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  1. Characterization of porcine eyes based on autofluorescence lifetime imaging

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    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique with ideal characteristics for biological applications. In this study, we propose to characterize three major structures of the porcine eye, the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina using two-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2PE-FLIM). Samples were imaged using a laser-scanning microscope, consisting of a broadband sub-15 femtosecond (fs) near-infrared laser. Signal detection was performed using a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector (PML-16PMT). Therefore, spectral analysis of the fluorescence lifetime data was possible. To ensure a correct spectral analysis of the autofluorescence lifetime data, the spectra of the individual endogenous fluorophores were acquired with the 16-channel PMT and with a spectrometer. All experiments were performed within 12h of the porcine eye enucleation. We were able to image the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina at multiple depths. Discrimination of each structure based on their autofluorescence intensity and lifetimes was possible. Furthermore, discrimination between different layers of the same structure was also possible. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that 2PE-FLIM was used for porcine lens imaging and layer discrimination. With this study we further demonstrated the feasibility of 2PE-FLIM to image and differentiate three of the main components of the eye and its potential as an ophthalmologic technique.

  2. Allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia

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    Kimura M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amniotic membrane contains a multipotential stem cell population and is expected to possess the machinery to regulate immunological reactions. We investigated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (AMSC transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia as a preclinical trial. Methods. Porcine AMSCs were isolated from amniotic membranes obtained by cesarean section just before delivery and were cultured to increase their numbers before transplantation. Chronic myocardial ischemia was induced by implantation of an ameroid constrictor around the left circumflex coronary artery. Four weeks after ischemia induction, nine swine were assigned to undergo either allogeneic AMSC transplantation or normal saline injection. Functional analysis was performed by echocardiography, and histological examinations were carried out by immunohistochemistry 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Results. Echocardiography demonstrated that left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly improved and left ventricular dilatation was well attenuated 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Histological assessment showed a significant reduction in percentage of fibrosis in the AMSC transplantation group. Injected allogeneic green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing AMSCs were identified in the immunocompetent host heart without the use of any immunosuppressants 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry revealed that GFP colocalized with cardiac troponin T and cardiac troponin I. Conclusions. We have demonstrated that allogeneic AMSC transplantation produced histological and functional improvement in the impaired myocardium in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. The transplanted allogeneic AMSCs survived without the use of any immunosuppressants and gained cardiac phenotype through either their transdifferentiation or cell fusion.

  3. A truncated diphtheria toxin based recombinant porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin.

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    Peraino, Jaclyn Stromp; Schenk, Marian; Zhang, Huiping; Li, Guoying; Hermanrud, Christina E; Neville, David M; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Wang, Zhirui

    2013-05-31

    Targeted cell therapies are possible through the generation of recombinant fusion proteins that combine a toxin, such as diphtheria toxin (DT), with an antibody or other molecule that confers specificity. Upon binding of the fusion protein to the cell of interest, the diphtheria toxin is internalized which results in protein synthesis inhibition and subsequent cell death. We have recently expressed and purified the recombinant soluble porcine CTLA-4 both with and without N-glycosylation in yeast Pichia pastoris for in vivo use in our preclinical swine model. The glycosylated and non-N-glycosylated versions of this recombinant protein each bind to a porcine CD80 expressing B-cell lymphoma line (LCL13271) with equal affinity (K(D)=13 nM). In this study we have linked each of the glycosylated and non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 proteins to the truncated diphtheria toxin DT390 through genetic engineering yielding three versions of the porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxins: 1) monovalent glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin; 2) monovalent non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin and 3) bivalent non-N-glycosylated soluble porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin. Protein synthesis inhibition analysis demonstrated that while all three fusion toxins are capable of inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro, the non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 isoforms function most efficiently. Binding analysis using flow cytometry of the porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxins to LCL13271 cells also demonstrated that the non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 isoforms bind to these cells with higher affinity compared to the glycosylated fusion toxin. The monovalent non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin was tested in vivo. NSG (NOD/SCID IL-2 receptor γ(-)/(-)) mice were injected with porcine CD80(+) LCL13271 tumor cells. All animals succumbed to tumors and those treated with the monovalent non-N-glycosylated porcine CTLA-4 fusion toxin survived longer based on a symptomatic scoring

  4. A robust linkage map of the porcine autosome based on gene-associated SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingborg, Rikke K K; Gregersen, Vivi R; Zhan, Bujie;

    2009-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are necessary for mapping of mendelian traits and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). To identify the actual genes, which control these traits, a map based on gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is highly valuable. In this study, the SNPs were...... genotyped in a large family material comprising more than 5,000 piglets derived from 12 Duroc boars crossed with 236 Danish Landrace/Danish Large White sows. The SNPs were identified in sequence alignments of 4,600 different amplicons obtained from the 12 boars and containing coding regions of genes derived...... from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic shotgun sequences. Results Linkage maps of all 18 porcine autosomes were constructed based on 456 gene-associated and six porcine EST-based SNPs. The total length of the averaged-sex whole porcine autosome was estimated to 1,711.8 cM resulting in an...

  5. A Novel Closed-Chest Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure Suitable for Experimental Research in Cardiovascular Disease

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    Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac pathologies are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries, with myocardial infarction (MI representing one of the major conditions leading to heart failure (HF. Hitherto, the development of consistent, stable, and reproducible models of closed-chest MI in large animals, meeting the clinical realism of a patient with HF subsequent to chronic ischemic necrosis, has not been successful. We hereby report the design and ensuing application of a novel porcine experimental model of closed-chest chronic ischemia suitable for biomedical research, mimicking post-MI HF. We also emphasize the key procedural steps involved in replicating this unprecedented model, from femoral artery and vein catheterization to MI induction by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery through superselective deployment of platinum-nylon coils, as well as endomyocardial biopsy sampling for histologic analysis and cell harvesting. Our model could indeed represent a valuable contribution and tool for translational research, providing precious insights to understand and overcome the many hurdles concerning, and currently quenching, the preclinical steps mandatory for the clinical translation of new cardiovascular technologies for personalized HF treatments.

  6. A recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against porcine deltacoronavirus.

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    Su, Mingjun; Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wei, Shan; Wang, Xinyu; Geng, Yufei; Yao, Shuang; Gao, Jing; Wang, Enyu; Zhao, Xiwen; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Jianfa; Wu, Rui; Feng, Li; Sun, Dongbo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been proven to be associated with enteric disease in piglets. Diagnostic tools for serological surveys of PDCoV remain in the developmental stage when compared with those for other porcine coronaviruses. In our study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (rPDCoV-N-ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies against PDCoV using a histidine-tagged recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as an antigen. The rPDCoV-N-ELISA did not cross-react with antisera against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine group A rotavirus, classical swine fever virus, porcine circovirus-2, porcine pseudorabies virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed 100% sensitivity and 90.4% specificity of the rPDCoV-N-ELISA based on samples of known status (n=62). Analyses of field samples (n=319) using the rPDCoV-N-ELISA indicated that 11.59% of samples were positive for antibodies against PDCoV. These data demonstrated that the rPDCoV-N-ELISA can be used for epidemiological investigations of PDCoV and that PDCoV had a low serum prevalence in pig population in Heilongjiang province, northeast China. PMID:26668175

  7. Permissive growth of human adenovirus type 4 vaccine strain-based vector in porcine cell lines.

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    Gao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wan, Wen-Yan; Li, Hong-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Xue; Yang, Xia; Li, Yong-Tao; Chang, Hong-Tao; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chuan-Qing; Zhao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using adenoviruses as live vectors to develop recombinant vaccines. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of HIV/SIV and influenza vaccine candidates based on human adenovirus type 4 (Ad4) replication-competent vectors in rhesus macaque and human model. To explore the possibility of human Ad4 vaccine strain used as a vector in developing porcine vaccines, the growth properties of replication-competent human Ad4 vaccine strain recombinant encoding EGFP in different porcine cell lines were investigated. All tested cell lines are permissive for Ad4 vaccine strain vector with varied replication efficiency. Thus, human Ad4 based vectors would be promising supplement to adenovirus vectors as a delivery vehicle for recombinant vaccines in swine industry. PMID:26850542

  8. Proteomic changes of the porcine small intestine in response to chronic heat stress.

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    Cui, Yanjun; Gu, Xianhong

    2015-12-01

    Acute heat stress (HS) negatively affects intestinal integrity and barrier function. In contrast, chronic mild HS poses a distinct challenge to animals. Therefore, this study integrates biochemical, histological and proteomic approaches to investigate the effects of chronic HS on the intestine in finishing pigs. Castrated male crossbreeds (79.00 ± 1.50 kg BW) were subjected to either thermal neutral (TN, 21 °C; 55% ± 5% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (30 °C; 55% ± 5% humidity; n=8) for 3 weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after 3 weeks of high environmental exposure and the plasma hormones, the intestinal morphology, integrity, and protein profiles of the jejunum mucosa were determined. Chronic HS reduced the free triiodothyronine (FT3) and GH levels. HS damaged intestinal morphology, increased plasma d-lactate concentrations and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal mucosa. Proteome analysis of the jejunum mucosa was conducted by 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Fifty-three intestinal proteins were found to be differentially abundant, 18 of which were related to cell structure and motility, and their changes in abundance could comprise intestinal integrity and function. The down-regulation of proteins involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), electron transport chain (ETC), and oxidative phosphorylation suggested that chronic HS impaired energy metabolism and thus induced oxidative stress. Moreover, the changes of ten proteins in abundance related to stress response and defense indicated pigs mediated long-term heat exposure and counteracted its negative effects of heat exposure. These findings have important implications for understanding the effect of chronic HS on intestines. PMID:26416815

  9. Quantitative detection of bovine and porcine gelatin difference using surface plasmon resonance based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardani, Devy P.; Arifin, Muhammad; Suharyadi, Edi; Abraha, Kamsul

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin is a biopolymer derived from collagen that is widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. Due to some religion restrictions and health issues regarding the gelatin consumption which is extracted from certain species, it is necessary to establish a robust, reliable, sensitive and simple quantitative method to detect gelatin from different parent collagen species. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been a gelatin differentiation method based on optical sensor that could detect gelatin from different species quantitatively. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensor is known to be a sensitive, simple and label free optical method for detecting biomaterials that is able to do quantitative detection. Therefore, we have utilized SPR-based biosensor to detect the differentiation between bovine and porcine gelatin in various concentration, from 0% to 10% (w/w). Here, we report the ability of SPR-based biosensor to detect difference between both gelatins, its sensitivity toward the gelatin concentration change, its reliability and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the sensor. The sensor's LOD and LOQ towards bovine gelatin concentration are 0.38% and 1.26% (w/w), while towards porcine gelatin concentration are 0.66% and 2.20% (w/w), respectively. The results show that SPR-based biosensor is a promising tool for detecting gelatin from different raw materials quantitatively.

  10. Latent porcine circovirus type 2-infected domestic pigs: A potential infection model for the effective development of vaccines against latent or chronic virus induced diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydler, Titus; Brägger, Stefanie; Handke, Martin; Hartnack, Sonja; Lewis, Fraser I; Sidler, Xaver; Brugnera, Enrico

    2016-02-17

    Until recently, knowledge of the pathogenicity of Circoviridae and Anelloviridae family members was limited. Our previous discoveries provided clues toward resolving this issue based on studies of the latent nature of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genotype group members. We developed a conventional pig infection model that indicated that weaners already harbored latent PCV2 infection in the thymus, which enabled the viruses to specifically modulate the maturation of T-helper cells. This finding raised the possibility that the thymi of normal fetuses were already infected with PCV2. The present findings further substantiate our hypothesis that PCV2 masquerades as the host by infecting fetuses before they acquire immune-competence. We provide the first demonstration that all domestic pig fetuses preferentially harbor latent PCV2-infected cells in their thymi. These PCV2-infected cells are different from thymocytes and are located in the medulla of the fetal thymus. These latent PCV2-infected cells in fetuses are found at the same location and share characteristics with the infected cells observed in adolescent pigs. Moreover, fetuses also harbor these infected cells in other lymph system organs. We provide the first demonstration that the fetal thymus virus pools are minimally affected by sow vaccination, highlighting the immune-privileged character of this organ. Furthermore, we found a striking reduction in virus-infected cells in the fetal spleen and an increase in PCV2-infected cells in the fetal intestine of anti-PCV2-vaccinated mothers. These data indicate that specific immune response interactions occur between mothers and their progeny that are not dependent on the humoral immunity of the mother and cannot be attributed to the rudimentary humoral responses of the fetuses because these pig fetuses do not have any PCV2-specific antibodies. These shifts in our understanding of the PCV2-infected cell pool will lead to different avenues in the search for

  11. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR for detection and quantification of porcine parvovirus 4.

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    Gava, Danielle; Souza, Carine K; Schaefer, Rejane; Vincent, Amy L; Cantão, Maurício E; Coldebella, Arlei; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R

    2015-07-01

    Porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4) is a DNA virus, and a member of the Parvoviridae family within the Bocavirus genera. It was detected recently in swine, but its epidemiology and pathology remain unclear. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting a conserved region of the ORF3 gene of PPV4 was developed. The qPCR detection limit was 9.5 × 10(1) DNA copies/μL. There was no cross-reaction with porcine parvovirus, torque teno virus 1, torque teno virus 2, porcine circovirus type 1, porcine circovirus type 2, or with pseudorabies virus. Two hundred and seventy-two samples, including serum, semen, lungs, feces, ovarian follicular fluids, ovaries and uterus, were evaluated by qPCR and PPV4 was detected in 36 samples (13.2%). When compared with a conventional PCR (cPCR), the qPCR assay was 10 times more sensitive and the detection of PPV4 DNA in field samples was increased 2.5 times. Partial sequencing of PPV4 ORF3 gene, obtained from two pooled samples of uterus and ovaries, revealed a high nucleotide identity (98-99%) with a reference PPV4 sequence. The qPCR can be used as a fast and accurate assay for the detection and quantification of PPV4 in field samples and for epidemiological studies in swine herds. PMID:25813599

  12. Preclinical detection of porcine circovirus type 2 infection using an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay.

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    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Du, Qian; Wang, Fengyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. Preclinical identification of PCV2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of PCV2-associated diseases. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (UNDP-PCR) for PCV2 detection. Magnetic microparticles coated with PCV2 specific DNA probes were used to enrich PCV2 DNA from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with PCV2 specific oligonucleotides were added to form a sandwich nucleic acid-complex. After the complex was formed, the oligonucleotides were released and characterized by PCR. This assay exhibited about 500-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 2 copies of purified PCV2 genomic DNA and 10 viral copies of PCV2 in serum. The assay has a wide detection range for all of PCV2 genotypes with reliable reproducibility. No cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses including porcine circovirus type 1, porcine parvovirus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and classical swine fever virus. The positive detection rate of PCV2 specific UNDP-PCR in 40 preclinical field samples was 27.5%, which appeared greater than that by conventional and real-time PCR and appeared application potency in evaluation of the viral loads levels of preclinical infection samples. The UNDP-PCR assay reported here can reliably rule out false negative results from antibody-based assays, provide a nucleic acid extraction free, specific, ultrasensitive, economic and rapid diagnosis method for preclinical PCV2 infection in field, which may help prevent large-scale outbreaks. PMID:24842840

  13. Preclinical detection of porcine circovirus type 2 infection using an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay.

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    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. Preclinical identification of PCV2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of PCV2-associated diseases. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (UNDP-PCR for PCV2 detection. Magnetic microparticles coated with PCV2 specific DNA probes were used to enrich PCV2 DNA from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with PCV2 specific oligonucleotides were added to form a sandwich nucleic acid-complex. After the complex was formed, the oligonucleotides were released and characterized by PCR. This assay exhibited about 500-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 2 copies of purified PCV2 genomic DNA and 10 viral copies of PCV2 in serum. The assay has a wide detection range for all of PCV2 genotypes with reliable reproducibility. No cross-reactivity was observed from the samples of other related viruses including porcine circovirus type 1, porcine parvovirus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and classical swine fever virus. The positive detection rate of PCV2 specific UNDP-PCR in 40 preclinical field samples was 27.5%, which appeared greater than that by conventional and real-time PCR and appeared application potency in evaluation of the viral loads levels of preclinical infection samples. The UNDP-PCR assay reported here can reliably rule out false negative results from antibody-based assays, provide a nucleic acid extraction free, specific, ultrasensitive, economic and rapid diagnosis method for preclinical PCV2 infection in field, which may help prevent large-scale outbreaks.

  14. Detection of porcine parvovirus using a taqman-based real-time pcr with primers and probe designed for the NS1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Chaofan; Zhu Chao; Song Cuiping; Cui Shangjin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was devised for the detection of porcine parvovirus (PPV). Two primers and a TaqMan probe for the non-structural protein NS1 gene were designed. The detection limit was 1 × 102 DNA copies/μL, and the assay was linear in the range of 1 × 102 to 1 × 109 copies/μL. There was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swi...

  15. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  16. Preclinical Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection Using an Ultrasensitive Nanoparticle DNA Probe-Based PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Du, Qian; Wang, Fengyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has emerged as one of the most important pathogens affecting swine production globally. Preclinical identification of PCV2 is very important for effective prophylaxis of PCV2-associated diseases. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive nanoparticle DNA probe-based PCR assay (UNDP-PCR) for PCV2 detection. Magnetic microparticles coated with PCV2 specific DNA probes were used to enrich PCV2 DNA from samples, then gold nanoparticles coated with PCV2 specifi...

  17. Development of colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of Mycoplasma suis in porcine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kai; Sun, Wenjing; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Limei; Cai, Dongjie; Cheng, Ziqiang; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Yang, Dubao; Wang, Shujing; Chai, Tongjie

    2014-05-15

    A one-step immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles coated with polyclonal antibody (pAb) against Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) was developed in this study for the detection of M. suis in porcine plasma. The colloidal gold was prepared by the reduction of gold salt with sodium citrate coupled with pAb against M. suis. The pAb was produced by immunizing the BALB/c mice with recombinant MSG1 (rMSG1) protein from M. suis expressed in Escherichia coli. The optimal concentrations of the capture antibody and the coating antibody were 12 μg/ml and 1.5 mg/ml, respectively, and that of the blocking buffer was 1% bovine serum albumin. The lower detection limit of the immunochromatographic assay test was 100 ng/ml with visual detection under optimal conditions of analysis. Classical swine fever virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, swine pneumonia mycoplasma, swine toxoplasma, and porcine parvovirus were used to evaluate the specificity of the immunochromatographic strips. No cross-reaction of the antibodies with other related swine pathogens was observed. This qualitative test based on the visual evaluation of the results did not require any equipment. The assay time for M. suis detection was less than 10 min, suitable for rapid detection at the grassroots level. The one-step colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips that we developed had high specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, this method would be feasible, convenient, rapid, and effective for detecting M. suis in porcine plasma. PMID:24434494

  18. Microbiological safety of a novel bio-artificial liver support system based on porcine hepatocytes: a experimental study

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    Han Bing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our institute has developed a novel bio-artificial liver (BAL support system, based on a multi-layer radial-flow bioreactor carrying porcine hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. It has been shown that porcine hepatocytes are capable of carrying infectious porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs into human cells, thus the microbiological safety of any such system must be confirmed before clinical trials can be performed. In this study, we focused on assessing the status of PERV infection in beagles treated with the novel BAL. Methods Five normal beagles were treated with the novel BAL for 6 hours. The study was conducted for 6 months, during which plasma was collected from the BAL and whole blood from the beagles at regular intervals. DNA and RNA in both the collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and plasma samples were extracted for conventional PCR and reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR with PERV-specific primers and the porcine-specific primer Sus scrofa cytochrome B. Meanwhile, the RT activity and the in vitro infectivity of the plasma were measured. Results Positive PERV RNA and RT activity were detected only in the plasma samples taken from the third circuit of the BAL system. All other samples including PBMCs and other plasma samples were negative for PERV RNA, PERV DNA, and RT activity. In the in vitro infection experiment, no infection was found in HEK293 cells treated with plasma. Conclusions No infective PERV was detected in the experimental animals, thus the novel BAL had a reliable microbiological safety profile.

  19. Development of an ELISA based on the baculovirus-expressed capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2 as antigen.

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    Liu, Changming; Ihara, Takeshi; Nunoya, Tetsuo; Ueda, Susumu

    2004-03-01

    The genome of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) contains two major open reading frames, which have been shown to encode the virus capsid and replication-associated proteins. The capsid protein is a major structural protein of the virus; it can be a suitable target antigen for detecting PCV2-specific antibodies to monitor PCV2 infection. To produce the antigen, the capsid protein coding sequence was cloned into a baculovirus transfer vector, and a recombinant capsid (rC) protein of PCV2 was expressed as a combined fusion protein in frame with a C-terminal peptide of six histidines. The affinity-purified rC protein was used as coating antigen to develop an ELISA for detecting the virus-specific antibodies in swine sera. The rC protein-based ELISA (rcELISA) was evaluated by examining a panel of 49 PCV2-positive and 49 PCV2-negative swine sera. In comparative experiments of immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) using 102 field sera, there was 89.2% coincidence between data obtained by the rcELISA and IPMA. The rcELISA achieved 88.5% specificity and 89.4% sensitivity for detection of PCV2 antibody in the field sera. The assay showed no cross-reactivity with antibodies to PCV type 1, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine parvovirus. The results suggest that the rcELISA is suitable for routine serodiagnosis and epidemiological surveys of PCV2-associated diseases. PMID:15107550

  20. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen of Lorkeers, Sanne J.; Gho, Johannes M. I. H.; Koudstaal, Stefan; van Hout, Gerardus P. J.; Zwetsloot, Peter Paul M.; van Oorschot, Joep W. M.; van Eeuwijk, Esther C. M.; Leiner, Tim; Hoefer, Imo E.; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs) in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls. Aim Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes. Methods & Results We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg) received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA). Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-)loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals. Conclusion Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction. PMID:26678993

  1. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne J Jansen of Lorkeers

    Full Text Available Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls.Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes.We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA. Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals.Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

  2. Modified Indirect Porcine Circovirus (PCV) Type 2-Based and Recombinant Capsid Protein (ORF2)-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Antibodies to PCV

    OpenAIRE

    Nawagitgul, Porntippa; Harms, Perry A.; Morozov, Igor; Thacker, Brad J.; Sorden, Steven D.; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Paul, Prem S.

    2002-01-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome of swine associated with porcine circovirus (PCV) is a recently reported and economically important disease. Simple and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for detecting antibodies to PCV type 2 (PCV2) for monitoring of PCV infection. Here, we report the development of two modified indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs): a PCV2 ELISA based on cell-culture-propagated PCV2 and an ORF2 ELISA based on recombinant major capsid protein. PC...

  3. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalar, Ergün; Ergün, Seyma Özçirak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 82.5℃ and 78℃ for horse and porcine, respectively. The assay used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.0001% level of horse meat and 0.001% level of porcine meat in the experimental admixtures. These findings indicate that EvaGreen based duplex real-time PCR is a potentially sensitive, reliable, rapid and accurate assay for the detection of meat species adulterated with porcine and horse meats. PMID:26761852

  4. A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for porcine parvovirus 4 detection and quantification in reproductive tissues of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4) is a DNA virus, and a member of the Parvoviridae family within the Bocavirus genera. It was recently detected in swine, but its epidemiology and pathology remain unclear. A TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay targeting a conserved region of the O...

  5. A magnetic nanoparticle-based multiple-gene delivery system for transfection of porcine kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for gene delivery into mammalian somatic cells and may be useful for reproductive cloning using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. However, limited investigations of their potential applications in animal genetics and breeding, particularly multiple-gene delivery by magnetofection, have been performed. Here, we developed a stable, targetable and convenient system for delivering multiple genes into the nuclei of porcine somatic cells using magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as gene carriers. After surface modification by polyethylenimine, the spherical magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed strong binding affinity for DNA plasmids expressing the genes encoding a green (DNAGFP or red (DNADsRed fluorescent protein. At weight ratios of DNAGFP or DNADsRed to magnetic nanoparticles lower than or equal to 10∶1 or 5∶1, respectively, the DNA molecules were completely bound by the magnetic nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy analyses confirmed binding of the spherical magnetic nanoparticles to stretched DNA strands up to several hundred nanometers in length. As a result, stable and efficient co-expression of GFP and DsRed in porcine kidney PK-15 cells was achieved by magnetofection. The results presented here demonstrate the potential application of magnetic nanoparticles as an attractive delivery system for animal genetics and breeding studies.

  6. Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Buhrman, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a one of the most common causes of disability and sick leave. Psychological factors play a central role in the experience of pain and are important in the management of pain. However, for many people with chronic pain CBT is not available. There is a need to develop alternative ways to deliver treatments that reach more individuals with chronic pain. Internet-based treatments have been shown to be effective for several disorders and recent research suggests that internet-based...

  7. Development of porcine rotavirus vp6 protein based ELISA for differentiation of this virus and other viruses

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU, JIAYI; Yang, Qing; Cao, Liyan; Dou, Xiujing; Zhao, Jianguo; Zhu, Weijuan; Ding, Fan; Bu, Ri-e; Suo, Siqingaowa; Ren, Yudong; Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Background The context and purpose of the study included 1) bacterial expression of viral protein 6 (VP6) of porcine rotavirus (PRV) and generation of rabbit polyclonal antiserum to the VP6 protein; 3) establishment of a discrimination ELISA to distinguish PRV from a panel of other porcine viruses. Results The VP6 gene of PRV isolate DN30209 amplified by reverse transcription-PCR was 1356 bp containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding 397 amino acids. Sequence comparison and phylo...

  8. Porcine retrovirus: hybridization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-labeled porcine retrovirus (PoRV) was isolated and purified, and kinetics of hybridization of this RNA with DNA from various sources was determined. Results indicate that PoRV is an endogenous porcine virus

  9. An Ultrasound Image-Based Dynamic Fusion Modeling Method for Predicting the Quantitative Impact of In Vivo Liver Motion on Intraoperative HIFU Therapies: Investigations in a Porcine Model

    OpenAIRE

    N'Djin, W. Apoutou; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Melodelima, David

    2015-01-01

    Organ motion is a key component in the treatment of abdominal tumors by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU), since it may influence the safety, efficacy and treatment time. Here we report the development in a porcine model of an Ultrasound (US) image-based dynamic fusion modeling method for predicting the effect of in vivo motion on intraoperative HIFU treatments performed in the liver in conjunction with surgery. A speckle tracking method was used on US images to quantify in vivo liver ...

  10. Identification of co-expression gene networks, regulatory genes and pathways for obesity based on adipose tissue RNA Sequencing in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Zhernakova, Daria V.;

    2014-01-01

    interactions. Identification of co-expressed and regulatory genes in RNA extracted from relevant tissues representing lean and obese individuals provides an entry point for the identification of genes and pathways of importance to the development of obesity. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is an excellent model...... for human obesity, offering the possibility to study in-depth organ-level transcriptomic regulations of obesity, unfeasible in humans. Our aim was to reveal adipose tissue co-expression networks, pathways and transcriptional regulations of obesity using RNA Sequencing based systems biology approaches...... associated with obesity in humans and rodents, e.g. CSF1R and MARC2. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply systems biology approaches using porcine adipose tissue RNA-Sequencing data in a genetically characterized porcine model for obesity. We revealed complex networks, pathways...

  11. Computational biomechanics and experimental validation of vessel deformation based on 4D-CT imaging of the porcine aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazer, Dilana; Finol, Ender A.; Kostrzewa, Michael; Kopaigorenko, Maria; Richter, Götz-M.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease results from pathological biomechanical conditions and fatigue of the vessel wall. Image-based computational modeling provides a physical and realistic insight into the patient-specific biomechanics and enables accurate predictive simulations of development, growth and failure of cardiovascular disease. An experimental validation is necessary for the evaluation and the clinical implementation of such computational models. In the present study, we have implemented dynamic Computed-Tomography (4D-CT) imaging and catheter-based in vivo measured pressures to numerically simulate and experimentally evaluate the biomechanics of the porcine aorta. The computations are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and simulate the arterial wall response to the transient pressure-based boundary condition. They are evaluated by comparing the numerically predicted wall deformation and that calculated from the acquired 4D-CT data. The dynamic motion of the vessel is quantified by means of the hydraulic diameter, analyzing sequences at 5% increments over the cardiac cycle. Our results show that accurate biomechanical modeling is possible using FEM-based simulations. The RMS error of the computed hydraulic diameter at five cross-sections of the aorta was 0.188, 0.252, 0.280, 0.237 and 0.204 mm, which is equivalent to 1.7%, 2.3%, 2.7%, 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively, when expressed as a function of the time-averaged hydraulic diameter measured from the CT images. The present investigation is a first attempt to simulate and validate vessel deformation based on realistic morphological data and boundary conditions. An experimentally validated system would help in evaluating individual therapies and optimal treatment strategies in the field of minimally invasive endovascular surgery.

  12. CT-based liver volumetry in a porcine model: impact on clinical volumetry prior to living donated liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Exact preoperative determination of the liver volume is of great importance prior to hepatobiliary surgery, especially in living donated liver transplantation (LDLT). In the current literature, a strong correlation between preoperatively calculated and intraoperatively measured liver volumes has been described. Such accuracy seems questionable, primarily due to a difference in the perfusion state of the liver in situ versus after explantation. Purpose of the study was to asses the influence of the perfusion state on liver volume and the validity of the preoperative liver volumetry prior to LDLT. Methods: In an experimental study, 20 porcine livers were examined. The livers were weighted and their volumes were determined by water displacement prior and after fluid infusion to achieve a pressure physiologically found in the liver veins. The liver volumes in the different perfusion states were calculated based on CT-data. The calculated values were compared with the volume measured by water displacement and the weight of the livers. Results: Assessment of calculated CT volumes and water displacements at identical perfusion states showed a tight correlation and differed on average by 4 ± 5%. However, livers before and after fluid infusion showed a 33 ± 8% (350 ± 150 ml) difference in volume. Conclusion: CT-volumetry acquires highly accurate data as confirmed by water displacement studies. However, the perfusion state has major impact on liver volume, which has to be accounted for in clinical use. (orig.)

  13. Detection of porcine parvovirus using a taqman-based real-time pcr with primers and probe designed for the NS1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chaofan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was devised for the detection of porcine parvovirus (PPV. Two primers and a TaqMan probe for the non-structural protein NS1 gene were designed. The detection limit was 1 × 102 DNA copies/μL, and the assay was linear in the range of 1 × 102 to 1 × 109 copies/μL. There was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, pseudorabies virus (PRV, classical swine fever virus (CSFV, or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV. The assay was specific and reproducible. In 41 clinical samples, PPV was detected in 32 samples with the real-time PCR assay and in only 11 samples with a conventional PCR assay. The real-time assay using the TaqMan-system can therefore be practically used for studying the epidemiology and management of PPV.

  14. A recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against porcine deltacoronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Mingjun; Li, Chunqiu; Guo, Donghua; Wei, Shan; Wang, Xinyu; GENG, Yufei; Yao, Shuang; Gao, Jing; WANG, Enyu; ZHAO, Xiwen; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Jianfa; Wu, Rui; Feng, Li; SUN, Dongbo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been proven to be associated with enteric disease in piglets. Diagnostic tools for serological surveys of PDCoV remain in the developmental stage when compared with those for other porcine coronaviruses. In our study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (rPDCoV-N-ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies against PDCoV using a histidine-tagged recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein as an antigen. The rPDCoV-N-ELISA did not cross-re...

  15. DNA Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling in Porcine Keratocytes and Corneal Endothelial Cells and Comparative Analysis Associated with Xeno-related Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mee Kum; Oh, Joo Youn; Ko, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ju; Jung, Jin Ho; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Sang Joon; Ahn, Curie; Kim, Seung-Jun; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Porcine to rat corneal xenotransplantation resulted in severe inflammation and rejection of the corneal stroma, whereas an allograft showed mainly endothelial cell-associated rejection. We, therefore, investigated and compared the gene expression between porcine keratocytes and corneal endothelial cells. RNA was isolated from primary cultured porcine or human keratocytes and porcine corneal endothelial cells. Gene expression was comparatively analyzed after normalization with microarray metho...

  16. Monitoring porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection status in swine herds based on analysis of antibodies in meat juice samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Bøtner, Anette;

    2001-01-01

    An indirect ELISA test was developed as a novel tool aimed at monitoring the herd infection status of swine herds. Meat juice samples from pig carcasses were analysed for the presence of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A study of samples from herds...... with known PRRS status was undertaken. The PRRS status of the herds was evaluated based on the analysis of blood samples by another serological test (blocking ELISA) capable of differentiating between infection with PRRSV of the American type and European type. The specificity of the indirect ELISA...

  17. The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiro; Maeda, Kosuke; Koriyama, Miyu; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Miura, Hiromi; Ohtsuka, Masato; Nakamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Kazuchika

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of multigene constructs into single cells is important for improving the performance of domestic animals, as well as understanding basic biological processes. In particular, multigene constructs allow the engineering and integration of multiple genes related to xenotransplantation into the porcine genome. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system allows multiple genes to be stably integrated into target genomes through a single transfection event. However, to our knowledge, no attempt to introduce multiple genes into a porcine genome has been made using this system. In this study, we simultaneously introduced seven transposons into a single porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF). PEFs were transfected with seven transposons containing genes for five drug resistance proteins and two (red and green) fluorescent proteins, together with a PB transposase expression vector, pTrans (experimental group). The above seven transposons (without pTrans) were transfected concomitantly (control group). Selection of these transfected cells in the presence of multiple selection drugs resulted in the survival of several clones derived from the experimental group, but not from the control. PCR analysis demonstrated that approximately 90% (12/13 tested) of the surviving clones possessed all of the introduced transposons. Splinkerette PCR demonstrated that the transposons were inserted through the TTAA target sites of PB. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using a PEF clone with multigene constructs demonstrated successful production of cloned blastocysts expressing both red and green fluorescence. These results indicate the feasibility of this PB-mediated method for simultaneous transfer of multigene constructs into the porcine cell genome, which is useful for production of cloned transgenic pigs expressing multiple transgenes. PMID:27589724

  18. Impact of Detergent-Based Decellularization Methods on Porcine Tissues for Heart Valve Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens, Annelies; Somers, Pamela; De Somer, Filip; Carriel, Victor; Van Nooten, Guido; Cornelissen, Ria

    2016-09-01

    To date an optimal decellularization protocol of heart valve leaflets (HVL) and pericardia (PER) with an adequate preservation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is still lacking. This study compares a 4 day Triton X-100-based protocol with faster SDC-based protocols for the decellularization of cardiac tissues. Decellularized and non-treated HVL and PER were processed for histological, biochemical and mechanical analysis to determine the effect of these agents on the structure, ECM components, and biomechanical properties. Tissues treated with SDC-based protocols still showed nuclear material, whereas tissues treated with Triton X-100 1% + ENZ ± TRYP were completely cell free. For both decellularized tissues, an almost complete washout of glycosaminoglycans, a reduction of soluble collagen and an alteration of the surface ultrastructure was observed. Interestingly, only the elastic fibers of pericardial tissue were affected and this tissue had a decreased maximum load. This study showed that both detergents had a similar impact on the ECM. However, Triton X-100 1% +DNase/RNase (ENZ) ± Trypsin (TRYP) is the only protocol that generated completely cell free bioscaffolds. Also, our study clearly demonstrated that the decellularization agents have more impact on pericardial tissues than on heart valve leaflets. Thus, for the purpose of tissue engineering of heart valves, it is advisable to use valvular rather than pericardial matrices. PMID:26842626

  19. Met-myoglobin formation, accumulation, degradation, and myoglobin oxygenation monitoring based on multiwavelength attenuance measurement in porcine meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Phan, Kien Nguyen; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method to investigate formation, accumulation, and degradation of met-myoglobin (met-Mb) and myoglobin oxygenation from the interior of porcine meat. For the experiment, color photos and attenuance spectra of porcine meat (well-bled muscle, fat, and mixed) were collected daily to perform colorimetric analysis and to obtain the differences of attenuance between 578 and 567 nm (A578-A567) and between 615 and 630 nm (A630-A615), respectively. Oxy-, deoxy-, and met-myoglobin concentration changes over storage time were also calculated using Beer-Lamberts' law with reflectance intensities at 557, 582, and 630 nm. The change of A578-A567 was well matched with the change of myoglobin oxygenation, and the change of A630-A615 corresponded well with the formation and degradation of met-Mb. In addition, attenuation differences, A578-A567 and A630-A615, were able to show the formation of met-Mb earlier than colorimetric analysis. Therefore, the attenuance differences between wavelengths can be indicators for estimating myoglobin oxygenation and met-Mb formation, accumulation, and degradation, which enable us to design a simple device to monitor myoglobin activities in porcine meat.

  20. Coincidental detection of genomes of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 infecting pigs in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Saekhow, Prayuth; KISHIZUKA, Shingo; SANO, Natsuha; MITSUI, HIROKO; AKASAKI, Hajime; MAWATARI, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The infection status of 15 viruses in 120 pigs aged about 6 months was investigated based on tonsil specimens collected from a slaughterhouse. Only 5 species of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected at high frequencies; 67% for porcine parvovirus (PPV) (PPV-Kr or -NADL2 as the new abbreviation), 58% for PPV2 (CnP-PARV4), 39% for PPV3 (P-PARV4), 33% for PPV4 (PPV4), 55% for PBo-likeV (PBoV7) and 80% for PCV2. A phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 suggested that Japa...

  1. Experimental assessment of CT-based thermometry during laser ablation of porcine pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, E.; Saccomandi, P.; Giurazza, F.; Caponero, M. A.; Mortato, L.; Di Matteo, F. M.; Panzera, F.; Del Vescovo, R.; Beomonte Zobel, B.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-08-01

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is employed to destroy tumors in organs, and its outcome strongly depends on the temperature distribution inside the treated tissue. The recent introduction of computed tomography (CT) scan thermometry, based on the CT number dependence of the tissue with temperature, overcomes the invasiveness of other techniques used to monitor temperature during LITT. The averaged CT number (ROI = 0.02 cm2) of an ex vivo swine pancreas is monitored during LITT (Nd:YAG laser power of 3 W, treatment time: 120 s) at different distances from the applicator (from 4 to 30 mm). The averaged CT number shows a clear decrease during treatment: it is highest at 4 mm from the applicator (mean variation in the whole treatment of -0.256 HU s-1) and negligible at 30 mm, since the highest temperature increase is present close to the applicator (i.e., 45 °C at 4 mm and 25 °C at 6 mm). To obtain the relationship between CT numbers and pancreas temperature, the reference temperature was measured by 12 fiber Bragg grating sensors. The CT number decreases as a function of temperature, showing a nonlinear trend with a mean thermal sensitivity of -0.50 HU °C-1. Results here reported are the first assessment of pancreatic CT number dependence on temperature, at the best of our knowledge. Findings can be useful to further investigate CT scan thermometry during LITT on the pancreas.

  2. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen of Lorkeers, SJ; Gho, Johannes M. I. H.; Koudstaal, Stefan; van Hout, Geert; Zwetsloot, Peter Paul M; van Oorschot, Joep W M; Esther C M van Eeuwijk; Leiner, Tim; Höfer, Imo E.; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Chamuleau, Steven A J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs) in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls. AIM: Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of tra...

  3. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  4. Lentiviral vector gene transfer to porcine airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Patrick L; Cooney, Ashley L; Oakland, Mayumi; Dylla, Douglas E; Wallen, Tanner J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Chang, Eugene H; McCray, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE) and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE). Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1-based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF).Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e56; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.47; published online 27 November 2012. PMID:23187455

  5. Microarray-based approach identifies differentially expressed microRNAs in porcine sexually immature and mature testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifan Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules which are proved to be involved in mammalian spermatogenesis. Their expression and function in the porcine germ cells are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY: We employed a miRNA microarray containing 1260 unique miRNA probes to evaluate the miRNA expression patterns between sexually immature (60-day and mature (180-day pig testes. One hundred and twenty nine miRNAs representing 164 reporter miRNAs were expressed differently (p<0.1. Fifty one miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 78 miRNAs were down-regulated in mature testes. Nine of these differentially expressed miRNAs were validated using quantitative RT-PCR assay. Totally 15,919 putative miRNA-target sites were detected by using RNA22 method to align 445 NCBI pig cDNA sequences with these 129 differentially expressed miRNAs, and seven putative target genes involved in spermatogenesis including DAZL, RNF4 gene were simply confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study indicated specific miRNAs expression in porcine testes and suggested that miRNAs had a role in regulating spermatogenesis.

  6. The Establishment of Immunochemistry Test Based on a Synthetic Peptide Antibody for the Detection of a Porcine Circovirus-Like Virus P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin WEN; Aihua MAO; Junming ZHOU; Lixin LU; Jianping XIE; Fengzhi WANG; Kongwang HE; Yanxiu NI; Xuehan ZHANG; Rongli GUO; Bin LI; Xiaomin WANG; Zhengyu YU

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel porcine circovirus-like virus P1 with a circular DNA genome of 0.648 kb was identified. P1 antigen was detected both in vitro and in vivo by synthetic peptide-derived polyclonal antibody-based immunochemistry. The designed peptides were synthesized by solid-phase technique, purified by high per-formance liquid chromatography, coupled to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and injected into rabbits to prepare polyclonal antibody. The emergence of positive cells revealed that synthetic peptide could elicit antibodies against P1 and viral protein could be synthesized. The polyclonal peptide antibodies described here was successfully ap-plied to immunochemical staining and proved helpful in diagnosing P1.

  7. Enhanced Th1-biased immune efficacy of porcine circovirus type 2 Cap-protein-based subunit vaccine when coadministered with recombinant porcine IL-2 or GM-CSF in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Lu, Yuehua; Liu, Dan; Wei, Yanwu; Guo, Longjun; Wu, Hongli; Huang, Liping; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, Changming

    2015-02-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid (Cap) protein is the primary protective antigen responsible for inducing PCV2-specific protective immunity, so it is a desirable target for the development of recombinant subunit vaccines to prevent PCV2-associated diseases. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), used as immune adjuvants, have been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of certain antigens or vaccines in various experimental models. In this study, five different subunit vaccines (the PCV2-Cap, Cap-PoIL-2, PCV2-Cap + PoIL-2, Cap-PoGM-CSF, and PCV2-Cap + PoGM-CSF vaccines) were prepared based on baculovirus-expressed recombinant proteins. The immunogenicity of these vaccines was evaluated to identify the immunoenhancement by PoIL-2 and PoGM-CSF of the Cap-protein-based PCV2 subunit vaccine in mice. The PCV2-Cap + PoIL-2, Cap-PoGM-CSF, PCV2-Cap + PoGM-CSF, and PCV2-Cap vaccines induced significantly higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies than the Cap-PoIL-2 vaccine, whereas there was no apparent difference between these four vaccines. Our results indicate that neither PoIL-2 nor PoGM-CSF had effect on the enhancement of the humoral immunity induced by the PCV2-Cap vaccine. Furthermore, the PCV2-Cap + PoIL-2, Cap-PoGM-CSF, and PCV2-Cap + PoGM-CSF vaccines elicited stronger lymphocyte proliferative responses and greater IL-2 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) secretion. This suggests that PoIL-2 and PoGM-CSF substantially augmented the Th1-biased immune response to the PCV2-Cap vaccine. Following challenge, the viral loads in the lungs of the PCV2-Cap + PoIL-2-, Cap-PoGM-CSF-, and PCV2-Cap + PoGM-CSF-treated groups were dramatically lower than those in the Cap-PoIL-2- and PCV2-Cap-treated groups, indicating that the three vaccines induced stronger protective effects against challenge. These findings show that PoIL-2 and PoGM-CSF essentially enhanced the Th1-biased protective efficacy of the

  8. Three dimensional fusion of electromechanical mapping and magnetic resonance imaging for real-time navigation of intramyocardial cell injections in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slochteren, F J; van Es, R; Gyöngyösi, M; van der Spoel, T I G; Koudstaal, S; Leiner, T; Doevendans, P A; Chamuleau, S A J

    2016-05-01

    For cardiac regenerative therapy intramyocardial catheter guided cell transplantations are targeted to the infarct border zone (IBZ) i.e. the closest region of viable myocardium in the vicinity of the infarct area. For optimal therapeutic effect this area should be accurately identified. However late gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-MRI) is the gold standard technique to determine the infarct size and location, electromechanical mapping (EMM) is used to guide percutaneous intramyocardial injections to the IBZ. Since EMM has a low spatial resolution, we aim to develop a practical and accurate technique to fuse EMM with LGE-MRI to guide intramyocardial injections. LGE-MRI and EMM were obtained in 17 pigs with chronic myocardial infarction created by balloon occlusion of LCX and LAD coronary arteries. LGE-MRI and EMM datasets were registered using our in-house developed 3D CartBox image registration software toolbox to assess: (1) the feasibility of the 3D CartBox toolbox, (2) the EMM values measured in the areas with a distinct infarct transmurality (IT), and (3) the highest sensitivity and specificity of the EMM to assess IT and define the IBZ. Registration of LGE-MRI and EMM resulted in a mean error of 3.01 ± 1.94 mm between the LGE-MRI mesh and EMM points. The highest sensitivity and specificity were found for UV <9.4 mV and bipolar voltage <1.2 mV to respectively identify IT of ≥5 and ≥97.5 %. The 3D CartBox image registration toolbox enables registration of EMM data on pre-acquired MRI during the EMM guided procedure and allows physicians to easily guide injections to the most optimal injection location for cardiac regenerative therapy and harness the full therapeutic effect of the therapy. PMID:26883433

  9. The Porcine Immunology and Nutrition Resource Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse genomics-based databases have been developed to facilitate research with human and rodent models. Current porcine gene databases, however, lack the nutritional and immunological orientation and robust annotation to design effective molecular tools to study relevant pig models. To address t...

  10. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  11. Immunity Elicited by an Experimental Vaccine Based on Recombinant Flagellin-Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Cap Fusion Protein in Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wei, Li; Quan, Rong; Yang, Jiayu; Yan, Xu; Li, Zixuan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Liu, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we reported that a recombinant protein from fusion expression of flagellin to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Cap induced robust humoral and cell-mediated immunity that afforded full protection for PCV2 infection using BALB/c mice. Here, we further evaluated the immunogenicity and protection of the recombinant protein using specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs. Twenty-five 3-week-old piglets without passively acquired immunity were divided into 5 groups. All piglets except negative controls were challenged with a virulent PCV2 at 21 days after booster vaccination and necropsied at 21 days post-challenge. Vaccination of piglets with the recombinant protein without adjuvant induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses as observed by high levels of PCV2-specific IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, as well as frequencies of PCV2-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells that conferred good protection against PCV2 challenge, with significant reduced PCV2 viremia, mild lesions, low PCV2 antigen-positive cells, as well as improved body weight gain, comparable to piglets vaccinated with a commercial PCV2 subunit vaccine. These results further demonstrated that the recombinant flagellin-Cap fusion protein is capable of inducing solid protective humoral and cellular immunity when administered to pigs, thereby becoming an effective PCV2 vaccine candidate for control of PCV2 infection. PMID:26848967

  12. Evidence-based Evaluation and Management of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Chronic cough is common and has a significant impact on the wellbeing of patients and the use and cost of health care services. Traditionally the approach to chronic cough in patients who are nonsmokers and are not taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor has focused on the diagnosis and management of the upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, and reflux disease. The evaluation of patients with chronic cough frequently involves trials of empiric therapy for these 3 conditions. Chronic cough may be perpetuated by abnormalities of the cough reflex and sensitization of its afferent and central components. PMID:27542423

  13. Infarct density distribution by MRI in the porcine model of acute and chronic myocardial infarction as a potential method transferable to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Simor, Tamas; Lenkey, Zsofia; van der Geest, Rob J; Kirschner, Robert; Toth, Levente; Brott, Brigitta C; Elgavish, Ada; Elgavish, Gabriel A

    2014-06-01

    To study the feasibility of a myocardial infarct (MI) quantification method [signal intensity-based percent infarct mapping (SI-PIM)] that is able to evaluate not only the size, but also the density distribution of the MI. In 14 male swine, MI was generated by 90 min of closed-chest balloon occlusion followed by reperfusion. Seven (n = 7) or 56 (n = 7) days after reperfusion, Gd-DTPA-bolus and continuous-infusion enhanced late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI, and R1-mapping were carried out and post mortem triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride (TTC) staining was performed. MI was quantified using binary [2 or 5 standard deviation (SD)], SI-PIM and R1-PIM methods. Infarct fraction (IF), and infarct-involved voxel fraction (IIVF) were determined by each MRI method. Bias of each method was compared to the TTC technique. The accuracy of MI quantification did not depend on the method of contrast administration or the age of the MI. IFs obtained by either of the two PIM methods were statistically not different from the IFs derived from the TTC measurements at either MI age. IFs obtained from the binary 2SD method overestimated IF obtained from TTC. IIVF among the three different PIM methods did not vary, but with the binary methods the IIVF gradually decreased with increasing the threshold limit. The advantage of SI-PIM over the conventional binary method is the ability to represent not only IF but also the density distribution of the MI. Since the SI-PIM methods are based on a single LGE acquisition, the bolus-data-based SI-PIM method can effortlessly be incorporated into the clinical image post-processing procedure. PMID:24718787

  14. One dose of a porcine circovirus 2 subunit vaccine induces humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects against porcine circovirus-associated disease under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Martelli, Paolo; Ferrari, Luca; Morganti, Marina; De Angelis, Elena; Bonilauri, Paolo; Guazzetti, Stefano; Caleffi, Antonio; Borghetti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the efficacy of a one-dose porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine based on the PCV2 Cap protein expressed in a baculovirus system on two different farms at which a history of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVD) was present. Morbidity, mortality, average daily weight gain, carcass weight, PCV2 load in serum and vaccine immunogenicity were assessed. Serology to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hy...

  15. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jacob; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Panitz, Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Scheibye-Knudsen, Karsten; Arvin, Troels; Lumholdt, Steen; Sawera, Milena; Green, Trine; Nielsen, Bente J.; Havgaard, Jacob H.; Rosenkilde, Carina; Wang, Jun; Li, Heng; Li, Ruiqiang; Liu, Bin; Hu, Songnian; Dong, Wei; Li, Wei; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Wernersson, Rasmus; Madsen, Lone B.; Thomsen, Bo; Hornhoj, Henrik; Zhan, Bujie; Wang, Xuegang; Wang, Xuefei; Bolund, Lars; Brunak, Søren; Yang, Huanming; Bendixen, Christian; Fredholm, Merete

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the structure of gene expression is essential for mammalian transcriptomics research. We analyzed a collection of more than one million porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which two-thirds were generated in the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project and one-third are from ......: This EST collection, the largest to date in pig, represents an essential resource for annotation, comparative genomics, assembly of the pig genome sequence, and further porcine transcription studies....

  16. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jacob;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the structure of gene expression is essential for mammalian transcriptomics research. We analyzed a collection of more than one million porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which two-thirds were generated in the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project and one-third are from ......: This EST collection, the largest to date in pig, represents an essential resource for annotation, comparative genomics, assembly of the pig genome sequence, and further porcine transcription studies....

  17. Smoking, Chronic Wound Healing, and Implications for Evidence-Based Practice

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Jodi C.; Browning, Kristine K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wounds are rising in prevalence and creating significant socioeconomic burdens for patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Therefore, it is now more important than ever that clinicians follow evidence-based guidelines for wound care when developing personalized treatment plans for their patients with chronic wounds. Evidence-based guidelines for treating venous leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and pressure ulcers, the 3 main categories of chronic wounds, focus primarily on biologi...

  18. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila;

    2014-01-01

    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks intr...

  19. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences in...

  20. An ORF2 protein-based ELISA for porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ph; Mahé, D; Cariolet, R; Truong, C; Le Dimna, M; Arnauld, C; Rose, N; Eveno, E; Albina, E; Madec, F; Jestin, A

    2003-07-17

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in swine. As PCV2 displays significant homology with PCV1 (a non-pathogenic virus) at the nucleotide and amino-acid level, a discriminative antigen is needed for specific serological diagnosis. The ORF2-encoded capsid protein from PCV2 was used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GST-fused capsid protein from PCV2 and GST alone (both expressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected cells) were used as antigens for serodiagnosis. The specificity of the ELISA for detection of PCV2 antibodies was demonstrated in sera from pigs experimentally infected with PCV1, PCV2 and other swine viruses. The semi-quantitative nature of the test was evaluated versus an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The ELISA was performed on 322 sera from pigs in eight Brittany herds and compared with IPMA. The sensitivity (98.2%) and specificity (94.5%) of this test were considered suitable for individual serological detection. High PCV2 seroprevalence was found in sows and pigs at the end of the growth phase (18-19 weeks) in all eight herds. The seroprevalence in piglets (11-17 weeks) was statistically correlated with clinical symptoms of PMWS (93% in affected versus 54%, in non-affected farms). A cohort study performed in PMWS-free farms showed that 57% of piglets exhibited active seroconversion after 13 weeks, indicating that PCV2 infection occurred earlier in PMWS-affected piglets. PMID:12814886

  1. Coincidental detection of genomes of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 infecting pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saekhow, Prayuth; Kishizuka, Shingo; Sano, Natsuha; Mitsui, Hiroko; Akasaki, Hajime; Mawatari, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The infection status of 15 viruses in 120 pigs aged about 6 months was investigated based on tonsil specimens collected from a slaughterhouse. Only 5 species of porcine parvoviruses and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected at high frequencies; 67% for porcine parvovirus (PPV) (PPV-Kr or -NADL2 as the new abbreviation), 58% for PPV2 (CnP-PARV4), 39% for PPV3 (P-PARV4), 33% for PPV4 (PPV4), 55% for PBo-likeV (PBoV7) and 80% for PCV2. A phylogenetic analysis of PPV3 suggested that Japanese PPV3s showed a slight variation, and possibly, there were farms harboring homogeneous or heterogeneous PPV3s. Statistical analyses indicated that the detection of PCV2 was significantly coincidental with each detection of PPV, PPV2 and PPV3, and PPV and PPV4 were also coincidentally detected. The concurrent infection with PCV2 and porcine parvoviruses in the subclinically infected pigs may resemble the infection status of pigs with the clinical manifestations of porcine circovirus associated disease which occurs in 3-5 months old pigs and is thought to be primarily caused by the PCV2 infection. PMID:26166811

  2. Classification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on chest radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Marcos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective Quantitative analysis of chest radiographs of patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD determining if the data obtained from such radiographic images could classify such individuals according to the presence or absence of disease. Materials and Methods For such a purpose, three groups of chest radiographic images were utilized, namely: group 1, including 25 individuals with COPD; group 2, including 27 individuals without COPD; and group 3 (utilized for the reclassification /validation of the analysis, including 15 individuals with COPD. The COPD classification was based on spirometry. The variables normalized by retrosternal height were the following: pulmonary width (LARGP; levels of right (ALBDIR and left (ALBESQ diaphragmatic eventration; costophrenic angle (ANGCF; and right (DISDIR and left (DISESQ intercostal distances. Results As the radiographic images of patients with and without COPD were compared, statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups on the variables related to the diaphragm. In the COPD reclassification the following variables presented the highest indices of correct classification: ANGCF (80%, ALBDIR (73.3%, ALBESQ (86.7%. Conclusion The radiographic assessment of the chest demonstrated that the variables related to the diaphragm allow a better differentiation between individuals with and without COPD.

  3. Condition based payment: improving care of chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    DiPiero, Albert; Sanders, David G

    2005-01-01

    Fee-for-service is more than a payment method; it defines the method of care. Fee-for-condition—a payment method that rewards superior results and encourages innovation—could greatly improve care for chronic conditions

  4. Porcine Bocavirus: Achievements in the Past Five Years

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Zhou; Haoting Sun; Yuyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Porcine bocavirus is a recently discovered virus that infects pigs and is classified within the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae). The viral genome constitutes linear single-stranded DNA and has three open reading frames that encode four proteins: NS1, NP1, VP1, and VP2. There have been more than seven genotypes discovered to date. These genotypes have been classified into three groups based on VP1 sequence. Porcine bocavirus is much more prevalent in piglets that ...

  5. Development of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-like-particle-based vaccine and evaluation of its immunogenicity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Lakshmanappa, Yashavanth Shaan; Longchao, Zhu; Dhakal, Santosh; Hiremath, Jagadish; Ouyang, Kang; Shyu, Duan-Liang; Arcos, Jesus; Pengcheng, Shang; Gilbertie, Aaron; Zuckermann, Federico; Torrelles, Jordi B; Jackwood, Daral; Fang, Ying; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-06-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a leading cause of economic burden to the pork industry worldwide. The routinely used modified live PRRS virus vaccine (PRRS-MLV) induces clinical protection, but it has safety concerns. Therefore, in an attempt to develop a safe and protective inactivated PRRSV vaccine, we generated PRRS-virus-like-particles (PRRS-VLPs) containing the viral surface proteins GP5-GP4-GP3-GP2a-M or GP5-M using a novel baculovirus expression system. Our in vitro results indicated that the desired PRRSV proteins were incorporated in both the VLPs preparations based on their reactivity in immunogold electron microscopy and ELISA. To boost their immunogenicity in pigs, we entrapped the PRRS-VLPs in PLGA nanoparticles and coadministered them intranasally with a potent adjuvant. We then evaluated their efficacy in pigs against a viral challenge using a virulent heterologous field isolate. Our results indicated that PRRS-VLPs induced an anamnestic immune response, since we observed boosted IgG and IFN-γ production in vaccinated and virus-challenged animals, but not during the pre-challenge period. Importantly, a two-log reduction in the lung viral load was detected in PRRS-VLP-vaccinated animals. In conclusion, we generated PRRS-VLPs containing up to five viral surface proteins and demonstrated their immunogenicity in pigs, but further studies are required to improve its immunogenicity and efficacy as a vaccine candidate. PMID:27008569

  6. Identification and genomic characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus (PPV6) in china

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Jianqiang; Qiao, Caixia; Han, Xue; Han, Tao; Kang, Wenhua; Zi, Zhanchao; Cao, Zhen; Zhai, Xinyan; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the Densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. In recent years, a number of novel parvoviruses belonging to the subfamily Parvovirinae have been identified from various animal species and humans, including human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), porcine hokovirus, ovine partetravirus, porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4), and porcine parvovirus 5 (PPV5). Metho...

  7. Establishment of a real-time RT-PCR method based on SYBR GreenⅠfor diagnosis of porcine kobuvirus%猪嵴病毒实时荧光定量RT-PCR方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修金生; 陈小权; 王斌; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    A pair of specific primers targeted to the 3D gene of porcine kobuvirus was designed and a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) based on SYBR Green I fluorescent was developed for quantization of the porcine kobuvirus infection. The standard curve generated a wide dynamic range of 6. 42 × 102 -6. 42 × 108 DNA copies/μL with a linear correlation (R2) of 0. 999 and efficiency of 100% between the Ct value and the logarithm of the plasmid copy number. The melting curve analysis using SYBR Green I dye showed one specific peaked with a melting temperature (Tm) of (84. 94± 0. 24) ℃ with no primer-dimer peak represent. No amplificon was detected from unrelated DNA samples by this method, such as porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine rotavirus, porcine circovirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, pseudorabies virus, and classical swine fever virus. Kxcellent reproducibility was obtained for detecting constructed positive plasmid DNA with intra-assay of 0. 26% - 1. 14% % and inter-assay of 0. 63% - 1. 79%. A real-time RT-PCR method established in this study may be used for earlier diagnosis and quantitative analysis of the infection status and the target organs infected with porcine kobuvirus.%目的 本研究根据GenBank中登录猪嵴病毒(porcine kobuvirus,PKV)株的3D蛋白序列基因特征,设计特异性引物,建立基于SYBR GreenⅠ检测PKV的实时荧光定量RT-PCR方法.结果 该方法检测PKV的3D基因在6.42×102 ~ 6.42×108拷贝/μL范围内有很好的线性关系,其扩增相关系数为0.999,扩增效率为100%,扩增产物的融解曲线分析只出现1个单特异峰,融解温度为(84.94±0.24)℃,对传染性胃肠炎病毒、猪轮状病毒、猪圆环病毒、猪繁殖与呼吸综合症病毒、猪伪狂犬病毒、猪瘟病毒均检测不到荧光信号,特异性强.所建立实时荧光定量RT-PCR方法组内变异系数为0.26%~1.14%,组间变异系数0.63%~1.79%,

  8. Web-based Distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Qin, Tuan-fa; Jiang, Jian-ning; Lu, Hui; Ma, Zong-e.; Meng, Hong-chang

    2008-11-01

    To make a long-term dynamic monitoring to the chronically ill, especially patients of HBV A, we build a distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis (MISCHV). The Web-based system architecture and its function are described, and the extensive application and important role are also presented.

  9. Impact of an occupation-based self-management programme on chronic disease management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Lynn

    2013-02-01

    There is a need for the development and evaluation of occupational therapy interventions enabling participation and contributing to self-management for individuals with multiple chronic conditions. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility and potential impact of an occupation-based self-management programme for community living individuals with multiple chronic conditions.

  10. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  11. Optimizing Interferon Alfa Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Roomer (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis C virus was first discovered in 1989 as the major cause of chronic non-A non-B hepatitis. The hepatitis C virus is a single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family of flaviviruses. The primary target of the hepatitis C virus are hepatocytes where viral particles repli

  12. Monitoring porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection status in swine herds based on analysis of antibodies in meat juice samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Bøtner, Anette; Feld, Niels Christian; Willeberg, Preben

    2001-01-01

    An indirect ELISA test was developed as a novel tool aimed at monitoring the herd infection status of swine herds. Meat juice samples from pig carcasses were analysed for the presence of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A study of samples from herds...

  13. Effects of intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated Sertoli cells on chronic and presymptomatic dystrophic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Chiappalupi; Giovanni De Luca; Francesca Mancuso; Luca Madaro; Francesca Fallarino; Carmine Nicoletti; Mario Calvitti; Iva Arato; Giulia Falabella; Laura Salvadori; Antonio Di Meo; Antonello Bufalari; Stefano Giovagnoli; Riccardo Calafiore; Rosario Donato

    2015-01-01

    We report data about the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) porcine Sertoli cells (SeC) encapsulated into clinical grade alginate-based microcapsules (SeC-MC) on muscles of chronic and presymptomatic dystrophic, mdx mice. Mdx mouse is the best characterized animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked lethal myopathy due to mutation in the gene of dystrophin, which is crucial for myofiber integrity during muscle contraction. Our data ...

  14. An Ultrasound Image-Based Dynamic Fusion Modeling Method for Predicting the Quantitative Impact of In Vivo Liver Motion on Intraoperative HIFU Therapies: Investigations in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Apoutou N'Djin

    Full Text Available Organ motion is a key component in the treatment of abdominal tumors by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU, since it may influence the safety, efficacy and treatment time. Here we report the development in a porcine model of an Ultrasound (US image-based dynamic fusion modeling method for predicting the effect of in vivo motion on intraoperative HIFU treatments performed in the liver in conjunction with surgery. A speckle tracking method was used on US images to quantify in vivo liver motions occurring intraoperatively during breathing and apnea. A fusion modeling of HIFU treatments was implemented by merging dynamic in vivo motion data in a numerical modeling of HIFU treatments. Two HIFU strategies were studied: a spherical focusing delivering 49 juxtapositions of 5-second HIFU exposures and a toroidal focusing using 1 single 40-second HIFU exposure. Liver motions during breathing were spatially homogenous and could be approximated to a rigid motion mainly encountered in the cranial-caudal direction (f = 0.20 Hz, magnitude > 13 mm. Elastic liver motions due to cardiovascular activity, although negligible, were detectable near millimeter-wide sus-hepatic veins (f = 0.96 Hz, magnitude 75%. Fusion modeling predictions were preliminarily validated in vivo and showed the potential of using a long-duration toroidal HIFU exposure to accelerate the ablation process during breathing (from 0.5 to 6 cm3 · min(-1. To improve HIFU treatment control, dynamic fusion modeling may be interesting for assessing numerically focusing strategies and motion compensation techniques in more realistic conditions.

  15. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  16. Electronic Chronic Disease Registers Based on Accreditation Standards for Family Medicine Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Valjevac, Salih; Ridjanovic, Zoran; Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED SUMMARY Agency for Quality and Accreditation of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AKAZ) has developed computer based chronic disease register based on the accreditation standards in order to facilitate maintenance of chronic disease registers in the absence of electronic health records, and to speed up and simplify calculation for over 70 clinical indicators from accreditation standards for family medicine teams. This article presents development of the...

  17. Classification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on chest radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Leilane Marcos; Gerson Linck Bichinho; Emmanuel Alvarenga Panizzi; Keidy Karla Goncalves Storino; Davi Carpintero Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Objective Quantitative analysis of chest radiographs of patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) determining if the data obtained from such radiographic images could classify such individuals according to the presence or absence of disease. Materials and Methods For such a purpose, three groups of chest radiographic images were utilized, namely: group 1, including 25 individuals with COPD; group 2, including 27 individuals without COPD; and group 3 (utilized fo...

  18. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, May. Chun. Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. Methods A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Results Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53–13.00, Pherpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21–4.86). Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV and HCMV, are significantly associated with chronic periodontitis. There is insufficient evidence to support associations between HSV, HHV-7 and chronic periodontitis. PMID:26666412

  19. Computed Tomography-based Subclassification of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirksen, Asger; Wille, Mathilde M W

    2016-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways disease) and distal to the airways with destruction and loss of lung parenchyma (emphysema). However, segmentation of airways is still experimental; with contemporary high-resolution CT (HRCT) we can just see the "entrance" of small airways, and until now changes in airway morphology that have been observed in COPD are subtle. Furthermore, recent results indicate that emphysema may also be the essential pathophysiologic mechanism behind the airflow limitation of COPD. The definition of COPD excludes bronchiectasis as a symptomatic subtype of COPD, and CT findings in chronic bronchitis and exacerbations of COPD are rather unspecific. This leaves emphysema as the most obvious candidate for subclassification of COPD. Both chest radiologists and pulmonary physicians are quite familiar with the appearance of various patterns of emphysema on HRCT, such as centrilobular, panlobular, and paraseptal emphysema. However, it has not yet been possible to develop operational definitions of these patterns that can be used by computer software to automatically classify CT scans into distinct patterns. In conclusion, even though various emphysema patterns can be recognized visually, CT has not yet demonstrated a great potential for automated subclassification of COPD, and it is an open question whether it will ever be possible to achieve success equivalent to that obtained by HRCT in the area of interstitial lung diseases. PMID:27115944

  20. Megavoltage Image-Based Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking of a NiTi Stent in Porcine Lungs on a Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and potential limitations of MV image-based dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking in a porcine model on a linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: A thermo-expandable NiTi stent designed for kilovoltage (kV) X-ray visualization of lung lesions was inserted into the bronchia of three anaesthetized Göttingen minipigs. A four-dimensional computed tomography scan was used for planning a five-field conformal treatment with circular multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures. A 22.5 Gy single fraction treatment was delivered to the pigs. The peak-to-peak stent motion was 3 to 8 mm, with breathing periods of 1.2 to 4 s. Before treatment, X-ray images were used for image-guided setup based on the stent. During treatment delivery, continuous megavoltage (MV) portal images were acquired at 7.5 Hz. The stent was segmented in the images and used for continuous adaptation of the MLC aperture. Offline, the tracking error in beam’s eye view of the treatment beam was calculated for each MV image as the difference between the MLC aperture center and the segmented stent position. The standard deviations of the systematic error Σ and the random error σ were determined and compared with the would-be errors for a nontracking treatment with pretreatment image-guided setup. Results: Reliable stent segmentation was obtained for 11 of 15 fields. Segmentation failures occurred when image contrast was dominated by overlapping anatomical structures (ribs, diaphragm) rather than by the stent, which was designed for kV rather than MV X-ray visibility. For the 11 fields with reliable segmentation, Σ was 0.5 mm/0.4 mm in the two imager directions, whereas σ was 0.5 mm/1.1 mm. Without tracking, Σ and σ would have been 1.7 mm/1.4 mm and 0.8 mm/1.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, in vivo DMLC tracking has been demonstrated on a linear accelerator showing the potential for improved targeting accuracy. The study mimicked the envisioned

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, N R

    2001-11-01

    In long-term management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a number of medications improve pulmonary function test results. The long-term clinical benefits of those drugs would seem intuitive, but there is very little strong evidence that long-term outcomes in COPD are substantially affected by those drugs. Nevertheless, symptom improvement such as dyspnea reduction is certainly strong reason to use those agents. The 2 most compelling bodies of evidence in stable COPD are for oxygen therapy in the chronically hypoxemic patient and pulmonary rehabilitation to improve exercise tolerance and dyspnea. Inhaled corticosteroids also appear to be useful in patients at risk for frequent exacerbations. In acute exacerbations, the rationale for therapy comes in part from the large body of literature regarding acute asthma therapy. Bronchodilator therapy and corticosteroids both seem to reduce the severity and the duration of exacerbations. Moreover, routine antibiotic use seems beneficial, and the role of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation with patients suffering impending respiratory failure from acute COPD exacerbations is well supported by the literature. PMID:11679148

  2. A Multi-Modal Digital Game-Based Learning Environment for Hospitalized Children with Chronic Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jui-Chih; Tsuei, Mengping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the digital game-based learning for children with chronic illnesses in the hospital settings. The design-based research and qualitative methods were applied. Three eight-year-old children with leukemia participated in this study. In the first phase, the multi-user game-based learning system was developed and…

  3. Development and Characterization of Protective Haemophilus parasuis Subunit Vaccines Based on Native Proteins with Affinity to Porcine Transferrin and Comparison with Other Subunit and Commercial Vaccines ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Frandoloso, Rafael; Martínez, Sonia; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F.; García-Iglesias, María José; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Martínez-Fernández, Beatriz; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B.

    2010-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is the agent responsible for causing Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, and meningitis in pigs. In this study, we have characterized native outer membrane proteins with affinity to porcine transferrin (NPAPT) from H. parasuis serovar 5, Nagasaki strain. This pool of proteins was used as antigen to developed two vaccine formulations: one was adjuvanted with a mineral oil (Montanide IMS 2215 VG PR), while the other was poten...

  4. Induction of robust immunity response in mice by dual-expression-system-based recombinant baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Yu; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Jie ZHANG; Tong, Tiezhu; Lin, Wenyao; Liao, Ming; Fan, Huiying

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an emerging swine disease that causes progressive weight loss, dyspnea, tachypnea, anemia, jaundice, and diarrhea in piglets. Although baculovirus is an enveloped virus that infects insects in nature, it has emerged as a vaccine vector, and we used it to develop a novel candidate vaccine for a preventive or therapeutic strategy to control PCV2 infections. Methods Immunoblotting a...

  5. Development of an EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis for simultaneous detection and differentiation of six viral pathogens of porcine reproductive and respiratory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pinbin; Wu, Haigang; Jiang, Yonghou; Opriessnig, Tanja; Zheng, Xiaowen; Mo, Yecheng; Yang, Zongqi

    2014-11-01

    Concurrent infection of pigs with two or more pathogens is common in pigs under intensive rearing conditions. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are all associated with reproductive or respiratory disorders or both and can cause significant economic losses in pig production worldwide. An EvaGreen-based multiplex real-time PCR (EG-mPCR) with melting curve analysis was developed in this study for simultaneous detection and differentiation of these six viruses in pigs. This method is able to detect and distinguish PCV2, PPV, PRRSV, CSFV, JEV and PRV with the limits of detection ranging from 100 to 500 copies/μL, high reproducibility, and intra-assay and inter-assay variation ranging from 0.11 to 3.20%. After validation, a total of 118 field samples were tested by the newly developed EG-mPCR. PCV2 was identified in 23%, PPV in 15%, PRRSV in 17% and PRV in 5% of the samples. Concurrent PCV2 and PRRSV infection was detected in 6.7%, PCV2 and PPV in 5% and PPV2 and PRRSV infection was detected in 5% of the cases. The agreement of the EG-mPCR and conventional PCR tests was 99.2%. This EG-mPCR will be a useful, rapid, reliable and cost-effective alternative for routine surveillance testing of viral infections in pigs. PMID:25102430

  6. Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC)-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I) chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I) chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the range of

  7. Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Buckley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the

  8. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  9. The cytological observation of immune adherence of porcine erythrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao-Gui; Yin, Wei; Fan, Xin-Feng; Fan, Kuo-Hai; Jiang, Jun-Bing; Li, Hong-Quan

    2012-10-01

    The immune adherence (IA) between the porcine erythrocytes and the opsonized Escherichia coli carried green fluorescent protein gene (GFP-E.coli) were detected by the fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an attempt to verify the existence of IA between the porcine erythrocytes and complemented-opsonized microbes. Under fluorescence microscopy, GFP-E.coli opsonized by fresh rabbit serum complement adhered to the erythrocytes and could not be detached by PBS washing, and no IA was observed between the erythrocytes and nonopsonized GFP-E.coli after co-incubation. SEM and TEM also revealed the existence of IA between the serum complement-opsonized GFP-E.coli membrane and the erythrocyte membrane. The partial complement receptor type 1 (CR1)-like gene from porcine was generated by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA 3' end (3' RACE) (157bp and 578bp), both of which have high similarity with published mammal's CR1 gene. The sequences were spliced based on homology comparison and submitted to GenBank (GenBank Accession No. JX033989). These results indicated that the porcine erythrocytes were able to bind to the opsonized microorganisms. Furthermore, the sequencing results confirmed that the CR1-like gene exists in porcine. PMID:23150925

  10. Evidence-based pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Ansari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain (NP is a chronic, debilitating symptomatology of lesions/injuries of the central and peripheral nervous system. As per pooled estimates, the prevalence is 7-8% in the general population; however, the prevalence varies with different neuropathic conditions. The aetiology can range from peripheral neuropathic conditions viz. peripheral diabetic neuropathic pain (PDNP, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN, trigeminal neuralgia, HIV- associated polyneuropathy, cervical radiculopathy to central neuropathic conditions, viz. central post-stroke pain, spinal cord injury and the neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis. Apart from the symptomatic perception of pain, neuropathic pain affects the cognitive and emotional aspects of the affected individual. The pain, being debilitating and resistant to over-the-counter analgesics, diminishes the quality of life, disrupts sleep and leads to psychiatric complications such as comorbid anxiety and depression. The management is palliative and involves drugs, psychological intervention, stimulations and nerve-blocking techniques. This review concentrates on the pharmacological therapeutic options available and focuses on the selection of the agent/s in accordance with the evidence. The first-line treatment includes the tricyclic antidepressants ([TCAs]; amitriptyline, nortriptyline, selective serotonin norepinephrine inhibitors ([SNRIs]; duloxetine, venlafaxine, calcium channel alpha 2 - delta ligands (pregabalin, gabapentin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine. Lidocaine plasters are first-line options for specific focal conditions such as post-herpetic neuralgia. The second-line therapy includes the opioid analgesics and tramadol. The choice of drug selection should complement the patient’s age, type of neuropathic condition, tolerability to an agent, comorbid condition and cost-effectiveness. Management must be individualized with a realistic and composite goal of making the pain tolerable and

  11. Sedentary Time and Screen-Based Sedentary Behaviors of Children With a Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachel G; Obeid, Joyce; Nguyen, Thanh; Ploeger, Hilde; Proudfoot, Nicole A; Bos, Cecily; Chan, Anthony K; Pedder, Linda; Issenman, Robert M; Scheinemann, Katrin; Larché, Maggie J; McAssey, Karen; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) assess sedentary time and prevalence of screen-based sedentary behaviors of children with a chronic disease and (ii) compare sedentary time and prevalence of screen-based sedentary behaviors to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Sixty-five children (aged 6-18 years) with a chronic disease participated: survivors of a brain tumor, hemophilia, type 1 diabetes mellitus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, cystic fibrosis, and Crohn's disease. Twenty-nine of these participants were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Sedentary time was measured objectively by an ActiGraph GT1M or GT3× accelerometer worn for 7 consecutive days and defined as less than 100 counts per min. A questionnaire was used to assess screen-based sedentary behaviors. Children with a chronic disease engaged in an average of 10.2 ± 1.4 hr of sedentary time per day, which comprised 76.5 ± 7.1% of average daily monitoring time. There were no differences between children with a chronic disease and controls in sedentary time (adjusted for wear time, p = .06) or in the prevalence of TV watching, and computer or video game usage for varying durations (p = .78, p = .39 and, p = .32 respectively). Children with a chronic disease, though relatively healthy, accumulate high levels of sedentary time, similar to those of their healthy peers. PMID:25389217

  12. A population-based cohort study on chronic pain: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Grønbæk, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera;

    2010-01-01

    Interview Survey in 2000, which were linked on the individual level with register-based follow-up data. The survey was based on a county-stratified random sample of 16,684 individuals, out of which 10,434 individuals (62.5%) completed a face-to-face interview and returned a self-administered questionnaire......OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were 2-fold: (1) to investigate the consequences of opioid use in individuals with chronic pain in the Danish population, and (2) to investigate the development of and recovery from chronic pain from 2000 to 2005. METHODS: Data derived from the Danish Health...

  13. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  14. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  15. Spatial analysis and temporal trends of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Denmark from 2007 to 2010 based on laboratory submission data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl;

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has been a cause for great concern to the Danish pig industry since it was first diagnosed in 1992. The causative agent of PRRS is an RNA virus which is divided into different genotypes. The clinical signs, as well as its morbidity and mortality...... of 13 %) within production herds. The seroconversion rate followed a similar and consistent pattern, being higher for type 1 than for type 2 for both PRRSV types. Regarding the spatiotemporal results, the relative risk distribution maps changed over time as a consequence of the changes in PRRSV...

  16. Episode-Based Payment, Evaluating the Impact on Chronic...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Policy makers are interested in aggregating fee-for-service reimbursement into episode-based bundle payments, hoping it will lead to greater efficiency in the...

  17. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  18. A longitudinal study of cell-mediated immunity in pigs infected with porcine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is an ubiquitous pathogen causing reproductive failure in swine. Protection against reproductive failure caused by acute PPV infection has commonly been related to the presence of specific antibodies in the dam. However, the role of cell-mediated immunity during chronic PPV...

  19. Survival in Mediterranean Ambulatory Patients With Chronic Heart Failure. A Population-based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frigola Capell, E.; Comin-Colet, J.; Davins-Miralles, J.; Gich-Saladich, I.J.; Wensing, M.; Verdu-Rotellar, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Scarce research has been performed in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure in the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to describe survival trends in our target population and the impact of prognostic factors. METHODS: We carried out a population-based retrospective

  20. Homecare-based motor rehabilitation in musculoskeletal chronic graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tendas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD is a frequent complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Extensive musculoskeletal and skin involvement may induce severe functional impairment, disability and quality of life deterioration. Physical rehabilitation is recommended as ancillary therapy in these forms, but experiences are sparse. A 39-year-old man affected by musculoskeletal and skin chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD was treated with a homecare-based motor rehabilitation program during palliation for disease progression. Significant functional improvement was obtained. Motor rehabilitation should be strongly considered for patients with musculoskeletal cGVHD, both in the palliative and in the curative phase of disease.

  1. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  2. Membrane barrier of a porcine hepatocyte bioartificial liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Scott L; Yagi, Toshikazu; Matsushita, Takakazu; Hardin, Joseph; Grande, Joseph P; Gibson, Lawrence E; Platt, Jeffrey L

    2003-03-01

    Pores in the membrane of a bioartificial liver (BAL) allow it to function as a semipermeable barrier between its contents (i.e., liver cells) and components of the recipient's immune system. This study is designed to assess the influence of pore size on immune response to a BAL containing porcine hepatocytes. Sixteen healthy dogs were divided into four groups (four dogs per group) based on pore size of the BAL membrane and level of exposure to porcine hepatocytes. Group 1 dogs were administered porcine hepatocytes by intraperitoneal injection and served as positive controls. Group 2 dogs were exposed to porcine hepatocytes in a large-pore (200-nm) BAL, and group 3 dogs were exposed to porcine hepatocytes in a small-pore (10-nm) BAL. Group 4 dogs were exposed to a no-cell (unloaded) BAL and served as negative controls. Intraperitoneal injection of hepatocytes or 3 hours of BAL hemoperfusion was performed day 0 and 3 weeks later on day 21. Biochemical, humoral, and cellular measures of immune response were collected until day 44. The initiation of BAL hemoperfusion was associated with a rapid decline in CH(50) levels of complement and transient neutropenia and thrombocytopenia during all BAL exposures. Xenoreactive antibody response to BAL was increased by use of membranes with large pores and secondary exposures. Skin testing on day 42 showed a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to porcine hepatocytes that also correlated with level of previous antigen exposure. BAL treatment was associated with both immediate and elicited immunologic responses. The immediate response was transient and not influenced by membrane pore size, whereas elicited responses were influenced by pore size of the BAL during previous exposures. PMID:12619028

  3. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  4. Chronic care management of globesity: promoting healthier lifestyles in traditional and mHealth based settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and being overweight could be real chronic conditions above all if there are other complications such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, cancer and various psychosocial and psychopathological disorders,. Due to the multifactorial etiology of obesity, evidence-based interventions to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities combine different treatment approaches: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and, in some situations, pharmacological and surgical. There are significant limitations in this multidisciplinary chronic care management of obesity, most notably those regarding costs and long-term adherence and efficacy. Programs including eHealth platforms and new technologies could overcome limitations connected to the traditional in-patient chronic care management of obesity, thus providing promising opportunities in enhancing weight reduction and reducing complications in terms of long-term efficacy and effectiveness across clinical, organizational, and economic perspectives.

  5. Health Related Quality of Life of Chronic Liver Patients: A Dutch Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. van der Plas (Simone)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chronic illnesses form a spectrum of diseases. Some chronic illnesses are poorly understood and unpredictable, some are understood and manageable, some are progressively disabling and some are life threatening. Nevertheless, for all chronic patients chronic illnesses ha

  6. Diet-related chronic disease in the northeastern United States: a model-based clustering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Flynt, Abby; Daepp, Madeleine I. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity and diabetes are global public health concerns. Studies indicate a relationship between socioeconomic, demographic and environmental variables and the spatial patterns of diet-related chronic disease. In this paper, we propose a methodology using model-based clustering and variable selection to predict rates of obesity and diabetes. We test this method through an application in the northeastern United States. Methods We use model-based clustering, an unsupervised learning a...

  7. Development and validation of a harmonized TaqMan-based triplex real-time RT-PCR protocol for the quantitative detection of normalized gene expression profiles of seven porcine cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Petrov

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of cytokine responses plays a major role in the pathogenesis of severe and life-threatening infectious diseases like septicemia or viral hemorrhagic fevers. In pigs, diseases like African and classical swine fever are known to show exaggerated cytokine releases. To study these responses and their impact on disease severity and outcome in detail, reliable, highly specific and sensitive methods are needed. For cytokine research on the molecular level, real-time RT-PCRs have been proven to be suitable. Yet, the currently available and most commonly used SYBR Green I assays or heterogeneous gel-based RT-PCRs for swine show a significant lack of specificity and sensitivity. The latter is however absolutely essential for an accurate quantification of rare cytokine transcripts as well as for detection of small changes in gene expressions. For this reason, a harmonized TaqMan-based triplex real-time RT-PCR protocol for the quantitative detection of normalized gene expression profiles of seven porcine cytokines was designed and validated within the presented study. Cytokines were chosen to represent different immunological pathways and targets known to be involved in the pathogenesis of the above mentioned porcine diseases, namely interleukin (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interferon (IFN-α. Beta-Actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH served as reference genes for normalization. For absolute quantification a synthetic standard plasmid was constructed comprising all target cytokines and reference genes within a single molecule allowing the generation of positive control RNA. The standard as well as positive RNAs from samples, and additionally more than 400 clinical samples, which were collected from animal trials, were included in the validation process to assess analytical sensitivity and applicability under routine conditions. The resulting assay allows the reliable assessment of gene

  8. Porcine transcriptome analysis based on 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries and assembly of 1,021,891 expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Hedegaard, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the structure of gene expression is essential for mammalian transcriptomics research. We analyzed a collection of more than one million porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs), of which two-thirds were generated in the Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project and one-third are from...... public databases. The Sino-Danish ESTs were generated from one normalized and 97 non-normalized cDNA libraries representing 35 different tissues and three developmental stages. RESULTS: Using the Distiller package, the ESTs were assembled to roughly 48,000 contigs and 73,000 singletons, of which...... with the greatest number of different expressed genes, whereas tissues with more specialized function, such as developing liver, have fewer expressed genes. There are at least 65 high confidence housekeeping gene candidates and 876 cDNA library-specific gene candidates. We identified differential...

  9. A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus

  10. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility. PMID:25451101

  11. Family perceptions of the usability and value of chronic disease web-based patient portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byczkowski, Terri L; Munafo, Jennifer K; Britto, Maria T

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand perceptions of the usability and value of web-based patient portals among parents of children with a chronic condition (diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and cystic fibrosis). The design was a cross-sectional telephone survey with semistructured interviews and was conducted at a tertiary children's hospital. Parent ratings of their experiences with and the value of a web-based portal and reasons for not using the portal were ascertained. Most parents agreed that the portal information was accurate, timely, and useful. Confidentiality and seeing worrisome health-related information about their child was not a major concern, and parents felt that the portal helped to improve their understanding of and ability to manage their child's condition. In conclusion, the results of this study support the notion that web-based patient portals have the potential to be a useful tool for parents of children with a chronic disease. PMID:24056751

  12. Coping strategies among adolescents with chronic headache and mental health problems: a cross-sectional population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Hartberg, Silje; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti; Lundqvist, Christofer

    2015-01-01

    To examine prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents with chronic headache and compare internal and external coping strategies in young people with chronic headaches with and without mental health problems. This study is based on a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Akershus County in Norway. A total of 19,985 adolescents were included in the study, covering lower secondary and upper secondary students, aged 13–19 years. Chronic headache was measured with a single item question...

  13. Group Medical Visits Using an Empowerment-based Model as Treatment for Women With Chronic Pain in an Underserved Community

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Jeffrey S.; Kulla, Jill; Shoemaker, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past decade, group medical visits have become more prevalent. Group medical visits may have some advantages in treating chronic illnesses such as chronic pain as they can be more patient centered. The empowerment model is a novel approach used to provide support, education, and healthy activities guided by participants. Objective: To evaluate the early stages of a chronic pain group medical visit program based on the empowerment model. Methods: This prospective cohort stu...

  14. Phylogeny and evolution of porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Tao, Ye; Cui, Jin; Suo, Siqingaowa; Cong, Yingying; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-12-26

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV), a member of the genus Parvovirus, family Parvoviridae, is a significant causative agent in porcine reproductive failure, causing serious economic losses in the swine industry. Previous phylogenetic studies based on the NS1 or VP2 genes indicated that current PPV strains diverged 30 years ago and that VP2 was under neutral or positive selection. Our analysis of NS1, VP2 and complete ORFs indicated that the most recent common ancestor of PPV strains existed about 250 years ago and that the 127-nt repeat in the 3'NTR was present in viruses of some subclades that evolved about 80 years ago. Nucleotide substitution rates of NS1 and VP2 genes were 3.03 × 10(-5) and 1.07 × 10(-4), respectively. Both the NS1 and VP2 proteins were under purifying selection and recombination did not contribute to the genetic diversity of PPV. As expected, surface amino acids are hydrophilic and make up the majority of mutations in the VP2 protein; residues in VP2 interfaces were substituted gradually, often in conjunction with complementary substitutions in the neighboring VP2. PMID:24050995

  15. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of porcine parvoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, André Felipe; Canal, Cláudio Wageck; Truyen, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV), recently named Ungulate protoparvovirus 1, is considered to be one of the most important causes of reproductive failure in swine. Fetal death, mummification, stillbirths and delayed return to estrus are predominant clinical signs commonly associated with PPV infection in a herd. It has recently been shown that certain parvoviruses exhibit a nucleotide substitution rate close to that commonly determined for RNA viruses. However, the PPV vaccines broadly used in the last 30 years have most likely reduced the genetic diversity of the virus and led to the predominance of strains with a capsid profile distinct from that of the original vaccine-based strains. Furthermore, a number of novel porcine parvovirus species with yet-unknown veterinary relevance and characteristics have been described during the last decade. In this review, an overview of PPV molecular evolution is presented, highlighting characteristics of the various genetic elements, their evolutionary rate and the discovery of new capsid profiles driven by the currently used vaccines. PMID:26453771

  16. [Relevance of Outpatient, Equipment-based Exercise Training in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckl, R; Göhl, O; Spielmanns, M; Taube, K; Bock, R; Schultz, K; Worth, H

    2016-07-01

    Exercise training is one of the most important components in disease management for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. The clinically relevant benefits of endurance and strength training on dyspnea, exercise capacity and quality of life have been evaluated very well. However, there are some legal limitations by the German Working Group for Rehabilitation (BAR) concerning outpatient exercise training programs (beyond pulmonary rehabilitation): only group-based callisthenic training programs receive funding from health care insurances while professional equipment-based training programs are excluded despite their outstanding effectiveness.This review provides an overview on the methodology and the benefits of outpatient exercise training programs for patients with chronic respiratory diseases, and it critically discusses the organizational structures of these programs in Germany. PMID:27218214

  17. Porcine bocavirus: achievements in the past five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Sun, Haoting; Wang, Yuyan

    2014-12-01

    Porcine bocavirus is a recently discovered virus that infects pigs and is classified within the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae). The viral genome constitutes linear single-stranded DNA and has three open reading frames that encode four proteins: NS1, NP1, VP1, and VP2. There have been more than seven genotypes discovered to date. These genotypes have been classified into three groups based on VP1 sequence. Porcine bocavirus is much more prevalent in piglets that are co-infected with other pathogens than in healthy piglets. The virus can be detected using PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, cell cultures, indirect immunofluorescence, and other molecular virology techniques. Porcine bocavirus has been detected in various samples, including stool, serum, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Because this virus was discovered only five years ago, there are still many unanswered questions that require further research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and primary research achievements regarding porcine bocavirus. PMID:25514206

  18. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  19. Porcine Bocavirus: Achievements in the Past Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine bocavirus is a recently discovered virus that infects pigs and is classified within the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae. The viral genome constitutes linear single-stranded DNA and has three open reading frames that encode four proteins: NS1, NP1, VP1, and VP2. There have been more than seven genotypes discovered to date. These genotypes have been classified into three groups based on VP1 sequence. Porcine bocavirus is much more prevalent in piglets that are co-infected with other pathogens than in healthy piglets. The virus can be detected using PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, cell cultures, indirect immunofluorescence, and other molecular virology techniques. Porcine bocavirus has been detected in various samples, including stool, serum, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Because this virus was discovered only five years ago, there are still many unanswered questions that require further research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and primary research achievements regarding porcine bocavirus.

  20. A longitudinal study of cell-mediated immunity in pigs infected with porcine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is an ubiquitous pathogen causing reproductive failure in swine. Protection against reproductive failure caused by acute PPV infection has commonly been related to the presence of specific antibodies in the dam. However, the role of cell-mediated immunity during chronic PPV...... infection remains to be elucidated, and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of novel diseases such as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which may be triggered by coinfection with PPV and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). To investigate whether pigs infected with PPV generate a cell...... isolated, and virus-specific lymphoproliferative responses and the cytolytic activities of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells were examined. Cytolytic assays were performed by the chromium release method, using as targets a syngeneic porcine kidney cell line established for the...

  1. [Clinical pathway management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on state machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Hao, Liwei; Cheng, Yuanxiong; Xu, Tongliang; Song, Yingnuo

    2014-04-01

    We propose a clinical pathway of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) based on state machine. Clinical event-driven response was utilized to control workflow execution of the AECOPD clinical pathway. By comparison with the traditional clinical pathway management, clinical numerical results showed that the proposed method was better in hospitalization days, average hospitalization expense and aberration rate, and better handled the variability in the AECOPD clinical pathway execution. PMID:24752111

  2. Telephone-based health coaching for chronically ill patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dwinger, Sarah; Dirmaier, Jörg; Herbarth, Lutz; König, Hans-Helmut; Eckardt, Matthias; Kriston, Levente; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of chronic conditions constitutes a major burden for patients and healthcare systems and is predicted to increase in the upcoming decades. Improving the self-management skills of patients is a strategy to steer against this burden. This could lead to better outcomes and lower healthcare costs. Health coaching is one method for enhancing the self-management of patients and can be delivered by phone. The effects of telephone-based health coaching are promising, ...

  3. Mass lesions in chronic pancreatitis: benign or malignant? An "evidence-based practice" approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerstenmaier, Jan F

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion in the presence of chronic pancreatitis can be extremely challenging. At the same time, a high level of certainty about the diagnosis is necessary for appropriate management planning. The aim of this study was to establish current best evidence about which imaging methods reliably differentiate a benign from a malignant lesion, and show how that evidence is best applied. A diagnostic algorithm based on Bayesian analysis is proposed.

  4. The Efficacy of Supervised Home-based Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with Chronic Respiratory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Candemir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR programs can be carried out in hospital or home basis with a different organizational aspect and program content. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a multidisciplinary supervised home-based PR program in patients with chronic respiratory disorders. Methods: Forty patients with chronic respiratory disorders who admitted to our center between September 2007 and May 2012 were enrolled. In all patients before and after PR, dyspnea was assessed with Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea scale, exercise capacity with Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT and Endurance Shuttle Walk Test (ESWT, health related quality of life with St. Geoerge Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, psychosocial evaluation with hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD, the body composition with bioelectrical impedance method. Ten patients did not complete home-based PR for various reasons. Results: In patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, dyspnea sensation (p=0.026, exercise capacity (p=0.001, quality of life (p=0.001, body composition (p=0.012, anxiety and depression score (p=0.001 improvements were statistically significant. In all patients with COPD and non-COPD perception of dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety and depression score improvements were above minimal clinically important differences. Conclusion: In this study supervised home-based pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown as an effective and safe modality when applied by an experiencied and multidisciplinary team in selected severe COPD or non-COPD patients.

  5. The interferon sensitivity of selected porcine viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Derbyshire, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of 11 porcine viruses to the antiviral effects of porcine interferon-alpha in serum from piglets which had been infected 19 h previously with transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and of porcine interferon-beta prepared in PK-15 cells by induction with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, in yield reduction assays in pig kidney cells which were treated with interferon before virus challenge, and both before and after virus challenge. The m...

  6. Porcine Ex Vivo intestinal segment model

    OpenAIRE

    Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model. This includes the advantages and disadvantages of the segment model and a detailed description of the isolation and culture as well as the applications of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model in practice. Compared to the Ussing chamber (Chap. 24) the porcine ex vivo small intestinal segment model is a relatively simple to use intestinal tissue model. The main difference being that the tissue segment is not...

  7. Value of myocardial perfusion imaging in evaluating effects of releasing base fibroblast growth factor stent on cardiac repair in a porcine myocardial infarction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) induces endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell proliferation and stimulates angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of intramyocardial administration of degradable releasing b-FGF stent on myocardial blood flow, angiogenesis and ventricular function in a porcine acute myocardial infarction model. Methods: Acute myocardial infarction was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery (LAD) distal to its first diagonal branch in 12 minitype porcines. Mechanical transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) was performed by creating 3 transmural channels in the LAD infarct and peri-infarct zone. Twelve animals were divided into two groups: TMR+naked stent ( control group, n=6), TMR + b-FGF stent ( b-FGF group, n=6). In both groups, 3 naked stents and 3 b-FGF stents were implanted into TMR channels respectively. 99Tcm-methoxyisobutyli-sonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging was performed to evaluate the change in myocardial blood flow as baseline and at 6 weeks after the procedure. Echocardiography and immunohistochemical studies were also performed. All data were evaluated with SPSS 11.5. The differences of the two groups were analyzed with the independent-sample t-test. Results: Treatment with b-FGF decreased the magnitude of infarct mass [(34.33 ± 4.18) vs (24.33 ± 2.16) g, t=5.03, P<0.05] and per-segment reversibility score ( reflecting the magnitude of improved ischemia, 13.83 ± 2.86 vs 8.33 ± 1.37, t=5.06, P<0.05). There was also fraction shortening [FS, (31.13 ± 0.99) % vs ( 27.11 ± 0.71) %, t=8.12, P<0.05] and increased microvessel density in the peri-infarct zone and infarct zone respectively [(6201 ± 443) vs (2654 ± 373 ) pixel/high power field, t=15.01, P<0.05]. Conclusions: Intramyocardial administration of degradable releasing b-FGF stent increased the regional myocardial blood flow, reduced infarct size and improved ventricular function in acute myocardial

  8. Neuroprotective Effect against Alzheimer's Disease of Porcine Brain Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Thukham-Mee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Despite the increasing importance of Alzheimer’s disease, no effective therapeutic strategy is available. Therefore, neuroprotective strategy is still required. Recent findings show that numerous substances possessing antioxidant can improve neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Based on the antioxidant effect and its reputation to serve as brain tonic in traditional folklore, we hypothesized that porcine brain extract could mitigate neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Therefore, this study was set up to determine the effect of porcine brain extract on memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease. Approach: Male Wistar rats (180-220 g had been orally given porcine brain extract at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg kg-1 BW for a period of 4 weeks before and 1 week after the induction of cognitive deficit condition as those found in early phase of Alzheimer’s disease via the intraventricular injection of AF64A, a cholinotoxin. Rats were assessed the spatial memory using Morris water maze test. Then, they were determined neuron density in hippocampus using histological techniques. Moreover, the assessment of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level in hippocampus were also performed. Results: It was found that both doses of porcine brain extract could enhance memory, neuron and cholinergic neuron density in all subregions of hippocampus. In addition, the decreased AChE and MDA were also observed. Therefore, our results suggested that the possible underlying mechanism of the extract might occur partly via the decrease in oxidative stress marker, MDA and AChE. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates that porcine brain extract can protect against memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, it should be serve as the potential food supplement or adjuvant therapy against Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related cognitive

  9. Determination of benzophenones in lipophilic extract of Brazilian red propolis, nanotechnology-based product and porcine skin and mucosa: Analytical and bioanalytical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolo, Daniel; Bergold, Ana Maria; von Poser, Gilsane; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2016-05-30

    Lipophilic compounds of Brazilian Red Propolis (BRP) have received increasing attention due to some interesting findings regarding their biological activities. This study was first aimed at evaluating the chemical composition of BRP n-hexane extract (HEXred) by UPLC-MS-PDA. Chemical investigation mainly resulted in the identification of polyprenylated benzophenones (PPBs) in this extract, named oblongifolin A, guttiferone E, and/or xanthochymol. After that, an isocratic HPLC-UV method was validated for the determination of total content of PPBs (at 260nm) expressed as garcinol, a commercially available guttiferone E diastereoisomer. The method showed to be specific, precise, accurate, and linear (0.1-10μg/mL) for the determination of PPBs in HEXred, BRP-loaded nanoemulsions, as well as, in porcine skin and mucosa samples after permeation/retention studies. The matrix effect was determined for all complex matrices, demonstrating low effect during the analysis. The stability-indicating method was verified by submitting HEXred to acidic, alkaline, oxidative, and thermal stress conditions. No interference of degradation products was detected during analysis. Therefore, the proposed analytical and bioanalytical methods proved to be simple and reliable for the determination of PPBs in the presence of different matrices. PMID:26930582

  10. Internet-based adherence interventions for treatment of chronic disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bass AM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria M Bass,1 Michael E Farhangian,1 Steven R Feldman1–3 1Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Background: Treatment adherence is a ubiquitous challenge in medicine, particularly in the adolescent population with chronic disorders. Web-based adherence interventions may be particularly useful in adolescents, due to their familiarity with and frequent use of the Internet. Objective: To review web-based interventions used to improve adherence to medication in adolescent patients with chronic disorders. Methods: A PubMed search was performed for full-text, English, clinical trials in adolescents using keywords “adherence” or “compliance”, “Internet” or “web”, and “treatment” from inception until November 2014. Articles were selected if they involved using the Internet to provide support to adolescents to help improve their adherence to treatment, excluding those focused on solely providing medical services through the Internet and articles focusing on preventative care, rather than treatment of an illness. Results: Fourteen studies were found concentrating on chronic adolescent disorders. Interventions included online surveys, physician chat lines, monitoring programs, and interactive programs. All interventions experienced either greater improvement in adherence or another disease control measure or no statistically significant difference compared with the control group (in-clinic visits. Limitations: Few clinical trials studying web-based interventions to improve adherence in adolescents were found. Due to not having one standard outcome measured in all of the studies, it was also difficult comparing the effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusion: Web-based

  11. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  12. Liver Stiffness Measurement-Based Scoring System for Significant Inflammation Related to Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Chen, Guo-Liang; Huang, Wen-Qi; Min, Feng; Chen, Tian; Xu, Jin-Chao; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers. Methods The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327), and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement. Results An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(−) patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(−) patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(−) patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3). Conclusions Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation. PMID:25360742

  13. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan; Li, Sijia; Henke, Adam; Muse, Evan D; Cheng, Bo; Welzel, Gustav; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Wang, Danling; Roland, Jason; Glass, Christopher K; Tremblay, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR), a nuclear hormone receptor, is an essential regulator of immune responses. Activation of LXR-mediated transcription by synthetic agonists, such as T0901317 and GW3965, attenuates progression of inflammatory disease in animal models. However, the adverse effects of these conventional LXR agonists in elevating liver lipids have impeded exploitation of this intriguing mechanism for chronic therapy. Here, we explore the ability of a series of sterol-based LXR agonists to alleviate inflammatory conditions in mice without hepatotoxicity. We show that oral treatment with sterol-based LXR agonists in mice significantly reduces dextran sulfate sodium colitis-induced body weight loss, which is accompanied by reduced expression of inflammatory markers in the large intestine. The anti-inflammatory property of these agonists is recapitulated in vitro in mouse lamina propria mononuclear cells, human colonic epithelial cells, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, treatment with LXR agonists dramatically suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression in a model of traumatic brain injury. Importantly, in both disease models, the sterol-based agonists do not affect the liver, and the conventional agonist T0901317 results in significant liver lipid accumulation and injury. Overall, these results provide evidence for the development of sterol-based LXR agonists as novel therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.-Yu, S., Li, S., Henke, A., Muse, E. D., Cheng, B., Welzel, G., Chatterjee, A. K., Wang, D., Roland, J., Glass, C. K., Tremblay, M. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27025962

  14. Porcine Ex Vivo intestinal segment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H. F J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model. This includes the advantages and disadvantages of the segment model and a detailed description of the isolation and culture as well as the applications of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model in practice. Compare

  15. Porcine Ex Vivo intestinal segment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model. This includes the advantages and disadvantages of the segment model and a detailed description of the isolation and culture as well as the applications of the porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model in practice. Comp

  16. Granulométrie et nutrition porcine

    OpenAIRE

    Guillou, D.; Landeau, E.

    2000-01-01

    La description de la granulométrie des aliments ne fait pas l’objet de recommandation en nutrition porcine. Pourtant, de nombreux travaux sur le broyage des graines ont démontré le rôle de la granulométrie comme facteur de variation de la valeur alimentaire ou comme facteur étiologique de troubles digestifs chez le porc. Une base de données quantitatives a été élaborée à partir de 23 études expérimentales pour tenter d’établir des lois de réponse de la valeur alimentaire à la variation de la ...

  17. Chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling neurologic condition that affects 2% of the general population. Patients with chronic migraine have headaches on at least 15 days a month, with at least eight days a month on which their headaches and associated symptoms meet diagnostic criteria for migraine. Chronic migraine places an enormous burden on patients owing to frequent headaches; hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimuli; nausea; and vomiting. It also affects society through direct and indirect medical costs. Chronic migraine typically develops after a slow increase in headache frequency over months to years. Several factors are associated with an increased risk of transforming to chronic migraine. The diagnosis requires a carefully performed patient interview and neurologic examination, sometimes combined with additional diagnostic tests, to differentiate chronic migraine from secondary headache disorders and other primary chronic headaches of long duration. Treatment takes a multifaceted approach that may include risk factor modification, avoidance of migraine triggers, drug and non-drug based prophylaxis, and abortive migraine treatment, the frequency of which is limited to avoid drug overuse. This article provides an overview of current knowledge regarding chronic migraine, including epidemiology, risk factors for its development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and guidelines. The future of chronic migraine treatment and research is also discussed. PMID:24662044

  18. Community analysis of chronic wound bacteria using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing: impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance B Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonization is hypothesized to play a pathogenic role in the non-healing state of chronic wounds. We characterized wound bacteria from a cohort of chronic wound patients using a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach and assessed the impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prospectively enrolled 24 patients at a referral wound center in Baltimore, MD; sampled patients' wounds by curette; cultured samples under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; and pyrosequenced the 16S rRNA V3 hypervariable region. The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed an average of 10 different bacterial families in wounds--approximately 4 times more than estimated by culture-based analyses. Fastidious anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Clostridiales family XI were among the most prevalent bacteria identified exclusively by 16S rRNA gene-based analyses. Community-scale analyses showed that wound microbiota from antibiotic treated patients were significantly different from untreated patients (p = 0.007 and were characterized by increased Pseudomonadaceae abundance. These analyses also revealed that antibiotic use was associated with decreased Streptococcaceae among diabetics and that Streptococcaceae was more abundant among diabetics as compared to non-diabetics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed complex bacterial communities including anaerobic bacteria that may play causative roles in the non-healing state of some chronic wounds. Our data suggest that antimicrobial therapy alters community structure--reducing some bacteria while selecting for others.

  19. Risk-based assessment does not distinguish between recent and chronic HIV-1 infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Merçon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the risk factors associated with recent and chronic HIV infections among individual attending a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT site in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study, recent HIV infections were detected by the sensitive/less-sensitive test, using Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS strategy, and compared to chronic HIV infection and HIV negative individuals. Seroincidence was estimated and risk factors associated with recent and chronic infections were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Among the 7,379 individuals tested between June 2006 and April 2007, the overall prevalence and incidence of HIV infection were 7.5%; and 1.39/100 PY, respectively. In multivariate analysis, having a HIV positive steady partner was a risk factor for recent and for chronic HIV infection for MSM, heterosexual male and women. No differences in risk factors for recent and chronic infections were found between MSM and heterosexual males. Among women, chronic infected individuals were more likely than HIV negatives to be older. Recently HIV infected women were more likely than HIV negatives to be less educated; and more likely than HIV negatives and chronically infected to report having more partners. Routinely used risk-based assessment in testing centers in Brazil lack sensitivity to distinguish between recent and chronic infections, particularly among MSM and heterosexual males. Steady relationships and serosorting may be playing a key role in maintaining the HIV epidemics in Brazil.

  20. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Marise de Freitas; Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto; Marlus Chorilli; Juçaíra Stella M. Giusti; Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato; Soukos, Nikolaos S.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Carla Raquel Fontana

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles (MB-NP) and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subj...

  1. Employer Adoption of Evidence-Based Chronic Disease Prevention Practices: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe conducted a pilot test of American Cancer Society Workplace Solutions, an intervention that takes a marketing approach to increasing employers’ adoption of evidence-based practices to prevent and control chronic diseases among their employees.ContextWe delivered the intervention and assessed the changes in practices of 8 large employers in the Pacific Northwest.MethodsWorkplace Solutions recommends 15 employer practices in 5 categories: 1 health insurance benefits, 2 policies, 3 workplace programs, 4 health-promoting communication, and 5 tracking of employee health behaviors to measure progress. The intervention includes 4 meetings with employers over 2 months and begins with a questionnaire-based assessment of employer practices. Tailored recommendations follow, along with practice-specific implementation assistance on requested topics. We tested the intervention in a before–after study without a comparison group.ConsequencesThe employers ranged in size from 7500 to 115,522 employees and included private companies and public employers. Seven of the eight employers implemented more of the recommended practices at follow-up (an average of 13 months after the intervention than at baseline. Overall, implementation of the practices increased from 38% at baseline to 61% at follow-up (P = .02.InterpretationWorkplace Solutions is a promising new approach to bringing evidence-based best practices for preventing chronic disease to large numbers of adults.

  2. Tailored implementation of evidence-based practice for patients with chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wensing

    Full Text Available When designing interventions and policies to implement evidence based healthcare, tailoring strategies to the targeted individuals and organizations has been recommended. We aimed to gather insights into the ideas of a variety of people for implementing evidence-based practice for patients with chronic diseases, which were generated in five European countries.A qualitative study in five countries (Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, United Kingdom was done, involving overall 115 individuals. A purposeful sample of four categories of stakeholders (healthcare professionals, quality improvement officers, healthcare purchasers and authorities, and health researchers was involved in group interviews in each of the countries to generate items for improving healthcare in different chronic conditions per country: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, depression in elderly people, multi-morbidity, obesity. A disease-specific standardized list of determinants of practice in these conditions provided the starting point for these groups. The content of the suggested items was categorized in a pre-defined framework of 7 domains and specific themes in the items were identified within each domain.The 115 individuals involved in the study generated 812 items, of which 586 addressed determinants of practice. These largely mapped onto three domains: individual health professional factors, patient factors, and professional interactions. Few items addressed guideline factors, incentives and resources, capacity of organizational change, or social, political and legal factors. The relative numbers of items in the different domains were largely similar across stakeholder categories within each of the countries. The analysis identified 29 specific themes in the suggested items across countries.The type of suggestions for improving healthcare practice was largely similar across different stakeholder groups, mainly addressing healthcare

  3. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. PMID:26984975

  4. Label-free based quantitative proteomics analysis of primary neonatal porcine Leydig cells exposed to the persistent contaminant 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayou, Shewit; Granum, Cesilie; Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Groseth, Per Kristian; Verhaegen, Steven; Connolly, Lisa; Brandt, Ingvar; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio; Ropstad, Erik

    2016-03-30

    Evidence that persistent environmental pollutants may target the male reproductive system is increasing. The male reproductive system is regulated by secretion of testosterone by testicular Leydig cells, and perturbation of Leydig cell function may have ultimate consequences. 3-Methylsulfonyl-DDE (3-MeSO2-DDE) is a potent adrenal toxicants formed from the persistent insecticide DDT. Although studies have revealed the endocrine disruptive effect of 3-MeSO2-DDE, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level in steroidogenic Leydig cells remains to be established. The current study addresses the effect of 3-MeSO2-DDE on viability, hormone production and proteome response of primary neonatal porcine Leydig cells. The AlamarBlue™ assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Solid phase radioimmunoassay was used to measure concentration of hormones produced by both unstimulated and Luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated Leydig cells following 48h exposure. Protein samples from Leydig cells exposed to a non-cytotoxic concentration of 3-MeSO2-DDE (10μM) were subjected to nano-LC-MS/MS and analyzed on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer and quantified using label-free quantitative algorithm. Gene Ontology (GO) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were carried out for functional annotation and identification of protein interaction networks. 3-MeSO2-DDE regulated Leydig cell steroidogenesis differentially depending on cell culture condition. Whereas its effect on testosterone secretion at basal condition was stimulatory, the effect on LH-stimulated cells was inhibitory. From triplicate experiments, a total of 6804 proteins were identified in which the abundance of 86 proteins in unstimulated Leydig cells and 145 proteins in LH-stimulated Leydig cells was found to be significantly regulated in response to 3-MeSO2-DDE exposure. These proteins not only are the first reported in relation to 3-MeSO2-DDE exposure, but also display small number of proteins shared between culture conditions

  5. The CDM-Net Project: The Development, Implementation and Evaluation of a Broadband-Based Network for Managing Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kay Jones; Trisha Dunning; Beth Costa; Kristine Fitzgerald; Akuh Adaji; Colin Chapman; Leon Piterman; Moira Paterson; Peter Schattner; John Catford

    2012-01-01

    Background. In Australia most chronic disease management is funded by Medicare Australia through General Practitioner Management Plans (GPMPs) and Team Care Arrangements (TCAs). Identified barriers may be reduced effectively using a broadband-based network known as the Chronic Disease Management Service (CDMS). Aims. To measure the uptake and adherence to CDMS, test CDMS, and assess the adherence of health providers and patients to GPMPs and TCAs generated through CDMS. Methods. A single coho...

  6. Effect of insertion of xanthan-based chlorhexidine gel in the maintenance phase following the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Ashish; Sanghi, Swati; Grover, Dimple; Aggarwal, Shweta; Gupta, Rajan; Pandit, Nymphea

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of subgingivally administered xanthan-based chlorhexidine gel when used in the maintenance phase following scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-center study was conducted involving 92 sites in 46 systemically healthy patients suffering from moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis with isolated pockets. The selected sites were randomized...

  7. Improvement in balance using a virtual reality-based stepping exercise: a randomized controlled trial involving individuals with chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens Rodríguez, Roberto; Gil Gómez, Jose Antonio; Alcañiz Raya, Mariano Luis; COLOMER FONT, CAROLINA; Noe, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Objective: To study the clinical effectiveness and the usability of a virtual reality-based intervention compared with conventional physical therapy in the balance recovery of individuals with chronic stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Outpatient neurorehabilitation unit. Participants: A total of 20 individuals with chronic stroke. Interventions: The intervention consisted of 20 one-hour sessions, five sessions per week. The experimental group combined 30 m...

  8. Prediction of chronic disability in work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a prospective, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lymp James F

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders is an increasingly serious societal problem. Although most injured workers return quickly to work, a substantial number do not. The costs of chronic disability to the injured worker, his or her family, employers, and society are enormous. A means of accurate early identification of injured workers at risk for chronic disability could enable these individuals to be targeted for early intervention to promote return to work and normal functioning. The purpose of this study is to develop statistical models that accurately predict chronic work disability from data obtained from administrative databases and worker interviews soon after a work injury. Based on these models, we will develop a brief instrument that could be administered in medical or workers' compensation settings to screen injured workers for chronic disability risk. Methods This is a population-based, prospective study. The study population consists of workers who file claims for work-related back injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS in Washington State. The Washington State Department of Labor and Industries claims database is reviewed weekly to identify workers with new claims for work-related back injuries and CTS, and these workers are telephoned and invited to participate. Workers who enroll complete a computer-assisted telephone interview at baseline and one year later. The baseline interview assesses sociodemographic, employment-related, biomedical/health care, legal, and psychosocial risk factors. The follow-up interview assesses pain, disability, and work status. The primary outcome is duration of work disability over the year after claim submission, as assessed by administrative data. Secondary outcomes include work disability status at one year, as assessed by both self-report and work disability compensation status (administrative records. A sample size of 1,800 workers with back

  9. Chronic respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness and dietary sodium and potassium: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoia, M C; Fanfulla, F; Bruschi, C; Basso, O; De Marco, R; Casali, L; Cerveri, I

    1995-04-01

    A possible relationship between Na+ intake and increased prevalence and mortality from asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been suggested but not clearly proven for several reasons (difficulty in assessing Na+ and K+ both by 24 h excretion and dietary recall, too small an effect of these ions on the pathology, and the role of potential confounders). We wanted to determine the relationship of Na+ and K+ intake, assessed by means of a 7 day recall, with chronic respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in a sample of the general population. Two hundred and five subjects were studied, with complete dietary and respiratory questionnaires, and baseline respiratory function tests, together with a subsample of 146 subjects who underwent histamine challenge. The 7 day recall consisted of two parts: the first assessed discretionary Na+; and the second assessed Na+ and K+ contained in food. The whole sample was split into two groups based on the levels of consumption, and the statistical analysis was performed contrasting the three lower quartiles vs the highest. Smoking habit, social economic status, age and body mass index (BMI) were not confounders for Na+ and K+ intake. The prevalence of symptomatic subjects and baseline respiratory function values were not significantly different in the two groups of quartiles for Na+ and K+. Baseline respiratory values and dose-response slope of the subsample were also not significantly different. We did not prove a relationship between these dietary factors and either bronchial responsiveness or chronic respiratory symptoms. Although we consider that our questionnaire is more reliable than other methods for Na+ and K+ assessment, several potential biases still remain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7613539

  10. A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hung, Shu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment. PMID:24943526

  11. Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: A Virtue Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Han; McMahon, Brian T; Hawley, Carolyn; Brickham, Dana; Gonzalez, Rene; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2016-03-01

    Purpose Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) is an area of study where a positive psychology perspective, especially the study of virtues and character strengths, can be implemented within the rehabilitation framework. A carefully developed theory to guide future interdisciplinary research is now timely. Methods A traditional literature review between philosophy and rehabilitation psychology was conducted in order to develop a virtue-based psychosocial adaptation theory, merging important perspectives from the fields of rehabilitation and positive psychology. Results The virtue-based psychosocial adaptation model (V-PAM) to CID is proposed in the present study. Conclusions The model involves five qualities or constructs: courage, practical wisdom, commitment to action, integrity and emotional transcendence. Each of these components of virtue contributes to an understanding of psychosocial adaptation. The present study addresses the implications and applications of V-PAM that will advance this understanding. PMID:26781509

  12. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  13. Detection of porcine circovirus type 1 in commercial porcine vaccines by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; LEE, Fan; Huang, Yu-Wen; Lin, Yeou-Liang; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Lai, Shiow-Suey

    2011-01-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method with a real-time monitoring system was developed for the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in commercial swine vaccines. This method was highly specific for PCV1. No cross-reaction to porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus, classical swine fever virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was observed. The analytical sensitivity of the LAMP for PCV1 DNA was 10 copies/μl in the case...

  14. Computer-based interactive health communications for people with chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey LM

    2014-04-01

    regimens designed to both treat and manage CDs. However, it is important to recognize that the technological development and effective implementation of an ICHA is a complex multidisciplinary operation that needs to take into account the needs of the various stakeholders as well as making use of the most suitable technology. Keywords: chronic disease, computer-based, interactive health communication

  15. Non-participation in breast cancer screening for persons with chronic diseases and multimorbidity: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases and multimorbidity are common in western countries and associated with increased breast cancer mortality. This study aims to investigate non-participation in breast cancer screening among women with chronic diseases and multimorbidity and the role of time in this...... association. Method This population-based cohort study used regional and national registries. Women who were invited to the first breast cancer screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09 were included (n = 149,234). Selected chronic diseases and multimorbidity were assessed up to 10 years before...... the screening date. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used as an association measure. Results The results indicated that women with at least one chronic condition were significantly more likely not to participate in breast cancer screening. In adjusted analysis, a significantly higher likelihood of non...

  16. Hyperlipidemia Is Associated with Chronic Urticaria: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Chen, Chao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) is diverse, with chronic infections and inflammation being reported as considerable contributing factors. Although the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be significantly elevated in patients with CU, no one has specifically estimated the effects on CU following hyperlipidemia. This study aimed to examine the association between hyperlipidemia and CU using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. This study included 9798 adults with CU as cases and 9798 sex- and age-matched controls. These patients were examined for whether they had received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia. We used conditional logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for having been previously diagnosed with hyperlipidemia between cases and controls. In total, 7066 (36.1%) patients had received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, including 4287 (43.8%) among CU cases and 2779 (28.4%) among controls. The conditional logistic regression revealed that the OR of prior hyperlipidemia for cases was 1.97 (95% CI: 1.85~2.09) compared to the controls. Furthermore, compared to patients without CU, patients with CU independently experienced a 1.65-fold (95% CI = 1.55~1.76; p<0.001) increased risk of having a prior hyperlipidemia diagnosis, after adjustments were made. We concluded that CU was associated with having received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidemia. PMID:26964045

  17. Onset of Celiac Disease after Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C with Interferon Based Triple Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients treated with interferon (IFN based therapies may develop exacerbation of autoimmune disease. We herein present the case of a 53-year-old female patient who developed celiac disease (CD as a result of triple therapy (interferon, ribavirin, and boceprevir for chronic HCV. Case. 53-year-old Caucasian female with past medical history of IV drug abuse was referred for abnormal LFTs. Laboratory data showed HCV RNA of 4,515,392 IU/mL, HCV genotype 1a, with normal LFTs. She was treated with 4 weeks of pegylated interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, followed by triple therapy using boceprevir for a total of 28 weeks. Approximately 4 weeks after initiation of triple therapy patient developed loose nonbloody bowel movements and was also found to have anemia. Biopsies from first and second portions of the duodenum were consistent with CD. The patient was treated with a gluten-free diet. Her intestinal symptoms improved and the hemoglobin returned to normal. Conclusion. Chronic HCV patients being treated with interferon alfa can develop celiac disease during or after therapy. For patients with positive autoantibodies, all-oral-IFN-free regimens should be considered. Celiac disease should be considered in patients who develop CD-like symptoms while on and shortly after cessation of interferon alfa therapy.

  18. Clinical approaches towards asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on the heterogeneity of disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizawa, N

    2016-05-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are each heterogeneous disease classifications that include several clinical and pathophysiological phenotypes. This heterogeneity complicates characterization of each disease and, in some cases, hinders the selection of appropriate treatment. Therefore, in recent years, emphasis has been placed on improving our understanding of the various phenotypes of asthma and of COPD and identifying biomarkers for each phenotype. Likewise, the concept of the endotype has been gaining acceptance; an endotype is a disease subtype that is defined by unique or distinctive functional or pathophysiological mechanisms. Endotypes of asthma or COPD may be primarily characterized by increased susceptibility to type 2 inflammation, increased susceptibility to viral infections, bacterial colonization or impaired lung development. The 'Dutch hypothesis' is as follows: gene variants underlying particular endotypes interact with detrimental environmental stimuli (e.g. smoking, viral infection and air pollution) and contribute to the ultimate development of asthma, COPD or both. Novel approaches that involve multidimensional assessment should facilitate identification and management of the components that generate this heterogeneity. Ultimately, patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases may be treated based on these endotypes as determined by the respective biomarkers that correspond to individual endotypes instead of on disease labels such as asthma, COPD or even asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). PMID:27009427

  19. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell–core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL−1 with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. - Highlights: • A versatile ELISA-based immunoassay for PCV2 antibody was developed. • Enzyme and CdSe QDs modified SiO2 particles were used to improve sensitivity. • The simultaneous three ELISA-based techniques enhanced the detection reliability. • The biosensors strategy could provide a new avenue to ELISA-based sensors

  20. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell–core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou, E-mail: hyhan@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-08-05

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL{sup −1} with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. - Highlights: • A versatile ELISA-based immunoassay for PCV2 antibody was developed. • Enzyme and CdSe QDs modified SiO{sub 2} particles were used to improve sensitivity. • The simultaneous three ELISA-based techniques enhanced the detection reliability. • The biosensors strategy could provide a new avenue to ELISA-based sensors.

  1. Evaluation of factors associated with relapse in telaprevir-based triple therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, C; Atsukawa, M; Tsubota, A; Shimada, N; Abe, H; Aizawa, Y

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Most patients with chronic hepatitis C show virological response to telaprevir-based triple therapy, and achieve an end-of-treatment response (ETR). However, some patients showing ETR develop virological relapse. This study was carried out to evaluate factors associated with relapse after triple therapy. Materials and Methods: A prospective, multicentric study was conducted in chronic hepatitis C patients who received telaprevir-based triple therapy. We evaluated independent variables such as age, with or without cirrhosis, prior treatment response to interferon (IFN) therapy, IL28B genotype, core amino acid (aa) 70 mutation, drug adherence, white blood cell counts, hemoglobin level, and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level. The characteristics of the patients who relapsed after achieving ETR were compared with those who did not. Results: Among 168 patients, 157 patients achieved ETR (93.5%) and 11 discontinued. Of these 157 patients, relapse occurred in 21 patients (13.4%). Nineteen patients (90.5%) of 21 relapsed patients had the IL28B non-TT genotype (P = 1.79 × 10-9). Multivariate analysis identified core amino acid 70 [P = 0.018, crude odds ratio (OR): 6.927] and the IL28B genotype (P = 3.758 × 10-5, crude OR: 39.311) as significantly independent factors that influenced the relapse-related variables. Among the 49 patients with the IL28B non-TT, 18 patients had core aa70 mutation and 31 patients had core aa70 wild-type. In addition, 66.7% (12/18) of those with core aa70 mutation and 22.6% (7/31) of those with core aa70 wild-type developed relapse (P = 0.005). Discussion: Core aa70 mutation and the IL28B non-TT genotype were identified as independent factors that influenced relapse after achievement of ETR for telaprevir-based triple therapy. PMID:26732192

  2. Management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS): an evidence-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Methods: The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the treatment for CP/CPPS all over the world were searched. MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 2007), EMBASE (January 1988 to June 2007), and 4 Chinese databases were electronically searched. The studies included in the references of eligible studies were additionally searched. Two reviewers independently screened the studies for eligibility, evaluated the quality and extracted the data from the eligible studies, with confirmation by crosschecking. Divergences of opinion were settled by discussion or consulted by the experts. Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 4.2 software. Results: Twelve original studies involving 1 003 participants met inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, alpha-blockers could improve the symptoms of CP/CPPS obviously with WMD of NIH-CPSI, total score and pain score were -4.10 (95%CI: -6.92 to -1.28) and -1.68 (95%CI: -2.54 to -0.82). Antibiotics could not improve the symptoms obviously with WMD of NIH-CPSI; total score and pain score were -2.71 (95%CI: -4.78 to -0.64) and -0.86 (95%CI: -2.07 to 0.36). Flavoxate could not improve the NIH-CPSI total score obviously, but could relieve the pain, with WMD of NIH-CPSI total score and pain score being -2.96 (95%CI: -5.17 to -0.74) and -2.31 (95% CI: -4.05 to 0.03). Prostat could improve the NIH CPSI total score obviously, but could not relieve the pain, with WMD of NIH-CPSI total score and pain score being -7.60 (95%CI: -9.97 to -5.23) and -2.02 (95%CI: -4.07 to 0.04). Conclusion: Drug intervention could improve total symptoms of CP/CPPS in some degree, but no universally effective treatment is available that can prove significant lasting benefit for all the symptoms of CP/CPPS. Future RCT must use an appropriate sample size and optimal duration and follow-up of participants. It is important to improve the quality

  3. 同时检测猪圆环病毒2型、猪细小病毒和伪狂犬病毒连接酶检测反应-PCR基因芯片检测方法的建立%A universal oligonucleotide microarray based on ligase detection reaction (LDR)-PCR for parallel detection of porcine circovirus type 2,porcine parvovirus and pseudorabies virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑶; 汪平; 董沁芳; 程菊会; 徐辉; 丁先锋; 郭江峰; 姜永厚

    2011-01-01

    为快速、灵敏、准确地同时检测和鉴别猪圆环病毒2型(PCV2)、猪细小病毒(PPV)和伪狂犬病毒(PRV)的方法,本研究采用连接酶检测反应(LDR)-PCR和基因芯片技术建立一种新型检测方法.首先在3种病毒的保守区内分别设计一对LDR探针,两端各连接一段通用序列,依次进行LDR、通用引物荧光标记扩增和芯片杂交,同时比较引物标记和Cy5 -dCTP标记方法的灵敏度.结果表明该方法可以特异地检测PCV2、PPV和PRV3种病毒,而对牛病毒性腹泻病毒、猪传染性胃肠炎病毒、猪流行性腹泻病毒、猪繁殖与呼吸障碍综合征病毒、猪瘟病毒、乙型脑炎病毒、猪圆环病毒1型检测结果均为阴性;对3种病毒的最低检测限少于10个拷贝;Cy5-dCTP标记检测的灵敏度显著高于引物标记.利用建立的方法对41例临床样品进行检测,与普通PCR检测结果符合率为97.6%~100%.该方法的建立为基础研究和临床应用提供了技术平台.%To establish a sensitive detection method for porcine circovims type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) which cause swine severe reproductive and/or respiratory failure, a novel diagnostic oligonucleotide microarray based on ligase detection reaction PCR (LDR-PCR) was developed in this study. According to alignment of the viral sequences, LDR probes for each virus were designed, which were flanked by universal sequences on both sides of the probes. Through asymmetric PCR enrichment of the ligation products by universal primers, labeling and microarray hybridization, the target viruses were detected and differentiated. Compared to the labeling method with Cy5-primer, Cy5-dCTP labeling was more sensitive in this assay. The specific test result showed that the assay had no cross reaction with bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine reproductive and respiratory

  4. Pharmacist Web-Based Training Program on Medication Use in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Impact on Knowledge, Skills, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legris, Marie-eve; Seguin, Noemie Charbonneau; Desforges, Katherine; Sauve, Patricia; Lord, Anne; Bell, Robert; Berbiche, Djamal; Desrochers, Jean-Francois; Lemieux, Jean-Philippe; Morin-Belanger, Claudia; Paradis, Francois Ste-Marie; Lalonde, Lyne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are multimorbid elderly at high risk of drug-related problems. A Web-based training program was developed based on a list of significant drug-related problems in CKD patients requiring a pharmaceutical intervention. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of the program on community…

  5. Constitutive Androstane Receptor is Upregulated during Porcine Primary Preadipocyte Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR is one of members of the nuclear receptors superfamily which is involved in induction of drug metabolism and lipogenic pathway. In this study, the reseachers investigated whether the mRNA expression pattern of CAR in porcine preadipocyte is changed during the process of induced differentiation. Preadipocytes were aseptically taken from 3 days old piglet under general anesthesia and grown to near confluence. Postconfluent cells (Day 0 were further cultured in differentiation medium for 3 days. From day 3 onward, the cells were cultured in maintain-medium based on differentiation medium without roglitazone and IBMX until day 15. The total RNA was isolated on seven time points (i.e., days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15. The mRNA expression changes of the CAR before and after porcine primary preadipocytes differentiation that acorss seven time points (i.e., days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 15 were measured using the quantitative RT-PCR method. In addition, the researchers also examined lipid accumulation and the mRNA expression of adpocyte differentiation markers (Such as PPARγ and RXRα which confirmed the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. The results showed that the mRNA expression of CAR was up-regulated during porcine primary preadipocyte differentiation. There is the reason that the CAR may be involved in the process of preadipocyte differentiation and is a potential drug target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  6. Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: From Molecular Bases to Practical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ripellino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, in which both cellular and humoral immune responses are involved. The disease is clinically heterogeneous with some patients displaying pure motor form and others also showing a variable degree of sensory dysfunction; disease evolution may also differ from patient to patient, since monophasic, progressive, and relapsing forms are reported. Underlying such clinical variability there is probably a broad spectrum of molecular dysfunctions that are and will be the target of therapeutic strategies. In this review we first explore the biological bases of current treatments and subsequently we focus on the practical management that must also take into account pharmacoeconomic issues.

  7. Characterization of an antigenically distinct porcine rotavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, J C; Clarke, I. N.; McCrae, M A

    1982-01-01

    A porcine virus with rotavirus morphology, which was antigenically unrelated to previously described rotaviruses, is described. Particles with an outer capsid layer measured 75 nm and those lacking the outer layer were 63 nm in diameter. Particles which resembled cores were also identified. The virus was shown to be antigenically distinct from other rotaviruses as judged by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy, and it failed to protect piglets from challenge with porcine rotaviru...

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and altered risk of lung cancer in a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been consistently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, previous studies have had limited ability to determine whether the association is due to smoking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE population-based case-control study recruited 2100 cases and 2120 controls, of whom 1934 cases and 2108 controls reported about diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD (chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, or asthma more than 1 year before enrollment. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. After adjustment for smoking, other previous lung diseases, and study design variables, lung cancer risk was elevated among individuals with a history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5, emphysema (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.8, or COPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0-3.1. Among current smokers, association between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was strongest among lighter smokers. Asthma was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in males (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the associations of personal history of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD with increased risk of lung cancer are not entirely due to smoking. Inflammatory processes may both contribute to COPD and be important for lung carcinogenesis.

  9. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.; Bøtner, Anette; Ladekjær-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Vincent, I.; Herrmann, Brigitte; Sanchez, R.; Rhodes, C.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assay...

  10. Untying chronic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic ...

  11. Antibody Recognition of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Capsid Protein Epitopes after Vaccination, Infection, and Disease▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Trible, Benjamin R.; Kerrigan, Maureen; Crossland, Nicholas; Potter, Megan; Faaberg, Kay; Hesse, Richard; Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) codes for the 233-amino-acid capsid protein (CP). Baculovirus-based vaccines that express only ORF2 are protective against clinical disease following experimental challenge or natural infection. The goal of this study was to identify regions in CP preferentially recognized by sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated pigs and to compare these responses to those of pigs diagnosed with porcine circovirus-associated disease (...

  12. Base excess, a marker of chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure and predictor of survival in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the role of base excess (BE as marker of chronic hypercapnia and survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF. Moreover, it was investigated whether the effects of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV on CHRF were reflected in BE and survival. In 240 (160 without exacerbation patients with COPD (mean±SD FEV1 30.7±9.7 %pred; PaCO2 56.9±9.9 mmHg body-mass index (BMI, lung function, respiratory muscle function, blood gases and 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD were assessed prior to initiation of NPPV. In addition, the changes of risk factors 6.3±2.9 months after initiation of NPPV were evaluated. Overall mortality during the follow-up time (26.0±24.5 months was 34.6%. Deaths resulted predominantly from respiratory causes (65.1%; among those, respiratory failure was most frequent (85.2%. Univariate analysis revealed BMI, FEV1, maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, inspiratory load (P0.1, haemoglobin, 6-MWD, hyperinflation (IC/TLC, RV/TLC, blood gases and BE to be associated (p<0.05 each with prognosis. In multivariate analyses, however, only BMI, RV/TLC and BE turned out to be independent cross-sectional predictors (p<0.05. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that BE had predictive value particularly in patients with BMI25 kg·m–2, RV/TLC70 % and PaCO257 mmHg. Furthermore, changes of BMI, RV/TLC and BE (p<0.01 were associated with improved prognosis in severe hypercapnic COPD. In patients with COPD and CHRF, BE was a prognostic marker for mortality, that was independent from other factors, particularly PaCO2. In addition, reversal of CHRF was reflected in BE and appeared to have an impact on prognosis.

  13. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik Kronholm; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...... diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk of...... conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology....

  14. Problem-based learning discussion: Medical treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilos, Daniel L

    2016-03-01

    This problem-based learning case focused on the approach to evaluation and management of a 5-year old girl who was "always sick" with sinus infections. The discussion unfolds in a "real life" scenario, i.e., based on information available to the clinician initially and after the acquisition of laboratory data, and, ultimately, after sinus surgery. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnosis of the patient's symptoms, discussion of the initial management strategy for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), evolution from acute rhinosinusitis to CRS, the prevalence of and differential diagnosis of nasal polyps in children, treatment considerations specific for CRS with nasal polyps, the significance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sinus infection, the significance of an abnormal sweat chloride test in a young child with nasal polyposis, special considerations in children with CRS who have cystic fibrosis, treatment considerations after endoscopic sinus surgery, and, finally, prognostic factors that impact the outcomes of endoscopic sinus surgery. This problem-based learning case highlights many facets of managing refractory CRS in children. PMID:26980392

  15. Treosulfan-based conditioning for allogeneic HSCT in children with chronic granulomatous disease: a multicenter experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo-Gutierrez, Beatriz; Beier, Rita; Rao, Kanchan; Burroughs, Lauri; Schulz, Ansgar; Ewins, Anna-Maria; Gibson, Brenda; Sedlacek, Petr; Krol, Ladislav; Strahm, Brigitte; Zaidman, Irina; Kalwak, Krzysztof; Talano, Julie-An; Woolfrey, Ann; Fraser, Chris; Meyts, Isabelle; Müller, Ingo; Wachowiak, Jacek; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Veys, Paul; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Gennery, Andrew R; Slatter, Mary

    2016-07-21

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) can be cured by allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Complications include graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infection, and transplant-related mortality; therefore, reduced-intensity conditioning regimens are being used to improve outcomes. In this retrospective study, the aim was to determine the outcome of treosulfan-based conditioning in HSCT for pediatric patients with CGD. The following data were collected: risk features pre-HSCT, additional conditioning agents, donor type and stem cell source, toxicity, engraftment, GVHD, chimerism, viral reactivation, post-HSCT complications, length of follow-up, and outcome. Seventy patients (median age, 107 months; interquartile range [IQR], 46-232 months) from 16 centers worldwide were transplanted between 2006 and 2015. Ninety-one percent had high-risk features. Fifty-seven HLA-matched donors, 12 HLA-mismatched donors, and 1 CD3(+)TCR αβ/CD19 depleted parental haploidentical transplants were performed. No major toxicity was reported. Median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 17 (IQR, 15-35) and 16 (IQR, 13-50) days. At a median follow-up of 34 months (IQR, 13-102 months), the overall survival was 91.4%, and event-free survival was 81.4%. The cumulative incidence of acute grade III-IV GVHD was 12%. Nine patients developed chronic GVHD. When split cell chimerism was available, 95% or more myeloid donor chimerism was documented in 80% of surviving patients. Secondary graft failure occurred in 12% of patients. Treosulfan-containing conditioning regimens can be used safely in HSCT for children with CGD and high-risk clinical features, achieving excellent survival with high myeloid chimerism. Further studies are needed to compare with other regimens and evaluate the long-term outcome, particularly on fertility. PMID:27216217

  16. Microchannel-based regenerative scaffold for chronic peripheral nerve interfacing in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Akhil; Tahilramani, Mayank; Bentley, John T; Gore, Russell K; Millard, Daniel C; Mukhatyar, Vivek J; Joseph, Anish; Haque, Adel S; Stanley, Garrett B; English, Arthur W; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2015-02-01

    Neurally controlled prosthetics that cosmetically and functionally mimic amputated limbs remain a clinical need because state of the art neural prosthetics only provide a fraction of a natural limb's functionality. Here, we report on the fabrication and capability of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and epoxy-based SU-8 photoresist microchannel scaffolds to serve as viable constructs for peripheral nerve interfacing through in vitro and in vivo studies in a sciatic nerve amputee model where the nerve lacks distal reinnervation targets. These studies showed microchannels with 100 μm × 100 μm cross-sectional areas support and direct the regeneration/migration of axons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts through the microchannels with space available for future maturation of the axons. Investigation of the nerve in the distal segment, past the scaffold, showed a high degree of organization, adoption of the microchannel architecture forming 'microchannel fascicles', reformation of endoneurial tubes and axon myelination, and a lack of aberrant and unorganized growth that might be characteristic of neuroma formation. Separate chronic terminal in vivo electrophysiology studies utilizing the microchannel scaffolds with permanently integrated microwire electrodes were conducted to evaluate interfacing capabilities. In all devices a variety of spontaneous, sensory evoked and electrically evoked single and multi-unit action potentials were recorded after five months of implantation. Together, these findings suggest that microchannel scaffolds are well suited for chronic implantation and peripheral nerve interfacing to promote organized nerve regeneration that lends itself well to stable interfaces. Thus this study establishes the basis for the advanced fabrication of large-electrode count, wireless microchannel devices that are an important step towards highly functional, bi-directional peripheral nerve interfaces. PMID:25522974

  17. The Risk of Chronic Pancreatitis in Patients with Psoriasis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Ting; Huang, Weng-Foung; Tsai, Tsen-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder, and studies have revealed its association with a variety of comorbidities. However, the risk of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in psoriasis has not been studied. This study aimed to investigate the risk of CP among patients with psoriasis. Methods Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, this population-based cohort study enrolled 48430 patients with psoriasis and 193720 subjects without psoriasis. Stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the risks of CP between the patients with and without psoriasis. Results The incidence of CP was 0.61 per 1000 person-years in patients with psoriasis and 0.34 per 1000 person-years in controls during a mean 6.6-year follow-up period. Before adjustment, patients with psoriasis had a significantly higher risk of CP (crude hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.53–2.15), and the risk remained significantly higher after adjustments for gender, age group, medications, and comorbidities (adjusted HR (aHR) = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.47–2.10). All psoriasis patient subgroups other than those with arthritis, including those with mild and severe psoriasis and those without arthritis, had significantly increased aHRs for CP, and the risk increased with increasing psoriasis severity. Psoriasis patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aHR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.22–0.49) and methotrexate (aHR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.12–0.64) had a lower risk of developing CP after adjustments. Conclusions Psoriasis is associated with a significantly increased risk of CP. The results of our study call for more research to provide additional insight into the relationship between psoriasis and CP. PMID:27467265

  18. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  19. Antibody recognition of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein epitopes after vaccination, infection, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trible, Benjamin R; Kerrigan, Maureen; Crossland, Nicholas; Potter, Megan; Faaberg, Kay; Hesse, Richard; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2011-05-01

    Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) codes for the 233-amino-acid capsid protein (CP). Baculovirus-based vaccines that express only ORF2 are protective against clinical disease following experimental challenge or natural infection. The goal of this study was to identify regions in CP preferentially recognized by sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated pigs and to compare these responses to those of pigs diagnosed with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), including porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). The approach was to react porcine sera with CP polypeptide fragments followed by finer mapping studies using overlapping oligopeptides that covered amino acids 141 to 200. The results showed that vaccinated pigs preferentially recognized only the largest polypeptide fragment, CP(43-233). A subset of experimentally infected pigs and pigs with PDNS showed strong reactivity against a CP oligopeptide, 169-STIDYFQPNNKR-180. Alanine scanning identified Y-173, F-174, Q-175, and K-179 as important for antibody recognition. The results from this study support the notion of PCV2 modulation of immunity, including antibody responses that may represent a precursor for disease. The recognition of CP(169-180) and other polypeptides provides opportunities to devise diagnostic tests for monitoring the immunological effectiveness of vaccination. PMID:21430122

  20. Interplay between Interferon-Mediated Innate Immunity and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyuan Han

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and in turn, viruses have evolved to evade host immune surveillance. As a result, viruses may persist in host and develop chronic infections. Type I interferons (IFN-α/β are among the most potent antiviral cytokines triggered by viral infections. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a disease of pigs that is characterized by negligible induction of type I IFNs and viral persistence for an extended period. For IFN production, RIG-I/MDA5 and JAK-STAT pathways are two major signaling pathways, and recent studies indicate that PRRS virus is armed to modulate type I IFN responses during infection. This review describes the viral strategies for modulation of type I IFN responses. At least three non‑structural proteins (Nsp1, Nsp2, and Nsp11 and a structural protein (N nucleocapsid protein have been identified and characterized to play roles in the IFN suppression and NF-κB pathways. Nsp’s are early proteins while N is a late protein, suggesting that additional signaling pathways may be involved in addition to the IFN pathway. The understanding of molecular bases for virus-mediated modulation of host innate immune signaling will help us design new generation vaccines and control PRRS.

  1. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  2. Development of Feeling Better: A web-based pain management programme for children with chronic pain and their parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline M Traynor

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: It is feasible to create an evidence-based and theory driven online self-management intervention to support children with chronic pain and their parents. Service users can be involved in the design and conduct of research in a meaningful way. An exploratory trial to test the feasibility of acceptability of Feeling Better is underway.

  3. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about the presence of chronic morbidity in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients at disease onset. Previous studies have been mainly performed in established IA patients or they focus on isolated co-morbid diseases. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic disease

  4. Analysis of Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders Based on the Latest Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svechtarov V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the distribution of the most common diagnoses observed in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders, based on the new diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD adopted in 2014. The previous Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD adopted in 1992, consisted of three main groups of eight diagnostic subgroups and is currently transformed into two main groups and twelve subgroups, respectively. All subgroups correspond to the nomenclature of the ICD-10. The new clinical diagnostic indices are also modified. The analysis showed a prevalence of Pain-Related TMD compared with that of intra-articular disorders in ratio 57.89% to 42.10%. In Pain-Related TMD arthralgia was represented in 55% of cases; local myalgia - in 12%, myofascial pain - in 18%, myofascial pain with referral - in 14%, headache attributed to TMD - in 1%. In Intra-articular TMD disc displacement with reduction was found in 23% of the cases, disc displacement with reduction with intermittent locking - in 3%, disc displacement without reduction with limited opening - in 25%, disc displacement without reduction and without limited opening - in 8%. Degenerative diseases were found in 14.28%, and hypermobility and subluxations - in 26.98%. These analyzes differ and can only partly be compared with previous analyzes based on RDC system. The changes in the diagnostic criteria require new clinical studies in order to refine the picture of temporomandibular pathology in accordance with the modern views on the matter.

  5. Testing the effectiveness of group-based memory rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie A; Radford, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Memory complaints are common after stroke, yet there have been very few studies of the outcome of memory rehabilitation in these patients. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a new manualised, group-based memory training programme. Forty outpatients with a single-stroke history and ongoing memory complaints were enrolled. The six-week course involved education and strategy training and was evaluated using a wait-list crossover design, with three assessments conducted 12 weeks apart. Outcome measures included: tests of anterograde memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: RAVLT; Complex Figure Test) and prospective memory (Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test); the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire and self-report of number of strategies used. Significant training-related gains were found on RAVLT learning and delayed recall and on CAPM informant report. Lower baseline scores predicted greater gains for several outcome measures. Patients with higher IQ or level of education showed more gains in number of strategies used. Shorter time since onset was related to gains in prospective memory, but no other stroke-related variables influenced outcome. Our study provides evidence that a relatively brief, group-based training intervention can improve memory functioning in chronic stroke patients and clarified some of the baseline factors that influence outcome. PMID:24624993

  6. Evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia by BAC-based microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Lisa D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a highly variable disease with life expectancies ranging from months to decades. Cytogenetic findings play an integral role in defining the prognostic significance and treatment for individual patients. Results We have evaluated 25 clinical cases from a tertiary cancer center that have an established diagnosis of CLL and for which there was prior cytogenetic and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH data. We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based microarray designed for the detection of known constitutional genetic syndromes. In 15 of the 25 cases, aCGH detected all copy number imbalances identified by prior cytogenetic and/or FISH studies. For the majority of those not detected, the aberrations were present at low levels of mosaicism. Furthermore, for 15 of the 25 cases, additional abnormalities were detected. Four of those cases had deletions that mapped to intervals implicated in inherited predisposition to CLL. For most cases, aCGH was able to detect abnormalities present in as few as 10% of cells. Although changes in ploidy are not easily discernable by aCGH, results for two cases illustrate the detection of additional copy gains and losses present within a mosaic tetraploid cell population. Conclusions Our results illustrate the successful evaluation of CLL using a microarray optimized for the interrogation of inherited disorders and the identification of alterations with possible relevance to CLL susceptibility.

  7. Training practitioners in evidence-based chronic disease prevention for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Diem, Gunter; Grabauskas, Vilius; Legetic, Branka; Potemkina, Rimma; Shatchkute, Aushra; Baker, Elizabeth A; Campbell, Claudia R; Leet, Terry L; Nissinen, Aulikki; Siegel, Paul Z; Stachenko, Sylvie; True, William R; Waller, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Too often, public health decisions are based on short-term demands rather than long-term research and objectives. Policies and programmes are sometimes developed around anecdotal evidence. The Evidence-Based Public Health (EBPH) programme trains public health practitioners to use a comprehensive, scientific approach when developing and evaluating chronic disease programmes. Begun in 2002, the EBPH programme is an international collaboration. The course is organized in seven parts to teach skills in: 1) assessing a community's needs; 2) quantifying the issue; 3) developing a concise statement of the issue; 4) determining what is known about the issue by reviewing the scientific literature; 5) developing and prioritizing programme and policy options; 6) developing an action plan and implementing interventions; and 7) evaluating the programme or policy. The course takes an applied approach and emphasizes information that is readily available to busy practitioners, relying on experiential learning and includes lectures, practice exercises, and case studies. It focuses n using evidence-based tools and encourages participants to add to the evidence base in areas where intervention knowledge is sparse. Through this training programme, we educated practitioners from 38 countries in 4 continents. This article describes the evolution of the parent course and describes experiences implementing the course in the Russian Federation, Lithuania, and Chile. Lessons learned from replication of the course include the need to build a "critical mass" of public health officials trained in EBPH within each country and the importance of international, collaborative networks. Scientific and technologic advances provide unprecedented opportunities for public health professionals to enhance the practice of EBPH. To take full advantage of new technology and tools and to combat new health challenges, public health practitioners must continually improve their skills. PMID:18154226

  8. A therapeutic delivery system for chronic osteomyelitis via a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weigang; Ye, Chenyi; Zheng, Qixin; Wu, Gui; Cheng, Zhaohui

    2016-08-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis is difficult to be cured and often relapses, which presents to be a great challenge to clinicians. We conducted this original study to explore the efficiency of therapeutic alliance for chronic osteomyelitis by a multi-drug implant based on three-dimensional printing technology. We designed and fabricated preciously a multi-drug implant with a multi-layered concentric cylinder construction by three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Levofloxacin and tobramycin were incorporated into the drug implant in a specific sequence. The drug release property of the drug implant was assayed in vitro We also developed an animal model of chronic osteomyelitis to estimate the effect of the 3D printed multi-drug implant. The results showed that the multi-drug implant had a sustained and programmed drug release property. Levofloxacin and tobramycin which were released from the multi-drug implant worked in tandem to enhance pharmacodynamic action which was similar to a tumor chemotherapy program and were sufficient to treat chronic osteomyelitis. These findings imply that the administration of 3D printed multi-drug implant would be a potential therapeutic method for chronic osteomyelitis. Further studies are required. PMID:27013218

  9. Rectal stenosis in pigs associated with Salmonella Typhimurium and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Terumi Negrão Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rectal stricture is an acquired annular fibrous constriction of the rectum that results from a variety of chronic necrotizing enteric diseases. In pigs, it is in most cases a sequel of Salmonella infection. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a known pathogen causing immunosuppression in pigs worldwide. PCV2 infected pigs may be predisposed to salmonellosis. In this report, rectal stenosis was observed in 160 pigs from a herd that experienced an outbreak of enteric salmonellosis over a 4-month period. Distension of the abdominal wall and diarrhea were the main clinical signs observed. Five animals were analyzed showing annular cicatrization of the rectal wall 5.0-7.0 cm anterior to the anorectal junction and Salmonella-positive immunostaining in the large intestine. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from fragments of the large intestine. Porcine circovirus type 2 antigen was observed in the mesenteric lymph-node in 4 pigs and in the large intestine in 3 pigs.

  10. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H;

    1994-01-01

    pancreases to gel filtration and analyzed the fractions with specific radioimmunoassays for the following regions of proglucagon: PG 62-69, PG 72-81, PG 78-87, PG 98-107 amide, PG 126-134, and PG 149-158. Based on these assays and successive purifications by high performance liquid chromatography we isolated......In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine...... PG 72-158 = 9971) was isolated from human pancreas together with small amounts of a peptide corresponding to PG 72-107 amide. Thus, the pancreatic processing of the C-terminal flanking peptide in proglucagon includes the formation of equimolar (to glucagon) amounts of PG 64-69 and PG 72-158 (major...

  11. Mapping the antigenic structure of porcine parvovirus at the level of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Langeveld, Jan; Bøtner, Anette;

    1998-01-01

    The antigenic structure of the capsid proteins of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was investigated. A total of nine linear epitopes were identified by Pepscan using porcine or rabbit anti-PPV antisera. No sites were identified with a panel of neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). All epitopes were...... located in the region corresponding to the major capsid protein VP2. Based on this information, and on analogy to other autonomous parvoviruses, 24 different peptides were synthesised, coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and used to immunise rabbits. Most antisera were able to bind viral protein...

  12. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Pia H; Bendix, Tom; Manniche, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model...... with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP), activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs), physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients....

  13. Primary care physicians’ perspectives on computer-based health risk assessment tools for chronic diseases: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Teja Voruganti; Mary Ann O'Brien; Straus, Sharon E; McLaughlin, John R.; Eva Grunfeld

    2015-01-01

    Background Health risk assessment tools compute an individual’s risk of developing a disease. Routine use of such tools by primary care physicians (PCPs) is potentially useful in chronic disease prevention. We sought physicians’ awareness and perceptions of the usefulness, usability and feasibility of performing assessments with computer-based risk assessment tools in primary care settings.Methods Focus groups and usability testing with a computer-based risk assessment tool were conducted wit...

  14. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston, Stephen E; Bruden, Dana J. T.; Townshend-Bulson, Lisa J.; Chriss E. Homan; Gove, James E.; Plotnik, Julia N.; Spradling, Philip R.; McMahon, Brian J.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations.Objective. To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) population.Design. In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ri...

  15. Interactive Sections of an Internet-Based Intervention Increase Empowerment of Chronic Back Pain Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Silvia; Camerini, Anne-Linda; Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic back pain (CBP) represents a significant public health problem. As one of the most common causes of disability and sick leave, there is a need to develop cost-effective ways, such as Internet-based interventions, to help empower patients to manage their disease. Research has provided evidence for the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions in many fields, but it has paid little attention to the reasons why they are effective. Objective This study aims to assess the im...

  16. Mortality model based on delays in progression of chronic diseases: alternative to cause elimination model.

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, K G; Patrick, C H; Stallard, E

    1980-01-01

    For the analysis of the impact of major chronic diseases on a population, a life table model is proposed in which the age at death due to specific cause (chronic disease) is postponed. Even though many of the major causes of death related to intrinsic aging processes are impossible to eliminate, these causes might be significantly delayed or retarded. To illustrate the use of this model, the effects of a delay of 5, 10, and 15 years in deaths due to three chronic degenerative diseases (cancer...

  17. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marise de Freitas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA nanoparticles (MB-NP and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT—in planktonic and biofilm phases—with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL at 20 J/cm2 in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm2 in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82% on gingival bleeding index (GBI compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment.

  18. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Laura Marise; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Chorilli, Marlus; Giusti, Juçaíra Stella M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Soukos, Nikolaos S.; Amiji, Mansoor M.; Fontana, Carla Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles (MB-NP) and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT—in planktonic and biofilm phases—with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL) at 20 J/cm2 in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP) or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm2) in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82%) on gingival bleeding index (GBI) compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment. PMID:27213356

  19. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Laura Marise; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Chorilli, Marlus; Giusti, Juçaíra Stella M; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Soukos, Nikolaos S; Amiji, Mansoor M; Fontana, Carla Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles (MB-NP) and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT-in planktonic and biofilm phases-with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL) at 20 J/cm² in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP) or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm²) in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82%) on gingival bleeding index (GBI) compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment. PMID:27213356

  20. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kashiwakura

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8. Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  1. CpG Distribution and Methylation Pattern in Porcine Parvovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth, Renáta; Mészáros, István; Stefancsik, Rajmund; Bartha, Dániel; Bálint, Ádám; Zádori, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Based on GC content and the observed/expected CpG ratio (oCpGr), we found three major groups among the members of subfamily Parvovirinae: Group I parvoviruses with low GC content and low oCpGr values, Group II with low GC content and high oCpGr values and Group III with high GC content and high oCpGr values. Porcine parvovirus belongs to Group I and it features an ascendant CpG distribution by position in its coding regions similarly to the majority of the parvoviruses. The entire PPV genome ...

  2. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in North America by viral metagenomic sequencing of serum from pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Suddith, Andrew W.; Hause, Benjamin M.; Hesse, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, eight species in four genera of parvovirus have been described that infect swine. These include ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (classical porcine parvovirus, PPV), ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (PPV3), ungulate tetraparvovirus 3 (which includes PPV2, porcine hokovirus, porcine partetravirus and porcine PARV4), ungulate copiparvovirus 2 (which includes PPV4 and PPV5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 2 (which includes porcine bocavirus 1, 2 and 6), ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 (porcine boca...

  3. Regional perfusion of the lungs in patients with chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases based on scintigraphy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion scintigraphy of lungs with 99mTc-albumin microspheres was used for a study of changes of regional perfusion of lesser circulation in patients with chronic bronchitis of a varying degree of disturbed pulmonary hemodynamics. Even before a stable rise of pulmonary vascular resistance and developmemt of pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic bronchitis was characterized by redistribution of blood flow from the lower parts of lungs to the upper ones, which progressed with disturbance of pulmonary arterial circulation and the development of chronic cor pulmonale. The use of scintigraphic indices of the upper and lower parts (U/L) prefusion ratio led to adequate assessment of a degree of redistribution of the pulmonary blood flow in patients with chronic bronchitis

  4. Virus-Like Vesicle-Based Therapeutic Vaccine Vectors for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy D Reynolds; Buonocore, Linda; Rose, Nina F.; Rose, John K.; Robek, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    More than 500,000 people die each year from the liver diseases that result from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Therapeutic vaccines, which aim to elicit an immune response capable of controlling the virus, offer a potential new treatment strategy for chronic hepatitis B. Recently, an evolved, high-titer vaccine platform consisting of Semliki Forest virus RNA replicons that express the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) has been described. This platform generates virus...

  5. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) on Decreasing Pain, Depression and Anxiety of Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    M Abdolghadery; M Kafee; A Saberi; S Aryapouran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Within chronic pains, back pain has the highest percentage. Psychological factors play an important role in the establishment and continuation of physical disability as well as in functional limitation in patients with chronic low back pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) on decreasing the pain, depression and anxiety of patients with chronic low back pain. ...

  6. Steroids for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: evidence base and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, R; Hiew, F L; Rajabally, Y A

    2016-04-01

    Evidence-based therapies for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) consist of corticosteroids, intravenous immunglobulins (IVIg), and plasma exchange. Steroids represent the oldest treatment used historically. In countries where readily available and affordable, IVIg tends to be favored as first-line treatment. The reason for this preference, despite substantially higher costs, is the perception that IVIg is more efficacious and safer than corticosteroids. However, the unselected use of IVIg as a first-line treatment option in all cases of CIDP raises issues of cost-effectiveness in the long-term. Furthermore, serious although rare, particularly thromboembolic side effects may result from their use. Recent data from randomized trials suggest pulsed corticosteroids to have a higher potential in achieving therapy-free remission or longer remission-free periods compared with IVIg, as well as relatively low rates of serious side effects when given as pulsed intravenous infusions during short periods of time. These specific advantages suggest that pulsed steroids could in many cases be used, as the first, rather than second choice of treatment when initiating immunomodulation in CIDP, primarily in hopes of achieving a remission after the short-term use. This article reviews the evidence base for the use of corticosteroids in its various forms in CIDP and factors that may influence clinicians' choice between IVIg and pulsed steroid treatment. The issue of efficacy, relapse rate and time, and side effect profile are analyzed, and some aspects from the authors' experience are discussed in relation to the possibility of using the steroid option as first-line therapy in a large proportion of patients with CIDP. PMID:26437234

  7. Selection of method is crucial for the diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 associated reproductive failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Haugegaard, Svend; Dupont, Kitt; Høgedal, Peter; Kunstmann, Lars; Larsen, Lars Erik

    During a 2-month period a newly repopulated Danish pig herd experienced an increase in numbers of stillborn and mummies, caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) associated reproductive failure. Based on recordings of data over time, the progression of the clinical outbreak was studied and the...

  8. The Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center's Porcine Immunology and Nutrition Resource Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several diverse genomics-based databases have developed to facilitate research with human and rodent models. Current porcine gene databases, however, lack the nutritional and immunological orientation and robust annotation to design effective molecular tools to study relevant pig models. To address ...

  9. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan;

    2007-01-01

    )â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  10. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a review on post‐weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), the first described disease among the porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Post‐weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome has, since its appearance in Canada in 1991, been seen in all major pig producing countries. To...... vaccines against Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good...

  11. From Viral genome to specific peptide epitopes - Methods for identifying porcine T cell epitopes based on in silico predictions, in vitro identification and ex vivo verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Rasmussen, Michael; Harndahl, Mikkel;

    The affinity for and stability of peptides bound by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are instrumental factors in presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In swine, such peptide presentations by swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) are crucial for swine...... immunity during viral infections and disease. Here we combine the ability of complete nonamer peptide based binding matrices for three different SLA proteins to predict good candidates for peptide-SLA (pSLA) binding with that of an online available algorithm, NetMHCpan. Further we analyze the correlation...... between high affinity and high stability peptides bound by the highly expressed SLA molecules, SLA-1*0401, SLA-2*0401, and SLA-3*0401, using a luminescence oxygen channeling (LOCI) and a scintillation proximity assay, respectively. With this procedure, high affinity and highly stable SLA peptide epitopes...

  12. Gel-based phosphoproteomics analysis of sarcoplasmic proteins in postmortem porcine muscle with pH decline rate and time differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Karlsson, Anders H;

    2011-01-01

    Meat quality development is highly influenced by the pH decline caused by the postmortem (PM) glycolysis. Protein phosphorylation is an important mechanism in regulating the activity of glycometabolic enzymes. Here, a gel-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the protein...... phosphorylation in sarcoplasmic proteins from three groups of pigs with different pH decline rates from PM 1 to 24¿h. Globally, the fast pH decline group had the highest phosphorylation level at PM 1¿h, but lowest at 24¿h, whereas the slow pH decline group showed the reverse case. The same pattern was also...... observed in most individual bands in 1-DE. The protein phosphorylation levels of 12 bands were significantly affected by the synergy effects of pH and time (p...

  13. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Thoracolumbar Fascia Injury and Movement Restriction in a Porcine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, James H.; James R Fox; Maple, Rhonda; Loretan, Caitlin; Badger, Gary J.; Henry, Sharon M.; Vizzard, Margaret A.; Langevin, Helene M.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of back pain following acute back “sprains” is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experime...

  14. An evaluation of test and removal for the elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from 5 swine farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, S A; Bierk, M D; Deen, J.; Molitor, T W

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the protocol of test and removal (T&R) for the elimination of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from 5 chronically infected breeding herds. The T&R protocol involved sampling the entire breeding herd in one day, testing sera by polymerase chain reaction and ELISA to detect previously exposed and/or infected animals, and subsequently removing them from the herd. Following completion of T&R, breeding herds were monitore...

  15. A Simple Porcine Model of Inducible Sustained Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anson M; Miller, Jacob R; Voeller, Rochus K; Zierer, Andreas; Lall, Shelly C; Schuessler, Richard B; Damiano, Ralph J; Melby, Spencer J

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of atrial fibrillation (AF) is an evolving field with a history of testing various lesion sets and ablation technologies. Previous animal models of AF require a chronic intervention to make AF reliably inducible. Our objective was to create an acute, reliable, and reproducible porcine model of sustained AF. To accomplish this, 21 adult domestic pigs underwent median sternotomy. Methods to induce AF were then performed sequentially: manual stimulation, rapid pacing (200 beats per minute), and then rapid pacing of 8 beats with a cycle length of 300 milliseconds, followed by an extra stimulus at decreasing cycle lengths. If AF was not induced, burst pacing was performed at a cycle length of 90 milliseconds for 30 seconds. If AF was still not induced, intravenous neostigmine was administered, and the process was repeated. Atrial fibrillation was considered sustained after 1 minute. Attempts at AF induction were successful in 18 (86%) of 21. Atrial fibrillation was induced during manual stimulation in four (19%), during rapid pacing in five (24%), during burst pacing in five (24%), and after the administration of neostigmine in four (19%). Mean (SD) duration of AF was 3.6 (2.6) minutes. Of the 18, 14 (78%) reverted to sinus rhythm spontaneously and 4 (22%) required an antiarrhythmic. This technique of inducing AF can easily be used to evaluate new technologies and lesion sets without the need for creating a chronic animal model. PMID:26889882

  16. Hygienic aspects of porcine gullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, P G; Mossel, D A; van Logtestijn, J G

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to elaborate good manufacturing practices, including the collection, processing and storage of porcine gullets, their bacterial condition immediately after collection (100 samples), as well as that of deep frozen gullets just before incorporation into meat products (40 samples), was assessed. Fresh gullets were found to be contaminated to a high degree: poured plate colony count at 30°C (PPCC) approximately 10(6) to 10(7) and Enterobacteriaceae approximately 10(3) to 10(4) cfu g(-1). Deep frozen gullets showed even higher counts: PPCC approximately 10(7) to 10(8) and Enterobacteriaceae approximately 10(4) to 10(5) cfu g(-1). Hygiene during collection was visually assessed in six abattoirs and found to be satisfactory in two, moderate in three and poor in one. The effects of processing, by cleaning or removal of the mucus membrane, on bacterial condition, pH, colour and odour were assessed before and during storage at 4°C and 20°C. Both cleaning and removal of the mucus membrane resulted in up to approximately a tenfold reduction of colony counts. After 7 days' storage at 4°C these were significantly lower than those of unprocessed gullets (P < 0·01). Processed gullets stored at 4°C were no longer fit for consumption after 4 days' storage. It being impossible to achieve a marked improvement in the bacteriological condition of gullets, the incorporation of these products into sausages should be discouraged and their use in petfoods only allowed under reasonable conditions of hygiene and chilling. PMID:22055164

  17. Transcription analysis of the porcine alveolar macrophage response to porcine circovirus type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Shuqing; Wang, Yang; Deng, Feng; Yan, Weidong; YANG Kun; Chen, Huanchun; He, Qigai; Charreyre, Catherine; Audoneet, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causal agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has severely impacted the swine industry worldwide. PCV2 triggers a weak and atypical innate immune response, but the key genes and mechanisms by which the virus interferes with host innate immunity have not yet been elucidated. In this study, genes that control the response of primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the main target of PCV2, were profiled in vitro. ...

  18. Pregnancy outcomes of anti-hypertensives for women with chronic hypertension: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of anti-hypertensive treatment on fetus was unclear, and hence, remains controversial. We set out in this study to estimate the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm delivery and small for gestational age amongst women with chronic hypertension, and to determine whether the use of anti-hypertensive drugs increases the risk of such adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 2,727 hypertension mothers and 8,181 matched controls were identified from the population-based cohort. These hypertension women were divided into seven sub-groups according to different types of prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age. Increased risk of low birth weight (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.95-2.68, preterm birth (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.89-2.52 and small for gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.45-1.81 were all discernible within the hypertension group after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The increased ORs were found to differ with different types of anti-hypertensive drugs. Women who received vasodilators were associated with the highest risk of low birth weight (OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 2.06-4.26, preterm birth (OR = 2.92 95% CI = 2.06-4.15 and small for gestational age (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.60-2.82. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding is important for practitioners, because it indicates the need for caution while considering the administration of anti-hypertensive drugs to pregnant women. These observations require confirmation in further studies that can better adjust for the severity of the underlying HTN.

  19. MEG-based detection and localization of perilesional dysfunction in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron K.O. Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke impairment is associated not only with structural lesions, but also with dysfunction in surviving perilesional tissue. Previous studies using equivalent current dipole source localization of MEG/EEG signals have demonstrated a preponderance of slow-wave activity localized to perilesional areas. Recent studies have also demonstrated the utility of nonlinear analyses such as multiscale entropy (MSE for quantifying neuronal dysfunction in a wide range of pathologies. The current study utilized beamformer-based reconstruction of signals in source space to compare spectral and nonlinear measures of electrical activity in perilesional and healthy cortices. Data were collected from chronic stroke patients and healthy controls, both young and elderly. We assessed relative power in the delta (1–4 Hz, theta (4–7 Hz, alpha (8–12 Hz and beta (15–30 Hz frequency bands, and also measured the nonlinear complexity of electrical activity using MSE. Perilesional tissue exhibited a general slowing of the power spectrum (increased delta/theta, decreased beta as well as a reduction in MSE. All measures tested were similarly sensitive to changes in the posterior perilesional regions, but anterior perilesional dysfunction was detected better by MSE and beta power. The findings also suggest that MSE is specifically sensitive to electrophysiological dysfunction in perilesional tissue, while spectral measures were additionally affected by an increase in rolandic beta power with advanced age. Furthermore, perilesional electrophysiological abnormalities in the left hemisphere were correlated with the degree of language task-induced activation in the right hemisphere. Finally, we demonstrate that single subject spectral and nonlinear analyses can identify dysfunctional perilesional regions within individual patients that may be ideal targets for interventions with noninvasive brain stimulation.

  20. Sleep assessment in a population-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Michele

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disabling condition that affects approximately 800,000 adult Americans. The pathophysiology remains unknown and there are no diagnostic markers or characteristic physical signs or laboratory abnormalities. Most CFS patients complain of unrefreshing sleep and many of the postulated etiologies of CFS affect sleep. Conversely, many sleep disorders present similarly to CFS. Few studies characterizing sleep in unselected CFS subjects have been published and none have been performed in cases identified from population-based studies. Methods The study included 339 subjects (mean age 45.8 years, 77% female, 94.1% white identified through telephone screen in a previously described population-based study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas. They completed questionnaires to assess fatigue and wellness and 2 self-administered sleep questionnaires. Scores for five of the six sleep factors (insomnia/hypersomnia, non-restorative sleep, excessive daytime somnolence, sleep apnea, and restlessness in the Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology's Sleep Assessment Questionnaire© (SAQ© were dichotomized based on threshold. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was used as a continuous variable. Results 81.4% of subjects had an abnormality in at least one SAQ© sleep factor. Subjects with sleep factor abnormalities had significantly lower wellness scores but statistically unchanged fatigue severity scores compared to those without SAQ© abnormality. CFS subjects had significantly increased risk of abnormal scores in the non-restorative (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 28.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 7.4–107.0 and restlessness (OR = 16.0; 95% CI = 4.2–61.6 SAQ© factors compared to non-fatigued, but not for factors of sleep apnea or excessive daytime somnolence. This is consistent with studies finding that, while fatigued, CFS subjects are not sleepy. A strong correlation (0.78 of Epworth score was found only for the excessive

  1. Getting better at chronic care in remote communities: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled of community based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence and incidence of diabetes and other common comorbid conditions (hypertension, coronary heart disease, renal disease and chronic lung disease are extremely high among Indigenous Australians. Recent measures to improve quality of preventive care in Indigenous community settings, while apparently successful at increasing screening and routine check-up rates, have shown only modest or little improvements in appropriate care such as the introduction of insulin and other scaled-up drug regimens in line with evidence-based guidelines, together with support for risk factor reduction. A new strategy is required to ensure high quality integrated family-centred care is available locally, with continuity and cultural safety, by community-based care coordinators with appropriate system supports. Methods/design The trial design is open parallel cluster randomised controlled trial. The objective of this pragmatic trial is to test the effectiveness of a model of health service delivery that facilitates integrated community-based, intensive chronic condition management, compared with usual care, in rural and remote Indigenous primary health care services in north Queensland. Participants are Indigenous adults (aged 18–65 years with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>=8.5 and at least one other chronic condition. The intervention is to employ an Indigenous Health Worker to case manage the care of a maximum caseload of 30 participants. The Indigenous Health Workers receive intensive clinical training initially, and throughout the study, to ensure they are competent to coordinate care for people with chronic conditions. The Indigenous Health Workers, supported by the local primary health care (PHC team and an Indigenous Clinical Support Team, will manage care, including coordinating access to multidisciplinary team care based on best practice standards. Allocation by cluster to the intervention and control groups is by simple

  2. Role of Leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast in the treatment of chronic urticaria: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic urticaria is a disabling disease which may be refractory to standard therapies. Leukotriene receptor antagonists like montelukast have been tried in allergic diseases like asthma and find mention as a therapeutic option in chronic urticaria. Purposes: A randomized single-blinded non-placebo controlled study to evaluate the role of montelukast, in addition to the adjunctive role of non-sedating antihistamine levocetirizine (H1, was conducted in patients with chronic urticaria.Methods: Thirty-five patients with chronic urticaria were enrolled. Medication was given for a period of twelve weeks. Montelukast 10mg/day in an adult and 5mg in the age group 6-13 years,4 mg 2-6 years and levocetirizine 5 mg once a day was added, if patient had new weals while on therapy. The improvement was monitored by estimating the episodes of wheals and pruritus in any two weeks period.Results: Twenty-two patients showed a good response with occasional wheals at the end of 2 weeks and no weals at the end of 12 weeks. These included all 8 patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS. Four of these patients relapsed on discontinuation of therapy.Conclusion: Montelukast is effective in chronic refractory urticaria especially in patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with occasional add-on use of a non-sedating anti-histamine.

  3. Managing chronic pathologies with a stepped mHealth-based approach in clinical psychology and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Castelnuovo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of ehealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies. Possible applications include stepped mHealth approach, where patients can be monitored and treated in their everyday contexts. Unfortunately, many barriers for the spread of mHealth are still present. Due the significant impact of psychosocial factors on disease evolution, psychotherapies have to be included into the chronic disease protocols. Existing psychological theories of health behavior change have to be adapted to the new technological contexts and requirements. In conclusion, clinical psychology and medicine have to face the chronic care management challenge in both traditional and mHealth settings.

  4. The rate of co-infection for piglet diarrhea viruses in China and the genetic characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z-P; Yang, Z; Lin, W-D; Wang, W-Y; Yang, J; Jin, W-J; Qin, A-J

    2016-03-01

    Piglet diarrhea epidemics result in major economic losses for the swine industry. Four viruses are closely linked to porcine diarrhea: porcine kobuvirus (PKV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PRoV). We have conducted an epidemiology study to determine the frequency of infection and co-infection with these viruses in China, and characterized the genetic variation of the isolated PEDV and PKV strains. Stool and intestinal samples (n = 314) were collected from piglets with diarrhea in China from years 2012 to 2014. RT-PCR was used to detect PKV, PEDV, TGEV, and PRoV. Phylogenetic relationships between reference strains and the isolated PEDV and PKV strains were determined based on the M and 3D gene sequence. The rates of infection with PKV, PEDV, TGEV and PRoV were 29.9%, 24.2%, 1.91%, and 0.31%, respectively. Co-infections with PKV and the other three viruses were very common. Co-infection of PKV and PEDV was detected in 15.0% (47/314) of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the PKV 3D gene indicated that there were some phylogenetic differences in the PKV strains across regions within China. However, according to the PEDV M gene, strains clustered into three groups and the primary group was distinct from the vaccine strain CV777. This study provides insights in to the prevalence of diarrhea viruses and their prevention and control in China. PMID:26982468

  5. Chronic Kidney Pain in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease : A Case Report of Successful Treatment by Catheter-Based Renal Denervation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; de Jager, Rosa L.; Neeleman, M. Peer; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common concern in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We report what to our knowledge is the first catheter-based renal denervation procedure in a patient with ADPKD resulting in successful management of chronic pain. The patient was a 43-year-old wo

  6. Evaluation of 13q14 Status in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, Katy; Ellard, Sian; Rudin, Claudius E.; Thorne, Susan; Davies, Teresa; Harries, Lorna W.

    2009-01-01

    Deletions of chromosome 13q14 are common in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other cancers, demonstrating the importance of this region in tumorigenesis. We report the use of two single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based techniques to determine 13q loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status in 15 patients with CLL: (i) digital SNP (dSNP), where analysis of heterozygous SNPs detects allelic imbalances, and (ii) DNA sequencing, where LOH is identified by comparison of allelic peak heights in normal a...

  7. Occurrence and Characteristics of Chronic Pain in a Community-Based Cohort of Indigent Adults Living With HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Miaskowski, C; Penko, JM; D. Guzman; Mattson, JE; Bangsberg, DR; Kushel, MB

    2011-01-01

    Pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but little is known about chronic pain in socioeconomically disadvantaged HIV-infected populations with high rates of substance abuse in the postantiretroviral era. This cross-sectional study describes the occurrence and characteristics of pain in a community-based cohort of 296 indigent PLWHA. Participants completed questionnaires about sociodemographics, substance use, depression, and pain. Cut-point analysis was used to generate cat...

  8. The evaluation of gluomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease patients based on serum CysC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the applicability of several formulas for gluomerular filtration rate(GFR)evaluation based on serum CystatinC(CysC)in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD).Methods According to the method of laboratory appliance reseach,three hundred and four hospitalized CKD patients(162 males,142 females,aged from 14-year-old to 80-year-old)in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University hospital dating from October 2010 to October 2011 were selected.

  9. Patients with chronic kidney disease are at an elevated risk of dementia: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Kao-Chi; Chen Yu-Lung; Lai Shih-Wei; Mou Chih-Hsin; Tsai Pang-Yao; Sung Fung-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more prevalent in Taiwan than in most countries. This population-based cohort study evaluated the dementia risk associated with CKD. Methods Using claims data of 1,000,000 insured residents covered in the universal health insurance of Taiwan, we selected 37049 adults with CKD newly diagnosed from 2000–2006 as the CKD cohort. We also randomly selected 74098 persons free from CKD and other kidney diseases, frequency matched with age, sex and t...

  10. Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    C. Douglas Simmons, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA; Sajay Arthanat, PhD, OTR/L, ATP; Vincent J. Macri, BA, MA

    2014-01-01

    Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual’s ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive r...

  11. Relationship of glomerular filtration rate based on serum iodixanol clearance to IRIS staging in cats with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    IWAMA, Ryosuke; SATO, Tsubasa; Katayama, Masaaki; Shimamura, Shunsuke; SATOH, Hiroshi; ICHIJO, Toshihiro; FURUHAMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    We examined the correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from an equation based on the serum iodixanol clearance technique and International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. The equation included the injection dose, sampling time, serum concentration and estimated volume of distribution (Vd) of the isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol as a test tracer. The percent changes in the median basal GFR values calculated ...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.18 Porcine... purposes as seed stock and included in the breeding herd; and (c) a market hog, slaughtered by the...

  13. Occupational asthma due to porcine pancreatic amylase

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A case of occupational asthma in a 41 year old histopathology laboratory technician attributable to a powder preparation of the porcine pancreatic enzyme amylase is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by a double blind, placebo controlled, inhalation challenge study which showed immediate and late asthmatic reactions associated with a significant increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine.

  14. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Larsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, idiopathic and familial, is characterized by degradation of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies (LB in the substantia nigra. LBs contain aggregated proteins of which α-synuclein is the major component. The protein synphilin-1 interacts and colocalizes with α-synuclein in LBs. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine synphilin-1 and isoforms hereof with the future perspective to use the pig as a model for Parkinson's disease. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR. The spatial expression of SNCAIP mRNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1 of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human (90% and to mouse (84% synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing variants and a novel splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation.

  15. Does multimorbidity influence the occurrence rates of chronic conditions? A claims data based comparison of expected and observed prevalence rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon with an almost endless number of possible disease combinations with unclear implications. One important aspect in analyzing the clustering of diseases is to distinguish between random coexistence and statistical dependency. We developed a model to account for random coexistence based on stochastic distribution. We analyzed if the number of diseases of the patients influences the occurrence rates of chronic conditions. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of 121,389 persons aged 65+ using a list of 46 chronic conditions. Expected prevalences were simulated by drawing without replacement from all observed diseases using observed overall prevalences as initial probability weights. To determine if a disease occurs more or less frequently than expected by chance we calculated observed-minus-expected deltas for each disease. We defined clinical relevance as |delta| ≥ 5.0%. 18 conditions were excluded because of a prevalence < 5.0%. RESULTS: We found that (1 two chronic conditions (e.g. hypertension were more frequent than expected in patients with a low number of comorbidities; (2 four conditions (e.g. renal insufficiency were more frequent in patients with many comorbidities; (3 six conditions (e.g. cancer were less frequent with many comorbidities; and (4 16 conditions had an average course of prevalences. CONCLUSION: A growing extent of multimorbidity goes along with a rapid growth of prevalences. This is for the largest part merely a stochastic effect. If we account for this effect we find that only few diseases deviate from the expected prevalence curves. Causes for these deviations are discussed. Our approach also has methodological implications: Naive analyses of multimorbidity might easily be affected by bias, because the prevalence of all chronic conditions necessarily increases with a growing extent of multimorbidity. We should therefore always examine and discuss the stochastic interrelations

  16. Murine pulmonary responses after sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamcakova-Dodd Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers (AO nanowhiskers have been used in manufacturing processes as catalyst supports, flame retardants, adsorbents, or in ceramic, metal and plastic composite materials. They are classified as high aspect ratio nanomaterials. Our aim was to assess in vivo toxicity of inhaled AO nanowhisker aerosols. Methods Primary dimensions of AO nanowhiskers specified by manufacturer were 2–4 nm x 2800 nm. The aluminum content found in this nanomaterial was 30% [mixed phase material containing Al(OH3 and AlOOH]. Male mice (C57Bl/6 J were exposed to AO nanowhiskers for 4 hrs/day, 5 days/wk for 2 or 4 wks in a dynamic whole body exposure chamber. The whiskers were aerosolized with an acoustical dry aerosol generator that included a grounded metal elutriator and a venturi aspirator to enhance deagglomeration. Average concentration of aerosol in the chamber was 3.3 ± 0.6 mg/m3 and the mobility diameter was 150 ± 1.6 nm. Both groups of mice (2 or 4 wks exposure were necropsied immediately after the last exposure. Aluminum content in the lung, heart, liver, and spleen was determined. Pulmonary toxicity assessment was performed by evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid (enumeration of total and differential cells, total protein, activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and cytokines, blood (total and differential cell counts, lung histopathology and pulmonary mechanics. Results Following exposure, mean Al content of lungs was 0.25, 8.10 and 15.37 μg/g lung (dry wt respectively for sham, 2 wk and 4 wk exposure groups. The number of total cells and macrophages in BAL fluid was 2-times higher in animals exposed for 2 wks and 6-times higher in mice exposed for 4 wks, compared to shams (p p  Conclusions Sub-chronic inhalation exposures to aluminum-oxide based nanowhiskers induced increased lung macrophages, but no inflammatory or toxic responses were observed.

  17. Analysis of porcine MHC using microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Wahlberg, Per; Marthey, Sylvain; Esquerré, Diane; Jaffrézic, Florence; Lecardonnel, Jérome; Hugot, Karine; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

    2012-07-15

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Mammals is one of the most gene dense regions of the genome and contains the polymorphic histocompatibility gene families known to be involved in pathogen response and control of auto-immunity. The MHC is a complex genetic system that provides an interesting model system to study genome expression regulation and genetic diversity at the megabase scale. The pig MHC or SLA (Swine Leucocyte Antigen) complex spans 2.4 megabases and 151 loci have been annotated. We will review key results from previous RNA expression studies using microarrays containing probes specific to annotated loci within SLA and in addition present novel data obtained using high-density tiling arrays encompassing the whole SLA complex. We have focused on transcriptome modifications of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin known to activate B and T cell proliferation. Our results show that numerous loci mapping to the SLA complex are affected by the treatment. A general decreased level of expression for class I and II genes and an up-regulation of genes involved in peptide processing and transport were observed. Tiling array-based experiments contributed to refined gene annotations as presented for one SLA class I gene referred to as SLA-11. In conclusion, high-density tiling arrays can serve as an excellent tool to draw comprehensive transcription maps, and improve genome annotations for the SLA complex. We are currently studying their relevance to characterize SLA genetic diversity in combination with high throughput next generation sequencing. PMID:21561666

  18. Similarities in the immunoglobulin response and VH gene usage in rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to porcine hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borie Dominic C

    2006-03-01

    not been previously identified, and encodes xenoantibodies at later time points post-transplant. Sequencing of IgG clones revealed increased usage of the monkey germline progenitor most similar to human IGHV3-11 and the onset of mutations. Conclusion The small number of IGVH genes encoding xenoantibodies to porcine hepatocytes in non-human primates and humans is highly conserved. Rhesus monkeys are an appropriate preclinical model for testing novel reagents such as those developed using structure-based drug design to target and deplete antibodies to porcine xenografts.

  19. Improving Population Health by Incorporating Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention Into Value-Based Care Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ruth; Rushing, Jill; Nelson, Sharon; Rhyne, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Today's health system transformation provides a prime opportunity to leverage the capacity of public health to reduce the burden of chronic disease and injury, improve population health, and contain health care costs. Health care settings and organizations should support public health capacity as a key investment in population health. PMID:27422946

  20. Optimal management of chronic cyclical pelvic pain: an evidence-based and pragmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Ryun Won

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ha Ryun Won, Jason AbbottDepartment of Endo-Gynecology, Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: This article reviews the literature on management of chronic cyclical pelvic pain (CCPP. Electronic resources including Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Current Contents, and EMBASE were searched using MeSH terms including all ­subheadings and keywords: “cyclical pelvic pain”, “chronic pain”, “dysmenorrheal”, “nonmenstrual ­pelvic pain”, and “endometriosis”. There is a dearth of high-quality evidence for this common ­problem. Chronic pelvic pain affects 4%–25% of women of reproductive age. Dysmenorrhea of varying degree affects 60% of women. Endometriosis is the commonest pathologic cause of CCPP. Other gynecological causes are adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic floor myalgia, although other systems disease such as irritable bowel syndrome or interstitial cystitis may be responsible. ­Management options range from simple to invasive, where simple medical ­treatment such as the combined oral contraceptive pill may be used as a first-line treatment prior to invasive ­management. This review outlines an approach to patients with CCPP through history, physical examination, and investigation to identify the cause(s of the pain and its optimal management.Keywords: cyclical pelvic pain, chronic pain, dysmenorrhea, nonmenstrual pelvic pain, endometriosis

  1. Array-based genomic screening at diagnosis and during follow-up in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Rebeqa; Mansouri, Larry; Isaksson, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution genomic microarrays enable simultaneous detection of copy-number aberrations such as the known recurrent aberrations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia [del(11q), del(13q), del(17p) and trisomy 12], and copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity. Moreover, comparison of genomic...

  2. A Presence-Based Context-Aware Chronic Stress Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressors encountered in daily life may play an important role in personal well-being. Chronic stress can have a serious long-term impact on our physical as well as our psychological health, due to ongoing increased levels of the chemicals released in the ‘fight or flight’ response. The currently available stress assessment methods are usually not suitable for daily chronic stress measurement. The paper presents a context-aware chronic stress recognition system that addresses this problem. The proposed system obtains contextual data from various mobile sensors and other external sources in order to calculate the impact of ongoing stress. By identifying and visualizing ongoing stress situations of an individual user, he/she is able to modify his/her behavior in order to successfully avoid them. Clinical evaluation of the proposed methodology has been made in parallel by using electrodermal activity sensor. To the best of our knowledge, the system presented herein is the first one that enables recognition of chronic stress situations on the basis of user context.

  3. Treatment of Chronic Pain in Older People Evidence-Based Choice of Strong-Acting Opioids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ojik, Annette L.; Jansen, Paul A. F.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; van Roon, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic malignant and non-malignant pain, opioids are used as strong analgesics. Frail elderly patients often have multiple comorbidities and use multiple medicines, leading to an increased risk of clinically relevant drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Age-related changes a

  4. Non-Culture-Based Analysis of Bacterial Populations from Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Daniel A.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Chilcott, Chris N.; Tagg, John R.; Dawes, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    Middle meatus aspirates from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were analyzed by bacterial culture, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and antibiotic sensitivity techniques. DGGE detected a greater bacterial diversity than culture methods. Although resistance to antibiotics was low, there was evidence of changes in the composition of the bacterial microbiota over time, and the presence of noncultured bacteria was demonstrated.

  5. Diagnosing and treating chronic musculoskeletal pain based on the underlying mechanism(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauw, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, most clinicians considered chronic pain to be typically due to ongoing peripheral nociceptive input (i.e., damage or inflammation) in the region of the body where the individual is experiencing pain. Clinicians are generally aware of a few types of pain (e.g., headache and phantom limb pain) where chronic pain is not due to such causes, but most do not realize there is not a single chronic pain state where any radiographic, surgical, or pathological description of peripheral nociceptive damage has been reproducibly shown to be related to the presence or severity of pain. The primary reason for this appears to be that both the peripheral and central nervous systems play a critical role in determining which nociceptive input being detected by sensory nerves in the peripheral tissues will lead to the perception of pain in humans. This manuscript reviews some of the latest findings regarding the neural processing of pain, with a special focus on how clinicians can use information gleaned from the history and physical examination to assess which mechanisms are most likely to be responsible for pain in a given individual, and tailors therapy appropriately. A critical construct is that, within any specific diagnostic category (e.g., fibromyalgia (FM), osteoarthritis (OA), and chronic low back pain (CLBP) are specifically reviewed), individual patients may have markedly different peripheral/nociceptive and neural contributions to their pain. Thus, just as low back pain has long been acknowledged to have multiple potential mechanisms, so also is this true of all chronic pain states, wherein some individuals will have pain primarily due to peripheral nociceptive input, whereas in others peripheral (e.g., peripheral sensitization) or central nervous system factors ("central sensitization" or "centralization" of pain via augmented pain processing in spinal and brain) may be playing an equally or even more prominent role in their pain and other symptoms. PMID

  6. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  7. The CDM-Net Project: The Development, Implementation and Evaluation of a Broadband-Based Network for Managing Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Australia most chronic disease management is funded by Medicare Australia through General Practitioner Management Plans (GPMPs and Team Care Arrangements (TCAs. Identified barriers may be reduced effectively using a broadband-based network known as the Chronic Disease Management Service (CDMS. Aims. To measure the uptake and adherence to CDMS, test CDMS, and assess the adherence of health providers and patients to GPMPs and TCAs generated through CDMS. Methods. A single cohort before and after study. Results. GPMPs and TCAs increased. There was no change to prescribed medicines or psychological quality of life. Attendance at allied health professionals increased, but decreased at pharmacies. Overall satisfaction with CDMS was high among GPs, allied health professionals, and patients. Conclusion. This study demonstrates proof of concept, but replication or continuation of the study is desirable to enable the impact of CDMS on diabetes outcomes to be determined.

  8. Genetic Stability of a Genetically-Engineered Chimeric Porcine Circovirus (PCV) Vaccine, PCV1-2

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Jennifer Ann

    2009-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), an economically important swine disease that causes wasting in pigs 5-18 weeks of age. There exist two different types of porcine circoviruses: porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) was discovered as a contaminant of porcine kidney (PK-15) cells and was determined to be nonpathogenic in swine; whereas porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is pathogenic. A recently released vaccine for PCVA...

  9. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 3: Porcine islet product manufacturing and release testing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayat, Gina R; Gazda, Lawrence S; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Hering, Bernhard J; Hosking, Peter; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Rajotte, Ray V

    2016-01-01

    In the 2009 IXA consensus, the requirements for the quality and control of manufacturing of porcine islet products were based on the U.S. regulatory framework where the porcine islet products fall within the definition of somatic cell therapy under the statutory authority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, porcine islet products require pre-market approval as a biologic product under the Public Health Services Act and they meet the definition of a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Thus, they are subject to applicable provisions of the law and as such, control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, safety of porcine islet products, and characterization of porcine islet products must be met before proceeding to clinical trials. In terms of control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, the manufacturing facility must be in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines appropriate for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials. Sponsors intending to conduct a Phase 1/2 trial of islet xenotransplantation products must be able to demonstrate the safety of the product through the establishment of particular quality assurance and quality control procedures. All materials (including animal source and pancreas) used in the manufacturing process of the porcine islet products must be free of adventitious agents. The final porcine islet product must undergo tests for the presence of these adventitious agents including sterility, mycoplasma (if they are cultured), and endotoxin. Assessments of the final product must include the safety specifications mentioned above even if the results are not available until after release as these data would be useful for patient diagnosis and treatment if necessary. In addition, a plan of action must be in place for patient notification and treatment in case the

  10. Barrier Functionality of Porcine and Bovine Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Nakhlband

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, isolated cell based blood-brain barrier (BBB models have been widely used for brain drug delivery and targeting, due to their relatively proper bioelectrical and permeability properties. However, primary cultures of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs isolated from different species vary in terms of bioelectrical and permeability properties. Methods: To pursue this, in the current investigation, primary porcine and bovine BCECs (PBCECs and BBCECs, respectively were isolated and used as an in vitro BBB model. The bioelectrical and permeability properties were assessed in BCECs co-cultured with C6 cells with/without hydrocortisone (550 nM. The bioelectrical properties were further validated by means of the permeability coefficients of transcellular and paracellular markers. Results: The primary PBCECs displayed significantly higher trans-endothelial electrical resistance (~900 W.cm2 than BBCECs (~700 W.cm2 - both co-cultured with C6 cells in presence of hydrocortisone. Permeability coefficients of propranolol/diazepam and mannitol/sucrose in PBCECs were ~21 and ~2 (×10-6 cm.sec-1, where these values for BBCECs were ~25 and ~5 (×10-6 cm.sec-1. Conclusion: Upon our bioelectrical and permeability findings, both models display discriminative barrier functionality but porcine BCECs seem to provide a better platform than bovine BCECs for drug screening and brain targeting.

  11. Microarray expression profiles of 20.000 genes across 23 healthy porcine tissues.

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    Henrik Hornshøj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression microarrays have been intensively applied to screen for genes involved in specific biological processes of interest such as diseases or responses to environmental stimuli. For mammalian species, cataloging of the global gene expression profiles in large tissue collections under normal conditions have been focusing on human and mouse genomes but is lacking for the pig genome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the results from a large-scale porcine study establishing microarray cDNA expression profiles of approximately 20.000 genes across 23 healthy tissues. As expected, a large portion of the genes show tissue specific expression in agreement with mappings to gene descriptions, Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Two-way hierarchical clustering identified expected tissue clusters in accordance with tissue type and a number of cDNA clusters having similar gene expression patterns across tissues. For one of these cDNA clusters, we demonstrate that possible tissue associated gene function can be inferred for previously uncharacterized genes based on their shared expression patterns with functionally annotated genes. We show that gene expression in common porcine tissues is similar to the expression in homologous tissues of human. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study constitute a valuable and publicly available resource of basic gene expression profiles in normal porcine tissues and will contribute to the identification and functional annotation of porcine genes.

  12. Cloning and characterization of porcine aquaporin 1 water channel expressed extensively in gastrointestinal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Ying Jin; Yan-Li Liu; Li-Na Xu; Yong Jiang; Ying Wang; Bao-Xue Yang; Hong Yang; Tong-Hui Ma

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clone and characterize the porcine aquaporins (AQPs) in the gastrointestinal system.METHODS: A PCR-based cloning strategy and RACE were used to clone full-length AQP coding sequence from reversely transcribed pig liver cDNA. Stopped-flow light scattering and a YFP-based fluorescence method were used to measure the osmotic water permeability of erythrocytes and the stably transfected CHO cells.RT-PCR, Northern blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the gastrointestinal expression and localization of cloned AQPs. Protein expression in transfected cells and red blood cells was analyzed by Western blot.RESULTS: An 813 bp cDNA encoding a 271 amino acid porcine aquaporin (designated pAQP1) was cloned from liver mRNA (pAQP1 has a 93% identity with human AQP1 and contains two NPA motifs conserved in AQP family, one consensus sequence for N-linked glycosylation, and one mercury-sensitive site at cysteine 191). RT-PCR analysis revealed extensive expression of pAQP1 mRNA in porcine digestive glands and gut.Northern blot showed a single 3.0 kb transcript in selected digestive organs, pAQP1 protein was localized at central lacteals of the small intestine, microvessles of salivary glands, as well as epithelium of intrahepatic bile ducts by immunoperoxydase. High osmotic water permeability that is inhibitable by HgCl2 was detected in porcine erythrocytes and CHO cells stably transfected with pAQP1 cDNA. Tmmunoblot analysis of porcine erythrocytes and pAQP-transfected CHO cells revealed an unglycosylated 28 ku band and larger glycosylated proteins.CONCLUSION: pAQP1 is the first porcine aquaporin that can be molecularly identified so far. The broad distribution of pAQP1 in epithelium and endothelium of porcine digestive organs may suggest an important role of channel-mediated water transport in fluid secretion/absorption as well as in digestive function and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal system.

  13. A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist-feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain: randomized controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Fors, E.A.; Eide, E.; Finset, A.; Stensrud, T.L.; van Dulmen, S.; Wigers, S.H.; Eide, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions using cognitive behavioral approaches can be effective in promoting self-management of chronic pain conditions. Web-based programs delivered via smartphones are increasingly used to support the self-management of various health disorders, but research on smartphone interventions for persons with chronic pain is limited. Objective The aim of this trial was to study the efficacy of a 4-week smartphone-delivered intervention with written diaries and therap...

  14. Utilization of evidence-based treatment in elderly patients with chronic heart failure: using Korean Health Insurance claims database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ju-Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure accounts for a great deal of the morbidity and mortality in the aging population. Evidence-based treatments include angiotensin-2 receptor blockers (ARBs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists. Underutilization of these treatments in heart failure patients were frequently reported, which could lead to increase morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of evidence-based treatments and their related factors for elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Methods This is retrospective observational study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. We identified prescription of evidence based treatment to elderly patients who had been hospitalized for chronic heart failure between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006. Results Among the 28,922 elderly patients with chronic heart failure, beta-blockers were prescribed to 31.5%, and ACE-I or ARBs were prescribed to 54.7% of the total population. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that the prescription from outpatient clinic (prevalent ratio, 4.02, 95% CI 3.31–4.72, specialty of the healthcare providers (prevalent ratio, 1.26, 95% CI, 1.12–1.54, residence in urban (prevalent ratio, 1.37, 95% CI, 1.23–1.52 and admission to tertiary hospital (prevalent ratio, 2.07, 95% CI, 1.85–2.31 were important factors associated with treatment underutilization. Patients not given evidence-based treatment were more likely to experience dementia, reside in rural areas, and have less-specialized healthcare providers and were less likely to have coexisting cardiovascular diseases or concomitant medications than patients in the evidence-based treatment group. Conclusions Healthcare system factors, such as hospital type, healthcare provider factors, such as specialty, and patient factors, such as comorbid cardiovascular disease, systemic disease with

  15. Nilotinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: An evidence-based review

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Jabbour; Jorge Cortes; Hagop Kantarjian

    2009-01-01

    Elias Jabbour, Jorge Cortes, Hagop KantarjianDepartment of Leukemia, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAIntroduction: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a progressive and often fatal hematopoietic neoplasm. The Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate represented a major therapeutic advance over conventional CML therapy, with more than 90% of patients obtaining complete hematologic response, and 70%–80% of patients achieving a complete...

  16. Personality Features and Personality Disorders in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nater, Urs M.; Jones, James F; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Maloney, Elizabeth; Reeves, William C; Heim, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. Personality may be a risk factor for CFS and may contribute to the maintenance of the illness. Methods 501 study participants were identified from the general population of Georgia: 113 people with CFS, 264 with unexplained unwellness but not CFS (insufficient fatigue, ISF) and 124 well controls. We used the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, 4th edition, to evaluate DSM-IV personality disorders...

  17. Medical Nutrition Therapy based on Nutrition Intervention for a Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Seung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability, and according to statistics from the World Health Organization, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death overall in the face of decades, and expected to be increased. In 2005, the reported prevalence of COPD in Korea was 17.2% of adults over the age of 45. Malnutrition is a common problem in papatients with COPD. And several nutritional intervention studies showed a significant improvement in physical and functional...

  18. Aerobic bacteriology of chronic suppurative otitis media: a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asifa Nazir

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Otitis media linked with high levels of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major health concern in all age groups of the study population. An appropriate knowledge of the etiology and antibacterial susceptibility of microorganisms would contribute to a rational antibiotic use and the success of treatment for chronic supportive otitis media. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1521-1525

  19. Web-based lifestyle management for chronic kidney disease patients in a clinical setting

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Jan M.; van der Boog, Paul J M; Slegten, Jacqueline T.; Janssen, Ruud; Hettinga, Marike

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining a proper lifestyle is important for chronic kidney disease patients. This study investigates whether an online lifestyle diary supplementary to the support received in the outpatient clinic can help patients to get to such a lifestyle. A total of 33 participants expressed their willingness to participate in the study. However, 11 of them did not start actually. The remaining 22 participants used an online lifestyle diary. They received limited support regarding practical issues an...

  20. The Trajectory of Chronic Pain: Can a Community-Based Exercise/Education Program Soften the Ride?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Dubin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire primary care record of six patients attending a community-based education/exercise self-management program for chronic noncancer pain (YMCA Pain Exercise/Education Program [Y-PEP] was reviewed. Medical visits, consultations and hospital admissions were coded as related or unrelated to their pain diagnoses. Mood disruption, financial concerns, conflicts with employers/insurers, analgesic doses, medication side effects and major life events were also recorded. The ‘chronic pain trajectory’ resembled a roller coaster with increased health care visits at the time of initial injuries and during ‘crises’ (reinjury, conflict with insurers/employers, failed back-to-work attempts and life events. Visits decreased when conflicts were resolved. Analgesic doses increased during ‘crises’ but did not fall after resolution. After attending Y-PEP, health care use fell for four of six patients and two returned to work. Primary care physicians need to recognize the functional limitations and psychosocial complications experienced by their chronic pain patients. A program such as Y-PEP may promote active self-management strategies resulting in lowered health care use.

  1. Nilotinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: An evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Jabbour

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Elias Jabbour, Jorge Cortes, Hagop KantarjianDepartment of Leukemia, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAIntroduction: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML is a progressive and often fatal hematopoietic neoplasm. The Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate represented a major therapeutic advance over conventional CML therapy, with more than 90% of patients obtaining complete hematologic response, and 70%–80% of patients achieving a complete cytogenetic response. Despite the high efficacy of imatinib, a minority of patients in chronic phase CML and more patients in advanced phases are resistant to imatinib, or develop resistance during treatment. This is attributed, in 40% to 50% of cases, to the development of mutations in the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase domain that impair imatinib binding. Attempts to circumvent resistance led to the discovery of nilotinib (Tasigna, a novel, potent and selective oral Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor.Aims: To review the evidence for the use of nilotinib in the management of CML.Evidence review: Preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrate that nilotinib effectively overcomes imatinib resistance, and has further improved the treatment of CML.Place in therapy: Nilotinib is currently indicated for patients with CML in chronic and accelerated phases following imatinib failure. Randomized studies are ongoing to assess the efficacy of nilotinib in patients with newly diagnosed CML.Keywords: CML, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib, imatinib-resistance, imatinibintolerance.

  2. Antidepressant Drugs for Chronic Urological Pelvic Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

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    Christos Papandreou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antidepressant drugs for the management of chronic pelvic pain has been supported in the past. This study aimed to evaluate the available evidence for the efficacy and acceptability of antidepressant drugs in the management of urological chronic pelvic pain. Studies were selected through a comprehensive literature search. We included all types of study designs due to the limited evidence. Studies were classified into levels of evidence according to their design. Ten studies were included with a total of 360 patients. Amitriptyline, sertraline, duloxetine, nortriptyline, and citalopram are the antidepressants that have been reported in the literature. Only four randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified (two for amitriptyline and two for sertraline with mixed results. We conclude that the use of antidepressants for the management of chronic urological pelvic pain is not adequately supported by methodologically sound RCTs. From the existing studies amitriptyline may be effective in interstitial cystitis but publication bias should be considered as an alternative explanation. All drugs were generally well tolerated with no serious events reported.

  3. Chronic Rhinosinusitis Associated with Erectile Dysfunction: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Tai, Chih-Feng; Huang, Yu-Ting; Chien, Chen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and erectile dysfunction (ED). This case-control study aimed to investigate the association between CRS and the risk of ED in a large national sample. Tapping Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified people 30 years or older with a new primary diagnosis of CRS between 1996 and 2007. The cases were compared with sex- and age-matched controls. We identified 14 039 cases and recruited 140 387 matched controls. Both groups were followed up in the same database until the end of 2007 for instances of ED. Of those with CRS, 294 (2.1%) developed ED during a mean (SD) follow-up of 3.20 (2.33) years, while 1 661 (1.2%) of the matched controls developed ED, mean follow up 2.97 (2.39) years. Cox regression analyses were performed adjusting for sex, age, insurance premium, residence, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, allergic rhinitis, arrhythmia, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and medications. CRS was revealed to be an independent predictor of ED in the fully adjusted model (HR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.33-1.73; P < 0.0001). PMID:27578370

  4. Chronic penile strangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Silvia I Lopes; Roberto N. Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examin...

  5. Co-creating an online exercise-based rehabilitation programme for people with chronic knee and hip pain based on user preferences and behavioural change techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hurley

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic knee and hip pain in elderly people is very prevalent (1,2) and causes reduced mobility, disability and co-morbidity. Evidence-based many men guidelines recommend exercise and self-management as effective interventions (3). “Enabling Self-management and Coping of Arthritic Pain through Exercise, ESCAPE-pain” (www.escape-pain.org), is a rehabilitation programme that integrates patient self-management information and advice with an exercise regimen (4). Increased knowledge o...

  6. Genomic analysis of porcine circovirus type-2 isolates in Alberta pigs demonstrating clinical porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD)

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Leila; Chaiyakul, Mark; Clark, Edward G.; Marshall, Frank; Czub, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen pigs with clinical signs of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) on 5 Alberta pig farms were examined pathologically, including gross pathology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV-2) and sequence analysis was performed on tissue samples of 12 animals. Results showed that new strains of porcine circovirus type-2 genogroup b were present in most pigs that were positive for PCV-2. Furthermore, a mixed in...

  7. Porcine hokovirus in wild boar in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Coelho, Catarina; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-04-01

    Porcine hokovirus (PHoV), also referred to as porcine parvovirus 4 (P-PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus of swine that is closely related to human parvovirus 4/5 (H-PARV4/5), was first described in Hong Kong. To evaluate the occurrence of P-PARV4 in Portuguese wild boars in the hunting season of 2011/2012, liver and serum samples were tested. P-PARV4 was detected in 24 % of the wild boars analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between the P-PARV4 isolates and other P-PARV4 reference strains. This virus appears to be emerging, with yet unknown implications for public health. PMID:26711454

  8. Porcine SLITRK1: Molecular cloning and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Larsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks introns, as does its human and mouse counterparts. RT-PCR cloning revealed two SLITRK1 transcripts: a full-length mRNA and a transcript variant that results in a truncated protein. The encoded SLITRK1 protein, consisting of 695 amino acids, displays a very high homology to human SLITRK1 (99%. The porcine SLITRK1 gene is expressed exclusively in brain tissues.

  9. Splicing variants of porcine synphilin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Farajzadeh, Leila;

    2015-01-01

    (90%) and to mouse (84%) synphilin-1. Three shorter transcript variants of the synphilin-1 gene were identified, all lacking one or more exons. SNCAIP transcripts were detected in most examined organs and tissues and the highest expression was found in brain tissues and lung. Conserved splicing......RNA was investigated by RNAseq. The presented work reports the molecular cloning and characterization of the porcine (Sus scrofa) synphilin-1 cDNA (SNCAIP) and three splice variants hereof. The porcine SNCAIP cDNA codes for a protein (synphilin-1) of 919 amino acids which shows a high similarity to human...... variants and a novel splice form of synhilin-1 were found in this study. All synphilin-1 isoforms encoded by the identified transcript variants lack functional domains important for protein degradation....

  10. A Community-based Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for Older Adults with Chronic Stroke: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Marco Y.C.; Eng, Janice J.; Dawson, Andrew S.; McKay, Heather A.; Harris, Jocelyn E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the effects of a community-based group exercise program for older individuals with chronic stroke. DESIGN Prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING Intervention was community-based. Data collection was performed in a research laboratory located in a rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS Sixty-three older individuals (≥50 years) with a chronic stroke (post-stroke duration ≥ 1 year) who were living in the community. INTERVENTION Participants were randomized into intervention group (n=32) or control group (n=31). The intervention group underwent a Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) program designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, mobility, leg muscle strength, balance and hip bone mineral density (BMD) (1-hour sessions, 3 sessions/week, for 19 weeks). The control group underwent a seated upper extremity program. MEASUREMENTS (1) cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption), (2) mobility (Six Minute Walk Test), (3) leg muscle strength (isometric knee extension), (4) balance (Berg Balance Scale), (5) activity and participation (Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities) and (6) femoral neck BMD (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). RESULTS The intervention group had significantly more gains in cardiorespiratory fitness, mobility, and paretic leg muscle strength than controls. Femoral neck BMD of the paretic leg was maintained in the intervention group whereas a significant decline of the same occurred in controls. There was no significant time × group interaction for balance, activity and participation, non-paretic leg muscle strength and non-paretic femoral neck BMD. CONCLUSION The FAME program is feasible and beneficial for improving some of the secondary complications resulting from physical inactivity in older adults living with stroke. It may serve as a good model of community-based fitness program for preventing secondary diseases in older adults living with

  11. The ontogeny of the porcine immune system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2009), s. 273-283. ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/07/0087; GA ČR GA523/07/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ontogeny of the porcine immune system * swine adaptive immunity * development of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009

  12. Studies on genetic properties of porcine parvoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Streck, André Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is considered to be one of the most important causes of reproductive failure in swine. Fetal death, mummification, stillbirths and delayed return to estrus are some of the clinical signs commonly associated with PPV infection in a herd. The virus genome is considered to be conservative, with substitution rates near to that of their host. However, it has been shown that some parvoviruses exhibit a substitution rate close to that commonly determined for RNA viruses. In ...

  13. KBSH parvovirus: comparison with porcine parvovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Molitor, T W; Joo, H S; Collett, M S

    1985-01-01

    We compared the molecular, antigenic, and pathogenic properties of KBSH parvovirus to those of porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate NADL-8. KBSH, propagated in swine testes cells in culture, possessed two major capsid polypeptides of 83 and 64 kilodaltons that were similar in size to those of PPV. KBSH-infected cells also contained an 86-kilodalton nonstructural polypeptide that was identical in size to the PPV nonstructural polypeptide (NS-1). The KBSH polypeptides were structurally similar but ...

  14. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghua Xue

    Full Text Available Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  15. A new nanoPCR molecular assay for detection of porcine bocavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Bai, Aiquan; Zhang, Jing; Kong, Miaomiao; Cui, Yuchao; Ma, Xingjie; Ai, Xia; Tang, Qinghai; Cui, Shangjin

    2014-06-01

    Nanoparticle-assisted polymerase chain reaction (nanoPCR) is a novel method for the rapid amplification of DNA and has been used for the detection of virus. For detection of porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a sensitive and specific nanoPCR assay was developed with a pair of primers that were designed based on NS1 gene sequences available in GenBank. Under the optimized conditions of the PBoV nanoPCR assay, the nanoPCR assay was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional PCR assay. The lower detection limit of the nanoPCR assay was about 6.70×10(1) copies. The nanoPCR assay amplified the specific 482-bp fragment of the PBoV NS1 recombinant plasmid but did not produce any product with genomic DNA or cDNA of porcine parvovirus, porcine circovirus type II, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, pseudorabies virus, classic swine fever virus, Encephalomyocarditis virus, Porcine Teschovirus or African swine fever virus plasmid. Of 65 clinical samples collected from diseased pigs, 73.8% and 86.2% were determined to be PBoV positive by PBoV conventional PCR and PBoV nanoPCR assay, respectively. Of 36 clinical samples from healthy pigs, 27.8% and 44.4% were PBoV positive by PBoV conventional PCR and PBoV nanoPCR assay, respectively. The nanoPCR assay will be useful for diagnosing PBoV and for studying its epidemiology and pathology. PMID:24642242

  16. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  17. Heredity of chronic bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms, but since not all smokers develop chronic bronchitis and since chronic bronchitis is also diagnosed in never-smokers, it has been suggested that some individuals are more susceptible to develop chronic...... bronchitis due to genetics. OBJECTIVE: To study the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the variation in the susceptibility to chronic bronchitis. METHODS: In a population-based questionnaire study of 13,649 twins, 50-71 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry, we calculated sex......-specific concordance rates and heritability of chronic bronchitis. The response rate was 75%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 9.3% among men and 8.5% among women. The concordance rate for chronic bronchitis was higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins among women; 0.30 vs. 0.17, but not...

  18. Antibody Recognition of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Capsid Protein Epitopes after Vaccination, Infection, and Disease▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trible, Benjamin R.; Kerrigan, Maureen; Crossland, Nicholas; Potter, Megan; Faaberg, Kay; Hesse, Richard; Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) codes for the 233-amino-acid capsid protein (CP). Baculovirus-based vaccines that express only ORF2 are protective against clinical disease following experimental challenge or natural infection. The goal of this study was to identify regions in CP preferentially recognized by sera from experimentally infected and vaccinated pigs and to compare these responses to those of pigs diagnosed with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), including porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). The approach was to react porcine sera with CP polypeptide fragments followed by finer mapping studies using overlapping oligopeptides that covered amino acids 141 to 200. The results showed that vaccinated pigs preferentially recognized only the largest polypeptide fragment, CP(43-233). A subset of experimentally infected pigs and pigs with PDNS showed strong reactivity against a CP oligopeptide, 169-STIDYFQPNNKR-180. Alanine scanning identified Y-173, F-174, Q-175, and K-179 as important for antibody recognition. The results from this study support the notion of PCV2 modulation of immunity, including antibody responses that may represent a precursor for disease. The recognition of CP(169-180) and other polypeptides provides opportunities to devise diagnostic tests for monitoring the immunological effectiveness of vaccination. PMID:21430122

  19. Generation of porcine fetal fibroblasts expressing the tetracycline-inducible Cas9 gene by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqian; Liu, Kai; Wei, Hengxi; Li, Li; Zhang, Shouquan

    2016-09-01

    Cas9 endonuclease, from so-called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems of Streptococcus pyogenes, type II functions as an RNA-guided endonuclease and edits the genomes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including deletion and insertion by DNA double‑stranded break repair mechanisms. In previous studies, it was observed that Cas9, with a genome‑scale lentiviral single‑guide RNA library, could be applied to a loss‑of‑function genetic screen, although the loss‑of‑function genes have yet to be verified in vitro and this approach has not been used in porcine cells. Based on these observations, lentiviral Cas9 was used to infect porcine primary fibroblasts to achieve cell colonies carrying Cas9 endonuclease. Subsequently, porcine fetal fibroblasts expressing the tetracycline‑inducible Cas9 gene were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer, and three 30 day transgenic porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) were obtained. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription‑PCR and western blot analysis indicated that the PFFs were Cas9‑positive. In addition, one of the three integrations was located near to known functional genes in the PFF1 cell line, whereas neither of the integrations was located in the PFF1 or PFF2 cell lines. It was hypothesized that these transgenic PFFs may be useful for conditional genomic editing in pigs, and for generating ideal modified porcine models. PMID:27430306

  20. A regulatory gene network related to the porcine umami taste receptor (TAS1R1/TAS1R3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Ren, D; Reverter, A; Roura, E

    2016-02-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in the mediation of food choices in mammals. The first porcine taste receptor genes identified, sequenced and characterized, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, were related to the dimeric receptor for umami taste. However, little is known about their regulatory network. The objective of this study was to unfold the genetic network involved in porcine umami taste perception. We performed a meta-analysis of 20 gene expression studies spanning 480 porcine microarray chips and screened 328 taste-related genes by selective mining steps among the available 12,320 genes. A porcine umami taste-specific regulatory network was constructed based on the normalized coexpression data of the 328 genes across 27 tissues. From the network, we revealed the 'taste module' and identified a coexpression cluster for the umami taste according to the first connector with the TAS1R1/TAS1R3 genes. Our findings identify several taste-related regulatory genes and extend previous genetic background of porcine umami taste. PMID:26554867

  1. Generation of porcine fetal fibroblasts expressing the tetracycline-inducible Cas9 gene by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqian; Liu, Kai; Wei, Hengxi; Li, Li; Zhang, Shouquan

    2016-01-01

    Cas9 endonuclease, from so-called clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems of Streptococcus pyogenes, type II functions as an RNA-guided endonuclease and edits the genomes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including deletion and insertion by DNA double-stranded break repair mechanisms. In previous studies, it was observed that Cas9, with a genome-scale lentiviral single-guide RNA library, could be applied to a loss-of-function genetic screen, although the loss-of-function genes have yet to be verified in vitro and this approach has not been used in porcine cells. Based on these observations, lentiviral Cas9 was used to infect porcine primary fibroblasts to achieve cell colonies carrying Cas9 endonuclease. Subsequently, porcine fetal fibroblasts expressing the tetracycline-inducible Cas9 gene were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer, and three 30 day transgenic porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) were obtained. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis indicated that the PFFs were Cas9-positive. In addition, one of the three integrations was located near to known functional genes in the PFF1 cell line, whereas neither of the integrations was located in the PFF1 or PFF2 cell lines. It was hypothesized that these transgenic PFFs may be useful for conditional genomic editing in pigs, and for generating ideal modified porcine models. PMID:27430306

  2. Packaging of human endogenous retrovirus sequences is undetectable in porcine endogenous retrovirus particles produced from human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chronic shortage of human donor organs and tissues for allotransplantation could be relieved if clinical xenotransplantation were to become a viable clinical therapy. Balanced against the benefits of xenotransplantation are the possible consequences of zoonotic infections, and in particular, infection by porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An often-proclaimed risk of PERV infection is the possible recombination of PERV with human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) . To address this issue, we examined the potential for HERV sequences to be cross-packaged into PERV particles produced from infected human 293 cells. Although HERV-K, W, E, R, and ERV-9 RNA transcripts are expressed in 293 cells, we did not detect cross-packaging of any of these HERV groups. Quantitative analysis indicated that less than approximately 1 in 104-107 PERV particles might contain HERV sequences. In comparison, we found that murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vector transcripts were cross-packaged at a rate of approximately one copy in 104 PERV particles. Our results indicate that the potential for recombination of PERV and HERV sequences is low and that novel viruses generated by this mechanism are unlikely to represent a significant risk for xenotransplantation

  3. Tissue Sampling Guides for Porcine Biomedical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albl, Barbara; Haesner, Serena; Braun-Reichhart, Christina; Streckel, Elisabeth; Renner, Simone; Seeliger, Frank; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Rüdiger; Blutke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    This article provides guidelines for organ and tissue sampling adapted to porcine animal models in translational medical research. Detailed protocols for the determination of sampling locations and numbers as well as recommendations on the orientation, size, and trimming direction of samples from ∼50 different porcine organs and tissues are provided in the Supplementary Material. The proposed sampling protocols include the generation of samples suitable for subsequent qualitative and quantitative analyses, including cryohistology, paraffin, and plastic histology; immunohistochemistry;in situhybridization; electron microscopy; and quantitative stereology as well as molecular analyses of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes. With regard to the planned extent of sampling efforts, time, and personnel expenses, and dependent upon the scheduled analyses, different protocols are provided. These protocols are adjusted for (I) routine screenings, as used in general toxicity studies or in analyses of gene expression patterns or histopathological organ alterations, (II) advanced analyses of single organs/tissues, and (III) large-scale sampling procedures to be applied in biobank projects. Providing a robust reference for studies of porcine models, the described protocols will ensure the efficiency of sampling, the systematic recovery of high-quality samples representing the entire organ or tissue as well as the intra-/interstudy comparability and reproducibility of results. PMID:26883152

  4. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernard Taylor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measured and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA. The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127 who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71 of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078. Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively. There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  5. Studies on porcine pancreatic elastase activity, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method of radioimmunoassay was devised to offer a successful formula for determining blood concentration of elastase. With porcine pancreatic elastase as the antigen, rabbits were immunized to obtain antiserum. Iodinated elastase labeled by the chloramine-T procedure using 131I (or 125I) had a specific activity of 200 - 300 mCi/mg. The double antibody method was used for BF separation. While the usual method of radioimmunoassay was not always successful in obtaining accurate serum concentration of elastase, the use of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) was able to eliminate the disturbing influence of intra-serous inhibitors, α1-AT and α2-M, eventually producing satisfactory results. With the use of DFP, the elastase standard curve and the porcine serum dilution curve had a statistically significant correlation; precision and recovery were both satisfactory; cross-reactivity of the antiserum with trypsin and chymotrypsin was less than 0.001%. The minimal detectable concentration of elastase was 5 ng/ml, and the range of normal fasting porcine serum level was 70 - 100 ng/ml. (author)

  6. Chronic renal disease in diabetic and prediabetic subjects:a community-based study in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文霞

    2006-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of chronic renal disease in hyperglycetnic population of Shanghai Caoyang Community. Methods Microalbuminuria was determined by measuring urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from fasting serum creatinine. Results A total of 406 Shanghainese, with the average age of 67.5±13.8 years (244 with diabetes mellitus and 162 with impaired glucose regulation) from the established hyperglycemic cohort were

  7. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.; Bøtner, Anette; Ladekjær-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Vincent, I.; Herrmann, Brigitte; Sanchez, R.; Rhodes, C.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assay...... (IPMA), and to determine the titer of each serum. Results from all centers were then compiled and correlated. They demonstrate a wide variation in the titers obtained between laboratories. These differences were dependent on the assay used and the choice of fixative. In general, IPMA gave higher titers...

  8. Differential expression of micrornas in porcine parvovirus infected porcine cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinqiong; Zhu, Ling; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Xiangang; Zhou, Yuanchen; Lang, Qiaoli; Li, Ping; Cai, Yuhan; Qiao, Xiaogai; XU, ZHIWEN

    2015-01-01

    Background Porcine parvovirus (PPV), a member of the Parvoviridae family, causes great economic loss in the swine industry worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein–coding genes that play many diverse and complex roles in viral infections. Finding Aiming to determine the impact of PPV infections on the cellular miRNAome, we used high-throughput sequencing to sequence two miRNA libraries prepared from porcine kidney 15 (PK-15) cells under normal conditions and during PPV infecti...

  9. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 from Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A–1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A–2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms f...

  10. Developmental effects induced by chronic and prolonged exposure of chicken embryos to 900 MHz GSM base station radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interference from base station radiation with embryonic development was investigated by chronic and prolonged exposure of developing chicken embryos. The latter were exposed under a 900 MHz GSM base station radiating microwaves at recommended safety level, i.e., 41 V/m. Total death rate was 7.7 times higher among radiation exposed embryos (78.5%) than among sham exposures (10.2%). Radiation exposure was associated with delayed hatching (3.2 days) and slightly but significantly increased (P<0.01) weight of hatchings. These finding indicated that base station radiation can induce lethal effect, as well as developmental retardation. They arouse questioning as to the adequacy of current safety guidelines. (author)

  11. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhrani-Shani, Pinky; Berry, Donna L; Arcari, Patricia; Langevin, Helene; Wayne, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi) for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation. PMID:27446610

  12. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcari, Patricia; Langevin, Helene; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi) for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation. PMID:27446610

  13. Pain management for chronic musculoskeletal conditions: the development of an evidence-based and theory-informed pain self-management course

    OpenAIRE

    Carnes, D; Homer, K; Underwood, M; Pincus, T.; Rahman, A; Taylor, S J C

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To devise and test a self-management course for chronic pain patients based on evidence and underpinned by theory using the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing complex interventions. Design: We used a mixed method approach. We conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of components and characteristics of pain management courses. We then interviewed chronic pain patients who had attended pain and self-management courses. Behavioural change theories we...

  14. Promoting state health department evidence-based cancer and chronic disease prevention: a multi-phase dissemination study with a cluster randomized trial component

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Peg; Sequeira, Sonia; Jacob, Rebekah R.; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Stamatakis, Katherine A; Harris, Jenine K.; Elliott, Lindsay; Kerner, Jon F.; Jones, Ellen; Dobbins, Maureen; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer and other chronic diseases reduce quality and length of life and productivity, and represent a significant financial burden to society. Evidence-based public health approaches to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases have been identified in recent decades and have the potential for high impact. Yet, barriers to implement prevention approaches persist as a result of multiple factors including lack of organizational support, limited resources, competing emerging priorities...

  15. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    da Luz Maurício Antônio; Costa Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Fuhro Fernanda Ferreira; Manzoni Ana Carolina Taccolini; de Oliveira Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Cabral Cristina Maria Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a bli...

  16. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Body Awareness in Patients with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marasha; Lazar, Sara W.; Hug, Kiran; Mehling, Wolf E.; Hölzel, Britta K.; Sack, Alexander T.; Peeters, Frenk; Ashih, Heidi; Mischoulon, David; Gard, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Body awareness has been proposed as one of the major mechanisms of mindfulness interventions, and it has been shown that chronic pain and depression are associated with decreased levels of body awareness. We investigated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid active depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 31). Body awareness was measured by a subset of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) scales deemed most relevant for the population. These included: Noticing, Not-Distracting, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, and Self-Regulation. In addition, pain catastrophizing was measured by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). These scales had adequate to high internal consistency in the current sample. Depression severity was measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology—Clinician rated (QIDS-C16). Increases in the MBCT group were significantly greater than in the TAU group on the “Self-Regulation” and “Not Distracting” scales. Furthermore, the positive effect of MBCT on depression severity was mediated by “Not Distracting.” These findings provide preliminary evidence that a mindfulness-based intervention may increase facets of body awareness as assessed with the MAIA in a population of pain patients with depression. Furthermore, they are consistent with a long hypothesized mechanism for mindfulness and emphasize the clinical relevance of body awareness. PMID:27445929

  17. The effect of vaccination against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on the Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) load in porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) affected pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Genzow, Marika; Schwartz, Kent; Gonzalez, Glenda; Anderson, Gail; Chittick, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    A diagnostic project was initiated across the United States in 2006 to improve the understanding of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) as well as to identify co-factors in PCVAD-affected farms. A Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) DNA real-time polymerase chain reaction quantitation (qPCR) was established according to a published method and sera from a total of 23pig farms across the United States were examined for viral loads for PCV-2 and analyzed for any possible effects of Porcine r...

  18. Porcine skin as human body phantom at 60 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Petrillo, Luca; Mavridis, Theodoros; De Doncker, Philippe; Sarrazin, Julien; Benlarbi-Delai, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This communication presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out at 60 GHz to demonstrate that porcine skin can be used at 60 GHz as a phantom for the human body. Norton formulations above a flat human body are verified using porcine skin.

  19. Changes in enzyme activities of porcine erythrocytes exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and acetylcholinesterase were observed in porcine erythrocytes for doses of 5 - 30 kGy. These enzymes are capable of performing their functions also in irradiated porcine erythrocytes, which seem to be more radioresistant in this respect than bovine erythrocytes investigated previously. (author)

  20. Porcine artery elastin preparation reduces serum cholesterol level in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanage, Ruvini; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; SEKIKAWA, Mitsuo; Jayawardana, Barana Chaminda; HAN, Kyu-Ho; Tomoko, Okada; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; FUKUSHIMA, Michihiro; 福島, 道広; 島田, 謙一郎; 関川, 三男; 韓, 圭鎬

    2009-01-01

    The effect of porcine artery elastin on serum cholesterol level was investigated in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Rats were fed for 4 weeks, with a diet (ED) containing 15% casein and 5% of porcine artery elastin in comparison with a diet (CD) containing 20% casein. The total serum and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations were lower (P

  1. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair;

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  2. Optofluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Ruiqi [Texas A& M University; King, Travis [Texas A& M University; Akl, Tony [Texas A& M University; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Wilson, Mark A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA; Cote, Gerard L. [Texas A& M University; McShane, Michael J. [Texas A& M University

    2011-01-01

    One strategy for assessing efficacy of a liver transplant is to monitor perfusion and oxygenation after transplantation. An implantable optical sensor is being developed to overcome inadequacies of current monitoring approaches. To facilitate sensor design while minimizing animal use, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based liver phantom was developed to mimic the optical properties of porcine liver in the 630-1000 nm wavelength range and the anatomical geometry of liver parenchyma. Using soft lithography to construct microfluidic channels in pigmented elastomer enabled the 2D approximation of hexagonal liver lobules with 15mm sinusoidal channels, which will allow perfusion with blood-mimicking fluids to facilitate the development of the liver perfusion and oxygenation monitoring system.

  3. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang;

    2015-01-01

    either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated. In...... comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation......The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...

  4. Long-term IgG response to porcine Neu5Gc antigens without transmission of PERV in burn patients treated with porcine skin xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Linda; Padler-Karavani, Vered; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Crossan, Claire; Blaha, Josef; Matouskova, Magda; Hector, Ralph D; Cozzi, Emanuele; Vanhove, Bernard; Charreau, Beatrice; Blancho, Gilles; Bourdais, Ludovic; Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Ribes, Juan M; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Kracikova, Jitka; Broz, Ludomir; Hejnar, Jiri; Vesely, Pavel; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Varki, Ajit; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2013-09-15

    Acellular materials of xenogenic origin are used worldwide as xenografts, and phase I trials of viable pig pancreatic islets are currently being performed. However, limited information is available on transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) after xenotransplantation and on the long-term immune response of recipients to xenoantigens. We analyzed the blood of burn patients who had received living pig-skin dressings for up to 8 wk for the presence of PERV as well as for the level and nature of their long term (maximum, 34 y) immune response against pig Ags. Although no evidence of PERV genomic material or anti-PERV Ab response was found, we observed a moderate increase in anti-αGal Abs and a high and sustained anti-non-αGal IgG response in those patients. Abs against the nonhuman sialic acid Neu5Gc constituted the anti-non-αGal response with the recognition pattern on a sialoglycan array differing from that of burn patients treated without pig skin. These data suggest that anti-Neu5Gc Abs represent a barrier for long-term acceptance of porcine xenografts. Because anti-Neu5Gc Abs can promote chronic inflammation, the long-term safety of living and acellular pig tissue implants in recipients warrants further evaluation. PMID:23945141

  5. Long-term IgG response to porcine Neu5Gc-antigens without transmission of PERV in burn patients treated with porcine skin xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Linda; Padler-Karavani, Vered; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Crossan, Claire; Blaha, Josef; Matouskova, Magda; Hector, Ralph D; Cozzi, Emanuele; Vanhove, Bernard; Charreau, Beatrice; Blancho, Gilles; Bourdais, Ludovic; Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Ribes, Juan M; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Kracikova, Jitka; Broz, Ludomir; Hejnar, Jiri; Vesely, Pavel; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Varki, Ajit; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Acellular materials of xenogenic origin are used worldwide as xenografts and Phase I trials of viable pig pancreatic islets are currently being performed. However, limited information is available on transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) after xenotransplantation and on the long-term immune response of recipients to xenoantigens. We analyzed the blood of burn patients who had received living pig skin dressings for up to 8 weeks for the presence of PERV as well as for the level and nature of their long term (maximum 34 years) immune response against pig antigens. Whilst no evidence of PERV genomic material or anti PERV antibody response was found, we observed a moderate increase in anti αGal antibodies and a high and sustained anti non-αGal IgG response in those patients. Antibodies against the non-human sialic acid Neu5Gc constituted the anti non-αGal response with the recognition pattern on a sialogly can array differing from that of burn patients treated without pig skin. These data suggest that anti-Neu5Gc antibodies may represent a barrier for long-term acceptance of porcine xenografts. As anti-Neu5Gc antibodies can promote chronic inflammation, the long-term safety of living and acellular pig tissue implants in recipients warrants further evaluation. PMID:23945141

  6. [Understanding and treatment strategy of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease based on chronic inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged inflammation continuously promotes the infiltration of macrophages in the organization and chronically induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-1. In periodontal tissues, these inflammatory cytokines enhance the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, which cause destruction of the alveolar bone. Therefore, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production leads to the prevention or treatment of periodontal disease. IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that strongly enhances the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. Elucidation of mechanisms for the production of IL-1 is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This paper reviews recent findings of the molecular mechanisms regulating IL-1 production and focuses on inflammasome. PMID:27117624

  7. Hospital contacts for chronic diseases among danish seafarers and fishermen: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Dahl, Søren; Nielsen, Per Sabro;

    2007-01-01

    and the SHCR for chronic heart diseases was statistically significantly higher in the 1999 than in the 1994 cohort. For both time periods high SHCR values were found for bronchitis, emphysema, cancer of the lung, alcohol-related liver diseases, and diabetes among male non-officers, and lung cancer......, from 1 January 1994 and 1 January 1999, respectively, using rates specific for age and calendar time for the entire Danish workforce as a reference. RESULTS: The SHCRs for lung and cardiovascular diseases were high for non-officers. Among male officers, the SHCR for diabetes was high in the 1999 cohort...... among male officers. Among female non-officers, a high SHCR for skin melanomas was seen. Among fishermen high SHCRs for bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, and Raynaud's syndrome were found in both cohorts. No duration-response pattern was observed in any of the analyses, which may reflect health- and...

  8. Inhibition of Porcine Small Intestinal Sucrase by Validamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑裕国; 申屠旭萍; 沈寅初

    2005-01-01

    As an important medicinal intermediate with broad uses, validamine, an aminocyclitol, isolated from the enzymolysis broth of validamycins, has gained more and more attention. The absolute configuration of validamine is similar to that of α-D-glucose, and it demonstrates powerful inhibition activity on glycosidase. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was investigated. Validamine was found to be a potent, competitive inhibitor to porcine small intestinal sucrase in vitro with an IC50 value of 6.85 × 10-4 mol·L-1. Validamine exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition effect on porcine small intestinal sucrase, whereby the inhibition interaction of validamine and porcine small intestinal sucrase was a fast binding process. The inhibition of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was pH-dependent.

  9. Multimodal assessment of painful peripheral neuropathy induced by chronic oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsey Susan G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major clinical issue affecting 10-40% of cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin is severe peripheral neuropathy with symptoms including cold sensitivity and neuropathic pain. Rat models have been used to describe the pathological features of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy; however, they are inadequate for parallel studies of oxaliplatin's antineoplastic activity and neurotoxicity because most cancer models are developed in mice. Thus, we characterized the effects of chronic, bi-weekly administration of oxaliplatin in BALB/c mice. We first studied oxaliplatin's effects on the peripheral nervous system by measuring caudal and digital nerve conduction velocities (NCV followed by ultrastructural and morphometric analyses of dorsal root ganglia (DRG and sciatic nerves. To further characterize the model, we examined nocifensive behavior and central nervous system excitability by in vivo electrophysiological recording of spinal dorsal horn (SDH wide dynamic range neurons in oxaliplatin-treated mice Results We found significantly decreased NCV and action potential amplitude after oxaliplatin treatment along with neuronal atrophy and multinucleolated DRG neurons that have eccentric nucleoli. Oxaliplatin also induced significant mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia, starting from the first week of treatment, and a significant increase in the activity of wide dynamic range neurons in the SDH. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that chronic treatment with oxaliplatin produces neurotoxic changes in BALB/c mice, confirming that this model is a suitable tool to conduct further mechanistic studies of oxaliplatin-related antineoplastic activity, peripheral neurotoxicity and pain. Further, this model can be used for the preclinical discovery of new neuroprotective and analgesic compounds.

  10. Synthesis of biologically active porcine secretin and [ITyr10] porcine secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans

    1991-01-01

    Porcine secretin, [Tyr10] secretin, and [Tyr13] secretin were synthesized by solid phase methodology and purified by stepwise gradient elution from a short reversed-phase column with ethanol and acetic acid as organic modifiers. [Tyr10] secretin and [Tyr13] secretin were iodinated by the chloramine...

  11. Relationship of glomerular filtration rate based on serum iodixanol clearance to IRIS staging in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Ryosuke; Sato, Tsubasa; Katayama, Masaaki; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2015-08-01

    We examined the correlation between the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from an equation based on the serum iodixanol clearance technique and International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. The equation included the injection dose, sampling time, serum concentration and estimated volume of distribution (Vd) of the isotonic, nonionic, contrast medium iodixanol as a test tracer. The percent changes in the median basal GFR values calculated from the equation in CKD cats resembled those of IRIS stages 1-3. These data validate the association between the GFR derived from the simplified equation and IRIS stages based on the serum creatinine concentration in cats with CKD. They describe the GFR ranges determined using single-sample iodixanol clearance for healthy cats and cats with various IRIS stages of CKD. PMID:25864431

  12. Primary care physicians’ perspectives on computer-based health risk assessment tools for chronic diseases: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Voruganti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Health risk assessment tools compute an individual’s risk of developing a disease. Routine use of such tools by primary care physicians (PCPs is potentially useful in chronic disease prevention. We sought physicians’ awareness and perceptions of the usefulness, usability and feasibility of performing assessments with computer-based risk assessment tools in primary care settings.Methods Focus groups and usability testing with a computer-based risk assessment tool were conducted with PCPs from both university-affiliated and community-based practices. Analysis was derived from grounded theory methodology.Results PCPs (n = 30 were aware of several risk assessment tools although only select tools were used routinely. The decision to use a tool depended on how use impacted practice workflow and whether the tool had credibility. Participants felt that embedding tools in the electronic medical records (EMRs system might allow for health information from the medical record to auto-populate into the tool. User comprehension of risk could also be improved with computer-based interfaces that present risk in different formats.Conclusions In this study, PCPs chose to use certain tools more regularly because of usability and credibility. Despite there being differences in the particular tools a clinical practice used, there was general appreciation for the usefulness of tools for different clinical situations. Participants characterised particular features of an ideal tool, feeling strongly that embedding risk assessment tools in the EMR would maximise accessibility and use of the tool for chronic disease management. However, appropriate practice workflow integration and features that facilitate patient understanding at point-of-care are also essential. 

  13. Long-Term Survival of Neonatal Porcine Islets Without Sertoli Cells in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Vald and eacute;s-Gonz and aacute;lez; Ana L. Rodriguez-Ventura; Briceyda Gonz and aacute;lez-Ram and iacute;rez; Benjam and iacute;n Le and oacute;n-Mancilla; Pedro Valencia; Mar and iacute;a del Carmen Garc and iacute;a de Le and oacute;n; Ruy P and eacute;rez-Tamayo

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising treatment for metabolic disorders such as type-1 diabetes. Transplantation protocols have investigated several anatomical sites for cell implantation; however, some of these procedures, such as intraportal infusion, can cause organ failure or thrombosis secondarily. Bio-artificial organs could be the choice, although concerns still remain. Using a subcutaneous device, we are able to preserve neonatal porcine islets without sertoli cells in healthy New Zealand...

  14. Characterization of biaxial mechanical behavior of porcine aorta under gradual elastin degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Chow, Ming-Jay; Turcotte, Raphaël; Zhang, Yanhang

    2013-01-01

    Arteries are composed of multiple constituents that endow the wall with proper structure and function. Many vascular diseases are associated with prominent mechanical and biological alterations in the wall constituents. In this study, planar biaxial tensile test data of elastase-treated porcine aortic tissue (Chow et al. 2012) is re-examined to characterize the altered mechanical behavior at multiple stages of digestion through constitutive modeling. Exponential-based as well as recruitment-b...

  15. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Jiangxi province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Aijiang; Wu Guohua; Gong Wei; Luo Xuenong; Zheng Haixue; Jia Huanjie; Cai Xuepeng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2007, herds of pigs in Jiangxi Province, China experienced outbreaks of a severe form of suspected porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) characterized by high fever, high morbidity and mortality in animals of different ages. 152 swine sera and 42 tissues (consisting of liver, lung, lymph node and kidney) from five herds of pigs were collected. Pigs were diagnosed as infected with a highly pathogenic form of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) based on ELISA and reverse transcrip...

  16. Virus-like particles as a vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh Murthy, Ambika Mosale

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. The unsatisfactory efficacy and safety of these vaccines, drives for the development of new generation PRRS universal vaccines. Virus like particles (VLPs) based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present t...

  17. Chronic Conditions and Utility-Based Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jennifer M; Hanmer, Janel; Ward, Zachary J; Leisenring, Wendy M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Hudson, Melissa M; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Diller, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    Health utility, a summary measure of quality of life, has not been previously used to compare outcomes among childhood cancer survivors and individuals without a cancer history. We estimated health utility (0, death; 1, perfect health) using the Short Form-6D (SF-6D) in survivors (n = 7105) and siblings of survivors (n = 372) (using the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort) and the general population (n = 12 803) (using the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey). Survivors had statistically significantly lower SF-6D scores than the general population (mean = 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.766 to 0.771, vs mean = 0.809, 95% CI = 0.806 to 0.813, respectively, ITALIC! PYoung adult survivors (age 18-29 years) reported scores comparable with general population estimates for people age 40 to 49 years. Among survivors, SF-6D scores were largely determined by number and severity of chronic conditions. No clinically meaningful differences were identified between siblings and the general population (mean = 0.793, 95% CI = 0.782 to 0.805, vs mean = 0.809, 95% CI = 0.806 to 0.813, respectively). This analysis illustrates the importance of chronic conditions on long-term survivor quality of life and provides encouraging results on sibling well-being. Preference-based utilities are informative tools for outcomes research in cancer survivors. PMID:27102402

  18. Differences in brain structure in patients with distinct sites of chronic pain A voxel-based morphometric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Mao; Longxiao Wei; Qiuli Zhang; Xia Liao; Xiaoli Yang; Ming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in gray matter volume is common in patients with chronic back pain, and different types of pain are associated with gray matter abnormalities in distinct brain regions. To examine ences in brain morphology in patients with low back pain or neck and upper back pain, we gated changes in gray matter volume in chronic back pain patients having different sites of pain using voxel-based morphometry. A reduction in cortical gray matter volume was found primarily in the left postcentral gyrus and in the left precuneus and bilateral cuneal cortex of patients with low back pain. In these patients, there was an increase in subcortical gray matter volume in the bilateral putamen and accumbens, right pal idum, right caudate nucleus, and left amygdala. In upper back pain patients, reduced cortical gray matter volume was found in the left precentral and left tral cortices. Our findings suggest that regional gray matter volume abnormalities in low back pain patients are more extensive than in upper back pain patients. Subcortical gray matter volume in-creases are found only in patients with low back pain.

  19. Home-based pulmonary rehabilitation program: Effect on exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanem Maha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is pulmonary rehabilitation (PR, the corner stone of which is exercise training. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of a two-months, home-based PR program with outpatient supervision every two weeks, on exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life (HRQL using Arabic-translated standardized generic and specific questionnaires in COPD patients recently recovered from acute exacerbation, Design: Randomized clinical trial. Setting and Subjects: A total of 39 COPD patients who recovered from acute exacerbation were randomly allocated either a two-month home-based PR program in addition to standard medical therapy or standard medical therapy alone in the period between July 2008 and March 2009. Methods: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs, six-minute walk distance (6-MWD test, Arabic-translated chronic respiratory disease questionnaire-self administered standardized format (CRQ-SAS and quality of life scale Short Form (SF-36 were compared between 25 patients with moderate to severe COPD who underwent a two-month PR program (group 1 and 14 COPD patients who did not (group 2. Results: Group 1 showed significant improvement in the 6-MWD, and HRQL scores at two months compared with the usual care patients in group 2 (P less than 0.05. Improvement in both CRQ-SAS and SF-36 scores were statistically significant and comparable in group 1. Conclusion: The supervised, post discharge, two-month home-based PR program is an effective non pharmacological intervention in the management of stable patients with COPD. The 6-MWD is a simple, inexpensive and safe test to assess physical and functional capabilities among COPD patients. HRQL can be measured in patients with COPD either by disease-specific tools that have been specifically designed for use in patients with respiratory system disorders or by generic HRQL tools that can be used across

  20. A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist-feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain: randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Fors, E.A.; Eide, E.; Finset, A.; Stensrud, T.L.; Dulmen, S. van; Wigers, S.H.; Eide, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internet-based interventions using cognitive behavioral approaches can be effective in promoting self-management of chronic pain conditions. Web-based programs delivered via smartphones are increasingly used to support the self-management of various health disorders, but research on smar

  1. A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist-feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjansdottir, O.B.; Fors, E.A.; Eide, E.; Finset, A.; Stensrud, T.L.; Dulmen, S. van; Wigers, S.H.; Eide, H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internet-based interventions using cognitive behavioral approaches can be effective in promoting self-management of chronic pain conditions. Web-based programs delivered via smartphones are increasingly used to support the self-management of various health disorders, but research on smar

  2. A STUDY TO ANALYSE THE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PILATES BASED EXERCISES AND THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.Albert Anand,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal symptoms seen in 85 % of individuals in their life time. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Modified Pilates based exercises for patients with Chronic Non Specific Low Back Pain. Design: A randomized controlled trial, pre test-post test design Setting: The study was conducted in Out Patient Department of physiotherapy, K.G Hospital, Coimbatore, India. Patients: Fifty– two physically active subjects between 18 – 60 years old with Chronic Non specific Low Specific Pain of more than 12 weeks’ duration were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Interventions: Group A subjects underwent a Modified specific Pilates based exercises with Flexibility Exercises & Group B Subjects underwent a Therapeutic Exercises with Flexibility Exercises were conducted over of 8 weeks. Measurements: Back specific Functional Status outcome were measured with the Oswestry Disability Index and pain intensity were measured with Visual analogue scale. Conclusion: The study concluded that the Modified specific Pilates based exercises helps in reducing the pain, improve the back specific function, improve general health, personal Care, Social Life and flexibility in individuals with non specific chronic low back pain than the therapeutic exercise group.

  3. Enzymatic engineering of the porcine genome with transposons and recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Daniel F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine is an important agricultural commodity and biomedical model. Manipulation of the pig genome provides opportunity to improve production efficiency, enhance disease resistance, and add value to swine products. Genetic engineering can also expand the utility of pigs for modeling human disease, developing clinical treatment methodologies, or donating tissues for xenotransplantation. Realizing the full potential of pig genetic engineering requires translation of the complete repertoire of genetic tools currently employed in smaller model organisms to practical use in pigs. Results Application of transposon and recombinase technologies for manipulation of the swine genome requires characterization of their activity in pig cells. We tested four transposon systems- Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, piggyBac, and Passport in cultured porcine cells. Transposons increased the efficiency of DNA integration up to 28-fold above background and provided for precise delivery of 1 to 15 transgenes per cell. Both Cre and Flp recombinase were functional in pig cells as measured by their ability to remove a positive-negative selection cassette from 16 independent clones and over 20 independent genomic locations. We also demonstrated a Cre-dependent genetic switch capable of eliminating an intervening positive-negative selection cassette and activating GFP expression from episomal and genome-resident transposons. Conclusion We have demonstrated for the first time that transposons and recombinases are capable of mobilizing DNA into and out of the porcine genome in a precise and efficient manner. This study provides the basis for developing transposon and recombinase based tools for genetic engineering of the swine genome.

  4. Chronic effects of temperature on mortality in the Southeastern USA using satellite-based exposure metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Wang, Yan; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kosheleva, Anna; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-07-01

    Climate change may affect human health, particularly for elderly individuals who are vulnerable to temperature changes. While many studies have investigated the acute effects of heat, only a few have dealt with the chronic ones. We have examined the effects of seasonal temperatures on survival of the elderly in the Southeastern USA, where a large fraction of subpopulation resides. We found that both seasonal mean temperature and its standard deviation (SD) affected long-term survival among the 13 million Medicare beneficiaries (aged 65+) in this region during 2000–2013. A 1 °C increase in summer mean temperature corresponded to an increase of 2.5% in death rate. Whereas, 1 °C increase in winter mean temperature was associated with a decrease of 1.5%. Increases in seasonal temperature SD also influence mortality. We decomposed seasonal mean temperature and its temperature SD into long-term geographic contrasts between ZIP codes and annual anomalies within ZIP code. Effect modifications by different subgroups were also examined to find out whether certain individuals are more vulnerable. Our findings will be critical to future efforts assessing health risks related to the future climate change.

  5. Refined medullary blast and white blood cell count based classification of chronic myelomonocytic leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, E; Schroeder, M; Neukirchen, J; Strupp, C; Xicoy, B; Kündgen, A; Hildebrandt, B; Haas, R; Gattermann, N; Germing, U

    2014-12-01

    Since 2001, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is classified by the WHO as myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic neoplasm. Herein we tried to better describe CMML patients with regard to hematological characteristics and prognosis using data of the Duesseldorf registry. We created 6 CMML subgroups, by dividing dysplastic and proliferative CMML at the cut-off of white blood cell count of 13,000/μL and splitting these two groups into 3 subgroups: CMML 0 with <5% blasts (n=101), CMML I with 5-9% blasts (n=204) and CMML II with 10-19% blasts (n=81). For comparison we included patients with RCMD, RAEB I and II. The newly created CMML 0 group had better prognosis than CMML I and II, median survival times were 31 months (ms), 19ms and 13ms, respectively (p<0.001). Median survival times between the corresponding dysplastic and proliferative subgroups 0 and 1 differed significantly: CMML 0 dysplastic 48ms and CMML 0 proliferative 17ms (p=0.03), CMML I dysplastic 29ms and CMML I proliferative 15ms (p=0.008), CMML II dysplastic 17ms and CMML II proliferative 10ms (p=0.09). Outcome of CMML patients worsens with increasing medullary blasts and when presenting as proliferative type. Therefore it is justified to separate CMML with <5% medullary blasts. PMID:25444076

  6. Reverse transcription-PCR assays for the differentiation of various US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinsheng; Wang, Qiuhong

    2016-08-01

    Concurrently, several porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variants are circulating in US swine farms, including the original US and the spike insertion-deletion (S-INDEL) strains. In this study, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays for the detection and differentiation of different US PEDV variants were developed based on the differences in the S1 domain of the spike (S) gene. This assay successfully differentiated three PEDV strains: PC22A (the original US virulent), Iowa106 (S-INDEL), and PC177 (S-197DEL) that was derived from cell culture adaptation and has a 197 amino acid-deletion in the S1 domain. The assays did not amplify the porcine deltacoronavirus OH-FD22 strain or transmissible gastroenteritis virus Miller strain. It is the first report on the development of RT-PCR assays allowing the detection and differentiation of all major types of US PEDV variants. PMID:27134071

  7. Chronic Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one type ...

  8. The effectiveness of a semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention to optimise chronic care management in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Tina Drud; Thorsen, Thorkil; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm;

    2014-01-01

    the number of spirometry tests, changes in the use of ICPC diagnosis coding and patient stratification; sign-up for a software program for patient overview; and reduction in number of practices with few annual chronic disease check-ups. RESULTS: We randomised 189 general practices: 96 practices were...... (p = 0.1639). However, some secondary outcomes favoured the intervention: a higher reported use of ICPC diagnosis coding for DM2 and COPD (p = 0.0050, p = 0.0243 respectively), stratification for COPD (p = 0.0185) and a faster initial sign-up rate for the software program. CONCLUSION: The mixed...... results from this study indicate that a semi-tailored facilitator-based intervention of relatively low intensity is unlikely to add substantially to the implementation of disease management programmes for DM2 and COPD in a context marked by important concurrent initiatives (including financial incentives...

  9. Regular physical activity reduces hospital admission and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Lange, Peter; Benet, M; Schnohr, P; Antó, J M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the influence of regular physical activity on the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce. A study was undertaken to examine the association between regular physical activity and both hospital admissions for COPD and all-cause and specific...... mortality in COPD subjects. METHODS: From a population-based sample recruited in Copenhagen in 1981-3 and 1991-4, 2386 individuals with COPD (according to lung function tests) were identified and followed until 2000. Self-reported regular physical activity at baseline was classified into four categories....... RESULTS: After adjustment for relevant confounders, subjects reporting low, moderate or high physical activity had a lower risk of hospital admission for COPD during the follow up period than those who reported very low physical activity (incidence rate ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0...

  10. Non surgical laser and light in the treatment of chronic diseases: a review based on personal experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, L.

    2010-11-01

    Since many years some effects of non surgical laser and light on biological tissue have been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo. This review is based on the results obtained by me and my colleagues/follower in Italy. Aim of our study is to verify the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non surgical laser and light therapy on patients with chronic diseases not good treatable with traditional therapies, as diabetes, and central nervous system injuries. In addition, many clinical data have emerged from double-blind trials on laser treatment of rheumatic diseases and in sports medicine. So, we would like to do a review on the state of the art of non surgical laser treatment in medicine, included aesthetic laser and light therapy field. We discuss the indications and limitations of aesthetic laser medicine, as concluded from the data analysis of the published literature and from over thirty years of personal experiences.

  11. Non surgical laser and light in the treatment of chronic diseases: a review based on personal experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since many years some effects of non surgical laser and light on biological tissue have been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo. This review is based on the results obtained by me and my colleagues/follower in Italy. Aim of our study is to verify the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non surgical laser and light therapy on patients with chronic diseases not good treatable with traditional therapies, as diabetes, and central nervous system injuries. In addition, many clinical data have emerged from double-blind trials on laser treatment of rheumatic diseases and in sports medicine. So, we would like to do a review on the state of the art of non surgical laser treatment in medicine, included aesthetic laser and light therapy field. We discuss the indications and limitations of aesthetic laser medicine, as concluded from the data analysis of the published literature and from over thirty years of personal experiences

  12. Income level and chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions in adults: a multicity population-based study in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forastiere Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A relationship between quality of primary health care and preventable hospitalizations has been described in the US, especially among the elderly. In Europe, there has been a recent increase in the evaluation of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC as an indicator of health care quality, but evidence is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether income level is associated with higher hospitalization rates for ACSC in adults in a country with universal health care coverage. Methods From the hospital registries in four Italian cities (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Rome, we identified 9384 hospital admissions for six chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma among 20-64 year-olds in 2000. Case definition was based on the ICD-9-CM coding algorithm suggested by the Agency for Health Research and Quality - Prevention Quality Indicators. An area-based (census block income index was used for each individual. All hospitalization rates were directly standardised for gender and age using the Italian population. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between income level (quintiles and hospitalization rates (RR, 95% CI separately for the selected conditions controlling for age, gender and city of residence. Results Overall, the ACSC age-standardized rate was 26.1 per 10.000 inhabitants. All conditions showed a statistically significant socioeconomic gradient, with low income people being more likely to be hospitalized than their well off counterparts. The association was particularly strong for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (level V low income vs. level I high income RR = 4.23 95%CI 3.37-5.31 and for congestive heart failure (RR = 3.78, 95% CI = 3.09-4.62. With the exception of asthma, males were more vulnerable to ACSC hospitalizations than females. The risks were higher among 45-64 year

  13. Risk and Prognosis of Bloodstream Infections among Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Skov Dalgaard

    Full Text Available Infections are common complications among patients on chronic hemodialysis. This population-based cohort study aims to estimate risk and case fatality of bloodstream infection among chronic hemodialysis patients.In this population-based cohort study we identified residents with end-stage renal disease in Central and North Jutland, Denmark who had hemodialysis as first renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis patients during 1995-2010. For each hemodialysis patient, we sampled 19 persons from the general population matched on age, gender, and municipality. Information on positive blood cultures was obtained from regional microbiology databases. All persons were observed from cohort entry until first episode of bloodstream infection, emigration, death, or end of hemodialysis treatment, whichever came first. Incidence-rates and incidence-rate ratios were computed and risk factors for bloodstream infection assessed by Poisson regression. Case fatality was compared by Cox regression.Among 1792 hemodialysis patients and 33 618 matched population controls, we identified 461 and 1126 first episodes of bloodstream infection, respectively. Incidence rates of first episode of bloodstream infection were 13.7 (95% confidence interval (CI, 12.5-15.0 per 100 person-years among hemodialysis patients and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.50-0.56 per 100 person-years among population controls. In hemodialysis patients, the most common causative microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (43.8% and Escherichia coli (12.6%. The 30-day case fatality was similar among hemodialysis patients and population controls 16% (95% CI, 13%-20% vs. 18% (95% CI, 15%-20%.Hemodialysis patients have extraordinary high risk of bloodstream infection while short-term case fatality following is similar to that of population controls.

  14. Risk and Prognosis of Bloodstream Infections among Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov Dalgaard, Lars; Nørgaard, Mette; Jespersen, Bente; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Infections are common complications among patients on chronic hemodialysis. This population-based cohort study aims to estimate risk and case fatality of bloodstream infection among chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods In this population-based cohort study we identified residents with end-stage renal disease in Central and North Jutland, Denmark who had hemodialysis as first renal replacement therapy (hemodialysis patients) during 1995–2010. For each hemodialysis patient, we sampled 19 persons from the general population matched on age, gender, and municipality. Information on positive blood cultures was obtained from regional microbiology databases. All persons were observed from cohort entry until first episode of bloodstream infection, emigration, death, or end of hemodialysis treatment, whichever came first. Incidence-rates and incidence-rate ratios were computed and risk factors for bloodstream infection assessed by Poisson regression. Case fatality was compared by Cox regression. Results Among 1792 hemodialysis patients and 33 618 matched population controls, we identified 461 and 1126 first episodes of bloodstream infection, respectively. Incidence rates of first episode of bloodstream infection were 13.7 (95% confidence interval (CI), 12.5–15.0) per 100 person-years among hemodialysis patients and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.50–0.56) per 100 person-years among population controls. In hemodialysis patients, the most common causative microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (43.8%) and Escherichia coli (12.6%). The 30-day case fatality was similar among hemodialysis patients and population controls 16% (95% CI, 13%–20%) vs. 18% (95% CI, 15%–20%). Conclusions Hemodialysis patients have extraordinary high risk of bloodstream infection while short-term case fatality following is similar to that of population controls. PMID:25910221

  15. Chronic gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understand...

  16. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  17. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shyamali C Dharmage,1 Jennifer L Perret,1,2, John A Burgess,1 Caroline J Lodge,1 David P Johns,3 Paul S Thomas,4 Graham G Giles,1,5 John L Hopper,1,6 Michael J Abramson,7,8 E Haydn Walters,3,9, Melanie C Matheson1 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS, Melbourne, VIC, 3“Breathe Well” Center of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Ageing, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 4Inflammation and Infection Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 5Cancer Epidemiology Center, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Department of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 8School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 9School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background and objective: Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age.Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583. Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729, from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389 underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate

  18. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  19. Porcine Neonatal Coccidiosis in Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Y; MORIN, M

    1982-01-01

    Intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed in 110 diarrheic piglets originating from 66 farrowing operations. These piglets had been submitted alive for necropsy early after the beginning of diarrhea, and the diagnosis of coccidiosis was based on the demonstration of coccidial forms in their jejunum by histopathological examination. Enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli were demonstrated in only nine of the 110 piglets while the transmissible gastroenteritis virus and rotavirus were each pre...

  20. Nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K M; Lovich, J E; Lam, C; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2014-07-01

    The lactocrine hypothesis suggests a mechanism whereby milk-borne bioactive factors delivered to nursing offspring affect development of neonatal tissues. The objective of this study was to assess whether nursing affects testicular development in neonatal boars as reflected by: (1) Sertoli cell number and proliferation measured by GATA-4 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining patterns; (2) Leydig cell development and steroidogenic activity as reflected by insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), and P450 side chain cleavage (scc) enzyme expression; and (3) expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, and relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) 1. At birth, boars were randomly assigned (n = 6-7/group) to nurse ad libitum or to be pan fed porcine milk replacer for 48 h. Testes were collected from boars at birth, before nursing and from nursed and replacer-fed boars at 50 h on postnatal day (PND) 2. Sertoli cell proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index increased (P relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) levels increased (P < 0.01) with age and were greater in replacer-fed boars on PND 2. Results suggest that nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development and provide additional evidence for the importance of lactocrine signaling in pigs. PMID:24906933

  1. Analysis of porcine MHC expression profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Fanbo; CHEN Chen; DENG Yajun; YU Jun; HU Songnian

    2005-01-01

    The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC, also named swine leukocyte antigen, SLA) is associated not only with immune responsibility and disease susceptibility, but also with some reproductive and productive traits such as growth rate and carcass composition. As yet systematical research on SLA expression profile is not reported. In order to illustrate SLA expression comprehensively and deepen our understanding of its function, we outlined the expression profile of SLA in 51 tissues of Landrace by analyzing a large amount of ESTs produced by "Sino-Danish Porcine Genome Project". In addition, we also compared the expression profile of SLA in several tissues from different development stages and from another breed (Erhualian). The result shows: (i) classical SLA genes are highly expressed in immune tissues and middle part of intestine; (ii) although SLA-3 is an SLA Ia gene, its expression abundance and pattern are quite different from those of the other two SLA Ia genes. The same phenomenon is seen in HLA-C expression, suggesting that the two genes may function similarly and undergo convergent evolution; (iii) except in jejunum, the antigen presenting genes are more highly expressed in breed Erhualian than in Landrace. The difference might associate with the higher resistance to bad conditions (including pathogens) of Erhualian and higher growth rates of Landrace.

  2. Shared decision making in chronic care in the context of evidence based practice in nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen-Storms, J.H.; Bours, G.J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Beurskens, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the decision-making environment of evidence-based practice, the following three sources of information must be integrated: research evidence of the intervention, clinical expertise, and the patient's values. In reality, evidence-based practice usually focuses on research evidence (which may be tr

  3. Shared decision making in chronic care in the context of evidence based practice in nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen-Storms, JH; Bours, GJ; Weijden, T van der; Beurskens, AJ

    2015-01-01

    In the decision-making environment of evidence-based practice, the following three sources of information must be integrated: research evidence of the intervention, clinical expertise, and the patient’s values. In reality, evidence-based practice usually focuses on research evidence (which may be tr

  4. Phenotypic and Functional Analysis of Porcine T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 陈应华

    2001-01-01

    Porcine and other higher mammals express clusters of differentiation (CD) antigens on the surface of T lymphocytes, such as CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, etc. However, in porcine, a high percentage of the CD4+ CD8-T lymphocyte subpopulation exist in the peripheral blood and the ratio of the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subpopulations is reversed. These differences bring new challenges to better understanding of the phenotype and function of porcine T lymphocytes in antigen recognition and immune response.

  5. Evaluation of the Human Host Range of Bovine and Porcine Viruses that may Contaminate Bovine Serum and Porcine Trypsin Used in the Manufacture of Biological Products

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus-Sekura, Carol; Richardson, James C.; Rebecca K. Harston; Sane, Nandini; Sheets, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    Current U.S. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 9CFR tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9CFR requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9CFR testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. Recent ...

  6. Integrated, Team-Based Chronic Pain Management: Bridges from Theory and Research to High Quality Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Mary A; Kerns, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant public health concern. For many, chronic pain is associated with declines in physical functioning and increases in emotional distress. Additionally, the socioeconomic burden associated with costs of care, lost wages and declines in productivity are significant. A large and growing body of research continues to support the biopsychosocial model as the predominant framework for conceptualizing the experience of chronic pain and its multiple negative impacts. The model also informs a widely accepted and empirically supported approach for the optimal management of chronic pain. This chapter briefly articulates the historical foundations of the biopsychosocial model of chronic pain followed by a relatively detailed discussion of an empirically informed, integrated, multimodal and interdisciplinary treatment approach. The role of mental health professionals, especially psychologists, in the management of chronic pain is particularly highlighted. PMID:26900068

  7. Novel Three-Day, Community-Based, Nonpharmacological Group Intervention for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain (COPERS): A Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie J. C.; Carnes, Dawn; Homer, Kate; Kahan, Brennan C.; Hounsome, Natalia; Eldridge, Sandra; Spencer, Anne; Pincus, Tamar; Underwood, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for chronic pain is often limited, and there is growing concern about the adverse effects of these treatments, including opioid dependence. Nonpharmacological approaches to chronic pain may be an attractive alternative or adjunctive treatment. We describe the effectiveness of a novel, theoretically based group pain management support intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods and Findings We conducted a multi-centre, pragmatic, randomised, controlled effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (cost–utility) trial across 27 general practices and community musculoskeletal services in the UK. We recruited 703 adults with musculoskeletal pain of at least 3 mo duration between August 1, 2011, and July 31, 2012, and randomised participants 1.33:1 to intervention (403) or control (300). Intervention participants were offered a participative group intervention (COPERS) delivered over three alternate days with a follow-up session at 2 wk. The intervention introduced cognitive behavioural approaches and was designed to promote self-efficacy to manage chronic pain. Controls received usual care and a relaxation CD. The primary outcome was pain-related disability at 12 mo (Chronic Pain Grade [CPG] disability subscale); secondary outcomes included the CPG disability subscale at 6 mo and the following measured at 6 and 12 mo: anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), pain acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire), social integration (Health Education Impact Questionnaire social integration and support subscale), pain-related self-efficacy (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire), pain intensity (CPG pain intensity subscale), the census global health question (2011 census for England and Wales), health utility (EQ-5D-3L), and health care resource use. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle

  8. A novel approach to population-based risk stratification, comprising individualized lifestyle intervention in Danish general practice to prevent chronic diseases: Results from a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Søndergaard, Jens; Halling, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    ) identification of patients already diagnosed with a lifestyle-related chronic disease, and (4) risk estimation and stratification of apparently healthy patients using questionnaire and electronic patient record data on validated risk estimation models. We show that it is feasible to implement a novel......Early detection of patients at risk seems to be effective for reducing the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. We aim to test the feasibility of a novel intervention for early detection of lifestyle-related chronic diseases based on a population-based stratification using a...... combination of questionnaire and electronic patient record data. The intervention comprises four elements: (1) collection of information on lifestyle risk factors using a short 15-item questionnaire, (2) electronic transfer of questionnaire data to the general practitioners’ electronic patient records, (3...

  9. Sequence-Based Polymorphisms in the Mitochondrial D-Loop and Potential SNP Predictors for Chronic Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Bor Chen; Yi-Hsin Yang; Wen-Chin Lee; Chia-Wei Liou; Tsu-Kung Lin; Yueh-Hua Chung; Li-Yeh Chuang; Cheng-Hong Yang; Hsueh-Wei Chang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial (mt) displacement loop (D-loop) is known to accumulate structural alterations and mutations. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the D-loop among chronic dialysis patients and healthy controls. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We enrolled 193 chronic dialysis patients and 704 healthy controls. SNPs were identified by large scale D-loop sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Chronic dialysis p...

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Utility-Based Quality of Life in Chronic Kidney Disease Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Wyld, Melanie; Morton, Rachael Lisa; Hayen, Andrew; Howard, Kirsten; Webster, Angela Claire

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Ill health can adversely affect an individual's quality of life, particularly if caused by long-term (chronic) conditions, such as chronic kidney disease—in the United States alone, 23 million people have chronic kidney disease, of whom 570,000 are treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation. In order to measure the cost-effectiveness of interventions to manage medical conditions, health economists use an objective measurement known as quality-adjusted life yea...

  11. Pedometer-Based Internet-Mediated Intervention For Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Krein, Sarah L.; Kadri, Reema; Hughes, Maria; Kerr, Eve A.; Piette, John D; Holleman, Rob; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Richardson, Caroline R

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic pain, especially back pain, is a prevalent condition that is associated with disability, poor health status, anxiety and depression, decreased quality of life, and increased health services use and costs. Current evidence suggests that exercise is an effective strategy for managing chronic pain. However, there are few clinical programs that use generally available tools and a relatively low-cost approach to help patients with chronic back pain initiate and maintain an exerc...

  12. Shared decision making in chronic care in the context of evidence based practice in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen-Storms, JH; Bours, GJ; van der Weijden, T; Beurskens, AJ

    2015-01-01

    In the decision-making environment of evidence-based practice, the following three sources of information must be integrated: research evidence of the intervention, clinical expertise, and the patient’s values. In reality, evidence-based practice usually focuses on research evidence (which may be translated into clinical practice guidelines) and clinical expertise without considering the individual patient’s values. The shared decision-making model seems to be helpful in the integration of th...

  13. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics of Endoscopically-Collected Pancreatic Fluid in Chronic Pancreatitis Research

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, Joao A.; Lee, Linda S.; Wu, Bechien; Peter A Banks; Steen, Hanno; Darwin L Conwell

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based investigation of pancreatic fluid enables the high-throughput identification of proteins present in the pancreatic secretome. Pancreatic fluid is a complex admixture of digestive, inflammatory, and other proteins secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum, and thus is amenable to mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Recent advances in endoscopic techniques, in particular the endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT), have improved the collection methodology of ...

  14. 38 CFR 3.316 - Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., bronchitis, emphysema, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (3) Full-body exposure to nitrogen mustard during active military service together with the subsequent development of acute...

  15. Weight-based dosing of pegylated interferon-alpha in chronic hepatitis C: just a marketing 'gag'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenci, P

    2003-09-01

    Today medical-scientific data are diluted by the marketing strategies of the biomedical industry making it difficult for practising physicians to decide what is correct or wrong. One typical example is the use of pegylated interferons for treatment of chronic hepatititis C. In this report the arguments pro and contra weight-based dosing are critically discussed. The factors contributing to success or failure to eradicate the virus are manifold, and include the sensitivity of the virus to interferon, viral genotype, age, gender stage of fibrosis, presence or absense of steatosis. Weight by itself plays just a minor role. The impact of weight-based dosing in general is overestimated and certainly not needed when 40 kD branched PEG-IFNalpha2a with a restricted volume of distribution is used. Whether weight-based dosing of 12 kD linear PEG-IFNalpha2b provides any benefit over a flat dose of the drug remains to be studied. PMID:14563179

  16. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuengel Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with a chronic illness (CI challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the intervention program may enhance the use of learned coping strategies in daily life, especially on the long-term. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral based group intervention (called 'Op Koers' 1 for children with CI and of a parallel intervention for their parents. A secondary objective is to investigate why and for whom this intervention works, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the intervention effect. Methods/design This study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants are children (8 to 18 years of age with a chronic illness, and their parents, recruited from seven participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomly allocated to two intervention groups (the child intervention group and the child intervention combined with a parent program and a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes are child psychosocial functioning, wellbeing and child disease related coping skills. Secondary outcomes are child quality of life, child general coping skills, child self-perception, parental stress, quality of parent-child interaction, and parental perceived vulnerability. Outcomes are evaluated at baseline, after 6 weeks of treatment, and at a 6 and 12-month follow-up period. The analyses will be performed on the basis of an intention-to-treat population. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a group intervention improving psychosocial functioning in children with CI and their parents. If proven effective, the intervention will be implemented in clinical practice. Strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed

  17. Comparative effects of dexamethasone and bergenin on chronic bronchitis and their anti-inflammatory mechanisms based on NMR metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaolei; Ma, Shuangshuang; Wang, Juan; Tian, Simin; Fu, Xiaorui; Liu, Xinfeng; Li, Zhongfeng; Zhao, Baosheng; Wang, Xueyong

    2016-05-24

    In order to compare the effect of dexamethasone and bergenin on chronic bronchitis and to reveal their anti-inflammatory mechanisms, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was performed to explore the potential biomarkers of the disease and study the therapeutic mechanisms of the drugs. In this study, 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, namely control, model, dexamethasone and bergenin groups, with 10 rats in each group. Except for the control group, rats from the other three groups were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 h d(-1) for 28 days. During the modeling, dexamethasone (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and bergenin (87 mg kg(-1)) were administered orally to dexamethasone or bergenin rats 3 h after exposure every day. On the other hand, control and model rats were intragastrically administered water. According to the results of morphometric analysis of the airway epithelium and the count of white blood cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), dexamethasone and bergenin could suppress the infiltration of inflammatory cells, inhibit the secretion of mucus, and reduce white blood cells in BALF. Serum samples from the rats' orbits were collected every week. The metabolic profiles of sera were analyzed by multivariate statistical analyses, including PCA, PLS-DA and OPLS-DA models, and 18 metabolites were identified. The dynamic fluctuations of these biomarkers in sera from different groups were detected. The results suggested that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of dexamethasone may be associated with BCAA metabolism and glycolysis while bergenin could change BCAA metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and glycolysis to treat chronic bronchitis. PMID:27098339

  18. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay of Porcine Leydig Cell DNA Damage Induced by Zearalenone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwei ZHEN; Qincl LIU; Jianhong GU; Yan YUAN; Xuezhong LIU; Handong WANG; Zongping LIU; Jianchun BIAN

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of zearalenone (ZEN) on DNA damage of porcine leydig cells. [Method] Porcine leydig cells cultured in vitro were collected to determine the median lethal dose (LD~o) of ZEN with tetra- zolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay). Comet assay was carried out to de- tect the DNA damage of porcine leydig cells exposed to at 0 (negative group), 1, 5, 10, 20, 40 tJmol/L of ZEN. [Result] The percentage of cell tail was 16.67%, 34.00%, 40.67%. 52.00% and 64.67% under 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 ~mo~/L o~ ZEN, respectively; the differences between the percentages of celt tail in various experimental groups had extremely significant statistical significance compared with the negative group (P〈0.01), showing a significant dose-effect relationship; Tail length in various groups was 57.60_+4.78, 57.75_+6.25, 78.97_+5.83, 100.50~6.94 and 146.83_+12.31 ~m, re- spectively; Tail DNA % in various groups was 21.29_+2.25%, 22.24_+2.43%, 31.21_+ 6.27%, 37.45_+4.33% and 60.68_+9.83%, respectively; Tail length and Tail DNA % in experimental groups with ZEN concentration above 5 ~mo~/L showed significant dif- ferences (P〈0.05) compared with the negative group, which showed an upward trend with the increase of ZEN concentration. [Conclusion] ZEN has genotoxic effect on porcine leydig cells, which can cause DNA damage, with a significant dose-effect relationship.

  19. Fucosyl-GM1a, an endoglycoceramidase-resistant ganglioside of porcine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Monjusho, Hatsumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Hama, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Iwamori, Masao; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    The use of bovine brain has been prohibited in many countries because of the world-wide prevalence of mad cow disease, and thus porcine brain is expected to be a new source for the preparation of gangliosides. Here, we report the presence of a ganglioside in porcine brain which is strongly resistant to hydrolysis by endoglycoceramidase, an enzyme capable of cleaving the glycosidic linkage between oligosaccharides and ceramides of various glycosphingolipids. Five major gangliosides (designated PBG-1, 2, 3, 4, 5) were extracted from porcine brain by Folch's partition, followed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and PBA column chromatography. We found that PBG-2, but not the others, was strongly resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. After the purification of PBG-2 with Q-Sepharose, Silica gel 60 and Prosep-PB chromatographies, the structure of PBG-2 was determined by GC, GC-MS, FAB-MS and NMR spectroscopy as Fucalpha1-2Galbeta1-3GalNAcbeta1-4(NeuAcalpha2-3)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'Cer (fucosyl-GM1a). The ceramide was mainly composed of C18:0 and C20:0 fatty acids and d18:1 and d20:1 sphingoid bases. The apparent kcat/Km for fucosyl-GM1a was found to be 30 times lower than that for GM1a, indicating that terminal fucosylation makes GM1a resistant to hydrolysis by the enzyme. This report indicates the usefulness of endoglycoceramidase to prepare fucosyl-GM1a from porcine brain. PMID:17167042

  20. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masahito [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Nakauchi Stem Cell and Organ Regeneration Project, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Umeyama, Kazuhiro [Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); International Cluster for Bio-Resource Research, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Matsunari, Hitomi [Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Takayanagi, Shuko [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Nakauchi Stem Cell and Organ Regeneration Project, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Haruyama, Erika; Nakano, Kazuaki; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Ikezawa, Yuka [Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Nakauchi Stem Cell and Organ Regeneration Project, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo University, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); and others

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. {yields} ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. {yields} Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor the exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  1. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. → ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. → Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor the exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  2. Biochanin A affects steroidogenesis and estrogen receptor-β expression in porcine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynca, Anna; Swigonska, Sylwia; Piasecka, Joanna; Kolomycka, Agnieszka; Kaminska, Barbara; Radziewicz-Pigiel, Marta; Gut-Nagel, Marta; Ciereszko, Renata E

    2013-10-15

    Biochanin A, similar to other isoflavones, is present in soy and soy-based food, but predominantly in red clover. Red clover extract and biochanin A were reported to affect reproductive processes as well as to demonstrate menopause relief and anticancerogenic properties. Because porcine granulosa cells provide a suitable in vitro model for studying the intracellular mechanism of phytoestrogen action in the ovary, the objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of biochanin A on the following: (1) progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) secretion by granulosa cells, (2) viability of the granulosa cells, and (3) mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in the granulosa cells harvested from both medium (3-6 mm) and large (≥8 mm) porcine ovarian follicles. RIA, alamarBlue assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemistry were used in the study to address the objectives. Biochanin A significantly inhibited P4 and did not affect E2 secretion by porcine granulosa cells regardless of the size of follicles that served as the source of the cells. Cell viability was not affected by the treatment. Biochanin A did not alter ERα and ERβ mRNA levels in the cultured porcine granulosa cells. In contrast, this isoflavone increased (P < 0.05) the immunoexpression of ERβ in the cells from both follicle types. In summary, biochanin A, similar to genistein and daidzein, affects follicular steroidogenesis and ER expression. Its effect on ERβ protein was more intense compared with other previously examined phytoestrogens. PMID:23953692

  3. Simultaneous typing of seven porcine pathogens by multiplex PCR with a GeXP analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ling; Lin, Xingyu; Nie, Fuping; ZexiaoYang; Yao, Xueping; Li, Guili; Wu, Xulong; Ren, Meishen; Wang, Yin

    2016-06-01

    A novel high-throughput method was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven porcine pathogens by multiplex PCR based on a GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyser. The pathogens included in this study were pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), African swine fever virus (ASFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Seven pairs of chimeric primers, consisting of a pathogen-specific sequence fused to a universal sequence at the 5' end, were used to initiate the PCR, after which a set of universal primers was used for the subsequent cycles of the PCR. Amplification products were separated by capillary electrophoresis and identified using fluorescence spectrophotometry. The specificity of the GeXP assay was examined with single and mixed pathogen cDNA/DNA templates. The specific DNA product amplification peaks of seven pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyser. Negative controls did not produce DNA products. The sensitivity was evaluated by performing the assay on serial 10-fold dilutions of the plasmids containing the target sequence. Under optimised conditions this assay achieved a sensitivity of 100-1000 copies/μL for a single virus and 1000 copies/μL when all of the seven pre-mixed viral targets were present. Furthermore, the GeXP-PCR assay was 100% specific when 58 clinical samples were tested in comparison with the conventional PCR method. In conclusion, the GeXP assay is a rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, specific and high throughput method for simultaneously detecting seven pathogens that infect swine. PMID:26706731

  4. Age-related changes in biomechanical properties of transgenic porcine pulmonary and aortic conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limitations associated with conventional valve prosthesis have led to a search for alternatives. One potential approach is tissue engineering. Most tissue engineering studies have described the biomechanical properties of heart valves derived from adult pigs. However, because one of the factors affecting the function of valve prosthesis after implantation is appropriate sizing for a given patient, it is important to evaluate the usefulness of a heart valve given the donor animal’s weight and age. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the age of a pig can influence the biomechanical and hemodynamical properties of porcine heart valve prosthesis after acellularization. Acellular porcine aortic and pulmonary valve conduits were used. Hearts were harvested from animals differing in weight and age. The biomechanical properties of the valves were then characterized using a uniaxial tensile test. Moreover, computer simulations based on the finite element method (FEM) were used to study the influence of biomechanical properties on the hemodynamic conditions. Studying biomechanical and morphological changes in porcine heart valve conduits according to the weight and age of the animals can be valuable for developing age-targeted therapy using tissue engineering techniques. (paper)

  5. Comparing Normothermic Machine Perfusion Preservation With Different Perfusates on Porcine Livers From Donors After Circulatory Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Nassar, A; Farias, K; Buccini, L; Mangino, M J; Baldwin, W; Bennett, A; O'Rourke, C; Iuppa, G; Soliman, B G; Urcuyo-Llanes, D; Okamoto, T; Uso, T D; Fung, J; Abu-Elmagd, K; Miller, C; Quintini, C

    2016-03-01

    The utilization of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) may be an effective strategy to resuscitate livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD). There is no consensus regarding the efficacy of different perfusates on graft and bile duct viability. The aim of this study was to compare, in an NMP porcine DCD model, the preservation potential of three different perfusates. Twenty porcine livers with 60 min of warm ischemia were separated into four preservation groups: cold storage (CS), NMP with Steen solution (Steen; XVIVO Perfusion Inc., Denver, CO), Steen plus red blood cells (RBCs), or whole blood (WB). All livers were preserved for 10 h and reperfused to simulate transplantation for 24 h. During preservation, the NMP with Steen group presented the highest hepatocellular injury. At reperfusion, the CS group had the lowest bile production and the worst hepatocellular injury compared with all other groups, followed by NMP with Steen; the Steen plus RBC and WB groups presented the best functional and hepatocellular injury outcomes, with WB livers showing lower aspartate aminotransferase release and a trend toward better results for most parameters. Based on our results, a perfusate that contains an oxygen carrier is most effective in a model of NMP porcine DCD livers compared with Steen solution. Specifically, WB-perfused livers showed a trend toward better outcomes compared with Steen plus RBCs. PMID:26663737

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: vet@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE.

  7. Long-Term Survival of Neonatal Porcine Islets Without Sertoli Cells in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vald and eacute;s-Gonz and aacute;lez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy is a promising treatment for metabolic disorders such as type-1 diabetes. Transplantation protocols have investigated several anatomical sites for cell implantation; however, some of these procedures, such as intraportal infusion, can cause organ failure or thrombosis secondarily. Bio-artificial organs could be the choice, although concerns still remain. Using a subcutaneous device, we are able to preserve neonatal porcine islets without sertoli cells in healthy New Zealand rabbits. Devices were implanted in the back of the animals underneath the skin, and after 3 months the islets were transplanted. Histology showed the presence of inflammatory cells, predominantly eosinophils; however, insulin- and glucagon-positive cell clusters were identified inside the device at different time points for at least 90 days, and porcine C-peptide was also detected during the follow-up, indicating graft functionality. We have found that our device induces the deposition of a fibrous matrix enriched in blood vessels, which forms a good place for cell grafting, and this model is probably able to induce an immunoprivileged site. Under these conditions, transplanted porcine islet cells have the capability of producing insulin and glucagon for at least three months. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 101-108

  8. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE

  9. Genetic characterization of porcine kobuvirus variants identified from healthy piglets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Zhen-Peng; Wang, Wan-Yi; Yang, Juan; Qin, Ai-Jian; Yang, Han-Chun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, two porcine kobuvirus strains, JS-01-CHN and JS-02a-CHN were detected from piglets with diarrhea and asymptomatic, respectively. The sequences of the two strains were analyzed using a bioinformatics software package. The full-length genome of JS-02a-CHN, was detected in healthy piglets was 8121 nucleotides (nt) long excluding the poly(A) tail. There was a 30 amino acid deletion in the 2B-coding region of JS-02a-CHN. We are the first to report a 30 amino acid deletion in porcine kobuvirus from asymptomatic piglets, indicating that porcine kobuvirus may have evolved differently based on geography and host differences. Fecal samples were obtained from pigs with diarrhea (n=91) and healthy (n=126) pigs and analyzed using RT-PCR. Of these, 64.8% (59/91) of diarrheic piglets and 19.8% (25/126) of healthy piglets were positive for PKV using VP1 specific primers. Twenty-eight (28) virus positive samples were randomly selected and the VP1 gene was analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 15 strains isolated from pigs with diarrhea clustered into different branches, while the VP1 sequences from clinically healthy pigs clustered into a single large group. These results indicate that the VP1 gene is diverse in pigs with diarrhea but conserved in healthy pigs in the Jiangsu Province. PMID:26238210

  10. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that 125I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of 125I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of 125I-pPRL was bound. 125I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites

  11. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs

  12. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  13. Genetic and Environmental Risk for Chronic Pain and the Contribution of Risk Variants for Major Depressive Disorder: A Family-Based Mixed-Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew M.; Zeng, Yanni; Davies, Gail; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Hayward, Caroline; Haley, Chris S.; Porteous, David J.; Deary, Ian J.; Smith, Daniel J.; Hinds, David A.; Jones, Amy V.; Scollen, Serena; Meng, Weihua; Hocking, Lynne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is highly prevalent and a significant source of disability, yet its genetic and environmental risk factors are poorly understood. Its relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD) is of particular importance. We sought to test the contribution of genetic factors and shared and unique environment to risk of chronic pain and its correlation with MDD in Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS). We then sought to replicate any significant findings in the United Kingdom Biobank study. Methods and Findings Using family-based mixed-model analyses, we examined the contribution of genetics and shared family environment to chronic pain by spouse, sibling, and household relationships. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS (n = 23,960), a family- and population-based study of individuals recruited from the Scottish population through their general practitioners. We then examined and partitioned the correlation between chronic pain and MDD and estimated the contribution of genetic factors and shared environment in GS:SFHS. Finally, we used data from two independent genome-wide association studies to test whether chronic pain has a polygenic architecture and examine whether genomic risk of psychiatric disorder predicted chronic pain and whether genomic risk of chronic pain predicted MDD. These analyses were conducted in GS:SFHS and repeated in UK Biobank, a study of 500,000 from the UK population, of whom 112,151 had genotyping and phenotypic data. Chronic pain is a moderately heritable trait (heritability = 38.4%, 95% CI 33.6% to 43.9%) that is significantly concordant in spouses (variance explained 18.7%, 95% CI 9.5% to 25.1%). Chronic pain is positively correlated with depression (ρ = 0.13, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.15, p = 2.72x10-68) and shows a tendency to cluster within families for genetic reasons (genetic correlation = 0.51, 95%CI 0.40 to 0.62, p = 8.24x10-19). Polygenic risk profiles for pain, generated using independent GWAS

  14. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...... electrical vagal stimulation was shown by gel filtration to consist of the same two forms. By use of immunocytochemical techniques employing an antiserum directed against its N terminus, GRP was localized to varicose nerve fibers in close association with the exocrine tissue of the porcine pancreas...... in particular. Some fibers were found penetrating into pancreatic islets also. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies as well as fibers were found within intrapancreatic ganglia. The potency of GRP in stimulating exocrine as well as endocrine secretion from the porcine pancreas, its presence in close contact...

  15. A Web-Based Therapeutic Workplace for the Treatment of Drug Addiction and Chronic Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J.; Grabinski, Michael J.; Hampton, Jacqueline; Sylvest, Christine E.; Dillon, Erin M.; Wentland, R. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a Web-based therapeutic workplace intervention designed to promote heroin and cocaine abstinence and train and employ participants as data entry operators. Patients are paid to participate in training and then to perform data entry jobs in a therapeutic workplace business. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients…

  16. Effectiveness of the introduction of a Chronic Care Model-based program for type 2 diabetes in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Maeseneer Jan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During a four-year action research project (2003-2007, a program targeting all type 2 diabetes patients was implemented in a well-defined geographical region in Belgium. The implementation of the program resulted in an increase of the overall Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC score from 1.45 in 2003 to 5.5 in 2007. The aim of the follow-up study in 2008 was to assess the effect of the implementation of Chronic Care Model (CCM elements on the quality of diabetes care in a country where the efforts to adapt primary care to a more chronic care oriented system are still at a starting point. Methods A quasi-experimental study design involving a control region with comparable geographical and socio-economic characteristics and health care facilities was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention in the region. In collaboration with the InterMutualistic Agency (IMA and the laboratories from both regions a research database was set up. Study cohorts in both regions were defined by using administrative data from the Sickness Funds and selected from the research database. A set of nine quality indicators was defined based on current scientific evidence. Data were analysed by an institution experienced in longitudinal data analysis. Results In total 4,174 type 2 diabetes patients were selected from the research database; 2,425 patients (52.9% women with a mean age of 67.5 from the intervention region and 1,749 patients (55.7% women with a mean age of 67.4 from the control region. At the end of the intervention period, improvements were observed in five of the nine defined quality indicators in the intervention region, three of which (HbA1c assessment, statin therapy, cholesterol target improved significantly more than in the control region. Mean HbA1c improved significantly in the intervention region (7.55 to 7.06%, but this evolution did not differ significantly (p = 0.4207 from the one in the control region (7.44 to 6

  17. A Systematic Review of Web-Based Interventions for Patient Empowerment and Physical Activity in Chronic Diseases: Relevance for Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.; Groen, W.G.; Aaronson, N.K.; Harten, van W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such

  18. Web-based, self-management enhancing interventions with e-diaries and personalized feedback for persons with chronic illness: a tale of three studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, A.A.G.; Eide, H.; Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chronic illness places high demands on patients. Interventions supporting self-management and providing personalized feedback might help patients to gain new perspectives and enhance use of constructive self-management strategies. We developed three comparable web-based CBT-grounded inter

  19. Web-based, self-management enhancing interventions with e-diaries and personalized feedback for persons with chronic illness: A tale of three studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, A.A.; Eide, H.; Kristjansdottir, O.B.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic illness places high demands on patients. Interventions supporting self-management and providing personalized feedback might help patients to gain new perspectives and enhance use of constructive self-management strategies. We developed three comparable web-based CBT-grounded inter

  20. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  1. [Chronic migraine: treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Julio

    2012-04-10

    We define chronic migraine as that clinical situation in which migraine attacks appear 15 or more days per month. Until recently, and in spite of its negative impact, patients with chronic migraine were excluded of the clinical trials. This manuscript revises the current treatment of chronic migraine. The first step should include the avoidance of potential precipitating/aggravating factors for chronic migraine, mainly analgesic overuse and the treatment of comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The symptomatic treatment should be based on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and triptans (in this case ergotamine-containing medications. Preventive treatment includes a 'transitional' treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or steroids, while preventive treatment exerts its actions. Even though those medications efficacious in episodic migraine prevention are used, the only drugs with demonstrated efficacy in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine are topiramate and pericranial infiltrations of Onabotulinumtoxin A. PMID:22532241

  2. A Large Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan, Versican, in Porcine Predentin

    OpenAIRE

    Okahata, Saori; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Fukae, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Proteoglycans and their constituent glycosaminoglycan (GAG) have been proposed to be involved in the inhibition of mineralization in unmineralized tissue, predentin. Among the proteoglycans secreted by odontoblasts, we focused on the large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, versican, for its large binding capacity for calcium ions. The aims of this study were the determination of the full-length sequence and splicing variants of the porcine versican, and the detection of versican in the porcin...

  3. Immunological half-life of porcine proinsulin C-peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunological half-lifes of injected porcine C-peptide and insulin with RIA were studied and calculated as 9.8 and 8.0 minutes. Higher circulating levels of C-peptide as compared to insulin in normal young swines lead to speculation about a longer half-life of C-peptide. This hypothesis was verified in this study. Immunological half-lifes of porcine proinsulin and insulin in the pig were 20 and 6 minutes, respectively. (GSE)

  4. A novel porcine bocavirus harbors a variant NP gene

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Sung J; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Ko, Seong Sik; Je, Sang H; Lee, Dong Uk; Lyoo, Young S

    2015-01-01

    Background Porcine bocavirus is classified within the genus Bocaparvovirus, family Parvoviridae. Unlike other parvoviruses, the members of genus Bocaparvovirus (bocaparvoviruses) encode an additional open reading frame (NP1). Many strains of PBoVs have been identified in domestic pigs and recognized as a potential emerging pathogen causing respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. Findings A new strain of porcine bocavirus (PBoV) that harbored the shortest NP1 gene among all currently charact...

  5. Structural Determination and Daily Variations of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Nannan; Ochonicky, Karen L.; German, J Bruce; Donovan, Sharon M.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2010-01-01

    Free milk oligosaccharides (OS) is a major component of mammalian milk. Swine are important agricultural species and biomedical models. Despite their importance, little is known of the OS profile of porcine milk. Herein, the porcine milk glycome was elucidated and monitored over the entire lactation period by liquid chromatography profiling and structural determination with mass spectrometry. Milk was collected from second parity sows (n=3) at farrowing and on days 1, 4, 7 and 24 of lactation...

  6. A clinical comparison of purified bovine and purified porcine insulins.

    OpenAIRE

    Olczak, S A; Greenwood, R H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty four patients with established insulin dependent diabetes treated with twice daily soluble and isophane bovine insulins were changed to equivalent doses of either purified bovine Neusulin and Neuphane (Wellcome) or purified porcine Actrapid and Monotard (Novo) insulins. After 6 months treatment the porcine group showed a 35% fall in insulin binding antibodies and a 14% reduction in insulin dosage. The group changed to purified bovine insulins showed no significant change in insulin bin...

  7. ePoint.telemed--An Open Web-based Platform for Home Monitoring of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthe, Halgeir; Serrano, J Artur

    2015-01-01

    In North Norway, no telemonitoring services for chronic heart failure (CHF) have yet been established, hence no investigations in the area have been published. However, large distances and a sparse population are causes for extra expenditure on hospital visits. In this paper, we describe the ePoint.telemed platform for home telemonitoring of CHF patients. We have reviewed the literature on home monitoring techniques, and developed two prototype platforms for remote collection of physiological data. We have refined one of the prototypes and subjected it to user testing among health professionals and their clients. Fifty patients will be involved in a randomized controlled trial aiming to establish if the home telemonitoring of CHF is clinically feasible and cost-effective. The ePoint.telemed platform is a fully automated internet based system meant for early warnings in a CHF rehabilitation program. The core of the platform is a dashboard connected to a blood pressure meter, a weight scale, and a web-based patient questionnaire. Unlike traditional systems built on dedicated medical equipment, we are applying easy-to-use components geared towards the sports market. PMID:26262013

  8. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. PMID:22579481

  9. Cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir-based treatments for chronic hepatitis C in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Sai; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Griffin, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The standard care of treatment of interferon plus ribavirin (plus protease inhibitor for genotype 1) are effective in 50 % to 70 % of patients with CHC. Several new treatments including Harvoni, Olysio + Sovaldi, Viekira Pak, Sofosbuvir-based regimens characterized with potent inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) providing more options for CHC patients. Trials have shown that the new treatments increased the rate to 80 % to 95 %, though with a sub...

  10. Ontology-Based Information Gathering System for Patients with Chronic Diseases: Lifestyle Questionnaire Design

    OpenAIRE

    Benmimoune, Lamine; Hajjam, Amir; Ghodous, Parisa; Andres, Emmanuel; Talha, Samy; Hajjam, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an original approach which consists of designing an Information Gathering System (IGS). This system gathers the most relevant information related to the patient. Our IGS is based on using questionnaire ontology and adaptive engine which collects relevant information by prompting the whole significant questions in connection with the patient' s medical background. The formerly collected answers are also taken into consideration in the questions selection pr...

  11. Murine pulmonary responses after sub-chronic exposure to aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers

    OpenAIRE

    Adamcakova-Dodd Andrea; Stebounova Larissa V; O’Shaughnessy Patrick T; Kim Jong; Grassian Vicki H; Thorne Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aluminum oxide-based nanowhiskers (AO nanowhiskers) have been used in manufacturing processes as catalyst supports, flame retardants, adsorbents, or in ceramic, metal and plastic composite materials. They are classified as high aspect ratio nanomaterials. Our aim was to assess in vivo toxicity of inhaled AO nanowhisker aerosols. Methods Primary dimensions of AO nanowhiskers specified by manufacturer were 2–4 nm x 2800 nm. The aluminum content found in this nanomaterial was...

  12. Comparison between Mt-DNA D-Loop and Cyt B primers for porcine DNA detection in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhana; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products in the market using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercial PCR-southern hybridization analysis. Porcine DNA detection in meat products was tested due to some issues associated with the adulteration of food products in Malaysia. This is an important issue especially for Halal authentication which is required for some religious practices such as in Islam and Hinduisms. Many techniques have been developed for determining the Halal status of food products. In this paper, mt-DNA D-loop primer and cytochrome (cyt) b were used to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products. Positive and negative controls were always present for each batch of extraction. DNA of raw pork meat was used as a positive control while nucleus free water is used as negative control. A pair of oligonucleotide primer was used namely Pork1 and Pork2 which produced amplicon of 531 base pair (bp) in size. While, PCR-southern hybridization was conducted using primers readily supplied by commercial PCR-Southern hybridization and produced amplicon with 276 bp in size. In the present study, demonstrated that none of the samples were contaminated with porcine residuals but selected samples with pork meat were positive. The species-specific PCR amplification yielded excellent results for identification of pork derivatives in food products and it is a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for Halal certification.

  13. Chronic penile strangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Roberto I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic penile strangulation is exceedingly rare with only 5 cases previously reported. We report an additional case of progressive penile lymphedema due to chronic intermittent strangulation caused by a rubber band applied to the penile base for 6 years. A 49-year-old man presented incapacity to exteriorize the glans penis. For erotic purposes, he had been using a rubber-enlarging band placed in the penile base for 6 years. With chronic use, he noticed that his penis swelled. Physical examination revealed lymphedema of the penis, phimosis and a stricture in the penile base. The patient was submitted to circumcision and the lymphedema remained stable 10 months postoperatively. Chronic penile incarceration usually causes penile lymphedema and urinary disturbance. Treatment consists of removal of foreign devices and surgical treatment of lymphedema.

  14. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...... heterogeneity, PRRSV is divided into two genotypes, Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 PRRS viruses are further divided into at least 3 subtypes. The virus evolves rapidly and reports of high pathogenic variants of both Type 1 and Type 2 appearing in Europe, North America, and Asia have been reported within recent years...... viruses showed both a higher diversity to the other Danish viruses and to the vaccine strain and one virus harbored the largest deletion in NSP2 reported in Danish Type 2 PRRSV. Manuscript IV is focusing on an experimental infection study in pigs with a Type 2 PRRS virus causing significant clinical...

  15. "Here we're all in the same boat" - a qualitative study of group based rehabilitation for sick-listed citizens with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Nygaard; Kohberg, Maria; Herborg, Lene Gram;

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impacts upon everyday life. A degree of chronicity may pose an increased risk of sickness absence. One of two rehabilitative interventions, "Tailored Physical Activity" or "Chronic Pain Self-Management Program", was offered to sick-listed citizens who experienced pain. The...... objectives of this paper were to: (1) Assess what factors are experienced as problematic for sick-listed citizens in everyday life with chronic pain, and (2) Evaluate the significance of two distinct rehabilitative interventions on the future everyday lives of sick-listed citizens. Seven semi......-structured interviews with sick-listed citizens were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Results were discussed by applying the theoretical framework of Antonovsky's salutogenetic model and Yaloms principles for group psychology. The potential for development of citizen's coping is evaluated based...

  16. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability in a community-based sample: Association with chronic illness and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtzager, Bregje A; Möller, Eline L; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Last, Bob F; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of parental perceptions of a child's vulnerability (PPCV) in a Dutch community-based sample and its relationship with children's health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Parents completed the Child Vulnerability Scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was administered to measure HRQoL. The prevalence of PPCV was assessed in relation to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. In a three-step multiple hierarchical regression model, the mediational role of PPCV in the association between chronic illness and HRQoL was investigated. Participants were 520 Dutch children aged 5-18 years from nine Dutch schools. In all, 69 (13.3%) had a chronic illness; 1.9% was perceived vulnerable, 3.0% in groups 5-7 and 1.7% in groups 8-12 and 13-18. Younger age of the child, presence of a chronic illness and low HRQoL were associated with PPCV. PPCV partially mediated the negative association between chronic illness and HRQoL. In conclusion, PPCV is associated with adjustment to chronic illness. More research is needed regarding the mechanisms through which PPCV affects HRQoL and to examine whether PPCV can be targeted in parenting interventions. PMID:24842887

  17. Waiting for Treatment for Chronic Pain – a Survey of Existing Benchmarks: Toward Establishing Evidence-Based Benchmarks for Medically Acceptable Waiting Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Lynch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As medical costs escalate, health care resources must be prioritized. In this context, there is an increasing need for benchmarks and best practices in wait time management. In December 2005, the Canadian Pain Society struck a Task Force to identify benchmarks for acceptable wait times for treatment of chronic pain. The task force mandate included a systematic review and survey to identify national or international wait time benchmarks for chronic pain, proposed or in use, along with a review of the evidence upon which they are based. An extensive systematic review of the literature and a survey of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapter Presidents and key informants has identified that there are no established benchmarks or guidelines for acceptable wait times for the treatment of chronic pain in use in the world. In countries with generic guidelines or wait time standards that apply to all outpatient clinics, there have been significant challenges faced by pain clinics in meeting the established targets. Important next steps are to ensure appropriate additional research and the establishment of international benchmarks or guidelines for acceptable wait times for the treatment of chronic pain. This will facilitate advocacy for improved access to appropriate care for people suffering from chronic pain around the world.

  18. Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Guadalupe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated circulating levels of several inflammatory biomarkers have been described in selected patient populations with COPD, although less is known about their population-based distribution. The aims of this study were to compare the levels of several systemic biomarkers between stable COPD patients and healthy subjects from a population-based sample, and to assess their distribution according to clinical variables. Methods This is a cross-sectional study design of participants in the EPI-SCAN study (40-80 years of age. Subjects with any other condition associated with an inflammatory process were excluded. COPD was defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC Results We compared 324 COPD patients and 110 reference subjects. After adjusting for gender, age, BMI and tobacco consumption, COPD patients showed higher levels of CRP (0.477 ± 0.023 vs. 0.376 ± 0.041 log mg/L, p = 0.049, TNF-α (13.12 ± 0.59 vs. 10.47 ± 1.06 pg/mL, p = 0.033, IL-8 (7.56 ± 0.63 vs. 3.57 ± 1.13 pg/ml; p = 0.033 and NOx (1.42 ± 0.01 vs. 1.36 ± 0.02 log nmol/l; p = 0.048 than controls. In COPD patients, serum concentrations of some biomarkers were related to severity and their exercise tolerance was related to serum concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, fibrinogen and albumin. Conclusions Our results provide population-based evidence that COPD is independently associated with low-grade systemic inflammation, with a different inflammatory pattern than that observed in healthy subjects.

  19. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  20. Porcine circovirus diseases: a review of PMWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekbo, P; Kristensen, C S; Larsen, L E

    2012-03-01

    This article is a review on post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), the first described disease among the porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome has, since its appearance in Canada in 1991, been seen in all major pig producing countries. To diagnose PMWS at herd level typical clinical appearance consisting of wasting and increased mortality must be combined with finding at autopsy of diseased pigs, where typical microscopic findings in the lymphatic tissue must be present. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome significantly increases the mortality and reduces the daily weight gain in weaner pig and/or in finishing pigs. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome can be transmitted by pig-to-pig contact and some studies point at airborne transmission as a possibility. Studies in Europe have shown several risk factors that either increase or decrease the risk for a pig herd to be affected by PMWS. At the pig level, studies have shown the importance of maternal immunity as protection for subsequent development of PMWS. To control PMWS, good production management and control of other diseases are crucial. Since 2004, commercial vaccines against Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta-analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy of the vaccines in significantly reducing mortality and increasing weight gain of the pigs. PMID:22252114

  1. Daily home-based spirometry during withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroid in severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Roisin R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin,1 Kay Tetzlaff,2,3 Henrik Watz,4 Emiel FM Wouters,5 Bernd Disse,2 Helen Finnigan,6 Helgo Magnussen,4 Peter MA Calverley7 1Respiratory Institute, Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Clínic IDIBAPS-CIBERES, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim, Germany; 3Department of Sports Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; 4Pulmonary Research Institute at Lung Clinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 6Department of Biostatistics and Data Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell, UK; 7Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, Aintree University Hospital, Liverpool, UK Abstract: The WISDOM study (NCT00975195 reported a change in lung function following withdrawal of fluticasone propionate in patients with severe to very severe COPD treated with tiotropium and salmeterol. However, little is known about the validity of home-based spirometry measurements of lung function in COPD. Therefore, as part of this study, following suitable training, patients recorded daily home-based spirometry measurements in addition to undergoing periodic in-clinic spirometric testing throughout the study duration. We subsequently determined the validity of home-based spirometry for detecting changes in lung function by comparing in-clinic and home-based forced expiratory volume in 1 second in patients who underwent stepwise fluticasone propionate withdrawal over 12 weeks versus patients remaining on fluticasone propionate for 52 weeks. Bland–Altman analysis of these data confirmed good agreement between in-clinic and home-based measurements, both across all visits and at the individual visits at study weeks 6, 12, 18, and 52. There was a measurable difference between the forced expiratory volume

  2. A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist-feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain. Part 2: 11-month follow-up results of a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Fors, E.A.; Eide, E.; Finset, A.; Stensrud, T.L.; Dulmen, S. van; Wigers, S.H.; Eide, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internet-based interventions are increasingly used to support self-management of individuals with chronic illnesses. Web-based interventions may also be effective in enhancing self-management for individuals with chronic pain, but little is known about long-term effects. Research on Web-

  3. A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain. part 2: 11-month follow-up results of a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristjansdottir, O.B.; Fors, E.A.; Eide, E.; Finset, A.; Stensrud, T.L.; Dulmen, S. van; Wigers, S.H.; Eide, H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internet-based interventions are increasingly used to support self-management of individuals with chronic illnesses. Web-based interventions may also be effective in enhancing self-management for individuals with chronic pain, but little is known about long-term effects. Research on Web-

  4. Two-photon spectral fluorescence lifetime and second-harmonic generation imaging of the porcine cornea with a 12-femtosecond laser microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten

    2016-03-01

    Five dimensional microscopy with a 12-fs laser scanning microscope based on spectrally resolved two-photon autofluorescence lifetime and second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging was used to characterize all layers of the porcine cornea. This setup allowed the simultaneous excitation of both metabolic cofactors, NAD(P)H and flavins, and their discrimination based on their spectral emission properties and fluorescence decay characteristics. Furthermore, the architecture of the stromal collagen fibrils was assessed by SHG imaging in both forward and backward directions. Information on the metabolic state and the tissue architecture of the porcine cornea were obtained with subcellular resolution, and high temporal and spectral resolutions.

  5. Benefits and costs of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a multi-centre randomised controlled equivalence trial

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Anne E; Mahal, Ajay; Hill, Catherine J; Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela T; Moore, Rosemary; Nicolson, Caroline; O’Halloran, Paul; Cox, Narelle S.; Lahham, Aroub; Ndongo, Rebecca; Bell, Emily; McDonald, Christine F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary rehabilitation is widely advocated for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to improve exercise capacity, symptoms and quality of life, however only a minority of individuals with COPD are able to participate. Travel and transport are frequently cited as barriers to uptake of centre-based programs. Other models of pulmonary rehabilitation, including home-based programs, have been proposed in order to improve access to this important treatment. Previous...

  6. Evaluating Comparative Effectiveness Research Priorities for Care Coordination in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Community-Based eDelphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stellefson, Michael; Alber, Julia; Paige, Samantha; Castro, Daniela; Singh, Briana

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite research supporting the use of care coordination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is relatively little known about the comparative effectiveness of different strategies used to organize care for patients. To investigate the most important COPD care coordination strategies, community-based stakeholder input is needed, especially from medically underserved populations. Web-based platforms are electronic tools now being used to bring together individuals ...

  7. A randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) for chronic, treatment-resistant depression: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Cladder-Micus, M.B.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Becker, E.S.; Donders, A. R. T.; Spijker, J.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major depression is a common psychiatric disorder, frequently taking a chronic course. Despite provision of evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medication and psychological treatments like cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy, a substantial amount of patients do not recover. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has been found to be effective in reducing relapse in recurrent depression, as well as lowering symptom levels in acute depression. T...

  8. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations. Objective: To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI population. Design: In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and triple therapy with a protease inhibitor. For individuals treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, the effect of patient characteristics on response was also examined. Results: Sustained virologic response (SVR with standard interferon was 16.7% (3/18 and with standard interferon and ribavirin was 29.7% (11/37. Of 119 persons treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, 61 achieved SVR (51.3%, including 10 of 46 with genotype 1 (21.7%, 38 of 51 with genotype 2 (74.5% and 13 of 22 with genotype 3 (59.1%. By multivariate analysis, SVR in the pegylated interferon group was associated with female sex (p=0.002, estimated duration of infection (p=0.034 and HCV genotype (p<0.0001. There was a high discontinuation rate due to side effects in those treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotype 1 (52.2%. Seven of 15 genotype 1 patients treated with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir or boceprevir achieved SVR (46.7%. Conclusions: We had success with pegylated interferon-based treatment of AN/AI people with genotypes 2 and 3. However, there were low SVR and high discontinuation rates for those with genotype 1.

  9. Mindfulness-and body-psychotherapy-based group treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound in absence of an external acoustic source, impairs the quality of life in 2% of the population. Since in most cases causal treatment is not possible, the majority of therapeutic attempts aim at developing and strengthening individual coping and habituation strategies. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular in the treatment of stress-related disorders. Here we conducted a randomized, controlled clinical study to investigate the efficacy of a specific mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy based program in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Methods Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this pilot study. The treatment was specifically developed for tinnitus patients and is based on mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Treatment was performed as group therapy at two training weekends that were separated by an interval of 7 weeks (eleven hours/weekend and in four further two-hour sessions (week 2, 9, 18 and 22. Patients were randomized to receive treatment either immediately or after waiting time, which served as a control condition. The primary study outcome was the change in tinnitus complaints as measured by the German Version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Results ANOVA testing for the primary outcome showed a significant interaction effect time by group (F = 7.4; df = 1,33; p = 0.010. Post hoc t-tests indicated an amelioration of TQ scores from baseline to week 9 in both groups (intervention group: t = 6.2; df = 17; p  Conclusions Our results suggest that this mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy-based approach is feasible in the treatment of tinnitus and merits further evaluation in clinical studies with larger sample sizes. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540357.

  10. frequency and risk factors for chronic HCV infection: a community based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was a community based, cross-sectional study undertaken to assess the frequency of HCV infection and to find out the risk factors associated with its spread. Methods: Study was carried out from Oct 2004 to Mar 2005. One hundred and twenty five apparently healthy consecutive subjects not known to be infected with HBV or HCV, between the ages 13 and 60 years with equal sex distribution were selected from the population of the Village Mera Kalan near Rawalpindi. They were screened for Anti HCV antibodies using ELISA and interviewed in detail. Subjects found positive for Anti HCV Ab were tested for ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) levels and HCV RNA by PCR. Results: The frequency of HCV was found to be 53.6%. The most important risk factor associated with the transmission of HCV infection was unsafe injection therapy with contaminated equipment. Other risk factors include ear and nose piercing by unsterilized means in females and sharing of razors in males. Conclusion: The prevalence of HCV infection in our population is significantly higher than in the developed world. Public awareness programs should target the identified risk factors to prevent HCV transmission. (author)

  11. Understanding the Association Between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Current Anxiety: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley

    2016-10-01

    This study's objectives were to investigate the independent relationship between COPD and past-year Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a population-based sample of adult Canadians and to identify significant correlates of GAD among COPD patients. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted with a sample of 11,163 respondents aged 50+ from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health to determine the degree to which the direct association between COPD and GAD was attenuated by socio-demographic factors, social support, health behaviors, sleep problems, pain, functional limitations, and early childhood adversities. Additional analyses were completed using the sub-sample of those diagnosed with COPD (n = 746) to determine predictors of GAD. One in 17 (5.8%) of older individuals with COPD had past-year GAD, in comparison to 1.7% of those without (p depressive disorders (OR = 3.59, 95% CI:1.61,7.98). Those with COPD have substantially higher odds of GAD even after most known risk factors for GAD are accounted for. These findings have implications for targeted outreach and screening, particularly for patients with pain and functional limitations. The importance of a multidisciplinary healthcare team is underscored by the multiple issues that may impact GAD among COPD patients. PMID:26830204

  12. The economic impact of chronic pain: a nationwide population-based cost-of-illness study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Mendonça, Liliane; Dias, Cláudia Camila; Castro-Lopes, José M

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its high frequency and relevant individual and social impact, chronic pain (CP) has been shown to be a major contributor to increased healthcare utilisation, reduced labour productivity, and consequently large direct and indirect costs. In the context of a larger nationwide study, we aimed to assess the total annual direct and indirect costs associated with CP in Portugal. A population-based study was conducted in a representative sample of the Portuguese adult population. The 5,094 participants were selected using random digit dialling and contacted by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Questionnaires included the brief pain inventory and pain disability index. Estimates were adequately weighted for the population. From all CP subjects identified, a subsample (n = 562) accepted to participate in this economic study. Mean total annualised costs per CP subject of €1,883.30 were observed, amounting to €4,611.69 million nationally, with 42.7% direct and 57.3% indirect costs, and corresponding to 2.71% of the Portuguese annual GDP in 2010. Only socio-demographic variables were significantly and independently associated with CP costs, and not CP severity, raising the possibility of existing inequalities in the distribution of healthcare in Portugal. The high economic impact of CP in Portugal was comprehensively demonstrated. Given the high indirect costs observed, restricting healthcare services is not a rational response to these high societal costs; instead improving the quality of CP prevention and management is recommended. PMID:25416319

  13. Elastic compression treatment of chronic superficial venous insufficiency of the lower limbs based on Doppler venous pressure index measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Corcos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ineffectiveness or discomfort from graduated elastic compression stockings (GES in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI and/or varicose veins of the lower limbs (VVLL can depend of inappropriate counter pressure applied. Counter pressure was calculated by Doppler venous pressure index (VPI. The aim of this study was to verify the value VPI in the choice of GES. A total of 1212 LL of 606 patients subjected to VPI measurements VPI correlated with the various sites of reflux (R and C of Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP classification. The difference between standing VPI the and normal values=counter pressure to be applied by GES. Questionnaire to 96 patients with CVI/VVLL wearing GES. Mean VPI values: greater saphenous (GSV>smaller saphenous; GSV with isolated venous reflux (R at the leg>GSV at the thigh; additional R in perforators increases VPI in all the districts; superficial R increases VPI in PT. Relation between VPI/C of CEAP: P<0.05-0.0001; 81/83/96 (97.5% patients improved; 0 complained. R in GSV at the leg and in perforators increases VPI in deep veins. Few discrepancies VPI/CEAP can be expected. Standing VPI is highly predictive. The best choice of GES can be based on the VPI measurement.

  14. Incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia and patient survival: results of five French population-based cancer registries 1980-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penot, Amélie; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Le Guyader, Sandra; Collignon, Albert; Herry, Aurélie; Dufour, Vinciane; Monnereau, Alain; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Troussard, Xavier; Pons, Elisabeth; Bordessoule, Dominique; Maynadié, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has seen several major advances over the past 30 years, notably with the introduction of interferon followed by Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We analyzed trends in the incidence of CML and patient survival in France. All cases recorded in five population-based registries between 1980 and 2009 were included. European (ESR) and world (WSR) standardized incidence rates as well as relative survival (RS) rates were estimated. We analyzed data for 781 patients (9863/3: 13.6%; 9875/3: 82.2%; 9876/3: 4.2%). ESR was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-1.11] and WSR was 0.81 [95% CI = 0.72-0.90]. The five RS rates among patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) CML were 43.7% [30.9-61.9] when diagnosed in 1980-1986, 63.8% [56.9-71.5] in 1987-1999 and 88.7% [84.5-93.0] in 2000-2009. The 8-year RS rate of patients with Ph+ CML diagnosed in 2000-2009 was 83.3% [77.5-89.4]. Therapeutic innovations have thus led to a significant increase in long-term survival in the general CML patient-population. PMID:25535815

  15. Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Douglas Simmons, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual’s ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive rehabilitation program called PreMotor Exercise Games (PEGs. Manual muscle, goniometric range of motion, and dynamometer assessments were used to determine motor functioning while the Executive Function Performance Test measured cognitive functioning. A three-level repeated measures design was conducted to determine changes pre- and postintervention. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in shoulder (p = 0.01 and wrist (p = 0.01 range of motion and clinically relevant improvement for elbow range of motion. Participants demonstrated clinically relevant improvement in shoulder, elbow, and wrist strength. Finally, participants demonstrated significant improvement in executive functioning (p < 0.05. Using PEGs as a modality for both motor and cognitive intervention is a potentially beneficial adjunct to rehabilitation and warrants further study.

  16. Sleep characteristics of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome and non-fatigued controls: results from a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones James F

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology and pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS remain inchoate. Attempts to elucidate the pathophysiology must consider sleep physiology, as unrefreshing sleep is the most commonly reported of the 8 case-defining symptoms of CFS. Although published studies have consistently reported inefficient sleep and documented a variable occurrence of previously undiagnosed primary sleep disorders, they have not identified characteristic disturbances in sleep architecture or a distinctive pattern of polysomnographic abnormalities associated with CFS. Methods This study recruited CFS cases and non-fatigued controls from a population based study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas. Participants spent two nights in the research unit of a local hospital and underwent overnight polysomnographic and daytime multiple sleep latency testing in order to characterize sleep architecture. Results Approximately 18% of persons with CFS and 7% of asymptomatic controls were diagnosed with severe primary sleep disorders and were excluded from further analysis. These rates were not significantly different. Persons with CFS had a significantly higher mean frequency of obstructive apnea per hour (p = .003; however, the difference was not clinically meaningful. Other characteristics of sleep architecture did not differ between persons with CFS and controls. Conclusion Although disordered breathing during sleep may be associated with CFS, this study generally did not provide evidence that altered sleep architecture is a critical factor in CFS. Future studies should further scrutinize the relationship between subjective sleep quality relative to objective polysomnographic measures.

  17. A human type 5 adenovirus-based Trypanosoma cruzi therapeutic vaccine re-programs immune response and reverses chronic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Resende Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a prototypical neglected tropical disease. Specific immunity promotes acute phase survival. Nevertheless, one-third of CD patients develop chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC associated with parasite persistence and immunological unbalance. Currently, the therapeutic management of patients only mitigates CCC symptoms. Therefore, a vaccine arises as an alternative to stimulate protective immunity and thereby prevent, delay progression and even reverse CCC. We examined this hypothesis by vaccinating mice with replication-defective human Type 5 recombinant adenoviruses (rAd carrying sequences of amastigote surface protein-2 (rAdASP2 and trans-sialidase (rAdTS T. cruzi antigens. For prophylactic vaccination, naïve C57BL/6 mice were immunized with rAdASP2+rAdTS (rAdVax using a homologous prime/boost protocol before challenge with the Colombian strain. For therapeutic vaccination, rAdVax administration was initiated at 120 days post-infection (dpi, when mice were afflicted by CCC. Mice were analyzed for electrical abnormalities, immune response and cardiac parasitism and tissue damage. Prophylactic immunization with rAdVax induced antibodies and H-2Kb-restricted cytotoxic and interferon (IFNγ-producing CD8+ T-cells, reduced acute heart parasitism and electrical abnormalities in the chronic phase. Therapeutic vaccination increased survival and reduced electrical abnormalities after the prime (analysis at 160 dpi and the boost (analysis at 180 and 230 dpi. Post-therapy mice exhibited less heart injury and electrical abnormalities compared with pre-therapy mice. rAdVax therapeutic vaccination preserved specific IFNγ-mediated immunity but reduced the response to polyclonal stimuli (anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, CD107a+ CD8+ T-cell frequency and plasma nitric oxide (NO levels. Moreover, therapeutic rAdVax reshaped immunity in the heart tissue as reduced the number of perforin+ cells

  18. Neuromodulation of chronic headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Jensen, Rigmor H; Antal, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment of patients with chronic primary headache syndromes (chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, chronic cluster headache, hemicrania continua) is challenging as serious side effects frequently complicate the course of medical treatment and some patients may be even...... medically intractable. When a definitive lack of responsiveness to conservative treatments is ascertained and medication overuse headache is excluded, neuromodulation options can be considered in selected cases.Here, the various invasive and non-invasive approaches, such as hypothalamic deep brain...... proper RCT-based evidence is limited. The European Headache Federation herewith provides a consensus statement on the clinical use of neuromodulation in headache, based on theoretical background, clinical data, and side effect of each method. This international consensus further gives recommendations for...

  19. One dose of a porcine circovirus 2 subunit vaccine induces humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects against porcine circovirus-associated disease under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Paolo; Ferrari, Luca; Morganti, Marina; De Angelis, Elena; Bonilauri, Paolo; Guazzetti, Stefano; Caleffi, Antonio; Borghetti, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a one-dose porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine based on the PCV2 Cap protein expressed in a baculovirus system on two different farms at which a history of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVD) was present. Morbidity, mortality, average daily weight gain, carcass weight, PCV2 load in serum and vaccine immunogenicity were assessed. Serology to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was performed. A double-blind, randomised, and controlled field trial was performed distributing 818 piglets between two treatment groups. At inclusion (weaning at 21 ± 3 days of age), 408 animals (group B) received a 2-mL intramuscular dose of Porcilis PCV(®) (vaccinated group). Controls (group A, 410 pigs) received 2 mL of the adjuvant Diluvac Forte(®) intramuscularly. Weights were recorded at inclusion and at 12 and 26 weeks of age, and the average daily weight gain (ADWG) was calculated. The carcass weights of the pigs from farm 2 were recorded at slaughter (274 days old). All dead animals (died or culled) underwent autopsy to classify them as PMWS-affected or not. At each farm, blood samples were taken from 22 pigs/group for serologic studies. A beneficial effect was found after vaccination with a single dose of a PCV2 Cap vaccine against PCVD. The vaccination reduced the mortality rate and morbidity, reduced PCV2 viremia and viral load, improved productive performances (e.g. ADWG: +70 g/day between 12 and 26 weeks of age when viremia and the specific disease occurred) as well as carcass weight at slaughter age (+4.5 kg). These effects were associated with virologic and clinical protection from the immunogenicity of the vaccine measured as activation of both a humoral and a cellular immune response. PMID:21216540

  20. Chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyneuropathy - chronic inflammatory; CIDP; Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy ... of the body equally. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common chronic neuropathy caused by ...

  1. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Froeling, Fieke EM

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas owing to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects 3–9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  2. Chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M; Kadaba, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas due to a wide variety of causes, including recurrent acute attacks of pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis affects between 3 and 9 people in 100,000; 70% of cases are alcohol-induced.

  3. Predictive models for chronic renal disease using decision trees, naïve bayes and case-based methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Saqib Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Data mining can be used in healthcare industry to “mine” clinical data to discover hidden information for intelligent and affective decision making. Discovery of hidden patterns and relationships often goes intact, yet advanced data mining techniques can be helpful as remedy to this scenario. This thesis mainly deals with Intelligent Prediction of Chronic Renal Disease (IPCRD). Data covers blood, urine test, and external symptoms applied to predict chronic renal disease. Data from the databas...

  4. Statewide Community-based Health Promotion: A North Carolina Model to Build Local Capacity for Chronic Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Plescia, MD, MPH; Suzanna Young, RD, MPH; Rosemary L. Ritzman, PhD, MSN

    2005-01-01

    Background Public health faces major challenges to building state and local infrastructure with the capacity to address the underlying causes of chronic disease. We describe a structured statewide approach to providing technical assistance for local communities to support and develop health promotion capacity. Context Over the last two decades, the North Carolina Statewide Health Promotion program has supported local approaches to the prevention and control of chronic disease. In 1999, a majo...

  5. Experiences of Community-Living Older Adults Receiving Integrated Care Based on the Chronic Care Model: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L. W.; Wynia, Klaske; Fokkens, Andrea S.; Slotman, Karin; Kremer, Hubertus P. H.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrated care models aim to solve the problem of fragmented and poorly coordinated care in current healthcare systems. These models aim to be patient-centered by providing continuous and coordinated care and by considering the needs and preferences of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the opinions and experiences of community-living older adults with regard to integrated care and support, along with the extent to which it meets their health and social needs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 older adults receiving integrated care and support through “Embrace,” an integrated care model for community-living older adults that is based on the Chronic Care Model and a population health management model. Embrace is currently fully operational in the northern region of the Netherlands. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach. Results Responses of participants concerned two focus areas: 1) Experiences with aging, with the themes “Struggling with health,” “Increasing dependency,” “Decreasing social interaction,” “Loss of control,” and “Fears;” and 2) Experiences with Embrace, with the themes “Relationship with the case manager,” “Interactions,” and “Feeling in control, safe, and secure”. The prospect of becoming dependent and losing control was a key concept in the lives of the older adults interviewed. Embrace reinforced the participants’ ability to stay in control, even if they were dependent on others. Furthermore, participants felt safe and secure, in contrast to the fears of increasing dependency within the standard care system. Conclusion The results indicate that integrated care and support provided through Embrace met the health and social needs of older adults, who were coping with the consequences of aging. PMID:26489096

  6. Experiences of Community-Living Older Adults Receiving Integrated Care Based on the Chronic Care Model: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie L W Spoorenberg

    Full Text Available Integrated care models aim to solve the problem of fragmented and poorly coordinated care in current healthcare systems. These models aim to be patient-centered by providing continuous and coordinated care and by considering the needs and preferences of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the opinions and experiences of community-living older adults with regard to integrated care and support, along with the extent to which it meets their health and social needs.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 older adults receiving integrated care and support through "Embrace," an integrated care model for community-living older adults that is based on the Chronic Care Model and a population health management model. Embrace is currently fully operational in the northern region of the Netherlands. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach.Responses of participants concerned two focus areas: 1 Experiences with aging, with the themes "Struggling with health," "Increasing dependency," "Decreasing social interaction," "Loss of control," and "Fears;" and 2 Experiences with Embrace, with the themes "Relationship with the case manager," "Interactions," and "Feeling in control, safe, and secure". The prospect of becoming dependent and losing control was a key concept in the lives of the older adults interviewed. Embrace reinforced the participants' ability to stay in control, even if they were dependent on others. Furthermore, participants felt safe and secure, in contrast to the fears of increasing dependency within the standard care system.The results indicate that integrated care and support provided through Embrace met the health and social needs of older adults, who were coping with the consequences of aging.

  7. Porcine incisional hernia model: Evaluation of biologically derived intact extracellular matrix repairs

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Gary A; Delossantos, Aubrey I.; Rodriguez, Neil L.; Patel, Paarun; Franz, Michael G.; Wagner, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    We compared fascial wounds repaired with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix versus primary closure in a large-animal hernia model. Incisional hernias were created in Yucatan pigs and repaired after 3 weeks via open technique with suture-only primary closure or intraperitoneally placed porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix. Progressive changes in mechanical and biological properties of porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix and repair sites were assessed. Porcin...

  8. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Svensmark, B.;

    2006-01-01

    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying...... in the submucosa, lamina propria and crypt epithelium, as well as in the lymphoid tissue of the ileum and colon. Multinucleated giant cells, however, were seen in both infections. PCV2 was about three times more likely to be detected in L. intracellularis-negative than in L. intracellularis...

  9. Inhibition of Endosome-Lysosome System Acidification Enhances Porcine Circovirus 2 Infection of Porcine Epithelial Cells▿

    OpenAIRE

    Misinzo, Gerald; Delputte, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Misinzo et al. (G. Misinzo, P. Meerts, M. Bublot, J. Mast, H. M. Weingartl, and H. J. Nauwynck, J. Gen. Virol. 86:2057-2068, 2005) reported that inhibiting endosome-lysosome system acidification reduced porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection of monocytic 3D4/31 cells. The present study examined the effect of inhibiting endosome-lysosome system acidification in epithelial cells, since epithelial cells support PCV2 infection in vivo and are used in culturing PCV2 in vitro. Ammonium chl...

  10. Prevalence of chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in outpatients - a cross-sectional hospital based survey in urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weibing

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic complications are the major outcome of type 2 diabetes mellitus progress, which reduce the quality of life of patients, incur heavy burdens to the health care system, and increase diabetic mortality. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of chronic complications among urban Chinese type 2 diabetic outpatients; and to analyze the associations between chronic complications and patients' demographics, diabetic related clinical characteristics. Methods This cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out in 4 major Chinese cities: - Shanghai, Chengdu, Beijing and Guangzhou. The survey was conducted from March to July in 2007 among 1,524 type 2 diabetic outpatients. The subjects were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers using a questionnaire to capture information on demographics, disease presentations and complications. All the subjects were invited to have a HbA1c test free of charge by the standardized method with Bio-Rad Variant II. Results Of the 1,524 study subjects, 637 (41.8% were male, and the mean age was 63.3 ± 10.2 years. At least one chronic complication was diagnosed in 792 individuals (52.0% of the study subjects; 509 (33.4% presented with macrovascular complications and 528 (34.7% with microvascular complications. The prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions, neuropathy, nephropathy, ocular lesions and foot disease were 30.1%, 6.8%, 17.8%, 10.7%, 14.8% and 0.8%, respectively. The prevalence of chronic complications varied between cities, and significantly increased with age and duration of diagnosed diabetes. The mean of HbA1c in diabetic patients with chronic complications was 8.2% ± 1.6% and 63.0% of the subjects with type 2 diabetes related complications had a poor glycemic control with the HbA1c > 7.5%. Conclusions Chronic complications are highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic outpatients, the glycemic control of diabetic patients with chronic

  11. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine...

  12. Genome Sequences of the Novel Porcine Parvovirus 3, Identified in Guangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui; Li, Xiangmin; Zhao, Zekai; An, Chunjing; Wan, Peng; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun; Qian, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 3 is a novel parvovirus that infects pigs. Here, we report two genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 3 strains GX1 and GX2, which are highly prevalent in Guangxi province. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine parvovirus 3. PMID:26941135

  13. Genome Sequences of the Novel Porcine Parvovirus 3, Identified in Guangxi Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Hui; Xiangmin LI; Zhao, Zekai; An, Chunjing; Wan, Peng; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun; Qian, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus 3 is a novel parvovirus that infects pigs. Here, we report two genome sequences of porcine parvovirus 3 strains GX1 and GX2, which are highly prevalent in Guangxi province. It will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the porcine parvovirus 3.

  14. Small-Sized Circular Genomes Similar to Genome of Porcine Circovirus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wei; Zhao, Dun; Yu, Xing-Long; Ge, Meng; Li, Run-Cheng; Jiang, Da-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Circular genomes smaller than and similar to the genome of porcine circovirus 2 were obtained from pig tissues along with the full-length genome of porcine circovirus 2. The 922-, 839-, and 617-nucleotide-long genomes exhibit high homology to the rep gene plus the origin of replication sequence of porcine circovirus 2.

  15. CpG distribution and methylation pattern in porcine parvovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Tóth

    Full Text Available Based on GC content and the observed/expected CpG ratio (oCpGr, we found three major groups among the members of subfamily Parvovirinae: Group I parvoviruses with low GC content and low oCpGr values, Group II with low GC content and high oCpGr values and Group III with high GC content and high oCpGr values. Porcine parvovirus belongs to Group I and it features an ascendant CpG distribution by position in its coding regions similarly to the majority of the parvoviruses. The entire PPV genome remains hypomethylated during the viral lifecycle independently from the tissue of origin. In vitro CpG methylation of the genome has a modest inhibitory effect on PPV replication. The in vitro hypermethylation disappears from the replicating PPV genome suggesting that beside the maintenance DNMT1 the de novo DNMT3a and DNMT3b DNA methyltransferases can't methylate replicating PPV DNA effectively either, despite that the PPV infection does not seem to influence the expression, translation or localization of the DNA methylases. SNP analysis revealed high mutability of the CpG sites in the PPV genome, while introduction of 29 extra CpG sites into the genome has no significant biological effects on PPV replication in vitro. These experiments raise the possibility that beyond natural selection mutational pressure may also significantly contribute to the low level of the CpG sites in the PPV genome.

  16. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  17. Extracellular matrix components direct porcine muscle stem cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschut, Karlijn J. [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands); Haagsman, Henk P. [Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584 CL, Utrecht (Netherlands); Roelen, Bernard A.J., E-mail: b.a.j.roelen@uu.nl [Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    In muscle tissue, extracellular matrix proteins, together with the vasculature system, muscle-residence cells and muscle fibers, create the niche for muscle stem cells. The niche is important in controlling proliferation and directing differentiation of muscle stem cells to sustain muscle tissue. Mimicking the extracellular muscle environment improves tools exploring the behavior of primary muscle cells. Optimizing cell culture conditions to maintain muscle commitment is important in stem cell-based studies concerning toxicology screening, ex vivo skeletal muscle tissue engineering and in the enhancement of clinical efficiency. We used the muscle extracellular matrix proteins collagen type I, fibronectin, laminin, and also gelatin and Matrigel as surface coatings of tissue culture plastic to resemble the muscle extracellular matrix. Several important factors that determine myogenic commitment of the primary muscle cells were characterized by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Adhesion of high PAX7 expressing satellite cells was improved if the cells were cultured on fibronectin or laminin coatings. Cells cultured on Matrigel and laminin coatings showed dominant integrin expression levels and exhibited an activated Wnt pathway. Under these conditions both stem cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity were superior if compared to cells cultured on collagen type I, fibronectin and gelatin. In conclusion, Matrigel and laminin are the preferred coatings to sustain the proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity of the primary porcine muscle stem cells, when cells are removed from their natural environment for in vitro culture.

  18. Derivation of porcine pluripotent stem cells for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yang, Jenn-Rong; Liao, Yu-Jing; Kuo, Ting-Yung; Liao, Chia-Hsin; Kang, Ching-Hsun; Tai, Chein; Anderson, Gary B; Chen, Lih-Ren

    2016-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), embryonic germ cells (EGCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are capable of self-renew and limitlessly proliferating in vitro with undifferentiated characteristics. They are able to differentiate in vitro, spontaneously or responding to suitable signals, into cells of all three primary germ layers. Consequently, these pluripotent stem cells will be valuable sources for cell replacement therapy in numerous disorders. However, the promise of human ESCs and EGCs is cramped by the ethical argument about destroying embryos and fetuses for cell line creation. Moreover, there are still carcinogenic risks existing toward the goal of clinical application for human ESCs, EGCs, and iPSCs. Therefore, a suitable animal model for stem cell research will benefit the further development of human stem cell technology. The pigs, on the basis of their similarity in anatomy, immunology, physiology, and biochemical properties, have been wide used as model animals in the study of various human diseases. The development of porcine pluripotent stem cell lines will hold the opportunity to provide an excellent material for human counterpart to the transplantation in biomedical research and further development of cell-based therapeutic strategy. PMID:27158128

  19. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV. Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%. The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%. Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8% of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4% of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias.

  20. EFSA AHAW Panel (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare), 2014. Scientific Opinion on porcine epidemic diarrhoea and emerging pig deltacoronavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette

    to compare between one country and another, since impact is dependent not only on pathogenicity but also on factors such as biosecurity, farm management, sanitary status or herd immune status. However, the clinical signs of PEDV infections in naive pigs are similar in different countries with...... farms. Infectious PEDV has been detected in spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in one study but the origin of the infectious PEDV in SDPP is not clear. Detection of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been reported in a few countries but only limited testing has been done. Based on the currently...

  1. Clinical comparison of St. Jude and porcine mitral valve prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P S; Hirshfeld, J W; Edie, R N; Stephenson, L W; Gleason, K; Edmunds, L H

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and six consecutive patients who had mitral valve replacement with either a St. Jude or porcine heterograft prosthesis were prospectively studied. The 2 groups are similar with respect to 67 clinical and operative factors and allow comparison of valve performance as an independent variable. Total follow-up is 3,312 patient-months (mean 36 months, range 2-57 months, 94% complete). There are no statistical differences in symptomatic improvement or mortality by life table analysis. Valve-related complications expressed as percent per patient-year are: reoperation: 1.8 St. Jude and 3.8 porcine; endocarditis: 1.2 and 1.9; regurgitant murmur: 2.3 and 1.9; hemolysis: 1.8 and 0.0; late thromboembolism: 1.8 and 1.0; hemorrhage: 2.9 and 2.9; and valve failure: 0.0 and 1.0. There were no significant differences found. Actuarial survival at 3 years was 78% in St. Jude and 81% in porcine patients. Forty-six percent of patients with St. Jude valves and 55% of patients with porcine valves were alive and free of all complications at latest follow-up. The clinical performance of St. Jude and porcine mitral valves are similar over this period of intermediate follow-up. PMID:3360831

  2. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PMID:27256017

  3. A genetic validation study reveals a role of vitamin D metabolism in the response to interferon-alfa-based therapy of chronic hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To perform a comprehensive study on the relationship between vitamin D metabolism and the response to interferon-α-based therapy of chronic hepatitis C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Associations between a functionally relevant polymorphism in the gene encoding the vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1-1260 rs10877012 and the response to treatment with pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin were determined in 701 patients with chronic hepatitis C. In addition, associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 (25[OH]D(3 and treatment outcome were analysed. CYP27B1-1260 rs10877012 was found to be an independent predictor of sustained virologic response (SVR in patients with poor-response IL28B genotypes (15% difference in SVR for rs10877012 genotype AA vs. CC, p = 0.02, OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.061-2.188, but not in patients with favourable IL28B genotype. Patients with chronic hepatitis C showed a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25[OH]D(3<20 ng/mL during all seasons, but 25(OHD(3 serum levels were not associated with treatment outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests a role of bioactive vitamin D (1,25[OH](2D(3, calcitriol in the response to treatment of chronic hepatitis C. However, serum concentration of the calcitriol precursor 25(OHD(3 is not a suitable predictor of treatment outcome.

  4. Chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria (CU is a disturbing allergic condition of the skin. Although frequently benign, it may sometimes be a red flag sign of a serious internal disease. A multitude of etiologies have been implicated in the causation of CU, including physical, infective, vasculitic, psychological and idiopathic. An autoimmune basis of most of the ′idiopathic′ forms is now hypothesized. Histamine released from mast cells is the major effector in pathogenesis and it is clinically characterized by wheals that have a tendency to recur. Laboratory investigations aimed at a specific etiology are not always conclusive, though may be suggestive of an underlying condition. A clinical search for associated systemic disease is strongly advocated under appropriate circumstances. The mainstay of treatment remains H1 antihistaminics. These may be combined with complementary pharmacopeia in the form of H2 blockers, doxepin, nifedipine and leukotriene inhibitors. More radical therapy in the form of immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide may be required for recalcitrant cases. Autologous transfusion and alternative remedies like acupuncture have prospects for future. A stepwise management results in favorable outcomes. An update on CU based on our experience with patients at a tertiary care centre is presented.

  5. Clinical applications of gene-based risk prediction for Lung Cancer and the central role of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Young

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and nearly 90% of cases are attributable to smoking. Quitting smoking and early diagnosis of lung cancer, through computed tomographic screening, are the only ways to reduce mortality from lung cancer. Recent epidemiological studies show that risk prediction for lung cancer is optimized by using multivariate risk models that include age, smoking exposure, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, family history of lung cancer and body mass index. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that COPD predates lung cancer in 65-70% of cases and confers a 4-6 fold greater risk of lung cancer compared to smokers with normal lung function. In separate studies, genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic variants associated with COPD or lung cancer, several of which overlap. In a case control study, where smokers with normal lungs were compared to those who had spirometry-defined COPD and histology confirmed lung cancer, several of these overlapping variants were shown to confer the same susceptibility or protective effects on both COPD and lung cancer (independent of COPD status. In this perspective article, we demonstrate how combining clinical data with genetic variants can help identify heavy smokers at the greatest risk of lung cancer. Using this approach, we found that gene-based risk testing helped engage smokers in risk mitigating activities like quitting smoking and undertaking lung cancer screening. We suggest that such an approach could facilitate the targeted selection of smokers for cost-effective, life-saving interventions.

  6. Ventilatory demand and dynamic hyperinflation induced during ADL-based tests in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoliny dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Airflow limitation frequently leads to the interruption of activities of daily living (ADL in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. These patients commonly show absence of ventilatory reserve, reduced inspiratory reserve volume, and dynamic hyperinflation (DH. Objective To investigate ventilatory response and DH induced by three ADL-based protocols in COPD patients and compare them to healthy subjects. Method Cross-sectional study. COPD group: 23 patients (65±6 years, FEV1 37.2±15.4%pred; control group: 14 healthy subjects (64±4 years matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Both groups performed all three tests: Glittre-ADL test; an activity test that involved moving objects on a shelf (TSHELF; and a modified shelf protocol isolating activity with upper limbs (TSHELF-M. Ventilatory response and inspiratory capacity were evaluated. Results Baseline ventilatory variables were similar between groups (p>0.05. The ventilatory demand increased and the inspiratory capacity decreased significantly at the end of the tests in the COPD group. Ventilatory demand and DH were higher (p0.05 and ventilatory demand increased at the end of the tests (p<0.05 but to a lower extent than the COPD group. Conclusion The TSHELF induces similar ventilatory responses to the Glittre-ADL test in COPD patients with higher ventilatory demand and DH. In contrast, the ventilatory response was attenuated in the TSHELF-M, suggesting that squatting and bending down during the Glittre-ADL test could trigger significant ventilatory overload.

  7. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and prediabetes and associated risk factors: a community-based screening in Zhuhai, Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Dong-feng; SHI Yan-lin; CHEN You-ming; LIU Hong-mei; DING Ya-nan; LIU Xin-yu; LI Yong-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and prediabetes has increased in China,and at different rates in different locations.Therefore a community-based screening research was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of CKD and prediabetes,and to analyze associated risk factors of CKD and prediabetes in a city of Southern China.Methods A total of 7801 community residents aged 18 year and older from 6 communities were screened by a stratified random cluster sampling method.An estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),albuminuria,fasting plasma glucose (FPG),and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured.Age-standardized prevalence was calculated by the direct method with the use of data on the population distribution in China in 2006.Multivariate logistic analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of CKD and prediabetes,and association of insulin resistance (IR) with CKD and prediabetes was analyzed.Results The age-standardized prevalence of CKD was 12.5%,eGFR <60 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 was 2.7% and ACR (albumin to creatinine ratio) >30 mg/g was 10.3%.The age-standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 12.1%.Logistic regression suggests that IR was a common independent risk factor of CKD and prediabetes.Further analysis show that HOMA-IR was increased with the aggravation of kidney injury and FPG.Conclusion CKD and prediabetes have become a major public health problem in Zhuhai,Southern China; insulin resistance may be an important risk factor.

  8. Increased Burden of Vision Impairment and Eye Diseases in Persons with Chronic Kidney Disease — A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Wai; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Gemmy Chui Ming; Tai, E. Shyong; Wong, Tien Y.; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to be associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), leading causes of blindness in elderly adults in previous studies. However, the association of CKD with visual impairment (VI) is not clear. We aimed to examine the association of CKD with VI and other age-related ocular diseases in a population-based sample of Asian adults. Methods We analyzed data from 10,033 adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED, 2004–11) Study. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) photography and visual field assessments. The associations of CKD with VI and ocular conditions were examined using logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol intake, education status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease. Findings The prevalence of VI and ocular disease were significantly higher in participants with CKD (36.1% and 84.7%) than in those without (12.9% and 54.3%, both p < 0.001). In multivariable models, CKD was significantly associated with VI (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.34 [1.14–1.58]), any ocular disease (1.28 [1.03–1.61]), cataract (1.24 [1.01–1.52]), any retinopathy (1.77 [1.45–2.15]), and DR (1.94 [1.47–2.54]). Interpretation The burden of VI and eye diseases is high among persons with CKD. Our findings suggest that it may be useful to screen for ocular disease and VI in persons with CKD. PMID:27077127

  9. Chronic rhinosinusitis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney W; Lee, Robert J; Schleimer, Robert P; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of medical conditions associated with chronic sinonasal inflammation, including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and cystic fibrosis. In particular, CRS can be divided into 2 major subgroups based on whether nasal polyps are present or absent. Unfortunately, clinical treatment strategies for patients with chronic sinonasal inflammation are limited, in part because the underlying mechanisms contributing to disease pathology are heterogeneous and not entirely known. It is hypothesized that alterations in mucociliary clearance, abnormalities in the sinonasal epithelial cell barrier, and tissue remodeling all contribute to the chronic inflammatory and tissue-deforming processes characteristic of CRS. Additionally, the host innate and adaptive immune responses are also significantly activated and might be involved in pathogenesis. Recent advancements in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis are highlighted in this review, with special focus placed on the roles of epithelial cells and the host immune response in patients with cystic fibrosis, CRS without nasal polyps, or CRS with nasal polyps. PMID:26654193

  10. Interferon-based therapy decreases risks of hepatocellular carcinoma and complications of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Sheng Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferon-based therapy (IBT has been the standard of care for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. However, conflicting results exist regarding the effects of IBT on risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and cirrhosis-associated complications, and most included highly selected patients. METHODS: This 8-year cohort study was based on the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID 2000 consisting of 1,000,000 beneficiaries randomly selected from all Taiwan National Health Insurance enrollees in 2000 (>23.7 million. Patients with newly detected HCV infections (n=11,264 were classified based on treatment and clinical outcomes. IBTs were defined as regimens that included interferon- alfa, pegylated interferon- alfa -2a, or pegylated interferon- alfa -2b for at least 3 months. The Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR and associated confidence interval (CI of HCC and cirrhosis-associated complications for IBT. RESULTS: The 8-year incidence rate for HCC was 3.9% among patients who received IBT and 5.6% among those who did not. The HCC-free survival rate was significantly higher among patients receiving IBT during the 8-year period than their counterpart (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.81; P= .004. Similarly, the event-free survival rates for esophageal variceal bleeding (adjusted HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.91; P= .026, hepatic encephalopathy (adjusted HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21-0.69; P= .001, ascites (adjusted HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.14-0.57; P<.001, and cirrhosis (adjusted HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44-0.91; P= .013 were significantly higher among patients who received IBT than those who did not, after adjustment for associated factors. CONCLUSION: Treatment with interferon may reduce the 8-year risk of HCC and cirrhosis-associated complications in patients with chronic HCV infection.

  11. The chronic disease management in community health service institutions based on Innovative Care for the Chronic Conditions Framework%基于ICCC框架的社区卫生服务机构慢性病管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁莎莎; 王芳; 李陈晨; 刘利群; 周巍; 衡驰; 杨婷

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the chronic disease management’s key factors in community health service insti-tution based on the Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions Framework ( ICCC ) . Methods: The purposive sampling method was adopted. Twelve community health service centers were selected as the field survey sites in Beijing, Shanghai, Zhengzhou and Chengdu. During the key factors description at macro-, meso-and micro-level in the IC-CC framework, thematic framework analysis was used to describe the key factors at maro-, meso-and micro level in the ICCC framework. Results:From the community health institutions’ perspective, the key factors at meso level in the ICCC framework played a better role in the management of chronic conditions while the key factors in both macro and micro level still lacked. Conclusion:Based on the ICCC framework, the management of chronic diseases needs to emphasize the cooperation with relevant departments outside the health area and legislative strategies at macro level, the ability of community supporters to mobilize and coordinate resources at meso level and the improvement of self-management skills for the patients with chronic diseases.%目的::以世界卫生组织提出的慢性病创新照护框架( Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions Frame-work, ICCC)为理论基础,从社区卫生服务机构角度出发,分析慢性病管理相关要素的实现现状。方法:采取目的抽样,选取北京市、上海市、郑州市、成都市共12家社区卫生服务中心进行现场调查。采用主题框架法,围绕ICCC框架提出的宏观—中观—微观三层面的关键要素展开分析。结果:基于ICCC框架,从社区卫生服务机构角度来看,以卫生保健组织为代表的中观层面要素功能发挥较好,宏观和微观层面要素缺乏。结论:基于ICCC框架,慢性病管理需在宏观层面加强与卫生系统外相关部门的协作及相关立法;中观层面需加强社区资源或社区

  12. Efficacy of classification-based cognitive functional therapy in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Vibe Fersum, K; O’Sullivan, P; Skouen, JS; Smith, A; Kvåle, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-specific chronic low back pain disorders have been proven resistant to change, and there is still a lack of clear evidence for one specific treatment intervention being superior to another. Methods: This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the efficacy of a behavioural approach to management, classification-based cognitive functional therapy, compared with traditional manual therapy and exercise. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the group differences in t...

  13. Unidentified Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a major cause of school absence: surveillance outcomes from school-based clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, Esther M; Emond, Alan M; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of conducting clinics for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in schools. Design School-based clinical project. Participants Children aged 11–16 years were enrolled in three state secondary schools in England. Main outcome measures Number of children newly diagnosed as having CFS/ME. Methods Attendance officers identified children missing ≥20% of school in a 6-week term without a known cause, excluding those with a single episod...

  14. Heart failure and levels of other comorbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Swedish population: a register-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaszuba, Elzbieta; Odeberg, Håkan; Råstam, Lennart; Halling, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often exist together and have serious clinical and economic implications, they have mostly been studied separately. Our aim was to study prevalence of coexisting heart failure and COPD in a Swedish population. A further goal was to describe levels of other comorbidity and investigate where the patients received care: primary, secondary care or both. Methods We conducted a register-based, cross-sect...

  15. A controlled study of the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction technique in women with multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Sampalli, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Tara Sampalli1, Elizabeth Berlasso1, Roy Fox1, Mark Petter21Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre, Fall River, Nova Scotia, Canada; 2Doctoral Candidate, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, CanadaBackground: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on women diagnosed with conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and fibromyalgia (FM). Methods: The interventi...

  16. Impact of Nurse-Led, Multidisciplinary Home-Based Intervention on Event-Free Survival Across the Spectrum of Chronic Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Simon; Wiley, Joshua F.; Ball, Jocasta; Chan, Yih-Kai; Ahamed, Yasmin; Thompson, David R; Carrington, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background— We sought to determine the overall impact of a nurse-led, multidisciplinary home-based intervention (HBI) adapted to hospitalized patients with chronic forms of heart disease of varying types. Methods and Results— Prospectively planned, combined, secondary analysis of 3 randomized trials (1226 patients) of HBI were compared with standard management. Hospitalized patients presenting with heart disease but not heart failure, atrial fibrillation but not heart failure, and heart failu...

  17. Targeting IL-12/IL-23 by Employing a p40 Peptide-Based Vaccine Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Acute and Chronic Murine Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Qingdong; Ma, Yanbing; Hillman, China-Li; Qing, Gefei; Ma, Allan G; Weiss, Carolyn R.; Zhou, Gang; Bai, Aiping; Warrington, Richard J.; Bernstein, Charles N; Peng, Zhikang

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 both share the p40 subunit and are key cytokines in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease. Previously, we have developed and identified three mouse p40 peptide-based and virus-like particle vaccines. Here, we evaluated the effects and immune mechanisms of the optimal vaccine in downregulating intestinal inflammation in murine acute and chronic colitis, induced by intrarectal administrations of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Mice were injected subcutaneously ...

  18. Isolation of corneocyte envelopes from porcine epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, D C; Kitko, D J; Wertz, P W; Madison, K C; Downing, D T

    1988-01-01

    Sheets of porcine stratum corneum were dispersed into individual corneocytes after 4 h in a solution consisting of 8 mM N,N-dimethyldodecylamine oxide and 2 mM sodium dodecylsulfate in phosphate-buffered isotonic saline, at 45 degrees C. With continued detergent treatment and moderate sonication, most of the cells lost their keratin contents and were then separated from the remaining intact cells by centrifugation in cesium chloride solution of density 1.280. Electron microscopy showed that the cell envelopes retained both the crosslinked protein envelope and its attached lipid envelope. The dry weight of envelopes was approximately 7% of the estimated dry weight of the original stratum corneum, while the corneocytes surviving intact also amounted to 7% of the starting weight. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of the corneocyte envelopes allowed the extraction of hydroxyceramides amounting to 10% of the dry weight of the envelopes. The procedure therefore provides isolated corneocyte envelopes suitable for studying both the protein and lipid components of this compound sheath. PMID:3207369

  19. Ultrafast laser machining of porcine sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, W. S.; Carter, R. M.; Dhillon, B.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    The use of ultrafast lasers (pulsed lasers with pulse lengths of a few picoseconds or less) offers the possibility for minimally invasive removal of soft ophthalmic tissue. The potential for using pico- and femtosecond pulses for modification of scleral tissue has been reported elsewhere [1-6] and has resulted in the introduction of new, minimally invasive, procedures into clinical practice [3, 5-10]. Our research is focused on finding optimal parameters for picosecond laser machining of scleral tissue without introducing any unwanted collateral damage to the tissue. Experiments were carried out on hydrated porcine sclera in vitro, which has similar collagen organization, histology and water content (~70%) to human tissue. In this paper we present a 2D finite element ablation model which employs a one-step heating process. It is assumed that the incident laser radiation that is not reflected is absorbed in the tissue according to the Beer-Lambert law and transformed into heat energy. The experimental setup uses an industrial picosecond laser (TRUMPF TruMicro 5x50) with 5.9 ps pulses at 1030 nm, with pulse energies up to 125 μJ and a focused spot diameter of 35 μm. The use of a scan head allows flexibility in designing various scanning patterns. We show that picosecond pulses are capable of modifying scleral tissue without introducing collateral damage. This offers a possible route for minimally invasive sclerostomy. Many scanning patterns including single line ablation, square and circular cavity removal were tested.

  20. Genetic and immunobiological diversities of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome genotype I strains

    OpenAIRE

    Darwich, Laila; Gimeno, Mariona; Sibila, Marina; Diaz, Ivan; De La Torre, Eugenia; Dotti, Silvia; Kuzemtseva, Liudmila; Martin, Margarita; Pujols, Joan; Mateu, Enric

    2011-01-01

    Summary Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been based on ORF5/GP5 and ORF7/N protein variations. Complete viral genome studies are limited and focused on a single or a few set of strains. Moreover, there is a general tendency to extrapolate results obtained from a single isolate to the overall PRRSV population. In the present study, six genotype-I isolates of PRRSV were sequenced from ORF1a to ORF7. Phylogenetic comparisons and the ...

  1. Risk factors for infection of sow herds with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sten; Stryhn, Henrik; Søgaard, Rikke; Boklund, Anette; Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Christensen, Jette; Willeberg, Preben

    In 1992, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) of European type (PRRSV-EU) was introduced in Denmark. By 1996, the virus had spread to approximately 25% of the Danish herds. In January 1996, a modified-live vaccine based on the American type of the virus (PRRSV-US) was......-US-infected AI centres. The results are consistent with the modified-live vaccine strain spread to other herds by trade with animals and semen and by neighbour (area) transmission. We suggest that virus spread by aerosols was a frequent mode of transmission....

  2. Chronic cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven. Alternative Names Cholecystitis - chronic Images Cholecystitis, CT scan Cholecystitis, cholangiogram Cholecystolithiasis Gallstones, cholangiogram Cholecystogram References Wang ...

  3. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have chronic pain may also have low self-esteem, depression, and anger. Causes & Risk Factors What causes ... as stretching and strengthening activities) and low-impact exercise (such as walking, swimming, or biking) can help ...

  4. Chronic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... the Professional Version Meningitis Introduction to Meningitis Acute Bacterial Meningitis Viral Meningitis Noninfectious Meningitis Recurrent Meningitis Chronic ...

  5. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... weeks after heart surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is ...

  6. If diabetes is a public health problem, why not treat it as one? A population-based approach to chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, R E; Wagner, E H; Kaplan, R M; Vinicor, F; Smith, L; Norman, J

    1999-01-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that diabetes and other chronic illnesses are major public health problems. Medicare and many managed health care organizations have recognized the enormous personal and societal costs of uncontrolled diabetes in terms of complications, patient quality of life, and health care system resources. However, the current system of reactive acute-episode focused disease care practiced in many settings does not adequately address this public health problem. An alternative proactive, population-based approach to chronic illnesses such as diabetes is proposed and illustrated. This multilevel systems approach addresses supportive and inhibitory social-environmental factors at multiple levels (personal, family, health care team, work, neighborhood, community). Key disciplines contributing to a population-based approach to diabetes include epidemiology, behavioral science, health care services, public health, health economics, and quality of life professions. Current and potential contributions of each of these disciplines are illustrated and an integrative, population-based systems approach to diabetes management and prevention of complications is proposed. This approach is also seen as applicable to other chronic illnesses. PMID:10499137

  7. Porcine survival model to simulate acute upper gastrointestinal bleedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosst, Ruediger L; Schurr, Marc O; Schostek, Sebastian; Krautwald, Martina; Gottwald, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The existing animal models used for the simulation of acute gastrointestinal bleedings are usually non-survival models. We developed and evaluated a new porcine model (domestic pig, German Landrace) in which the animal remains alive and survives the artificial bleeding without any cardiovascular impairment. This consists of a bleeding catheter which is implanted into the stomach, then subcutaneously tunnelled from the abdomen to the neck where it is exteriorized and fixed with sutures. Using the injection of porcine blood, controllable and reproducible acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be simulated while maintaining normal gastrointestinal motility and physiology. Depending on the volume of blood applied through the gastric catheter, the bleeding intensity can be varied from traces of blood to a massive haemorrhage. This porcine model could be valuable, e.g. for testing the efficacy of new bleeding diagnostics in large animals before human use. PMID:26306615

  8. Immunological methods for the detection of porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotzki, Elena; Keller, Martina; Ehlers, Bernhard; Denner, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV-1, -2, and -3) are widespread in pigs and closely related to the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4, HHV-4) and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (HHV-8). In minipigs, PLHV-1 causes a porcine post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after experimental transplantations. Porcine PTLD comes with clinical symptoms similar to those of human PTLD, a serious complication of solid organ and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation linked to HHV-4. Since PLHVs may be transmitted from donor pigs to the human recipient of xenotransplants (pig cells, tissues or organs), sensitive and specific methods should be developed to detect and eliminate PLHVs. Here we describe an ELISA and a Western blot assay using recombinant glycoprotein B of PLHV-1. Using both assays, the presence of specific antibodies in different pig breeds as well as in German slaughterhouse workers was analysed. Antibodies were detected in some animals, but not in human subjects. PMID:27036503

  9. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...... inserted surgically, one in a. carotis communis and one in v. jugularis externa. All pigs received 106 CFU/kg body weight S. aureus through the arterial catheter. Bacteria were either suspended in isotonic saline infused at constant flow for 60 minutes (two pigs) or given as a bolus injection of autologoue...

  10. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    2003-01-01

    Genetic studies have demonstrated profound differences between the 'porcine' genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum, versus 'human' and 'bovine' genotypes. The study analysed infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype (CPP-13 isolate) of C. parvum, and compared the results with published...... data on the 'bovine' genotype (CPB-0 isolate). This was investigated in calves and piglets from commercial herds. Piglets were mildly affected by the CPP-13 isolate, contrary to piglets infected with the CPB-0 isolate, which caused diarrhoea of a mean duration of 3.5 days. CPP-13 produced no or very...... mild clinical signs in piglets despite the excretion of high numbers of oocysts. Concomitant infection with rotavirus, however, caused a dramatic aggravation of the clinical signs, and 5 of 6 experimentally infected piglets died. CPP-13 appeared to be adapted to porcine hosts as illustrated by the lack...

  11. Surgical induction of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Qvortrup, Klaus; Scherfig, Erik; la Cour, Morten

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a reproducible surgical technique for the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the subretinal space of porcine eyes and to analyse the resulting CNV clinically and histologically. METHODS: Two different modifications of a surgical technique previously described...... were compared with the original method. In ten porcine eyes retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were removed using a silicone tipped cannula, in ten porcine eyes Bruch's membrane was perforated once with a retinal perforator without prior RPE removal and in ten eyes RPE removal was followed by a...... single perforation of Bruch's membrane. Fifteen of the eyes, five from each group, were enucleated 30 minutes after surgery, while the remaining eyes were enucleated after 14 days. Prior to enucleation, at day 14, fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms were obtained. Eyes were examined by light...

  12. Chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and risk of non-melanoma skin cancers-A population based study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Ø; Olesen, Anne B; Dethlefsen, Claus;

    2008-01-01

    hospitals, we obtained data on hospitalizations with chronic diseases, recorded before the date of NMSC diagnosis. Using incidence density sampling, we selected 10 age-, gender-, and residence-matched controls from the Danish Civil Registration System. We used conditional logistic regression to compute...... skin diseases (IRR 5.28 (95% CI: 1.95-14)). Our study supports the presence of an association between certain chronic diseases and NMSC, and further suggests that these results unlikely are due to bias.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 4 October 2007; doi:10.1038/sj...

  13. Effectiveness of the introduction of a Chronic Care Model-based program for type 2 diabetes in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    De Maeseneer Jan; Vermeire Etienne; Verbeke Geert; Feyen Luc; Nobels Frank; Bastiaens Hilde; Sunaert Patricia; Willems Sara; De Sutter An

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background During a four-year action research project (2003-2007), a program targeting all type 2 diabetes patients was implemented in a well-defined geographical region in Belgium. The implementation of the program resulted in an increase of the overall Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) score from 1.45 in 2003 to 5.5 in 2007. The aim of the follow-up study in 2008 was to assess the effect of the implementation of Chronic Care Model (CCM) elements on the quality of diabetes c...

  14. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Bisgaard, M.; Flachs, E. M.; Nielsen, O. L.

    Respiratory infections are among the most important diseases of growing pigs. In order to elucidate the multifactorial aetiology of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Denmark, lungs from 148 finishing pigs with cranioventral bronchopneumonia (case group) and 60 pigs without lung lesions......), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC. There...... than enzootic pneumonia among Danish finishing pigs and has complex and varied histopathology....

  15. Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    OpenAIRE

    Ambika Mosale Venkatesh Murthy; Yanyan Ni; Xiangjin Meng; Chenming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subu...

  16. A smartphone-based intervention with diaries and therapist-feedback to reduce catastrophizing and increase functioning in women with chronic widespread pain. Part 2: 11-month follow-up results of a randomized trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Fors, E.A.; Eide, E.; Finset, A.; Stensrud, T.L.; van Dulmen, S.; Wigers, S.H.; Eide, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions are increasingly used to support self-management of individuals with chronic illnesses. Web-based interventions may also be effective in enhancing self-management for individuals with chronic pain, but little is known about long-term effects. Research on Web-based interventions to support self-management following participation in pain management programs is limited. Objective The aim is to examine the long-term effects of a 4-week smartphone-interventi...

  17. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Luz Maurício Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j

  18. Multiplex nested PCR compared with in situ hybridization for the differentiation of porcine circoviruses and porcine parvovirus from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junghyun; Chae, Chanhee

    2003-01-01

    Multiplex nested polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of genomic material of porcine circovirus 1 (PCV1), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Multiplex conventional and nested PCR and in situ hybridization were compared for their ability to detect the 3 viruses in such tissues. Xylene deparaffinization followed by proteinase K digestion yielded DNA of sufficient q...

  19. Effects of intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated Sertoli cells on chronic and presymptomatic dystrophic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappalupi, Sara; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Madaro, Luca; Fallarino, Francesca; Nicoletti, Carmine; Calvitti, Mario; Arato, Iva; Falabella, Giulia; Salvadori, Laura; Di Meo, Antonio; Bufalari, Antonello; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Calafiore, Riccardo; Donato, Rosario; Sorci, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    We report data about the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) porcine Sertoli cells (SeC) encapsulated into clinical grade alginate-based microcapsules (SeC-MC) on muscles of chronic and presymptomatic dystrophic, mdx mice. Mdx mouse is the best characterized animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked lethal myopathy due to mutation in the gene of dystrophin, which is crucial for myofiber integrity during muscle contraction. Our data show that three weeks after i.p. injection of SeC-MC significantly reduced adipose and fibrous tissue deposition, reduced macrophage infiltrate, and reduced numbers of damaged myofibers are found in muscles of 12-month-old mdx mice, which reproduce chronic DMD conditions. Compared with muscles of mock-treated mdx mice muscles of SeC-MC-treated mice show upregulation of the dystrophin paralogue, utrophin which is localized to the periphery of myofibers. Moreover, our data show that i.p. injection of SeC-MC into presymptomatic, 2-week-old mdx mice, although not fully preventing myofiber degeneration, results in protection against myofiber necrosis and muscle inflammation. Extensive discussion of these data can be found in Ref. [1]. PMID:26759818

  20. Effects of intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated Sertoli cells on chronic and presymptomatic dystrophic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Chiappalupi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report data about the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of specific pathogen-free (SPF porcine Sertoli cells (SeC encapsulated into clinical grade alginate-based microcapsules (SeC-MC on muscles of chronic and presymptomatic dystrophic, mdx mice. Mdx mouse is the best characterized animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, an X-linked lethal myopathy due to mutation in the gene of dystrophin, which is crucial for myofiber integrity during muscle contraction. Our data show that three weeks after i.p. injection of SeC-MC significantly reduced adipose and fibrous tissue deposition, reduced macrophage infiltrate, and reduced numbers of damaged myofibers are found in muscles of 12-month-old mdx mice, which reproduce chronic DMD conditions. Compared with muscles of mock-treated mdx mice muscles of SeC-MC-treated mice show upregulation of the dystrophin paralogue, utrophin which is localized to the periphery of myofibers. Moreover, our data show that i.p. injection of SeC-MC into presymptomatic, 2-week-old mdx mice, although not fully preventing myofiber degeneration, results in protection against myofiber necrosis and muscle inflammation. Extensive discussion of these data can be found in Ref. [1].

  1. Development of Primer-Probe Energy Transfer real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balint, Adam; Tenk, Miklós; Deim, Zoltán;

    2009-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay, based on Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET), was developed to improve the detection and quantification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PVC2). PCV2 is recognised as the essential infectious agent in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and has been associated...

  2. Effect of zona pellucida on porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Li, Juan;

    2011-01-01

    The need for zona pellucida (ZP) during pre-implantation embryo development is still debated. In porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos, we have previously shown a different distribution in cell numbers on Day 6 blastocysts cultured with or without ZP (Li et al. 2010 Reprod. Fertil. Dev...... porcine PA embryos, especially at the timing of embryonic genome activation (5-cell stage). Furthermore, the zona pellucida can benefit the blastocyst formation and cryo-tolerance for PA embryos, perhaps by creating a more stable microenvironement....

  3. Molecular characterization and association analysis of porcine PANE1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Deng, Hong; Yang, Yiling;

    2010-01-01

    PANE1, allele frequencies determination in different pig breeds and association analysis were performed on this SNP BssHII by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Allele frequencies varied greatly among different pig breeds, and the association results indicated that piglet individuals......-polymerase chain reaction revealed that porcine PANE1 gene was differently expressed in seven diverse tissues, showed highest expression level in lymph node, but lowest in kidney. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (C>A) which can be digested by restriction enzyme BssHII was identified in intron 1 of porcine...

  4. Optimal developmental stage for vitrification of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal developmental stage to vitrify in-vitro cultured porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos. Embryos were vitrified by Cryotop on Day 4, 5 or 6 after oocyte activation (Day 0), and immediately after warming they were either time......>0.05), no matter if tehy were morulae or blastocysts. These results demonstrate that porcine PA embryos can survive successfully after vitrification/warming that the optimal time for vitrification was Day 4 for both morulae and blastocysts, and that 8 h after warming was the time needed to make an...

  5. Cardiac dysfunction in a porcine model of pediatric malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Lykke, Mikkel; Nielsen, Anne-Louise Hother; Koch, Jørgen; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Hunter, Ingrid; Goetze, Jens P.; Friis, Henrik; Thymann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and longitudinal changes in plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T in a pediatric porcine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five-week old piglets (Duroc-x-Danish Landrace-x-Yorkshire) were fed a nutritionally inadequate maize-flour diet to induce malnutrition (MAIZE, n = 12) or a...... across the three groups. The myocardial performance index was 86% higher in MAIZE vs AGE-REF (p<0.001) and 27% higher in MAIZE vs WEIGHT-REF (p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition associates with cardiac dysfunction in a pediatric porcine model by increased myocardial performance index and pro...

  6. Use of Xylitol To Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Antibiotic Therapy in Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Karen E.; Bradney, Laura; Bellamy, William; Skinner, Robert A.; McLaren, Sandra G.; Gruenwald, M. Johannes; Spencer, Horace J.; Smith, James K.; Haggard, Warren O.

    2012-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of postsurgical osteomyelitis, we demonstrate that incorporation of xylitol into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement enhances the elution of daptomycin under in vivo conditions. We also demonstrate that this can be correlated with an improved therapeutic outcome in the treatment of a chronic bone infection following surgical debridement. PMID:22948866

  7. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Chronic Pediatric Headache and Anxiety Disorders: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic pediatric headache disorders are pervasive, debilitating, and associated with high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders. The combination of headaches and anxiety presents unique challenges for clinicians. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising treatment for pediatric headache, however, available treatments fail to…

  8. Less use of standard guideline-based treatment of myocardial infarction in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Thalia Marie; Hommel, Kristine; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Danish nationwide study was to evaluate the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Upgraded guidelines for the management of MI were implemented around 2004; hence...

  9. Use of Xylitol To Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of Polymethylmethacrylate-Based Antibiotic Therapy in Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Beenken, Karen E.; Bradney, Laura; Bellamy, William; Skinner, Robert A.; McLaren, Sandra G.; Gruenwald, M. Johannes; Spencer, Horace J.; Smith, James K; Haggard, Warren O.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a rabbit model of postsurgical osteomyelitis, we demonstrate that incorporation of xylitol into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement enhances the elution of daptomycin under in vivo conditions. We also demonstrate that this can be correlated with an improved therapeutic outcome in the treatment of a chronic bone infection following surgical debridement.

  10. Prevalence of emerging porcine parvoviruses and their co-infections with porcine circovirus type 2 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianhui; Huang, Liping; Wei, Yanwu; Wang, Yiping; Chen, Dongjie; Du, Wenjuan; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming

    2015-05-01

    A total of 450 samples from domestic pigs in China were tested for porcine parvoviruses (PPVs) and co-infections with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), and their complete capsid genes were sequenced. The prevalence of PPV1, PPV2, PPV3, PPV4, and PCV2 was 5.56 %, 39.56 %, 45.11 %, 21.56 %, and 47.33 %, respectively, and co-infection with PCV2 occurred in 4 % (PPV1), 22.44 % (PPV2), 24 % (PPV3), and 12 % (PPV4) of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two main lineages for each virus, and residues that differentiated these viruses were identified. The co-infections of emerging PPVs and PCV2 were prevalent, indicating their cooperative roles in porcine circovirus-associated diseases. PMID:25742931

  11. Chronic toxicity and physical disturbance effects of water- and oil-based drilling fluids and some major constituents on adult sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, were exposed in the laboratory under environmentally representative conditions to different types and concentrations of used operational drilling fluids and their major constituents. Threshold waste concentrations causing reductions in somatic and/or reproductive tissue growth are: greater than 10 mg1-1 for used water-based mud (WBM); 2 mg 1-1 for bentonite; and less than 0.5 mg1-1 for barite and used oil-based mud (OBM). Chronic exposure to OBM caused high mortalities at concentrations as low as 1.0 mg1-1. Non-nutritious particles in the food supply (all wastes) and chemical toxicity (OBM and perhaps barite) affected the growth rate and survival of sea scallops by altering physiological state (scope for growth) and nutritional condition (O:N ratio). The value of scope growth (SFG) calculations for assessing the relative chronic toxicity of the drilling wastes was demonstrated by the close relation observed between SFG and actual growth measurements. These results show that chronic intermittent exposure of sea scallops to dilute concentrations of operational drilling wastes, characterized by acute lethal tests as practically non-toxic, can affect growth, reproductive success and survival. (author)

  12. Evidence-based nutritional therapy for chronic kidney disease%慢性肾脏病循证营养治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦广宇; 周春凌

    2011-01-01

    Summary:Chronic kidney disease is currently one of the major public health issues worldwide. Therapy for end-stage renal disease imposes a heavy financial burden to patients, their family members, and the society. Proper evidence-based nutritional therapy and nutrition monitoring may effectively improve the patients' nutrition status and delay the progression of chronic kidney disease.%慢性肾脏病已成为世界各国所面临的重要公共卫生问题之一.终末期肾脏病给患者及其家庭、社会带来沉重的经济负担.合理的营养治疗和营养监测可以有效地改善患者营养状况、延缓CKD进展.

  13. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection spreads by cell-to-cell transfer in cultured MARC-145 cells, is dependent on an intact cytoskeleton, and is suppressed by drug-targeting of cell permissiveness to virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland Raymond RR; Ward-Demo Pam; Said Suleman; Wong Grace HW; Duman Richard G; Cafruny William A; Nelson Eric A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, causing widespread chronic infections which are largely uncontrolled by currently available vaccines or other antiviral measures. Cultured monkey kidney (MARC-145) cells provide an important tool for the study of PRRSV replication. For the present study, flow cytometric and fluorescence antibody (FA) analyses of PRRSV infection of cultured MARC-145 cells were carried out in experime...

  14. Systematic age-related differences in chronic disease management in a population-based cohort study: a new paradigm of primary care is required.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our interest in chronic conditions is due to the fact that, worldwide, chronic diseases have overtaken infectious diseases as the leading cause of death and disability, so their management represents an important challenge for health systems. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of primary health care services in managing diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF and coronary heart disease (CHD, by age group. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in Italy, enrolling 1,948,622 residents ≥ 16 years old. A multilevel regression model was applied to analyze compliance to care processes with explanatory variables at both patient and district level, using age group as an independent variable, and adjusting for sex, citizenship, disease duration, and Charlson index on the first level, and for District Health Unit on the second level. RESULTS: The quality of chronic disease management showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age. In particular, our findings indicate lower levels for young adults (16-44 year-olds, adults (45-64, and oldest old (+85 than for patients aged 65-74 in almost all quality indicators of CHD, CHF and diabetes management. Young adults (16-44 y, adults (45-64 y, the very old (75-84 y and the oldest old (+85 y patients with CHD, CHF and diabetes are less likely than 65-74 year-old patients to be monitored and treated using evidence-based therapies, with the exceptions of echocardiographic monitoring for CHF in young adult patients, and renal monitoring for CHF and diabetes in the very old. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that more effort is needed to ensure that primary health care systems are sensitive to chronic conditions in the young and in the very elderly.

  15. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-01-01

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain. PMID:25061745

  16. A new lung stent tested as fiducial marker in a porcine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of a Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) stent technique (Memocore™) in a porcine model. The stent is intended as a new fiducial for gated image guided radiotherapy in the lung. The study included test of an improved insertion system and respiratory gated treatments with this new technique. Methods and materials: Tests were carried out in a porcine model using Göttingen mini-pigs. The study included 10 animals. Planning CT was performed as 4 dimensional CT (4DCT) using the Varian RPM system. Respiratory gated radiotherapy treatments were simulated using the Brainlab ExacTrac system. Reproducibility of stent position during treatment was analyzed off-line using an experimental version of the ExacTrac software. The experimental version has a dedicated algorithm for segmentation of the stent in the planning CT and subsequent registration to X-ray position images. Results: A total of 23 stents were inserted in the 10 animals. Stents could be placed in all parts of the lungs. No stent migrated within the four weeks the experiment lasted. Stent trajectories in the lung were not reproducible, even though respiration was highly standardized using a respirator. The best accuracy of stent position in the gating window was obtained using gating at the halfmax amplitude as reference level. The smallest stent movement within the gating window was observed in the exhale phase. Further success of human application will depend on the possibility to insert the stent within or close to lung tumors. Conclusions: This new technique based on the Memocore™ lung stent used in connection with respiratory gated radiotherapy was demonstrated to be feasible in a porcine model. The study demonstrated lack of reproducibility in lung trajectories of inserted stents. The technique gave the best accuracy when applied to the exhale phase of respiration.

  17. Repeated Gene Transfection Impairs the Engraftment of Transplanted Porcine Neonatal Pancreatic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Koo Seo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPreviously, we reported that neonatal porcine pancreatic cells transfected with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF gene in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-based plasmid (pEBVHGF showed improved proliferation and differentiation compared to those of the control. In this study, we examined if pancreatic cells transfected repeatedly with pEBVHGF can be successfully grafted to control blood glucose in a diabetes mouse model.MethodsNeonatal porcine pancreatic cells were cultured as a monolayer and were transfected with pEBVHGF every other day for a total of three transfections. The transfected pancreatic cells were re-aggregated and transplanted into kidney capsules of diabetic nude mice or normal nude mice. Blood glucose level and body weight were measured every other day after transplantation. The engraftment of the transplanted cells and differentiation into beta cells were assessed using immunohistochemistry.ResultsRe-aggregation of the pancreatic cells before transplantation improved engraftment of the cells and facilitated neovascularization of the graft. Right before transplantation, pancreatic cells that were transfected with pEBVHGF and then re-aggregated showed ductal cell marker expression. However, ductal cells disappeared and the cells underwent fibrosis in a diabetes mouse model two to five weeks after transplantation; these mice also did not show controlled blood glucose levels. Furthermore, pancreatic cells transplanted into nude mice with normal blood glucose showed poor graft survival regardless of the type of transfected plasmid (pCEP4, pHGF, or pEBVHGF.ConclusionFor clinical application of transfected neonatal porcine pancreatic cells, further studies are required to develop methods of overcoming the damage for the cells caused by repeated transfection and to re-aggregate them into islet-like structures.

  18. Analysis of the Binding Sites of Porcine Sialoadhesin Receptor with PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV can infect pigs and cause enormous economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Porcine sialoadhesin (pSN and CD163 have been identified as key viral receptors on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM, a main target cell infected by PRRSV. In this study, the protein structures of amino acids 1–119 from the pSN and cSN (cattle sialoadhesin N-termini (excluding the 19-amino acid signal peptide were modeled via homology modeling based on mSN (mouse sialoadhesin template structures using bioinformatics tools. Subsequently, pSN and cSN homology structures were superposed onto the mSN protein structure to predict the binding sites of pSN. As a validation experiment, the SN N-terminus (including the wild-type and site-directed-mutant-types of pSN and cSN was cloned and expressed as a SN-GFP chimera protein. The binding activity between SN and PRRSV was confirmed by WB (Western blotting, FAR-WB (far Western blotting, ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay. We found that the S107 amino acid residue in the pSN N-terminal played a crucial role in forming a special cavity, as well as a hydrogen bond for enhancing PRRSV binding during PRRSV infection. S107 may be glycosylated during PRRSV infection and may also be involved in forming the cavity for binding PRRSV along with other sites, including W2, Y44, S45, R97, R105, W106 and V109. Additionally, S107 might also be important for pSN binding with PRRSV. However, the function of these binding sites must be confirmed by further studies.

  19. Effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin on in vivo and in vitro porcine circovirus type 2 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Christian; Provost, Chantale; Alvarez, Fernando; Pinilla, Vicente; Music, Nedzad; Jacques, Mario; Gagnon, Carl A; Chorfi, Younes

    2015-04-17

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp and is a common contaminant of grains in North America. Among farm animals, swine are the most susceptible to DON because it markedly reduces feed intake and decreases weight gain. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main causative agent of several syndromes in weaning piglets collectively known as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). The objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of DON on PCV2 replication in NPTr permissive cell line, and to determine eventual potentiating effects of DON on PCV2 infection in pigs. Noninfected and infected cells with PCV2 were treated with increasing concentrations of DON (0, 70, 140, 280, 560, 1200 ng/mL) and cell survival and virus titer were evaluated 72 h postinfection. Thirty commercial piglets were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups of 10 animals based on DON content of served diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5 mg/kg DON). All groups were further divided into subgroups of 6 pigs and were inoculated with PCV2b virus. The remaining pigs (control) were sham-inoculated with PBS. In vitro results showed that low concentrations of DON could potentially increase PCV2 replication depending on virus genotype. In vivo results showed that even though viremia and lung viral load tend to be higher in animal ingesting DON contaminated diet at 2.5 mg/kg, DON had no significant effect on clinical manifestation of PCVAD in PCV2b infected animals. DON has neither in vitro nor in vivo clear potentiating effects in the development of porcine circovirus infection despite slight increases in viral replication. PMID:25717015

  20. The Porcine TSPY Gene Is Tricopy but Not a Copy Number Variant.

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    Anh T Quach

    Full Text Available The testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY gene is situated on the mammalian Y-chromosome and exhibits some remarkable biological characteristics. It has the highest known copy number (CN of all protein coding genes in the human and bovine genomes (up to 74 and 200, respectively and also shows high individual variability. Although the biological function of TSPY has not yet been elucidated, its specific expression in the testis and several identified binding domains within the protein suggests roles in male reproduction. Here we describe the porcine TSPY, as a multicopy gene with three copies located on the short arm of the Y-chromosome with no variation at three exon loci among 20 animals of normal reproductive health from four breeds of domestic pigs (Piétrain, Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire. To further investigate the speculation that porcine TSPY is not a copy number variant, we have included five Low-fertility boars and five boars with exceptional High-fertility records. Interestingly, there was no difference between the High- and Low-fertile groups, but we detected slightly lower TSPY CN at all three exons (2.56-2.85 in both groups, as compared to normal animals, which could be attributed to technical variability or somatic mosaicism. The results are based on both relative quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR. Chromosomal localization of the porcine TSPY was done using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with gene specific PCR probes.