcomes, also measured in 2006, were use of diagnostic dental care, preventive dental care, routine restorative dental care, and complex restorative dental care. We used Poisson regression models to estimate the relative risk (RR) associated with each of the five outcome measures across the 10 chronic conditions. Results Across the 10 chronic condition subgroups, unadjusted dental utilization rates ranged from 44.3% (children with catastrophic neurological conditions) to 60.2% (children with musculoskeletal conditions). After adjusting for model covariates, children with catastrophic neurological conditions were significantly less likely to use most types of dental care (RR: 0.48 to 0.73). When there were differences, children with endocrine or craniofacial conditions were less likely to use dental care whereas children with hematologic or digestive conditions were more likely to use dental care. Children with respiratory, musculoskeletal, or ear/nose/throat conditions were more likely to use most types of dental care compared to other

  11. The relationship between body system-based chronic conditions and dental utilization for Medicaid-enrolled children: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Raklios, Nicholas A

    2012-08-07

    Dental care is the most common unmet health care need for children with chronic conditions. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that not all children with chronic conditions encounter difficulties accessing dental care. The goals of this study are to evaluate dental care use for Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions and to identify the subgroups of children with chronic conditions that are the least likely to use dental care services. This study focused on children with chronic conditions ages 3-14 enrolled in the Iowa Medicaid Program in 2005 and 2006. The independent variables were whether a child had each of the following 10 body system-based chronic conditions (no/yes): hematologic; cardiovascular; craniofacial; diabetes; endocrine; digestive; ear/nose/throat; respiratory; catastrophic neurological; or musculoskeletal. The primary outcome measure was use of any dental care in 2006. Secondary outcomes, also measured in 2006, were use of diagnostic dental care, preventive dental care, routine restorative dental care, and complex restorative dental care. We used Poisson regression models to estimate the relative risk (RR) associated with each of the five outcome measures across the 10 chronic conditions. Across the 10 chronic condition subgroups, unadjusted dental utilization rates ranged from 44.3% (children with catastrophic neurological conditions) to 60.2% (children with musculoskeletal conditions). After adjusting for model covariates, children with catastrophic neurological conditions were significantly less likely to use most types of dental care (RR: 0.48 to 0.73). When there were differences, children with endocrine or craniofacial conditions were less likely to use dental care whereas children with hematologic or digestive conditions were more likely to use dental care. Children with respiratory, musculoskeletal, or ear/nose/throat conditions were more likely to use most types of dental care compared to other children with chronic

  12. Comparing the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction and multidisciplinary intervention programs for chronic pain: a randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Chan, Frank Wan-Kin; Wong, Rebecca Lai-Ping; Chu, Ming-Chi; Kitty Lam, Yu-Yuk; Mercer, Stewart W; Ma, S Helen

    2011-10-01

    Research suggests that an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program (a structured form of meditation) might be effective in the treatment of various health problems including chronic pain. Our objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of the MBSR program with a multidisciplinary pain intervention (MPI) program in terms of pain intensity, pain-related distress, quality of life, and mood in patients with chronic pain. A randomized, comparative clinical trial was conducted, including 6-month posttreatment follow-up. Ninety-nine participants, aged 24 to 64 years, with pain for a minimum of 3 months, were recruited from community-based clinics, hospitals, and community service centers. Participants were randomly allocated to either the MBSR program (51 participants) or a MPI program (48 participants). The study used validated Chinese versions of self-reported questionnaires measuring pain, mood symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Thirty-nine participants (77%) completed the MBSR program and 44 (90%) completed the MPI program. Patients in both the groups were comparable with regard to demographical characteristics, pain intensity, mood symptoms, and health-related quality-of-life measures before intervention. In both the groups, patients who completed the trial demonstrated statistically significant improvements in pain intensity and pain-related distress. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in overall results between the MBSR and MPI groups. This randomized, clinical trial showed that both MBSR and MPI programs reduced pain intensity and pain-related distress although no statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups and the improvements were small.

  13. Genomic composition factors affect codon usage in porcine genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the codon usage bias in the porcine genome and decipher its determinants. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of codon bias, the coding sequence (CDS) from the swine reference sequence (ssc10.2) was extracted using Biomart. An in house built Perl script was used to ...

  14. Molecular characterization and analysis of the porcine NURR1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Larsen

    2016-12-01

    Here we report the isolation and characterization of porcine NURR1 cDNA. The NURR1 cDNA was RT-PCR cloned using NURR1-specific oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The porcine NURR1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 598 amino acids, displaying a very high similarity with bovine, human and mouse (99% NURR1 protein. Expression analysis revealed a differential NURR1 mRNA expression in various organs and tissues. NURR1 transcripts could be detected as early as at 60 days of embryo development in different brain tissues. A significant increase in NURR1 transcript in the cerebellum and a decrease in NURR1 transcript in the basal ganglia was observed during embryo development. The porcine NURR1 gene was mapped to chromosome 15. Two missense mutations were found in exon 3, the first coding exon of NURR1. Methylation analysis of the porcine NURR1 gene body revealed a high methylation degree in brain tissue, whereas methylation of the promoter was very low. A decrease in DNA methylation in a discrete region of the NURR1 promoter was observed in pig frontal cortex during pig embryo development. This observation correlated with an increase in NURR1 transcripts. Therefore, methylation might be a determinant of NURR1 expression at certain time points in embryo development.

  15. Preliminary study on mononuclear cells insulin receptor in porcine blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalimunthe, D.; Hara, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Mito, Kazuyo; Kawate, Ryoso

    1980-01-01

    Insulin receptor of porcine mononuclear cells was investigated. After passaging over a Boyum method gradient, mononuclear cells from freshly collected heparinized blood were isolated and 1 x 10 7 /ml mononuclear cells were incubated for 24 hrs at 4 0 C in Tris-salt buffer pH 8.0 with 125 I-insulin (2.2 ng/ml) and a range of native insulin concentration from 0 to 1 x 10 3 ng/ml. γ-globulin-polyethylene glycol was used to separate the unbound 125 I-insulin from the incubation mixture. After centrifugation the supernatant was discarded, the radioactivity of the cell pellets were counted in a gammacounter and the percentage of 125 I-insulin bound could be determined. The result demonstrated that circulating porcine mononuclear cells prepared from Ficoll-Conray gradient readily bound with 125 I-insulin. The binding of 125 I-insulin to porcine mononuclear cells was rapid and reversible process, and could be inhibited by physiological amount of native insulin. 125 I-insulin binding to porcine mononuclear cells was a linear function of cell concentration and a saturable ability of native insulin to displace the binding of 125 I-insulin. (author)

  16. The practicalities of establishing a porcine isolated heart model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Warren; Raisis, Anthea; Dunne, Ben; Van Laeken, Els; Jenkinson, Charles; Vincent, Viji; Baird, Peter; Prince, Stuart; Ho, Kwok M; Merry, Christopher; Gilfillan, Ian

    2017-12-01

    The isolated heart apparatus is over 100 years old, but remains a useful research tool today. While designs of many large animal systems have been described in the literature, trouble-shooting and refining such a model to yield a stable, workable system has not been previously described. This paper outlines the issues, in tabular form, that our group encountered in developing our own porcine isolated heart rig with the aim of assisting other workers in the field planning similar work. The paper also highlights some of the modern applications of the isolated heart apparatus. Methods Landrace pigs (50-80 kg) were used in a pilot project to develop the model. The model was then used in a study examining the effects of various cardioplegic solutions on function after reanimation of porcine hearts. During the two projects, non-protocol issues were documented as well as their solutions. These were aggregated in this paper. Issues faced by the group without explicit literature solutions included pig size selection, animal acclimatisation, porcine transoesophageal echocardiography, cannulation and phlebotomy for cross-clamping, cardioplegia delivery, heart suspension and rig tuning. Prior recognition of issues and possible solutions faced by workers establishing a porcine isolated heart system will speed progress towards a useable system for research. The isolated heart apparatus remains applicable in transplant, ischaemia reperfusion, heart failure and organ preservation research.

  17. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. S.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Vestergaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate if porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) could be induced in healthy pigs following contact with air from pigs with clinical signs of PMWS. The pigs were housed in different units. Either 31 (study I) or 25 (study II) pigs with...

  18. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an immune dysregulatory pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome (PRRS) is a viral pandemic that especially affects neonates within the "critical window" of immunological development. PRRS was recognized in 1987 and within a few years became pandemic causing an estimated yearly $600,000 economic loss in the US...

  20. Determination of free amino acids of porcine serum responsible for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... The relative abundance of three amino acids was quantitatively verified by HPLC: Phenylalanine and valine (P<0.01) and leucine. (P<0.05). These free amino acids in porcine serum are considered as suitable indicators of meat quality .... converted to ASCII format. The ASCII format files were imported.

  1. Assessment of risk factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by Taenia solium is a neglected parasite causing great economic losses to pig farmers and public health risks in endemic countries. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, risk factors for PC transmission and pig welfare in Nyasa District. To establish the prevalence of PC, ...

  2. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus among Farmed Pigs, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Akbar; Carr, John; Ellis, Richard J; Steinbach, Falko; Williamson, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea occurred in the summer of 2014 in Ukraine, severely affecting piglets <10 days of age; the mortality rate approached 100%. Full genome sequencing showed the virus to be closely related to strains reported from North America, showing a sequence identity of up to 99.8%.

  3. The effect of subretinal viscoelastics on the porcine retinal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Fischer; Ejstrup, Rasmus; Svahn, Thøger Frøsig

    2012-01-01

    pharmaceutical therapy is needed, and can only be tested in a suitable animal model. The porcine model is promising and the mfERG is well validated in this model. RD was induced in 18 pigs by vitrectomy and healon injection of various concentrations. Preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively eight animals were...

  4. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2003-01-01

    mild clinical signs in piglets despite the excretion of high numbers of oocysts. Concomitant infection with rotavirus, however, caused a dramatic aggravation of the clinical signs, and 5 of 6 experimentally infected piglets died. CPP-13 appeared to be adapted to porcine hosts as illustrated by the lack...

  5. Age and nursing affect the neonatal porcine uterine transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated be...

  6. Developmental features of porcine haemal nodes: a histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological techniques were employed to provide detailed information on the histological features of haemal nodes in piglets and adult pig. Ten pigs were used for this study. The result demonstrated progressive changes in the structure of porcine haemal nodes. The capsule and trabeculae of piglet haemal nodes ...

  7. Alkaline stabilization of manure slurry inactivates porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) outbreak in North America has substantially impacted swine production since it causes nearly 100% mortality in infected pre-weaned piglets. The PED virus is transmitted via the fecal oral route and manure may remain a source of reinfection; therefore, prop...

  8. Evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary investigation to detect antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), an emerging disease of pigs, in a commercial pig husbandry complex with history of respiratory and reproductive disorders was conducted in Lagos, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty-one sera randomly collected over ...

  9. Dystrophin deficiency-induced changes in porcine skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel porcine stress syndrome was detected in the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center’s swine research population when two sibling barrows died of apparent stress symptoms (open mouth breathing, vocalization, and refusal to move or stand) after transport at 12 weeks of age. At eight weeks of age, the...

  10. Polymorphism of the porcine CGA gene and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    specific haplotypes were found and a map of the porcine CGA polymorphisms' evolution history was inferred. ... The common α subunit of these hormones, encoded by the unique, single-copy gene, CGA ... the glycoprotein hormones, especially TSH, their common CGA gene shows to be a promising candidate gene for ...

  11. Systemic porcine salmonellosis: A potential zoonosis and cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cholerasuis are potentially zonootic pathogens that cause porcine salmonellosis; a disease associated with economic losses worldwide. Presence of this disease in pigs in Kenya is largely unknown. Two, 11-week old pig carcasses presented for necropsy to the Department of ...

  12. Efficacy of porcine dermal collagen (Permacol TM ) injection for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of porcine dermal collagen (Permacol TM ) injection for passive faecal incontinence in a dedicated Colorectal Unit at the Wits Donald Gordon Medical ... Conclusion: Trans-anal submucosal PermacolTM injections produced a significant improvement in both faecal continence and quality of life scores in patients with ...

  13. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimman, T.G.; Cornelissen, A.H.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Stockhofe, N.

    2009-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a threat for the pig industry. Vaccines have been developed, but these failed to provide sustainable disease control, in particular against genetically unrelated strains. Here we give an overview of current knowledge and

  14. Assessing Toxicity of Obscurant Grade Pan-Based Carbon Fiber Aquatic Species Chronic Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chester, N. A; Haley, M. V; Kumas, C. W; Checkai, R. T

    2004-01-01

    ...). Use of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber in the module will provide user-capability for delivering large area obscurant screens in the millimeter wave-range of the electromagnetic spectrum while maintaining...

  15. Structural myocardial changes in chronic heart failure of II functional class based on overweight and abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Netyazhenko

    2014-04-01

    New York Heart Association (NYHA. Overweight and abdominal obesity diagnosed based on the WHO criteria, the degree and abdominal (visceral type of obesity gradualist common metric indices. Criteria for inclusion in the study: the patient's consent to participate in the study, CHF of II functional class (NYHA resulting from hypertensive disease, chronic forms of CAD and the combination of these pathologies in patients with normal weight, overweight and abdominal obesity of I-III degree. According to the aim of the research four groups of patients with CHF of II functional class (NYHA were formed. The group included 23 patients with normal body weight, II group formed of 36 patients with overweight, in the III group included 48 subjects with obesity of the I degree. IV group consisted of 46 patients with obesity II-III degree, due to the lack of significant differences in indicators studied. The control group consisted of 23 patients with normal body weight and without CHF. All patients underwent echocardiography using ultrasonic scanner "SONOACE 8000 SE. Used M – and B-scan modes. Conclusions: 1. With increasing body mass in chronic heart failure of II functional class marked increase in the degree of dilatation of all cavities of the heart, is maximal in groups with obesity. 2. Among patients with chronic heart failure of II functional class, the increase in the degree of myocardial left ventricular hypertrophy with weight gain, and the absolute dominance of concentric type of the left ventricle hypertrophy were detected. сhronic heart failure; structural myocardial changes; overweight; obesity

  16. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shyamali C Dharmage,1 Jennifer L Perret,1,2, John A Burgess,1 Caroline J Lodge,1 David P Johns,3 Paul S Thomas,4 Graham G Giles,1,5 John L Hopper,1,6 Michael J Abramson,7,8 E Haydn Walters,3,9, Melanie C Matheson1 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS, Melbourne, VIC, 3“Breathe Well” Center of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Ageing, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 4Inflammation and Infection Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 5Cancer Epidemiology Center, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Department of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 8School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 9School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background and objective: Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age.Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583. Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729, from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389 underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate

  17. [The SIAARTI consensus document on the management of patients with end-stage chronic organ failure. From evidence-based medicine to knowledge-based medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with end-stage chronic organ failure is an increasingly important topic, since the extraordinary medical and technological advances have significantly reduced mortality and improved quality of life with prolonged survival of end-stage diseases. What should be the plan of care for these patients? Who should bear the responsibility for care? With what targets? These are crucial questions, to which modern medicine should provide convincing answers. The authors of the document explicitly resisted the temptation to draw up guidelines, showing that it is possible to customize medical intervention on the individual patient, keeping it tightly linked to the available knowledge. This is the most relevant aspect of the document: it goes beyond the classical concept of evidence-based medicine choosing to refer to the most dynamic knowledge-based medicine approach.

  18. Case Based Medical Diagnosis of Occupational Chronic Lung Diseases From Their Symptoms and Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Prempal Singh Tomar, Ranjit Singh, P K Saxena, Jeetu Sharma

    2011-01-01

    The clinical decision support system using the case based reasoning (CBR) methodology of ArtificialIntelligence (AI) presents a foundation for a new technology of building intelligent computer aideddiagnoses systems. This Technology directly addresses the problems found in the traditional ArtificialIntelligence (AI) techniques, e.g. the problems of knowledge acquisition, remembering, robust andmaintenance. In this paper, we have used the Case Based Reasoning methodology to develop a clinicald...

  19. Evaluation of a Community Health Service Center-Based Intervention Program for Managing Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Moli; Ma, Yanlan; Zhou, Ti; Xia, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Although the role of primary care for the management of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) has been highly recommended, structural involvement of primary care in heart failure (HF) management programs is extremely limited. To examine the feasibility and applicability of two most recommended forms of care delivery mode, home visit and telephone support, for CHF management in the setting of community health service center (CHSC). Prospective study. This study was conducted in two CHSCs in Beijing, China. Care delivery was led by trained general practitioners or community nurses via home visits in one CHSC and telephone support in the other. Data regarding the change in mortality and hospitalization rate during 12 months and self-care level at 6 months were prospectively collected and compared across the intervention groups. A total of 329 patients were included, with 142 in the home visit group and 187 in the telephone support group. Patients in both groups had frequent visits to CHSC (8.1±5.9 in the home visit and 7.7±4.1 in the telephone support group, p=0.45) during the follow-up period. Compared to the telephone support group, patients in the home visit group showed a reduction in all-cause mortality (14.1% versus 20.3%, p=0.14), one or more hospitalizations due to any cause (33.8% versus 44.2%, p=0.12) and one or more hospitalizations due to cardiac cause (17.6% versus 24.6%, p=0.13) in the home visit group. The absolute differences were 6.2% (95% CI: 1.9%, 14.3%), 8.4% (95% CI: 2.1%, 18.9%) and 7.3% (95% CI: 1.5%, 16.1%), respectively, although the results were not statistically significant. After 6 months of intervention, patients in both groups achieved marked improvement in self-care with reference to their own baseline values. Although no statistical difference was observed between the two care delivery approaches regarding the clinical outcomes of interest, given the high participation rates, the acceptable rate of adverse events, frequent CHSC

  20. Evaluation of a Community Health Service Center-Based Intervention Program for Managing Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moli Gu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the role of primary care for the management of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF has been highly recommended, structural involvement of primary care in heart failure (HF management programs is extremely limited Aims: To examine the feasibility and applicability of two most recommended forms of care delivery mode, home visit and telephone support, for CHF management in the setting of community health service center (CHSC. Study Design: Prospective study. Methods: This study was conducted in two CHSCs in Beijing, China. Care delivery was led by trained general practitioners or community nurses via home visits in one CHSC and telephone support in the other. Data regarding the change in mortality and hospitalization rate during 12 months and self-care level at 6 months were prospectively collected and compared across the intervention groups. Results: A total of 329 patients were included, with 142 in the home visit group and 187 in the telephone support group. Patients in both groups had frequent visits to CHSC (8.1±5.9 in the home visit and 7.7±4.1 in the telephone support group, p=0.45 during the follow-up period. Compared to the telephone support group, patients in the home visit group showed a reduction in all-cause mortality (14.1% versus 20.3%, p=0.14, one or more hospitalizations due to any cause (33.8% versus 44.2%, p=0.12 and one or more hospitalizations due to cardiac cause (17.6% versus 24.6%, p=0.13 in the home visit group. The absolute differences were 6.2% (95% CI: 1.9%, 14.3%, 8.4% (95% CI: 2.1%, 18.9% and 7.3% (95% CI: 1.5%, 16.1%, respectively, although the results were not statistically significant. After 6 months of intervention, patients in both groups achieved marked improvement in self-care with reference to their own baseline values. Conclusion: Although no statistical difference was observed between the two care delivery approaches regarding the clinical outcomes of interest, given the high

  1. Incidence and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Korean community-based cohort

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    Leem AY

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ah Young Leem,1 Boram Park,2 Young Sam Kim,1 Ji Ye Jung,1 Sungho Won2 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Purpose: COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have used spirometry to investigate its incidence, especially in Asia. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence and risk factors of COPD using a community cohort database in Korea. Patients and methods: The study included 6,517 subjects aged 40–69 years from the Ansung–Ansan cohort database I–III (2001–2006. We calculated the crude incidence rate and the standardized incidence rate corrected for the Korean general population and the world population with COPD. We also determined the relative risks (RRs for incident COPD and the attributable risks. Results: In total, 329 new COPD cases were diagnosed during follow-up. The overall crude incidence rate per 100,000 person-years was 1,447. The standardized incidence rate corrected for the Korean general population was 1,550; this value was higher in men and increased with increasing age. Risk factors for incident COPD were age ≥60 years (adjusted RR [aRR] =2.52 vs age <60 years, male sex (aRR =2.02 vs female, heavy smoking (≥20 pack-years; aRR =2.54 vs never smoker, and lowest income group (first quartile; aRR =2.03 vs fourth quartile. The adjusted attributable risk was highest for education level of high school or lower (44.9%, followed by smoking history (25.8%, income (22.9%, and sex (12.0%. Conclusion: In Korea, 15.5/1,000 people are diagnosed with COPD annually. The incidence rate increases with increasing age, heavier smoking, and decreasing income, with a higher rate in men than in women. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, incidence rate, relative

  2. A POPULATION-BASED STUDY ON CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN KANYAKUMARI GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE

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    Ponnaian John Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease encompasses a spectrum of different pathophysiologic processes associated with abnormal kidney function and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate. Our study deals with the risk factors, stages and the management among the general population of Kanyakumari district who came to Kanyakumari Government Medical College during the period of 2014-2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS The newly-diagnosed CKD patients who were admitted as inpatients in the Department of General Medicine in the period of 2014-2015 were studied retrospectively. Those who came as outpatients as well as previously diagnosed ESRD patients who had repeated admissions for maintenance haemodialysis were excluded from our study. We documented the age, sex, previous history of diabetes, hypertension, the mean duration of diabetes or hypertension, eGFR of the patient, stage of CKD and the treatment given. RESULTS The number of CKD patients admitted in our hospital during 2014-2015 were 314 of which newly detected CKD cases were 212. The most frequent cause of CKD in this population is diabetic nephropathy secondary to type 2 diabetes mellitus (90%. CKD is most common among males in this population. The mean age of association of diabetes in this population is 9-12 years. Patients with newly-diagnosed CKD often present with hypertension. eGFR was calculated for all CKD patients by CockgraftGault Equation. 18 out of 212 newly-diagnosed CKD patients (8.5% presented with ESRD (eGFR <15 mL/min./1.73 m2 and haemodialysis was initiated. Most evident complications among this patients were anaemia, easy fatigability, decreased appetite, progressive malnutrition and electrolyte abnormalities. CONCLUSION Diabetes, glomerulonephritis and hypertension associated CKD are the leading categories of aetiologies of CKD. When no overt evidence for a primary glomerular disease or tubulointerstitial disease process is present, CKD is often attributed to

  3. [Exercise program for chronic low back pain based on common clinical characteristics of patients].

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    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2014-01-01

    1. To determine which clinical characteristics are common in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and 2. To present an exercise program for CLBP composed on the basis of the common clinical characteristics of patients. In the prospective study, we have included 420 patients with nonspecific CLBP (group A), 420 patients with CLBP (with or without radicular pain) and degenerative changes of lumbosacral (LS) spine (group B) and 80 patients with CLBP after a lumbar disc herniation surgery (group C). The clinical characteristics of patients and especially the characteristics of the most important parameters for the selection of exercises have been evaluated by means of physiatric and manual functional examination. The vast majority of patients had these common clinical characteristics: 1. hypertonic/shortened lumbar extensors (A: 89,5%, B: 92%, C: 92,5%), 2. hypertonic/shortened psoas muscles (A: 83%, B: 90,5%, C: 92,5%), 3. restricted active (A: 71,4%, B: 89%, C: 94%) and passive (segmental) mobility (A: 86,4%, B: 92%, C: 95%) of LS spine, 4. painful active movements of LS spine (A: 44%, B: 88,6%, C: 95%), 5. scoliotic posture (more rarely scoliosis) usually in a combination with reduced/flattened lumbar lordosis (A: 87%, B: 89%, C: 90%), 6. hypotonic/ weak gluteal (A: 51,2%, B: 68%, C: 82,5%) and abdominal muscles (A: 33,8%, B: 56,5%, C: 60%) and 7. shortened hamstrings (A: 70,7%; hamstrings flexibility testing in patients from groups B and C is unreliable because of a frequently positive Lasegue's sign). In 6,7% of examinees from the group A, 4,8% examinees from the group B and 2,5% examinees from the group C, we have found LS spine hypermobility. Our exercise program for CLBP composed on the basis of the common clinical characteristics of the patients includes: 1. Stretching exercises for lumbar extensors, 2. Stretching exercises for psoas muscles, 3. Stretching exercises for hamstrings, 4. Strengthening exercises for abdominal muscles, 5. Strengthening

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Emilio C. Acevedo-Nieto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic zoonosis that affects human and pigs raised free-range in developing countries. The epidemiology of the taeniosis cysticercosis complex in Brazil is poorly understood especially when it comes to field research. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in rural communities located in the east of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil. From 371 farms in the county of Tumiritinga/MG, 101 farms from 14 communities were randomly sampled. Blood samples from pigs were collected, and epidemiological questionnaires were carried out. The serum samples obtained were analyzed through immunodiagnosis techniques, including ELISA and Western Blot, both for the detection of antibodies. The data obtained by different surveys were analyzed using EpiInfo 3.5.1 software to determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated with cysticercosis. The prevalence of farms with porcine cysticercosis was 9.9% (10/101 and antibody-based seropositive was 5.3% (13/247. The results indicate that cysticercosis occurs in high level in the rural area never studied before. These results suggest the presence of tapeworm carriers contributing to the occurrence and maintenance of this zoonotic life cycle in the county. Regarding risk factors, the most significant determinants for porcine cysticercosis in the field were free-range pig management (OR: 17.4, p: 0.0001, the method of disposal of human faeces in the environmental (OR: 7.6; p 0.012, and the size of the farm. Porcine cysticercosis was diagnosed only in areas represented by Agrarian Reform Settlements. From the results, it is possible to recommend as a means of control and prevention the destination of human faeces in appropriate sanitary landfills and the production of pigs in an enclosed area. Additionally, improving education in the communities sampled will indirectly affect the spreading of

  5. [Xenogeneic cell therapeutics: Treatment of type 1 diabetes using porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells].

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    Godehardt, Antonia W; Schilling-Leiß, Dagmar; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Tönjes, Ralf R

    2015-11-01

    In view of the existing shortage of human donor organs and tissues, xenogeneic cell therapeutics (xCT) offer an alternative for adequate treatment. In particular, porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells have already entered the field of experimental therapy for type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Thereby, xCT depict challenging products with a glance on medical, ethical, and regulatory questions. With cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation), the risk of immunological graft rejection as well as the risk of infectious transmission of microbial and viral pathogens must be considered. This includes the bidirectional transmission of microorganisms from graft to host as well as from host to graft. Crossing the border of species requires a critical risk-benefit evaluation as well as a thorough longtime surveillance of transplant recipients after treatment. The international legal and regulatory requirements for xCT are inter alia based on the World Health Organization criteria summarized in the Changsha Communiqué (2008). In the European Union, they were reflected by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guideline on Xenogeneic Cell-based Medicinal Products following the implementation of the Regulation on Advanced Therapies (ATMP). On the basis of this regulation, the first non-clinical and clinical experiences were obtained for porcine islets. The results suggest that supportive treatment of T1DM risk patients with xCT may be an alternative to established allogeneic organ transplantation in the future.

  6. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) ameliorates the effects of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.

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    Carter, Quincy L; Curiel, Rafael E

    2005-08-15

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) disease, one of the most economically significant viral diseases in the swine industry, is characterized by miscarriages, premature farrowing, stillborn pigs, and respiratory disease associated with death and chronic poor performance of nursing and weaned pigs. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key component in driving the development of cell-mediated immunity as well as stimulating interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production from T cells and natural killer cells. Although some studies have investigated the use of IL-12 as a vaccine adjuvant in swine, little is known about its effectiveness as a treatment against viral diseases in swine. The present study investigated whether recombinant porcine IL-12 (rpIL-12) enhances the immune response and thereby diminishes the effects of PRRSV infection in young pigs. Interestingly, in vitro experiments demonstrated that rpIL-12 is capable of inducing swine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the target cells of PRRSV, to produce IFN-gamma in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, in vitro studies also revealed that rpIL-12 treatment was capable of significantly reducing PRRSV viral titers in PAMs. In vivo administration of rpIL-12 significantly decreased PRRSV titers in the lungs and blood of infected animals. Furthermore, treatment with rpIL-12 prevented significant growth retardation in PRRSV-infected animals. Finally, in response to viral antigen recall challenge, PAMs isolated from rpIL-12-treated/PRRSV-infected animals produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma and lesser amounts of interleukin-10 than PAMs isolated from non-rpIL-12-treated/PRRSV-infected animals. Taken together our data indicate that treatment with rpIL-12 may provide an effective approach to control or ameliorate PRRSV-induced disease in swine.

  7. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

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    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-07-07

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain.

  8. Designing and testing a web-based interface for self-monitoring of exercise and symptoms for older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Johnston, Sandra K; Nguyen, Huong Q; Wolpin, Seth

    2009-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies to support collaborative management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated symptoms is particularly appealing since most people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease continue to experience dyspnea despite optimal medical therapy and therefore must engage in the long-term tasks of self-management. Exercise is an effective therapy to reduce dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this article was to describe our process of developing a set of integrated tools to support collaborative symptom and exercise monitoring for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This process could be followed by other researchers and clinicians interested in developing collaborative management tools for other chronic conditions. User-centered design principles guided the 4-phase development process of a set of integrated tools for self-symptom man