WorldWideScience

Sample records for based built-in self-test

  1. Design of a Realistic Test Simulator For a Built-In Self Test Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a realistic test approach suitable to Design For Testability (DFT and Built- In Self Test (BIST environments. The approach is culminated in the form of a test simulator which is capable of providing a required goal of test for the System Under Test (SUT. The simulator uses the approach of fault diagnostics with fault grading procedure to provide the tests. The tool is developed on a common PC platform and hence no special software is required. Thereby, it is a low cost tool and hence economical. The tool is very much suitable for determining realistic test sequences for a targeted goal of testing for any SUT. The developed tool incorporates a flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI procedure and can be operated without any special programming skill. The tool is debugged and tested with the results of many bench mark circuits. Further, this developed tool can be utilized for educational purposes for many courses such as fault-tolerant computing, fault diagnosis, digital electronics, and safe - reliable - testable digital logic designs.

  2. Research of built-in self test technology on cable-free self-positioning seismograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaizhu, Z.; Lin, J.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, L.; Yang, H.; Zheng, F.

    2011-12-01

    Cable-free self-positioning seismograph is the key instrument and equipment required for deep seismic exploration in China. In order to measure the performance of seismic data acquisition systems whether meet exploration requirements , to ensure the accuracy of seismic data, and to ensure equipment reliability and stability, a built-in self test solution of the cable-free self-positioning seismic recorder is provided. Within a 24-bits Σ-Δ DAC, the seismograph can produce sine, step, pulse and other high-precision analog test signal, with dynamic range of 120dB or more, through the FPGA to control the analog multiplexer switching the input signal acquisition channels, and start the 24-bit Σ-Δ ADC in the instrument internal simultaneously to acquisition the test signal data, carries on the fast Fournier transformation by instrument internal CPU, to achieve the instrument of analysis and calculation of performance indicators, including: the equivalent noise and drift, common mode rejection ratio (CMRR), crosstalk, harmonic distortion, dynamic range, channel response consistency, detector impulse response , etc. A lot of testing experiments about the various parameters were performed and studied currently. By setting different sampling rate (1Hz, 5Hz, ..., 4kHz), each of the measurement system noise level was measured, and the maximum noise is about 0.5μV; the crosstalk between channels was tested using the 31.25Hz sine wave, the result is more than-120dB with sampling rate of 1kHz; the harmonic distortion was measured by adding the high-precision sine wave signals of different frequencies, such as 500Hz, 250 Hz, 125 Hz, 62.5 Hz, 31.25 Hz, 15.625 Hz, 7.812 Hz, 3.90625Hz, etc. the calculated results is in-118dB or more. The experimental results show that, the parameters of the cable-free self-positioning of the seismic recorder meet the technical requirements for the deep exploration, compared to the corresponding parameters with the 428XL seismograph of the French

  3. A New Built-in Self Test Scheme for Phase-Locked Loops Using Internal Digital Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youbean; Kim, Kicheol; Kim, Incheol; Kang, Sungho

    Testing PLLs (phase-locked loops) is becoming an important issue that affects both time-to-market and production cost of electronic systems. Though a PLL is the most common mixed-signal building block, it is very difficult to test due to internal analog blocks and signals. In this paper, we propose a new PLL BIST (built-in self test) using the distorted frequency detector that uses only internal digital signals. The proposed BIST does not need to load any analog nodes of the PLL. Therefore, it provides an efficient defect-oriented structural test scheme, reduced area overhead, and improved test quality compared with previous approaches.

  4. Low-Power Built-In Self-Test Techniques for Embedded SRAMs

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    Shyue-Kung Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of power consumption during parallel BIST of embedded memory cores is growing significantly. In order to alleviate this problem, a row bank-based precharge technique based on the divided wordline (DWL architecture is proposed for low-power testing of embedded SRAMs. The memory cell array is first divided into row banks. The effectiveness of the row bank-based precharge technique is due to the predictable address sequence during test. In low-power test mode, instead of precharging the entire memory array, only the current accessed row bank is precharged. This will result in significant power saving for the precharge circuitry. The precharge power can be reduced to 1/b of that of the traditional precharge techniques, where b denotes the number of row banks in the memory array. With simple transmission gates and inverters, the modified precharge control circuitry was also designed. The hardware overhead for implementing the low-power technique is almost negligible. Moreover, the corresponding BIST design to implement the low-power technique is almost the same as the conventional BIST designs. It is also notable that the inherent low-power characteristics of the DWL architecture can be preserved. According to experimental results, 48.9% power reduction can be achieved for a 256 × 256 bit-oriented SRAM. The memory is divided into 8 row banks. Moreover, if the number of row banks increases, the power saving will also increase.

  5. A Built-In Self-Test Structure (BIST) for Resistive RAMs characterization: Application to bipolar OxRRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Bocquet, M.; Moreau, M.; Portal, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is a form of nonvolatile storage that operates by changing the resistance of a specially formulated solid dielectric material [1]. Among RRAMs, oxide-based Resistive RAMs (so-called OxRRAMs) are promising candidates due their compatibility with CMOS processes and high ON/OFF resistance ratio. Common problems with OxRRAM are related to high variability in operating conditions and low yield. OxRRAM variability mainly impact ON/OFF resistance ratio. This ratio is a key parameter to determine the overall performance of an OxRRAM memory. In this context, the presented built-in structure allows collecting statistical data related to the OxRRAM memory array (ON/OFF resistance distributions) for reliability assessment of the technology.

  6. Self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, I; Augusiak, R; Salavrakos, A; Acín, A

    2016-01-01

    Self-testing is a device-independent technique based on non-local correlations whose aim is to certify the effective uniqueness of the quantum state and measurements needed to produce these correlations. It is known that the maximal violation of some Bell inequalities suffices for this purpose. However, most of the existing self-testing protocols for two devices exploit the well-known Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Bell inequality or modifications of it, and always with two measurements per party. Here, we generalize the previous results by demonstrating that one can construct self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities, defined for two devices implementing an arbitrary number of two-output measurements. On the one hand, this proves that the quantum state and measurements leading to the maximal violation of the chained Bell inequality are unique. On the other hand, in the limit of a large number of measurements, our approach allows one to self-test the entire plane of measurements spanned by the Pauli matrices X and Z. Our results also imply that the chained Bell inequalities can be used to certify two bits of perfect randomness. (paper)

  7. Versatile electrophoresis-based self-test platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijt, Rosanne M

    2015-03-01

    Lab on a Chip technology offers the possibility to extract chemical information from a complex sample in a simple, automated way without the need for a laboratory setting. In the health care sector, this chemical information could be used as a diagnostic tool for example to inform dosing. In this issue, the research underpinning a family of electrophoresis-based point-of-care devices for self-testing of ionic analytes in various sample matrices is described [Electrophoresis 2015, 36, 712-721.]. Hardware, software, and methodological chances made to improve the overall analytical performance in terms of accuracy, precision, detection limit, and reliability are discussed. In addition to the main focus of lithium monitoring, new applications including the use of the platform for veterinary purposes, sodium, and for creatinine measurements are included. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A versatile electrophoresis-based self-test platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Steven; Ungerer, Mathijn; Floris, Arjan; Ten Brinke, Hans-Willem; Helmhout, Roy; Tellegen, Marian; Janssen, Kjeld; Karstens, Erik; van Arragon, Charlotte; Lenk, Stefan; Staijen, Erik; Bartholomew, Jody; Krabbe, Hans; Movig, Kris; Dubský, Pavel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on recent research creating a family of electrophoresis-based point of care devices for the determination of a wide range of ionic analytes in various sample matrices. These devices are based on a first version for the point-of-care measurement of Li(+), reported in 2010 by Floris et al. (Lab Chip 2010, 10, 1799-1806). With respect to this device, significant improvements in accuracy, precision, detection limit, and reliability have been obtained especially by the use of multiple injections of one sample on a single chip and integrated data analysis. Internal and external validation by clinical laboratories for the determination of analytes in real patients by a self-test is reported. For Li(+) in blood better precision than the standard clinical determination for Li(+) was achieved. For Na(+) in human urine the method was found to be within the clinical acceptability limits. In a veterinary application, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were determined in bovine blood by means of the same chip, but using a different platform. Finally, promising preliminary results are reported with the Medimate platform for the determination of creatinine in whole blood and quantification of both cations and anions through replicate measurements on the same sample with the same chip. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Emotion recognition based on customized smart bracelet with built-in accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, emotion recognition has become a hot topic in human-computer interaction. If computers could understand human emotions, they could interact better with their users. This paper proposes a novel method to recognize human emotions (neutral, happy, and angry using a smart bracelet with built-in accelerometer. Methods: In this study, a total of 123 participants were instructed to wear a customized smart bracelet with built-in accelerometer that can track and record their movements. Firstly, participants walked two minutes as normal, which served as walking behaviors in a neutral emotion condition. Participants then watched emotional film clips to elicit emotions (happy and angry. The time interval between watching two clips was more than four hours. After watching film clips, they walked for one minute, which served as walking behaviors in a happy or angry emotion condition. We collected raw data from the bracelet and extracted a few features from raw data. Based on these features, we built classification models for classifying three types of emotions (neutral, happy, and angry. Results and Discussion: For two-category classification, the classification accuracy can reach 91.3% (neutral vs. angry, 88.5% (neutral vs. happy, and 88.5% (happy vs. angry, respectively; while, for the differentiation among three types of emotions (neutral, happy, and angry, the accuracy can reach 81.2%. Conclusions: Using wearable devices, we found it is possible to recognize human emotions (neutral, happy, and angry with fair accuracy. Results of this study may be useful to improve the performance of human-computer interaction.

  10. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

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    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  11. Built-In Data-Flow Integration Testing in Large-Scale Component-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Éric; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Alberto; Gross, Hans-Gerhard

    Modern large-scale component-based applications and service ecosystems are built following a number of different component models and architectural styles, such as the data-flow architectural style. In this style, each building block receives data from a previous one in the flow and sends output data to other components. This organisation expresses information flows adequately, and also favours decoupling between the components, leading to easier maintenance and quicker evolution of the system. Integration testing is a major means to ensure the quality of large systems. Their size and complexity, together with the fact that they are developed and maintained by several stake holders, make Built-In Testing (BIT) an attractive approach to manage their integration testing. However, so far no technique has been proposed that combines BIT and data-flow integration testing. We have introduced the notion of a virtual component in order to realize such a combination. It permits to define the behaviour of several components assembled to process a flow of data, using BIT. Test-cases are defined in a way that they are simple to write and flexible to adapt. We present two implementations of our proposed virtual component integration testing technique, and we extend our previous proposal to detect and handle errors in the definition by the user. The evaluation of the virtual component testing approach suggests that more issues can be detected in systems with data-flows than through other integration testing approaches.

  12. A Cloud Based Mobile Dispatching System with Built-in Social CRM Component: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile dispatching applications have become popular for at least two major reasons. The first reason is a more mobile-centric usage pattern, where users relate to apps for fulfilling different needs that they have. In this respect, a vehicle dispatching application for mobile phones is perceived as a modern way of booking a vehicle. The second reason has to do with the advantages that this method has over traditional dispatching systems, such as being able to see the vehicle approaching on a map, being able to rate a driver and the most importantly spurring customer retention. The taxi dispatching business, one of the classes of dispatching businesses, tends to be a medium to lower class fidelity service, where users mostly consider the closest taxi as opposed to quality, which is regarded as being at a relatively consistent level. We propose a new approach for the taxi ordering application , a mobile dispatching system, which allows for a more engaged user base and offers fidelity rewards that are used to enhance the customer retention level based on a built in social customer relationship management (CRM component. With this approach, we argue that in a business world which is shifting from a consumer-centric marketing to a human-centric model, this apps will allows taxi businesses to better interact with their clients in a more direct and responsible manner. Also this distributed system helps taxi drivers, which can receive orders directly from their clients and will be able to benefit from offering quality services as they can get higher ratings.

  13. Self-test web-based pure-tone audiometry: validity evaluation and measurement error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalski, Marcin; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2013-04-12

    Potential methods of application of self-administered Web-based pure-tone audiometry conducted at home on a PC with a sound card and ordinary headphones depend on the value of measurement error in such tests. The aim of this research was to determine the measurement error of the hearing threshold determined in the way described above and to identify and analyze factors influencing its value. The evaluation of the hearing threshold was made in three series: (1) tests on a clinical audiometer, (2) self-tests done on a specially calibrated computer under the supervision of an audiologist, and (3) self-tests conducted at home. The research was carried out on the group of 51 participants selected from patients of an audiology outpatient clinic. From the group of 51 patients examined in the first two series, the third series was self-administered at home by 37 subjects (73%). The average difference between the value of the hearing threshold determined in series 1 and in series 2 was -1.54dB with standard deviation of 7.88dB and a Pearson correlation coefficient of .90. Between the first and third series, these values were -1.35dB±10.66dB and .84, respectively. In series 3, the standard deviation was most influenced by the error connected with the procedure of hearing threshold identification (6.64dB), calibration error (6.19dB), and additionally at the frequency of 250Hz by frequency nonlinearity error (7.28dB). The obtained results confirm the possibility of applying Web-based pure-tone audiometry in screening tests. In the future, modifications of the method leading to the decrease in measurement error can broaden the scope of Web-based pure-tone audiometry application.

  14. A 45-second self-test for cardiorespiratory fitness: heart rate-based estimation in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, F.; Bonato, M.; Papini, G.; Bosio, A.; Mohammed, R.; Bonomi, A.G.; Moore, J.P.; Merati, G.; Della Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up

  15. Tester-assisted built in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntheroth, Kurt

    It is noted that board makers invest considerable time and money writing extensive self-tests and that this investment can be multiplied by selecting ATE (automatic test equipment) that complements and extends the power of the self-test. The tester can diagnose boards in situations where a fault prevents the self-test from running. If the tester monitors such resources as processor, memory, and I/O, confidence in test results is improved. The tester can be used during development of the self-test and to turn on prototypes before the self-test is complete. The author argues that emulative functional testers outperform other types of ATE on boards with BIST (built-in self-test) and lists features of emulative functional testers that are most important to users of BIST.

  16. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ickenroth Martine HP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Discussion Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149

  17. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A; Bonomi, Alberto G; Moore, Jonathan P; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  18. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sartor

    Full Text Available Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9, 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30. The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI, which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40, but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91. The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93. It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42 than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29. In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  19. Analysis of ISO/IEEE 11073 built-in security and its potential IHE-based extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Óscar J; Trigo, Jesús D; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José

    2016-04-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 standard for Personal Health Devices (X73PHD) aims to ensure interoperability between Personal Health Devices and aggregators-e.g. health appliances, routers-in ambulatory setups. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative promotes the coordinated use of different standards in healthcare systems (e.g. Personal/Electronic Health Records, alert managers, Clinical Decision Support Systems) by defining profiles intended for medical use cases. X73PHD provides a robust syntactic model and a comprehensive terminology, but it places limited emphasis on security and on interoperability with IHE-compliant systems and frameworks. However, the implementation of eHealth/mHealth applications in environments such as health and fitness monitoring, independent living and disease management (i.e. the X73PHD domains) increasingly requires features such as secure connections to mobile aggregators-e.g. smartphones, tablets-, the sharing of devices among different users with privacy, and interoperability with certain IHE-compliant healthcare systems. This work proposes a comprehensive IHE-based X73PHD extension consisting of additive layers adapted to different eHealth/mHealth applications, after having analyzed the features of X73PHD (especially its built-in security), IHE profiles related with these applications and other research works. Both the new features proposed for each layer and the procedures to support them have been carefully chosen to minimize the impact on X73PHD, on its architecture (in terms of delays and overhead) and on its framework. Such implications are thoroughly analyzed in this paper. As a result, an extended model of X73PHD is proposed, preserving its essential features while extending them with added value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Accuracy and user-acceptability of HIV self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oon Tek Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The United States FDA approved an over-the-counter HIV self-test, to facilitate increased HIV testing and earlier linkage to care. We assessed the accuracy of self-testing by untrained participants compared to healthcare worker (HCW testing, participants' ability to interpret sample results and user-acceptability of self-tests in Singapore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study, involving 200 known HIV-positive patients and 794 unknown HIV status at-risk participants was conducted. Participants (all without prior self-test experience performed self-testing guided solely by visual instructions, followed by HCW testing, both using the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody Test, with both results interpreted by the HCW. To assess ability to interpret results, participants were provided 3 sample results (positive, negative, and invalid to interpret. Of 192 participants who tested positive on HCW testing, self-testing was positive in 186 (96.9%, negative in 5 (2.6%, and invalid in 1 (0.5%. Of 794 participants who tested negative on HCW testing, self-testing was negative in 791 (99.6%, positive in 1 (0.1%, and invalid in 2 (0.3%. Excluding invalid tests, self-testing had sensitivity of 97.4% (95% CI 95.1% to 99.7% and specificity of 99.9% (95% CI: 99.6% to 100%. When interpreting results, 96%, 93.1% and 95.2% correctly read the positive, negative and invalid respectively. There were no significant demographic predictors for false negative self-testing or wrongly interpreting positive or invalid sample results as negative. Eighty-seven percent would purchase the kit over-the-counter; 89% preferred to take HIV tests in private. 72.5% and 74.9% felt the need for pre- and post-test counseling respectively. Only 28% would pay at least USD15 for the test. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-testing was associated with high specificity, and a small but significant number of false negatives. Incorrectly identifying model results as

  1. Double-Windows-Based Motion Recognition in Multi-Floor Buildings Assisted by a Built-In Barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Maolin; Li, Huaiyu; Wang, Yuan; Li, Fei; Chen, Xiuwan

    2018-04-01

    Accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers in smartphones are often used to recognize human motions. Since it is difficult to distinguish between vertical motions and horizontal motions in the data provided by these built-in sensors, the vertical motion recognition accuracy is relatively low. The emergence of a built-in barometer in smartphones improves the accuracy of motion recognition in the vertical direction. However, there is a lack of quantitative analysis and modelling of the barometer signals, which is the basis of barometer's application to motion recognition, and a problem of imbalanced data also exists. This work focuses on using the barometers inside smartphones for vertical motion recognition in multi-floor buildings through modelling and feature extraction of pressure signals. A novel double-windows pressure feature extraction method, which adopts two sliding time windows of different length, is proposed to balance recognition accuracy and response time. Then, a random forest classifier correlation rule is further designed to weaken the impact of imbalanced data on recognition accuracy. The results demonstrate that the recognition accuracy can reach 95.05% when pressure features and the improved random forest classifier are adopted. Specifically, the recognition accuracy of the stair and elevator motions is significantly improved with enhanced response time. The proposed approach proves effective and accurate, providing a robust strategy for increasing accuracy of vertical motions.

  2. Perceptions of and intentions to use a recently introduced blood-based HIV self-test in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devez, Paul-Emmanuel; Epaulard, Olivier

    2018-06-10

    An estimated 28,000 French people infected with HIV remain undiagnosed, leading to HIV transmission and late-stage HIV infections. An over-the-counter HIV self-test has been available since September 2015. We thus aimed to explore people's perceptions of and intentions to use the test. An anonymous online questionnaire, targeting the general population and men who have sex with men (MSM) was distributed between November 2015 and January 2016. It explored at-risk sexual behavior, perceptions of the HIV self-test, and past and intended future use. A total of 1,082 participants completed ≥90% of the questionnaire (67.1% male, 32.4% female, 0.5% other; mean age 32.8 ± 12 years). 44.8% were MSM. 41.5% declared that they did not always use or make their partner use a condom in the case of penetration with someone other than their usual partner (if applicable). 9.9% had already used the HIV self-test, with this proportion being higher in multivariate analysis for individuals with a monthly income exceeding €1,000 and those declaring to be informed about HIV. 38.5% stated their intention to use the self-test in the coming month or year; in multivariate analysis, this proportion was lower for MSM and higher for those who did not always use or make their partner use a condom in the case of penetration with someone other than their usual partner. The majority (68.4%) underestimated the testing delay to rule out HIV infection. The most frequently cited concerns were that self-test does not test for other sexually transmitted infections (49.5%) and is not free of charge (44.4%), and that users are left alone with the result (41.0%). The HIV self-test was identified as a useful tool by different at-risk populations; it may therefore enhance the number of diagnoses. The test delay must be appropriately communicated to users, while a lower purchase price may increase usage.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of supervised patient self-testing of warfarin therapy using an internet-based expert system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, F

    2009-08-01

    Increased frequency of prothrombin time testing, facilitated by patient self-testing (PST) of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) can improve the clinical outcomes of oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). However, oversight of this type of management is often difficult and time-consuming for healthcare professionals. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of an automated direct-to-patient expert system, enabling remote and effective management of patients on OAT.

  4. Low knowledge and anecdotal use of unauthorized online HIV self-test kits among attendees at a street-based HIV rapid testing programme in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, M José; Figueroa, Carmen; Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Ruiz, Mónica; Vallejo, Fernando; de la Fuente, Luis

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentage of potential users who know that unauthorized HIV self-tests can be purchased online and the percentage of those who have already used them, and to determine socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect data from attendees at a street-based HIV testing programme. Logistic regression for rare events was performed. Of the 3340 participants, 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-6.0%) had knowledge of self-tests being sold online and 7.5% (95% CI 6.6-8.5%) thought they existed but had never seen them; only 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-0.9%) had ever used one. Knowing that self-tests are sold online (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% CI 2.4-5.4) and using them (OR 7.3, 95% CI 2.2-23.8) were associated with having undergone more than two previous HIV tests. Use was also associated with being neither Spanish nor Latin American (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-12.0) and with having a university degree (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). At the time of the study, the impact on the population of issues related to the use of unauthorized tests was very low. However, media coverage following the approval of self-testing in the USA might have changed the situation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A Weibull statistics-based lignocellulose saccharification model and a built-in parameter accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Han, Lijuan; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Jinghua; Loh, Soh Kheang; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Fang, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1 - 2) and sexual risk groups (S3 - 4). S1 - Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2 - Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3 - Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4 - STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and

  7. Effective suppression of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes: role of significant reduction of carrier density and built-in field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang-Seok; Na, Jong-Ho; Son, Sung Jin; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    A critical issue in GaN-based high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is how to suppress the efficiency droop problem occurred at high current injection while improving overall quantum efficiency, especially in conventional c-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW), without using complicated bandgap engineering or unconventional materials and structures. Although increasing thickness of each QW may decrease carrier density in QWs, formation of additional strain and defects as well as increased built-in field effect due to enlarged QW thickness are unavoidable. Here, we propose a facile and effective method for not only reducing efficiency droop but also improving quantum efficiency by utilizing c-plane InGaN/GaN QWs having thinner barriers and increased QW number while keeping the same single well thickness and total active layer thickness. As the barrier thickness decreases and the QW number increases, both internal electric field and carrier density within QWs are simultaneously reduced without degradation of material quality. Furthermore, we found overall improved efficiency and reduced efficiency droop, which was attributed to the decrease of the built-in field and to less influence by non-radiative recombination processes at high carrier density. This simple and effective approach can be extended further for high power ultraviolet, green, and red LEDs.

  8. Integrated built-in-test false and missed alarms reduction based on forward infinite impulse response & recurrent finite impulse response dynamic neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yiqian; Shi, Junyou; Wang, Zili

    2017-11-01

    Built-in tests (BITs) are widely used in mechanical systems to perform state identification, whereas the BIT false and missed alarms cause trouble to the operators or beneficiaries to make correct judgments. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are previously used for false and missed alarms identification, which has the features such as self-organizing and self-study. However, these ANN models generally do not incorporate the temporal effect of the bottom-level threshold comparison outputs and the historical temporal features are not fully considered. To improve the situation, this paper proposes a new integrated BIT design methodology by incorporating a novel type of dynamic neural networks (DNN) model. The new DNN model is termed as Forward IIR & Recurrent FIR DNN (FIRF-DNN), where its component neurons, network structures, and input/output relationships are discussed. The condition monitoring false and missed alarms reduction implementation scheme based on FIRF-DNN model is also illustrated, which is composed of three stages including model training, false and missed alarms detection, and false and missed alarms suppression. Finally, the proposed methodology is demonstrated in the application study and the experimental results are analyzed.

  9. The LFSR and BCA VHDL Models for Built-in Self-test Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitrych

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The various test structures are proposed for BIST techniques [1],[2]. A typical structure used for generation of pseudo-random test setsis the linear feedback shift register (LFSR. The BIST techniques havewide application in testing whole devices and embedded components. Wefocus on the analysis of the state coverage, fault coverage, andoptimal structure of BIST schemes.

  10. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick(®) HIV antibody test, and subsequently asked to self-test under supervision of a community health worker. Test results were confirmed at a government-run integrated counselling and testing centre. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on patient demographics and the ease, acceptability and difficulties of self-testing. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 35 participants to understand their experiences. In total, 202 participants performed the non-invasive, oral fluid-based, rapid test under supervision for HIV screening. Acceptance rate was 100%. Motivators for self-testing included: ease of testing (43.4%), quick results (27.3%) and non-invasive procedure (23.2%). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% for 201 tests, and one test was invalid. Concordance of test result interpretation between community health workers and participants was 98.5% with a Cohen's Kappa (k) value of k=0.566 with pwomen in rural India. Participants were supportive of making self-testing publicly available. Policy guidelines and implementation research are required to advance HIV self-testing for larger populations at scale.

  11. Optimal Robust Self-Testing by Binary Nonlocal XOR Games

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2013-01-01

    Self-testing a quantum apparatus means verifying the existence of a certain quantum state as well as the effect of the associated measuring devices based only on the statistics of the measurement outcomes. Robust (i.e., error-tolerant) self-testing quantum apparatuses are critical building blocks for quantum cryptographic protocols that rely on imperfect or untrusted devices. We devise a general scheme for proving optimal robust self-testing properties for tests based on nonlocal binary XOR g...

  12. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J

    2016-01-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system. (paper)

  13. Uptake, Accuracy, Safety, and Linkage into Care over Two Years of Promoting Annual Self-Testing for HIV in Blantyre, Malawi: A Community-Based Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine T Choko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Home-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC achieves high uptake, but is difficult and expensive to implement and sustain. We investigated a novel alternative based on HIV self-testing (HIVST. The aim was to evaluate the uptake of testing, accuracy, linkage into care, and health outcomes when highly convenient and flexible but supported access to HIVST kits was provided to a well-defined and closely monitored population.Following enumeration of 14 neighbourhoods in urban Blantyre, Malawi, trained resident volunteer-counsellors offered oral HIVST kits (OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to adult (≥16 y old residents (n = 16,660 and reported community events, with all deaths investigated by verbal autopsy. Written and demonstrated instructions, pre- and post-test counselling, and facilitated HIV care assessment were provided, with a request to return kits and a self-completed questionnaire. Accuracy, residency, and a study-imposed requirement to limit HIVST to one test per year were monitored by home visits in a systematic quality assurance (QA sample. Overall, 14,004 (crude uptake 83.8%, revised to 76.5% to account for population turnover residents self-tested during months 1-12, with adolescents (16-19 y most likely to test. 10,614/14,004 (75.8% participants shared results with volunteer-counsellors. Of 1,257 (11.8% HIV-positive participants, 26.0% were already on antiretroviral therapy, and 524 (linkage 56.3% newly accessed care with a median CD4 count of 250 cells/μl (interquartile range 159-426. HIVST uptake in months 13-24 was more rapid (70.9% uptake by 6 mo, with fewer (7.3%, 95% CI 6.8%-7.8% positive participants. Being "forced to test", usually by a main partner, was reported by 2.9% (95% CI 2.6%-3.2% of 10,017 questionnaire respondents in months 1-12, but satisfaction with HIVST (94.4% remained high. No HIVST-related partner violence or suicides were reported. HIVST and repeat HTC results agreed in 1

  14. Smart built-in test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dale W.

    1990-03-01

    The work which built-in test (BIT) is asked to perform in today's electronic systems increases with every insertion of new technology or introduction of tighter performance criteria. Yet the basic purpose remains unchanged -- to determine with high confidence the operational capability of that equipment. Achievement of this level of BIT performance requires the management and assimilation of a large amount of data, both realtime and historical. Smart BIT has taken advantage of advanced techniques from the field of artificial intelligence (AI) in order to meet these demands. The Smart BIT approach enhances traditional functional BIT by utilizing AI techniques to incorporate environmental stress data, temporal BIT information and maintenance data, and realtime BIT reports into an integrated test methodology for increased BIT effectiveness and confidence levels. Future research in this area will incorporate onboard fault-logging of BIT output, stress data and Smart BIT decision criteria in support of a singular, integrated and complete test and maintenance capability. The state of this research is described along with a discussion of directions for future development.

  15. Self-Testing Computer Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio, N.; Rennels, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Memory system for computer repeatedly tests itself during brief, regular interruptions of normal processing of data. Detects and corrects transient faults as single-event upsets (changes in bits due to ionizing radiation) within milliseconds after occuring. Self-testing concept surpasses conventional by actively flushing latent defects out of memory and attempting to correct before accumulating beyond capacity for self-correction or detection. Cost of improvement modest increase in complexity of circuitry and operating time.

  16. Adolescents’ experience of a rapid HIV self-testing device in youth-friendly clinic settings in Cape Town South Africa: a cross-sectional community based usability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip; Wallace, Melissa; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Since HIV testing in South African adolescents and young adults is sub-optimal, the objective of the current study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV rapid self-testing device in adolescents and young people at the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Centre and Mobile Clinic. Methods: Self-presenting adolescents and young adults were invited to participate in a study investigating the fidelity, usability and acceptability of the AtomoRapid HIV Rapid self-testing device. Trained healthcare workers trained participants to use the device before the participant conducted the HIV self-test with device usage instructions. The healthcare worker then conducted a questionnaire-based survey to assess outcomes. Results: Of the 224 enrolled participants between 16 and 24 years of age, 155 (69,2%) were female. Overall, fidelity was high; 216 (96,4%) participants correctly completed the test and correctly read and interpreted the HIV test result. There were eight (3,6%) user errors overall; six participants failed to prick their finger even though the lancet fired correctly. There were two user errors where participants failed to use the capillary tube correctly. Participants rated acceptability and usability highly, with debut testers giving significantly higher ratings for both. Younger participants gave significantly higher ratings of acceptability. Conclusions: Adolescents and young adults found HIV self-testing highly acceptable with the AtomoRapid and they used the device accurately. Further research should investigate how, where and when to deploy HIV self-testing as a means to accompany existing strategies in reaching the UNAIDS goal to test 90% of all individuals worldwide. PMID:28406597

  17. Adolescents' experience of a rapid HIV self-testing device in youth-friendly clinic settings in Cape Town South Africa: a cross-sectional community based usability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip; Wallace, Melissa; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-12-23

    Introduction : Since HIV testing in South African adolescents and young adults is sub-optimal, the objective of the current study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV rapid self-testing device in adolescents and young people at the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Centre and Mobile Clinic. Methods : Self-presenting adolescents and young adults were invited to participate in a study investigating the fidelity, usability and acceptability of the AtomoRapid HIV Rapid self-testing device. Trained healthcare workers trained participants to use the device before the participant conducted the HIV self-test with device usage instructions. The healthcare worker then conducted a questionnaire-based survey to assess outcomes. Results : Of the 224 enrolled participants between 16 and 24 years of age, 155 (69,2%) were female. Overall, fidelity was high; 216 (96,4%) participants correctly completed the test and correctly read and interpreted the HIV test result. There were eight (3,6%) user errors overall; six participants failed to prick their finger even though the lancet fired correctly. There were two user errors where participants failed to use the capillary tube correctly. Participants rated acceptability and usability highly, with debut testers giving significantly higher ratings for both. Younger participants gave significantly higher ratings of acceptability. Conclusions : Adolescents and young adults found HIV self-testing highly acceptable with the AtomoRapid and they used the device accurately. Further research should investigate how, where and when to deploy HIV self-testing as a means to accompany existing strategies in reaching the UNAIDS goal to test 90% of all individuals worldwide.

  18. Self-Testing of Vision in Age-Related Macula Degeneration: A Longitudinal Pilot Study Using a Smartphone-Based Rarebit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Winther

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need for efficient self-tests of vision in patients with neovascular age-related macula degeneration. A new tablet/smartphone application aiming to meet this need is described and its performance is assessed in a longitudinal pilot study. Materials and Methods. The new MultiBit Test (MBT employs segmented digits defined by rarebits, that is, receptive field-size bright dots briefly presented against a dark background. The number of rarebits per digit segment was varied in a cyclic fashion, in preset steps. There were no fixation demands. Twenty-eight patients with neovascular AMD of varying severity were monitored for an average of 30 weeks. Test scores were evaluated on an individual basis, by contrasting observed trends with the clinical status recorded at independently scheduled clinical examinations. Results. Serial plots of MBT results revealed gradual improvement after successful antineovascular treatment. Recurrences were signalled by gradual deteriorations of results. Test results remained stable during clinically stable time intervals. MBT results agreed well with clinical assessments whereas an acuity test performed at chance level. The MBT was well accepted by all subjects. Conclusions. The MBT appears to have a good potential for effective self-testing of vision in AMD and merits large-scale studies. Exploration of MBT performance with other forms of macula conditions may be worthwhile.

  19. Self-testing for cancer: a community survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Sue; Ryan, Angela V; Greenfield, Sheila M; Clifford, Sue C; Holder, Roger L; Pattison, Helen M; Fitzmaurice, David A; McManus, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Cancer-related self-tests are currently available to buy in pharmacies or over the internet, including tests for faecal occult blood, PSA and haematuria. Self-tests have potential benefits (e.g. convenience) but there are also potential harms (e.g. delays in seeking treatment). The extent of cancer-related self-test use in the UK is not known. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cancer-related self-test use. Adults (n = 5,545) in the West Midlands were sent a questionnaire that collected socio-demographic information and data regarding previous and potential future use of 18 different self-tests. Prevalence rates were directly standardised to the England population. The postcode based Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 was used as a proxy measure of deprivation. 2,925 (54%) usable questionnaires were returned. 1.2% (95% CI 0.83% to 1.66%) of responders reported having used a cancer related self test kit and a further 36% reported that they would consider using one in the future. Logistic regression analyses suggest that increasing age, deprivation category and employment status were associated with cancer-related self-test kit use. We conclude that one in 100 of the adult population have used a cancer-related self-test kit and over a third would consider using one in the future. Self-test kit use could alter perceptions of risk, cause psychological morbidity and impact on the demand for healthcare

  20. A synaptic device built in one diode-one resistor (1D-1R) architecture with intrinsic SiOx-based resistive switching memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Ting-Chang; Sze, Simon M.; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-04-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes to further minimize total synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path currents and demonstrate the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and spike-timing dependent plasticity are demonstrated systemically with comprehensive investigation of spike waveform analyses and represent a potential application for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from the (SiH)2 defect to generate the hydrogenbridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with largescale complementary metal-oxide semiconductor manufacturing technology.

  1. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick® HIV antibody test, and subse...

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Efficacy of Promoting a Home-Based HIV Self-Testing with Online Counseling on Increasing HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; Ip, Mary; Ho, Shara P Y; Mo, Phoenix K H; Latkin, Carl; Ma, Yee Ling; Kim, Yoona

    2018-01-01

    We developed an innovative home-based HIV self-testing (HIVST) service that included mailing of a free HIVST kit, and providing online real-time instructions and pre-test/post-test counseling (HIVST-OIC). The present parallel-group and non-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of promoting HIVST-OIC in increasing HIV testing rate among 430 men who have sex with men (MSM), with access to online live-chat applications in Hong Kong. At month 6, as compared to the control group, the intervention group reported significantly higher prevalence of HIV testing of any type (89.8 vs. 50.7%; relative risk (RR): 1.77; p strong potential in increasing prevalence of HIV testing and reducing sexual risk behaviors. Implementation research is warranted.

  3. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bil, Janneke P.; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G.; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B.; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the

  4. Self-test Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1996-01-01

    The Self-Test Monte Carlo (STMC) method resolves the main problems in using algebraic pseudo-random numbers for Monte Carlo (MC) calculations: that they can interfere with MC algorithms and lead to erroneous results, and that such an error often cannot be detected without known exact solution. STMC is based on good randomness of about 10 10 bits available from physical noise or transcendental numbers like π = 3.14---. Various bit modifiers are available to get more bits for applications that demands more than 10 10 random bits such as lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD). These modifiers are designed so that a) each of them gives a bit sequence comparable in randomness as the original if used separately from each other, and b) their mutual interference when used jointly in a single MC calculation is adjustable. Intermediate data of the MC calculation itself are used to quantitatively test and adjust the mutual interference of the modifiers in respect of the MC algorithm. STMC is free of systematic error and gives reliable statistical error. Also it can be easily implemented on vector and parallel supercomputers. (author)

  5. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M; Marriott, John F

    2016-05-10

    Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants' perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  6. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Powell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Results: Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  7. Biofilms in churches built in grottoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cennamo, Paola; Montuori, Naomi; Trojsi, Giorgio; Fatigati, Giancarlo; Moretti, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated microorganisms dwelling on rocks, walls and paintings in two votive chapels built in grottoes in the Region of Campania, Italy. One grotto was near the coast in an area with a Mediterranean climate, and the other grotto was inland on a mountain in an area with a cold continental climate. Color and distribution of biofilms in various areas of the grottoes were examined. Microbial components of biofilms were identified by light and electron microscopy and by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and Automatic rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis). Biofilms were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction to detect inorganic constituents deriving from rocks in the grottoes and walls of the churches and by X-ray fluorescence to detect the elements that made up the pigments of the mural paintings; optical cross sections were used to observe their relationships with substrata. Species of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and green algae were identified. Some of these species occurred in both grottoes, while others were exclusive to only one of the grottoes. The diversity of species, their common or exclusive occurrence in the grottoes, the relationships among microbial communities and the differences in color and distribution of biofilms were discussed on the basis of the different climatic factors affecting the two grottoes and the different inorganic components of substrata. - Highlights: • Biofilms concur to the degradation of cultural heritage. • Microorganisms cause esthetic and structural damage in votive churches. • Biofilm features vary on different substrata, as limestone, plaster and paintings. • Features of biofilms mainly depend on environmental conditions. • Molecular biology techniques are indispensable in the study of biodegradation.

  8. Biofilms in churches built in grottoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cennamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.cennamo@unisob.na.it [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Montuori, Naomi [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy); Trojsi, Giorgio; Fatigati, Giancarlo [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Moretti, Aldo [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We investigated microorganisms dwelling on rocks, walls and paintings in two votive chapels built in grottoes in the Region of Campania, Italy. One grotto was near the coast in an area with a Mediterranean climate, and the other grotto was inland on a mountain in an area with a cold continental climate. Color and distribution of biofilms in various areas of the grottoes were examined. Microbial components of biofilms were identified by light and electron microscopy and by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and Automatic rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis). Biofilms were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction to detect inorganic constituents deriving from rocks in the grottoes and walls of the churches and by X-ray fluorescence to detect the elements that made up the pigments of the mural paintings; optical cross sections were used to observe their relationships with substrata. Species of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and green algae were identified. Some of these species occurred in both grottoes, while others were exclusive to only one of the grottoes. The diversity of species, their common or exclusive occurrence in the grottoes, the relationships among microbial communities and the differences in color and distribution of biofilms were discussed on the basis of the different climatic factors affecting the two grottoes and the different inorganic components of substrata. - Highlights: • Biofilms concur to the degradation of cultural heritage. • Microorganisms cause esthetic and structural damage in votive churches. • Biofilm features vary on different substrata, as limestone, plaster and paintings. • Features of biofilms mainly depend on environmental conditions. • Molecular biology techniques are indispensable in the study of biodegradation.

  9. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703. Results 18.1% (799/4416 of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%, kidney disease (4.9%, cholesterol (4.5%, urinary tract infection (1.9% and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%. A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6% of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self

  10. South African HIV self-testing policy and guidance considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Venter

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap in HIV testing remains significant and new modalities such as HIV self-testing (HIVST have been recommended to reach key and under-tested populations. In December 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO released the Guidelines on HIV Self-Testing and Partner Notification: A Supplement to the Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Testing Services (HTS and urged member countries to develop HIVST policy and regulatory frameworks. In South Africa, HIVST was included as a supplementary strategy in the National HIV Testing Services Policy in 2016, and recently, guidelines for HIVST were included in the South African National Strategic Plan for HIV, sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis 2017–2022. This document serves as an additional guidance for the National HIV Testing Services Policy 2016, with specific focus on HIVST. It is intended for policy advocates, clinical and non-clinical HTS providers, health facility managers and healthcare providers in private and public health facilities, non-governmental, community-based and faith-based organisations involved in HTS and outreach, device manufacturers, workplace programmes and institutes of higher education.

  11. Biology's built-in Faraday cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Maurice M.

    2014-05-01

    Biological fluids are water-based, ionic conductors. As such, they have both high relative dielectric constants and substantial conductivities, meaning they are lossy dielectrics. These fluids contain charged molecules (free charges), whose movements play roles in essentially all cellular processes from metabolism to communication with other cells. Using the problem of a point source in air above a biological fluid of semi-infinite extent, the bound charges in the fluid are shown to perform the function of a fast-acting Faraday cage, which protects the interior of the fluid from external electric fields. Free charges replace bound charges in accordance with the fluid's relaxation time, thereby providing a smooth transition between the initial protection provided by the bound charges and the steady state protection provided by the free charges. The electric fields within the biological fluid are thus small for all times just as they would be inside a classical Faraday cage.

  12. Built-in self-repair of VLSI memories employing neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Pinaki

    1998-10-01

    The decades of the Eighties and the Nineties have witnessed the spectacular growth of VLSI technology, when the chip size has increased from a few hundred devices to a staggering multi-millon transistors. This trend is expected to continue as the CMOS feature size progresses towards the nanometric dimension of 100 nm and less. SIA roadmap projects that, where as the DRAM chips will integrate over 20 billion devices in the next millennium, the future microprocessors may incorporate over 100 million transistors on a single chip. As the VLSI chip size increase, the limited accessibility of circuit components poses great difficulty for external diagnosis and replacement in the presence of faulty components. For this reason, extensive work has been done in built-in self-test techniques, but little research is known concerning built-in self-repair. Moreover, the extra hardware introduced by conventional fault-tolerance techniques is also likely to become faulty, therefore causing the circuit to be useless. This research demonstrates the feasibility of implementing electronic neural networks as intelligent hardware for memory array repair. Most importantly, we show that the neural network control possesses a robust and degradable computing capability under various fault conditions. Overall, a yield analysis performed on 64K DRAM's shows that the yield can be improved from as low as 20 percent to near 99 percent due to the self-repair design, with overhead no more than 7 percent.

  13. Transparent dispersion compensator with built-in gain equalizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Doerr, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to obtain a transparent or even an amplifying dispersion compensating module with built-in gain equalization functionality. The principle of operation and experimental results are illustrated.......In this work we describe a method to obtain a transparent or even an amplifying dispersion compensating module with built-in gain equalization functionality. The principle of operation and experimental results are illustrated....

  14. What do Key Stakeholders Think About HIV Self-Testing in Canada? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, N Pant; Smallwood, M; Gulati, D; Lapczak, N; Musten, A; Gaydos, C; Johnston, C; Steben, M; Wong, T; Engel, N; Kim, J

    2018-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing presents an empowering alternative to facility-based testing for reaching undiagnosed HIV infected individuals, but is not currently available in Canada. We surveyed stakeholders (clinical providers, public health professionals, researchers) engaged in HIV testing initiatives nationwide to identify the concerns, opportunities and challenges to implementing HIV self-testing in Canada. An online cross-sectional survey was disseminated by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Centre for REACH 2.0 National HIV & sexually transmitted and blood borne infections working group to stakeholders nationwide, with a target sample size of 200. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using a mixed-methods, respondent-informed approach, to inform subsequent HIV self-testing in a country where self-testing is not yet accessible. A total of 183 responses were received. A majority (70.7%) (128/181) felt that self-testing was a necessary investment to reach the undiagnosed. 64.6% (117/181) felt that self-tests should be made available to their clients and 71.5% (128/179) of respondents agreed that self-test instructions required improvements. However, 50% (90/180) felt that self-testing will pose an economic challenge to current HIV testing models. Regardless, 21% urged for timely action and availability of HIV self-tests. Thematic analyses reflected the following concerns: (a) need for affordable self-tests, (b) need for expedited, customized, and accessible linkages to counselling, (c) concern for patients to cope with positive self-test results, (d) accuracy of self-tests to detect acute HIV and (e) liability in the context of non-disclosure. Stakeholders agreed to the provision of an option of HIV self-testing to reach the undiagnosed individuals. Concerns regarding costs and accuracy of self-tests, expedited linkages to counselling, and integration of self-test within prevailing HIV testing models, will need to be

  15. The HIV self-testing debate: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou; French, Martin; Hébert, Yamilee

    2018-01-18

    Emphasis on HIV testing as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care has grown tremendously over the past decade. In turn, this emphasis on testing has created a demand for new policies, programs, and technologies that can potentially increase access to and uptake of HIV testing. HIV self-testing (HST) technologies have gained important momentum following the approval of the over-the-counter self-tests in the United States, the UK, and France. While the renewed interest in HST has given rise to a number of high quality reviews of empirical studies conducted on this topic, we have yet to find an article that captures the extent of the debate on HST. A critical review of the literature on HST was conducted and organized into three categories based on the focus of the article: 1) Empirical research, 2) Arguments, and 3) Context. We focused exclusively on the second category which included ethical analyses, policy analyses, editorials, opinion pieces, commentaries, letters to the editor and so forth. 10 lines of argument on HST were identified in the literature: 1) Individual - Public Health, 2) Strengths - Limits, 3) Benefits - Harms, 4) Screening - Testing, 5) Target - Market, 6) Health Care - Industry, 7) Regulation - Restriction, 8) Resource-Rich Settings - Resource-Limited Settings, 9) Ethical - Unethical, and 10) Exceptionalism - Normalization. Each line of argument is presented and discussed in the paper. We conclude by providing examples of critical questions that should be raised in order to take the debate to another level and generate new ways of thinking about HST.

  16. Injecting Errors for Testing Built-In Test Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James

    2010-01-01

    Two algorithms have been conceived to enable automated, thorough testing of Built-in test (BIT) software. The first algorithm applies to BIT routines that define pass/fail criteria based on values of data read from such hardware devices as memories, input ports, or registers. This algorithm simulates effects of errors in a device under test by (1) intercepting data from the device and (2) performing AND operations between the data and the data mask specific to the device. This operation yields values not expected by the BIT routine. This algorithm entails very small, permanent instrumentation of the software under test (SUT) for performing the AND operations. The second algorithm applies to BIT programs that provide services to users application programs via commands or callable interfaces and requires a capability for test-driver software to read and write the memory used in execution of the SUT. This algorithm identifies all SUT code execution addresses where errors are to be injected, then temporarily replaces the code at those addresses with small test code sequences to inject latent severe errors, then determines whether, as desired, the SUT detects the errors and recovers

  17. Will an Unsupervised Self-Testing Strategy Be Feasible to Operationalize in Canada? Results from a Pilot Study in Students of a Large Canadian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Pant Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A convenient, private, and accessible HIV self-testing strategy stands to complement facility-based conventional testing. Over-the-counter oral HIV self-tests are approved and available in the United States, but not yet in Canada. Canadian data on self-testing is nonexistent. We investigated the feasibility of offering an unsupervised self-testing strategy to Canadian students. Methods. Between September 2011 and May 2012, we recruited 145 students from a student health clinic of a large Canadian university. Feasibility of operationalization (i.e., self-test conduct, acceptability, convenience, and willingness to pay was evaluated. Self-test conduct was computed with agreement between the self-test performed by the student and the test repeated by a healthcare professional. Other metrics were measured on a survey. Results. Participants were young (median age: 22 years, unmarried (97%, and 47% were out of province or international students. Approximately 52% self-reported a history of unprotected casual sex and sex with multiple partners. Self-test conduct agreement was high (100%, so were acceptability (81%, convenience (99%, and willingness to pay (74% for self-tests. Concerns included accuracy of self-tests and availability of expedited linkages. Conclusion. An unsupervised self-testing strategy was found to be feasible in Canadian students. Findings call for studies in at-risk populations to inform Canadian policy.

  18. On-Chip AC self-test controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, John D [Rhinebeck, NY; Herring, Jay R [Poughkeepsie, NY; Lo, Tin-Chee [Fishkill, NY

    2009-09-29

    A system for performing AC self-test on an integrated circuit that includes a system clock for normal operation is provided. The system includes the system clock, self-test circuitry, a first and second test register to capture and launch test data in response to a sequence of data pulses, and a logic circuit to be tested. The self-test circuitry includes an AC self-test controller and a clock splitter. The clock splitter generates the sequence of data pulses including a long data capture pulse followed by an at speed data launch pulse and an at speed data capture pulse followed by a long data launch pulse. The at speed data launch pulse and the at speed data capture pulse are generated for a common cycle of the system clock.

  19. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ''identical'' values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs

  20. Temperature-dependent built-in potential in organic semiconductor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemerink, M.; Kramer, J.M.; Gommans, H.H.P.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the built-in voltage of organic semiconductor devices is studied. The results are interpreted using a simple analytical model for the band bending at the electrodes. It is based on the notion that, even at zero current, diffusion may cause a significant charge density

  1. Architecture of built-in microcontrollers in the U-70 complex control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, S.I.; Voevodin, V.P.; Inchagov, A.A.; Komarov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The distributed system of built-in microcontrollers (BMS) for functional control of supply sources of magnetooptical elements is created within the frames of works on modernization of the U-70 control complex. The BMS architecture and functional diagram of one of them are presented. The microcontrollers operation algorithm is based on the eventuation principle. The BMS basic parameters are presented [ru

  2. A qualitative study of secondary distribution of HIV self-test kits by female sex workers in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available Promoting awareness of serostatus and frequent HIV testing is especially important among high risk populations such as female sex workers (FSW and their sexual partners. HIV self-testing is an approach that is gaining ground in sub-Saharan Africa as a strategy to increase knowledge of HIV status and promote safer sexual decisions. However, little is known about self-test distribution strategies that are optimal for increasing testing access among hard-to-reach and high risk individuals. We conducted a qualitative study with 18 FSW who participated in a larger study that provided them with five oral fluid-based self-tests, training on how to use the tests, and encouragement to offer the self-tests to their sexual partners using their discretion. Women demonstrated agency in the strategies they used to introduce self-tests to their partners and to avoid conflict with partners. They carefully considered with whom to share self-tests, often assessing the possibility for negative reactions from partners as part of their decision making process. When women faced negative reactions from partners, they drew on strategies they had used before to avoid conflict and physical harm from partners, such as not responding to angry partners and forgoing payment to leave angry partners quickly. Some women also used self-tests to make more informed sexual decisions with their partners.

  3. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS): Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Ronda, Gaby; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2010-08-03

    Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1) the frequency of self-test use, (2) the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3) the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4) the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5) the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6) the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Mixed methods study with (1) a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2) semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3) the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self-testing, and the consumers' actual follow-up behaviour based

  4. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS: Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-08-01

    , and the consumers' actual follow-up behaviour based on the self-test result, and simultaneously investigates the quality of the currently available consumer information. The results of this study will be used as an input in developing consumer information on self-testing.

  5. 26 CFR 1.1374-2 - Net recognized built-in gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net recognized built-in gain. 1.1374-2 Section 1...-in gain. (a) In general. An S corporation's net recognized built-in gain for any taxable year is the... considering only its recognized built-in gain, recognized built-in loss, and recognized built-in gain...

  6. Material control and accounting self-test program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.; Wilson, R.L.; Byers, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a controversial but potentially beneficial MCandA strategy that has not been widely attempted in the past, called Self-Test. In this strategy a processor of Strategic Special Nuclear Material (SSNM) devises a program of internally administered tests to determine if the MCandA system performs in a reliable, expedient manner in the face of a simulated loss or compromise. Self-Test procedures would include, for example, the actual removal of SSNM from process equipment in order to determine whether the MCandA system will detect the simulated theft. Self-Test programs have several potential problems. However, an approach with the potential for solving many of these problems has been devised and is discussed

  7. All pure bipartite entangled states can be self-tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coladangelo, Andrea; Goh, Koon Tong; Scarani, Valerio

    2017-05-01

    Quantum technologies promise advantages over their classical counterparts in the fields of computation, security and sensing. It is thus desirable that classical users are able to obtain guarantees on quantum devices, even without any knowledge of their inner workings. That such classical certification is possible at all is remarkable: it is a consequence of the violation of Bell inequalities by entangled quantum systems. Device-independent self-testing refers to the most complete such certification: it enables a classical user to uniquely identify the quantum state shared by uncharacterized devices by simply inspecting the correlations of measurement outcomes. Self-testing was first demonstrated for the singlet state and a few other examples of self-testable states were reported in recent years. Here, we address the long-standing open question of whether every pure bipartite entangled state is self-testable. We answer it affirmatively by providing explicit self-testing correlations for all such states.

  8. Self-testing properties of Gisin's elegant Bell inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ole; Badzi&aogo; g, Piotr; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Dumitru, Irina; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    An experiment in which the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is maximally violated is self-testing (i.e., it certifies in a device-independent way both the state and the measurements). We prove that an experiment maximally violating Gisin's elegant Bell inequality is not similarly self-testing. The reason can be traced back to the problem of distinguishing an operator from its complex conjugate. We provide a complete and explicit characterization of all scenarios in which the elegant Bell inequality is maximally violated. This enables us to see exactly how the problem plays out.

  9. Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-Testing Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollema, E D; Snoek, Frank J; Pouwer, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the psychometric properties of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-Testing Questionnaire (D-FISQ). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. Sample A consisted of 252 insulin-treated diabetes patients. Sample B incorporated 24 insulin-treated patients......-injecting or self-testing had higher scores on FSI (P = 0.095) and FST (P = 0.01). EFA yielded 2 separate factors, FSI and FST. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study support reliability and validity of the D-FISQ, a self-report instrument that can be used for both clinical and research purposes....

  10. Ethical implications of HIV self-testing: the game is far from being over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Luchuo Engelbert; Ditah, Chobufo Muchi; Awah, Paschal Kum; Ekukwe, Nkoke Clovis

    2016-01-01

    The use of combined Anti-Retroviral Therapy (cART) has been revolutionary in the history of the fight against HIV-AIDS, with remarkable reductions in HIV associated morbidity and mortality. Knowing one's HIV status early, not only increases chances of early initiation of effective, affordable and available treatment, but has lately been associated with an important potential to reduce disease transmission. A public health priority lately has been to lay emphasis on early and wide spread HIV screening. With many countries having already in the market over the counter self-testing kits, the ethical question whether self-testing in HIV with such kits is acceptable remains unanswered. Many Western authors have been firm on the fact that this approach enhances patient autonomy and is ethically grounded. We argue that the notion of patient autonomy as proposed by most ethicists assumes perfect understanding of information around HIV, neglects HIV associated stigma as well as proper identification of risky situations that warrant an HIV test. Putting traditional clinic based HIV screening practice into the shadows might be too early, especially for developing countries and potentially very dangerous. Encouraging self-testing as a measure to accompany clinic based testing in our opinion stands as main precondition for public health to invest in HIV self-testing. We agree with most authors that hard to reach risky groups like men and Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) are easily reached with the self-testing approach. However, linking self-testers to the medical services they need remains a key challenge, and an understudied indispensable obstacle in making this approach to obtain its desired goals.

  11. To test or not to test: A cross-sectional survey of the psychosocial determinants of self-testing for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant Geert-Jan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-tests are increasingly available and widely used, it is not clear whether their use is beneficial to the users, and little is known concerning the determinants of self-test use. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of self-test use for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV, and to examine whether these are similar across these tests. Self-testing was defined as using in-vitro tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a particular disorder, condition, or risk factor for disease. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among 513 self-testers and 600 non-testers, assessing possible determinants of self-test use. The structured questionnaire was based on the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Protection Motivation Theory. Data were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Results The results revealed that perceived benefits and self-efficacy were significantly associated with self-testing for all three conditions. Other psychosocial determinants, e.g. gender, cues to action, perceived barriers, subjective norm, and moral obligation, seemed to be more test-specific. Conclusions Psychosocial determinants of self-testing are not identical for all tests and therefore information about self-testing needs to be tailored to a specific test. The general public should not only be informed about advantages of self-test use but also about the disadvantages. Designers of information about self-testing should address all aspects related to self-testing to stimulate informed decision making which, in turn, will result in more effective self-test use.

  12. HIV self-testing practices among Health Care Workers: feasibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV self-testing practices among Health Care Workers: feasibility and options for ... is required to increase the rate of HIV testing and expand treatment services. ... 244(80%) of the HCWs had motivation or interest to be tested by themselves.

  13. Rationale and design of FORTH: a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of HIV self-testing in increasing HIV testing frequency among gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad S; Prestage, Garrett; Fairley, Christopher K; Smith, Kirsty S; Kaldor, John M; Grulich, Andrew E; McNulty, Anna M; Chen, Marcus; Holt, Martin; Conway, Damian P; Wand, Handan; Keen, Phillip; Batrouney, Colin; Bradley, Jack; Bavinton, Benjamin R; Ryan, Dermot; Russell, Darren; Guy, Rebecca J

    2015-12-10

    Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are a major risk group for HIV acquisition, yet the majority of higher-risk GBM test for HIV less often than recommended (3-6 monthly). HIV self-testing has the potential to increase testing frequency and improve awareness of personal HIV status. HIV self-tests have been approved in some countries, however there are concerns whether self-testing would increase HIV testing frequency enough to compensate for the reduced sensitivity of self-tests in early infection. We describe here a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of self-testing in increasing HIV testing frequency among higher-risk GBM, and its acceptability. Participants are higher-risk HIV negative GBM (>5 partners or condomless anal intercourse in previous 3 months; n = 350), including 50 GBM who tested for HIV over two years ago or never tested before ('infrequent-testers'). Participants are recruited from sexual health clinics and community-based organisations, and randomised 1:1 to either self-testing or standard-care (routine clinic-based testing) arms. The trial employs a wait-list control design: participants in the standard-care arm switch to self-testing arm in the second year, and gain access to self-test kits. Participants in the self-testing arm receive four oral-fluid self-test kits at enrolment, with additional kits provided on request. Demographics, sexual behaviour and HIV testing preferences are collected at baseline, and the frequency and pattern of HIV and sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is collected via online 3-monthly questionnaires. The acceptability of self-testing is assessed at 12 months via an online questionnaire and in-depth interviews. A 24-h telephone support is provided, with expedited follow-up of those with reactive self-test results. The primary outcome is HIV testing frequency (mean number of HIV tests per person) over 12 months, and the secondary outcomes are: mean number of STI tests (chlamydia

  14. Smart built-in test for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombrozo, P.C.

    1992-03-01

    Smart built-in test (BIT) technologies are envisioned for nuclear thermal propulsion spacecraft components which undergo constant irradiation and are therefore unsafe for manual testing. Smart BIT systems of automated/remote type allow component and system tests to be conducted; failure detections are directly followed by reconfiguration of the components affected. The 'smartness' of the BIT system in question involves the reduction of sensor counts via the use of multifunction sensors, the use of components as integral sensors, and the use of system design techniques which allow the verification of system function beyond component connectivity

  15. Usage and acceptability of HIV self-testing in men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Horas Tze Hoo; Tam, Hoi Yan; Chan, Denise Pui Chung; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-03-01

    Whilst studies on over-the-counter HIV tests continue to accumulate after FDA's approval of OraQuick Advance in 2012, few have focused on men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asian cities. An internet survey was conducted on 1,122 MSM in Hong Kong, revealing a low usage (6.1 %) and acceptability rate (43.8 %) on self-testing despite its availability in the market. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that having received relevant information and users' attitudes on self-testing were the determinants of usage and acceptability. These factors had greater effects than sexual behaviors and social-networking on MSM's decision on self-testing. Majority of ever self-testers only repeated the self-test after a non-negative result, and overall only 26.6 % went for a formal test subsequent to the self-test. Concerns regarding the tests' accuracy were expressed by respondents. In conclusion, appropriate and accessible information and evidence-based guidance are needed to incorporate self-testing into HIV prevention strategies targeting MSM.

  16. Solar Biogas Digester with Built-In Reverse Absorber Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the design, fabrication and investigation of a solar biogas digester with built-in RAH (Reverse Absorber Heater is presented. The maximum temperature (50 o C inside of the methane tank was taken as a main parameter at the design of the digester. Using energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated; the parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were counted. The biogas digester is consisting of methane tank with built-in solar RAH to utilize solar energy for the heating of the slurry prepared from the different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc. The methane tank was filled up to 70% of volume by organic wastes of the GIK Institute sewage, firstly, and secondly, by sewage and cow dung as well. During three months (October-December, 2009 and two months (February-March, 2010 the digester was investigated. The solar irradiance incident to the absorber, slurry's temperature and ambient temperature were measured. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung the retention times was 4 weeks and two weeks respectively and biogas quantity produced was 0.4 and 8.0 m 3 respectively. In addition, biogas upgradation scheme for removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapor from biogas and conversion of biogas energy conversion into electric power is also discussed.

  17. Device-independent parallel self-testing of two singlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingyao; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; McKague, Matthew; Scarani, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Device-independent self-testing offers the possibility of certifying the quantum state and measurements, up to local isometries, using only the statistics observed by querying uncharacterized local devices. In this paper we study parallel self-testing of two maximally entangled pairs of qubits; in particular, the local tensor product structure is not assumed but derived. We prove two criteria that achieve the desired result: a double use of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and the 3 ×3 magic square game. This demonstrate that the magic square game can only be perfectly won by measuring a two-singlet state. The tolerance to noise is well within reach of state-of-the-art experiments.

  18. Self-Testing Static Random-Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio; Rennels, David

    1991-01-01

    Proposed static random-access memory for computer features improved error-detecting and -correcting capabilities. New self-testing scheme provides for detection and correction of errors at any time during normal operation - even while data being written into memory. Faults in equipment causing errors in output data detected by repeatedly testing every memory cell to determine whether it can still store both "one" and "zero", without destroying data stored in memory.

  19. Guidelines on the prevention of built-in moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of built-in-moisture, a number of buildings in Denmark were attacked by moulds even before the users moved in. Therefore, the Danish Building Regulations have since 2008 stipulated that building structures and materials must not, on moving in, have a moisture content that is liable...... the execution phase and the building’s capacity to withstand moisture. It also specifies how moisture should be dealt with in the general quality assurance system of the building industry. The Danish guideline is compared with similar guidelines and tools in other Nordic countries. The education of moisture...... specialists is emphasised and it is questioned whether a voluntary guideline will have the desired effect....

  20. A charge exchange chamber with built-in focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.

    1975-01-01

    This invention concerns a charge exchange chamber with built-in focusing enabling a beam of low divergence neutrals to be obtained from a beam of ions of a given energy. The ion beam enters the charge exchange chamber filled with a neutral gas under pressure, the effect of which is an exchange of charges between the ions and the neutral molecules or atoms of the gas. The positive ions are substantially sent along the axis of the enclosure, characterised in that it includes electric facilities for concentrating the ions of the beam near this axis. These electric facilities are composed of a series of grids perpendicular to the direction of the ion jet, grids that are transparent and of negative potential and the potential of each of these grids increases in absolute value along the path of the ion jet in the enclosure [fr

  1. Prevalence of the use of cancer related self-tests by members of the public: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marriott John

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests are those where an individual can obtain a result without recourse to a health professional, by getting a result immediately or by sending a sample to a laboratory that returns the result directly. Self-tests can be diagnostic, for disease monitoring, or both. There are currently tests for more than 20 different conditions available to the UK public, and self-testing is marketed as a way of alerting people to serious health problems so they can seek medical help. Almost nothing is known about the extent to which people self-test for cancer or why they do this. Self-tests for cancer could alter perceptions of risk and health behaviour, cause psychological morbidity and have a significant impact on the demand for healthcare. This study aims to gain an understanding of the frequency of self-testing for cancer and characteristics of users. Methods Cross-sectional survey. Adults registered in participating general practices in the West Midlands Region, will be asked to complete a questionnaire that will collect socio-demographic information and basic data regarding previous and potential future use of self-test kits. The only exclusions will be people who the GP feels it would be inappropriate to send a questionnaire, for example because they are unable to give informed consent. Freepost envelopes will be included and non-responders will receive one reminder. Standardised prevalence rates will be estimated. Discussion Cancer related self-tests, currently available from pharmacies or over the Internet, include faecal occult blood tests (related to bowel cancer, prostate specific antigen tests (related to prostate cancer, breast cancer kits (self examination guide and haematuria tests (related to urinary tract cancers. The effect of an increase in self-testing for cancer is unknown but may be considerable: it may affect the delivery of population based screening programmes; empower patients or cause unnecessary anxiety

  2. Self-testing of binary observables based on commutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniewski, Jędrzej

    2017-01-01

    and the proofs rely only on standard linear algebra. The trade-offs turn out to be tight, and in particular, they give nontrivial statements for arbitrarily small violations. On the other extreme, observing the maximal violation allows us to deduce precisely the form of the observables, which immediately leads...

  3. Dental Student Study Strategies: Are Self-Testing and Scheduling Related to Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Morrow, Christina S; Atiyeh, Lindsey; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2016-05-01

    Self-testing, a strategy wherein a student actively engages in creating questions and answers from study materials to assist with studying, has been found to be especially advantageous because it enhances future retrieval of information. Studies have found correlations among students' grade point averages (GPAs), self-testing, and rereading study strategies, as well as the spacing of study sessions over time. The aim of this study was to assess relationships among dental students' study strategies, scheduling of study time, and academic achievement. A 16-item survey requesting information on study habits, study schedules, and GPAs was distributed to 358 second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry. Additionally, the survey asked students to report the average number of hours per week they devoted to studying for didactic courses and preparing for hands-on preclinical courses. Of the 358 students, 94 (26%) responded to the survey. The vast majority of the respondents reported utilizing self-testing and rereading study strategies. High performers (with higher GPAs) were more likely to use self-testing, especially with flashcards, and to space their studying over multiple sessions. Lower performing students were more likely to highlight or underline their notes and to mass their study sessions or cram. Longer hours devoted to studying and practicing for simulation courses were associated with stronger performance; lower performers reported spending significantly fewer hours practicing for simulation courses. Half of the dental students surveyed said that they felt their studying would be more productive in the morning, although 84% reported doing most of their studying in the evening or late night. Sound study decisions depend on accurate regulation of ongoing learning and appropriate use and timing of evidence-based study strategies, so these results suggest that dental students may require guidance in these areas.

  4. Self-Test Procedures for Gas Sensors Embedded in Microreactor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Andreas; Hackner, Angelika; Zappa, Dario; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors sensitively respond to a wide variety of combustible, explosive and poisonous gases. However, due to the lack of a built-in self-test capability, MOX gas sensors have not yet been able to penetrate safety-critical applications. In the present work we report on gas sensing experiments performed on MOX gas sensors embedded in ceramic micro-reaction chambers. With the help of an external micro-pump, such systems can be operated in a periodic manner alternating between flow and no-flow conditions, thus allowing repetitive measurements of the sensor resistances under clean air, R0, and under gas exposure, Rgas, to be obtained, even under field conditions. With these pairs of resistance values, eventual drifts in the sensor baseline resistance can be detected and drift-corrected values of the relative resistance response Resp=(R0−Rgas)/R0 can be determined. Residual poisoning-induced changes in the relative resistance response can be detected by reference to humidity measurements taken with room-temperature-operated capacitive humidity sensors which are insensitive to the poisoning processes operative on heated MOX gas sensors. PMID:29401673

  5. Self-Test Procedures for Gas Sensors Embedded in Microreactor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Andreas; Hackner, Angelika; Müller, Gerhard; Zappa, Dario; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2018-02-03

    Metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors sensitively respond to a wide variety of combustible, explosive and poisonous gases. However, due to the lack of a built-in self-test capability, MOX gas sensors have not yet been able to penetrate safety-critical applications. In the present work we report on gas sensing experiments performed on MOX gas sensors embedded in ceramic micro-reaction chambers. With the help of an external micro-pump, such systems can be operated in a periodic manner alternating between flow and no-flow conditions, thus allowing repetitive measurements of the sensor resistances under clean air, R 0 , and under gas exposure, R g a s , to be obtained, even under field conditions. With these pairs of resistance values, eventual drifts in the sensor baseline resistance can be detected and drift-corrected values of the relative resistance response R e s p = ( R 0 - R g a s ) / R 0 can be determined. Residual poisoning-induced changes in the relative resistance response can be detected by reference to humidity measurements taken with room-temperature-operated capacitive humidity sensors which are insensitive to the poisoning processes operative on heated MOX gas sensors.

  6. Cryogenic storage tank with built-in pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A cryogenic storage tank with a built-in pump for pumping cryogen directly from the primary storage container consistent with low boil-off losses of cryogen has an outer vessel, an inner vessel and an evacuated insulation space therebetween. A pump mounting tube assembly extends into the interior of the inner vessel and includes an inner pump mounting tube and an outer pump mounting tube joined at their lower rims to define an insulating jacket between the two tubes. The inner pump mounting tube is affixed at its upper end to the outer vessel while the outer pump mounting tube is affixed at its upper end to the inner vessel. The inner pump mounting tube defines a relatively long heat path into the cryogenic container and is itself insulated from the liquid cryogen by a pocket of trapped gas formed within the inner pump mounting tube by heated cryogen. A pump may be introduced through the inner pump mounting tube and is also insulated against contact with liquid cryogen by the trapped gas such that only the lowermost end of the pump is immersed in cryogen thereby minimizing heat leakage into the tank

  7. 76 FR 65634 - Redetermination of the Consolidated Net Unrealized Built-In Gain and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Redetermination of the Consolidated Net Unrealized Built-In Gain and Loss AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... consolidated net unrealized built-in gain and loss in certain circumstances. This document also invites... gain (NUBIG) at the time of its ownership change, recognized built-in gains will increase the section...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1374-3 - Net unrealized built-in gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net unrealized built-in gain. 1.1374-3 Section 1...-in gain. (a) In general. An S corporation's net unrealized built-in gain is the total of the... unrealized built-in gain—(1) In general. If section 1374(d)(8) applies to an S corporation's acquisition of...

  9. Predictors of HIV self-testing among health workers at Nyeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV self-testing is recognised as a possible option of expanding access to HIV testing and counselling (HTC). There is high demand for self testing among health workers. However, in many health facilities in Kenya, the rate of unregulated self-testing and factors influencing the practice remain unknown.

  10. A self-testing method of large analog circuits in electronic embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaja, Z, E-mail: zbczaja@pg.gda.p [Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Department of Optoelectronics and Electronic Systems, ul. G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    A new self-testing method of high-order filters consisting of a chain of first- or second-order filter units of mixed-signal electronic embedded systems controlled by microcontrollers or DSPs is presented in the paper. The main idea of the method bases on the fact that the signal response of the given filter unit is treated as the signal stimulation of the next filter unit. Thanks to this, a simple reconfigurable BIST consisting of only internal devices of the microcontroller controlling the system was obtained.

  11. A self-testing method of large analog circuits in electronic embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaja, Z

    2010-01-01

    A new self-testing method of high-order filters consisting of a chain of first- or second-order filter units of mixed-signal electronic embedded systems controlled by microcontrollers or DSPs is presented in the paper. The main idea of the method bases on the fact that the signal response of the given filter unit is treated as the signal stimulation of the next filter unit. Thanks to this, a simple reconfigurable BIST consisting of only internal devices of the microcontroller controlling the system was obtained.

  12. Acceptability of HIV self-testing: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Janne; Subklew-Sehume, Friederike; Kenyon, Chris; Colebunders, Robert

    2013-08-08

    The uptake of HIV testing and counselling services remains low in risk groups around the world. Fear of stigmatisation, discrimination and breach of confidentiality results in low service usage among risk groups. HIV self-testing (HST) is a confidential HIV testing option that enables people to find out their status in the privacy of their homes. We evaluated the acceptability of HST and the benefits and challenges linked to the introduction of HST. A literature review was conducted on the acceptability of HST in projects in which HST was offered to study participants. Besides acceptability rates of HST, accuracy rates of self-testing, referral rates of HIV-positive individuals into medical care, disclosure rates and rates of first-time testers were assessed. In addition, the utilisation rate of a telephone hotline for counselling issues and clients` attitudes towards HST were extracted. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria (HST had been offered effectively to study participants and had been administered by participants themselves) and demonstrated universally high acceptability of HST among study populations. Studies included populations from resource poor settings (Kenya and Malawi) and from high-income countries (USA, Spain and Singapore). The majority of study participants were able to perform HST accurately with no or little support from trained staff. Participants appreciated the confidentiality and privacy but felt that the provision of adequate counselling services was inadequate. The review demonstrates that HST is an acceptable testing alternative for risk groups and can be performed accurately by the majority of self-testers. Clients especially value the privacy and confidentiality of HST. Linkage to counselling as well as to treatment and care services remain major challenges.

  13. Coaxial nozzle-assisted 3D bioprinting with built-in microchannels for nutrients delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; He, Yong; Fu, Jian-zhong; Liu, An; Ma, Liang

    2015-08-01

    This study offers a novel 3D bioprinting method based on hollow calcium alginate filaments by using a coaxial nozzle, in which high strength cell-laden hydrogel 3D structures with built-in microchannels can be fabricated by controlling the crosslinking time to realize fusion of adjacent hollow filaments. A 3D bioprinting system with a Z-shape platform was used to realize layer-by-layer fabrication of cell-laden hydrogel structures. Curving, straight, stretched or fractured filaments can be formed by changes to the filament extrusion speed or the platform movement speed. To print a 3D structure, we first adjusted the concentration and flow rate of the sodium alginate and calcium chloride solution in the crosslinking process to get partially crosslinked filaments. Next, a motorized XY stages with the coaxial nozzle attached was used to control adjacent hollow filament deposition in the precise location for fusion. Then the Z stage attached with a Z-shape platform moved down sequentially to print layers of structure. And the printing process always kept the top two layers fusing and the below layers solidifying. Finally, the Z stage moved down to keep the printed structure immersed in the CaCl2 solution for complete crosslinking. The mechanical properties of the resulting fused structures were investigated. High-strength structures can be formed using higher concentrations of sodium alginate solution with smaller distance between adjacent hollow filaments. In addition, cell viability of this method was investigated, and the findings show that the viability of L929 mouse fibroblasts in the hollow constructs was higher than that in alginate structures without built-in microchannels. Compared with other bioprinting methods, this study is an important technique to allow easy fabrication of lager-scale organs with built-in microchannels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Research on"intelligent management system of race run standard-reaching self-testing"based on internet plus%基于互联网+径跑达标自主测试智能管理系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万民

    2016-01-01

    The realization of intelligent management of sport standard-reaching proj ect race run,which means the testees would complete all by themselves the registration, testing and checking test results without the supervision of testers,has long been the wish of sports workers.The internet plus based intelligent standard-reaching self-testing management system,which makes full use of the new generation mobile internet technology, effectively solves the problems of identifying testees, timing and recognizing fouling,liberating teachers from the tedious hard work of race run testing and having good economic and social benefits.%实现体育达标径跑项目智能化管理,在无人值守的情况下测试者自主完成报名、测试、成绩登录查询一直是体育工作者追求的目标。基于互联网+径跑达标自主测试智能管理系统,充分利用新一代移动互联网系列技术有效解决径跑测试者的身份识别、计时、犯规识别等问题,把老师从径跑测试繁琐的劳动中彻底解放出来,具有较好的经济和社会效益。

  15. Physical Layer Built-In Security Analysis and Enhancement Algorithms for CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tongtong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically developed for secure communication and military use, CDMA has been identified as a major modulation and multiple-access technique for 3G systems and beyond. In addition to the wide bandwidth and low power-spectrum density which make CDMA signals robust to narrowband jamming and easy to be concealed within the noise floor, the physical layer built-in information privacy of CDMA system is provided by pseudorandom scrambling. In this paper, first, security weakness of the operational and proposed CDMA airlink interfaces is analyzed. Second, based on the advanced encryption standard (AES, we propose to enhance the physical layer built-in security of CDMA systems through secure scrambling. Performance analysis demonstrates that while providing significantly improved information privacy, CDMA systems with secure scrambling have comparable computational complexity and overall system performance with that of conventionally scrambled systems. Moreover, it is shown that by scrambling the training sequence and the message sequence separately with two independent scrambling sequences, both information privacy and system performance can be further improved. The proposed scheme can readily be applied to 3G systems and beyond.

  16. Outline of the wireless hut built in 1957 and the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica and outside environment -Preface-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkichi Hirayama

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been decided to dismantle the wireless hut built in 1957 and the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica in accordance with a renewal project plan. A Commission of Construction Experts, the Architect Committee brought the above two buildings as test samples to Japan and in cooperation with several research institutes and researchers, investigated the effect of aging. We herein report the those results.

  17. [The advance of detection technology of HIV self-testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L; Xiao, P P; Yan, H J; Huan, X P; Fu, G F; Li, J J; Yang, H T

    2017-11-06

    At present, China's AIDS testing increased rapidly, but there are still many people living with HIV do not recognize their status, thus postponing the antiviral treatment time. HIV self-testing (HST) is an effective method to expand the testing, not only simple operation, easy to get a result, effectively protect the detection privacy, expand the selection of testers, suit to the entire population, but also the premise and basis of other AIDS comprehensive prevention measures, all over the world are promoting it. Because the HST has controversies in the window period, price and before and after controversial, and our country is in the initial stage of HST, so it is not to develop related policies, but more and more countries are in accordance with their own situations are modified or developed to allow to use rapid detection of AIDS policy to regulate the field. This paper analyzed and summarized the advantage and influence factors of HST promotion, HST believes that in the long term, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, we need to formulate relevant policies, and improve the sensitivity of the kit, shorten the window period of time, production and promotion of operation standard of video, specification and testing the operating practices, preventing and reporting the possible social harm, investigation and understanding of the needs of the people of the crowd, to maximize the advantages of HST, find more infection, so as to curb the epidemic of AIDS.

  18. Supervised and Unsupervised Self-Testing for HIV in High- and Low-Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant Pai, Nitika; Sharma, Jigyasa; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Pillay, Sabrina; Vadnais, Caroline; Joseph, Lawrence; Dheda, Keertan; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stigma, discrimination, lack of privacy, and long waiting times partly explain why six out of ten individuals living with HIV do not access facility-based testing. By circumventing these barriers, self-testing offers potential for more people to know their sero-status. Recent approval of an in-home HIV self test in the US has sparked self-testing initiatives, yet data on acceptability, feasibility, and linkages to care are limited. We systematically reviewed evidence on supervised (self-testing and counselling aided by a health care professional) and unsupervised (performed by self-tester with access to phone/internet counselling) self-testing strategies. Methods and Findings Seven databases (Medline [via PubMed], Biosis, PsycINFO, Cinahl, African Medicus, LILACS, and EMBASE) and conference abstracts of six major HIV/sexually transmitted infections conferences were searched from 1st January 2000–30th October 2012. 1,221 citations were identified and 21 studies included for review. Seven studies evaluated an unsupervised strategy and 14 evaluated a supervised strategy. For both strategies, data on acceptability (range: 74%–96%), preference (range: 61%–91%), and partner self-testing (range: 80%–97%) were high. A high specificity (range: 99.8%–100%) was observed for both strategies, while a lower sensitivity was reported in the unsupervised (range: 92.9%–100%; one study) versus supervised (range: 97.4%–97.9%; three studies) strategy. Regarding feasibility of linkage to counselling and care, 96% (n = 102/106) of individuals testing positive for HIV stated they would seek post-test counselling (unsupervised strategy, one study). No extreme adverse events were noted. The majority of data (n = 11,019/12,402 individuals, 89%) were from high-income settings and 71% (n = 15/21) of studies were cross-sectional in design, thus limiting our analysis. Conclusions Both supervised and unsupervised testing strategies were highly acceptable

  19. Investigation of possible methods for equipment self-tests in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Idris, H. H. E.; Jansen, J. T. M.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in digital radiology can be time-consuming. Equipment self-tests may significantly decrease staff workload. The two most essential parameters for radiology systems are image quality and patient dose. Concerning patient dose, information on the dose-area product (DAP) values generally forms the basis for assessment of patient dose. DAP-values can be measured using a transmission ionisation chamber or calculated from equipment settings. In the present study, various image quality parameters were derived using a contrast-detail (C-D) phantom. The investigation included a computer-aided assessment of C-D images, which produced various parameters, and also parameters based upon scoring by human observers. In addition, another parameter was calculated from modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements. The automatically calculated parameters showed good correlation with human readings, although the number of X-ray systems studied is still limited. We propose a combined evaluation of DAP and automatically calculated C-D or MTF parameters for equipment self-tests. (authors)

  20. 26 CFR 1.382-7T - Built-in gains and losses (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Built-in gains and losses (temporary). 1.382-7T Section 1.382-7T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-7T Built-in gains and losses...

  1. 26 CFR 1.382-7 - Built-in gains and losses. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Built-in gains and losses. [Reserved] 1.382-7 Section 1.382-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-7 Built-in gains and losses. [Reserved] ...

  2. A new vision of management competencies built in Business Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vianna Schlatter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey conducted on users of an online business simulation for an undergraduate Business Administration course. Previous research on the use of business simulations described the validity of this resource as a method for developing managerial skills, as well as the perceptions of students about the experience. However, few studies sought to directly assess which management competencies are built through the use of simulators. In this study, students expressed their perception of the management competencies developed by participating in the simulation. The survey was structured according to the macro-competencies proposed by the Tuning Latin America Project and identified those with higher and lower perceived development.  It was found that the simulation was useful in building up competencies related to the use of information to support decision-making, management of company resources at the operational level and the identification and management of business risks. Moreover, it was possible to determine through factor analysis that the construction of various competencies occurred simultaneously, creating more elaborate assemblies. Five sets, composed of several competencies, have been identified and described as: carrying out undertakings based on data and facts; managing organization´s processes and projects; developing their own planning process; acting primarily with social responsibility; and, managing change risks through teamwork.

  3. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  4. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  5. Indigenous Past Climate Knowledge as Cultural Built-in Object and Its Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leclerc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In studying indigenous climate knowledge, two approaches can be envisioned. In the first, traditional knowledge is a cultural built-in object; conceived as a whole, its relevance can be assessed by referring to other cultural, economic, or technical components at work within an indigenous society. In the second, the accuracy of indigenous climate knowledge is assessed with western science knowledge used as an external reference. However, assessing the accuracy of indigenous climate knowledge remains a largely untapped area. We aim to show how accurate the culturally built indigenous climate knowledge of extreme climatic events is, and how amenable it is to fuzzy logic. A retrospective survey was carried out individually and randomly among 195 Eastern African farmers on climatic reasons for loss of on-farm crop diversity from 1961 to 2006. More than 3000 crop loss events were recorded, and reasons given by farmers were mainly related to droughts or heavy rainfall. Chi-square statistics computed by Monte Carlo simulations based on 999 replicates clearly rejected independence between indigenous knowledge of drought and heavy rainfall that occurred in the past and rainfall records. The fuzzy logic nature of indigenous climatic knowledge appears in the clear association of drought or heavy rainfall events, as perceived by farmers, with corresponding extreme rainfall values, contrasting with a fuzzy picture in the intermediate climatic situations. We discuss how the cultural built-in knowledge helps farmers in perceiving and remembering past climate variations, considering the specificity of the contexts where extreme climatic events were experienced. The integration of indigenous and scientific climate knowledge could allow development of drought monitoring that considers both climatic and contextual data.

  6. Online Self-Tests: A Powerful Tool for Self-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killedar, Manoj

    2002-01-01

    Examines vital design issues pertaining to the "Online Self-Test," a simple solution for dealing with concerns about lack of time and lack of motivation in distance education. Presents experiences gained during the implementation of the Online Self-Test Center for Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik, India, and…

  7. Educating Consumers in Self-Testing: The Development of an Online Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickenroth, Martine H. P.; Grispen, Janaica E. J.; Ronda, Gaby; Dinant, Geert-Jan; de Vries, Nanne K.; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Context and objective: Diagnostic self-tests have become available worldwide. The most frequently performed self-tests in the Netherlands are tests to detect high cholesterol and diabetes. Since these tests can be performed without professional guidance, potential consumers need to receive independent information on the pros and cons of…

  8. HIV self-testing could "revolutionize testing in South Africa, but it has got to be done properly": perceptions of key stakeholders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Makusha

    Full Text Available South Africa bears the world's largest burden of HIV with over 6.4 million people living with the virus. The South African government's response to HIV has yielded remarkable results in recent years; over 13 million South Africans tested in a 2012 campaign and over 2 million people are on antiretroviral treatment. However, with an HIV & AIDS and STI National Strategic Plan aiming to get 80 percent of the population to know their HIV status by 2016, activists and public health policy makers argue that non-invasive HIV self-testing should be incorporated into the country HIV Counseling and Testing [HCT] portfolios. In-depth qualitative interviews (N = 12 with key stakeholders were conducted from June to July 2013 in South Africa. These included two government officials, four non-governmental stakeholders, two donors, three academic researchers, and one international stakeholder. All stakeholders were involved in HIV prevention and treatment and influenced HCT policy and research in South Africa and beyond. The interviews explored: interest in HIV self-testing; potential distribution channels for HIV self-tests to target groups; perception of requirements for diagnostic technologies that would be most amenable to HIV self-testing and opinions on barriers and opportunities for HIV-linkage to care after receiving positive test results. While there is currently no HIV self-testing policy in South Africa, and several barriers exist, participants in the study expressed enthusiasm and willingness for scale-up and urgent need for further research, planning, establishment of HIV Self-testing policy and programming to complement existing facility-based and community-based HIV testing systems. Introduction of HIV self-testing could have far-reaching positive effects on holistic HIV testing uptake, giving people autonomy to decide which approach they want to use for HIV testing, early diagnosis, treatment and care for HIV particularly among hard-to reach

  9. Is it lawful to offer HIV self-testing to children in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elaine Strode

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Health-facility-based HIV counselling and testing does not capture all children and adolescents who are at risk of HIV infection. Self-testing involves conducting an HIV test at home or in any other convenient space without the involvement of a third party. It is increasingly being argued that it should be incorporated into national HIV-prevention programmes as one of a range of HIV counselling and testing approaches. Although this model of HIV testing is being seen as a new way of reaching under-tested populations, no studies have been conducted on offering it to children. HIV self-tests are now available in South Africa and are sold without the purchaser having to be a certain age. Nevertheless, all HIV testing in children must comply with the norms set out in the Children’s Act (2005. Here we explore whether offering self-testing to children would be lawful, by outlining the four legal norms that must be met and applying them to self-HIV testing. We conclude that, although children above the age of 12 years could consent to such a test, there would be two potential obstacles. Firstly, it would have to be shown that using the test is in their best interests. This may be difficult given the potential negative consequences that could flow from testing without support and the availability of other testing services. Secondly, there would need to be a way for children to access pre- and post-test counselling or they would have to be advised that they will have expressly to waive this right. The tests are more likely to be lawful for a small sub-set of older children if: (i it assists them with HIV-prevention strategies; (ii they will be able to access treatment, care and support, even though they have tested outside of a health facility; and (iii psychosocial support services are made available to them via the internet or cell phones.

  10. Will an unsupervised self-testing strategy for HIV work in health care workers of South Africa? A cross sectional pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant Pai, Nitika; Behlim, Tarannum; Abrahams, Lameze; Vadnais, Caroline; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Pillay, Sabrina; Binder, Anke; Deli-Houssein, Roni; Engel, Nora; Joseph, Lawrence; Dheda, Keertan

    2013-01-01

    In South Africa, stigma, discrimination, social visibility and fear of loss of confidentiality impede health facility-based HIV testing. With 50% of adults having ever tested for HIV in their lifetime, private, alternative testing options are urgently needed. Non-invasive, oral self-tests offer a potential for a confidential, unsupervised HIV self-testing option, but global data are limited. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2012 in health care workers based at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. An innovative, unsupervised, self-testing strategy was evaluated for feasibility; defined as completion of self-testing process (i.e., self test conduct, interpretation and linkage). An oral point-of-care HIV test, an Internet and paper-based self-test HIV applications, and mobile phones were synergized to create an unsupervised strategy. Self-tests were additionally confirmed with rapid tests on site and laboratory tests. Of 270 health care workers (18 years and above, of unknown HIV status approached), 251 consented for participation. Overall, about 91% participants rated a positive experience with the strategy. Of 251 participants, 126 evaluated the Internet and 125 the paper-based application successfully; completion rate of 99.2%. All sero-positives were linked to treatment (completion rate:100% (95% CI, 66.0-100). About half of sero-negatives were offered counselling on mobile phones; completion rate: 44.6% (95% CI, 38.0-51.0). A majority of participants (78.1%) were females, aged 18-24 years (61.4%). Nine participants were found sero-positive after confirmatory tests (prevalence 3.6% 95% CI, 1.8-6.9). Six of nine positive self-tests were accurately interpreted; sensitivity: 66.7% (95% CI, 30.9-91.0); specificity:100% (95% CI, 98.1-100). Our unsupervised self-testing strategy was feasible to operationalize in health care workers in South Africa. Linkages were successfully operationalized with mobile phones in all sero

  11. 25 CFR 170.138 - Can roads be built in roadless and wild areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.138 Can roads be built in roadless and wild areas? Under 25 CFR part 265 no roads can be...

  12. Structure-dependent SERS activity of plasmonic nanorattles with built-in electromagnetic hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keng-Ku; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Wang, Zheyu; Jiang, Qisheng; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2017-11-20

    Hollow plasmonic nanostructures with built-in and accessible electromagnetic hotspots such as nanorattles, obtained through a galvanic replacement reaction, have received wide attention in chemical and biological sensing and targeted drug delivery. In this study, we investigate the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of plasmonic nanorattles obtained through different degrees of galvanic replacement of Au@Ag nanocubes. We found that the SERS efficacy of the nanorattles is governed by the plasmon extinction intensity, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength of the nanostructures with respect to the excitation source and intensity of the electromagnetic field at the hotspot, with the latter playing a determining role. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations showed excellent agreement with the experimental findings that an optimal degree of galvanic replacement is critical for maximum SERS enhancement. The rational design and synthesis of the plasmonic nanorattles based on these findings can make these nanostructures highly attractive for SERS-based chemical and biological sensing and bioimaging.

  13. Direct provision versus facility collection of HIV self-tests among female sex workers in Uganda: A cluster-randomized controlled health systems trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ortblad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV self-testing allows HIV testing at any place and time and without health workers. HIV self-testing may thus be particularly useful for female sex workers (FSWs, who should test frequently but face stigma and financial and time barriers when accessing healthcare facilities.We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled health systems trial among FSWs in Kampala, Uganda, to measure the effect of 2 HIV self-testing delivery models on HIV testing and linkage to care outcomes. FSW peer educator groups (1 peer educator and 8 participants were randomized to either (1 direct provision of HIV self-tests, (2 provision of coupons for free collection of HIV self-tests in a healthcare facility, or (3 standard of care HIV testing. We randomized 960 participants in 120 peer educator groups from October 18, 2016, to November 16, 2016. Participants' median age was 28 years (IQR 24-32. Our prespecified primary outcomes were self-report of any HIV testing at 1 month and at 4 months; our prespecified secondary outcomes were self-report of HIV self-test use, seeking HIV-related medical care and ART initiation. In addition, we analyzed 2 secondary outcomes that were not prespecified: self-report of repeat HIV testing-to understand the intervention effects on frequent testing-and self-reported facility-based testing-to quantify substitution effects. Participants in the direct provision arm were significantly more likely to have tested for HIV than those in the standard of care arm, both at 1 month (risk ratio [RR] 1.33, 95% CI 1.17-1.51, p < 0.001 and at 4 months (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22, p < 0.001. Participants in the direct provision arm were also significantly more likely to have tested for HIV than those in the facility collection arm, both at 1 month (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.31, p = 0.001 and at 4 months (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p = 0.02. At 1 month, fewer participants in the intervention arms had sought medical care for HIV than in the standard of care arm

  14. Railway Station Built In The Interwar Period In Telšiai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Dabašinskienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most important and biggest railway station in Telšiai as a part of one of the first railroads Kretinga – Telšiai – Kužiai built in the interwar period is examined in this article. A variety of elements of the station’s infrastructure with special attention to passenger stations, houses for railway workers and warehouses (pakhauze are revealed in the article. The significance of Lietūkis warehouses founded in the territory of the station and their connections with the railroad are discussed. Moreover, the arrangement of Telšiai Station buildings in the territory are analyzed and compared to the preserved site plan of the station and photo of the situation dated back to the Second World War taken by Germans from the air. While comparing the available sources, urban developments of the station area are discussed. The analysis material is based on archival sources, the interwar documentary publications and research of the location.

  15. Experimental Identification of Smartphones Using Fingerprints of Built-In Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Baldini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of smartphones has various applications in the field of security or the fight against counterfeiting. As the level of sophistication in counterfeit electronics increases, detection procedures must become more accurate but also not destructive for the smartphone under testing. Some components of the smartphone are more likely to reveal their authenticity even without a physical inspection, since they are characterized by hardware fingerprints detectable by simply examining the data they provide. This is the case of MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems components like accelerometers and gyroscopes, where tiny differences and imprecisions in the manufacturing process determine unique patterns in the data output. In this paper, we present the experimental evaluation of the identification of smartphones through their built-in MEMS components. In our study, three different phones of the same model are subject to repeatable movements (composing a repeatable scenario using an high precision robotic arm. The measurements from MEMS for each repeatable scenario are collected and analyzed. The identification algorithm is based on the extraction of the statistical features of the collected data for each scenario. The features are used in a support vector machine (SVM classifier to identify the smartphone. The results of the evaluation are presented for different combinations of features and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU outputs, which show that detection accuracy of higher than 90% is achievable.

  16. A Cache System Design for CMPs with Built-In Coherence Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Dalui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an effective design of cache system for Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs. It introduces built-in logic for verification of cache coherence in CMPs realizing directory based protocol. It is developed around the cellular automata (CA machine, invented by John von Neumann in the 1950s. A special class of CA referred to as single length cycle 2-attractor cellular automata (TACA has been planted to detect the inconsistencies in cache line states of processors’ private caches. The TACA module captures coherence status of the CMPs’ cache system and memorizes any inconsistent recording of the cache line states during the processors’ reference to a memory block. Theory has been developed to empower a TACA to analyse the cache state updates and then to settle to an attractor state indicating quick decision on a faulty recording of cache line status. The introduction of segmentation of the CMPs’ processor pool ensures a better efficiency, in determining the inconsistencies, by reducing the number of computation steps in the verification logic. The hardware requirement for the verification logic points to the fact that the overhead of proposed coherence verification module is much lesser than that of the conventional verification units and is insignificant with respect to the cost involved in CMPs’ cache system.

  17. HIV Testing Practices and Interest in Self-Testing Options among Young, Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    HURT, Christopher B.; SONI, Karina; MILLER, William C.; HIGHTOW-WEIDMAN, Lisa B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) experience disproportionately high HIV incidence in the United States. Relative to other at-risk populations, less is known about their HIV testing behaviors and preferences regarding self-testing. Methods We used an online survey to investigate testing practices and interest in self-testing among HIV-uninfected, 18–30 year-old YBMSM in North Carolina. Results From July 2014 – March 2015, 212 completed the survey; median age was 24 years. Among 175 (83%) who had ever been tested, 160 (91%) reported testing in the prior year, 124 (71%) tested at least every 6 months, and 71 (40%) tested at least quarterly. About three-quarters (77%; n=164) were aware of HIV self-testing; 35 (17%) had ever purchased rapid (n=27) or dried blood spot-based (n=14) kits. Participants aware of kits had greater intention to test in the next 6 months; were more likely to have income for basic necessities and to ask sex partners about HIV status; and were less likely to have a main sex partner or to have had transactional sex. Among 142 participants at least somewhat likely to self-test in the future, convenience (35%), privacy (23%), and rapid result delivery (18%) were the principal motivators. Conclusions Eight of every ten YBMSM have ever been tested for HIV, but inter-test intervals remain unacceptably long for many. Awareness of and interest in self-testing is substantial, but few have used this method. Expanded use of self-tests could help increase the frequency of HIV testing in this epidemiologically important population. PMID:27513387

  18. Acceptability of woman-delivered HIV self-testing to the male partner, and additional interventions: a qualitative study of antenatal care participants in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choko, Augustine Talumba; Kumwenda, Moses Kelly; Johnson, Cheryl Case; Sakala, Doreen Wongera; Chikalipo, Maria Chifuniro; Fielding, Katherine; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Desmond, Nicola; Corbett, Elizabeth Lucy

    2017-06-26

    In the era of ambitious HIV targets, novel HIV testing models are required for hard-to-reach groups such as men, who remain underserved by existing services. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity for partners to test for HIV, as many pregnant women will attend antenatal care (ANC). We describe the views of pregnant women and their male partners on HIV self-test kits that are woman-delivered, alone or with an additional intervention. A formative qualitative study to inform the design of a multi-arm multi-stage cluster-randomized trial, comprised of six focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews, was conducted. ANC attendees were purposively sampled on the day of initial clinic visit, while men were recruited after obtaining their contact information from their female partners. Data were analysed using content analysis, and our interpretation is hypothetical as participants were not offered self-test kits. Providing HIV self-test kits to pregnant women to deliver to their male partners was highly acceptable to both women and men. Men preferred this approach compared with standard facility-based testing, as self-testing fits into their lifestyles which were characterized by extreme day-to-day economic pressures, including the need to raise money for food for their household daily. Men and women emphasized the need for careful communication before and after collection of the self-test kits in order to minimize the potential for intimate partner violence although physical violence was perceived as less likely to occur. Most men stated a preference to first self-test alone, followed by testing as a couple. Regarding interventions for optimizing linkage following self-testing, both men and women felt that a fixed financial incentive of approximately USD$2 would increase linkage. However, there were concerns that financial incentives of greater value may lead to multiple pregnancies and lack of child spacing. In this low-income setting, a lottery incentive was

  19. 75 FR 33990 - Built-in Gains and Losses Under Section 382(h)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Gains and Losses Under Section 382(h) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... section 382(h). DATES: Effective Date: These regulations are effective on June 11, 2010. Applicability...) regarding the treatment of prepaid income under the built-in gain provisions of section 382(h) were...

  20. Built-in unit with short-circuit insulation for hermetic cable ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschacher, B.; Gurr, W.; Kusserow, J.; Katzmarek, W.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a built-in unit with short-circuit insulation for hermetic cable ducts, especially for containments of nuclear power reactors. The short-circuit insulation is achieved by an insulation plate made from radiation-resistant insulating materials of high mechanical strength

  1. 78 FR 54156 - Limitations on Duplication of Net Built-in Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... it is not a transfer of net built-in loss property under section 362(e)(1); that gain recognized by... transferor distributes the stock received in the transaction and, in the distribution, no gain or loss was... the transaction. 3. Securities Received Without the Recognition of Gain or Loss Section 362(e)(2) is...

  2. Built-in current sensor for ΔIDDQ testing of deep submicron digital CMOS ICs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazquez, J.R.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a built-in current sensor that includes two recently reported new techniques for IDDQ testing to take into account the increased background current of defect-free circuits and its increased variance due to process variations. These techniques are the

  3. Reliability of Dubbed Technical Systems with Built-In Control Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Аnischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates a selection of passive or active system for dubbing technical systems in accordance with characteristics pertaining to probability of no-failure operation and mean–time-between failures with due account of non-reliability of a built-in control device and systems complexity. 

  4. Curriculum enrichment with self-testing activities in development of fundamental movement skills of first-grade children in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabourniotis, Dimitrios; Evaggelinou, Christina; Tzetzis, George; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of self-testing activities on the development of fundamental movement skills in first-grade children in Greece. Two groups of children were tested. The Control group (n = 23 children) received the regular 12-wk. physical education school program and the Experimental group (n = 22 children) received a 12-wk. skill-oriented program with an increasing allotment of self-testing activities. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess fundamental movement skills, while the content areas of physical education courses were estimated with an assessment protocol, based on the interval recording system called the Academic Learning Time-Physical Education. A 2 x 2 repeated measures analysis of variance with group as the between factor and testing time (pretest vs posttest) as the repeated-measures factor was performed to assess differences between the two groups. A significant interaction of group with testing time was found for the Test of Gross Motor Development total score, with the Experimental group scoring higher then the Control group. A significant main effect was also found for test but not for group. This study provides evidence supporting the notion that a balanced allotment of the self-testing and game activities beyond the usual curriculum increases the fundamental motor-skill development of children. Also, it stresses the necessity for content and performance standards for the fundamental motor skills in educational programs. Finally, it seems that the Test of Gross Motor Development is a useful tool for the assessment of children's fundamental movement skills.

  5. Supervised oral HIV self-testing is accurate in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Steele, Sarah J; Govender, Indira; Arellano, Gemma; Mkwamba, Alec; Hadebe, Menzi; van Cutsem, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    To achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, alternatives to conventional HIV testing models are necessary in South Africa to increase population awareness of their HIV status. One of the alternatives is oral mucosal transudates-based HIV self-testing (OralST). This study describes implementation of counsellor-introduced supervised OralST in a high HIV prevalent rural area. Cross-sectional study conducted in two government-run primary healthcare clinics and three Médecins Sans Frontières-run fixed-testing sites in uMlalazi municipality, KwaZulu-Natal. Lay counsellors sampled and recruited eligible participants, sought informed consent and demonstrated the use of the OraQuick(™) OralST. The participants used the OraQuick(™) in front of the counsellor and underwent a blood-based Determine(™) and a Unigold(™) rapid diagnostic test as gold standard for comparison. Primary outcomes were user error rates, inter-rater agreement, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. A total of 2198 participants used the OraQuick(™) , of which 1005 were recruited at the primary healthcare clinics. Of the total, 1457 (66.3%) were women. Only two participants had to repeat their OraQuick(™) . Inter-rater agreement was 99.8% (Kappa 0.9925). Sensitivity for the OralST was 98.7% (95% CI 96.8-99.6), and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.8-100). This study demonstrates high inter-rater agreement, and high accuracy of supervised OralST. OralST has the potential to increase uptake of HIV testing and could be offered at clinics and community testing sites in rural South Africa. Further research is necessary on the potential of unsupervised OralST to increase HIV status awareness and linkage to care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Simplification of integrity constraints with aggregates and arithmetic built-ins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    Both aggregates and arithmetic built-ins are widely used in current database query languages: Aggregates are second-order constructs such as CNT and SUM of SQL; arithmetic built-ins include relational and other mathematical operators that apply to numbers, such as < and +. These features are also...... time, simplified versions of such integrity constraints that can be tested before the execution of any update. In this way, virtually no time is spent for optimization or rollbacks at run time. Both set and bag semantics are considered....... of interest in the context of database integrity constraints: correct and efficient integrity checking is crucial, as, without any guarantee of data consistency, the answers to queries cannot be trusted. In this paper we propose a method of practical relevance that can be used to derive, at database design...

  7. Internal filament modulation in low-dielectric gap design for built-in selector-less resistive switching memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Lin, Chih-Yang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Kim, Sungjun; Fowler, Burt; Chang, Yao-Feng; Wu, Xiaohan; Xu, Gaobo; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2018-02-01

    Sneak path current is a severe hindrance for the application of high-density resistive random-access memory (RRAM) array designs. In this work, we demonstrate nonlinear (NL) resistive switching characteristics of a HfO x /SiO x -based stacking structure as a realization for selector-less RRAM devices. The NL characteristic was obtained and designed by optimizing the internal filament location with a low effective dielectric constant in the HfO x /SiO x structure. The stacking HfO x /SiO x -based RRAM device as the one-resistor-only memory cell is applicable without needing an additional selector device to solve the sneak path issue with a switching voltage of ~1 V, which is desirable for low-power operating in built-in nonlinearity crossbar array configurations.

  8. Experiences with a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists: lessons learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J. M. H.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; Pijnappel, R. M.; Broeders, M. J. M.; den Heeten, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists introduced as part of the national quality assurance programme. A total of 144 radiologists were invited to complete a test-set of 60 screening mammograms (20 malignancies). Participants assigned findings such as location, lesion type

  9. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    this project will result in a self-test kit for use on deployment and/or in other resource poor environments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. N1 tUMER OF PAGES...DK, et al. Characteristics of women by smoking status in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 1992; 1:491-7. 10

  10. Prevalence and determinants of the use of self-tests by members of the public: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sue

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests can be used by members of the public to diagnose conditions without involving a doctor, nurse or other health professional. As technologies to design and manufacture diagnostic tests have developed, a range of self-tests have become available to the public to buy over-the-counter and via the Internet. This study aims to describe how many people have used self-tests and identify factors associated with their use. Methods A postal questionnaire will elicit basic information, including sociodemographic characteristics, and whether the person has used or would use specified self-tests. Consent will be sought to recontact people who want to participate further in the study, and interviews and focus groups will be used to develop hypotheses about factors associated with self-test use. These hypotheses will be tested in a case-control study. An in-depth questionnaire will be developed incorporating the identified factors. This will be sent to: people who have used a self-test (cases; people who have not used a self-test but would use one in the future (controls; and people who have not used and would not use a self-test (controls. Logistic regression analysis will be used to establish which factors are associated with self-test use. Discussion Self-tests do have potential benefits, for example privacy and convenience, but also potential harms, for example delay seeking treatment after a true negative result when the symptoms are actually due to another condition. It is anticipated that the outcomes from this study will include recommendations about how to improve the appropriate use of self-tests and existing health services, as well as information to prepare health professionals for patients who have used self-tests.

  11. Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap®) used as an audit tool with a built-in database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragelund, Signe H; Kjærsgaard, Mona; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Leth, Rita A; Ank, Nina

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an audit tool with a built-in database using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap®) as part of an antimicrobial stewardship program at a regional hospital in the Central Denmark Region, and to analyse the need, if any, to involve more than one expert in the evaluation of cases of antimicrobial treatment, and the level of agreement among the experts. Patients treated with systemic antimicrobials in the period from 1 September 2015 to 31 August 2016 were included, in total 722 cases. Data were collected retrospectively and entered manually. The audit was based on seven flow charts regarding: (1) initiation of antimicrobial treatment (2) infection (3) prescription and administration of antimicrobials (4) discontinuation of antimicrobials (5) reassessment within 48 h after the first prescription of antimicrobials (6) microbiological sampling in the period between suspicion of infection and the first administration of antimicrobials (7) microbiological results. The audit was based on automatic calculations drawing on the entered data and on expert assessments. Initially, two experts completed the audit, and in the cases in which they disagreed, a third expert was consulted. In 31.9% of the cases, the two experts agreed on all elements of the audit. In 66.2%, the two experts reached agreement by discussing the cases. Finally, 1.9% of the cases were completed in cooperation with a third expert. The experts assessed 3406 flow charts of which they agreed on 75.8%. We succeeded in creating an audit tool with a built-in database that facilitates independent expert evaluation using REDCap. We found a large inter-observer difference that needs to be considered when constructing a project based on expert judgements. Our two experts agreed on most of the flow charts after discussion, whereas the third expert's intervention did not have any influence on the overall assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Built-in electric field effect on optical absorption spectra of strained (In,Ga)N–GaN nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat, Rabat (Morocco); John Peter, A. [Department of Physics, Govt. Arts and Science College, Melur, 625106 Madurai (India)

    2015-08-15

    Based on the effective-mass and the one band parabolic approximations, first order linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical properties related to 1s–1p intra-conduction band transition in wurtzite strained (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QDs are calculated. The built-in electric field effect, due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric components, is investigated variationally under finite confinement potential. The results reveal that size and internal composition of the dot have a great influence on in-built electric field which affects strongly the optical absorption spectra. It is also found that the modulation of the absorption coefficient, which is suitable for the better performance of optical device applications, can be easily obtained by adjusting geometrical size and internal composition.

  13. Non-intrusive investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics of a channel with a built-in circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Apoorv; Mishra, Biswajit; Agrawal, Atul; Srivastava, Atul

    2018-03-01

    Interferometry-based experimental investigation of heat transfer phenomena associated with a channel fitted with a circular cylinder has been reported. Experiments have been performed with water as the working fluid, and the range of Reynolds number considered is 75 ≤ Re ≤ 165. The circular cylinder, placed at the inlet section of the channel, provides a blockage ratio of 0.5. The experimental methodology has been benchmarked against the results of transient numerical simulations. In order to assess the performance of the channel fitted with a circular cylinder for possible heat transfer enhancement from the channel wall(s), experiments have also been performed on a plane channel (without a cylinder). The interferometry-based experiments clearly highlighted the influence of the built-in cylinder in generating the flow instabilities and alterations in the thermal boundary layer profile along the heated wall of the channel. The phenomenon of vortex shedding behind the cylinder was successfully captured. A gradual increase in the vortex shedding frequency was observed with increasing Reynolds number. Quantitative data in the form of two-dimensional temperature distributions revealed an increase in the strength of wall thermal gradients in the wake region of the cylinder due to the periodic shedding of the vortices. In turn, a clear enhancement in the wall heat transfer rates was observed for the case of the channel fitted with a cylinder vis-à-vis the plane channel. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, the work reported is one of the first attempts to provide the planar field experimental data for a channel configuration with a built-in circular cylinder using non-intrusive imaging techniques and has the potential to serve as one of the benchmark studies for validating the existing as well as future numerical studies in the related area.

  14. Identification of Mobile Phones Using the Built-In Magnetometers Stimulated by Motion Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Baldini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the identification of mobile phones through their built-in magnetometers. These electronic components have started to be widely deployed in mass market phones in recent years, and they can be exploited to uniquely identify mobile phones due their physical differences, which appear in the digital output generated by them. This is similar to approaches reported in the literature for other components of the mobile phone, including the digital camera, the microphones or their RF transmission components. In this paper, the identification is performed through an inexpensive device made up of a platform that rotates the mobile phone under test and a fixed magnet positioned on the edge of the rotating platform. When the mobile phone passes in front of the fixed magnet, the built-in magnetometer is stimulated, and its digital output is recorded and analyzed. For each mobile phone, the experiment is repeated over six different days to ensure consistency in the results. A total of 10 phones of different brands and models or of the same model were used in our experiment. The digital output from the magnetometers is synchronized and correlated, and statistical features are extracted to generate a fingerprint of the built-in magnetometer and, consequently, of the mobile phone. A SVM machine learning algorithm is used to classify the mobile phones on the basis of the extracted statistical features. Our results show that inter-model classification (i.e., different models and brands classification is possible with great accuracy, but intra-model (i.e., phones with different serial numbers and same model classification is more challenging, the resulting accuracy being just slightly above random choice.

  15. Variational Integration for Ideal MHD with Built-in Advection Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Burby, J. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-05

    Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal MHD in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.

  16. Variational integration for ideal magnetohydrodynamics with built-in advection equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao; Burby, J. W.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Qin, Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum-preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.

  17. A built-in current sensor using thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzopoulos, A A [Department of Electrical and Computer Eng., Electronics Lab., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Siskos, S [Department of Physics, Electronics Lab., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Dimitriadis, C A [Department of Physics, Microelectronic device characterization and design Lab., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulos, N [Department of Electrical and Computer Eng., Electronics Lab., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pappas, I [Department of Physics, Electronics Lab., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Nalpantidis, L [Department of Physics, Electronics Lab., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-01-01

    A simple current mirror using TFTs with input terminals which are capacitively coupled to the TFT gate, is used in this work, to design a built-in current sensor (BICS). The important feature in this application is that the voltage drop across the sensing TFT device can be reduced to almost zero value, while preserving transistor operation in the saturation region. This makes the proposed BICS appropriate for TFT applications without affecting the circuit operation. It also results in adequate linearity for the current monitoring, making the structure applicable to digital as well as to analog and mixed-signal circuit testing.

  18. Gaussian processes with built-in dimensionality reduction: Applications to high-dimensional uncertainty propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, Rohit; Bilionis, Ilias; Gonzalez, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) tasks, such as model calibration, uncertainty propagation, and optimization under uncertainty, typically require several thousand evaluations of the underlying computer codes. To cope with the cost of simulations, one replaces the real response surface with a cheap surrogate based, e.g., on polynomial chaos expansions, neural networks, support vector machines, or Gaussian processes (GP). However, the number of simulations required to learn a generic multivariate response grows exponentially as the input dimension increases. This curse of dimensionality can only be addressed, if the response exhibits some special structure that can be discovered and exploited. A wide range of physical responses exhibit a special structure known as an active subspace (AS). An AS is a linear manifold of the stochastic space characterized by maximal response variation. The idea is that one should first identify this low dimensional manifold, project the high-dimensional input onto it, and then link the projection to the output. If the dimensionality of the AS is low enough, then learning the link function is a much easier problem than the original problem of learning a high-dimensional function. The classic approach to discovering the AS requires gradient information, a fact that severely limits its applicability. Furthermore, and partly because of its reliance to gradients, it is not able to handle noisy observations. The latter is an essential trait if one wants to be able to propagate uncertainty through stochastic simulators, e.g., through molecular dynamics codes. In this work, we develop a probabilistic version of AS which is gradient-free and robust to observational noise. Our approach relies on a novel Gaussian process regression with built-in dimensionality reduction. In particular, the AS is represented as an orthogonal projection matrix that serves as yet another covariance function hyper-parameter to be estimated from the data. To train the

  19. Gaussian processes with built-in dimensionality reduction: Applications to high-dimensional uncertainty propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Rohit; Bilionis, Ilias; Gonzalez, Marcial

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) tasks, such as model calibration, uncertainty propagation, and optimization under uncertainty, typically require several thousand evaluations of the underlying computer codes. To cope with the cost of simulations, one replaces the real response surface with a cheap surrogate based, e.g., on polynomial chaos expansions, neural networks, support vector machines, or Gaussian processes (GP). However, the number of simulations required to learn a generic multivariate response grows exponentially as the input dimension increases. This curse of dimensionality can only be addressed, if the response exhibits some special structure that can be discovered and exploited. A wide range of physical responses exhibit a special structure known as an active subspace (AS). An AS is a linear manifold of the stochastic space characterized by maximal response variation. The idea is that one should first identify this low dimensional manifold, project the high-dimensional input onto it, and then link the projection to the output. If the dimensionality of the AS is low enough, then learning the link function is a much easier problem than the original problem of learning a high-dimensional function. The classic approach to discovering the AS requires gradient information, a fact that severely limits its applicability. Furthermore, and partly because of its reliance to gradients, it is not able to handle noisy observations. The latter is an essential trait if one wants to be able to propagate uncertainty through stochastic simulators, e.g., through molecular dynamics codes. In this work, we develop a probabilistic version of AS which is gradient-free and robust to observational noise. Our approach relies on a novel Gaussian process regression with built-in dimensionality reduction. In particular, the AS is represented as an orthogonal projection matrix that serves as yet another covariance function hyper-parameter to be estimated from the data. To train the

  20. Gaussian processes with built-in dimensionality reduction: Applications to high-dimensional uncertainty propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Rohit, E-mail: rtripath@purdue.edu; Bilionis, Ilias, E-mail: ibilion@purdue.edu; Gonzalez, Marcial, E-mail: marcial-gonzalez@purdue.edu

    2016-09-15

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) tasks, such as model calibration, uncertainty propagation, and optimization under uncertainty, typically require several thousand evaluations of the underlying computer codes. To cope with the cost of simulations, one replaces the real response surface with a cheap surrogate based, e.g., on polynomial chaos expansions, neural networks, support vector machines, or Gaussian processes (GP). However, the number of simulations required to learn a generic multivariate response grows exponentially as the input dimension increases. This curse of dimensionality can only be addressed, if the response exhibits some special structure that can be discovered and exploited. A wide range of physical responses exhibit a special structure known as an active subspace (AS). An AS is a linear manifold of the stochastic space characterized by maximal response variation. The idea is that one should first identify this low dimensional manifold, project the high-dimensional input onto it, and then link the projection to the output. If the dimensionality of the AS is low enough, then learning the link function is a much easier problem than the original problem of learning a high-dimensional function. The classic approach to discovering the AS requires gradient information, a fact that severely limits its applicability. Furthermore, and partly because of its reliance to gradients, it is not able to handle noisy observations. The latter is an essential trait if one wants to be able to propagate uncertainty through stochastic simulators, e.g., through molecular dynamics codes. In this work, we develop a probabilistic version of AS which is gradient-free and robust to observational noise. Our approach relies on a novel Gaussian process regression with built-in dimensionality reduction. In particular, the AS is represented as an orthogonal projection matrix that serves as yet another covariance function hyper-parameter to be estimated from the data. To train the

  1. Knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-test kits among men who have sex with men in Spain, following approval of an over-the-counter self-test in the U.S: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutentakis, Konstantinos; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Hoyos, Juan; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Ruiz, Mónica; Agustí, Cristina; de la Fuente, Luis; Belza, María José

    2016-07-08

    Shortly after the approval of an over-the-counter HIV self-test in the US, we conducted a study to estimate the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Spain who knew that unauthorized HIV self-tests could be purchased online, and the proportion that had already used these tests, as well as their socio-demographic and behavioural correlates. Between September 2012 and February 2013, MSM users of gay dating websites were invited to complete an online questionnaire. We calculated estimates of the knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-testing and assessed the associated factors by rare event logit regression models. Among 8620 participants, 4.2 % (95 % CI:3.8-4.6) knew they could buy an unauthorized HIV self-test kit online, and 12.7 % (95 % CI:12.0-13.4) thought that such a test might exist, although they had never seen one. Only 0.7 % (95 % CI:0.5-0.9) had ever self-tested. In the multivariable analysis, knowledge of online availability of self-tests was associated with being a non-Latin American foreigner, having at least two previous HIV tests, intending to test for HIV in the next year, and knowing about U.S. approval of self-testing. Ever-use of HIV self-testing was associated with being over 34 years of age, living outside Spain during the last 12 months, and knowing about U.S. approval of self-testing. Both knowledge and use of unauthorized HIV self-testing among MSM in Spain was very low among HIV negative or untested MSM in Spain. The recent approval in the United Kingdom and France might increase the number of MSM seeking such testing and possibly using unauthorized test kits not meeting quality standards.

  2. Self-testing security sensor for monitoring closure of vault doors and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawthorne, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    A self-testing device is provided for a monitoring system for monitoring whether a closure member such as a door or window is closed. The monitoring system includes a switch unit mounted on the frame of the closure member being monitored and including magnetically biased switches connected in one or more electrical monitoring circuits, and a door magnet unit mounted on the closure member being monitored. The door magnet includes one or more permanent magnets that produce a magnetic field which, when the closure member is closed, cause said switches to assume a first state. When the closure member is opened, the switches switch to a second, alarm state. The self-testing device is electrically controllable from a remote location and produces a canceling or diverting magnetic field which simulates the effect of movement of the closure member from the closed position thereof without any actual movement of the member. 5 figs

  3. Development of built-in debris-filter bottom nozzle for PWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntaro Shimizu; Kazuki Monaka; Masaji Mori; Kazuo Ikeda

    2005-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has worked to improve the capability of anti debris bottom nozzle for a PWR fuel assembly. The Current debris filter bottom nozzle (DFBN) having 4mm diameter flow holes can capture the larger size of debris than the flow hole inner diameter. MHI has completed the development of the built-in debris filter bottom nozzle, which is the new idea of the debris-filter for high burnup (55GWd/t assembly average burnup). Built-in debris filter bottom nozzle consists of the blades and nozzle body. The blades made from inconel strip are embedded and welded on the grooved top surface of the bottom nozzle adapter plate. A flow hole is divided by the blade and the trap size of the debris is reduced. Because the blades block the coolant flow, it was anticipated to increase the pressure loss of the nozzle, however, adjusting the relation between blade and taper shape of the flow hole, the pressure loss has been successfully maintained the satisfactory level. Grooves are cut on the nozzle plate; nevertheless, the additional skirts on the four sides of the nozzle compensate the structural strength. (authors)

  4. Perceived Cost Advantages and Disadvantages of Purchasing HIV Self-Testing Kits among Urban Tanzanian Men: An Inductive Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Conserve, Donaldson F; Merrill, Jamison; Kajula, Lusajo; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-08-01

    Impoverished men have lower rates of facility-based HIV counseling and testing and higher unknown HIV-positive status than women. Economic theory suggests that individuals will obtain an HIV test if anticipated benefits are greater than anticipated costs. Yet, few studies have investigated the range of financial preferences of HIV self-testing (HIVST) among poor men who decline testing or do not test regularly. Twenty-three interviews were conducted to qualitatively assess perceived costs saved and costs incurred from use of HIVST kits in infrequently- or never-tested Tanzanian men. All men were shown an HIVST kit and video. They were then asked about the costs associated with provider-led HIV testing, financial benefits and concerns of HIVST and willingness to pay for HIVST. Data were transcribed, coded and analyzed using inductive content analyses. We then grouped codes into perceived cost advantages and disadvantages and tabulated the range of prices men were willing to pay for a self-test kit. Perceived cost advantages of HIVST were avoidance of spending money to test in facilities, omission of follow-up fees, affordability relative to private clinics, and increased time for earning income and other activities. Men also discussed the imbalance of the financial benefit of accessing free, public HIV testing with the resources spent for transport, purchasing meals away from home and long wait lines. Perceived cost disadvantages of HIVST were prohibitive kit costs, required prior savings to purchase kits, expenditures relating to death and preferences for free provider-performed testing. Men were also concerned about the psychological costs of inaccurate results. HIVST willingness to pay varied among men. Men's decisions to self-test for HIV takes into account expected financial gains and losses. Demand generation for HIVST among men should consider use of low fees or free HIVST, while emphasizing potential savings from reduced travel, clinical costs, or time way

  5. Acceptability and feasibility of a social entrepreneurship testing model to promote HIV self-testing and linkage to care among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, F; Tang, W; Cheng, W; Lin, P; Wu, Q; Cai, Y; Tang, S; Fan, L; Zhao, Y; Chen, X; Mao, J; Meng, G; Tucker, J D; Xu, H

    2017-05-01

    HIV self-testing (HIVST) offers an opportunity to increase HIV testing among people not reached by facility-based services. However, the promotion of HIVST is limited as a consequence of insufficient community engagement. We built a social entrepreneurship testing (SET) model to promote HIVST linkage to care among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou. The SET model includes a few key steps. Each participant first completed an online survey, and paid a US$23 (refundable) deposit to receive an HIVST kit and a syphilis self-testing (SST) kit. After the testing, the results were sent to the platform by the participants and interpreted by Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff. Meanwhile, the deposit was returned to each participant. Finally, the Community based organizations (CBO) contacted the participants to provide counselling services, confirmation testing and linkage to care. During April-June 2015, a total of 198 MSM completed a preliminary survey and purchased self-testing kits. The majority were aged < 34 years (84.4%) and met partners online (93.1%). In addition, 68.9% of participants had ever been tested for HIV, and 19.5% had ever performed HIVST. Overall, feedback was received from 192 participants (97.0%). Of these participants, 14 people did not use the kits; among those who did use the kits, the HIV and syphilis prevalences were 4.5% (eight of 178) and 3.7% (six of 178), respectively. All of the screened HIV-positive individuals sought further confirmation testing and were linked to care. Using an online SET model to promote HIV and syphilis self-testing among Chinese MSM is acceptable and feasible, and this model adds a new testing platform to the current testing service system. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  6. Preparedness for use of the rapid result HIV self-test by gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a mixed methods exploratory study among MSM and those involved in HIV prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, P; Riddell, J; Park, C; Ahmed, B; Young, I; Frankis, J; Davis, M; Gilbert, M; Estcourt, C; Wallace, L; McDaid, L M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explore preparedness for the HIV self-test among men who have sex with men (MSM) and those involved in HIV prevention and care. A mixed methods exploratory research design was employed, detailing awareness and willingness to use the self-test and the perceived barriers and facilitators to implementation. Quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis were completed in parallel. Descriptive and inferential analysis of cross-sectional bar-based survey data collected from MSM through a self-completed questionnaire and oral fluid specimen collection (n = 999) was combined with qualitative, thematic, analysis of data collected through 12 expert focus groups (n = 55) consisting of gay men, National Health Service (NHS) staff, community organizations, entrepreneurs and activists. Findings were subsequently combined and assessed for synergies. Among MSM, self-test awareness was moderate (55%). Greater awareness was associated with increased educational attainment [adjusted odds ratio 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.30; P = 0.05] and previous history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing (adjusted odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.11-2.39; P = 0.01). Willingness to use the test was high (89%) and associated with meeting sexual partners online (unadjusted odds ratio 1.96; 95% CI 1.31-2.94; P self-testing; it was understood as convenient, discreet, accessible, and with a low burden to services. However, some ambivalence towards self-testing was reported; it could reduce opportunities to engage with wider services, wider health issues and the determinants of risk. Self-testing represents an opportunity to reduce barriers to HIV testing and enhance prevention and access to care. Levels of awareness are moderate but willingness to use is high. Self-testing may amplify health inequalities. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  7. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.

    2015-07-01

    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.

  8. Progress of independent feasibility study for modular HTGR demonstration plant to be built in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiachen

    1989-01-01

    Many regions in China are suffering from shortage of energy as a result of the rapid growth of the national economy, for example, the growth rate of national production in 1988 reached 11.2%. A great number of coal fired plants have been built in many industrial areas. However, the difficulties relating to the transportation of coal and environmental pollution have become more and more serious. The construction of hydropower plants is limited due to uneven geographic conditions and seasons. For these reasons China needs to develop nuclear power plants. Nowadays, it has been decided, that PWR will be the main reactor type in our country, but in some districts or under some conditions modular HTGR may have distinct advantages and become an attractive option. The possible plant site description and preliminary result of economic analysis of modular HTGR type reactor are briefly discussed in this presentation

  9. Mesh three-dimensional arm orthosis with built-in ultrasound physiotherapy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapova, R. M.; Kashapov, R. N.; Kashapova, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using the built-in ultrasound physiotherapy system of the hand orthosis is explored in the work. The individual mesh orthosis from nylon 12 was manufactured by the 3D prototyping method on the installation of selective laser sintering SLS SPro 60HD. The applied technology of three-dimensional scanning made it possible to obtain a model of the patient’s hand and on the basis of it to build a virtual model of the mesh frame. In the course of the research, the developed system of ultrasound exposure was installed on the orthosis and its tests were carried out. As a result, the acceleration of the healing process and the reduction in the time of wearing orthosis were found.

  10. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Overtopping Wave Energy Converters Built in Sea Defense Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, Lander; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Troch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many sea defense structures need to be adapted to the rising sea water level and changing wave climate due to global warming. The accordingly required investment opens perspectives for wave energy converters (WECs) – that are built as part of the sea defense structures – to become economically...... viable. In this paper the average overtopping discharges q of overtopping wave energy devices built in sea defense structures are studied. Physical model tests with this type of devices have been carried out in a wave flume leading to experimental q - values. The experimental q -values are compared...... with predicted average overtopping discharges by existing empirical formulae from literature. Overtopping converters have low relative crest freeboards and smooth slope characteristics to maximize overtopping, which is contradictive to the basic role of sea defense structures. As a consequence, the achieved...

  11. Promoting male partner HIV testing and safer sexual decision making through secondary distribution of self-tests by HIV-negative female sex workers and women receiving antenatal and post-partum care in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Masters, Samuel H; Mavedzenge, Sue Napierala; Maman, Suzanne; Omanga, Eunice; Agot, Kawango

    2016-06-01

    Increased uptake of HIV testing by men in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for the success of combination prevention. Self-testing is an emerging approach with high acceptability, but little evidence exists on the best strategies for test distribution. We assessed an approach of providing multiple self-tests to women at high risk of HIV acquisition to promote partner HIV testing and to facilitate safer sexual decision making. In this cohort study, HIV-negative women aged 18-39 years were recruited at two sites in Kisumu, Kenya: a health facility with antenatal and post-partum clinics and a drop-in centre for female sex workers. Participants gave informed consent and were instructed on use of oral fluid based rapid HIV tests. Participants enrolled at the health facility received three self-tests and those at the drop-in centre received five self-tests. Structured interviews were conducted with participants at enrolment and over 3 months to determine how self-tests were used. Outcomes included the number of self-tests distributed by participants, the proportion of participants whose sexual partners used a self-test, couples testing, and sexual behaviour after self-testing. Between Jan 14, 2015, and March 13, 2015, 280 participants were enrolled (61 in antenatal care, 117 in post-partum care, and 102 female sex workers); follow-up interviews were completed for 265 (96%). Most participants with primary sexual partners distributed self-tests to partners: 53 (91%) of 58 participants in antenatal care, 91 (86%) of 106 in post-partum care, and 64 (75%) of 85 female sex workers. 82 (81%) of 101 female sex workers distributed more than one self-test to commercial sex clients. Among self-tests distributed to and used by primary sexual partners of participants, couples testing occurred in 27 (51%) of 53 in antenatal care, 62 (68%) of 91 from post-partum care, and 53 (83%) of 64 female sex workers. Among tests received by primary and non-primary sexual partners, two (4%) of 53

  12. Psychological, situational and application-related determinants of the intention to self-test: a factorial survey among students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuecuekbalaban, Pinar; Rostalski, Tim; Schmidt, Silke; Muehlan, Holger

    2017-07-10

    The Internet enables an unprecedented opportunity to access a broad range of self-tests (e.g. testing for HIV, cancer, hepatitis B/C), which can be conducted by lay consumers without the help of a health professional. However, there is only little knowledge about the determinants of the use of self-tests. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to experimentally investigate the impact of situational and application-related characteristics on the intention to use a self-test (ST), compared to being tested by a health professional at home (HPH) or at a doctor's office (HPD), (2) to examine the applicability of social-cognitive health behaviour theories on self-testing, and (3) to explore the advantages of integrating technological affinity into social-cognitive health behaviour models to predict self-testing. In a factorial survey, 1248 vignettes were rated by 208 students. The core concepts of social-cognitive health behaviour theories, technological affinity, and different situational and application-related characteristics were investigated. Intention to ST was only predicted by the medical expertise of the tested person, while HPH and HPD were also associated with the application purpose of the test and the presence of an emotionally supporting person. Perceived severity and outcome-expectancy significantly predicted intention to self-test. Technological enthusiastic people had a higher intention to use a self-test. Intention to ST, HPH and HPD were predicted by different situational and application-related characteristics. Social-cognitive health behaviour theories can be applied to predict self-testing and do not need to be extended by technological affinity.

  13. Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit H. Yapanel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A proven method for achieving effective automatic speech recognition (ASR due to speaker differences is to perform acoustic feature speaker normalization. More effective speaker normalization methods are needed which require limited computing resources for real-time performance. The most popular speaker normalization technique is vocal-tract length normalization (VTLN, despite the fact that it is computationally expensive. In this study, we propose a novel online VTLN algorithm entitled built-in speaker normalization (BISN, where normalization is performed on-the-fly within a newly proposed PMVDR acoustic front end. The novel algorithm aspect is that in conventional frontend processing with PMVDR and VTLN, two separating warping phases are needed; while in the proposed BISN method only one single speaker dependent warp is used to achieve both the PMVDR perceptual warp and VTLN warp simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces computational requirements, thereby offering advantages for real-time ASR systems. Evaluations are performed for (i an in-car extended digit recognition task, where an on-the-fly BISN implementation reduces the relative word error rate (WER by 24%, and (ii for a diverse noisy speech task (SPINE 2, where the relative WER improvement was 9%, both relative to the baseline speaker normalization method.

  14. Ionized calcium analyzer with a built-in pH correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogh-Andersen, N

    1981-07-01

    We describe a new semi-automated apparatus for simultaneously measuring the concentration of free calcium ion and of hydrogen ion (pH) at 37 degrees C. The sample volume is 110 microL. In addition to the actual values for these concentrations in the sample, the apparatus calculates the concentration of free calcium ion at pH 7.40. Mean values for serum from 51 fasting bedridden patients without calcium metabolic disorders and 64 fasting hospital employees were 1.192 and 1.232 mmol/L, respectively, with SD of 0.042 and 0.040 mmol/L, respectively. The within-series analytical SD was 12 mumol/L and the day-to-day SD of the pH-corrected concentration of free calcium ion was 21 mumol/L, as calculated from measurements made on a serum pool after equilibration with a CO2--air mixture. The mean dependency on pH as determined in 120 consecutive patients' sera equalled the built-in pH correction. The accuracy was evaluated by comparison with other calcium ion-selective electrodes.

  15. Development of Flexible Pneumatic Cylinder with Built-in Flexible Linear Encoder and Flexible Bending Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Matsushita, Hisashi; Fukuhara, Akimasa

    The purpose of this study is to develop a lightweight and intelligent soft actuator which can be safely attached to the human body. A novel flexible pneumatic cylinder that can be used even if it is deformed by external force had been proposed. The cylinder can realize both pushing and pulling motions even if the cylinder bends. In this paper, a flexible pneumatic cylinder with a built-in flexible linear encoder is proposed and tested. The encoder can detect the cylinder displacement even if the cylinder bends. In the next step, to realize an intelligent flexible cylinder, it is essential to recognize the angle of deflection of the cylinder to estimate the direction of the external force. Therefore, a flexible bending sensor that can measure the directional angle by attaching it to the end of the cylinder is also proposed and tested. The tested bending sensor also consists of four inexpensive photo-reflectors set on the circumferential surface to the cylinder tube every 90 degrees from the center of the tube. By measuring the distance between the photo reflector and the surface of the tube at each point, the bending directional angle of the cylinder can be obtained. A low cost measuring system using a micro-computer incorporating a programmed Up/Down counter to measure the displacement of the cylinder is also developed. As a result, it was confirmed that the measuring accuracy of the bending directional angle was good, less than 0.7 degrees as a standard deviation.

  16. Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapanel UmitH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A proven method for achieving effective automatic speech recognition (ASR due to speaker differences is to perform acoustic feature speaker normalization. More effective speaker normalization methods are needed which require limited computing resources for real-time performance. The most popular speaker normalization technique is vocal-tract length normalization (VTLN, despite the fact that it is computationally expensive. In this study, we propose a novel online VTLN algorithm entitled built-in speaker normalization (BISN, where normalization is performed on-the-fly within a newly proposed PMVDR acoustic front end. The novel algorithm aspect is that in conventional frontend processing with PMVDR and VTLN, two separating warping phases are needed; while in the proposed BISN method only one single speaker dependent warp is used to achieve both the PMVDR perceptual warp and VTLN warp simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces computational requirements, thereby offering advantages for real-time ASR systems. Evaluations are performed for (i an in-car extended digit recognition task, where an on-the-fly BISN implementation reduces the relative word error rate (WER by 24%, and (ii for a diverse noisy speech task (SPINE 2, where the relative WER improvement was 9%, both relative to the baseline speaker normalization method.

  17. Investigation of the concrete foundation of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Hirai

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete specimens taken from the pier of the concrete foundation of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica, were brought back to Japan for investigation of deterioration conditions. This concrete was made by mixing alumina cement brought from Japan with gravel, sand, and water removed from melted snow, all taken from the surface ground of East Ongul Island on which Syowa Station is located, and by placing and shaping it into permanent form. The pier concrete is examined by composition analysis, compressive strength test and neutralization depth measurement of the cored sample. Transformation of the hydration products of alumina cement, from CAH10 to C3AH6 and AH3, was found to be completed. The maximum neutralization depth was found to be 26 mm. In addition, the compressive strength decreased by 22% from the time of construction as judged from a specimen at construction time. Based on these observations, deterioration of the concrete is in progress, but not to the extent that either its strength or durability is a problem with regard to serviceability.

  18. Can the analysis of built-in software of CPAP devices replace polygraphy in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, Sonia; Delord, Vincent; Olmo Arroyo, Jorge; De Sanctis, Livio; Frapin, Annick; Amaddeo, Alessandro; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for the scoring of residual respiratory events during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Studies comparing PSG scoring with automatic scoring by the built-in software of CPAP devices have reported acceptable agreements except for the hypopnea index (HI) in adult patients, but no study has yet been conducted in children. The aim of the present study was to compare the automatic scoring by CPAP device and manual scoring using the software tracings of the CPAP device integrating pulse oximetry (SpO 2 ) with in-lab polygraphy (PG). Consecutive clinically stable children treated with constant CPAP (ResMed) for at least one month and scheduled for a nocturnal PG were recruited. A pulse oximeter was connected to the CPAP device. The PG apnea-hypopnea index (AHI PG ), scored according to modified AASM guidelines, was compared with the automatic AHI reported by the CPAP device (AHI A CPAP ) and the manual scoring of the AHI on the CPAP software (AHI M CPAP ). Fifteen children (1.5-18.6 years) were included. Mean residual AHI PG was 0.9 ± 1.2/hour (0.0-4.6/hour) vs. AHI A CPAP of 3.6 ± 3.6/hour (0.5-14.7/hour) (p software tracings of CPAP devices integrating SpO 2 signal may be helpful. These results have to be confirmed in patients with higher AHI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  20. HIV self-testing among female sex workers in Zambia: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Chanda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV self-testing (HIVST may play a role in addressing gaps in HIV testing coverage and as an entry point for HIV prevention services. We conducted a cluster randomized trial of 2 HIVST distribution mechanisms compared to the standard of care among female sex workers (FSWs in Zambia.Trained peer educators in Kapiri Mposhi, Chirundu, and Livingstone, Zambia, each recruited 6 FSW participants. Peer educator-FSW groups were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1 delivery (direct distribution of an oral HIVST from the peer educator, (2 coupon (a coupon for collection of an oral HIVST from a health clinic/pharmacy, or (3 standard-of-care HIV testing. Participants in the 2 HIVST arms received 2 kits: 1 at baseline and 1 at 10 weeks. The primary outcome was any self-reported HIV testing in the past month at the 1- and 4-month visits, as HIVST can replace other types of HIV testing. Secondary outcomes included linkage to care, HIVST use in the HIVST arms, and adverse events. Participants completed questionnaires at 1 and 4 months following peer educator interventions. In all, 965 participants were enrolled between September 16 and October 12, 2016 (delivery, N = 316; coupon, N = 329; standard of care, N = 320; 20% had never tested for HIV. Overall HIV testing at 1 month was 94.9% in the delivery arm, 84.4% in the coupon arm, and 88.5% in the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care risk ratio [RR] = 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.15, P = 0.10; coupon versus standard of care RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05, P = 0.29; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005. Four-month rates were 84.1% for the delivery arm, 79.8% for the coupon arm, and 75.1% for the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.27, P = 0.11; coupon versus standard of care RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.92-1.22, P = 0.42; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18, P = 0.40. At 1 month, the majority of HIV tests were self-tests (88.4%. HIV self-test

  1. HIV self-testing among female sex workers in Zambia: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Michael M; Ortblad, Katrina F; Mwale, Magdalene; Chongo, Steven; Kanchele, Catherine; Kamungoma, Nyambe; Fullem, Andrew; Dunn, Caitlin; Barresi, Leah G; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine E

    2017-11-01

    HIV self-testing (HIVST) may play a role in addressing gaps in HIV testing coverage and as an entry point for HIV prevention services. We conducted a cluster randomized trial of 2 HIVST distribution mechanisms compared to the standard of care among female sex workers (FSWs) in Zambia. Trained peer educators in Kapiri Mposhi, Chirundu, and Livingstone, Zambia, each recruited 6 FSW participants. Peer educator-FSW groups were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1) delivery (direct distribution of an oral HIVST from the peer educator), (2) coupon (a coupon for collection of an oral HIVST from a health clinic/pharmacy), or (3) standard-of-care HIV testing. Participants in the 2 HIVST arms received 2 kits: 1 at baseline and 1 at 10 weeks. The primary outcome was any self-reported HIV testing in the past month at the 1- and 4-month visits, as HIVST can replace other types of HIV testing. Secondary outcomes included linkage to care, HIVST use in the HIVST arms, and adverse events. Participants completed questionnaires at 1 and 4 months following peer educator interventions. In all, 965 participants were enrolled between September 16 and October 12, 2016 (delivery, N = 316; coupon, N = 329; standard of care, N = 320); 20% had never tested for HIV. Overall HIV testing at 1 month was 94.9% in the delivery arm, 84.4% in the coupon arm, and 88.5% in the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care risk ratio [RR] = 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.15, P = 0.10; coupon versus standard of care RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86-1.05, P = 0.29; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). Four-month rates were 84.1% for the delivery arm, 79.8% for the coupon arm, and 75.1% for the standard-of-care arm (delivery versus standard of care RR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.98-1.27, P = 0.11; coupon versus standard of care RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.92-1.22, P = 0.42; delivery versus coupon RR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18, P = 0.40). At 1 month, the majority of HIV tests were self-tests (88.4%). HIV self-test use

  2. Modular, Autonomous Command and Data Handling Software with Built-In Simulation and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuseo, John

    2012-01-01

    The spacecraft system that plays the greatest role throughout the program lifecycle is the Command and Data Handling System (C&DH), along with the associated algorithms and software. The C&DH takes on this role as cost driver because it is the brains of the spacecraft and is the element of the system that is primarily responsible for the integration and interoperability of all spacecraft subsystems. During design and development, many activities associated with mission design, system engineering, and subsystem development result in products that are directly supported by the C&DH, such as interfaces, algorithms, flight software (FSW), and parameter sets. A modular system architecture has been developed that provides a means for rapid spacecraft assembly, test, and integration. This modular C&DH software architecture, which can be targeted and adapted to a wide variety of spacecraft architectures, payloads, and mission requirements, eliminates the current practice of rewriting the spacecraft software and test environment for every mission. This software allows missionspecific software and algorithms to be rapidly integrated and tested, significantly decreasing time involved in the software development cycle. Additionally, the FSW includes an Onboard Dynamic Simulation System (ODySSy) that allows the C&DH software to support rapid integration and test. With this solution, the C&DH software capabilities will encompass all phases of the spacecraft lifecycle. ODySSy is an on-board simulation capability built directly into the FSW that provides dynamic built-in test capabilities as soon as the FSW image is loaded onto the processor. It includes a six-degrees- of-freedom, high-fidelity simulation that allows complete closed-loop and hardware-in-the-loop testing of a spacecraft in a ground processing environment without any additional external stimuli. ODySSy can intercept and modify sensor inputs using mathematical sensor models, and can intercept and respond to actuator

  3. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Sari, Ahmet; Yardim, M. Hakan

    2006-01-01

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  4. [The Offer of Medical-Diagnostic Self-Tests on German Language Websites: Results of a Systematic Internet Search].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuecuekbalaban, P; Schmidt, S; Muehlan, H

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to provide an overview of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be purchased without a medical prescription on German language websites. From September 2014 to March 2015, a systematic internet research was conducted with the following search terms: self-test, self-diagnosis, home test, home diagnosis, quick test, rapid test. 513 different self-tests for the diagnostics of 52 diverse diseases or health risks were identified, including chronic diseases (e. g. diabetes, chronic disease of the kidneys, liver, and lungs), sexually transmitted diseases (e. g. HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea), infectious diseases (e. g. tuberculosis, malaria, Helicobacter pylori), allergies (e. g. house dust, cats, histamine) and cancer as well as tests for the diagnostics of 12 different psychotropic substances. These were sold by 90 companies in Germany and by other foreign companies. The number of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be bought without a medical prescription on the Internet has increased enormously in the last 10 years. Further studies are needed for the identification of the determinants of the use of self-tests as well as the impact of the application on the experience and behavior of the user. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Acceptability and Feasibility of a Social-Entrepreneurship Model to Promote HIV Self-testing and linkage to care among MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Fei; Tang, Weiming; Cheng, Weibin; Lin, Peng; Wu, Qiongmiao; Cai, Yanshan; Tang, Songyuan; Fan, Lirui; Zhao, Yuteng; Chen, Xi; Mao, Jessica; Meng, Gang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Xu, Huifang

    2017-01-01

    Background HIV self-testing (HIVST) offers an opportunity to increase HIV testing among people not reached by facility-based services. However, the promotion of HIVST is limited due to insufficient community engagement. We built a Social Entrepreneurship Model (SET) to promote HIVST linkage to care among Chinese MSM in Guangzhou. Method SET model includes a few key steps: Each participant first completed an online survey, and paid a $23 USD (refundable) deposit to get a HIVST kit and a syphilis self-testing (SST) kit. After the testing, the results were sent to the platform by the participants and interpreted by CDC staff. Meanwhile, the deposit was returned to each participant. Finally, the CBO contacted the participants to provide counseling services, confirmation testing and linkage to care. Result During April–June of 2015, a total of 198 MSM completed a preliminary survey and purchased self-testing kits. Among them, the majority were aged under 34 (84.4%) and met partners online (93.1%). In addition, 68.9% of participants ever tested for HIV, and 19.5% had ever performed HIVST. Overall, feedback was received from 192 (97.0%) participants. Among these, 14 people did not use kits, and the HIV and syphilis prevalence among these users were of 4.5% (8/178) and 3.7% (6/178), respectively. All of the screened HIV-positive cases sought further confirmation testing and were linked to care. Conclusion Using an online SET model to promote HIV and syphilis among Chinese MSM is acceptable and feasible, and this model adds a new testing platform to the current testing service system. PMID:27601301

  6. Built-in and Induced Polarization Across LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guneeta, Singh-Bhalla

    2011-08-15

    Ionic crystals terminated at oppositely charged polar surfaces are inherently unstable and expected to undergo surface reconstructions to maintain electrostatic stability. Essentially, an electric field that arises between oppositely charged atomic planes gives rise to a built-in potential that diverges with thickness. Here we present evidence of such a built-in potential across polar LaAlO{sub 3} thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates, a system well known for the electron gas that forms at the interface. By performing tunneling measurements between the electron gas and metallic electrodes on LaAlO{sub 3} we measure a built-in electric field across LaAlO{sub 3} of 80.1 meV/{angstrom}. Additionally, capacitance measurements reveal the presence of an induced dipole moment across the heterostructure. We forsee use of the ionic built-in potential as an additional tuning parameter in both existing and novel device architectures, especially as atomic control of oxide interfaces gains widespread momentum.

  7. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A; Helmrot, E; Sandborg, M; Grindborg, J-E; Carlsson, G Alm

    2014-12-07

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ± 7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than ± 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA's recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC's limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  8. Technology-assisted self-testing and management of oral anticoagulation therapy: a qualitative patient-focused study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljis, Jasna; Money, Arthur G; Perry, Mark; Barnett, Julie; Young, Terry

    2017-09-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy requires regular blood testing to ensure therapeutic levels are maintained and excessive bleeding/clotting is avoided. Technology-assisted self-testing and management is seen as one of the key areas in which quality of care can be improved whilst reducing costs. Nevertheless, levels of patient engagement in self-testing and management remain low. To date, little research emphasis has been placed on understanding the patients' perspectives for low engagement. The typical approach adopted by healthcare providers is to provide patient education programmes, with the expectation that individual patients will change their behaviour and adopt new self-care strategies. However, if levels of patient engagement are to be increased, healthcare providers must also develop a better understanding of how their clinical service provision is perceived by patients and make adaptations. To explore patient views, needs and expectations of an anticoagulation service and the self-testing and management services provided. Interviews were conducted with 17 patients who currently engage in international normalised ratio (INR) self-testing and management. Thematic coding and analysis were carried out on the interview transcripts. Four high-level themes emerged from interviews: (i) role of clinic, (ii) motivations for self-testing, (iii) managing INR and (iv) trust. The clinic was seen as adding value in terms of specifying testing frequency, dosage profiles and calibrating equipment. Prompt communication from clinic to patient was also valued, although more personalised/real-time communication would help avoid feelings of isolation. Patients felt more in control as self-tester/managers and often took decisions about treatment adjustments themselves. However, some also manipulated their own test results to avoid 'unnecessary' interventions. More personalised/real-time communication, pragmatic and collaborative patient-clinician partnerships and recognition of

  9. International normalized ratio self-testing and self-management: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzi M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Pozzi,1 Julia Mitchell,2 Anna Maria Henaine,3 Najib Hanna,4 Ola Safi,4 Roland Henaine2 1Department of Adult Cardiac Surgery, “Louis Pradel” Cardiologic Hospital, Lyon, France; 2Department of Congenital Cardiac Surgery, “Louis Pradel” Cardiologic Hospital, Lyon, France; 3Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Pediatric Unit, “Hotel Dieu de France” Hospital, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Long term oral anti-coagulation with vitamin K antagonists is a risk factor of hemorrhagic or thromebomlic complications. Periodic laboratory testing of international normalized ratio (INR and a subsequent dose adjustment are therefore mandatory. The use of home testing devices to measure INR has been suggested as a potential way to improve the comfort and compliance of the patients and their families, the frequency of monitoring and, finally, the management and safety of long-term oral anticoagulation. In pediatric patients, increased doses to obtain and maintain the therapeutic target INR, more frequent adjustments and INR testing, multiple medication, inconstant nutritional intake, difficult venepunctures, and the need to go to the laboratory for testing (interruption of school and parents’ work attendance highlight those difficulties. After reviewing the most relevant published studies of self-testing and self-management of INR for adult patients and children on oral anticoagulation, it seems that these are valuable and effective strategies of INR control. Despite an unclear relationship between INR control and clinical effects, these self-strategies provide a better control of the anticoagulant effect, improve patients and their family quality of life, and are an appealing solution in term of cost-effectiveness. Structured education and knowledge evaluation by trained health care professionals is required for children, to be able to adjust their dose treatment safely and accurately. However

  10. Structural Diagnostics of CFRP Composite Aircraft Components by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Built-In Piezoelectric Transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Howard M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving the sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent

  11. Impact of built-in fields and contact configuration on the characteristics of ultra-thin GaAs solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhard, Urs, E-mail: u.aeberhard@fz-juelich.de [IEK-5 Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-07-18

    We discuss the effects of built-in fields and contact configuration on the photovoltaic characteristics of ultra-thin GaAs solar cells. The investigation is based on advanced quantum-kinetic simulations reaching beyond the standard semi-classical bulk picture concerning the consideration of charge carrier states and dynamics in complex potential profiles. The thickness dependence of dark and photocurrent in the ultra-scaled regime is related to the corresponding variation of both, the built-in electric fields and associated modification of the density of states, and the optical intensity in the films. Losses in open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current due to the leakage of electronically and optically injected carriers at minority carrier contacts are investigated for different contact configurations including electron and hole blocking barrier layers. The microscopic picture of leakage currents is connected to the effect of finite surface recombination velocities in the semi-classical description, and the impact of these non-classical contact regions on carrier generation and extraction is analyzed.

  12. Self-testing for contact allergy to hair dyes - a 5-year follow-up multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Goosens, An; Giménez-Arnau, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    the method of application, the amount of hair dye applied, the location and size of the application area, the number of applications, whether or not rinsing was performed after application, the reading times, and how a positive reaction was defined. CONCLUSIONS: Self-testing is still recommended by almost...

  13. Budget Impact of Increasing Market Share of Patient Self-Testing and Patient Self-Management in Anticoagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanović, Jelena; Postma, Maarten J.; Le, Hoa H.

    Background: Patient self-testing (PST) and/or patient self-management (PSM) might provide better coagulation care than monitoring at specialized anticoagulation centers. Yet, it remains an underused strategy in the Netherlands. Methods: Budget-impact analyses of current and new market-share

  14. Acceptability of using electronic vending machines to deliver oral rapid HIV self-testing kits: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Young

    Full Text Available Rates of unrecognized HIV infection are significantly higher among Latino and Black men who have sex with men (MSM. Policy makers have proposed that HIV self-testing kits and new methods for delivering self-testing could improve testing uptake among minority MSM. This study sought to conduct qualitative assessments with MSM of color to determine the acceptability of using electronic vending machines to dispense HIV self-testing kits.African American and Latino MSM were recruited using a participant pool from an existing HIV prevention trial on Facebook. If participants expressed interest in using a vending machine to receive an HIV self-testing kit, they were emailed a 4-digit personal identification number (PIN code to retrieve the test from the machine. We followed up with those who had tested to assess their willingness to participate in an interview about their experience.Twelve kits were dispensed and 8 interviews were conducted. In general, participants expressed that the vending machine was an acceptable HIV test delivery method due to its novelty and convenience.Acceptability of this delivery model for HIV testing kits was closely associated with three main factors: credibility, confidentiality, and convenience. Future research is needed to address issues, such as user-induced errors and costs, before scaling up the dispensing method.

  15. Acceptability of using electronic vending machines to deliver oral rapid HIV self-testing kits: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Daniels, Joseph; Chiu, ChingChe J; Bolan, Robert K; Flynn, Risa P; Kwok, Justin; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Rates of unrecognized HIV infection are significantly higher among Latino and Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Policy makers have proposed that HIV self-testing kits and new methods for delivering self-testing could improve testing uptake among minority MSM. This study sought to conduct qualitative assessments with MSM of color to determine the acceptability of using electronic vending machines to dispense HIV self-testing kits. African American and Latino MSM were recruited using a participant pool from an existing HIV prevention trial on Facebook. If participants expressed interest in using a vending machine to receive an HIV self-testing kit, they were emailed a 4-digit personal identification number (PIN) code to retrieve the test from the machine. We followed up with those who had tested to assess their willingness to participate in an interview about their experience. Twelve kits were dispensed and 8 interviews were conducted. In general, participants expressed that the vending machine was an acceptable HIV test delivery method due to its novelty and convenience. Acceptability of this delivery model for HIV testing kits was closely associated with three main factors: credibility, confidentiality, and convenience. Future research is needed to address issues, such as user-induced errors and costs, before scaling up the dispensing method.

  16. Performance of a rapid self-test for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in South Africa and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Heidi E.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Young, Taryn; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Women participating in studies in Brazil (n = 695) and South Africa (n = 230) performed rapid point-of-care tests for Trichomonas vaginalis on self-collected vaginal swabs. Using PCR as the gold standard, rapid self-testing achieved high specificity (99.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.2 to

  17. Measuring Parental Meta-Emotion: Psychometric Properties of the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim-Larson, Julie; Parker, Alison; Lee, Catharine; Goodwin, Jacqueline; Voelker, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Parental meta-emotion, assessed through interviews, involves parents' philosophy about emotions and has been found to be related to parenting behaviors and children's emotional and social competence (e.g., Gottman, Katz, & Hooven, 1996; Katz & Windecker-Nelson, 2004). The Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test is a true-false…

  18. Analytic and nearly optimal self-testing bounds for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt and Mermin inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniewski, Jedrzej

    2016-01-01

    that nontrivial fidelity with the singlet can be achieved as long as the violation exceeds β∗=(16+142√)/17≈2.11). In the case of self-testing the tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using the Mermin inequality, we derive a bound which not only improves on previously known results but turns out...

  19. Phobia of self-injecting and self-testing in insulin-treated diabetes patients: opportunities for screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, E. D.; Snoek, F. J.; Heine, R. J.; van der Ploeg, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    To define clinically relevant cut-off points for severe fear of self-injecting (FSI) and self-testing (FST) (phobia) in insulin-treated patients with diabetes, and to estimate the magnitude of these phobias in our research population. FSI and FST were assessed in a cross-sectional survey using the

  20. SU-F-I-61: Assessment and Characterization of the Built-in Internal Photometer of Primary Diagnostic Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuge, A; Erdi, Y; Mahmood, U [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The conformance of Primary Diagnostic Monitors (PDMs) to the DICOM GSDF is increasingly required by several state and city regulators. Our purpose was to quantitatively characterize the luminance performance of the internal, built in photometer of BARCO monitors against an externally calibrated luminance meter. Methods: Thirty one PDMs (BARCO) were included in our analysis. An externally calibrated photometer (RaySafe Solo Light) was used to measure the luminance and illuminance values. Measured monitors were located at various hospital sites, radiology physicians’ offices and radiology reading rooms. All measured PDMs were equipped with the manufacturer’s built-in photometers and connected to Barco MediCal QA web service for manual and automatic quality control measurements. PDM combinations included 1, 2 and 4 monitors depending on the location. TG-18 and SMPTE test patterns were used to evaluate monitor performance. Results: All the PDMs exceeded the luminance ratio of 250:1, as required by NYC PDM guidelines. One PDM failed the NYC requirement for the minimal luminance level of 350 cd/m2. As compared to the external photometer, the difference in measurement of the maximum luminance with the built-in photometer was found to exceed 5% on 6 of the PDM measured, with a maximum deviation of 10%. The age of the monitors that failed was on average 5 years. All monitors passed the luminance uniformity test, which was 30% from the center of the monitor to the 4 corner locations. Four PDMs failed the Gray Scale Display Function (GSDF) calibration. Conclusion: For the consistent display of medical images and continued conformance with the DICOM GSDF standard, it is essential to compare the performance of the built-in photometer with an externally calibrated photometer for monitors that are older than 5 years.

  1. Built-in surface electric field, piezoelectricity and photoelastic effect in GaN nanorods for nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W S; Chen, T T; Cheng, C L; Fu, S P; Chen, Y F; Hsiao, C L; Tu, L W

    2008-06-11

    Novel behaviors arising from the coupling between the built-in surface electric field, piezoelectricity, electron-hole pairs and external light beam were observed in GaN nanorods. An increase in the optical excitation density resulted in a blueshift in the photoluminescence spectra and a redshift in the frequency of the GaN A(1)(LO) phonon. The underlying mechanism was attributed to the screening of the built-in surface electric field by photoexcited carriers and, through the converse piezoelectric effect, a reduction in the internal strain. The existence of the built-in surface electric field in GaN nanorods was confirmed by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. Our results firmly establish the existence of the photoelastic effect in GaN nanorods. In addition to underpinning the principle for applications in nanophotonic devices, this discovery also draws attention to the novel effects arising from the inherent large surface-to-volume ratio of nanostructures, which is possibly applicable to many other nanomaterials.

  2. Silicon-on-Insulator Lateral-Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor with Built-in Self-anti-ESD Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Power SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator devices have an inherent sandwich structure of MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor gate which is very easy to suffer ESD (Electro-Static Discharge overstress. To solve this reliability problem, studies on design and modification of a built-in self-anti-ESD diode for a preliminarily optimized high voltage SOI LIGBT (Lateral-Insulated-Gate-Bipolar-Transistor were carried out on the Silvaco TCAD (Technology-Computer-Aided-Design platform. According to the constrains of the technological process, the new introduction of the N+ doped region into P-well region that form the built-in self-anti-ESD diode should be done together with the doping of source under the same mask. The modifications were done by adjusting the vertical impurity profile in P-well into retrograde distribution and designing a cathode plate with a proper length to cover the forward depletion terminal and make sure that the thickness of the cathode plate is the same as that of the gate plate. The simulation results indicate that the modified device structure is compatible with the original one in process and design, the breakdown voltage margin of the former was expanded properly, and both the transient cathode voltages are clamped low enough very quickly. Therefore, the design and optimization results of the modified device structure of the built-in self-anti-ESD diode for the given SOI LIGBT meet the given requirements.

  3. Transient classification for the IRIS reactor using self-organized maps built in free platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doraskevicius Junior, Waldemar

    2005-01-01

    Kohonen's Self Organized Maps (SOM) were tested with data from several operational conditions of the nuclear reactor IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) to develop an effective tool in the classification and transient identification in nuclear reactors. The data were derived from 56 simulations of the operation of IRIS, from steady-state conditions to accidents. The digital system built for the tests was based on the JAVA platform for the portability and scalability, and for being one of the free development platforms. Satisfactory results of operation classification were obtained with reasonable processing time in personal computers; about two to five minutes were spent for ordination and convergence of the learning on the data base. The methodology of this work was extended to the supervision of logistics of natural gas for Brazilian pipelines, showing satisfactory results for the classification of deliveries for simultaneous measurement in several points. (author)

  4. Protein-only, antimicrobial peptide-containing recombinant nanoparticles with inherent built-in antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Naroa; Sánchez-García, Laura; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Unzueta, Ugutz; Roldán, Mónica; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2017-09-15

    The emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistances is a serious concern in human and animal health. In this context, naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) might play a main role in a next generation of drugs against bacterial infections. Taking an innovative approach to design self-organizing functional proteins, we have generated here protein-only nanoparticles with intrinsic AMP microbicide activity. Using a recombinant version of the GWH1 antimicrobial peptide as building block, these materials show a wide antibacterial activity spectrum in absence of detectable toxicity on mammalian cells. The GWH1-based nanoparticles combine clinically appealing properties of nanoscale materials with full biocompatibility, structural and functional plasticity and biological efficacy exhibited by proteins. Because of the largely implemented biological fabrication of recombinant protein drugs, the protein-based platform presented here represents a novel and scalable strategy in antimicrobial drug design, that by solving some of the limitations of AMPs offers a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. The low molecular weight antimicrobial peptide GWH1 has been engineered to oligomerize as self-assembling protein-only nanoparticles of around 50nm. In this form, the peptide exhibits potent and broad antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, without any harmful effect over mammalian cells. As a solid proof-of-concept, this finding strongly supports the design and biofabrication of nanoscale antimicrobial materials with in-built functionalities. The protein-based homogeneous composition offer advantages over alternative materials explored as antimicrobial agents, regarding biocompatibility, biodegradability and environmental suitability. Beyond the described prototype, this transversal engineering concept has wide applicability in the design of novel nanomedicines for advanced treatments of bacterial infections

  5. Image deblurring in smartphone devices using built-in inertial measurement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindelář, Ondřej; Šroubek, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Long-exposure handheld photography is degraded with blur, which is difficult to remove without prior information about the camera motion. In this work, we utilize inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) in modern smartphones to detect exact motion trajectory of the smartphone camera during exposure and remove blur from the resulting photography based on the recorded motion data. The whole system is implemented on the Android platform and embedded in the smartphone device, resulting in a close-to-real-time deblurring algorithm. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated in real-life scenarios.

  6. Piloting an HIV self-test kit voucher program to raise serostatus awareness of high-risk African Americans, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Robert W; Young, Sean D; Bristow, Claire C; Wilson, Greg; Rodriguez, Jeffrey; Ortiz, Jose; Mathew, Rhea; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-26

    Up to half of all new HIV cases in Los Angeles may be caused by the 20-30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) with unrecognized HIV infection. Racial/ethnic minority MSM are at particularly high risk for being sero-unaware and due to stigma and poor healthcare access might benefit from novel private, self-testing methods, such as the recently FDA-approved OraQuick® In-Home HIV Test. From July-November 2013, we undertook a pilot study to examine the feasibility of a voucher program for free OraQuick® tests targeting African American MSM in Los Angeles. We determined feasibility based on: (1) the establishment of a voucher redemption and third-party payment system, (2) the willingness of community-based organizations (CBOs) to disseminate vouchers, and (3) the collection of user demographics, test and linkage-to-care results with an anonymous telephone survey. We partnered with Walgreens® to create a voucher and third-party reimbursement system for free OraQuick® tests. Voucher distribution was divided into two periods. In total, 641 vouchers were supplied to CBOs: 274 (42.7%) went to clients and of those 53 (19.3%) were redeemed. Fifty (18.2%) of the 274 clients were surveyed: 44 (88%) were African American, 39 (78%) reported being likely to repeat voucher use, 44 (88%) reported reviewing pre-test information, and 37 (74%) the post-test information. Three (6%) of 50 survey respondents reported newly testing HIV-positive of whom all (100%) reported seeking medical care. Two withheld their results, both of whom also sought medical care. Developing and partnering with a commercial pharmacy to institute a voucher system to facilitate HIV self-testing with linkage-to-care was feasible. Our findings suggest the voucher program was associated with increasing the identification of new cases of HIV infection with high rates of linkage to care. Expanded research and evaluation of voucher programs for HIV self-test kits among high-risk groups is warranted.

  7. Development of a built-in type Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) for Advanced Marine Reactor X (MRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Y.; Iida, H.; Yamaji, A.

    1992-01-01

    For realization of the next generation Advanced Marine Reactor X(MRX) with higher safety, design studies and basic experiments have been done on the built-in type Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM). The concept has been made clear of the CRDM that can be placed inside the reactor vessel and fits best to the MRX - an integrated-type PWR. In particular, the design has almost been completed for the driving motor and the latch magnet, which are the core of this CRDM. It is expected that the required performance can be assured even if there are losses due to the high temperature effect. (author)

  8. Socio-demographic, health-related, and individual correlates of diagnostic self-testing by lay people: Results from a representative survey in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuecuekbalaban

    Full Text Available A broad range of self-tests (testing for e.g. HIV, cancer, hepatitis B/C have become available and can be conducted by lay consumers without the help of a health professional. The aims of this study were to (a investigate the prevalence of self-testing, (b identify the most frequently used self-tests, and (c explore the associations between socio-demographic, health-related and individual factors with self-testing.A face-to-face plus paper-pencil cross-sectional survey was conducted. The sample consisted of 2.527 respondents who were representative of the German population in terms of the age, sex, and residence. Basic descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression analyses were performed.8.5% of the participants reported having used one or more self-tests in the past, totalling 363 self-tests, with a mean of 1.7 (min. = 1, max. = 6. The three self-tests most frequently indicated were for detecting diabetes, bowel cancer, and allergies. Self-testers were older (Nagelkerke R2 = .006, p < .01, had a higher BMI (Nagelkerke R2 = .013, p < .001 and displayed more physical and mental fatigue (Nagelkerke R2 = .031, p < .001 than non-testers. Self-testers also reported higher global life satisfaction values (Nagelkerke R2 = .008, p < .01 and a higher educational level (Nagelkerke R2 = .015, p < .01.Self-testing is fairly prevalent in Germany Given the current shortage of physicians in Germany, especially in rural areas, and recent studies on the use of self-medication, the topic of self-testing has a great practical and socio-political relevance. Future studies should investigate further predictors of self-testing (e.g. contextual, situational and individual factors as well as the emotional consequences of testing as a layperson without the attendance of a health professional.

  9. Self-assembling protein nanoparticles with built-in flagellin domains increases protective efficacy of a Plasmodium falciparum based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Stephen A; Karch, Christopher P; Seth, Labdhi; Ferlez, Karen M B; Storme, Casey K; Pesavento, Danielle M; Laughlin, Paige Y; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S; Burkhard, Peter; Lanar, David E

    2018-02-01

    To eliminate the problems associated with the use of extraneous adjuvants we have designed a Self-Assembling Protein Nanoparticle (SAPN) containing epitopes from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) (designated FMP014) and portions of the TLR5 agonist flagellin (designated FMP014 D0D1 ) as an intrinsic adjuvant. By combining different molar ratios of FMP014 to FMP014 D0D1 monomers before self-assembly, we generated multiple nanoparticles and investigated their biophysical characteristics, immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Immunization with the construct formulated with the ratio 58:2 of FMP014 to FMP014 D0D1 had the highest protective efficacy against a challenge with a transgenic P. berghei sporozoite expressing PfCSP. Increasing the proportion of flagellin per particle resulted in an inverse relationship with levels of both antibody titers and protection. The cytokine profiles of the various immunization groups were evaluated and quantitative amounts of the cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12/p70 (Th1); IL4, IL5 (Th2); TNF-α, IL1β, IL-6, KC/GRO (pro-inflammatory), and IL-10 (immunomodulatory) were measured. The relationship of the cytokines to each other revealed a strong immunomodulatory effect depending on the proportion of flagellin in the construct. Our results demonstrate that SAPNs with flagellin may be a promising strategy for the development and delivery of a safe vaccine for infectious diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Enhancement of oscillation characteristics of a gyrotron by a built-in quasi-optical mode converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenichi; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Komuro, Mitsuo

    1994-01-01

    Oscillation characteristics are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using two gyrotrons with a power level of 500 kW, a conventional tube and a tube with a built-in quasi-optical mode converter. Both tubes have a 120 GHz, TE 12,2 cavity of the same geometry and a single disk alumina window. The quasi-optical mode converter consists of an α-cut launcher and five mirrors. In the conventional tube, reflection of the competing mode at the output window prevents the main mode from oscillating stably in the operation region predicted by the design. Mode selectivity of the quasi-optical mode converter removes the influence of the reflection on the oscillation. Consequently, the experimental results in the tube with the quasi-optical mode converter are in good agreement with the design values. (author)

  11. PC Mobile Warrior with a built-in cellular phone; Keitai denwa naizogata PC 'Mobile warrior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A PC Mobile Warrior with a built-in cellular phone has been developed from PC Libretto through cooperation with the NTT DoCoMo. The new personal computer incorporates into itself some distinguished mobile PC features such as Wake On Radio and Wake On Ring which are defined by MCPC (Mobile Computing Promotion Consortium). Wake On Radio is a function that activates the PC upon entry into the zone from outside, and Wake On Ring is another function that does the same upon arrival of a phone call. Installed on these lower order functions are an application program for automatic transmission of stored e-mails making use of the former function and another for automatic reception of FAX messages making use of the latter function. (translated by NEDO)

  12. 110GHz-500kW long-pulse gyrotron with built-in quasi-optical mode converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Keishi; Kariya, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a 110 GHz-500 kW long-pulse gyrotron. The gyrotron incorporates a quasi-optical mode converter which transforms the oscillation mode, TE 22,2 , into a Gaussian radiation beam. The adoption of a built-in mode converter enabled us to design the electron beam collector so as to be capable of tolerating a 2 MW heat load. Attention was also paid to designing the gyrotron cavity and output window so as to permit long-pulse operations. In an experiment, we observed a maximum output power of 550 kW and achieved 1.3 s operation at a power level of 410 kW. (author)

  13. What does built-in software of home ventilators tell us? An observational study of 150 patients on home ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Patrick; Adler, Dan; Farr, Pamela; Bourqui, Pascale; Bridevaux, Pierre Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recent home ventilators are equipped with built-in software which provides data such as compliance, estimations of leaks, tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory rate, apnea and apnea-hypopnea indexes, and percentage of inspirations triggered by the patient (or ventilator). However, for many of these variables, there is neither consensus nor documentation as to what is to be expected in a population of stable patients under noninvasive ventilation (NIV). To document the values and distribution of specific items downloaded from ventilator monitoring software, by diagnostic category. Analysis of data downloaded from home ventilators in clinically stable patients under long-term NIV, during elective home visits by specialized nurses. Data were collected from home ventilators of 150 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 32), overlap syndrome (n = 29), obesity-hypoventilation (n = 38), neuromuscular disorders (n = 19), restrictive disorders (n = 21), and central sleep apnea syndrome (n = 11). On average, leaks were low, being lowest in patients with facial masks (vs. nasal masks), and increased with older age. Compliance was excellent in all groups. Patients with neuromuscular diseases triggered their ventilators less and tended to be 'captured', while other groups triggered at least half of inspiratory cycles. Most patients had a respiratory rate just slightly above the back-up rate. Residual apneas and hypopneas were highest in patients with central apneas. Built-in software of home ventilators provides the clinician with new parameters, some of which are a useful adjunct to recommended tools for monitoring NIV and may contribute to a better understanding of residual hypoventilation and/or desaturations. However, an independent validation of the accuracy of this information is mandatory. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The breakthrough of common rail system. Closed-loop control strategy using injector with built-in pressure sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaki, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Katsuhiko; Ishizuka, Koji; Sasaki, Satoru [DENSO Corporation, Aichi-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    DENSO has developed the world's first common rail system injector with built-in pressure sensor. This technology makes it possible to execute closed loop injection control in the cylinders, which has been one of the most challenging issues for diesel engine systems. Attaining both further fuel economy and emission reduction requires further technological innovation in the air system and fuel injection system. With the combustion technology that has been developed, stable combustion with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is required in order to reduce nitrogen oxide's (NOx), however robustness is also required in order to handle bio-diesel and low-cetane value fuels and the range for attaining this is extremely narrow. Therefore, for the fuel injection system, in addition to conventional high pressure and high response, lifetime accuracy compensation is key. With this newly developed technology, the fuel injection rate, which determines the combustion within the engine cylinders, is directly detected and controlled in a closed loop to allow precise compensation of the injection system for its entire service life. Highly advanced injection control allows for extremely close multiple injections and variable injection rate control to be possible on the mass production level for the first time. Furthermore, the use of this technology can provide three major advantages for the overall engine system. Firstly succeeds in an expansion of the possible calibration range, which improves fuel economy and emissions, secondly it provides an improvement in the overall engine robustness and reliability. Thirdly, the use of closed loop control makes it possible to greatly reduce the man-hours required for calibration. Given this, the new DENSO common rail system using injectors with built-in pressure sensors is the first step to opening up a new era of diesel engine control. (orig.)

  15. Young people's perceptions of smartphone-enabled self-testing and online care for sexually transmitted infections: qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicken, Catherine R H; Fuller, Sebastian S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Estcourt, Claudia S; Gkatzidou, Voula; Oakeshott, Pippa; Hone, Kate; Sadiq, S Tariq; Sonnenberg, Pam; Shahmanesh, Maryam

    2016-09-13

    Control of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a global public health priority. Despite the UK's free, confidential sexual health clinical services, those at greatest risk of STIs, including young people, report barriers to use. These include: embarrassment regarding face-to-face consultations; the time-commitment needed to attend clinic; privacy concerns (e.g. being seen attending clinic); and issues related to confidentiality. A smartphone-enabled STI self-testing device, linked with online clinical care pathways for treatment, partner notification, and disease surveillance, is being developed by the eSTI(2) consortium. It is intended to benefit public health, and could do so by increasing testing among populations which underutilise existing services and/or by enabling rapid provision of effective treatment. We explored its acceptability among potential users. In-depth interviews were conducted in 2012 with 25 sexually-experienced 16-24 year olds, recruited from Further Education colleges in an urban, high STI prevalence area. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Nine females and 16 males participated. 21 self-defined as Black; three, mixed ethnicity; and one, Muslim/Asian. 22 reported experience of STI testing, two reported previous STI diagnoses, and all had owned smartphones. Participants expressed enthusiasm about the proposed service, and suggested that they and their peers would use it and test more often if it were available. Utilizing sexual healthcare was perceived to be easier and faster with STI self-testing and online clinical care, which facilitated concealment of STI testing from peers/family, and avoided embarrassing face-to-face consultations. Despite these perceived advantages to privacy, new privacy concerns arose regarding communications technology: principally the risk inherent in having evidence of STI testing or diagnosis visible or retrievable on their phone. Some concerns arose regarding the proposed self-test's accuracy, related to

  16. The patients' perspective of international normalized ratio self-testing, remote communication of test results and confidence to move to self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Anne; Coughlan, Michael; Prizeman, Geraldine; O'Connell, Niamh; O'Mahony, Nora; Quinn, Katherine; McKee, Gabrielle

    2017-12-01

    To elicit the perceptions of patients, who self-tested their international normalized ratio and communicated their results via a text or phone messaging system, to determine their satisfaction with the education and support that they received and to establish their confidence to move to self-management. Self-testing of international normalized ratio has been shown to be reliable and is fast becoming common practice. As innovations are introduced to point of care testing, more research is needed to elicit patients' perceptions of the self-testing process. This three site study used a cross-sectional prospective descriptive survey. Three hundred and thirty patients who were prescribed warfarin and using international normalized ratio self-testing were invited to take part in the study. The anonymous survey examined patient profile, patients' usage, issues, perceptions, confidence and satisfaction with using the self-testing system and their preparedness for self-management of warfarin dosage. The response rate was 57% (n = 178). Patients' confidence in self-testing was high (90%). Patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with the support received, but expressed the need for more information on support groups, side effects of warfarin, dietary information and how to dispose of needles. When asked if they felt confident to adjust their own warfarin levels 73% agreed. Chi-squared tests for independence revealed that none of the patient profile factors examined influenced this confidence. The patients cited the greatest advantages of the service were reduced burden, more autonomy, convenience and ease of use. The main disadvantages cited were cost and communication issues. Patients were satisfied with self-testing. The majority felt they were ready to move to self-management. The introduction of innovations to remote point of care testing, such as warfarin self-testing, needs to have support at least equal to that provided in a hospital setting. © 2017 John

  17. HIV self-testing in Peru: questionable availability, high acceptability but potential low linkage to care among men who have sex with men and transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Maria Jose; Konda, Kelika A; Joseph Davey, Dvora; León, Segundo R; Calvo, Gino M; Salvatierra, Javier; Brown, Brandon; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-01

    HIV status awareness is key to prevention, linkage-to-care and treatment. Our study evaluated the accessibility and potential willingness of HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in Peru. We surveyed four pharmacy chains in Peru to ascertain the commercial availability of the oral HIV self-test. The pharmacies surveyed confirmed that HIV self-test kits were available; however, those available were not intended for individual use, but for clinician use. We interviewed 147 MSM and 45 transgender women; nearly all (82%) reported willingness to perform the oral HIV self-test. However, only 55% of participants would definitely seek a confirmatory test in a clinic after an HIV-positive test result. Further, price may be a barrier, as HIV self-test kits were available for 18 USD, and MSM and transgender women were only willing to pay an average of 5 USD. HIV self-testing may facilitate increased access to HIV testing among some MSM/transgender women in Peru. However, price may prevent use, and poor uptake of confirmatory testing may limit linkage to HIV treatment and care.

  18. Self-Testing Produces Superior Recall of Both Familiar and Unfamiliar Muscle Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L.; Linderholm, Tracy; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Dozens of studies have found learning strategies based on the "testing effect" promote greater recall than those that rely solely on reading; however, the advantages of testing are often only observed after a delay (e.g., 2-7 days later). In contrast, our research, which has focused on kinesiology students learning kinesiology…

  19. Transitions of bandgap and built-in stress for sputtered HfZnO thin films after thermal treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jian-Zhang [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, I-Chun [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-28

    HfZnO thin films with various Hf contents are sputter-deposited on glass substrates from Hf{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O (x = 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 at. %) targets at room temperature. The incorporation of Hf in the ZnO film leads to the amorphorization of the materials. The amorphous structures of high-Hf-content films remain after annealing at 600 °C for 30 min. The built-in stresses of as-deposited films are compressive. As the annealing temperature increases, the stresses are relaxed and even become tensile. The films exhibit a high transmission of 80% in the visible region. The optical bandgap increases with the Hf content, but it decreases with the annealing temperature. This can be attributed to the alteration of strain (stress) status in the films and atomic substitution. The reduction of bandgap partly results from the grain growth, which is due to the quantum confinement effect of the small grains. Hf doping increases the resistivity of ZnO owing to the disorder of the material structure and the higher bandgap, which result in more carrier traps and less thermally excited carriers in the conduction bands.

  20. Efficient azo dye decolorization in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with built-in bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Gao, Lei; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-10-01

    A continuous stirred tank reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system (CSTR-BES) was developed for azo dye Alizarin Yellow R (AYR) containing wastewater treatment. The decolorization efficiency (DE) of the CSTR-BES was 97.04±0.06% for 7h with sludge concentration of 3000mg/L and initial AYR concentration of 100mg/L, which was superior to that of the sole CSTR mode (open circuit: 54.87±4.34%) and the sole BES mode (without sludge addition: 91.37±0.44%). The effects of sludge concentration and sodium acetate (NaAc) concentration on azo dye decolorization were investigated. The highest DE of CSTR-BES for 4h was 87.66±2.93% with sludge concentration of 12,000mg/L, NaAc concentration of 2000mg/L and initial AYR concentration of 100mg/L. The results in this study indicated that CSTR-BES could be a practical strategy for upgrading conventional anaerobic facilities against refractory wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smart ECG Monitoring Patch with Built-in R-Peak Detection for Long-Term HRV Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W K; Yoon, H; Park, K S

    2016-07-01

    Since heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is widely used to evaluate the physiological status of the human body, devices specifically designed for such applications are needed. To this end, we developed a smart electrocardiography (ECG) patch. The smart patch measures ECG using three electrodes integrated into the patch, filters the measured signals to minimize noise, performs analog-to-digital conversion, and detects R-peaks. The measured raw ECG data and the interval between the detected R-peaks can be recorded to enable long-term HRV analysis. Experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of the built-in R-wave detection, robustness of the device under motion, and applicability to the evaluation of mental stress. The R-peak detection results obtained with the device exhibited a sensitivity of 99.29%, a positive predictive value of 100.00%, and an error of 0.71%. The device also exhibited less motional noise than conventional ECG recording, being stable up to a walking speed of 5 km/h. When applied to mental stress analysis, the device evaluated the variation in HRV parameters in the same way as a normal ECG, with very little difference. This device can help users better understand their state of health and provide physicians with more reliable data for objective diagnosis.

  2. Cross-stacked carbon nanotube film as an additional built-in current collector and adsorption layer for high-performance lithium sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Kong, Weibang; Li, Mengya; Wu, Hengcai; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Zhang, Yihe; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-02-19

    Cross-stacked carbon nanotube (CNT) film is proposed as an additional built-in current collector and adsorption layer in sulfur cathodes for advanced lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. On one hand, the CNT film with high conductivity, microstructural rough surface, high flexibility and mechanical durability retains stable and direct electronic contact with the sulfur cathode materials, therefore decreasing internal resistivity and suppressing polarization of the cathode. On the other hand, the highly porous structure and the high surface area of the CNT film provide abundant adsorption points to support and confine sulfur cathode materials, alleviate their aggregation and promote high sulfur utilization. Moreover, the lightweight and compact structure of the CNT film adds no extra weight or volume to the sulfur cathode, benefitting the improvement of energy densities. Based on these characteristics, the sulfur cathode with a 100-layer cross-stacked CNT film presents excellent rate performances with capacities of 986, 922 and 874 mAh g(-1) at cycling rates of 0.2C, 0.5C and 1C for sulfur loading of 60 wt%, corresponding to an improvement of 52%, 109% and 146% compared to that without a CNT film. Promising cycling performances are also demonstrated, offering great potential for scaled-up production of sulfur cathodes for Li-S batteries.

  3. Estimating state of charge and health of lithium-ion batteries with guided waves using built-in piezoelectric sensors/actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladpli, Purim; Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the feasibility of monitoring state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of lithium-ion pouch batteries with acousto-ultrasonic guided waves. The guided waves are propagated and sensed using low-profile, built-in piezoelectric disc transducers that can be retrofitted onto off-the-shelf batteries. Both experimental and analytical studies are performed to understand the relationship between guided waves generated in a pitch-catch mode and battery SoC/SoH. The preliminary experiments on representative pouch cells show that the changes in time of flight (ToF) and signal amplitude (SA) resulting from shifts in the guided wave signals correlate strongly with the electrochemical charge-discharge cycling and aging. An analytical acoustic model is developed to simulate the variations in electrode moduli and densities during cycling, which correctly validates the absolute values and range of experimental ToF. It is further illustrated via a statistical study that ToF and SA can be used in a prediction model to accurately estimate SoC/SoH. Additionally, by using multiple sensors in a network configuration on the same battery, a significantly more reliable and accurate SoC/SoH prediction is achieved. The indicative results from this study can be extended to develop a unified guided-wave-based framework for SoC/SoH monitoring of many lithium-ion battery applications.

  4. The Benefit of Self-Testing and Interleaving for Synthesizing Concepts across Multiple Physiology Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Dobson, John; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    A testing-based learning strategy is one that relies on the act of recalling (i.e., testing) information after exposure, and interleaving is a strategy in which the learning materials are presented in a serial order (e.g., "texts 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3") versus a blocked order (e.g., "texts 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3").…

  5. Nationwide study of factors associated with public's willingness to use home self-test kit for dengue fever in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Atefi, Narges; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-08-12

    As there is no specific treatment for dengue, early detection and access to proper treatment may lower dengue fatality. Therefore, having new techniques for the early detection of dengue fever, such as the use of dengue test kit, is vitally important. The aims of the study were: 1) identify factors associated with acceptance of a home self-test kit for dengue fever if the dengue test is available to the public and 2) find out the characteristics of the test kits that influence the use of the dengue test kit. A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18-60 years old. Individuals were contacted by random digit dialling covering the whole of Malaysia from February 2012 to June 2013. From 2,512 participants, 6.1 % reported to have heard of the availability of the dengue home test kit and of these, 44.8 % expressed their intention to use the test kit if it was available. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that participants with primary (OR: 0.65; 95 % CI: 0.43-0.89; p = 0.02, vs. tertiary educational level) and secondary educational levels (OR: 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.57-0.90; p = 0.01, vs. tertiary educational level) were less likely than participants with a tertiary educational level to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available. Participants with lower perceived barriers to dengue prevention (level of barriers 0-5) were less likely (OR: 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.53-0.85, p dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available compared to those with higher perceived barriers to dengue prevention (level of barriers 6-10). Participants with a lower total dengue fever knowledge score (range 0-22) were also less likely to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available (OR: 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.61-0.91, p = 0.001, vs. higher total dengue fever knowledge score) compared to those with a higher total dengue fever knowledge score (range 23-44). With response to

  6. Study of built-in amplifier performance on HV-CMOS sensor for the ATLAS phase-II strip tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z., E-mail: zhijun.liang@cern.ch [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Affolder, A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Arndt, K. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bates, R. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F. [University of Geneva (Switzerland); Blue, A. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoletto, D. [University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Buckland, M. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); CERN, European Center for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Buttar, C. [SUPA – School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Caragiulo, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Das, D.; Dopke, J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Dragone, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Ehrler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H. [University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics (SCIPP) (United States); Gregor, I.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); and others

    2016-09-21

    This paper focuses on the performance of analog readout electronics (built-in amplifier) integrated on the high-voltage (HV) CMOS silicon sensor chip, as well as its radiation hardness. Since the total collected charge from minimum ionizing particle (MIP) for the CMOS sensor is 10 times lower than for a conventional planar sensor, it is crucial to integrate a low noise built-in amplifier on the sensor chip to improve the signal to noise ratio of the system. As part of the investigation for the ATLAS strip detector upgrade, a test chip that comprises several pixel arrays with different geometries, as well as standalone built-in amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. Measurements of the gain and the noise of both the standalone amplifiers and built-in amplifiers in pixel arrays were performed before and after gamma radiation of up to 60 Mrad. Of special interest is the variation of the noise as a function of the sensor capacitance. We optimized the configuration of the amplifier for a fast rise time to adapt to the LHC bunch crossing period of 25 ns, and measured the timing characteristics including jitter. Our results indicate an adequate amplifier performance for monolithic structures used in HV-CMOS technology. The results have been incorporated in the next submission of a large-structure chip.

  7. Demonstration of anticoagulation patient self-testing feasibility at an Indian Health Service facility: A case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupbach RR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anticoagulation patient self-testing (PST represents an alternative approach to warfarin monitoring by enabling patients to use coagulometers to test their international normalized ratio (INR values. PST offers several advantages that potentially improve warfarin management. Objective: To describe implementation and associated performance of a PST demonstration program at an Indian Health Service (IHS facility. Methods: A non-consecutive case series analysis of patients from a pharmacy-managed PST demonstration program was performed at an IHS facility in Oklahoma between July 2008 and February 2009.Results: Mean time in therapeutic range (TTR for the seven patients showed a small, absolute increase during the twelve weeks of PST compared to the twelve weeks prior to PST. Four of the seven patients had an increase in TTR during the twelve week course of PST compared to their baseline TTR. Three of four patients with increased TTR in the final eight week period of PST achieved a TTR of 100%. Of the three patients who experienced a decrease in TTR after initiating self-testing, two initially presented with a TTR of 100% prior to PST and one patient had a TTR of 100% for the final eight weeks of PST. The two patients not achieving a TTR of 100% during the twelve week PST period demonstrated an increase in TTR following the first four weeks of PST. Conclusion: Although anticoagulation guidelines now emphasize patient self-management (PSM only, optimal PST remains an integral process in PSM delivery. In the patients studied, the results of this analysis suggest that PST at the IHS facility provided a convenient, alternative method for management of chronic warfarin therapy for qualified patients. More than half of the patients demonstrated improvement in TTR. Although there is a learning curve immediately following PST initiation, the mean TTR for the entire PST period increased modestly when compared to the time period prior to PST.

  8. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on the built-in electric field in ZnO/ZnMgO quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teisseyre, Henryk, E-mail: teiss@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Kaminska, Agata; Suchocki, Andrzej; Kozanecki, Adrian [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Birner, Stefan [nextnano GmbH, Südmährenstr. 21, 85586 Poing (Germany); Young, Toby D. [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Pawińskiego, 5b, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-06-07

    We used high hydrostatic pressure to perform photoluminescence measurements on polar ZnO/ZnMgO quantum well structures. Our structure oriented along the c-direction (polar direction) was grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a-plane sapphire. Due to the intrinsic electric field, which exists in polar wurtzite structure at ambient pressure, we observed a red shift of the emission related to the quantum-confined Stark effect. In the high hydrostatic pressure experiment, we observed a strong decrease of the quantum well pressure coefficients with increased thickness of the quantum wells. Generally, a narrower quantum well gave a higher pressure coefficient, closer to the band-gap pressure coefficient of bulk material 20 meV/GPa for ZnO, while for wider quantum wells it is much lower. We observed a pressure coefficient of 19.4 meV/GPa for a 1.5 nm quantum well, while for an 8 nm quantum well the pressure coefficient was equal to 8.9 meV/GPa only. This is explained by taking into account the pressure-induced increase of the strain in our structure. The strain was calculated taking in to account that in-plane strain is not equal (due to fact that we used a-plane sapphire as a substrate) and the potential distribution in the structure was calculated self-consistently. The pressure induced increase of the built-in electric field is the same for all thicknesses of quantum wells, but becomes more pronounced for thicker quantum wells due to the quantum confined Stark effect lowering the pressure coefficients.

  9. The benefit of self-testing and interleaving for synthesizing concepts across multiple physiology texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Dobson, John; Yarbrough, Mary Beth

    2016-09-01

    A testing-based learning strategy is one that relies on the act of recalling (i.e., testing) information after exposure, and interleaving is a strategy in which the learning materials are presented in a serial order (e.g., texts 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3) versus a blocked order (e.g., texts 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3). Although both learning strategies have been thoroughly investigated, few studies have examined their additive effect with higher-order cognitive tasks such as the ability to identify themes across multiple texts, and none of those did so using physiology information. The purpose of the present study was to compare recall and thematic processing across five different physiology texts. Participants were randomly assigned to learn the texts using one of the following four learning strategies: 1) study-study-study (S-S-S) using a blocked order, 2) S-S-S using an interleaved order, 3) study-test-study (S-T-S) using a blocked order, and 4) S-T-S using an interleaved order. Over the course of the following week, the S-T-S groups had more stable recall of key text ideas compared with the S-S-S groups, and the S-T-S group had more stable recall of thematic information than the S-S-S group when interleaving was used as the presentation order. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  10. Dependable Digitally-Assisted Mixed-Signal IPs Based on Integrated Self-Test & Self-Calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Wan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous SoC devices, including sensors, analogue and mixed-signal front-end circuits and the availability of massive digital processing capability, are being increasingly used in safety-critical applications like in the automotive, medical, and the security arena. Already a significant amount

  11. Weight functions for the determination of stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.; Tan, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the weight functions for the determination of the stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends under complex stress distributions. First, a compliance analysis approach is used to calculate stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge cracks in finite width plates with built-in ends with uniform or linear stress distributions acting on the crack face. The results serve as the reference solutions for the next step in which the approaches of deriving weight functions from reference stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions developed for stress boundary conditions are extended to obtain the corresponding weight functions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends. Finite element analysis is conducted to validate the derived solutions. The weight functions derived are suitable for obtaining stress intensity factors and T-stress solutions under any complex stress field

  12. HIV self-testing values and preferences among sex workers, fishermen, and mainland community members in Rakai, Uganda: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Burke

    Full Text Available HIV self-testing may encourage greater uptake of testing, particularly among key populations and other high-risk groups, but local community perceptions will influence test uptake and use. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with healthcare providers and community members in high-risk fishing communities (including sex workers and fishermen and lower-risk mainland communities in rural Uganda to evaluate values and preferences around HIV self-testing. While most participants were unfamiliar with HIV self-testing, they cited a range of potential benefits, including privacy, convenience, and ability to test before sex. Concerns focused on the absence of a health professional, risks of careless kit disposal and limited linkage to care. Participants also discussed issues of kit distribution strategies and cost, among others. Ultimately, most participants concluded that benefits outweighed risks. Our findings suggest a potential role for HIV self-testing across populations in these settings, particularly among these key populations. Program implementers will need to consider how to balance HIV self-testing accessibility with necessary professional support.

  13. Zambian Peer Educators for HIV Self-Testing (ZEST) study: rationale and design of a cluster randomised trial of HIV self-testing among female sex workers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Catherine E; Ortblad, Katrina F; Chanda, Michael M; Mwanda, Kalasa; Nicodemus, Wendy; Sikaundi, Rebecca; Fullem, Andrew; Barresi, Leah G; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-04-20

    HIV testing and knowledge of status are starting points for HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Among female sex workers (FSWs), HIV testing and status knowledge remain far from universal. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an alternative to existing testing services for FSWs, but little evidence exists how it can be effectively and safely implemented. Here, we describe the rationale and design of a cluster randomised trial designed to inform implementation and scale-up of HIVST programmes for FSWs in Zambia. The Zambian Peer Educators for HIV Self-Testing (ZEST) study is a 3-arm cluster randomised trial taking place in 3 towns in Zambia. Participants (N=900) are eligible if they are women who have exchanged sex for money or goods in the previous 1 month, are HIV negative or status unknown, have not tested for HIV in the previous 3 months, and are at least 18 years old. Participants are recruited by peer educators working in their communities. Participants are randomised to 1 of 3 arms: (1) direct distribution (in which they receive an HIVST from the peer educator directly); (2) fixed distribution (in which they receive a coupon with which to collect the HIVST from a drug store or health post) or (3) standard of care (referral to existing HIV testing services only, without any offer of HIVST). Participants are followed at 1 and 4 months following distribution of the first HIVST. The primary end point is HIV testing in the past month measured at the 1-month and 4-month visits. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, USA and ERES Converge in Lusaka, Zambia. The findings of this trial will be presented at local, regional and international meetings and submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication. Pre-results; NCT02827240. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Performance of a glucose meter with a built-in automated bolus calculator versus manual bolus calculation in insulin-using subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Allen; Taylor, Elizabeth J; Patel, Mona; Ward, Jeanne; Alva, Shridhara; Lawrence, Andrew; Ng, Ronald

    2012-03-01

    Patients consider multiple parameters in adjusting prandial insulin doses for optimal glycemic control. Difficulties in calculations can lead to incorrect doses or induce patients to administer fixed doses, rely on empirical estimates, or skip boluses. A multicenter study was conducted with 205 diabetes subjects who were on multiple daily injections of rapid/ short-acting insulin. Using the formula provided, the subjects manually calculated two prandial insulin doses based on one high and one normal glucose test result, respectively. They also determined the two doses using the FreeStyle InsuLinx Blood Glucose Monitoring System, which has a built-in, automated bolus calculator. After dose determinations, the subjects completed opinion surveys. Of the 409 insulin doses manually calculated by the subjects, 256 (63%) were incorrect. Only 23 (6%) of the same 409 dose determinations were incorrect using the meter, and these errors were due to either confirmed or potential deviations from the study instructions by the subjects when determining dose with meter. In the survey, 83% of the subjects expressed more confidence in the meter-calculated doses than the manually calculated doses. Furthermore, 87% of the subjects preferred to use the meter than manual calculation to determine prandial insulin doses. Insulin-using patients made errors in more than half of the manually calculated insulin doses. Use of the automated bolus calculator in the FreeStyle InsuLinx meter minimized errors in dose determination. The patients also expressed confidence and preference for using the meter. This may increase adherence and help optimize the use of mealtime insulin. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. The 'carry-over' effects of patient self-testing: positive effects on usual care management by an anticoagulation management service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Fiona

    2010-11-01

    Patient self-testing (PST) of the international normalised ratio (INR) has a positive effect on anticoagulation control. This study investigated whether the benefits of PST (other than increased frequency of testing, e.g. patient education, empowerment, compliance etc.) could be \\'carried-over\\' into usual care management after a period of home-testing has ceased.

  16. An evaluation of patient self-testing competency of prothrombin time for managing anticoagulation: pre-randomization results of VA Cooperative Study #481--The Home INR Study (THINRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Rowena J; Ruybalid, R Lynne; Uyeda, Lauren; Edson, Robert G; Phibbs, Ciaran; Vertrees, Julia E; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Jacobson, Alan K; Matchar, David B

    2010-10-01

    Prior studies suggest patient self-testing (PST) of prothrombin time (PT) can improve the quality of anticoagulation (AC) and reduce complications (e.g., bleeding and thromboembolic events). "The Home INR Study" (THINRS) compared AC management with frequent PST using a home monitoring device to high-quality AC management (HQACM) with clinic-based monitoring on major health outcomes. A key clinical and policy question is whether and which patients can successfully use such devices. We report the results of Part 1 of THINRS in which patients and caregivers were evaluated for their ability to perform PST. Study-eligible patients (n = 3643) were trained to use the home monitoring device and evaluated after 2-4 weeks for PST competency. Information about demographics, medical history, warfarin use, medications, plus measures of numeracy, literacy, cognition, dexterity, and satisfaction with AC were collected. Approximately 80% (2931 of 3643) of patients trained on PST demonstrated competency; of these, 8% (238) required caregiver assistance. Testers who were not competent to perform PST had higher numbers of practice attempts, higher cuvette wastage, and were less able to perform a fingerstick or obtain blood for the cuvette in a timely fashion. Factors associated with failure to pass PST training included increased age, previous stroke history, poor cognition, and poor manual dexterity. A majority of patients were able to perform PST. Successful home monitoring of PT with a PST device required adequate levels of cognition and manual dexterity. Training a caregiver modestly increased the proportion of patients who can perform PST.

  17. Improvement of abnormal vaginal flora in Ugandan women by self-testing and short use of intravaginal antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, G; Bellen, G; Donders, F; Pinget, J; Vandevelde, I; Michiels, T; Byamughisa, J

    2017-04-01

    The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 300 women presenting for outpatient routine, follow-up, or medical care at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled to receive 6 days of treatment with vaginal rifaximin (RFX), dequalinium chloride (DQC), or placebo if they had an increased vaginal pH of >4.5 as determined by self-testing. At initial visit and at control visit after 4 weeks, a smear was taken for blinded wet mount microscopy to determine AVF, BV, AV, and Candida severity scores. As compared to placebo, both RFX or DQC treatments dramatically diminished BV prevalence and severity from the initial to follow-up visit: the BV score declined from 2.5 to 1.6 (p vaginal microbiome composition of women with disturbed vaginal microflora. As African women have high prevalences of BV, AV, and AVF, this approach could improve their odds to prevent health-compromising complications. Further studies assessing direct health outcomes are needed to substantiate this.

  18. Durability study on material of wooden panel elements used for the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimasa Konishi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the durability of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Japan's permanent Antarctic observation facility, especially of its wooden panels. The hut, of high floor type wooden panel construction, was built in January 1969. To determine the durability, part of the hut, which was brought back to Japan after 30 years, was rebuilt, then taken apart again under controlled test conditions. Tests included visual observation, testing of the wooden material, and testing of the performance of the thermal insulation material. The results showed that the material in the roof panels deteriorated considerably more than that in the walls and floors. In the severe polar conditions, the strength of the overall structure depends heavily on the joints between panels. It is clear that material on the indoor sides, and in the interiors of the panels, hardly deteriorated at all after 30 years.

  19. Technical Insight of the High Level Safety Goal for the NPPs Built in China’S Thirteenth Five-Year Period (2016-2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, G.; Zhan, W.; Mei, Q.; Sun, D., E-mail: shi@snerdi.com.cn [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, SNPTC Shanghai (China)

    2014-10-15

    The “Nuclear Safety Planning” has been published in Oct. 2012 in China, which stipulates the safety goals for the NPPs which will be built in the future. As for the NPPs which will be built in China's Thirteenth Five-Year (2016-2020) and later, the high level safety goal is described as “the possibility of the large radioactive release should be practically eliminated by design”. A thorough investigation has been performed at SNERDI to explore the technical insights of this high level safety goal by using MEDP hierarchical safety goal approach. The definition of large release is proposed accordingly, DID requirements and probabilistic requirements are derived from this high level safety goal. (author)

  20. Miniaturization of a Quasi-Servo Valve and Its Application to Positon Control of a Rubber Artificial Muscle with Built-in Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriwake Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the care and welfare pneumatic devices to support a nursing care and a self-reliance of the elderly and the disabled are actively researched and developed by many researchers. These wearable devices require many actuators and control valves for multi degrees of freedom. The total weight and volume of the wearable devices increases according to the degree of freedom. Our final goal is to develop a compact wearable actuator with built-in sensor, controller and control valve and to apply it to a wearable assisted device. In our previous study, a small-sized quasi-servo valve which consists of two on/off control valves and an embedded controller was developed. In this study, the quasi-servo valve composing of much smaller-sized (40% in mass, 42% in volume on/off valves is proposed and tested. In addition, the rubber artificial muscle with an ultrasonic sensor as a built-in displacement sensor is proposed and a position control of the muscle is carried out using the tested tiny valve and built-in sensor. As a result, it was confirmed that the position control of the muscle can be realized using the tested ultrasonic sensor.

  1. Risk, reassurance and routine: a qualitative study of narrative understandings of the potential for HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Charles Witzel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing has seen a rapid evolution over the last decade with multiple modalities now in use globally. In recent years HIV self-testing (HIVST has been legalised in the UK paving the way for further expansion of testing. Interventions are delivered in particular social contexts which shape uptake. It is therefore important to understand how novel interventions are likely to be received by their intended users. This study aims to understand how HIVST compliments existing testing strategies considered or adopted by men who have sex with men (MSM. We do this by analysing normative discourses surrounding HIV testing and their perceptions of HIVST’s potential future roles. Methods Six focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with 47 MSM in London, Manchester and Plymouth. One focus group included only MSM who reported higher risk behaviours and one with those who had never tested for HIV. Data were analysed through a thematic framework analysis. Results Three main narratives for testing for HIV were identified: (i testing in response to a specific risk event; (ii as reassurance when there was a small amount of doubt or anxiety related to HIV; and (iii in response to social norms perpetuated through peers, HIV community groups and the medical establishment to test regularly for HIV. HIVST had limited utility for men when testing in response to specific risk events except in the case of significant structural barriers to other testing opportunities. HIVST was considered to have utility when seeking reassurance, and was thought to be very useful when testing to satisfy the needs and expectations of others around regular testing. There was some ambivalence about the incursion of a clinical intervention into the home. Conclusions HIVST following risk events will likely be limited to those for whom existing service provision is insufficient to meet immediate needs based on structural or personal barriers to testing. Obligations

  2. Student Responses to a Flipped Introductory Physics Class with built-in Post-Video Feedback Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Roberto

    We present and analyze student responses to multiple Introductory physics classes in a university setting, taught in a ''flipped'' class format. The classes included algebra- and calculus-based introductory physics. Outside class, students viewed over 100 online video lectures on Classical Mechanics, Electricity and Magnetism, and Modern Physics prepared by this author and in some cases, by a third-party lecture package available over YouTube. Inside the class, students solved and discussed problems and conceptual issues in greater detail. A pre-class online quiz was deployed as an important source of feedback. I will report on the student reactions to the feedback mechanism, student responses using data based on anonymous surveys, as well as on learning gains from pre-/post- physics diagnostic tests. The results indicate a broad mixture of responses to different lecture video packages that depend on learning styles and perceptions. Students preferred the online quizzes as a mechanism to validate their understanding. The learning gains based on FCI and CSEM surveys were significant.

  3. FPGA based mixed-signal circuit novel testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouros, Sotirios; Vassios, Vassilios; Papakostas, Dimitrios; Hristov, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circuits fault detection techniques, especially on modern mixed-signal circuits, are evolved and customized around the world to meet the industry needs. The paper presents techniques used on fault detection in mixed signal circuits. Moreover, the paper involves standardized methods, along with current innovations for external testing like Design for Testability (DfT) and Built In Self Test (BIST) systems. Finally, the research team introduces a circuit implementation scheme using FPGA

  4. Self-testing for contact sensitization to hair dyes--scientific considerations and clinical concerns of an industry-led screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Søsted, Heidi; Uter, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The cosmetic industry producing hair dyes has, for many years, recommended that their consumers perform 'a hair dye allergy self-test' or similar prior to hair dyeing, to identify individuals who are likely to react upon subsequent hair dyeing. This review offers important information...... on the requirements for correct validation of screening tests, and concludes that, in its present form, the hair dye self-test has severe limitations: (i) it is not a screening test but a diagnostic test; (ii) it has not been validated according to basic criteria defined by scientists; (iii) it has been evaluated...... in the wrong population group; (iv) skin reactions have been read by dermatologists and not by the targeted group (consumers and hairdressers); (v) hair dyes contain strong and extreme sensitizers that are left on the skin in high concentrations, potentially resulting in active sensitization; and (vi...

  5. Evaluation of Passive Containment Cooling System design of SMART built in GBS for ocean environment under the Fukushima Accident Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Gil; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik; Lee, Kang Heon; Lee, Phil Seung [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The ONPP can be towed to the installation site after the SMART is constructed within the GBS in a dry dock. And, by incorporating IPSS (Integrated Passive Safety System), proposed by KAIST, in the ocean SMART the safety of the whole system will be significantly increased which can potentially eliminate any possibility of repeating Fukushima accident again. In recent years, KAIST research team is developing a very advanced concept of ocean NPPs which can avoid natural disasters while potentially increasing economy and enhancing public acceptance. Authors chose Korean small reactor, SMART as a reference system to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed ocean NPP. Ocean SMART is mounted on GBS (Gravity Based Structure)

  6. Practicability of patient self-testing of oral anticoagulant therapy by the international normalized ratio (INR) using a portable whole blood monitor. A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkam, J M; Knudsen, L; Kimose, H H; Grønnesby, H; Attermann, J; Andersen, N T; Pilegaard, H K

    1997-01-01

    The prophylactic efficacy of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) has been demonstrated in a number of clinical conditions with increased tendency to thromboembolism, and the number of individuals subjected to OAT in the industrialised world has increased substantially in recent years. Since this therapy requires considerable resources from both the health care system and the patients, the feasibility of patients' self-monitoring and self-management of OAT has been investigated (1,2,3). The anticipated advantages of this approach include improved convenience and compliance for the patient, who may increase his apprehension for managing the treatment. In addition, self-testing allows for more frequent control compared to the conventional out-patient approach. Importantly, a prerequisite for conceiving a safe and operational concept for patient self-management (PSM) is the availability of a portable INR monitoring system with an accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and long-term reliability comparable to standard coagulometric equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a commercially available INR-monitor. CoaguChek, for patient self-testing, through a step-wise investigation of the performance characteristics of the equipment in the laboratory, in command of the patient, and during self-testing and self-adjustment of treatment at home. Laboratory INR values were used as reference.

  7. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-test kits: time to explore their use for men who have sex with men in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A. Lippman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing access and frequency of human immunodeficiency virus testing are critical to stemming the epidemic. In Brazil's concentrated epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in the men who have sex with men/transgender population far exceeds that in the general population, but testing rates fall below what is needed to ensure early detection and treatment. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-testing kits, now available in stores in the U.S., have enormous potential to increase testing access and frequency and to facilitate early detection and treatment. With the advent of human immunodeficiency virus self-testing upon us, it is timely to engage the scientific community, government, and civil society in a dialog around how to best utilize this technology in Brazil. We summarize recent research on over-the-counter testing among men who have sex with men, raise potential questions and challenges to using self-tests, suggest implementation strategies, and outline a research agenda moving forward.

  8. Understanding Keystroke Dynamics for Smartphone Users Authentication and Keystroke Dynamics on Smartphones Built-In Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungu Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal Identification Numbers (PINs and pattern drawing have been used as common authentication methods especially on smartphones. Such methods, however, are very vulnerable to the shoulder surfing attack. Thus, keystroke dynamics that authenticate legitimate users based on their typing manner have been studied for years. However, many of the studies have focused on PC keyboard keystrokes. More studies on mobile and smartphones keystroke dynamics are warranted; as smartphones make progress in both hardware and software, features from smartphones have been diversified. In this paper, using various features including keystroke data such as time interval and motion data such as accelerometers and rotation values, we evaluate features with motion data and without motion data. We also compare 5 formulas for motion data, respectively. We also demonstrate that opposite gender match between a legitimate user and impostors has influence on authenticating by our experiment results.

  9. Home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation with built-in software in stable hypercapnic COPD: a short-term prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luqian; Li, Xiaoying; Guan, Lili; Chen, Jianhua; Guo, Bingpeng; Wu, Weiliang; Huo, Yating; Zhou, Ziqing; Liang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yuqi; Tan, Jie; Chen, Xin; Song, Yuanlin; Chen, Rongchang

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with hypercapnic COPD are controversial. It is presumed that methodology and appropriate use of NIV ventilator might be crucial for the outcomes. With the new built-in software, the performance of NIV can be monitored at home, which can guarantee the compliance and appropriate use. This study investigated effects of home use of NIV in hypercapnia in COPD patients using the NIV ventilator with built-in software for monitoring. The current multicenter prospective, randomized, controlled trial enrolled patients with stable GOLD stages III and IV hypercapnic COPD. Patients were randomly assigned via a computer-generated randomization sequence, with a block size of four patients, to continue optimized treatment (control group) or to receive additional NPPV (intervention group) for 3 months. The primary outcome was arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO 2 ). Data were derived from built-in software and analyzed every 4 weeks. Analysis was carried out with the intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02499718. Patients were recruited from 20 respiratory units in China from October 1, 2015, and recruitment was terminated with a record of the vital statistics on May 31, 2016. A total of 115 patients were randomly assigned to the NPPV group (n=57) or the control group (n=58). Patients complied well with NPPV therapy (mean [± standard deviation] day use 5.6±1.4 h). The mean estimation of leaks was 37.99±13.71 L/min. The changes in PaCO 2 (-10.41±0.97 vs -4.32±0.68 mmHg, P =0.03) and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) (38.2% vs 18.2%, P =0.02) were statistically significant in the NPPV group versus the control group. COPD assessment test (CAT) showed a positive trend ( P =0.06) in favor of the NPPV group. Pulmonary function and dyspnea were not different between groups. Ventilators equipped with built-in software provided methodology for monitoring NIV use at home

  10. Housing development in the 1950s in Serbia-typical examples of residential blocks built in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović-Marić Dijana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Serbian architecture of the nineteen-fifties has not yet been more comprehensively studied albeit the fact that there are sufficient sources, data, literature, and structures built at that time. The reason for the lack of interest in architecture of that period may be found in the relationship between the non-understanding and insufficient valuation of architectural results of the modern architecture of the time, but also in the general opinion that the immediate postwar years were the time of a poor social housing development, which is also characterized by the lack of distinct architectural values. Furthermore, there has been an obvious unreadiness to analyze in more detail and in time distance the subject of the sociorealistic construction, which was also partially present in this period. After a short period of the so-called Socio-Realism 1945-1950, characterized by reconstruction of the war devastated country with extensive participation of youth brigades, the housing construction in particular got a big boost, considering the changes in population structure, as well as the fact that a significant portion of population moved from rural areas to towns. The subject decade of the newly established socialist society was, in every respect, marked with upward path of economic, political and social development, which was an important base for overall architectural and cultural construction. This was the time when Serbian architects of different generations created a great number of works, which were diverse in they contents. The architects of older generation often created their most important works, while young architects, looking into future, but also into own architectural heritage and accomplishments, achieved their first significant results, thus generating autochthonous architectural trend and expression which would soon be recognized as the Belgrade School of Architecture. In the conditions in which the Serbian architecture

  11. TLC-SERS Plates with a Built-In SERS Layer Consisting of Cap-Shaped Noble Metal Nanoparticles Intended for Environmental Monitoring and Food Safety Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a thin layer chromatograph (TLC with a built-in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS layer for in-situ identification of chemical species separated by TLC. Our goal is to monitor mixture samples or diluted target molecules suspended in a host material, as happens often in environmental monitoring or detection of food additives. We demonstrate that the TLC-SERS can separate mixture samples and provide in-situ SERS spectra. One sample investigated was a mixture consisting of equal portions of Raman-active chemical species, rhodamine 6 G (R6G, crystal violet (CV, and 1,2-di(4-pyridylethylene (BPE. The three components could be separated and their SERS spectra were obtained from different locations. Another sample was skim milk with a trace amount of melamine. Without development, no characteristic peaks were observed, but after development, a peak was observed at 694 cm−1. Unlike previous TLC-SERS whereby noble metal nanoparticles are added after development of a sample, having a built-in SERS layer greatly facilitates analysis as well as maintaining high uniformity of noble metal nanoparticles.

  12. [Which information is given during the purchase of an HIV self-test in a Caen pharmacy? A Comprehensive transversal and observational study using surveys, without modification of practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, S; Rabiaza, A

    2018-04-16

    HIV infection affects about 150,000 people in France. In total, 30,000 of them are unaware of their serostatus. In this context, HIV self-testing has arrived in France in September 2015. The aim of our study was to analyze the level of application of the recommendations during the purchase of an HIV self-test. Our primary hypothesis was that the delivered information is poor. We realized a comprehensive transversal and observational study with surveys without modification of practice in all Caen pharmacies. The primary endpoint was the seller's assessment of the presence or possibility of an emergency situation requiring a post-exposure prophylaxis and suitability assessment of self-testing for the patient's case. Seven pharmacies out of the 41 visited (17.07%) validated our primary endpoint. In all pharmacies, 43.9% had HIV self-tests available for sale. The availabality of the self-tests is linked to the main endpoint (P<0.005). In total, 31.71% of the vendors redirected the patient to another method of screening (general practitioner, sexual health clinic…). The delivered information about HIV self-tests is poor. Improving it would put the pharmacist at the heart of the HIV screening strategy. The introduction of training for the professionnals in our region could be interesting to improve the dispensing of the self-tests. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Homepages: Built-in Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    Describes a Web-building class aimed at motivating English-as-a-Foreign-Language students to improve their English writing and editing skills while building a homepage. All students had a basic or better knowledge of keyboarding and Internet search techniques, two had advanced computer skills, but none had ever created a homepage. (Author/VWL)

  14. Acceptability Study on HIV Self-Testing among Transgender Women, Men who Have Sex with Men, and Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Khuondyla; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Ly, Cheaty; Chhim, Srean; Luong, Minh-Anh; Tatomir, Brent; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is high while HIV testing rates remain low among transgender women (TG women), men who have sex with men (MSM), and female entertainment workers (FEW). Introducing self-testing for HIV to these key populations (KPs) could potentially overcome the under-diagnosis of HIV and significantly increase testing rates and receipt of the results, and thus could decrease transmission. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) among these three categories of KPs. This study was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs) with TG women, MSM, and FEW in Phnom Penh city, Kampong Cham, Battambang, and Siem Reap provinces of Cambodia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants. Two FGDs (six participants in each FGD) were conducted in each target group in each study site, totaling 24 FGDs (144 participants). Thematic analysis was performed to identify common or divergent patterns across the target groups. Almost all participants among the three groups (TG women, MSM, and FEW) had not heard about HIVST, but all of them expressed willingness to try it. They perceived HIVST as confidential, convenient, time-saving, and high-tech. Barriers to obtaining HIVST included cost, access, administration technique, embarrassment, and fear of pain. The majority preferred counseling before and after testing. Participants showed high willingness to use and acceptability of HIVST due to its confidentiality/privacy and convenience even if it is not linked to a confirmatory test or care and treatment. Notwithstanding, to increase HIVST, the target groups would need affordable self-test kits, education about how to perform HIVST and read results, assurance about accuracy and reliability of HIVST, and provision of post-test counseling and facilitation of linkage to care and treatment.

  15. Acceptability Study on HIV Self-Testing among Transgender Women, Men who Have Sex with Men, and Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuondyla Pal

    Full Text Available In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is high while HIV testing rates remain low among transgender women (TG women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and female entertainment workers (FEW. Introducing self-testing for HIV to these key populations (KPs could potentially overcome the under-diagnosis of HIV and significantly increase testing rates and receipt of the results, and thus could decrease transmission. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST among these three categories of KPs.This study was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs with TG women, MSM, and FEW in Phnom Penh city, Kampong Cham, Battambang, and Siem Reap provinces of Cambodia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants. Two FGDs (six participants in each FGD were conducted in each target group in each study site, totaling 24 FGDs (144 participants. Thematic analysis was performed to identify common or divergent patterns across the target groups.Almost all participants among the three groups (TG women, MSM, and FEW had not heard about HIVST, but all of them expressed willingness to try it. They perceived HIVST as confidential, convenient, time-saving, and high-tech. Barriers to obtaining HIVST included cost, access, administration technique, embarrassment, and fear of pain. The majority preferred counseling before and after testing.Participants showed high willingness to use and acceptability of HIVST due to its confidentiality/privacy and convenience even if it is not linked to a confirmatory test or care and treatment. Notwithstanding, to increase HIVST, the target groups would need affordable self-test kits, education about how to perform HIVST and read results, assurance about accuracy and reliability of HIVST, and provision of post-test counseling and facilitation of linkage to care and treatment.

  16. Built-in potential shift and Schottky-barrier narrowing in organic solar cells with UV-sensitive electron transport layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Credgington, Dan; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Rong, Zhuxia; Wang, Jianpu; Greenham, Neil C

    2014-06-28

    The performance of organic solar cells incorporating solution-processed titanium suboxide (TiOx) as electron-collecting layers can be improved by UV illumination. We study the mechanism of this improvement using electrical measurements and electroabsorption spectroscopy. We propose a model in which UV illumination modifies the effective work function of the oxide layer through a significant increase in its free electron density. This leads to a dramatic improvement in device power conversion efficiency through several mechanisms - increasing the built-in potential by 0.3 V, increasing the conductivity of the TiOx layer and narrowing the interfacial Schottky barrier between the suboxide and the underlying transparent electrode. This work highlights the importance of considering Fermi-level equilibration when designing multi-layer transparent electrodes.

  17. A built-in mechanism to mitigate the spread of insect-resistance and herbicide-tolerance transgenes into weedy rice populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM rice (Oryza sativa at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea. The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m(2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F(2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13 and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations.

  18. A Built-In Mechanism to Mitigate the Spread of Insect-Resistance and Herbicide-Tolerance Transgenes into Weedy Rice Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyi; Li, Jingjing; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lu, Bao-Rong; Lin, Chaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Background The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea). The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. Methodology/Principal Findings An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13) and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401). Conclusions/Significance Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations. PMID:22359609

  19. Students, teachers and technicians are installing a cosmic ray detector in the CMS visitor gallery. The detector was designed and built in the framework of the US Quarknet project under the supervision of physicists from the Notre Dame University (USA)

    CERN Document Server

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    Students, teachers and technicians are installing a cosmic ray detector in the CMS visitor gallery. The detector was designed and built in the framework of the US Quarknet project under the supervision of physicists from the Notre Dame University (USA)

  20. Nationwide study of factors associated with public’s willingness to use home self-test kit for dengue fever in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As there is no specific treatment for dengue, early detection and access to proper treatment may lower dengue fatality. Therefore, having new techniques for the early detection of dengue fever, such as the use of dengue test kit, is vitally important. The aims of the study were: 1 identify factors associated with acceptance of a home self-test kit for dengue fever if the dengue test is available to the public and 2 find out the characteristics of the test kits that influence the use of the dengue test kit. Methods A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18–60 years old. Individuals were contacted by random digit dialling covering the whole of Malaysia from February 2012 to June 2013. Results From 2,512 participants, 6.1 % reported to have heard of the availability of the dengue home test kit and of these, 44.8 % expressed their intention to use the test kit if it was available. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that participants with primary (OR: 0.65; 95 % CI: 0.43–0.89; p = 0.02, vs. tertiary educational level and secondary educational levels (OR: 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.57–0.90; p = 0.01, vs. tertiary educational level were less likely than participants with a tertiary educational level to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available. Participants with lower perceived barriers to dengue prevention (level of barriers 0–5 were less likely (OR: 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.53–0.85, p < 0.001, vs. higher perceived barriers to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available compared to those with higher perceived barriers to dengue prevention (level of barriers 6-10. Participants with a lower total dengue fever knowledge score (range 0–22 were also less likely to use a home self-testing dengue kit for dengue if the kit was available (OR: 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.61–0.91, p = 0.001, vs. higher total dengue

  1. Electromodulation spectroscopy of direct optical transitions in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers under hydrostatic pressure and built-in strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybała, F.; Żelazna, K.; Maczko, H.; Gladysiewicz, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Kudrawiec, R., E-mail: robert.kudrawiec@pwr.wroc.pl [Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Lin, H.; Chen, R.; Shang, C.; Huo, Y.; Kamins, T. I.; Harris, J. S. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4075 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers of various Sn concentration (1.5%, 3%, 6% Sn) and Ge{sub 0.97}Sn{sub 0.03} layers with built-in compressive (ε = −0.5%) and tensile (ε = 0.3%) strain are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and studied by electromodulation spectroscopy (i.e., contactless electroreflectance and photoreflectance (PR)). In order to obtain unstrained GeSn layers and layers with different built-in in-plane strains, virtual InGaAs substrates of different compositions are grown prior to the deposition of GeSn layers. For unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers, the pressure coefficient for the direct band gap transition is determined from PR measurements at various hydrostatic pressures to be 12.2 ± 0.2 meV/kbar, which is very close to the pressure coefficient for the direct band gap transition in Ge (12.9 meV/kbar). This suggests that the hydrostatic deformation potentials typical of Ge can be applied to describe the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloys with low Sn concentrations. The same conclusion is derived for the uniaxial deformation potential, which describes the splitting between heavy-hole (HH) and light-hole (LH) bands as well as the strain-related shift of the spin-orbit (SO) split-off band. It is observed that the HH, LH, and SO related transitions shift due to compressive and tensile strain according to the Bir-Pikus theory. The dispersions of HH, LH, and SO bands are calculated for compressive and tensile strained Ge{sub 0.97}Sn{sub 0.03} with the 8-band kp Hamiltonian including strain effects, and the mixing of HH and LH bands is discussed. In addition, the dispersion of the electronic band structure is calculated for unstrained Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers (3% and 6% Sn) at high hydrostatic pressure with the 8-band kp Hamiltonian, and the pressure-induced changes in the electronic band structure are discussed.

  2. Young people’s perceptions of smartphone-enabled self-testing and online care for sexually transmitted infections: qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R. H. Aicken

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of sexually transmitted infections (STI is a global public health priority. Despite the UK’s free, confidential sexual health clinical services, those at greatest risk of STIs, including young people, report barriers to use. These include: embarrassment regarding face-to-face consultations; the time-commitment needed to attend clinic; privacy concerns (e.g. being seen attending clinic; and issues related to confidentiality. A smartphone-enabled STI self-testing device, linked with online clinical care pathways for treatment, partner notification, and disease surveillance, is being developed by the eSTI2 consortium. It is intended to benefit public health, and could do so by increasing testing among populations which underutilise existing services and/or by enabling rapid provision of effective treatment. We explored its acceptability among potential users. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted in 2012 with 25 sexually-experienced 16–24 year olds, recruited from Further Education colleges in an urban, high STI prevalence area. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Results Nine females and 16 males participated. 21 self-defined as Black; three, mixed ethnicity; and one, Muslim/Asian. 22 reported experience of STI testing, two reported previous STI diagnoses, and all had owned smartphones. Participants expressed enthusiasm about the proposed service, and suggested that they and their peers would use it and test more often if it were available. Utilizing sexual healthcare was perceived to be easier and faster with STI self-testing and online clinical care, which facilitated concealment of STI testing from peers/family, and avoided embarrassing face-to-face consultations. Despite these perceived advantages to privacy, new privacy concerns arose regarding communications technology: principally the risk inherent in having evidence of STI testing or diagnosis visible or retrievable on their phone. Some concerns arose

  3. Investigation of the pressure drop inside a rectangular channel with a built-in U-shaped tube bundle heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-yue Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified approach which utilizes an isotropic porous medium model has been widely adopted for modeling the flow through a compact heat exchanger. With respect to situations where the compact heat exchangers are partially installed inside a channel, such as the application of recuperators in an intercooled recuperative engine, the use of an isotropic porous medium model needs to be carefully assessed because the flow passing through the heat exchanger is very complicated. For this purpose, in this study the isotropic porous medium model is assessed together with specific pressure–velocity relationships for flow field modeling inside a rectangular channel with a built-in double-U-shaped tube bundle heat exchanger. Firstly, experiments were conducted using models to investigate the relationship between the pressure drop and the inlet velocity for a specific heat exchanger with different installation angles inside a rectangular channel. Secondly, a series of numerical computations were carried out using the isotropic porous medium model and the pressure–velocity relationship was then modified by introducing correction coefficients empirically. Finally, a three-dimensional (3-D direct computation was made using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD method for the comparison of detailed flow fields. The results suggest that the isotropic porous medium model is capable of making precise pressure drop predictions given the reasonable pressure–velocity relationship but is unable to precisely simulate the detailed flow features.

  4. Effect of aging and adhesive durability on panel plywood of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotsugu Sekiguchi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We herein report on an evaluation of durability of plywood of the old living hut built in 1969 brought back to Japan in terms of adhesiveness as well as adhesive strength between of wooden frame and plywood. Measuring water absorption percentage of test samples taken from wooden panel, we tested on adhesive bonding between veneers and compressed shearing of plywood and wooden frame ,and then measure their adhesive bonding. As a result, we conclude that plywood used for interior obtains high adhesive strength due to low water absorption percentage of the plywood on the other hand, the absorption strength of plywood for exterior is remarkably weakened because of the high water absorption percentage. In addition to that, since adhesive strength between panel plywood and wooden frame is stronger than that of between veneers, epoxy resin is suitable, yet we recognized that adhesion specs on metal panel for exterior should be reviewed in future. After all, weakened adhesive strength of plywood is mainly caused by moisture content in the plywood, and in order to improve panel durability, it is necessary to prevent wooden materials from rising moisture content with countermeasures of incoming of snow melting water, anti-condensation , and anti-rust of steel plate for exterior wall, as well as improve performance of water resisting adhesive.

  5. A Built-In CpG Adjuvant in RSV F Protein DNA Vaccine Drives a Th1 Polarized and Enhanced Protective Immune Response

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    Yao Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most significant cause of acute lower respiratory infection in children. However, there is no licensed vaccine available. Here, we investigated the effect of five or 20 copies of C-Class of CpG ODN (CpG-C motif incorporated into a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding RSV fusion (F glycoprotein on the vaccine-induced immune response. The addition of CpG-C motif enhanced serum binding and virus-neutralizing antibody responses in BALB/c mice immunized with the DNA vaccines. Moreover, mice vaccinated with CpG-modified vaccines, especially with the higher 20 copies, resulted in an enhanced shift toward a Th1-biased antibody and T-cell response, a decrease in pulmonary pathology and virus replication, and a decrease in weight loss after RSV challenge. This study suggests that CpG-C motif, cloned into the backbone of DNA vaccine encoding RSV F glycoprotein, functions as a built-in adjuvant capable of improving the efficacy of DNA vaccine against RSV infection.

  6. Characterization of the Photon Counting CHASE Jr., Chip Built in a 40-nm CMOS Process With a Charge Sharing Correction Algorithm Using a Collimated X-Ray Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyżanowska, A. [AGH-UST, Cracow; Deptuch, G. W. [Fermilab; Maj, P. [AGH-UST, Cracow; Gryboś, P. [AGH-UST, Cracow; Szczygieł, R. [AGH-UST, Cracow

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the detailed characterization of a single photon counting chip, named CHASE Jr., built in a CMOS 40-nm process, operating with synchrotron radiation. The chip utilizes an on-chip implementation of the C8P1 algorithm. The algorithm eliminates the charge sharing related uncertainties, namely, the dependence of the number of registered photons on the discriminator’s threshold, set for monochromatic irradiation, and errors in the assignment of an event to a certain pixel. The article presents a short description of the algorithm as well as the architecture of the CHASE Jr., chip. The analog and digital functionalities, allowing for proper operation of the C8P1 algorithm are described, namely, an offset correction for two discriminators independently, two-stage gain correction, and different operation modes of the digital blocks. The results of tests of the C8P1 operation are presented for the chip bump bonded to a silicon sensor and exposed to the 3.5- μm -wide pencil beam of 8-keV photons of synchrotron radiation. It was studied how sensitive the algorithm performance is to the chip settings, as well as the uniformity of parameters of the analog front-end blocks. Presented results prove that the C8P1 algorithm enables counting all photons hitting the detector in between readout channels and retrieving the actual photon energy.

  7. arXiv Charge collection properties in an irradiated pixel sensor built in a thick-film HV-SOI process

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00541780; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A.; Hemperek, T.; Kishishita, T.; Kramberger, G.; Krüger, H.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Wermes, N.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2017-10-25

    Investigation of HV-CMOS sensors for use as a tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at the upgraded LHC (HL-LHC) has recently been an active field of research. A potential candidate for a pixel detector built in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology has already been characterized in terms of radiation hardness to TID (Total Ionizing Dose) and charge collection after a moderate neutron irradiation. In this article we present results of an extensive irradiation hardness study with neutrons up to a fluence of 1x10e16 neq/cm2. Charge collection in a passive pixelated structure was measured by Edge Transient Current Technique (E-TCT). The evolution of the effective space charge concentration was found to be compliant with the acceptor removal model, with the minimum of the space charge concentration being reached after 5x10e14 neq/cm2. An investigation of the in-pixel uniformity of the detector response revealed parasitic charge collection by the epitaxial silicon layer characteristic for the SOI design. The r...

  8. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-05

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D 0 ) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. First experiences with apartment buildings built in monolithic construction to Passivhaus standard; Erste Erfahrungen mit Mehrfamilien-Passivhaeusern in monolithischer Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messari-Becker, Lamia; Bollinger, Klaus; Grohmann, Manfred [Bollinger + Grohmann Ingenieure GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    For the first time, apartment buildings are being built in monolithic construction that meet the most exacting requirements regarding energy efficiency and sustainability. These buildings are under construction in the northern district of Kalbach Sued in Frankfurt (Main) by ABG Frankfurt Holding. The architectural design was produced by Scheffler and Partners, the Frankfurt structural engineers Bollinger + Grohmann undertook the structural design including building physics and energy related aspects, and Baumgartner Engineers took charge of M and E design. These apartment buildings are the first monolithically constructed apartment buildings built to Passivhaus standard. They therefore represent a milestone in single-skin monolithic construction in connection with an exacting energy standard. The challenge for architects and engineers was to consider a range of different aspects and accommodate them in the design. In addition to given parameters such as the urban development plan, client requirements such as the number of apartments, aspects of family living and barrier-free standards, the briefing called for the highest construction standard in terms of efficient use of resources in the widest sense. This meant that the emphasis was not only on energy efficiency. Cost efficiency throughout the entire lifecycle of the building was equally as important in order to ensure long term economic sustainability for users and owners. The experience gained on this project will also provide answers to important questions regarding research and development in sustainable building, which is not in any conflict with the creativity and diversity of our architectural culture. (Copyright copyright 2011 Ernst and Sohn Verlag fuer Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH and Co. KG, Berlin)

  10. Correlates of requesting home HIV self-testing kits on online social networks among African-American and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    High levels of HIV stigma are one of the main difficulties in engaging African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV testing. The availability of home HIV test and the possibility of self-testing in private may improve uptake and counteract stigma. This paper sought to determine the correlates of requesting home HIV test kits among a sample of MSM social media users. The odds of participants requesting a test kit were significantly associated with using social networks to seek sexual partners (aOR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-6.06) and thinking it is easier to use social networks for seeking sexual partners (1.87, 1.2-3.12), uncertain HIV status (4.29, 1.37-14.4), and having sex under the influence of alcohol (2.46, 1.06-5.77). Participants who had not been tested for more than 6 months were more likely to request a test kit than those who were tested in the past 6 months (2.53, 1.02-6.37). Participants who frequently talked to others about having sex with men online were less likely to request a test kit (0.73, 0.56-0.92). By reaching people over social media and offering them access to test kits, we were able to reach at-risk individuals who were uncertain about their HIV status and had not been regularly tested. The findings of the study will help to inform future HIV testing interventions.

  11. Measurement of gamma-dose caused by built in coal slags with elevated 226Ra concentration, and the modelling of shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, Cs.; Somlai, J.; Nenyei, A.; Skrinyar, M.; Kanyar, B.; Nemeth, P.; Hoffer, K.

    2000-01-01

    Slags, derived from coal mined in the neighbourhood of the town Tatabanya in Hungary, have been used as filling and insulating material for buildings of houses, block of flats, schools and kindergartens. The slag samples come from here have elevated concentrations of 226 Ra (range of 850 - 2400 Bq x kg -1 ). Therefore, the external gamma dose rates at 1 m height were about four times higher than the world average. It has been found, based on the modelling, that the dose rate could be decreased with 70 - 80% using an appropriate thickness of concrete or barite-concrete layers. (author)

  12. "I think it is right": a qualitative exploration of the acceptability and desired future use of oral swab and finger-prick HIV self-tests by lay users in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Lucia; Makusha, Tawanda; Lim, Jeanette; Peck, Roger; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; van Rooyen, Heidi

    2017-09-18

    The uptake of HIV testing has increased in sub-Saharan Africa over the past three decades. However, the proportion of people aware of their HIV status remains lower than required to change the pandemic. HIV self-testing (HIVST) may meet this gap. Assessment of readiness for and the acceptability of HIVST by lay users in South Africa is limited. This paper presents results from a formative study designed to assess the perceived usability and acceptability of HIVST among lay users using several self-test prototypes. Fifty lay users were purposively selected from rural and peri-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Acceptability of HIVST was assessed using a simple post-test quantitative assessment tool addressing confidence, ease-of-use, intended future use and willingness to pay. In-depth qualitative interviews explored what participants felt about the HIVST and why, their willingness to recommend and how much they would pay for a test. The key finding is that there is high acceptability regardless of self-test prototype. Acceptability is framed by two domains: usability and perceived need. Perceived usability was explored through perceived ease of use, which, regardless of actual correct usage, was reported by many of the respondents. Acceptability is influenced by perceived need, expressed by many who felt that the need for the self-test to protect privacy and autonomy. Ease of access and widespread availability of the test, not at a significant cost, were also important factors. Many participants would recommend self-test use to others and also indicated that they would choose to conduct the test again if it was free while some also indicated being willing to buy a test. The positive response and readiness amongst lay users for an HIVST in this context prototype suggests that there would be a ready and willing market for HIVST. For scalability and sustainability usability, including access and availability that are here independent indications of acceptability

  13. Deep Learning Algorithm for Auto-Delineation of High-Risk Oropharyngeal Clinical Target Volumes With Built-In Dice Similarity Coefficient Parameter Optimization Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Carlos E; McCarroll, Rachel E; Court, Laurence E; Elgohari, Baher A; Elhalawani, Hesham; Fuller, Clifton D; Kamal, Mona J; Meheissen, Mohamed A M; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Rao, Arvind; Williams, Bowman; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jinzhong; Aristophanous, Michalis

    2018-06-01

    Automating and standardizing the contouring of clinical target volumes (CTVs) can reduce interphysician variability, which is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in head and neck radiation therapy. In addition to using uniform margin expansions to auto-delineate high-risk CTVs, very little work has been performed to provide patient- and disease-specific high-risk CTVs. The aim of the present study was to develop a deep neural network for the auto-delineation of high-risk CTVs. Fifty-two oropharyngeal cancer patients were selected for the present study. All patients were treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from January 2006 to August 2010 and had previously contoured gross tumor volumes and CTVs. We developed a deep learning algorithm using deep auto-encoders to identify physician contouring patterns at our institution. These models use distance map information from surrounding anatomic structures and the gross tumor volume as input parameters and conduct voxel-based classification to identify voxels that are part of the high-risk CTV. In addition, we developed a novel probability threshold selection function, based on the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), to improve the generalization of the predicted volumes. The DSC-based function is implemented during an inner cross-validation loop, and probability thresholds are selected a priori during model parameter optimization. We performed a volumetric comparison between the predicted and manually contoured volumes to assess our model. The predicted volumes had a median DSC value of 0.81 (range 0.62-0.90), median mean surface distance of 2.8 mm (range 1.6-5.5), and median 95th Hausdorff distance of 7.5 mm (range 4.7-17.9) when comparing our predicted high-risk CTVs with the physician manual contours. These predicted high-risk CTVs provided close agreement to the ground-truth compared with current interobserver variability. The predicted contours could be implemented clinically, with only

  14. High Acceptability of HIV Self-Testing among Technical Vocational Education and Training College Students in Gauteng and North West Province: What Are the Implications for the Scale Up in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgatle, Mathildah Mpata; Madiba, Sphiwe

    2017-01-01

    Although HIV self-testing (HIVST) is globally accepted as an important complement to existing HIV testing approaches, South Africa has lagged behind in its adoption. As a result, data on the acceptability and uptake of HIVST testing is limited. The study investigated the acceptability of HIVST among students in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges in two provinces in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 3,662 students recruited from 13 TVET colleges. The mean age of the students was 21.9 years. The majority (80.9%) were sexually active; while 66.1% reported that they had one sexual partner, and 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past year, and66.5% used condoms during the last sexual act. Three-quarters tested for HIV in the past year but less than half knew about HIVST prior to the survey. The acceptability of HIVST was high; about three-quarters showed a willingness to purchase a self-test kit and a majority would self-test with partners. Acceptability of HIVST was associated with being sexually active (OR = 1.73, p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI): 1.08-2.75), having ever been tested for HIV (OR = 1.74, p = 0.001, CI: 1.26-2.38), and having multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.61, p = 0.01, CI: 0.42-0.88). Three-quarters would confirm test results at a local health facility. In terms of counselling, telephone hotlines were acceptable to only 39.9%, and less than half felt that test-kit leaflets would provide sufficient information to self-test. The high acceptability of HIVST among the students calls for extensive planning and preparation for the scaling up of HIVST in South Africa. In addition, campaigns similar to those conducted to promote HIV counselling and testing (HCT) should be considered to educate communities about HIVST.

  15. High Acceptability of HIV Self-Testing among Technical Vocational Education and Training College Students in Gauteng and North West Province: What Are the Implications for the Scale Up in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathildah Mpata Mokgatle

    Full Text Available Although HIV self-testing (HIVST is globally accepted as an important complement to existing HIV testing approaches, South Africa has lagged behind in its adoption. As a result, data on the acceptability and uptake of HIVST testing is limited. The study investigated the acceptability of HIVST among students in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET colleges in two provinces in South Africa.A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 3,662 students recruited from 13 TVET colleges.The mean age of the students was 21.9 years. The majority (80.9% were sexually active; while 66.1% reported that they had one sexual partner, and 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past year, and66.5% used condoms during the last sexual act. Three-quarters tested for HIV in the past year but less than half knew about HIVST prior to the survey. The acceptability of HIVST was high; about three-quarters showed a willingness to purchase a self-test kit and a majority would self-test with partners. Acceptability of HIVST was associated with being sexually active (OR = 1.73, p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI: 1.08-2.75, having ever been tested for HIV (OR = 1.74, p = 0.001, CI: 1.26-2.38, and having multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.61, p = 0.01, CI: 0.42-0.88. Three-quarters would confirm test results at a local health facility. In terms of counselling, telephone hotlines were acceptable to only 39.9%, and less than half felt that test-kit leaflets would provide sufficient information to self-test.The high acceptability of HIVST among the students calls for extensive planning and preparation for the scaling up of HIVST in South Africa. In addition, campaigns similar to those conducted to promote HIV counselling and testing (HCT should be considered to educate communities about HIVST.

  16. Pseudo 2-transistor active pixel sensor using an n-well/gate-tied p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field eeffect transistor-type photodetector with built-in transfer gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Ho; Seo, Min-Woong; Kong, Jae-Sung; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, a pseudo 2-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) has been designed and fabricated by using an n-well/gate-tied p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET)-type photodetector with built-in transfer gate. The proposed sensor has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2-poly 4-metal standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic process. The pseudo 2-transistor APS consists of two NMOSFETs and one photodetector which can amplify the generated photocurrent. The area of the pseudo 2-transistor APS is 7.1 × 6.2 μm2. The sensitivity of the proposed pixel is 49 lux/(V·s). By using this pixel, a smaller pixel area and a higher level of sensitivity can be realized when compared with a conventional 3-transistor APS which uses a pn junction photodiode.

  17. EPICS based DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weixing; Chen Yongzhong; Zhou Weimin; Ye Kairong; Liu Dekang

    2002-01-01

    EPICS is the most popular developing platform to build control system and beam diagnostic system in modern physics experiment facilities. An EPICS based data acquisition system was built in Redhat 6.2 operation system. The system is successfully used in the beam position monitor mapping, it improves the mapping process a lot

  18. Hydrostatic Pressure and Built-In Electric Field Effects on the Donor Impurity States in Cylindrical Wurtzite GaN/AlxGa1−xN Quantum Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the effective mass approximation, the ground-state binding energy of a hydrogenic impurity is investigated in cylindrical wurtzite GaN/AlxGa1-xN strained quantum ring (QR by means of a variational approach, considering the influence of the applied hydrostatic pressure along the QR growth direction and the strong built-in electric field (BEF due to the piezoelectricity and spontaneous polarization. Numerical results show that the donor binding energy for a central impurity increases inchmeal firstly as the QR radial thickness (ΔR decreases gradually and then begins to drop quickly. In addition, the donor binding energy is an increasing (a decreasing function of the inner radius (height. It is also found that the donor binding energy increases almost linearly with the increment of the applied hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, we also found that impurity positions have an important influence on the donor binding energy. The physical reasons have been analyzed in detail.

  19. Self Test of FlowMon Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Kříž, Blažej

    2009-01-01

    Cílem této práce je navrhnout a implementovat autotest sondy FlowMon, monitorující síťový provoz na základě IP toků, která byla vyvinuta během projektu Liberouter. Práce se věnuje teorii testování a kategoriím testů, které nejvíce souvisejí s vyvíjeným autotestem. Zde se také nachází stručný popis monitorování sítí pomocí NetFlow protokolu, spolu s popisem architektury sondy FlowMon. Práce dále obsahuje samotný návrh a řešení autotestu. Součástí řešení jsou dva programové celky. První předsta...

  20. '. . . if you bring the kit home, you [can] get time and test together with your partner': Pregnant women and male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIV self-testing in Uganda - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Joseph Kb; Buregyeya, Esther; Arinaitwe, Jim; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organization reported that more than 60 million people were tested for HIV in 122 low- and middle-income countries between 2010 and 2014. Despite this level of progress, over 40% of people living with HIV remain unaware of their HIV status. This calls for innovative approaches to improve uptake of HIV testing services, including use of HIV self-test (HIVST) kits. We conducted a cross-sectional, qualitative study to assess pregnant women and their male partners' perceptions regarding female partner-delivered HIVST kits. This study was conducted at two health facilities in Central Uganda between November and December 2015. Data were collected on pregnant women's willingness to take HIVST kits to their male partners and other household members using eight focus group discussions and 30 in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed following a thematic framework approach. Overall, pregnant women were willing to take HIVST kits to their partners and other household members, with the exception of their cowives. Male partners were willing to use HIVST kits brought by their female partners. Our findings suggest that secondary distribution of HIVST kits through female partners is acceptable and has the potential to improve male partner and household-member HIV testing.

  1. LSI-11 based multiparameter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, P.K.; Chatur, C.G.; Gupta, J.D.; Kumar, Sudhir

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a LSI-11 based nuclear data processing system having four parameter capability. The system features simultaneous data acquisition and processing in independent memory zones. It also incorporates useful resident application programs and a built-in dual trace display. (author)

  2. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (second report): sensitivity improvement of Fourier-spectroscopic imaging to detect diffuse reflection lights from internal human tissues for healthcare sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Natsumi; Hosono, Satsuki; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We proposed the snapshot-type Fourier spectroscopic imaging for smartphone that was mentioned in 1st. report in this conference. For spectroscopic components analysis, such as non-invasive blood glucose sensors, the diffuse reflection lights from internal human skins are very weak for conventional hyperspectral cameras, such as AOTF (Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter) type. Furthermore, it is well known that the spectral absorption of mid-infrared lights or Raman spectroscopy especially in long wavelength region is effective to distinguish specific biomedical components quantitatively, such as glucose concentration. But the main issue was that photon energies of middle infrared lights and light intensities of Raman scattering are extremely weak. For improving sensitivity of our spectroscopic imager, the wide-field-stop & beam-expansion method was proposed. Our line spectroscopic imager introduced a single slit for field stop on the conjugate objective plane. Obviously to increase detected light intensities, the wider slit width of the field stop makes light intensities higher, regardless of deterioration of spatial resolutions. Because our method is based on wavefront-division interferometry, it becomes problems that the wider width of single slit makes the diffraction angle narrower. This means that the narrower diameter of collimated objective beams deteriorates visibilities of interferograms. By installing the relative inclined phaseshifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected optical systems, the collimated half flux of objective beams derived from single-bright points on objective surface penetrate through the wedge prism and the cuboid glass respectively. These two beams interfere each other and form the infererogram as spatial fringe patterns. Thus, we installed concave-cylindrical lens between the wider slit and objective lens as a beam expander. We successfully obtained the spectroscopic characters of hemoglobin from reflected lights from

  3. Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte; Johansson, Christer

    2004-01-01

    BASE - Engelsk basisgrammatik er resultatet af Lise-Lotte Hjulmands grundige bearbejdning og omfattende revidering af Christer Johanssons Engelska basgrammatik. Grammatikken adskiller sig fra det svenske forlæg på en lang række punkter. Den er bl.a. tilpasset til et dansk publikum og det danske...

  4. Smart phone-based Chemistry Instrumentation: Digitization of Colorimetric Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Byoung Yong

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a mobile instrumentation platform based on a smart phone using its built-in functions for colorimetric diagnosis. The color change as a result of detection is taken as a picture through a CCD camera built in the smart phone, and is evaluated in the form of the hue value to give the well-defined relationship between the color and the concentration. To prove the concept in the present work, proton concentration measurements were conducted on pH paper coupled with a smart phone for demonstration. This report is believed to show the possibility of adapting a smart phone to a mobile analytical transducer, and more applications for bioanalysis are expected to be developed using other built-in functions of the smart phone

  5. Converting One Type-Based Abstract Domain to Another

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick; Puebla, German; Albert, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    The specific problem that motivates this paper is how to obtain abstract descriptions of the meanings of imported predicates (such as built-ins) that can be used when analysing a module of a logic program with respect to some abstract domain. We assume that abstract descriptions of the imported....... We develop a method which has been applied in order to generate call and success patterns from the Ciaopp assertions for built-ins, for any given regular type-based domain. In the paper we present the method as an instance of the more general problem of mapping elements of one abstract domain...

  6. Method and apparatus of a portable imaging-based measurement with self calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh [Ann Arbor, MI; Huang, Hsun-Hau [Ann Arbor, MI

    2012-07-31

    A portable imaging-based measurement device is developed to perform 2D projection based measurements on an object that is difficult or dangerous to access. This device is equipped with self calibration capability and built-in operating procedures to ensure proper imaging based measurement.

  7. Built-In Test Engine For Memory Test

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, Paul; Farrell, Ronan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will present an on-chip method for testing high performance memory devices, that occupies minimal area and retains full flexibility. This is achieved through microcode test instructions and the associated on-chip state machine. In addition, the proposed methodology will enable at-speed testing of memory devices. The relevancy of this work is placed in context with an introduction to memory testing and the techniques and algorithms generally used today.

  8. MPR multi-purpose reactor to be built in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Competing with two enterprises from the US and Canada and with a French-German consortium, INVAP won a bid for the supply of a research reactor to Egypt. This is the most important contract ever made by Argentina involving the supply, on a turnkey operation, of a complex facility that incorporates advanced technologies developed in our country and for a sum of approximately 80 million US dollars

  9. The ETLMR MapReduce-Based ETL Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiufeng, Liu; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents ETLMR, a parallel Extract--Transform--Load (ETL) programming framework based on MapReduce. It has built-in support for high-level ETL-specific constructs including star schemas, snowflake schemas, and slowly changing dimensions (SCDs). ETLMR gives both high programming...

  10. On the effect of N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN built-in junctions in the n-GaN layer for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Zabu; Zhang, Zi-Hui; Liu, Wei; Tan, Swee Tiam; Ju, Zhen Gang; Zhang, Xue Liang; Ji, Yun; Hasanov, Namig; Zhu, Binbin; Lu, Shunpeng; Zhang, Yiping; Sun, Xiao Wei; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-01-13

    N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN (NPNPN-GaN) junctions embedded between the n-GaN region and multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are systematically studied both experimentally and theoretically to increase the performance of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) in this work. In the proposed architecture, each thin P-GaN layer sandwiched in the NPNPN-GaN structure is completely depleted due to the built-in electric field in the NPNPN-GaN junctions, and the ionized acceptors in these P-GaN layers serve as the energy barriers for electrons from the n-GaN region, resulting in a reduced electron over flow and enhanced the current spreading horizontally in the n- GaN region. These lead to increased optical output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) from the proposed device.

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Self-Tests and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs syndrome Diagnosis Talk to a board certified sleep medicine physician if you think you have restless legs ... He or she can refer you to a sleep medicine physician if necessary. The sleep physician may ask ...

  12. The Success of Self-Testing for Anticoagulation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Songur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The optimal therapeutic range for INR of the patient who were on warfarin therapy is narrow. There are various methods of INR monitoring to adjust the appropriate dosage of warfarin therapy. This study aims to test the reliability of POC (Point of care devices used for INR(International normalized ratio monitoring. Material and Method: Forty six  patients who were on warfarin therapy for any reasons were enrolled for this study. Their INR  were divided into 3 groups according to their laboratory INR results. Grup 1 had INR results lower than 2, group 2 had INR levels of 2 to 3.5, group 3 had INR levels of higher than 3.5 INR of the patients were remeasured with the POC device.  Results: The ages of the patients were between 24 to 84. Twenty six patients were male and 20 were female. The mean INR level of laboratory measurements was 1.26 in group 1 whereas it was 1.45 for POC device measurements. There were not statistically significant difference between two devices for group 1 (p=0.15. In group 2 the mean INR levels were measured by laboratory instrument and POC device were 2.74 and 3.51 respectively (p=0,01. In group 3 mean INR levels were measured by laboratory instrument and POC device were 4.27 and 5.25 respectively (p=0.01. Discussion: We suppose it is rational to adjust warfarin dosage by specialists using laboratory results in order to prevent hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications.

  13. A Critical Review of 13 Years of Mobile Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakas, Filippos; Kambourakis, Georgios; Papasalouros, Andreas; Gritzalis, Stefanos

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of smartphones and tablets, game-based learning (GBL) is undergoing a rapid shift to mobile platforms. This transformation is driven by mobility, wireless interfaces, and built-in sensors that these smart devices offer in order to enable blended and context-sensitive mobile learning (m-Learning) activities. Thus,…

  14. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  15. Network-based Fingerprint Authentication System Using a Mobile Device

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qihu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract— Fingerprint-based user authentication is highly effective in networked services such as electronic payment, but conventional authentication solutions have problems in cost, usability and security. To resolve these problems, we propose a touch-less fingerprint authentication solution, in which a mobile device's built-in camera is used to capture fingerprint image, and then it is sent to the server to determine the identity of the user. We designed and implemented a prototype as an a...

  16. Fault diagnosis of main coolant pump in the nuclear power station based on the principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Junting; Xu Mi; Wang Guizeng

    2003-01-01

    The fault diagnosis method based on principal component analysis is studied. The fault character direction storeroom of fifteen parameters abnormity is built in the simulation for the main coolant pump of nuclear power station. The measuring data are analyzed, and the results show that it is feasible for the fault diagnosis system of main coolant pump in the nuclear power station

  17. A photovoltaic self-powered gas sensor based on a single-walled carbon nanotube/Si heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Li, G H; Wang, Y; Wang, Y Y; Li, T; Zhang, T; Qin, S J

    2017-12-07

    We present a novel photovoltaic self-powered gas sensor based on a p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunction. The energy from visible light suffices to drive the device owing to a built-in electric field (BEF) induced by the differences between the Fermi levels of SWNTs and n-Si.

  18. Testing of interposer-based 2.5D integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ran

    2017-01-01

    This book provides readers with an insightful guide to the design, testing and optimization of 2.5D integrated circuits. The authors describe a set of design-for-test methods to address various challenges posed by the new generation of 2.5D ICs, including pre-bond testing of the silicon interposer, at-speed interconnect testing, built-in self-test architecture, extest scheduling, and a programmable method for low-power scan shift in SoC dies. This book covers many testing techniques that have already been used in mainstream semiconductor companies. Readers will benefit from an in-depth look at test-technology solutions that are needed to make 2.5D ICs a reality and commercially viable. Provides a single-source guide to the practical challenges in testing of 2.5D ICs; Presents an efficient method to locate defects in a passive interposer before stacking; Describes an efficient interconnect-test solution to target through-silicon vias (TSVs), the redistribution layer, and micro-bumps for shorts, opens, and dela...

  19. Web Camera Based Eye Tracking to Assess Visual Memory on a Visual Paired Comparison Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T. Bott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Web cameras are increasingly part of the standard hardware of most smart devices. Eye movements can often provide a noninvasive “window on the brain,” and the recording of eye movements using web cameras is a burgeoning area of research.Objective: This study investigated a novel methodology for administering a visual paired comparison (VPC decisional task using a web camera.To further assess this method, we examined the correlation between a standard eye-tracking camera automated scoring procedure [obtaining images at 60 frames per second (FPS] and a manually scored procedure using a built-in laptop web camera (obtaining images at 3 FPS.Methods: This was an observational study of 54 clinically normal older adults.Subjects completed three in-clinic visits with simultaneous recording of eye movements on a VPC decision task by a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in laptop-based web camera. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using Siegel and Castellan's kappa formula. Pearson correlations were used to investigate the correlation between VPC performance using a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in web camera.Results: Strong associations were observed on VPC mean novelty preference score between the 60 FPS eye tracker and 3 FPS built-in web camera at each of the three visits (r = 0.88–0.92. Inter-rater agreement of web camera scoring at each time point was high (κ = 0.81–0.88. There were strong relationships on VPC mean novelty preference score between 10, 5, and 3 FPS training sets (r = 0.88–0.94. Significantly fewer data quality issues were encountered using the built-in web camera.Conclusions: Human scoring of a VPC decisional task using a built-in laptop web camera correlated strongly with automated scoring of the same task using a standard high frame rate eye tracker camera.While this method is not suitable for eye tracking paradigms requiring the collection and analysis of fine-grained metrics, such as

  20. Isochronous cyclotron data base description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, I.N.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Tarashkevich, R.

    2004-01-01

    The relational data base of the control parameters of the isochronous cyclotron, Isochronous Cyclotron Data Base (ICDB), is described. The relational data base under consideration, written in Transact SQL for the MS SQL Server 2000 with the use of MS Enterprise Manager and MS Query Analyzer, was installed on the server of the AIC144 isochronous cyclotron in Krakow, which operates under the control of the operating system MS Windows Server 2003 (Standard Edition). The interface of the data base under considerations is written in C++ with the use of Visual C++ .NET and is built in the Cyclotron Operator Help Program (COHP), which is used for modeling the operational modes of the isochronous cyclotron. Communication between the COHP and the relational data base is realised on the base of the Open Data Base Connectivity protocol. The relational data base of the control parameter of the isochronous cyclotron is intended: firstly, for systematization and automatic use of all measured and modelled magnetic field maps in the process of modeling the operational modes; secondly, for systematization and convenient access to the stored operational modes; thirdly, for simplifying the operator's work. The relational data base of the control parameter of the isochronous cyclotron reflects its physical structure and the logic of its operator's work. (author)

  1. Smart controller based scaler rate-meter for gamma column scanning application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narender Reddy, J.; Dhanajay Reddy, Y.; Dheeraj Reddy, J.

    2001-01-01

    A smart, controller based Scaler Rate-meter with scintillation probe for Gamma column scanning has been developed and made available. Designed to have advanced features with state-of-art electronic devices, hardware features include built-in adj. HV, amplifier- SCA, controller based data acquisition card, LCD display module for visualization of, HV set, preset and elapsed times, counts/count rate, column height and other programmable parameters. User interface is through a built-in programmable key pad, for instrument control, data acquisition, storage. Powerful embedded software provides all the above functions. Unit has capability to store up to 5000 readings. Data readings stored can be downloaded into a PC/lap top to generate a plot of count rate Vs column height, which is a signature for the column under study. Scintillation Probe design facilitates connection to the main unit through a single cable, permitting lengths up to 30 meters from the main unit. (author)

  2. Fault tolerant system based on IDDQ testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibane, Badi; Hamdi, Belgacem; Mtibaa, Abdellatif; Bensalem, Brahim

    2018-06-01

    Offline test is essential to ensure good manufacturing quality. However, for permanent or transient faults that occur during the use of the integrated circuit in an application, an online integrated test is needed as well. This procedure should ensure the detection and possibly the correction or the masking of these faults. This requirement of self-correction is sometimes necessary, especially in critical applications that require high security such as automotive, space or biomedical applications. We propose a fault-tolerant design for analogue and mixed-signal design complementary metal oxide (CMOS) circuits based on the quiescent current supply (IDDQ) testing. A defect can cause an increase in current consumption. IDDQ testing technique is based on the measurement of power supply current to distinguish between functional and failed circuits. The technique has been an effective testing method for detecting physical defects such as gate-oxide shorts, floating gates (open) and bridging defects in CMOS integrated circuits. An architecture called BICS (Built In Current Sensor) is used for monitoring the supply current (IDDQ) of the connected integrated circuit. If the measured current is not within the normal range, a defect is signalled and the system switches connection from the defective to a functional integrated circuit. The fault-tolerant technique is composed essentially by a double mirror built-in current sensor, allowing the detection of abnormal current consumption and blocks allowing the connection to redundant circuits, if a defect occurs. Spices simulations are performed to valid the proposed design.

  3. Production and 3D printing processing of bio-based thermoplastic filament

    OpenAIRE

    Gkartzou, Eleni; Koumoulos, Elias P.; Charitidis, Costas A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an extrusion-based 3D printing technique was employed for processing of biobased blends of Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) with low-cost kraft lignin. In Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D printing process, objects are built in a layer-by-layer fashion by melting, extruding and selectively depositing thermoplastic fibers on a platform. These fibers are used as building blocks for more complex structures with defined microarchitecture, in an automated, cost-effective process, with minim...

  4. Independent programmable CAMAC crate controller based on KR580IK80A microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, O.V.; Andronov, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The RTKAM-2 independent programmable CAMAC crate controller is designed for use as a remote terminal in systems for automation of physics research. The built-in 12K-byte RAM is automatically changed to 24-bit organization in exchanges with the crate dataway. A nonstandard 24-level priority-interrupt system allows an LAM-request routing to be accessed in 5.5 μsec. Communication with the base computer is through a two conductor line

  5. Mobile device-based optical instruments for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2013-05-01

    Realizing that a current smart-mobile device such as a cell phone and a tablet can be considered as a pocket-size computer embedded with a built-in digital camera, this paper reviews and demonstrates on how a mobile device can be specifically functioned as a portable optical instrument for agricultural applications. The paper highlights several mobile device-based optical instruments designed for searching small pests, measuring illumination level, analyzing spectrum of light, identifying nitrogen status in the rice field, estimating chlorine in water, and determining ripeness level of the fruit. They are suitable for individual use as well as for small and medium enterprises.

  6. Optical Fiber Sensing Based on Reflection Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gagliardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  7. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  8. Biological-based and physical-based optimization for biological evaluation of prostate patient's plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhikh, E.; Sheino, I.; Vertinsky, A.

    2017-09-01

    Modern modalities of radiation treatment therapy allow irradiation of the tumor to high dose values and irradiation of organs at risk (OARs) to low dose values at the same time. In this paper we study optimal radiation treatment plans made in Monaco system. The first aim of this study was to evaluate dosimetric features of Monaco treatment planning system using biological versus dose-based cost functions for the OARs and irradiation targets (namely tumors) when the full potential of built-in biological cost functions is utilized. The second aim was to develop criteria for the evaluation of radiation dosimetry plans for patients based on the macroscopic radiobiological criteria - TCP/NTCP. In the framework of the study four dosimetric plans were created utilizing the full extent of biological and physical cost functions using dose calculation-based treatment planning for IMRT Step-and-Shoot delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in prostate case (5 fractions per 7 Gy).

  9. Microcontroller based, ore grade measuring portable instruments for uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheeraj Reddy, J.; Narender Reddy, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ore Face Scanning and Bore Hole Logging are important essential activities which are required to be carried out in any Uranium mining industry. Microcontroller based, portable instruments with built-in powerful embedded code for data acquisition (of Radiation counts) and Ore Grade calculations will become a handy measuring tool for miners. Nucleonix Systems has recently developed and made these two portable instruments available to UCIL, which are under use at Jaduguda and Narvapahar mines. Some of the important features of these systems are compact, light weight, portable, hand held, battery powered. Modes of Data Acquisition: CPS, CPM and ORE GRADE. Detector: Sensitive GM Tube. Choice of Adj. TC (Time Constant) in 'ORE GRADE', acquisition mode. Built-in automatic BG (Background) recording and subtraction provided to indicate net CPS, CPM or ore GRADE in PPM. Can store 1000 readings at users choice. Built-in RS232 serial port facilitates data downloading into PC. This paper focuses on design concepts and technical details for the above two products. (author)

  10. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Louie Fresco Zamora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  11. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  12. COEL: A Cloud-based Reaction Network Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eBanda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Reaction Networks (CRNs are a formalism to describe the macroscopic behavior of chemical systems. We introduce COEL, a web- and cloud-based CRN simulation framework that does not require a local installation, runs simulations on a large computational grid, provides reliable database storage, and offers a visually pleasing and intuitive user interface. We present an overview of the underlying software, the technologies, and the main architectural approaches employed. Some of COEL's key features include ODE-based simulations of CRNs and multicompartment reaction networks with rich interaction options, a built-in plotting engine, automatic DNA-strand displacement transformation and visualization, SBML/Octave/Matlab export, and a built-in genetic-algorithm-based optimization toolbox for rate constants.COEL is an open-source project hosted on GitHub (http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.46544, which allows interested research groups to deploy it on their own sever. Regular users can simply use the web instance at no cost at http://coel-sim.org. The framework is ideally suited for a collaborative use in both research and education.

  13. Active site of mycobacterial dUTPase: Structural characteristics and a built-in sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Balazs; Barabas, Orsolya; Takacs, Eniko; Nagy, Nikolett; Nagy, Peter; Vertessy, Beata G.

    2008-01-01

    dUTPases are essential to eliminate dUTP for DNA integrity and provide dUMP for thymidylate biosynthesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis apparently lacks any other thymidylate biosynthesis pathway, therefore dUTPase is a promising antituberculotic drug target. Crystal structure of the mycobacterial enzyme in complex with the isosteric substrate analog, α,β-imido-dUTP and Mg 2+ at 1.5 A resolution was determined that visualizes the full-length C-terminus, previously not localized. Interactions of a conserved motif important in catalysis, the Mycobacterium-specific five-residue-loop insert and C-terminal tetrapeptide could now be described in detail. Stacking of C-terminal histidine upon the uracil moiety prompted replacement with tryptophan. The resulting sensitive fluorescent sensor enables fast screening for binding of potential inhibitors to the active site. K d for α,β-imido-dUTP binding to mycobacterial dUTPase is determined to be 10-fold less than for human dUTPase, which is to be considered in drug optimization. A robust continuous activity assay for kinetic screening is proposed

  14. Design and Characterization of a Built-In CMOS TID Smart Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Javier; Gil, Carlos; Lopez-Vallejo, Marisa; Ituero, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a total ionization dose (TID) sensor that presents the following advantages: it is a digital sensor able to be integrated in CMOS circuits; it has a configurable sensitivity that allows radiation doses ranging from very low to high levels; its interface helps to integrate this design in a multidisciplinary sensor network; and it is self-timed, hence it does not need a clock signal. We designed, implemented and manufactured the sensor in a 0.35 μm CMOS commercial technology. It was irradiated with a 60Co source. This test was used to characterize the sensor in terms of the radiation response up to 575 krad. After irradiation, we monitored the sensor to control charge redistribution and annealing effects for 80 hours. We also exposed our design to meticulous temperature analysis from 0 to 50°C and we studied the acceleration on the annealing phenomena due to high temperatures. Sensor calibration takes into account the results of all tests. Finally we propose to use this sensor in a self-recovery system. The sensor manufactured in this work has an area of 0.047 mm 2, of which 22% is dedicated to measuring radiation. Its energy per conversion is 463 pJ.

  15. Reconstruction and durability study of the old living hut built in 1969 at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Hannuki

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The living hut was built by the 10th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-10 at Syowa Station in 1969. The living hut, which had been used over 29 years at Syowa Station, was demolished and the prefabricated building elements of the hut were brought back to Japan in 1998. The building elements were reconstructed for the durability test and the present conditions of the reconstructed living hut were investigated. The reconstruction work of the hut was finished within 5 days and with a total of 22 workers. The elements and devices were usable on the whole. The building can be reused if damaged parts are restored and external facing and interior finish are renewed.

  16. Enhancing self-healing of lime mortars by built-in crystallization inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The weathering of porous materials due to the presence of salts has been known since antiquity. However, serious studies and investigations were not conducted until the 19th century. One of the fi elds of interest includes historic masonry, where salt damage can affect natural stone, brick and

  17. Theoretical study of built-in-polarization effect on relaxation time and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal management issues for miniaturised devices and their application for energy production through thermoelec- ... They have reported a method of improving ther- ..... [3] Morkoc H 2008 Handbook of nitride semiconductors and devices ...

  18. Modular Autonomous C&DH Software with Built-In Simulation/Test, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and Commercial spacecraft programs have the desire to minimize program costs while continuing to ensure mission robustness and...

  19. Silently transformable: the many ways bacteria conceal their built-in capacity of genetic exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Charpentier, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria can undergo genetic transformation by actively integrating genetic information from phylogenetically related or unrelated organisms. The original function of natural transformation remains a subject of debate, but it is well established as a major player in genome evolution. Naturally transformable bacteria use a highly conserved DNA uptake system to internalize DNA and integrate it in their chromosome by homologous recombination. Expression of the DNA uptake system, often referred to as competence, is tightly controlled and induced by signals that are often elusive. Initially thought to be restricted to a few bacterial species, natural transformation increasingly seems widespread in bacteria. Yet, the triggering signals and regulatory mechanisms involved appear diverse and are understood only in a limited set of species. As a result, natural transformation in most bacterial species remains poorly documented and the potential impact of this mechanism on global genetic mobilization is likely underappreciated. Indeed, even when a conserved activator can be identified to artificially induce the expression of the DNA uptake system, the considered species may still remain non-transformable. Recent works indicate that the DNA uptake system is directly subjected to silencing. At least in Legionella pneumophila and possibly in other species, a small non-coding RNA prevents expression of the DNA uptake system. Silencing constitutes one more way bacteria control expression of their engine of genetic exchange. It may also be the underlying reason of the undetectable natural transformation of many bacterial species grown under laboratory conditions even though they possess a DNA uptake system.

  20. A built-in radiotracer (24Na) for measuring circulation catalyst rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domondon, D.B; Berbano, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    A local petroleum refinery intended to calibrate its catalyst flow measuring instrument (propeller blade) using the radioactive tracer technique (RTT). For this purpose, a method of incorporating a suitable radiotracer in commercial catalyst beads had to be found. Two methods of labelling are described. One method involved the incorporation of the radiotracer in a gel of the same composition as the commercial catalyst and subsequent conversion of the gel into a from like that of the commercial catalyst beads. Another method utilized the strong adsorptive properties of the commercial catalyst beads for the chosen isotopes, e.g., 144 Cs, 46 Sc. To effect quantitative adsorption, commercial catalyst beads were simply stirred in a slightly acidic (pH4) chloride solution of the radiotracers for some time. The radiotracers were found to distribute almost uniformly over the entire catalyst surface and no evidence of volatilization of the isotopes from the catalyst surface under condition of use in commercial units was observed. Another probable method was suggested by the Research and Development Division, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Aluminium is a major component of the ceramic catalyst beads and sodium is present as impurity. Hence, a radiotracer ( 24 Na) can be formed in the beads by the reaction 23 Na (n,gamma) 24 Na, 27 Al (n,alpha) 24 Na. This possible method of simply irradiating the commercial catalyst beads in the reactor thereby inducing the radiotracer. 24 Na in situ fulfils all the criteria for the selection of an appropriate radiotracer. The method is very simple but reliable

  1. Concurrent progressive-ratio schedules: built-in controls in the study of delayed reward efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Hudnall, Jennifer L

    2014-08-15

    Delayed rewards maintain lower rates of operant responding than immediate rewards, and when given a choice between immediate and delayed rewards, individuals typically choose the immediate reward, even when it is smaller (a phenomenon called delay discounting). The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying these behavioral patterns, however, are not conclusively understood. The present study developed a method to examine the efficacy of delayed rewards in a way that is suitable for pharmacological manipulation of delayed reward efficacy (while controlling for general changes in reward efficacy). The progressive ratio (PR) paradigm often used to examine reward efficacy was modified such that two PR schedules for lever pressing concurrently yet independently were presented. Across a series of conditions, a range of delays (3-81s) were arranged on one of the levers while the reward on the other lever remained immediate. PR breakpoints (the highest ratio completed on each lever, our measure of reward efficacy) systematically decreased on the delayed, but not on the immediate reward lever, suggesting that delays decreased reward efficacy. This decrease in breakpoint resulted in bias in within-session responding that was accounted for by models that adjusted reward value by the delay to that reward. Unlike the standard PR paradigm, the present arrangement provided the controls needed to differentiate delay specific from general changes in reward efficacy. The present method should be helpful in the study of the behavioral and neural mechanisms of delayed reward efficacy. Modifications of the present paradigm should be useful for pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Ocean Observatories Initiative: Data Acquisition Functions and Its Built-In Automated Python Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Vardaro, M.; Crowley, M. F.; Glenn, S. M.; Schofield, O.; Belabbassi, L.; Garzio, L. M.; Knuth, F.; Fram, J. P.; Kerfoot, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), funded by the National Science Foundation, provides users with access to long-term datasets from a variety of oceanographic sensors. The Endurance Array in the Pacific Ocean consists of two separate lines off the coasts of Oregon and Washington. The Oregon line consists of 7 moorings, two cabled benthic experiment packages and 6 underwater gliders. The Washington line comprises 6 moorings and 6 gliders. Each mooring is outfitted with a variety of instrument packages. The raw data from these instruments are sent to shore via satellite communication and in some cases, via fiber optic cable. Raw data is then sent to the cyberinfrastructure (CI) group at Rutgers where it is aggregated, parsed into thousands of different data streams, and integrated into a software package called uFrame. The OOI CI delivers the data to the general public via a web interface that outputs data into commonly used scientific data file formats such as JSON, netCDF, and CSV. The Rutgers data management team has developed a series of command-line Python tools that streamline data acquisition in order to facilitate the QA/QC review process. The first step in the process is querying the uFrame database for a list of all available platforms. From this list, a user can choose a specific platform and automatically download all available datasets from the specified platform. The downloaded dataset is plotted using a generalized Python netcdf plotting routine that utilizes a data visualization toolbox called matplotlib. This routine loads each netCDF file separately and outputs plots by each available parameter. These Python tools have been uploaded to a Github repository that is openly available to help facilitate OOI data access and visualization.

  3. Built-In Device Orientation Sensors for Ad-Hoc Pairing and Spatial Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil; O'Hara, Kenton

    Mobile devices are equipped with multiple sensors. The ubiquity of these sensors is key in their ability to support in-the-wild application and use. Building on the ubiquity we look at how we can use this existing sensing infrastructure combined with user mediation to support ad-hoc sharing with ...

  4. Reconfigurable EVA Radio with Built-In Navigation Capability, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc. and its sub-contractor, Purdue University, propose to develop a power-efficient miniaturized reconfigurable EVA radio system with...

  5. Image deblurring in smartphone devices using built-in inertial measurement sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelář, O.; Šroubek, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), 011003-1-011003-8 ISSN 1017-9909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100751201 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : deconvolution * motion sensors * smartphone s Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/sroubek-0389233.pdf

  6. 26 CFR 1.1502-15 - SRLY limitation on built-in losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the same transferor (whether corporate or non-corporate, foreign or domestic) pursuant to the same... immediately before becoming a member of the M group, notwithstanding their actual affiliation history. As a..., value $20), in exchange for T stock in a transaction that is described in section 351. (ii) P's...

  7. X-ray TV image analyzer with built-in microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Maruyama, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro

    1979-01-01

    X-ray TV system (XTV) is indispensable for inspections such as cardiac catheter inspection and urinary tract inspection as well as gastrointestinal tract inspection. The XTV has been so far employed for observing the appropriate time for making images and grasping the position to be photographed in X-ray photographing. However, taking the considerable amount of radiation exposure given to patients during fluoroscopy into account, it is better to utilize the information within living bodies more effectively. The experiments to record fluoroscopic images using VTRs (video tape recorder) and to analyze the moving pictures by means of VTR playback have been carried out by videodensitometry and videoplanimetry. The authors have produced an image analyzing system of XTV, which incorporates a microprocessor, on the basis of the experiences of minicomputer-assisted videodensitometry. The system uses the digital frame memory controlled by a microcomputer, and transfers the data from this memory to the main memory by the command from the microcomputer. This alloys to sample freely image data in any direction. To the microprocessor memory, 16 kbytes EPROM (erasable and programmable read only memory) and 16 kbytes RAM (random access memory) are attached. At present, the programs for the measurement of such as the inspection of local pulmonary function and the change of urethrae in urination accompanying the imaging of bladders are being developed. Some results of videodensitometry under test are presented. Wider applications for future are expected in the discussions. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Image deblurring in smartphone devices using built-in inertial measurement sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelář, O.; Šroubek, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), 011003-1-011003-8 ISSN 1017-9909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100751201 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : deconvolution * motion sensors * smartphones Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/sroubek-0389233.pdf

  9. G-protein-coupled receptor structures were not built in a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Tracy M; Bowie, James U

    2009-07-01

    Among the most exciting recent developments in structural biology is the structure determination of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which comprise the largest class of membrane proteins in mammalian cells and have enormous importance for disease and drug development. The GPCR structures are perhaps the most visible examples of a nascent revolution in membrane protein structure determination. Like other major milestones in science, however, such as the sequencing of the human genome, these achievements were built on a hidden foundation of technological developments. Here, we describe some of the methods that are fueling the membrane protein structure revolution and have enabled the determination of the current GPCR structures, along with new techniques that may lead to future structures.

  10. Utilization of probabilistic methods for evaluating the safety of PWRs built in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.; Brisbois, J.; Lanore, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Firstly, it is recalled that, in France, PWRs are designed on a deterministic basis by studying the consequences of a limited number of conventional incidents whose estimated frequency is specified in order-of-magnitude terms and for which it is shown that the consequences, for each category of frequency, predominate over those of the other situations in the same category. These situations are called dimensioning situations. The paper then describes the use made of probabilistic methods. External attacks and loss of redundant systems are examined in particular. A probabilistic approach is in fact well suited to the evaluation of risks due, among other things, to aircraft crashes and the industrial environment. Analysis of the reliability of redundant systems has shown that, in the light of the overall risk assessment objective, their loss should be examined with a view to instituting counteraction to reduce the risks associated with such loss (particularly the introduction of special control procedures). Probabilistic methods are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the counteraction proposed and such a study has been carried out for total loss of electric power supply. Finally, the probabilistic study of hazard initiated post factum by the French safety authorities for the standardized 900 MW(e) power units is described. The study, which is not yet complete, will serve as the basis for a permanent safety analysis tool taking into account control procedures and the total operating experience acquired using these power units. (author)

  11. Respiratory rate estimation from the built-in cameras of smartphones and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Lee, Jinseok; Chon, Ki H

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method for respiratory rate estimation using the camera of a smartphone, an MP3 player or a tablet. The iPhone 4S, iPad 2, iPod 5, and Galaxy S3 were used to estimate respiratory rates from the pulse signal derived from a finger placed on the camera lens of these devices. Prior to estimation of respiratory rates, we systematically investigated the optimal signal quality of these 4 devices by dividing the video camera's resolution into 12 different pixel regions. We also investigated the optimal signal quality among the red, green and blue color bands for each of these 12 pixel regions for all four devices. It was found that the green color band provided the best signal quality for all 4 devices and that the left half VGA pixel region was found to be the best choice only for iPhone 4S. For the other three devices, smaller 50 × 50 pixel regions were found to provide better or equally good signal quality than the larger pixel regions. Using the green signal and the optimal pixel regions derived from the four devices, we then investigated the suitability of the smartphones, the iPod 5 and the tablet for respiratory rate estimation using three different computational methods: the autoregressive (AR) model, variable-frequency complex demodulation (VFCDM), and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) approaches. Specifically, these time-varying spectral techniques were used to identify the frequency and amplitude modulations as they contain respiratory rate information. To evaluate the performance of the three computational methods and the pixel regions for the optimal signal quality, data were collected from 10 healthy subjects. It was found that the VFCDM method provided good estimates of breathing rates that were in the normal range (12-24 breaths/min). Both CWT and VFCDM methods provided reasonably good estimates for breathing rates that were higher than 26 breaths/min but their accuracy degraded concomitantly with increased respiratory rates. Overall, the VFCDM method provided the best results for accuracy (smaller median error), consistency (smaller interquartile range of the median value), and computational efficiency (less than 0.5 s on 1 min of data using a MATLAB implementation) to extract breathing rates that varied from 12 to 36 breaths/min. The AR method provided the least accurate respiratory rate estimation among the three methods. This work illustrates that both heart rates and normal breathing rates can be accurately derived from a video signal obtained from smartphones, an MP3 player and tablets with or without a flashlight.

  12. Monitoring of noninvasive ventilation by built-in software of home bilevel ventilators: a bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contal, Olivier; Vignaux, Laurence; Combescure, Christophe; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Jolliet, Philippe; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2012-02-01

    Current bilevel positive-pressure ventilators for home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) provide physicians with software that records items important for patient monitoring, such as compliance, tidal volume (Vt), and leaks. However, to our knowledge, the validity of this information has not yet been independently assessed. Testing was done for seven home ventilators on a bench model adapted to simulate NIV and generate unintentional leaks (ie, other than of the mask exhalation valve). Five levels of leaks were simulated using a computer-driven solenoid valve (0-60 L/min) at different levels of inspiratory pressure (15 and 25 cm H(2)O) and at a fixed expiratory pressure (5 cm H(2)O), for a total of 10 conditions. Bench data were compared with results retrieved from ventilator software for leaks and Vt. For assessing leaks, three of the devices tested were highly reliable, with a small bias (0.3-0.9 L/min), narrow limits of agreement (LA), and high correlations (R(2), 0.993-0.997) when comparing ventilator software and bench results; conversely, for four ventilators, bias ranged from -6.0 L/min to -25.9 L/min, exceeding -10 L/min for two devices, with wide LA and lower correlations (R(2), 0.70-0.98). Bias for leaks increased markedly with the importance of leaks in three devices. Vt was underestimated by all devices, and bias (range, 66-236 mL) increased with higher insufflation pressures. Only two devices had a bias ventilation must be aware of differences in the estimation of leaks and Vt by ventilator software. Also, leaks are reported in different ways according to the device used.

  13. Predicting Extubation Outcome by Cough Peak Flow Measured Using a Built-in Ventilator Flow Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Florent; Yonis, Hodane; Tapponnier, Romain; Fernandez, Raul; Labaune, Marie-Aude; Burle, Jean-François; Barbier, Jack; Vincent, Bernard; Cleyet, Maria; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Guérin, Claude

    2017-12-01

    Successful weaning from mechanical ventilation depends on the patient's ability to cough efficiently. Cough peak flow (CPF) could predict extubation success using a dedicated flow meter but required patient disconnection. We aimed to predict extubation outcome using an overall model, including cough performance assessed by a ventilator flow meter. This was a prospective observational study conducted from November 2014 to October 2015. Before and after a spontaneous breathing trial, subjects were encouraged to cough as strongly as possible before freezing the ventilator screen to assess CPF and tidal volume (V T ) in the preceding inspiration. Early extubation success rate was defined as the proportion of subjects not re-intubated 48 h after extubation. Diagnostic performance of CPF and V T was assessed by using the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Cut-off values for CPF and V T were defined according to median values and used to describe the performance of a predictive test combining them with risk factors of early extubation failure. Among 673 subjects admitted, 92 had a cough assessment before extubation. For the 81 subjects with early extubation success, the median CPF was -67.7 L/min, and median V T was 0.646 L. For the 11 subjects with early extubation failure, the median CPF was -57.3 L/min, and median V T was 0.448 L. Area under the curve was 0.61 (95% CI 0.37-0.83) for CPF and 0.64 (95% CI 0.42-0.84) for CPF/V T combined. After dichotomization (CPF 0.55 L), there was a synergistic effect to predict early extubation success ( P meter of an ICU ventilator was able to predict extubation success and to build a composite score to predict extubation failure. The results were close to that found in previous studies that used a dedicated flow meter. This could help to identify high-risk subjects to prevent extubation failure. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT02847221.). Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  14. Computer-Aided Design for Built-In-Test (CADBIT) - Software Specification. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    CADD COMAN WIDO IO-CNURET MSL PPLYING~ TET ATEN Figur 3-13- TUTORIA FIGUR PLCMI IN CAD-NVIOMENT ON BOAR SEFTST- 1"os-rnenu, long-tur d nnnih que- list...have software package for reliability calculation A-8 LIBRARY ELEMENT DATA SHE T’" BIT TECHNIQUE: ON-BOARD ROM CATEGORY: L’ONG TUTORIA PAGE ,5 of 14

  15. Computer-Aided Design for Built-In-Test (CADBIT) - BIT Library. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    TECHNIQUE: ON-BOARD RONI CATEGORY: LONG TUTORIA \\L PAG E 5 of 14I SUBCATEGORY: BIT TECHNIQUE ATTRIBUTES DATA TYPE: TEXT El LIST E] TABLE [ GRAPHIC E...SHIFT REGISTER (MISR) CATEGORY: LONG TUTORIA -L PAGE i Of 13 SUBCATEGORY: BIT TECH-{MQUE ATTRIBUTES DATA TYPE: TEXT LIST El TABLE GRAPHIC E EQUATIONS...ELEMENT DATA SHEET BIT TECHNIQUE: UTILIZING REDUNDANCY CATEGORY: LONG TUTORIA L PAGE 9 of 10 SUBCATEGORY: PARTS DATA TABLE DATA TYPE: TEXT F1 UST C3

  16. Solar harvesting by a heterostructured cell with built-in variable width quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.; Wang, H.; Mil'shtein, S.

    2018-02-01

    We propose cascaded heterostructured p-i-n solar cells, where inside of the i-region is a set of Quantum Wells (QWs) with variable thicknesses to enhance absorption of different photonic energies and provide quick relaxation for high energy carriers. Our p-i-n heterostructure carries top p-type and bottom n-type 11.3 Å thick AlAs layers, which are doped by acceptors and donor densities up to 1019/cm3. The intrinsic region is divided into 10 segments where each segment carries ten QWs of the same width and the width of the QWs in each subsequent segment gradually increases. The top segment consists of 10 QWs with widths of 56.5Å, followed by a segment with 10 wider QWs with widths of 84.75Å, followed by increasing QW widths until the last segment has 10 QWs with widths of 565Å, bringing the total number of QWs to 100. The QW wall height is controlled by alternating AlAs and GaAs layers, where the AlAs layers are all 11.3Å thick, throughout the entire intrinsic region. Configuration of variable width QWs prescribes sets of energy levels which are suitable for absorption of a wide range of photon energies and will dissipate high electron-hole energies rapidly, reducing the heat load on the solar cell. We expect that the heating of the solar cell will be reduced by 8-11%, enhancing efficiency. The efficiency of the designed solar cell is 43.71%, the Fill Factor is 0.86, the density of short circuit current (ISC) will not exceed 338 A/m2 and the open circuit voltage (VOC) is 1.51V.

  17. Built-in future: integration, technical and market-development issues for PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    2005-01-01

    Although large ground-mounted multi-megawatt photovoltaic plants have become common, it is argued that integration of photovoltaics into the fabric of buildings is their optimum use. In Germany, with its well-established grid network, there is a marked imbalance in the deployment of photovoltaics and only 1% are integrated into the roofs or facades of buildings. A similar pattern is found in most other countries in central Europe and the article seeks to discover the reasons for this. The situation in Japan is different in that the relatively high cost of electricity has encouraged a robust market for domestic photovoltaics. It is argued that the market for building-integrated photovoltaics in Europe has massive potential

  18. Built-in test of electrode degradation of multi-electrode array biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.Y.; Dumas, N.; Richardson, A.; Heal, R.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2006-01-01

    Micro-electrode array (MEA) is a widely used platform in biosensor systems, which provide a technology in communicating with micro chemical and biological world. This paper addresses hte topic of testing micro electrode degradation for MEAs, which is a common encountered damage during its

  19. Wood, the indigenous energy source. 1100 plants built in 20 years, all of them 'Swiss made'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, B.

    1999-01-01

    The company HOBAG Brienz, Ltd., specialised in the field of automatic wood-burning plants, continuously developed its unique system over the past 20 years and has more than 1100 satisfied clients in Switzerland as well as in foreign countries. It is equally dealing with log boilers, wood chip boilers, or pellet boilers. Nowadays, the company is seen as the market leader for modern, full automatic log-burning plants and wood conditioning equipment including containers for logs or wood chips

  20. 78 FR 54971 - Limitations on the Importation of Net Built-In Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... property as paid-in surplus or contributions to capital, each a section 362(a) transaction) and in... published in the Federal Register. Drafting Information The principal author of these regulations is John P... for using a long-term contract method of accounting that are acquired in a section 332 liquidation. (2...

  1. Analyses and testing of model prestressed concrete reactor vessels with built-in planes of weakness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, P.; Paton, A.A.; Fleischer, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, analyses and testing of two small scale, single cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel models, one without planes of weakness and one with planes of weakness immediately behind the cavity liner. This work was carried out to extend a previous study which had suggested the likely feasibility of constructing regions of prestressed concrete reactor vessels and biological shields, which become activated, using easily removable blocks, separated by a suitable membrane. The paper describes the results obtained and concludes that the planes of weakness concept could offer a means of facilitating the dismantling of activated regions of prestressed concrete reactor vessels, biological shields and similar types of structure. (author)

  2. PhilDB: the time series database with built-in change logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MacDonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PhilDB is an open-source time series database that supports storage of time series datasets that are dynamic; that is, it records updates to existing values in a log as they occur. PhilDB eases loading of data for the user by utilising an intelligent data write method. It preserves existing values during updates and abstracts the update complexity required to achieve logging of data value changes. It implements fast reads to make it practical to select data for analysis. Recent open-source systems have been developed to indefinitely store long-period high-resolution time series data without change logging. Unfortunately, such systems generally require a large initial installation investment before use because they are designed to operate over a cluster of servers to achieve high-performance writing of static data in real time. In essence, they have a ‘big data’ approach to storage and access. Other open-source projects for handling time series data that avoid the ‘big data’ approach are also relatively new and are complex or incomplete. None of these systems gracefully handle revision of existing data while tracking values that change. Unlike ‘big data’ solutions, PhilDB has been designed for single machine deployment on commodity hardware, reducing the barrier to deployment. PhilDB takes a unique approach to meta-data tracking; optional attribute attachment. This facilitates scaling the complexities of storing a wide variety of data. That is, it allows time series data to be loaded as time series instances with minimal initial meta-data, yet additional attributes can be created and attached to differentiate the time series instances when a wider variety of data is needed. PhilDB was written in Python, leveraging existing libraries. While some existing systems come close to meeting the needs PhilDB addresses, none cover all the needs at once. PhilDB was written to fill this gap in existing solutions. This paper explores existing time series database solutions, discusses the motivation for PhilDB, describes the architecture and philosophy of the PhilDB software, and performs an evaluation between InfluxDB, PhilDB, and SciDB.

  3. URBAN-LLANERA MUSIC CULTURE, AN IMAGINARY BUILT IN THE CITIES OF FOOTHILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andres Rivera Arenas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The llanera music and culture is a social construction that has been developed for over 200 years in the Colombian-Venezuelan plains. However, this imaginary has been adopted and strengthened in a relatively short time in the Colombian  province of Meta since 1960. The vastness of the Colombian-Venezuelan plains has lead to a differentiation of various types of llanero, as each one of them live and experience the llanera culture in a particular way, depending on the characteristics of the place where they live, their daily tasks, and so on. The ";urban llanero of foothill "; -inhabitant of cities like Yopal and Villavicencio- is multicultural and cosmopolitan; he feels, worships  and experiences the llanera culture and its music, as well as other different kinds of music and visions of the world, in his own particular way. Hence the necessity to think it all again, in order to find a new meaning for the notion of the llanero in the city, adapting it to the urban context and disregarding any static vision of this kind of culture, in order to encourage its construction in the city as an ";urban music";.

  4. A Novel GMM-Based Behavioral Modeling Approach for Smartwatch-Based Driver Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Han; Chang, Chin-Chun; Liang, Deron

    2018-03-28

    All drivers have their own distinct driving habits, and usually hold and operate the steering wheel differently in different driving scenarios. In this study, we proposed a novel Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based method that can improve the traditional GMM in modeling driving behavior. This new method can be applied to build a better driver authentication system based on the accelerometer and orientation sensor of a smartwatch. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, we created an experimental system that analyzes driving behavior using the built-in sensors of a smartwatch. The experimental results for driver authentication-an equal error rate (EER) of 4.62% in the simulated environment and an EER of 7.86% in the real-traffic environment-confirm the feasibility of this approach.

  5. Image based book cover recognition and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhadan, Kalyani; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthi, A.; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    In this we are developing a graphical user interface using MATLAB for the users to check the information related to books in real time. We are taking the photos of the book cover using GUI, then by using MSER algorithm it will automatically detect all the features from the input image, after this it will filter bifurcate non-text features which will be based on morphological difference between text and non-text regions. We implemented a text character alignment algorithm which will improve the accuracy of the original text detection. We will also have a look upon the built in MATLAB OCR recognition algorithm and an open source OCR which is commonly used to perform better detection results, post detection algorithm is implemented and natural language processing to perform word correction and false detection inhibition. Finally, the detection result will be linked to internet to perform online matching. More than 86% accuracy can be obtained by this algorithm.

  6. Computer based systems for fast reactor core temperature monitoring and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, D.N.

    1991-01-01

    Self testing fail safe trip systems and guardlines have been developed using dynamic logic as a basis for temperature monitoring and temperature protection in the UK. The guardline and trip system have been tested in passive operation on a number of reactors and a pulse coded logic guardline is currently in use on the DIDO test reactor. Acoustic boiling noise and ultrasonic systems have been developed in the UK as diverse alternatives to using thermocouples for temperature monitoring and measurement. These systems have the advantage that they make remote monitoring possible but they rely on complex signal processing to achieve their output. The means of incorporating such systems within the self testing trip system architecture are explored and it is apparent that such systems, particularly that based on ultrasonics has great potential for development. There remain a number of problems requiring detailed investigation in particular the verification of the signal processing electronics and trip software. It is considered that these problems while difficult are far from insurmountable and this work should result in the production of protection and monitoring systems suitable for deployment on the fast reactor. 6 figs

  7. Environmental sensors based on micromachined cantilevers with integrated read-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thaysen, Jacob; Jensenius, Henriette

    2000-01-01

    -out facilitates measurements in liquid. The probe has been successfully implemented in gaseous as well as in liquid experiments. For example, the probe has been used as an accurate and minute thermal sensor and as a humidity sensor. In liquid, the probe has been used to detect the presence of alcohol in water. (C......An AFM probe with integrated piezoresistive read-out has been developed and applied as a cantilever-based environmental sensor. The probe has a built-in reference cantilever, which makes it possible to subtract background drift directly in the measurement. Moreover, the integrated read...

  8. Steady Modeling for an Ammonia Synthesis Reactor Based on a Novel CDEAS-LS-SVM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A steady-state mathematical model is built in order to represent plant behavior under stationary operating conditions. A novel modeling using LS-SVR based on Cultural Differential Evolution with Ant Search is proposed. LS-SVM is adopted to establish the model of the net value of ammonia. The modeling method has fast convergence speed and good global adaptability for identification of the ammonia synthesis process. The LS-SVR model was established using the above-mentioned method. Simulation results verify the validity of the method.

  9. Mobile-Based Dictionary of Information and Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liando, O. E. S.; Mewengkang, A.; Kaseger, D.; Sangkop, F. I.; Rantung, V. P.; Rorimpandey, G. C.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to design and build mobile-based dictionary of information and communication technology applications to provide access to information in the form of glossary of terms in the context of information and communication technologies. Applications built in this study using the Android platform, with SQLite database model. This research uses prototype model development method which covers the stages of communication, Quick Plan, Quick Design Modeling, Construction of Prototype, Deployment Delivery & Feedback, and Full System Transformation. The design of this application is designed in such a way as to facilitate the user in the process of learning and understanding the new terms or vocabularies encountered in the world of information and communication technology. Mobile-based dictionary of Information And Communication Technology applications that have been built can be an alternative to learning literature. In its simplest form, this application is able to meet the need for a comprehensive and accurate dictionary of Information And Communication Technology function.

  10. The individual-oriented and social-oriented Chinese bicultural self: testing the theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2008-06-01

    The author proposes a bicultural self theory for contemporary Chinese individuals, encompassing 2 main components: the individual-oriented self and the social-oriented self. The social orientation is rooted in traditional Chinese conceptualization of the self, whereas the individual orientation has evolved and developed under Western influences along with recent societal modernization. The author conducted a series of 5 studies to test the theory and relate the model to important issues in current personality and social psychological research, such as cultural individualism-collectivism, self-construals, motivation, cognition, emotion, and well-being. A total of 977 university students in Taiwan participated. The author found that contrasting self-aspects were differentially associated with the aforementioned constructs, as theoretically predicted. This evidence thus generally supported the bicultural self model.

  11. Active self-testing noise measurement sensors for large-scale environmental sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Federico; Cuong, Nguyen The; Reinoso, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2013-12-13

    Large-scale noise pollution sensor networks consist of hundreds of spatially distributed microphones that measure environmental noise. These networks provide historical and real-time environmental data to citizens and decision makers and are therefore a key technology to steer environmental policy. However, the high cost of certified environmental microphone sensors render large-scale environmental networks prohibitively expensive. Several environmental network projects have started using off-the-shelf low-cost microphone sensors to reduce their costs, but these sensors have higher failure rates and produce lower quality data. To offset this disadvantage, we developed a low-cost noise sensor that actively checks its condition and indirectly the integrity of the data it produces. The main design concept is to embed a 13 mm speaker in the noise sensor casing and, by regularly scheduling a frequency sweep, estimate the evolution of the microphone's frequency response over time. This paper presents our noise sensor's hardware and software design together with the results of a test deployment in a large-scale environmental network in Belgium. Our middle-range-value sensor (around €50) effectively detected all experienced malfunctions, in laboratory tests and outdoor deployments, with a few false positives. Future improvements could further lower the cost of our sensor below €10.

  12. Self Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Page 22 R eferences ............................................................................ P age 23 A ppendices ...external dysuria which is more associated with vulvar or vaginal infection). Acute urethritis is most often due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria...gonorrhoeae. The vast majority of lower urinary tract infections in women are cystitis rather than urethritis. Acute , uncomplicated cystitis in young

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Self-Test on Structured Classroom Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Anthony Dean

    1977-01-01

    The study focused on the effect of the self-evaluation component of self-instructional packets in radiologic technology programs. It was found that the self-evaluation component clearly had a significant positive effect on learning, although the relative learning contribution of the component was not established. (MF)

  14. Evaluation of 12 blood glucose monitoring systems for self-testing: system accuracy and measurement reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2014-02-01

    Systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) have to provide accurate and reproducible blood glucose (BG) values in order to ensure adequate therapeutic decisions by people with diabetes. Twelve SMBG systems were compared in a standardized manner under controlled laboratory conditions: nine systems were available on the German market and were purchased from a local pharmacy, and three systems were obtained from the manufacturer (two systems were available on the U.S. market, and one system was not yet introduced to the German market). System accuracy was evaluated following DIN EN ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197:2003. In addition, measurement reproducibility was assessed following a modified TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research) procedure. Comparison measurements were performed with either the glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer; YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH) or the hexokinase method (cobas(®) c111; Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) according to the manufacturer's measurement procedure. The 12 evaluated systems showed between 71.5% and 100% of the measurement results within the required system accuracy limits. Ten systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum accuracy requirements specified by DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. In addition, accuracy limits of the recently published revision ISO 15197:2013 were applied and showed between 54.5% and 100% of the systems' measurement results within the required accuracy limits. Regarding measurement reproducibility, each of the 12 tested systems met the applied performance criteria. In summary, 83% of the systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum system accuracy requirements of DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. Each of the tested systems showed acceptable measurement reproducibility. In order to ensure sufficient measurement quality of each distributed test strip lot, regular evaluations are required.

  15. Functional alignments and self-tests for tilted and decentered optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.; Cross, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    The alignment of tilted and decentered optics is ordinarily difficult, because such optics have neither simple alignment points amenable to ordinary boresight methods, nor a simple alignment theory. Several different alignment examples which provide insight into a practical universal approach to all such systems are explored. The examples detailed are segments of the Antares Laser Fusion Project's optical train

  16. Self-Testing Promotes Superior Retention of Anatomy and Physiology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L.; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect shows that learning is enhanced by the act of recalling information after exposure. Although the testing effect is among the most robust findings in cognitive science, much of its empirical support is from laboratory studies and it has been applied as a strategy for enhancing learning in the classroom in a limited fashion. The…

  17. Development of a User Interface for the PVT SelfTest (PST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overarching goal of the project is to provide a brief, validated, zero upmass, performance test to provide astronauts with immediate feedback about cognitive...

  18. Mirroring the self: testing neurophysiological correlates of disturbed self-experience in schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestito, Mariateresa; Raballo, Andrea; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Leuci, Emanuela; Tonna, Matteo; Fortunati, Renata; De Paola, Giancarlo; Amore, Mario; Maggini, Carlo; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Self-disorders (SDs) have been described as a core schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotype, both in classic and contemporary psychopathological literature. However, such a core phenotype has not yet been investigated adopting a trans-domain approach that combines the phenomenological and the neurophysiological levels of analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between SDs and subtle, schizophrenia-specific impairments of emotional resonance that are supposed to reflect abnormalities in the mirror neurons mechanism. Specifically, we tested whether electromyographic response to emotional stimuli (i.e. a proxy for subtle changes in facial mimicry and related motor resonance mechanisms) would predict the occurrence of anomalous subjective experiences (i.e. SDs). Eighteen schizophrenia spectrum (SzSp) patients underwent a comprehensive psychopathological examination and were contextually tested with a multimodal paradigm, recording facial electromyographic activity of muscles in response to positive and negative emotional stimuli. Experiential anomalies were explored with the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) and then condensed into rational subscales mapping SzSp anomalous self-experiences. SzSp patients showed an imbalance in emotional motor resonance with a selective bias toward negative stimuli, as well as a multisensory integration impairment. Multiple regression analysis showed that electromyographic facial reactions in response to negative stimuli presented in auditory modality specifically and strongly correlated with SD subscore. The study confirms the potential of SDs as target phenotype for neurobiological research and encourages research into disturbed motor/emotional resonance as possible body-level correlate of disturbed subjective experiences in SzSp.

  19. Design and development of a computer-based continuous monitor for the determination of the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigu, J [Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Elliot Lake, Ontario (Canada). Elliot Lake Lab.; Raz, R; Golden, K; Dominguez, P [Alpha-NUCLEAR, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1984-08-15

    A portable, rugged, monitor has been designed and built for measuring the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron. The monitor is computer-based and employs a continuous filter strip which can be advanced at programmable time intervals to allow unattended continuous operation with automatic sampling, analysis and recording of radiation levels. Radionuclide analysis is carried out by two silicon diffused-junction alpha-detectors and electronic circuitry with multichannel spectral analysis capabilities. Standard gross ..cap alpha..-count methods and ..cap alpha..-spectroscopy methods can easily be implemented. The built-in computer performs a variety of operations via a specially designed interface module, including control and data recording functions, and computations, program storage and display functions. Programs and data are stored in the built-in casette tape drive and the computer integrated CRT display and keyboard allow simple, prompted menu-type operation of standard software. Graphical presentation of ..cap alpha..-spectra can be shown on the computer CRT and printed when required on the computer built-in thermal printer. In addition, to implementing the specially developed radionuclide analysis software, the operator can interact and modify existing software, and program new ones, through BASIC language programming, or employ the computer in a totally unrelated, general purpose model. Although the monitor is ideally suited for environmental radon (thoron) daughter monitoring, it could also be used in the determination of other airborne radionuclides provided adequate analytical procedures are developed or included in the already existing computer software.

  20. Design and development of a computer-based continuous monitor for the determination of the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1984-01-01

    A portable, rugged, monitor has been designed and built for measuring the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron. The monitor is computer-based and employs a continuous filter strip which can be advanced at programmable time intervals to allow unattended continuous operatin with automatic sampling, analysis and recording of radiation levels. Radionuclide analysis is carried out by two silicon diffused-junction alpha-detectors and electronic circuitry with multichannel spectral analysis capabilities. Standard gross α-count methods and α-spectroscopy methods can easily be implemented. The built-in computer performs a variety of operations via a specially designed interface module, including control and data recording functions, and computations, program storage and display functions. Programs and data are stored in the built-in casette tape drive and the computer integrated CRT display and keyboard allow simple, prompted menu-type operation of standard software. Graphical presentation of α-spectra can be shown on the computer CRT and printed when required on the computer built-in thermal printer. In addition, to implementing the specially developed radionuclide analysis software, the operator can interact and modify existing software, and program new ones, through BASIC language programming, or employ the computer in a totally unrelated, general purpose model. Although the monitor is ideally suited for environmental radon (thoron) daughter monitoring, it could also be used in the determination of other airborne radionuclides provided adequate analytical procedures are developed or included in the already existing computer software. (orig.)

  1. Recent applications of microprocessor-based instruments in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, N.R.; Dennis, U.E.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of microprocessors in the design of nuclear power plant instrumentation has led to levels of measurement and control not available previously. In addition to the expected expansion of functional (system) capability, numerous desirable features now are possible. The added ability to both self-calibrate and perform compensation algorithms has led to dramatic improvements in accuracies, response times, and noise rejection. Automated performance checking and self-testing simplify troubleshooting and required periodic surveillance. Alphanumeric displays allow both menu-driven operation and user-prompting, which, in turn, contribute to mistake avoidance. New features of these microprocessor-based instruments are of specific benefit in nuclear power reactors, were safety is of prime concern. Greater reliability and accuracy can be provided. Shortened calibration, surveillance, and repair times reduce the exposure to unnecessary challenges of the plant's protection systems that can arise from spurious noise signals

  2. Providing Home-Based HIV Testing and Counseling for Transgender Youth (Project Moxie): Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Metheny, Nicholas; Sharma, Akshay; Sullivan, Stephen; Riley, Erin

    2017-11-28

    Transgender and gender nonconforming people experience some of the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates in the United States, and experience many structural and behavioral barriers that may limit their engagement in HIV testing, prevention, and care. Evidence suggests that transgender and gender nonconforming youth (TY) are especially vulnerable to acquiring HIV, yet there is little research on TY and few services are targeted towards HIV testing, prevention, and care for this population. Telehealth presents an opportunity to mitigate some structural barriers that TY experience in accessing HIV testing, allowing TY to engage in HIV testing and counseling in a safe and nonjudgmental space of their choosing. Project Moxie is an HIV prevention intervention that pairs the use of HIV self-testing with remote video-based counseling and support from a trained, gender-affirming counselor. This study aims to offer a more positive HIV testing and counseling experience, with the goal of improving HIV testing frequency. Project Moxie involves a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 200 TY aged 15-24 years, who are randomized on a 1:1 basis to control or intervention arms. The aim is to examine whether the addition of counseling provided via telehealth, coupled with home-based HIV testing, can create gains in routine HIV testing among TY over a six-month follow-up period. This study implements a prospective pilot RCT of 200 TY recruited online. Participants in the control arm will receive one HIV self-testing kit and will be asked to report their results via the study's website. Participants in the experimental arm will receive one HIV self-testing kit and will test with a remotely-located counselor during a prescheduled video-counseling session. Participants are assessed at baseline, and at three and six months posttesting. Project Moxie was launched in June 2017 and recruitment is ongoing. As of August 21, 2017, the study had enrolled 130 eligible

  3. Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensor Based on Multimode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a fiberoptic vibration sensor based on the monitoring of the mode distribution in a multimode optical fiber. Detection of vibrations and their parameters is possible through observation of the output speckle pattern from the multimode optical fiber. A working experimental model has been built in which all used components are widely available and cheap: a CCD camera (a simple web-cam, a multimode laser in visible range as a light source, a length of multimode optical fiber, and a computer for signal processing. Measurements have shown good agreement with the actual frequency of vibrations, and promising results were achieved with the amplitude measurements although they require some adaptation of the experimental model. Proposed sensor is cheap and lightweight and therefore presents an interesting alternative for monitoring large smart structures.

  4. A smartphone-based introductory astronomy experiment: Seasons investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durelle, Jeremy; Jones, Jennifer; Merriman, Steven; Balan, Aurelian

    2017-02-01

    Light sensor probes are useful in experiments that investigate seasonal variations and the nature of light. However, having a dedicated light probe is not always possible or even convenient for many instructors. Modern smartphone technology gives instructors the ability to use built-in light sensors as an inexpensive alternative. This introductory experiment will have students use a smartphone loaded with a light detection app to quantitatively determine how changing latitude on Earth changes flux received. The purpose is to have students discover how the different seasons arise from the Earth-Sun system. While performing the experiment and analyzing the data, students will also discover the following important and relevant physical relationships: distance from light source and light brightness (flux), latitude and flux, and Earth's orientation and location (latitude) of maximum flux. By piecing all of these relationships together, students are able to explain the origins of the different seasons based on the data they collected.

  5. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  6. Distribution Locational Real-Time Pricing Based Smart Building Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jun; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    This paper proposes an real-virtual parallel computing scheme for smart building operations aiming at augmenting overall social welfare. The University of Denver's campus power grid and Ritchie fitness center is used for demonstrating the proposed approach. An artificial virtual system is built in parallel to the real physical system to evaluate the overall social cost of the building operation based on the social science based working productivity model, numerical experiment based building energy consumption model and the power system based real-time pricing mechanism. Through interactive feedback exchanged between the real and virtual system, enlarged social welfare, including monetary cost reduction and energy saving, as well as working productivity improvements, can be achieved.

  7. Adaptive Opportunistic Cooperative Control Mechanism Based on Combination Forecasting and Multilevel Sensing Technology of Sensors for Mobile Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile Internet of Things, there are many challenges, including sensing technology of sensors, how and when to join cooperative transmission, and how to select the cooperative sensors. To address these problems, we studied the combination forecasting based on the multilevel sensing technology of sensors, building upon which we proposed the adaptive opportunistic cooperative control mechanism based on the threshold values such as activity probability, distance, transmitting power, and number of relay sensors, in consideration of signal to noise ratio and outage probability. More importantly, the relay sensors would do self-test real time in order to judge whether to join the cooperative transmission, for maintaining the optimal cooperative transmission state with high performance. The mathematical analyses results show that the proposed adaptive opportunistic cooperative control approach could perform better in terms of throughput ratio, packet error rate and delay, and energy efficiency, compared with the direct transmission and opportunistic cooperative approaches.

  8. Compact field programmable gate array-based pulse-sequencer and radio-frequency generator for experiments with trapped atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned, E-mail: thaned.pruttivarasin@riken.jp [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Katori, Hidetoshi [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Innovative Space-Time Project, ERATO, JST, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We present a compact field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based pulse sequencer and radio-frequency (RF) generator suitable for experiments with cold trapped ions and atoms. The unit is capable of outputting a pulse sequence with at least 32 transistor-transistor logic (TTL) channels with a timing resolution of 40 ns and contains a built-in 100 MHz frequency counter for counting electrical pulses from a photo-multiplier tube. There are 16 independent direct-digital-synthesizers RF sources with fast (rise-time of ∼60 ns) amplitude switching and sub-mHz frequency tuning from 0 to 800 MHz.

  9. Smartphone-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program: Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heewon; Ko, Hoon; Thap, Tharoeun; Jeong, Changwon; Noh, Se-Eung; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Jinseok

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) that utilizes only a smartphone, with no external devices. As an efficient guide for cardiac rehabilitation exercise, we developed an application to automatically indicate the exercise intensity by comparing the estimated heart rate (HR) with the target heart rate zone (THZ). The HR is estimated using video images of a fingertip taken by the smartphone's built-in camera. The introduced CRP app includes pre-exercise, exercise with intensity guidance, and post-exercise. In the pre-exercise period, information such as THZ, exercise type, exercise stage order, and duration of each stage are set up. In the exercise with intensity guidance, the app estimates HR from the pulse obtained using the smartphone's built-in camera and compares the estimated HR with the THZ. Based on this comparison, the app adjusts the exercise intensity to shift the patient's HR to the THZ during exercise. In the post-exercise period, the app manages the ratio of the estimated HR to the THZ and provides a questionnaire on factors such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and leg pain during exercise, as objective and subjective evaluation indicators. As a key issue, HR estimation upon signal corruption due to motion artifacts is also considered. Through the smartphone-based CRP, we estimated the HR accuracy as mean absolute error and root mean squared error of 6.16 and 4.30bpm, respectively, with signal corruption due to motion artifacts being detected by combining the turning point ratio and kurtosis.

  10. Smartphone-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation Program: Feasibility Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Chung

    Full Text Available We introduce a cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP that utilizes only a smartphone, with no external devices. As an efficient guide for cardiac rehabilitation exercise, we developed an application to automatically indicate the exercise intensity by comparing the estimated heart rate (HR with the target heart rate zone (THZ. The HR is estimated using video images of a fingertip taken by the smartphone's built-in camera. The introduced CRP app includes pre-exercise, exercise with intensity guidance, and post-exercise. In the pre-exercise period, information such as THZ, exercise type, exercise stage order, and duration of each stage are set up. In the exercise with intensity guidance, the app estimates HR from the pulse obtained using the smartphone's built-in camera and compares the estimated HR with the THZ. Based on this comparison, the app adjusts the exercise intensity to shift the patient's HR to the THZ during exercise. In the post-exercise period, the app manages the ratio of the estimated HR to the THZ and provides a questionnaire on factors such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and leg pain during exercise, as objective and subjective evaluation indicators. As a key issue, HR estimation upon signal corruption due to motion artifacts is also considered. Through the smartphone-based CRP, we estimated the HR accuracy as mean absolute error and root mean squared error of 6.16 and 4.30bpm, respectively, with signal corruption due to motion artifacts being detected by combining the turning point ratio and kurtosis.

  11. Self-guaranteed measurement-based quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Hajdušek, Michal

    2018-05-01

    In order to guarantee the output of a quantum computation, we usually assume that the component devices are trusted. However, when the total computation process is large, it is not easy to guarantee the whole system when we have scaling effects, unexpected noise, or unaccounted for correlations between several subsystems. If we do not trust the measurement basis or the prepared entangled state, we do need to be worried about such uncertainties. To this end, we propose a self-guaranteed protocol for verification of quantum computation under the scheme of measurement-based quantum computation where no prior-trusted devices (measurement basis or entangled state) are needed. The approach we present enables the implementation of verifiable quantum computation using the measurement-based model in the context of a particular instance of delegated quantum computation where the server prepares the initial computational resource and sends it to the client, who drives the computation by single-qubit measurements. Applying self-testing procedures, we are able to verify the initial resource as well as the operation of the quantum devices and hence the computation itself. The overhead of our protocol scales with the size of the initial resource state to the power of 4 times the natural logarithm of the initial state's size.

  12. Enhancing food engineering education with interactive web-based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Koulouris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional deductive approach in teaching any engineering topic, teachers would first expose students to the derivation of the equations that govern the behavior of a physical system and then demonstrate the use of equations through a limited number of textbook examples. This methodology, however, is rarely adequate to unmask the cause-effect and quantitative relationships between the system variables that the equations embody. Web-based simulation, which is the integration of simulation and internet technologies, has the potential to enhance the learning experience by offering an interactive and easily accessible platform for quick and effortless experimentation with physical phenomena.This paper presents the design and development of a web-based platform for teaching basic food engineering phenomena to food technology students. The platform contains a variety of modules (“virtual experiments” covering the topics of mass and energy balances, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. In this paper, the design and development of three modules for mass balances and heat transfer is presented. Each webpage representing an educational module has the following features: visualization of the studied phenomenon through graphs, charts or videos, computation through a mathematical model and experimentation.  The student is allowed to edit key parameters of the phenomenon and observe the effect of these changes on the outputs. Experimentation can be done in a free or guided fashion with a set of prefabricated examples that students can run and self-test their knowledge by answering multiple-choice questions.

  13. Computer based system for measuring the minority carrier lifetime in the solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales A, A.; Casados C, G.

    1994-01-01

    We show the development of a computer based system for measuring the minority carrier lifetime in the base of silicon solar cells. The system allows using two different techniques for such kind of measurements:the open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and the surface voltage decay SVD. The equipment is based on internal cards for IBM-Pc or compatible computers that work as an oscilloscope and as a function generator, in addition to a synchronization and signal conditioning circuit. The system is fully controlled by a 'c' language program that optimizes the used of the instrument built in this way, and makes the analysis of the measurement data by curve fitting techniques. We show typical results obtained with silicon solar cells made in our laboratories. (Author)

  14. Automated Individual Prescription of Exercise with an XML-based Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S; Park, S R; Jang, Y; Park, J; Yoon, Y; Park, S

    2005-01-01

    Continuously motivating people to exercise regularly is more important than finding a barriers such as lack of time, cost of equipment or gym membership, lack of nearby facilities and poor weather or night-time lighting. Our proposed system presents practicable methods of motivation through a web-based exercise prescription service. Users are instructed to exercise according to their physical ability by means of an automated individual prescription of exercise checked and approved by a personal trainer or exercise specialist after being tested with the HIMS, fitness assessment system. Furthermore, utilizing BIOFIT exercise prescriptions scheduled by an expert system can help users exercise systematically. Automated individual prescriptions are built in XML based documents because the data needs to be flexible, expansible and convertible structures to process diverse exercise templates. Web-based exercise prescription service makes users stay interested in exercise even if they live in many different environments.

  15. Prediction of indoor radon concentration based on residence location and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.; Castren, O.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a model for assessing indoor radon concentrations in houses where measurements cannot be performed. It has been used in an epidemiological study and to determine the radon potential of new building sites. The model is based on data from about 10,000 buildings. Integrated radon measurements were made during the cold season in all the houses; their geographic coordinates were also known. The 2-mo measurement results were corrected to annual average concentrations. Construction data were collected from questionnaires completed by residents; geological data were determined from geological maps. Data were classified according to geographical, geological, and construction factors. In order to describe different radon production levels, the country was divided into four zones. We assumed that the factors were multiplicative, and a linear concentration-prediction model was used. The most significant factor in determining radon concentration was the geographical region, followed by soil type, year of construction, and type of foundation. The predicted indoor radon concentrations given by the model varied from 50 to 440 Bq m -3 . The lower figure represents a house with a basement, built in the 1950s on clay soil, in the region with the lowest radon concentration levels. The higher value represents a house with a concrete slab in contact with the ground, built in the 1980s, on gravel, in the region with the highest average radon concentration

  16. FPGA-Based Embedded Motion Estimation Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyi Wei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate real-time motion estimation is very critical to many computer vision tasks. However, because of its computational power and processing speed requirements, it is rarely used for real-time applications, especially for micro unmanned vehicles. In our previous work, a FPGA system was built to process optical flow vectors of 64 frames of 640×480 image per second. Compared to software-based algorithms, this system achieved much higher frame rate but marginal accuracy. In this paper, a more accurate optical flow algorithm is proposed. Temporal smoothing is incorporated in the hardware structure which significantly improves the algorithm accuracy. To accommodate temporal smoothing, the hardware structure is composed of two parts: the derivative (DER module produces intermediate results and the optical flow computation (OFC module calculates the final optical flow vectors. Software running on a built-in processor on the FPGA chip is used in the design to direct the data flow and manage hardware components. This new design has been implemented on a compact, low power, high performance hardware platform for micro UV applications. It is able to process 15 frames of 640×480 image per second and with much improved accuracy. Higher frame rate can be achieved with further optimization and additional memory space.

  17. Virtual Lead Identification of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors Based on Ligand and Structure-Based Pharmacophore Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar M. Mhaidat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Farnesyltransferase enzyme (FTase is considered an essential enzyme in the Ras signaling pathway associated with cancer. Thus, designing inhibitors for this enzyme might lead to the discovery of compounds with effective anticancer activity. In an attempt to obtain effective FTase inhibitors, pharmacophore hypotheses were generated using structure-based and ligand-based approaches built in Discovery Studio v3.1. Knowing the presence of the zinc feature is essential for inhibitor’s binding to the active site of FTase enzyme; further customization was applied to include this feature in the generated pharmacophore hypotheses. These pharmacophore hypotheses were thoroughly validated using various procedures such as ROC analysis and ligand pharmacophore mapping. The validated pharmacophore hypotheses were used to screen 3D databases to identify possible hits. Those which were both high ranked and showed sufficient ability to bind the zinc feature in active site, were further refined by applying drug-like criteria such as Lipiniski’s “rule of five” and ADMET filters. Finally, the two candidate compounds (ZINC39323901 and ZINC01034774 were allowed to dock using CDOCKER and GOLD in the active site of FTase enzyme to optimize hit selection.

  18. Study of a risk-based piping inspection guideline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shiaw-Wen; Hwang, Wen-Tsung; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2007-02-01

    A risk-based inspection system and a piping inspection guideline model were developed in this study. The research procedure consists of two parts--the building of a risk-based inspection model for piping and the construction of a risk-based piping inspection guideline model. Field visits at the plant were conducted to develop the risk-based inspection and strategic analysis system. A knowledge-based model had been built in accordance with international standards and local government regulations, and the rational unified process was applied for reducing the discrepancy in the development of the models. The models had been designed to analyze damage factors, damage models, and potential damage positions of piping in the petrochemical plants. The purpose of this study was to provide inspection-related personnel with the optimal planning tools for piping inspections, hence, to enable effective predictions of potential piping risks and to enhance the better degree of safety in plant operations that the petrochemical industries can be expected to achieve. A risk analysis was conducted on the piping system of a petrochemical plant. The outcome indicated that most of the risks resulted from a small number of pipelines.

  19. Obtaining information ultra-fast as-built in areas of high radiation to support decisions in maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems that arise when studying, planning and assessing a particular maintenance operation has to be performed in high radiation areas, is the determination of the level of reliability of information starting from the one available. For the past several years have been used in nuclear power plants worldwide acquisition systems called 3D laser scanner models.

  20. Built-in adjuvanticity of genetically and protein-engineered chimeric molecules for targeting of influenza A peptide epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekov, Nikola S; Ivanova, Iva I; Mihaylova, Nikolina M; Nikolova, Maria; Prechl, Jozsef; Tchorbanov, Andrey I

    2014-10-01

    Highly purified, subunit, or synthetic viral antigens are known to be weakly immunogenic and potentate only the antibody, rather than cell-mediated immune responses. An alternative approach for inducing protective immunity with small viral peptides would be the direct targeting of viral epitopes to the immunocompetent cells by DNA vaccines encoding antibody fragments specific to activating cell surface co-receptor molecules. Here, we are exploring as a new genetic vaccine, a DNA chimeric molecule encoding a T and B cell epitope-containing influenza A virus hemagglutinin peptide joined to sequences encoding a single-chain variable fragment antibody fragment specific for the costimulatory B cell complement receptors 1 and 2. This recombinant DNA molecule was inserted into eukaryotic expression vector and used as a naked DNA vaccine in WT and CR1/2 KO mice. The intramuscular administration of the DNA construct resulted in the in vivo expression of an immunogenic chimeric protein, which cross-links cell surface receptors on influenza-specific B cells. The DNA vaccination was followed by prime-boosting with the protein-engineered replica of the DNA construct, thus delivering an activation intracellular signal. Immunization with an expression vector containing the described construct and boosting with the protein chimera induced a strong anti-influenza cytotoxic response, modulation of cytokine profile, and a weak antibody response in Balb/c mice. The same immunization scheme did not result in generation of influenza-specific response in mice lacking the target receptor, underlining the molecular adjuvant effect of receptor targeting.

  1. Testing measurement equivalence of experienced holiday quality: Evidence on built-in bias in the Flash Eurobarometer survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we evaluate the degree of measurement equivalence between countries and over time for a measure of experienced holiday quality that has repeatedly been included in a public opinion survey series of high policy relevance: the Flash Eurobarometer survey series (2014–2016). The

  2. Angular acceptance analysis of an infrared focal plane array with a built-in stationary Fourier transform spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Frédéric; Ferrec, Yann; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Taboury, Jean; Chavel, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Stationary Fourier transform spectrometry is an interesting concept for building reliable field or embedded spectroradiometers, especially for the mid- and far- IR. Here, a very compact configuration of a cryogenic stationary Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectrometer is investigated, where the interferometer is directly integrated in the focal plane array (FPA). We present a theoretical analysis to explain and describe the fringe formation inside the FTIR-FPA structure when illuminated by an extended source positioned at a finite distance from the detection plane. The results are then exploited to propose a simple front lens design compatible with a handheld package.

  3. Dormant origins as a built-in safeguard in eukaryotic DNA replication against genome instability and disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Naoko; Pederson, Kayla D

    2017-08-01

    DNA replication is a prerequisite for cell proliferation, yet it can be increasingly challenging for a eukaryotic cell to faithfully duplicate its genome as its size and complexity expands. Dormant origins now emerge as a key component for cells to successfully accomplish such a demanding but essential task. In this perspective, we will first provide an overview of the fundamental processes eukaryotic cells have developed to regulate origin licensing and firing. With a special focus on mammalian systems, we will then highlight the role of dormant origins in preventing replication-associated genome instability and their functional interplay with proteins involved in the DNA damage repair response for tumor suppression. Lastly, deficiencies in the origin licensing machinery will be discussed in relation to their influence on stem cell maintenance and human diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  5. Experimental study on depth of paraffin wax over floating absorber plate in built-in storage solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sivakumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the effect of depth of phase change material over the absorber surface of an integrated collector-storage type flat plate solar water heater. Flat plate solar water heaters are extensively used all over the world to utilize the natural source of solar energy. In order to utilize the solar energy during off-sunshine hours, it is inevitable to store and retain solar thermal energy as long as possible. Here, phase change material is not used for heat storage, but to minimize losses during day and night time only. The depth of phase change material over a fixed depth of water in a solar thermal collector is an important geometric parameter that influences the maximum temperature rise during peak solar irradiation and hence the losses. From the results of the studies for different masses of paraffin wax phase change material layers, the optimum depth corresponding to the maximum heat gain till evening is found to be 2 mm, and the heat retention till the next day morning is found to be 4 mm.

  6. AGREEMENT ON THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF HOUSES TO BE BUILT IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In residential buying agreements, contracts governing default are usually common. Default is stated by expressing negligence in two respects, whether it is negligence in payment of instalment or negligence in the delay of settlement of house construction which will be delivered to the consumer. The developer's responsibility is usually related to the delay of the house construction and delivery to the consumer. In the execution of the sale and purchase transaction of the house to be built, consumers rarely gain consumer protection rights as regulated and mentioned in the article on consumer rights and business actor obligations contained in Article 4 and 7 of Law no. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection. Furthermore, field practice reality shows that consumers and developers do not have the same bargaining position, where the consumer are usually required to follow the agreement that has been standardized by developers who are legally contrary to Article 18 of Law no. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection.

  7. 60 GHz system-on-chip (SoC) with built-in memory and an on-chip antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Arsalan, Muhammad; Cheema, Hammad; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    A novel 60 GHz transmitter SoC with an on-chip antenna and integrated memory in CMOS 65 nm technology is presented in this paper. This highly integrated transmitter design can support a data rate of 2 GBPS with a transmission range of 1 m. The transmitter consists of a fundamental frequency 60 GHz PLL which covers the complete ISM band. The modulator following the PLL can support both BPSK and OOK modulation schemes. Both stored data on the integrated memory or directly from an external source can be transmitted. A tapered slot on chip antenna is integrated with the power amplifier to complete the front end of the transmitter design. Size of the complete transmitter with on-chip antenna is only 1.96 mm × 1.96 mm. The core circuits consume less than 100 mW of power. The high data rate capability of the design makes it extremely suitable for bandwidth hungry applications such as unencrypted HD video streaming and transmission.

  8. Impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna living in bird nests built in nestboxes in pear and apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lise; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Lavigne, Claire; Galès, Mathieu; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (≥10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered.

  9. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  10. 60 GHz system-on-chip (SoC) with built-in memory and an on-chip antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2014-04-01

    A novel 60 GHz transmitter SoC with an on-chip antenna and integrated memory in CMOS 65 nm technology is presented in this paper. This highly integrated transmitter design can support a data rate of 2 GBPS with a transmission range of 1 m. The transmitter consists of a fundamental frequency 60 GHz PLL which covers the complete ISM band. The modulator following the PLL can support both BPSK and OOK modulation schemes. Both stored data on the integrated memory or directly from an external source can be transmitted. A tapered slot on chip antenna is integrated with the power amplifier to complete the front end of the transmitter design. Size of the complete transmitter with on-chip antenna is only 1.96 mm × 1.96 mm. The core circuits consume less than 100 mW of power. The high data rate capability of the design makes it extremely suitable for bandwidth hungry applications such as unencrypted HD video streaming and transmission.

  11. A built-in co-carcinogenic effect due to viruses involved in latent or persistent infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Arnau, José

    2007-01-01

    instability. Because of chromosomal instability, the genome of these cell lines will lead to changes from generation to generation and will face a remarkable selection pressure both from lost traits, apoptosis, and from the immune system. Viruses causing latent or persistent infections have evolved many...

  12. Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

  13. Setup of the development tools for a small-sized controller built in a robot using Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Cheol; Jun, Hyeong Seop; Choi, Yu Rak; Kim, Jae Hee

    2004-03-01

    This report explains a setup method of practical development tools for robot control software programming. Well constituted development tools make a programmer more productive and a program more reliable. We ported a proven operating system to the target board (our robot's controller) to avoid such convention. We selected open source Linux as operating system, because it is free, reliable, flexible and widely used. First, we setup the host computer with Linux, and installed a cross compiler on it. And we ported Linux to the target board and connected to the host computer with ethernet, and setup NFS to both the host and the target. So the target board can use host computer's hard disk as it's own disk. Next, we installed gdb server on the target board and gdb client and DDD to the host computer for debugging the target program in the host computer with graphic environment. Finally, we patched the target board's Linux kernel with another one which have realtime capability. In this way, we can have a realtime embedded hardware controller for a robot with convenient software developing tools. All source programs are edited and compiled on the host computer, and executable codes exist in the NFS mounted directory that can be accessed from target board's directory. We can execute and debugging the code by means of logging into the target through the ethernet or the serial line

  14. Trees Containing Built-In Pulping Catalysts - Final Report - 08/18/1997 - 08/18/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullman, G.; Dimmel, D.; Peter, G.

    2000-08-18

    Several hardwood and softwood trees were analyzed for the presence of anthraquinone-type molecules. Low levels of anthraquinone (AQ) and anthrone components were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and sensitive selected-ion monitoring techniques. Ten out of seventeen hardwood samples examined contained AQ-type components; however, the levels were typically below {approximately}6 ppm. No AQs were observed in the few softwood samples that were examined. The AQs were more concentrated in the heartwood of teak than in the sapwood. The delignification of pine was enhanced by the addition of teak chips ({approximately}0.7% AQ-equivalence content) to the cook, suggesting that endogenous AQs can be released from wood during pulping and can catalyze delignification reactions. Eastern cottonwood contained AQ, methyl AQ, and dimethyl AQ, all useful for wood pulping. This is the first time unsubstituted AQ has been observed in wood extracts. Due to the presence of these pulping catalysts, rapid growth rates in plantation settings, and the ease of genetic transformation, eastern cottonwood is a suitable candidate for genetic engineering studies to enhance AQ content. To achieve effective catalytic pulping activity, poplar and cottonwood, respectively, require {approximately}100 and 1000 times more for pulping catalysts. A strategy to increase AQ concentration in natural wood was developed and is currently being tested. This strategy involves ''turning up'' isochorismate synthase (ICS) through genetic engineering. Isochorismate synthase is the first enzyme in the AQ pathway branching from the shikimic acid pathway. In general, the level of enzyme activity at the first branch point or committed step controls the flux through a biosynthetic pathway. To test if the level of ICS regulates AQ biosynthesis in plant tissues, we proposed to over-express this synthase in plant cells. A partial cDNA encoding a putative ICS was available from the random cDNA sequencing project carried out with Arabidopsis thaliana. We used this putative plant ICS gene fragment to isolate and sequence a full-length ICS cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana. The putative full-length cDNA encodes for a 569 amino acid protein of {approximately}62kDa. This sequence represents the first full-length ICS cDNA isolated from a plant. When inserted into E. coli, our isolated cDNA over-expressed ICS protein in the insoluble inclusion bodies. A plant expression vector containing the ICS cDNA, NP II for selection on the antibiotic kanamycin, and duplicated 35S-cauliflower mosaic virus promoter were inserted into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. Transformation experiments for insertion of these foreign genes into Populus deltoides 'C175' resulted in eight lines able to regenerate shoots and grow roots in the presence of kanamycin. Plants from these eight lines have acclimated to growth in sterile soil and will be moved to a greenhouse environment in spring 2001. Non rooted shoots from each line are currently being multiplied by shoot culture. When enough shoot tissue and/or greenhouse plant stem tissue is available, AQ analysis will be done and compared with non transformed control tissue.

  15. MPR multi-purpose reactor to be built in Egypt. MPR reactor de usos multiples a construir en Egipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-01-01

    Competing with two enterprises from the US and Canada and with a French-German consortium, INVAP won a bid for the supply of a research reactor to Egypt. This is the most important contract ever made by Argentina involving the supply, on a turnkey operation, of a complex facility that incorporates advanced technologies developed in our country and for a sum of approximately 80 million US dollars.

  16. A real-time deflection monitoring system for wind turbine blades using a built-in laser displacement sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Giri, Paritosh; Lee, Jung-Ryul [Korea Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and LANL-CBNU Engineering Inst.

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy is considered a good alternative to deal with the issues related to fossil fuel and environmental pollution. Wind energy as one of such renewable energy alternatives has seen a substantial growth. With commercially viable global wind power potential, wind energy penetration is further expected to rise, and so will the related problems. One of the issues is the collision of wind blade and tower during operation. To improve safety during operation, to minimize the risk of sudden failure or total breakdown, and to ensure reliable power generation and reduce wind turbine life cycle costs, a structural health monitoring (SHM) technology is required. This study proposes a single laser displacement sensor (LDS) system, where all of the rotating blades could be evaluated effectively. The system is cost-effective as well, as the system costs only a mere thousand dollars. If the blade bolt loosening occurs, it causes deflection in the affected blade. In a similar manner, nacelle tilt or mass loss damage in the blade will result in change of blade's position and the proposed system can identify such problems with ease. With increased demand of energy, the sizes of wind blades are getting bigger and bigger due to which people are installing wind turbines very high above the ground level or offshore. It is impractical to monitor the deflection through wired connection in these cases and hence can be replaced by a wireless solution. This wireless solution is achieved using Zigbee technology which operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands, typically 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz and 868 MHz. The output from the LDS is fed to the microcontroller which acts as an analog to digital converter which in turn is connected to the Zigbee transceiver module, which transmits the data. At the other end, the Zigbee reads the data and displays on the PC from where user can monitor the condition of wind blades. (orig.)

  17. Biodegradable scaffold with built-in vasculature for organ-on-a-chip engineering and direct surgical anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyang; Montgomery, Miles; Chamberlain, M. Dean; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Korolj, Anastasia; Pahnke, Aric; Wells, Laura A.; Massé, Stéphane; Kim, Jihye; Reis, Lewis; Momen, Abdul; Nunes, Sara S.; Wheeler, Aaron R.; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Keller, Gordon; Sefton, Michael V.; Radisic, Milica

    2016-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a scaffold (hereafter referred to as AngioChip) that supports the assembly of parenchymal cells on a mechanically tunable matrix surrounding a perfusable, branched, three-dimensional microchannel network coated with endothelial cells. The design of AngioChip decouples the material choices for the engineered vessel network and for cell seeding in the parenchyma, enabling extensive remodelling while maintaining an open-vessel lumen. The incorporation of nanopores and micro-holes in the vessel walls enhances permeability, and permits intercellular crosstalk and extravasation of monocytes and endothelial cells on biomolecular stimulation. We also show that vascularized hepatic tissues and cardiac tissues engineered by using AngioChips process clinically relevant drugs delivered through the vasculature, and that millimetre-thick cardiac tissues can be engineered in a scalable manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that AngioChip cardiac tissues implanted with direct surgical anastomosis to the femoral vessels of rat hindlimbs establish immediate blood perfusion.

  18. A compact spin-exchange optical pumping system for 3He polarization based on a solenoid coil, a VBG laser diode, and a cosine theta RF coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungman; Kim, Jongyul; Moon, Myung Kook; Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Seung Wook; Ino, Takashi; Skoy, Vadim R.; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2013-02-01

    For use as a neutron spin polarizer or analyzer in the neutron beam lines of the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) nuclear research reactor, a 3He polarizer was designed based on both a compact solenoid coil and a VBG (volume Bragg grating) diode laser with a narrow spectral linewidth of 25 GHz. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal was measured and analyzed using both a built-in cosine radio-frequency (RF) coil and a pick-up coil. Using a neutron transmission measurement, we estimated the polarization ratio of the 3He cell as 18% for an optical pumping time of 8 hours.

  19. Design of a steering stabilizer based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhaomin; Yan, Yibin

    2018-04-01

    This design realizes a posture correction device of griping steering wheel based on CAN bus, which is embedded in the steering wheel of vehicles. The system aims to detect the drivers' abnormal griping postures and provides drivers with classification alerts, by combining the recorded griping postures data and the vehicle speed data that are obtained via the CAN bus. The warning information are automatically stored and retained in the device for 12 months. To enhance the alerting effect, the count of this warning message for both the latest month and the last 12 months are displayed on the dashboard panel. In addition to prevent itself from being blocked and self-detect any faults in advance, the appliance also provide a self-test function, which will communicate with the integrated instrument system in vehicle and do simulation test right after the vehicle power on. This appliance can help to urge and ensure drivers to operate the steering wheel correctly, effectively, and timely; prevent some typical incorrect behaviors which commonly happen along with the change of griping postures, such as the using cellphone, and ultimately, reduce the incidence of traffic accidents.

  20. Home-Based HIV Testing and Counseling for Male Couples (Project Nexus): A Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Sullivan, Stephen P; Riley, Erin; Johnson, Brent A; Mitchell, Jason; McFarland, Deborah; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2017-05-30

    HIV prevalence remains high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, yet the majority of research has focused on MSM as individuals, not as dyads, and has discussed HIV risks primarily in the context of casual sex. Nexus is an online prevention program that combines home-based HIV testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). It allows partners in dyadic MSM relationships to receive HIV testing and care in the comfort of their designated residence, via video-based chat. By using video-based technologies (eg, VSee video chat), male couples receive counseling and support from a remote online counselor, while testing for HIV at home. This randomized control trial (RCT) aims to examine the effects of video-based counseling combined with home-based HIV testing on couples' management of HIV risk, formation and adherence to explicit sexual agreements, and sexual risk-taking. The research implements a prospective RCT of 400 online-recruited male couples: 200 self-reported concordant-negative couples and 200 self-reported discordant couples. Couples in the control arm will receive one or two home-based HIV self-testing kits and will be asked to report their results via the study's website. Couples in the experimental arm will receive one or two home-based HIV self-testing kits and will conduct these tests together under the facilitation of a remotely located counselor during a prescheduled VSee-based video CHTC session. Study assessments are taken at baseline, as well as at 3- and 6-month follow-up sessions. Project Nexus was launched in April 2016 and is ongoing. To date, 219 eligible couples have been enrolled and randomized. Combining home-based HIV testing with video-based counseling creates an opportunity to expand CHTC to male couples who (1) live outside metro areas, (2) live in rural areas without access to testing services or LGBTQ resources, or (3) feel that current clinic-based testing is not for them (eg, due to fears of

  1. Fiber-Based Lasers as an Option for GRACE Follow-On Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Fiber based lasers offer a number of attractive characteristics for space application: state of the art laser technology, leverage of design and reliability from the substantial investments of the telecon industry, and convenient redundancy of higher risk components through fiber splicing. At NASA/Goddard we are currently investigating three GFO fiber-based laser options: a fiber oscillator built in our laboratory; an effort to space qualify a commercial design that uses a proprietary high-gain fiber cavity; and the space qualification of a promising new commercial external cavity laser, notable for its low-mass, compact design. In my talk I will outline these efforts, and suggest that the GFO Project may soon have the option of a US laser vendor for its light source.

  2. Shape determinative slice localization for patient-specific masseter modeling using shape-based interpolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H.P. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (Singapore); Biomedical Imaging Lab., Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); Foong, K.W.C. [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (Singapore); Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Ong, S.H. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Div. of Bioengineering, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, J.; Nowinski, W.L. [Biomedical Imaging Lab., Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); Goh, P.S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    The masseter plays a critical role in the mastication system. A hybrid method to shape-based interpolation is used to build the masseter model from magnetic resonance (MR) data sets. The main contribution here is the localizing of determinative slices in the data sets where clinicians are required to perform manual segmentations in order for an accurate model to be built. Shape-based criteria were used to locate the candidates for determinative slices and fuzzy-c-means (FCM) clustering technique was used to establish the determinative slices. Five masseter models were built in our work and the average overlap indices ({kappa}) achieved is 85.2%. This indicates that there is good agreement between the models and the manual contour tracings. In addition, the time taken, as compared to manually segmenting all the slices, is significantly lesser. (orig.)

  3. Shape determinative slice localization for patient-specific masseter modeling using shape-based interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, H.P.; Foong, K.W.C.; Ong, S.H.; Liu, J.; Nowinski, W.L.; Goh, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    The masseter plays a critical role in the mastication system. A hybrid method to shape-based interpolation is used to build the masseter model from magnetic resonance (MR) data sets. The main contribution here is the localizing of determinative slices in the data sets where clinicians are required to perform manual segmentations in order for an accurate model to be built. Shape-based criteria were used to locate the candidates for determinative slices and fuzzy-c-means (FCM) clustering technique was used to establish the determinative slices. Five masseter models were built in our work and the average overlap indices (κ) achieved is 85.2%. This indicates that there is good agreement between the models and the manual contour tracings. In addition, the time taken, as compared to manually segmenting all the slices, is significantly lesser. (orig.)

  4. ZeBase: an open-source relational database for zebrafish laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Monica R; Hassenplug, Eric; McPhail, Rodney; Leung, Yuk Fai

    2012-03-01

    Abstract ZeBase is an open-source relational database for zebrafish inventory. It is designed for the recording of genetic, breeding, and survival information of fish lines maintained in a single- or multi-laboratory environment. Users can easily access ZeBase through standard web-browsers anywhere on a network. Convenient search and reporting functions are available to facilitate routine inventory work; such functions can also be automated by simple scripting. Optional barcode generation and scanning are also built-in for easy access to the information related to any fish. Further information of the database and an example implementation can be found at http://zebase.bio.purdue.edu.

  5. Research on Evaluation Model for Secondary Task Driving Safety Based on Driver Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of performing different types of secondary task while driving on driver eye movements and to build a safety evaluation model for secondary task driving. Eighteen young drivers were selected and completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks were analyzed. Based on measures which had significant difference between the baseline and secondary tasks driving conditions, the evaluation index system was built. Method of principal component analysis (PCA was applied to analyze evaluation indexes data in order to obtain the coefficient weights of indexes and build the safety evaluation model. Based on evaluation scores, the driving safety was grouped into five levels (very high, high, average, low, and very low using K-means clustering algorithm. Results showed that secondary task driving severely distracts the driver and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions.

  6. Emergency Load Shedding Strategy Based on Sensitivity Analysis of Relay Operation Margin against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun Sun

    2012-01-01

    the runtime emergent states of related system component. Based on sensitivity analysis between the relay operation margin and power system state variables, an optimal load shedding strategy is applied to adjust the emergent states timely before the unwanted relay operation. Load dynamics is also taken...... into account to compensate load shedding amount calculation. And the multi-agent technology is applied for the whole strategy implementation. A test system is built in real time digital simulator (RTDS) and has demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.......In order to prevent long term voltage instability and induced cascading events, a load shedding strategy based on the sensitivity of relay operation margin to load powers is discussed and proposed in this paper. The operation margin of critical impedance backup relay is defined to identify...

  7. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Model Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya’nan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy sets theory cannot describe the data comprehensively, which has greatly limited the objectivity of fuzzy time series in uncertain data forecasting. In this regard, an intuitionistic fuzzy time series forecasting model is built. In the new model, a fuzzy clustering algorithm is used to divide the universe of discourse into unequal intervals, and a more objective technique for ascertaining the membership function and nonmembership function of the intuitionistic fuzzy set is proposed. On these bases, forecast rules based on intuitionistic fuzzy approximate reasoning are established. At last, contrast experiments on the enrollments of the University of Alabama and the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index are carried out. The results show that the new model has a clear advantage of improving the forecast accuracy.

  8. A Method for Harmonic Sources Detection based on Harmonic Distortion Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruixing; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Xian

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic sources detection at the point of common coupling is an essential step for harmonic contribution determination and harmonic mitigation. The harmonic distortion power rate index is proposed for harmonic source location based on IEEE Std 1459-2010 in the paper. The method only based on harmonic distortion power is not suitable when the background harmonic is large. To solve this problem, a threshold is determined by the prior information, when the harmonic distortion power is larger than the threshold, the customer side is considered as the main harmonic source, otherwise, the utility side is. A simple model of public power system was built in MATLAB/Simulink and field test results of typical harmonic loads verified the effectiveness of proposed method.

  9. Prototype of an energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general mask based laser material processing (MBLMP) is a process which suffers from a low energy efficiency, because the majority of the laser light is absorbed in or reflected by the mask. We have developed a device called an energy enhancer which is capable of improving the energy efficienc...... component reflectivity and alignment sensitivity are investigated in order to evaluate the possibility of making commercial use of the device. The obtainable image quality and how this is influenced by the focusing and imaging system is discussed in some detail....... by a factor of 2 - 4 for a typical TEA-CO2 system for mask based laser marking. A simple ray-tracing model has been built in order to design and optimise the energy enhancer. Thus we present experimental results as well as simulations and show fine accordance between the two. Important system parameters like...

  10. Data-Based Predictive Control with Multirate Prediction Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Data-based predictive control is an emerging control method that stems from Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC computes current control action based on a prediction of the system output a number of time steps into the future and is generally derived from a known model of the system. Data-based predictive control has the advantage of deriving predictive models and controller gains from input-output data. Thus, a controller can be designed from the outputs of complex simulation code or a physical system where no explicit model exists. If the output data happens to be corrupted by periodic disturbances, the designed controller will also have the built-in ability to reject these disturbances without the need to know them. When data-based predictive control is implemented online, it becomes a version of adaptive control. One challenge of MPC is computational requirements increasing with prediction horizon length. This paper develops a closed-loop dynamic output feedback controller that minimizes a multi-step-ahead receding-horizon cost function with multirate prediction step. One result is a reduced influence of prediction horizon and the number of system outputs on the computational requirements of the controller. Another result is an emphasis on portions of the prediction window that are sampled more frequently. A third result is the ability to include more outputs in the feedback path than in the cost function.

  11. Using Cloud-based Storage Technologies for Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, A.; Readey, J.; Votava, P.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud based infrastructure may offer several key benefits of scalability, built in redundancy and reduced total cost of ownership as compared with a traditional data center approach. However, most of the tools and software systems developed for NASA data repositories were not developed with a cloud based infrastructure in mind and do not fully take advantage of commonly available cloud-based technologies. Object storage services are provided through all the leading public (Amazon Web Service, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, etc.) and private (Open Stack) clouds, and may provide a more cost-effective means of storing large data collections online. We describe a system that utilizes object storage rather than traditional file system based storage to vend earth science data. The system described is not only cost effective, but shows superior performance for running many different analytics tasks in the cloud. To enable compatibility with existing tools and applications, we outline client libraries that are API compatible with existing libraries for HDF5 and NetCDF4. Performance of the system is demonstrated using clouds services running on Amazon Web Services.

  12. Multi-Agent System Based Special Protection and Emergency Control Scheme against Cascading Events in Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    relay operations due to low voltage or overload state in the post stage of N-1 (or N-k) contingency. If such state could be sensed and adjusted appropriately before those relay actions, the system stability might be sustained. So it is of great significance to develop a suitable protection scheme...... the proposed protection strategy in this thesis, a real time simulation platform based on Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) and LabVIEW is built. In this platform, the cases of cascaded blackouts are simulated on the test system simplified from the East Denmark power system. For the MAS based control system......, the distributed power system agents are set up in RTDS, while the agents in higher level are designed by LabVIEW toolkits. The case studies and simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of real time application of the proposed MAS based special protection and emergency control scheme against the cascaded...

  13. Assembly work and transport of JT-60SA cryostat base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Fuminori; Masaki, Kei; Yagyu, Jun-ichi; Shibama, Yusuke; Sakasai, Akira; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Nishiyama, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Nakamura, Shigetoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency started to construct a fully superconducting tokamak experiment device, JT-60SA, to support the ITER since January, 2013 at the Fusion Research and Development Directorate in Naka, Japan. The JT-60SA will be constructed with enhancing the previous JT-60 infrastructures, in the JT-60 torus hall, where the ex-JT-60 machine was disassembled. The JT-60SA Cryostat Base, for base of the entire tokamak structure, were assembly as the first step of this construction. The Cryostat Base (CB, 250tons) is consists of 7 main components made of stainless steel, in 12 m diameter and 3 m height. The CB was built in the Spain and transported to the Naka site, via Hitachi port. After pre-assembly work including preliminary measurements and sole plate adjustments of its height/flatness, the JT-60SA CB was carefully set on the sole plate. JT-60SA CB was assembled with high accuracy by using a laser tracker. The CB was adjusted in the height and flatness against the assembly reference position and determined by the absolute coordinates. This report introduces the concrete result of assembly work and transport of JT-60SA CB. (author)

  14. Emotion and Cognitive Reappraisal Based on GSR Wearable Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Minjia; XIE Lun; WANG Zhiliang; REN Fuji

    2017-01-01

    Various wearable equipment enables us to measure people behavior by physiological signals. In our research, we present one gal-vanic skin reaction (GSR) wearable sensor which can analyze human emotions based on cognition reappraisal. First, We research the factors of emotional state transition in Arousal-Valence-Stance(AVS) emotional space. Second, the influence of the cognition on emotional state transition is considered, and the reappraisal factor based on Gross regulation theory is established to correct the effectiveness from cognitive reappraisal ability to emotional state transition. Third, based on the previous work, we establish a GSR emotion sensing system for predicting emotional state transition and considering the correlation between GSR signals and emotions. Finally, an overall wearable sensor layout is built. In the experiment part, we invited 30 college students to wear our GSR sensors and watch 14 kinds of affective videos. We recorded their GSR signals while asking them to record their emotional states synchronously. The experiment results show different reappraisal factors can predict subjects'emotional state transition well and indirectly confirm the feasibility of the Gross regulation theory.

  15. Passive base isolation with superelastic nitinol SMA helical springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bin; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Han; Song, Gangbing

    2014-01-01

    Seismic isolation of structures such as multi-story buildings, nuclear reactors, bridges, and liquid storage tanks should be designed to preserve structural integrity. By implementing seismic isolation technology, the deformation of superstructures can be dramatically reduced, consequently helping to protect their safety as well. In this paper, an innovative type of passive base isolation system, which is mainly composed of superelastic nitinol SMA helical springs, is developed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, a two-story experimental steel frame model is constructed, and two superelastic SMA helical springs are thermo-mechanically built in the laboratory. To describe the nonlinear mechanical properties of the superelastic SMA helical springs under reciprocating load, a phenomenological model is presented in terms of a series of tensile tests. Afterwards, a numerical model of the two-story frame with the suggested isolation system is set up to simulate the response of the isolated frame subjected to an earthquake. Both the experimental and the numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed base isolation system can remarkably suppress structural vibrations and has improved isolation effects when compared with a steel spring isolation system. Due to the capabilities of energy dissipation as well as fully re-centering, it is very applicable to utilize the suggested isolation system in base isolated structures to resist earthquakes. (paper)

  16. Tamper indicating and sensing optical-based smart structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliva, P.; Anheier, N.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.; Stahl, K.A.; Undem, H.A.

    1995-05-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the type of optical-based structures that can be designed and constructed. These smart structures are capable of responding to their environment. The examples given represent a modest sampling of the complexity that can be achieved in both design and practice. Tamper-indicating containers and smart, sensing windows demonstrate just a few of the applications. We have shown that optical-based smart structures can be made multifunctional with the sensing built in. The next generation smart structure will combine the sensing functionality of these optical-based smart structures with other sensors such as piezoelectrics and electro-rheological fluids to not only be able to respond to the environment, but to adapt to it as well. An example of functionality in this regime would be a piezosensor that senses pressure changes (e.g., shock waves), which then causes an electro-rheological fluid to change viscosity. A fiber sensor located in or near the electro-rheological fluid senses the stiffness change and sends a signal through a feedback loop back to the piezosensor for additional adjustments to the electro-rheological fluid

  17. Knowledge-Based Object Detection in Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boochs, F.; Karmacharya, A.; Marbs, A.

    2012-07-01

    Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This "understanding" enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL), used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists' knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.

  18. Development of a Mobile User Interface for Image-based Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungye; Schap, Tusarebecca; Bosch, Marc; Maciejewski, Ross; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-12-31

    In this paper, we present a mobile user interface for image-based dietary assessment. The mobile user interface provides a front end to a client-server image recognition and portion estimation software. In the client-server configuration, the user interactively records a series of food images using a built-in camera on the mobile device. Images are sent from the mobile device to the server, and the calorie content of the meal is estimated. In this paper, we describe and discuss the design and development of our mobile user interface features. We discuss the design concepts, through initial ideas and implementations. For each concept, we discuss qualitative user feedback from participants using the mobile client application. We then discuss future designs, including work on design considerations for the mobile application to allow the user to interactively correct errors in the automatic processing while reducing the user burden associated with classical pen-and-paper dietary records.

  19. A Prediction Method of Airport Noise Based on Hybrid Ensemble Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao XU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using monitoring history data to build and to train a prediction model for airport noise is a normal method in recent years. However, the single model built in different ways has various performances in the storage, efficiency and accuracy. In order to predict the noise accurately in some complex environment around airport, this paper presents a prediction method based on hybrid ensemble learning. The proposed method ensembles three algorithms: artificial neural network as an active learner, nearest neighbor as a passive leaner and nonlinear regression as a synthesized learner. The experimental results show that the three learners can meet forecast demands respectively in on- line, near-line and off-line. And the accuracy of prediction is improved by integrating these three learners’ results.

  20. State Base Map for GIS – New Digital Topographic Map of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Srbinoski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI built in accordance with INSPIRE directive is to standardize spatial data infrastructure on national level. In that direction, topographic maps are a basic platform for acquiring spatial data within geoinformation systems and one of the most important  segments of NSDI. This paper presents methodology of establishing the new digital topographic map of the Republic of Macedonia titled “State Base Map for GIS in Macedonia”. This paper analyzes geometrical accuracy of new digital topographic maps. Production of the new digital topographic map has been the most important cartographic project in the Republic of Macedonia since it became independent.

  1. Analysis in nuclear power accident emergency based on random network and particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Dichen; Fang Fang; Ding Weicheng; Chen Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The GERT random network model of nuclear power accident emergency was built in this paper, and the intelligent computation was combined with the random network based on the analysis of Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. The emergency process was divided into the series link and parallel link, and the parallel link was the part of series link. The overall allocation of resources was firstly optimized, and then the parallel link was analyzed. The effect of the resources for emergency used in different links was analyzed, and it was put forward that the corresponding particle velocity vector was limited under the condition of limited emergency resources. The resource-constrained particle swarm optimization was obtained by using velocity projection matrix to correct the motion of particles. The optimized allocation of resources in emergency process was obtained and the time consumption of nuclear power accident emergency was reduced. (authors)

  2. An InGrid based Low Energy X-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Christoph; Kaminski, Jochen; Lupberger, Michael; Vafeiadis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    An X-ray detector based on the combination of an integrated Micromegas stage with a pixel chip has been built in order to be installed at the CERN Axion Solar Telescope. Due to its high granularity and spatial resolution this detector allows for a topological background suppression along with a detection threshold below $1\\,\\text{keV}$. Tests at the CAST Detector Lab show the detector's ability to detect X-ray photons down to an energy as low as $277\\,\\text{eV}$. The first background data taken after the installation at the CAST experiment underline the detector's performance with an average background rate of $5\\times10^{-5}\\,/\\text{keV}/\\text{cm}^2/\\text{s}$ between 2 and $10\\,\\text{keV}$ when using a lead shielding.

  3. Image and video based remote target localization and tracking on smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qia; Lobzhanidze, Alex; Jang, Hyun; Zeng, Wenjun; Shang, Yi; Yang, Jingyu

    2012-06-01

    Smartphones are becoming popular nowadays not only because of its communication functionality but also, more importantly, its powerful sensing and computing capability. In this paper, we describe a novel and accurate image and video based remote target localization and tracking system using the Android smartphones, by leveraging its built-in sensors such as camera, digital compass, GPS, etc. Even though many other distance estimation or localization devices are available, our all-in-one, easy-to-use localization and tracking system on low cost and commodity smartphones is first of its kind. Furthermore, smartphones' exclusive user-friendly interface has been effectively taken advantage of by our system to facilitate low complexity and high accuracy. Our experimental results show that our system works accurately and efficiently.

  4. Photovoltaic X-ray detectors based on epitaxial GaAs structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmadullin, R.A. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Artemov, V.V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninski pr., Moscow B-333, 117333 (Russian Federation); Dvoryankin, V.F. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vfd217@ire216.msk.su; Dvoryankina, G.G. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Dikaev, Yu.M. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ermakov, M.G. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ermakova, O.N. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Chmil, V.B. [Scientific State Center, High Energy Physics Institute, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Holodenko, A.G. [Scientific State Center, High Energy Physics Institute, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Kudryashov, A.A.; Krikunov, A.I.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Vorobiev, A.P. [Scientific State Center, High Energy Physics Institute, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2005-12-01

    A new type of the photovoltaic X-ray detector based on epitaxial p{sup +}-n-n'-n{sup +} GaAs structures which provides a high efficiency of charge collection in the non-bias operation mode at room temperature is proposed. The GaAs epitaxial structures were grown by vapor-phase epitaxy on heavily doped n{sup +}-GaAs(1 0 0) substrates. The absorption efficiency of GaAs X-ray detector is discussed. I-V and C-V characteristics of the photovoltaic X-ray detectors are analyzed. The built-in electric field profiles in the depletion region of epitaxial structures are measured by the EBIC method. Charge collection efficiency to {alpha}-particles and {gamma}-radiation are measured. The application of X-ray detectors is discussed.

  5. Interactive computer-based instruction: Basic material control and accounting demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisch, B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of interactive, computer-based training (CBT) courses can be a time- and resource-saving alternative to formal instruction in a classroom milieu. With CBT, students can proceed at their own pace, fit the study course into their schedule, and avoid the extra time and effort involved in travel and other special arrangements. The demonstration given here is an abbreviated, annotated version of a recently developed course in basic material control and accounting designed for the MC and A novice. The system used is ''Quest'' which includes multi-media capabilities, individual scoring, and built-in result-reporting capabilities for the course administrator. Efficient instruction and training are more important than ever because of the growing numbers of relatively inexperienced persons becoming active in safeguards

  6. Assess and Predict Automatic Generation Control Performances for Thermal Power Generation Units Based on Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Zijiang; Gao, Song; Liu, Jinbiao

    2018-02-01

    Automatic generation control(AGC) is a key technology to maintain real time power generation and load balance, and to ensure the quality of power supply. Power grids require each power generation unit to have a satisfactory AGC performance, being specified in two detailed rules. The two rules provide a set of indices to measure the AGC performance of power generation unit. However, the commonly-used method to calculate these indices is based on particular data samples from AGC responses and will lead to incorrect results in practice. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the AGC performance indices via system identification techniques. In addition, a nonlinear regression model between performance indices and load command is built in order to predict the AGC performance indices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through industrial case studies.

  7. A Novel Fault Line Selection Method Based on Improved Oscillator System of Power Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of fault line selection based on IOS is presented. Firstly, the IOS is established by using math model, which adopted TZSC signal to replace built-in signal of duffing chaotic oscillator by selecting appropriate parameters. Then, each line’s TZSC decomposed by db10 wavelet packet to get CFB with the maximum energy principle, and CFB was solved by IOS. Finally, maximum chaotic distance and average chaotic distance on the phase trajectory are used to judge fault line. Simulation results show that the proposed method can accurately judge fault line and healthy line in strong noisy background. Besides, the nondetection zones of proposed method are elaborated.

  8. A simple model for conduction band states of nitride-based double heteroestructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaggero-Sager, L M; Mora-Ramos, M E, E-mail: lgaggero@uaem.m [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    In this work we propose an analytical expression for the approximate modeling of the potential energy function describing conduction band bending in III-V nitride quantum wells. It is an alternative approach to the self-consistent Poisson-Schoedinger calculation. The model considers the influence of the many electron system and the built-in electric field inside the well. Hartree and exchange contributions are included along the lines of a local-density Thomas-Fermi-based theory. The effects due to the modulated doping in the barriers is also considered. We report the calculation of the energy spectrum as a function of several input parameters: alloy composition in the barriers, barrier doping concentration, and quantum well width. Our results could be of usefulness in the study of optoelectronic properties in this kind of systems.

  9. Optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass: A superstructure based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass......, such as the harvesting of microalgal biomass, pretreatments including drying and cell disruption of harvested biomass, lipid extraction, transesterification, and post-transesterfication purification. The proposed model is used to find the optimal processing pathway among the large number of potential pathways that exist...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case with different choices of objective functions. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed...

  10. Creating an interactive Web-based e-learning course: a practical introduction for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Denis; Micheau, Antoine; Gahide, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    With the development of e-learning and its ability to provide rich animated content rapidly to a wide audience, new methods for teaching medical imaging have evolved. E-learning tools allow building of learner-focused structured courses. Standards such as shareable content object reference model (SCORM) or Aviation Industry Computer-based Training Committee (AICC) guidelines and recommendations provide the framework required to combine text, images, videos, animations, and quizzes for learning assessment, even if each of these elements is created with different software. The main features to consider when choosing a learning management system are content management, assessment and reporting tools, customization options, course delivery, administration, and security. The tools for building a Web-based course with pages containing text, images, videos, and Flash animations are now accessible to any radiologist. Open-source learning management systems and content authoring software are available at no cost. The authors developed e-MRI.com, a free Web-based e-learning course with interactive animations and simulations, self-tests, and clinical cases to demonstrate the potential of the latest advances in e-learning and pedagogy applied to magnetic resonance imaging physics.

  11. High-Resolution Time-Frequency Spectrum-Based Lung Function Test from a Smartphone Microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharoeun Thap

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs. For the healthy subjects, we found that an absolute error (AE and a root mean squared error (RMSE of the FEV1/FVC ratio were 4.49% ± 3.38% and 5.54%, respectively. For the COPD patients, we found that AE and RMSE from COPD patients were 10.30% ± 10.59% and 14.48%, respectively. For both groups, we compared the results using the continuous wavelet transform (CWT and short-time Fourier transform (STFT, and found that VFCDM was superior to CWT and STFT. Further, to estimate other parameters, including forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, and peak expiratory flow (PEF, regression analysis was conducted to establish a linear transformation. However, the parameters FVC, FEV1, and PEF had correlation factor r values of 0.323, 0.275, and −0.257, respectively, while FEV1/FVC had an r value of 0.814. The results obtained suggest that only the FEV1/FVC ratio can be accurately estimated from a smartphone built-in microphone. The other parameters, including FVC, FEV1, and PEF, were subjective and dependent on the subject’s familiarization with the test and performance of forced exhalation toward the microphone.

  12. Implementation of real-time energy management strategy based on reinforcement learning for hybrid electric vehicles and simulation validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Kong

    Full Text Available To further improve the fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked vehicles, a reinforcement learning (RL-based real-time energy management strategy is developed in this paper. In order to utilize the statistical characteristics of online driving schedule effectively, a recursive algorithm for the transition probability matrix (TPM of power-request is derived. The reinforcement learning (RL is applied to calculate and update the control policy at regular time, adapting to the varying driving conditions. A facing-forward powertrain model is built in detail, including the engine-generator model, battery model and vehicle dynamical model. The robustness and adaptability of real-time energy management strategy are validated through the comparison with the stationary control strategy based on initial transition probability matrix (TPM generated from a long naturalistic driving cycle in the simulation. Results indicate that proposed method has better fuel economy than stationary one and is more effective in real-time control.

  13. Implementation of real-time energy management strategy based on reinforcement learning for hybrid electric vehicles and simulation validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zehui; Zou, Yuan; Liu, Teng

    2017-01-01

    To further improve the fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked vehicles, a reinforcement learning (RL)-based real-time energy management strategy is developed in this paper. In order to utilize the statistical characteristics of online driving schedule effectively, a recursive algorithm for the transition probability matrix (TPM) of power-request is derived. The reinforcement learning (RL) is applied to calculate and update the control policy at regular time, adapting to the varying driving conditions. A facing-forward powertrain model is built in detail, including the engine-generator model, battery model and vehicle dynamical model. The robustness and adaptability of real-time energy management strategy are validated through the comparison with the stationary control strategy based on initial transition probability matrix (TPM) generated from a long naturalistic driving cycle in the simulation. Results indicate that proposed method has better fuel economy than stationary one and is more effective in real-time control.

  14. Study of transport properties of copper/zinc-oxide-nanorods-based Schottky diode fabricated on textile fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Azam; Hussain, Mushtaque; Abbasi, Mazhar Ali; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a copper/zinc-oxide (ZnO)-nanorods-based Schottky diode was fabricated on the textile fabric substrate. ZnO nanorods were grown on a silver-coated textile fabric substrate by using the hydrothermal route. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used for the structural study. The electrical characterization of copper/ZnO-nanorods-based Schottky diodes was investigated by using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and an impedance spectrometer. The current density–voltage (J–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements were used to estimate the electrical parameters. The threshold voltage (V th ), ideality factor (η), barrier height (ϕ b ), reverse saturation current density (J s ), carrier concentration (N D ) and built-in potential (V bi ) were determined by using experimental data and (simulated) curve fitting. This study describes the possible fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices on textile fabric substrate with an acceptable performance. (paper)

  15. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Casilari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources to fall detection solutions.

  16. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-07-23

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions.

  17. A general framework for sensor-based human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köping, Lukas; Shirahama, Kimiaki; Grzegorzek, Marcin

    2018-04-01

    Today's wearable devices like smartphones, smartwatches and intelligent glasses collect a large amount of data from their built-in sensors like accelerometers and gyroscopes. These data can be used to identify a person's current activity and in turn can be utilised for applications in the field of personal fitness assistants or elderly care. However, developing such systems is subject to certain restrictions: (i) since more and more new sensors will be available in the future, activity recognition systems should be able to integrate these new sensors with a small amount of manual effort and (ii) such systems should avoid high acquisition costs for computational power. We propose a general framework that achieves an effective data integration based on the following two characteristics: Firstly, a smartphone is used to gather and temporally store data from different sensors and transfer these data to a central server. Thus, various sensors can be integrated into the system as long as they have programming interfaces to communicate with the smartphone. The second characteristic is a codebook-based feature learning approach that can encode data from each sensor into an effective feature vector only by tuning a few intuitive parameters. In the experiments, the framework is realised as a real-time activity recognition system that integrates eight sensors from a smartphone, smartwatch and smartglasses, and its effectiveness is validated from different perspectives such as accuracies, sensor combinations and sampling rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Android Device-Based Solutions for Fall Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilari, Eduardo; Luque, Rafael; Morón, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of health and psychological problems as well as hospitalization costs among older adults. Thus, the investigation on automatic Fall Detection Systems (FDSs) has received special attention from the research community during the last decade. In this area, the widespread popularity, decreasing price, computing capabilities, built-in sensors and multiplicity of wireless interfaces of Android-based devices (especially smartphones) have fostered the adoption of this technology to deploy wearable and inexpensive architectures for fall detection. This paper presents a critical and thorough analysis of those existing fall detection systems that are based on Android devices. The review systematically classifies and compares the proposals of the literature taking into account different criteria such as the system architecture, the employed sensors, the detection algorithm or the response in case of a fall alarms. The study emphasizes the analysis of the evaluation methods that are employed to assess the effectiveness of the detection process. The review reveals the complete lack of a reference framework to validate and compare the proposals. In addition, the study also shows that most research works do not evaluate the actual applicability of the Android devices (with limited battery and computing resources) to fall detection solutions. PMID:26213928

  19. CMS DAQ Event Builder Based on Gigabit Ethernet

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, G; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition System is designed to build and filter events originating from 476 detector data sources at a maximum trigger rate of 100 KHz. Different architectures and switch technologies have been evaluated to accomplish this purpose. Events will be built in two stages: the first stage will be a set of event builders called FED Builders. These will be based on Myrinet technology and will pre-assemble groups of about 8 data sources. The second stage will be a set of event builders called Readout Builders. These will perform the building of full events. A single Readout Builder will build events from 72 sources of 16 KB fragments at a rate of 12.5 KHz. In this paper we present the design of a Readout Builder based on TCP/IP over Gigabit Ethernet and the optimization that was required to achieve the design throughput. This optimization includes architecture of the Readout Builder, the setup of TCP/IP, and hardware selection.

  20. Lotus Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    exploration of Lotus genomic and transcriptomic data. Equally important are user-friendly in-browser tools designed for data visualization and interpretation. Here, we present Lotus Base, which opens to the research community a large, established LORE1 insertion mutant population containing an excess of 120...... such data, allowing users to construct, visualize, and annotate co-expression gene networks. Lotus Base takes advantage of modern advances in browser technology to deliver powerful data interpretation for biologists. Its modular construction and publicly available application programming interface enable...... developers to tap into the wealth of integrated Lotus data. Lotus Base is freely accessible at: https://lotus.au.dk....

  1. Touch BASE

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In a recent Nature article (see here), the BASE collaboration reported the most precise comparison of the charge-to-mass ratio of the proton to its antimatter equivalent, the antiproton. This result is just the beginning and many more challenges lie ahead.   CERN's AD Hall, where the BASE experiment is set-up. The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) was approved in June 2013 and was ready to take data in August 2014. During these 14 months, the BASE collaboration worked hard to set up its four cryogenic Penning traps, which are the heart of the whole experiment. As their name indicates, these magnetic devices are used to trap antiparticles – antiprotons coming from the Antiproton Decelerator – and particles of matter – negative hydrogen ions produced in the system by interaction with a degrader that slows the antiprotons down, allowing scientists to perform their measurements. “We had very little time to set up the wh...

  2. Fault Diagnosis approach based on a model-based reasoner and a functional designer for a wind turbine. An approach towards self-maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this on-going research is to develop a design methodology to increase the availability for offshore wind farms, by means of an intelligent maintenance system capable of responding to faults by reconfiguring the system or subsystems, without increasing service visits, complexity, or costs. The idea is to make use of the existing functional redundancies within the system and sub-systems to keep the wind turbine operational, even at a reduced capacity if necessary. Re-configuration is intended to be a built-in capability to be used as a repair strategy, based on these existing functionalities provided by the components. The possible solutions can range from using information from adjacent wind turbines, such as wind speed and direction, to setting up different operational modes, for instance re-wiring, re-connecting, changing parameters or control strategy. The methodology described in this paper is based on qualitative physics and consists of a fault diagnosis system based on a model-based reasoner (MBR), and on a functional redundancy designer (FRD). Both design tools make use of a function-behaviour-state (FBS) model. A design methodology based on the re-configuration concept to achieve self-maintained wind turbines is an interesting and promising approach to reduce stoppage rate, failure events, maintenance visits, and to maintain energy output possibly at reduced rate until the next scheduled maintenance.

  3. Fault Diagnosis approach based on a model-based reasoner and a functional designer for a wind turbine. An approach towards self-maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarria, E; Tomiyama, T; Bussel, G J W van

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this on-going research is to develop a design methodology to increase the availability for offshore wind farms, by means of an intelligent maintenance system capable of responding to faults by reconfiguring the system or subsystems, without increasing service visits, complexity, or costs. The idea is to make use of the existing functional redundancies within the system and sub-systems to keep the wind turbine operational, even at a reduced capacity if necessary. Re-configuration is intended to be a built-in capability to be used as a repair strategy, based on these existing functionalities provided by the components. The possible solutions can range from using information from adjacent wind turbines, such as wind speed and direction, to setting up different operational modes, for instance re-wiring, re-connecting, changing parameters or control strategy. The methodology described in this paper is based on qualitative physics and consists of a fault diagnosis system based on a model-based reasoner (MBR), and on a functional redundancy designer (FRD). Both design tools make use of a function-behaviour-state (FBS) model. A design methodology based on the re-configuration concept to achieve self-maintained wind turbines is an interesting and promising approach to reduce stoppage rate, failure events, maintenance visits, and to maintain energy output possibly at reduced rate until the next scheduled maintenance

  4. GamTest: Psychometric Evaluation and the Role of Emotions in an Online Self-Test for Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jakob; Munck, Ingrid; Volberg, Rachel; Carlbring, Per

    2017-06-01

    Recent increases in the number of online gambling sites have made gambling more available, which may contribute to an increase in gambling problems. At the same time, online gambling provides opportunities to introduce measures intended to prevent problem gambling. GamTest is an online test of gambling behavior that provides information that can be used to give players individualized feedback and recommendations for action. The aim of this study is to explore the dimensionality of GamTest and validate it against the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) and the gambler's own perceived problems. A recent psychometric approach, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) is used. Well-defined constructs are identified in a two-step procedure fitting a traditional exploratory factor analysis model as well as a so-called bifactor model. Using data collected at four Nordic gambling sites in the autumn of 2009 (n = 10,402), the GamTest ESEM analyses indicate high correspondence with the players' own understanding of their problems and with the PGSI, a validated measure of problem gambling. We conclude that GamTest captures five dimensions of problematic gambling (i.e., overconsumption of money and time, and monetary, social and emotional negative consequences) with high reliability, and that the bifactor approach, composed of a general factor and specific residual factors, reproduces all these factors except one, the negative consequences emotional factor, which contributes to the dominant part of the general factor. The results underscore the importance of tailoring feedback and support to online gamblers with a particular focus on how to handle emotions in relation to their gambling behavior.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and incomplete blood filling of glucose meter strips is often associated with inaccurate reading. These findings underline the importance of appropriate patient education on this aspect of blood glucose self-monitoring. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. A Highly Scalable Data Service (HSDS) using Cloud-based Storage Technologies for Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, A.; Readey, J.; Votava, P.; Henderson, J.; Willmore, F.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud based infrastructure may offer several key benefits of scalability, built in redundancy, security mechanisms and reduced total cost of ownership as compared with a traditional data center approach. However, most of the tools and legacy software systems developed for online data repositories within the federal government were not developed with a cloud based infrastructure in mind and do not fully take advantage of commonly available cloud-based technologies. Moreover, services bases on object storage are well established and provided through all the leading cloud service providers (Amazon Web Service, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, etc…) of which can often provide unmatched "scale-out" capabilities and data availability to a large and growing consumer base at a price point unachievable from in-house solutions. We describe a system that utilizes object storage rather than traditional file system based storage to vend earth science data. The system described is not only cost effective, but shows a performance advantage for running many different analytics tasks in the cloud. To enable compatibility with existing tools and applications, we outline client libraries that are API compatible with existing libraries for HDF5 and NetCDF4. Performance of the system is demonstrated using clouds services running on Amazon Web Services.

  7. Parallel computation of nondeterministic algorithms in VLSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortensius, P D

    1987-01-01

    This work examines parallel VLSI implementations of nondeterministic algorithms. It is demonstrated that conventional pseudorandom number generators are unsuitable for highly parallel applications. Efficient parallel pseudorandom sequence generation can be accomplished using certain classes of elementary one-dimensional cellular automata. The pseudorandom numbers appear in parallel on each clock cycle. Extensive study of the properties of these new pseudorandom number generators is made using standard empirical random number tests, cycle length tests, and implementation considerations. Furthermore, it is shown these particular cellular automata can form the basis of efficient VLSI architectures for computations involved in the Monte Carlo simulation of both the percolation and Ising models from statistical mechanics. Finally, a variation on a Built-In Self-Test technique based upon cellular automata is presented. These Cellular Automata-Logic-Block-Observation (CALBO) circuits improve upon conventional design for testability circuitry.

  8. VHDL Models with Usage of the LFSR_PCKG Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitrych

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available LFSRs (Linear Feedback Shift Registers are very often used in theBIST (Built-In Self-Test methodology. Implementation of the LFSRs tothe design or application of digital system, which supports BISTtechniques or which only uses these LFSRs, can be done by VHDLlanguage. This paper presents VHDL models of the devices andsubroutines (e.g. test pattern generators, signature analysers. Modelsare based on LFSR structures with usage of the LFSR_PCKG packagedescribed in the (Kovalsky and Vlcek, 2001, which can be usedin the applications supporting BIST techniques. Devices are describedas behavioural and structural models. These models and descriptions canbe used e.g. in the (Kovalsky, 2001. The LFSR_PCKG was modifiedand new approach is presented. Naturally, there are presented somesynthesis conclusions of the VHDL models and applications in thispaper.

  9. Feasibility of a smartphone-based balance assessment system for subjects with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, You-Ruei; Chiu, Ya-Lan; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Chen, Hui-Ya; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2018-07-01

    Stroke is a cerebral artery disease that may lead to long-term disabilities or death. Patients that survive a stroke usually suffer balance impairments, which affect their performance in activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QoL). In recent years, smartphones have become very popular and have many capabilities. Smartphone built-in sensors have shown their ability and potential in balance performance assessment. However, the feasibility of smartphones on subjects with chronic strokes remains to be proved. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a smartphone-based balance assessment system for subjects with chronic stroke. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and thirteen healthy adults were recruited in the study. The smartphone HTC 10 (HTC Corporation, Taiwan) was used to perform the balance assessment, and its built-in accelerometer and gyroscope were used to record data from the subjects. Six postures were tested for thirty seconds each: shoulder-width stance (SWS) with eyes opened (E/O) and eyes closed (E/C), feet-together stance (FTS) with E/O and E/C, and semi-tandem stance (STS) with E/O and E/C. The smartphone was fixed to the back of subjects at the second sacral spine (S2) level. The changes registered in the accelerometer and gyroscope data were used to represent the balance performance, in which higher values indicate more instability. Data was analyzed using the independent t-test with the software SPSS 20, and the statistical significance level was set to α balance performances between healthy adults and subjects with chronic stroke. This study shows that smartphones are feasible to assess balance for subjects with chronic stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Using crosscorrelation to mitigate analog/RF impairments for integrated spectrum analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Alink, M.S.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Ru, Z.; Cheng, W.; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    An integrated spectrum analyzer is useful for built-in self-test purposes, software-defined radios, or dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio. The analog/RF performance is impaired by a number of factors, including thermal noise, phase noise, and nonlinearity. In this paper, we present an

  11. Smart learning services based on smart cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user's behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)--smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push--concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users' needs by collecting and analyzing users' behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users' behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  12. Smartphone-based photoplethysmographic imaging for heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafeef, Maha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make use of visible light reflected mode photoplethysmographic (PPG) imaging for heart rate (HR) monitoring via smartphones. The system uses the built-in camera feature in mobile phones to capture video from the subject's index fingertip. The video is processed, and then the PPG signal resulting from the video stream processing is used to calculate the subject's heart rate. Records from 19 subjects were used to evaluate the system's performance. The HR values obtained by the proposed method were compared with the actual HR. The obtained results show an accuracy of 99.7% and a maximum absolute error of 0.4 beats/min where most of the absolute errors lay in the range of 0.04-0.3 beats/min. Given the encouraging results, this type of HR measurement can be adopted with great benefit, especially in the conditions of personal use or home-based care. The proposed method represents an efficient portable solution for HR accurate detection and recording.

  13. Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ik Yoon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S—smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push—concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users’ needs by collecting and analyzing users’ behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users’ behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  14. Smartphone-Based Hearing Screening in Noisy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Na

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS. To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss.

  15. Fracture Toughness (KIC) of Lithography Based Manufactured Alumina Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindhia, T. G. T.; Schlacher, J.; Lube, T.

    2018-04-01

    Precision shaped ceramic components can be obtained by an emerging technique called Lithography based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM). A green part is made from a slurry consisting of a ceramic powder in a photocurable binder with addition of dispersant and plasticizer. Components are built in a layer–by-layer way by exposing the desired cross- sections to light. The parts are subsequently sintered to their final density. It is a challenge to produce ceramic component with this method that yield the same mechanical properties in all direction. The fracture toughness (KIc) of of LCM-alumina (prepared at LITHOZ GmbH, Austria) was tested by using the Single-Edge-V-Notched Beam (SEVNB) method. Notches are made into prismatic bend-bars in all three direction X, Y and Z to recognize the value of fracture toughness of the material in all three directions. The microstructure was revealed with optical microscopy as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the fracture toughness in Y-direction has the highest value (3.10 MPam1/2) that is followed by the one in X-direction which is just a bit lower (2.90 MPam1/2). The Z-direction is found to have a similar fracture toughness (2.95 MPam1/2). This is supported by a homogeneous microstructure showing no hint of the layers used during production.

  16. Regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator for ice cream storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2003-10-01

    A regenerator-based chiller has been built in the ``bellows bounce'' style [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 15 (2002)] to replace the vapor compression system in an ice cream sales cabinet. It utilizes a 6-in.-diam metal bellows to form a compliant cavity that contains the dynamic pressure oscillation (>50 kPa). The stiffness of the gas trapped in the bellows is resonated against the mass of the bellows-cap and the mass of a moving-magnet linear motor which is capable of high (>85%) electro-acoustic efficiency. A second resonator, operated well below its natural frequency, uses the gas stiffness of a 1-l volume nested within the bellows and the inertia of an ordinary loudspeaker cone to create the pressure difference across the regenerator that drives gas flow that is in-phase with pressure. The mass of the cone can be adjusted to vary the multiplication factor that is typically 5%-10% greater than the dynamic pressure within the bellows. The loudspeaker cone suffers none of the hydrodynamic losses associated with an acoustic inertance and eliminates problems with dc gas flow in the energy feedback path. The cold heat exchanger forms one surface of the pressure vessel permitting direct contact with any thermal load. [Work supported by Ben and Jerry's Homemade.

  17. An XML-based communication protocol for accelerator distributed controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catani, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of XMLvRPC, an RPC-like communication protocol based, for this particular application, on the TCP/IP and XML (eXtensible Markup Language) tools built-in in LabVIEW. XML is used to format commands and data passed between client and server while socket interface for communication uses either TCP or UDP transmission protocols. This implementation extends the features of these general purpose libraries and incorporates solutions that might provide, with limited modifications, full compatibility with well established and more general communication protocol, i.e. XML-RPC, while preserving portability to different platforms supported by LabVIEW. The XMLvRPC suite of software has been equipped with specific tools for its deployment in distributed control systems as, for instance, a quasi-automatic configuration and registration of the distributed components and a simple plug-and-play approach to the installation of new services. Key feature is the management of large binary arrays that allow coding of large binary data set, e.g. raw images, more efficiently with respect to the standard XML coding

  18. An XML-based communication protocol for accelerator distributed controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catani, L. [INFN-Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: luciano.catani@roma2.infn.it

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the development of XMLvRPC, an RPC-like communication protocol based, for this particular application, on the TCP/IP and XML (eXtensible Markup Language) tools built-in in LabVIEW. XML is used to format commands and data passed between client and server while socket interface for communication uses either TCP or UDP transmission protocols. This implementation extends the features of these general purpose libraries and incorporates solutions that might provide, with limited modifications, full compatibility with well established and more general communication protocol, i.e. XML-RPC, while preserving portability to different platforms supported by LabVIEW. The XMLvRPC suite of software has been equipped with specific tools for its deployment in distributed control systems as, for instance, a quasi-automatic configuration and registration of the distributed components and a simple plug-and-play approach to the installation of new services. Key feature is the management of large binary arrays that allow coding of large binary data set, e.g. raw images, more efficiently with respect to the standard XML coding.

  19. Radioactivity in houses built of aerated concrete based on alum shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The highest activities in commonly used Swedish building materials are found in aerated concrete based on alum shale. The enhanced activity level is due to the high content of radium-226. The average activity concentration of radium-226 varies between different producers of aerated concrete based on alum shale from 700 Bq kg - (20 pCi g - ) to 2 400 Bq kg - (65 pCi g - ). Houses built in the same way with the same amounts of aerated concrete can therefore have very different gamma levels and very different concentrations of radon in the air with the same air exchange rate. Aerated concrete based on alum shale was used as a building material in Sweden from 1930 to 1975. The average concentration of radon daughters found in houses built of aerated concrete based to a major extent on alum shale is about 100 bq/m 3 (2.7 pCi 1 - ). The highest radon concentrations have been found in houses built entirely of aerated concrete based on alum shale. A group of 9 houses with natural draught ventilation systems has been investigated with regard to the concentration of radon, the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC) and the gamma dose rate. The air exchange rates varied between the houses from 0.21 to 0.43 h - and the radon concentration from 540 Bq m - (15 pCi 1 - ) to 1 160 Bq m - (31 pCi 1 - ). The values given are averages for each house. (author)

  20. Magnesium-Based Micromotors: Water-Powered Propulsion, Multifunctionality, and Biomedical and Environmental Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanrui; Karshalev, Emil; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2018-06-01

    The new capabilities and functionalities of synthetic micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse environmental and biomedical applications. Water-powered micromachines are particularly attractive for realizing many of these applications. Magnesium-based motors directly use water as fuel to generate hydrogen bubbles for their propulsion, eliminating the requirement of common toxic fuels. This Review highlights the development of new Mg-based micromotors and discusses the chemistry that makes it extremely attractive for micromotor applications. Understanding these Mg properties and its transient nature is essential for controlling the propulsion efficiency, lifetime, and overall performance. The unique and attractive behavior of Mg offers significant advantages, including efficient water-powered movement, remarkable biocompatibility, controlled degradation, convenient functionalization, and built-in acid neutralization ability, and has paved the way for multifunctional micromachines for diverse real-life applications, including operation in living animals. A wide range of such Mg motor-based applications, including the detection and destruction of environmental threats, effective in-vivo cargo delivery, and autonomous release, have been demonstrated. In conclusion, the current challenges, future opportunities, and performance improvements of the Mg-based micromotors are discussed. With continuous innovation and attention to key challenges, it is expected that Mg-based motors will have a profound impact on diverse biomedical and environmental applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Analysis, Design, and Construction of a Base-Isolated Multiple Building Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sorace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and design of a multiple residential building, seismically protected by a base isolation system incorporating double friction pendulum sliders as protective devices, are presented in the paper. The building, situated in the suburban area of Florence, is composed of four independent reinforced concrete framed structures, mutually separated by three thermal expansion joints. The plan is L-shaped, with dimensions of about 75 m in the longitudinal direction and about 30 m along the longest side of the transversal direction. These characteristics identify the structure as the largest example of a base-isolated “artificial ground” ever built in Italy. The base isolation solution guarantees lower costs, a much greater performance, and a finer architectural look, as compared to a conventional fixed-base antiseismic design. The characteristics of the building and the isolators, the mechanical properties and the experimental characterization campaign and preliminary sizing carried out on the latter, and the nonlinear time-history design and performance assessment analyses developed on the base isolated building are reported in this paper, along with details about the installation of the isolators and the plants and highlights of the construction works.

  2. The performance of a piezoelectric-sensor-based SHM system under a combined cryogenic temperature and vibration environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing, Xinlin P; Beard, Shawn J; Kumar, Amrita; Sullivan, Kevin; Aguilar, Robert; Merchant, Munir; Taniguchi, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A series of tests have been conducted to determine the survivability and functionality of a piezoelectric-sensor-based active structural health monitoring (SHM) SMART Tape system under the operating conditions of typical liquid rocket engines such as cryogenic temperature and vibration loads. The performance of different piezoelectric sensors and a low temperature adhesive under cryogenic temperature was first investigated. The active SHM system for liquid rocket engines was exposed to flight vibration and shock environments on a simulated large booster LOX-H 2 engine propellant duct conditioned to cryogenic temperatures to evaluate the physical robustness of the built-in sensor network as well as operational survivability and functionality. Test results demonstrated that the developed SMART Tape system can withstand operational levels of vibration and shock energy on a representative rocket engine duct assembly, and is functional under the combined cryogenic temperature and vibration environment

  3. Simple Evaluation of Load-Carrying Capacity of Multi-Span Folding Bridges based on Floating Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The papers covers simple evaluation of load-carrying capacity of multi-span folding bridges based on floating supports. Combined bridges built in this approach, could be used as a temporary crossing. The methodology of this evaluation is shown graphically on the basis of designed nomograms for two existing bridge structures i.e. MS-54 and DMS-65, mounted on rigid and floating supports. These nomograms facilitate the simple and fast determination of the impact of changing fixed support into floating support with different bridge length spans on the carrying capacity of the bridge. The paper also presents the influence of long-term use (enlarging the mounting backlash in the joints of these structures on the carrying capacity of the bridge.[b]Keywords[/b]: building, folding bridges, nomograms, assembly clearances

  4. Thermal energy storage in the form of heat or cold with using of the PCM-based accumulation panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the usage of thermal energy storage in the form of heat and cold with an adaptation of the special device which is composed of the thermal panels. These panels are based on the phase change materials (PCM for normal inner environment temperature in buildings. The energy for the thermal energy storage is possible to get from built-in electric heating foil or from the tube heat exchanger, which is build in the thermal panels. This technology is able to use renewable energy sources, for example, solar thermal collectors and air-to-water heat pump as a source of heat for heating of the hot water tank. In the cooling mode, there is able to use the heat pump or photovoltaics panels in combination with thermoelectric coolers for cooling.

  5. A study on design of the trip computer for ECCS based on dynamic safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Nam

    2000-02-01

    The Emergency Core Cooling system in current nuclear power plants typically has a considerable number of complex functions and largely cumbersome operator interfaces. Functions for initiation, switch-over between various phases of operation, interlocks, monitoring, and alarming are usually performed by relay and analog comparator logic which is difficult to maintain and test. To improve problems of an analog based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) System, the trip computer for ECCS based on Dynamic Safety System is implemented. The Dynamic Safety System (DSS) is a computer based reactor protection system that has fail-safe nature and performs a dynamic self-testing. The most important feature of the DSS is the introduction of test signal that send the system into a tripped state. The test signals are interleaved between the plant signals to produce an output which switches between a tripped and health state. The dynamic operation is a key feature of the failsafe design of the system. In this thesis, a possible implementation of the DSS using PLC is presented for a CANDU reactor. ECC System of the CANDU Reactor is selected as the reference system. The function of the DSS is implemented In PLC with the CONCEPT language. CONCEPT was developed by GROUPE SCHNEIDER as a graphic user interface programming tool for the Quantum PLC. A MMI display for ECCS based on DSS is implemented with LOOKOUT as an object driven programming tool. The Validation test has been performed by S/W Input Simulator as per Validation Test Procedure. The result of the test was checked and displayed on the MMI display. From the test results, it is shown that the DSS based ECC System operates correctly in all conditions

  6. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  7. Fragmentation based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Gaining the understanding of mobile agent architecture and the security concerns, in this paper, we proposed a security protocol which addresses security with mitigated computational cost. The protocol is a combination of self decryption, co-operation and obfuscation technique. To circumvent the risk of malicious code execution in attacking environment, we have proposed fragmentation based encryption technique. Our encryption technique suits the general mobile agent size and provides hard and thorny obfuscation increasing attacker’s challenge on the same plane providing better performance with respect to computational cost as compared to existing AES encryption.

  8. A web-based remote radiation treatment planning system using the remote desktop function of a computer operating system: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keishiro; Hirasawa, Yukinori; Yaegashi, Yuji; Miyamoto, Hideki; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    We developed a web-based, remote radiation treatment planning system which allowed staff at an affiliated hospital to obtain support from a fully staffed central institution. Network security was based on a firewall and a virtual private network (VPN). Client computers were installed at a cancer centre, at a university hospital and at a staff home. We remotely operated the treatment planning computer using the Remote Desktop function built in to the Windows operating system. Except for the initial setup of the VPN router, no special knowledge was needed to operate the remote radiation treatment planning system. There was a time lag that seemed to depend on the volume of data traffic on the Internet, but it did not affect smooth operation. The initial cost and running cost of the system were reasonable.

  9. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    built-in sensing technologies, automates the upload of the raw data, and handles conflation services to match quality requirements and analysis challenges. The strict implementation of all components using internationally adopted standards ensures maximal interoperability and reusability of all components. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is currently developed as part of the COBWEB research project. COBWEB is partially funded by the European Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 308513; part of the topic ENV.2012.6.5-1 "Developing community based environmental monitoring and information systems using innovative and novel earth observation applications.

  10. KNOWLEDGE-BASED OBJECT DETECTION IN LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boochs

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This “understanding” enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL, used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists’ knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.

  11. PCI express hotplug implementation for ATCA based instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo F.; Santos, Bruno; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro M.; Rodrigues, António P. [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, Rita C., E-mail: pricardofc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Ana; Cruz, Nuno; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, António J.N. [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Hotplug capabilities are designed as an expected or graceful methodology in which the user is not permitted to install or remove a PCIe endpoint device without first notifying the system software. • Hotswap capabilities allow endpoints or PCIe switches with endpoints to be inserted or removed from a PCIe system gracefully or unexpectedly without special consideration. • ATCA, advanced telecommunication computer architecture is a new specification with high availability and high reliability key features which improves data acquisition systems. • Data acquisition systems are used almost everywhere and a demand in the nuclear fusion research field. • Nuclear fusion is a future alternative for power and energy resources generation for world humanity consumption. - Abstract: This paper describes a Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) hotplug and hotswap capability implementation for advanced telecommunication computer architecture (ATCA) based instrumentation. PCIe hotplug provides card insertion and removal capability from a running PCIe-based platform without causing system damages and not requiring an entire system shutdown. PCIe hotswap allows endpoints or PCIe switches with endpoint cards to be inserted or removed from a PCIe system gracefully or unexpectedly without special considerations. Control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) cards need to be replaced from a system for fault-condition repair, hardware malfunction, firmware updates or upgrades and hardware reconfiguration. ATCA specification key features such as high reliability and high availability for C&DAQ systems strongly benefits from these capabilities taking advantage from Redhat Enterprise Linux, installed operating system, and corresponding kernel with built-in mechanisms and embedded software modules for hotplug and hotswap support. PCIe hotplug and hotswap implemented solutions in the ATCA-based prototype provides described capabilities to the C&DAQ and PCIe switch

  12. Implementasi Rule Based Expert Systems untuk Realtime Monitoring Penyelesaian Perkara Pidana Menggunakan Teknologi Radio Frequency Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fuah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in the criminal case completions is that the difficulty of making decision to estimate when the settlement of the case file will be fulfilled. It is caused by the number of case files handled and detention time changing. Therefore, the fast and accurate information is needed. The research aims to develop a monitoring system tracking and tracking of scheduling rules using Rule Based Expert Systems method with 17 rules, and supported by Radio Frequency Identification technology (RFID in the form of computer applications. Based on the output of the system, an analysis is performed in the criminal case settlement process with a set of IF-THEN rules. The RFID reader read the data of case files through radio wave signals emitted by the antenna toward active-Tag attached in the criminal case file. The system is designed to monitor the tracking and tracing of RFID-based scheduling rules in realtime way that was built in the form of computer application in accordance with the system design. This study results in no failure in reading active tags by the RFID reader to detect criminal case files that had been examined. There were many case files handled in three different location, they were the constabulary, prosecutor, and judges of district court and RFID was able to identify them simultaneously. So, RFID supports the implementation of Rule Based Expert Systems very much for realtime monitoring in criminal case accomplishment.

  13. Range and Image Based Modelling: a way for Frescoed Vault Texturing Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the restoration of the frescoed vaults it is not only important to know the geometric shape of the painted surface, but it is essential to document its chromatic characterization and conservation status. The new techniques of range-based and image-based modelling, each with its limitations and advantages, offer a wide range of methods to obtain the geometric shape. In fact, several studies widely document that laser scanning enable obtaining three-dimensional models with high morphological precision. However, the quality level of the colour obtained with built-in laser scanner cameras is not comparable to that obtained for the shape. It is possible to improve the texture quality by means of a dedicated photographic campaign. This procedure, however, requires to calculate the external orientation of each image identifying the control points on it and on the model through a costly step of post processing. With image-based modelling techniques it is possible to obtain models that maintain the colour quality of the original images, but with variable geometric precision, locally lower than the laser scanning model. This paper presents a methodology that uses the camera external orientation parameters calculated by image based modelling techniques to project the same image on the model obtained from the laser scan. This methodology is tested on an Italian mirror (a schifo) frescoed vault. In the paper the different models, the analysis of precision and the efficiency evaluation of proposed methodology are presented.

  14. Output Power Smoothing Control for a Wind Farm Based on the Allocation of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new output power smoothing control strategy for a wind farm based on the allocation of wind turbines. The wind turbines in the wind farm are divided into control wind turbines (CWT and power wind turbines (PWT, separately. The PWTs are expected to output as much power as possible and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy combining the rotor inertia based power smoothing method is adopted. The CWTs are in charge of the output power smoothing for the whole wind farm by giving the calculated appropriate power. The battery energy storage system (BESS with small capacity is installed to be the support and its charge and discharge times are greatly reduced comparing with the traditional ESSs based power smoothing strategies. The simulation model of the permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG based wind farm by considering the wake effect is built in Matlab/Simulink to test the proposed power smoothing method. Three different working modes of the wind farm are given in the simulation and the simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed power smoothing control strategy.

  15. Determination of difficult concepts in the interpretation of musculoskeletal radiographs using a web-based learning/teaching tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Heidi; Nunn, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify which aspects of musculoskeletal radiograph image interpretation users of a web-based learning resource found to be most difficult. Method: The resource provides modular online training, based on twelve musculoskeletal anatomical and pathological areas. At the end of each module is a multiple choice self-test, which users can utilize to consolidate their learning. There are 217 questions within the tests. The results for all questions answered on or before 1st February 2011 were analyzed, and the lowest scoring 25% of questions subsequently reviewed. A low-scoring question implies that the subject was difficult. Results: Users provided a total of 117,097 answers. The range of scores provided by the test questions varied significantly (P < 0.0001), from 15.8% to 93.8%. Topics appearing in the lowest quartile were analyzed in detail. They included interpretation of paediatric radiographs, the Salter-Harris classification, soft-tissue signs and the identification of multiple injuries. The lowest scoring modules were the shoulder and ankle. Conclusion: The results of this study will help to guide educators both within radiography and other health professions in providing more targeted teaching in musculoskeletal image interpretation.

  16. Carrier-injection studies in GaN-based light-emitting-diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Chuong; Vaufrey, David; Leroux, Mathieu

    2015-09-01

    Although p-type GaN has been achieved by Mg doping, the low hole-mobility still remains a difficulty for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Due to the lack of field-dependent-velocity model for holes, in GaN-based LED simulations, the hole mobility is usually supposed to remain constant. However, as the p-GaN-layer conductivity is lower than the n-GaN-layer conductivity, a strong electric-field exists in the p-side of an LED when the applied voltage exceeds the LED's built-in voltage. Under the influence of this field, the mobilities of electrons and holes are expected to decrease. Based on a field-dependent-velocity model that is usually used for narrow-bandgap materials, an LED structure is modelled with three arbitrarily chosen hole saturation-velocities. The results show that a hole saturation-velocity lower than 4x106 cm/s can negatively affect the LED's behaviors.

  17. iHand: an interactive bare-hand-based augmented reality interface on commercial mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junyeong; Park, Jungsik; Park, Hanhoon; Park, Jong-Il

    2013-02-01

    The performance of mobile phones has rapidly improved, and they are emerging as a powerful platform. In many vision-based applications, human hands play a key role in natural interaction. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the interaction between human hands and the mobile phone. Thus, we propose a vision- and hand gesture-based interface in which the user holds a mobile phone in one hand but sees the other hand's palm through a built-in camera. The virtual contents are faithfully rendered on the user's palm through palm pose estimation, and reaction with hand and finger movements is achieved that is recognized by hand shape recognition. Since the proposed interface is based on hand gestures familiar to humans and does not require any additional sensors or markers, the user can freely interact with virtual contents anytime and anywhere without any training. We demonstrate that the proposed interface works at over 15 fps on a commercial mobile phone with a 1.2-GHz dual core processor and 1 GB RAM.

  18. MAPPING LOCAL CLIMATE ZONES WITH A VECTOR-BASED GIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lelovics

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined Local Climate Zones in a South-Hungarian city, using vector-based and raster-based databases. We calculated seven of the originally proposed ten physical (geometric, surface cover and radiative properties for areas which are based on the mobile temperature measurement campaigns earlier carried out in this city.As input data we applied 3D building database (earlier created with photogrammetric methods, 2D road database, topographic map, aerial photographs, remotely sensed reflectance information from RapidEye satellite image and our local knowledge about the area. The values of the properties were calculated by GIS methods developed for this purpose.We derived for the examined areas and applied for classification sky view factor, mean building height, terrain roughness class, building surface fraction, pervious surface fraction, impervious surface fraction and albedo.Six built and one land cover LCZ classes could be detected with this method on our study area. From each class one circle area was selected, which is representative for that class. Their thermal reactions were examined with the application of mobile temperature measurement dataset. The comparison was made in cases, when the weather was clear and calm and the surface was dry. We found that compact built-in types have more temperature surplus than open ones, and midrise types also have more than lowrise ones. According to our primary results, these categories provide a useful opportunity for intra- and inter-urban comparisons.

  19. Leaching of the potentially toxic pollutants from composites based on waste raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Anja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of the fly ash generated in coal based power-plants may pose a significant risk to the environment due to the possible leaching of hazardous pollutants, such as toxic metals. Also, there is a risk of leaching even when fly ash is built-in the construction composites. Fly ashes from various landfills were applied in several composite samples (mortar, concrete and brick without any physical or thermal pre-treatment. The leachability of the potentially toxic pollutants from the fly ash based products was investigated. The leaching behavior and potential environmental impact of the 11 potentially hazardous elements was tracked: Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Ba, Sb and Se. A detailed study of physico-chemical characteristics of the fly ash, with accent on trace elements and the chemical composition investigation is included. Physico/chemical properties of fly ash were investigated by means of X-ray fluorescence, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods. Scanning electron microscope was used in microstructural analysis. The results show that most of the elements are more easily leachable from the fly ash in comparison with the fly ash based composites. The leaching of investigated pollutants is within allowed range thus investigated fly ashes can be reused in construction materials production.

  20. A class of kernel based real-time elastography algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Md Golam; Hasan, Md Kamrul

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel real-time kernel-based and gradient-based Phase Root Seeking (PRS) algorithm for ultrasound elastography is proposed. The signal-to-noise ratio of the strain image resulting from this method is improved by minimizing the cross-correlation discrepancy between the pre- and post-compression radio frequency signals with an adaptive temporal stretching method and employing built-in smoothing through an exponentially weighted neighborhood kernel in the displacement calculation. Unlike conventional PRS algorithms, displacement due to tissue compression is estimated from the root of the weighted average of the zero-lag cross-correlation phases of the pair of corresponding analytic pre- and post-compression windows in the neighborhood kernel. In addition to the proposed one, the other time- and frequency-domain elastography algorithms (Ara et al., 2013; Hussain et al., 2012; Hasan et al., 2012) proposed by our group are also implemented in real-time using Java where the computations are serially executed or parallely executed in multiple processors with efficient memory management. Simulation results using finite element modeling simulation phantom show that the proposed method significantly improves the strain image quality in terms of elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe), elastographic contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRe) and mean structural similarity (MSSIM) for strains as high as 4% as compared to other reported techniques in the literature. Strain images obtained for the experimental phantom as well as in vivo breast data of malignant or benign masses also show the efficacy of our proposed method over the other reported techniques in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Provenance-Based Debugging and Drill-Down in Data-Oriented Workflows

    KAUST Repository

    Ikeda, Robert; Cho, Junsang; Fang, Charlie; Salihoglu, Semih; Torikai, Satoshi; Widom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Panda (for Provenance and Data) is a system that supports the creation and execution of data-oriented workflows, with automatic provenance generation and built-in provenance tracing operations. Workflows in Panda are arbitrary a cyclic graphs

  2. Fuzzy knowledge bases integration based on ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Ternovoy, Maksym; Shtogrina, Olena

    2012-01-01

    the paper describes the approach for fuzzy knowledge bases integration with the usage of ontology. This approach is based on metadata-base usage for integration of different knowledge bases with common ontology. The design process of metadata-base is described.

  3. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  4. Rapid EHR development and implementation using web and cloud-based architecture in a large home health and hospice organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charlotte A; Teenier, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Health care organizations have long been limited to a small number of major vendors in their selection of an electronic health record (EHR) system in the national and international marketplace. These major EHR vendors have in common base systems that are decades old, are built in antiquated programming languages, use outdated server architecture, and are based on inflexible data models [1,2]. The option to upgrade their technology to keep pace with the power of new web-based architecture, programming tools and cloud servers is not easily undertaken due to large client bases, development costs and risk [3]. This paper presents the decade-long efforts of a large national provider of home health and hospice care to select an EHR product, failing that to build their own and failing that initiative to go back into the market in 2012. The decade time delay had allowed new technologies and more nimble vendors to enter the market. Partnering with a new start-up company doing web and cloud based architecture for the home health and hospice market, made it possible to build, test and implement an operational and point of care system in 264 home health locations across 40 states and three time zones in the United States. This option of "starting over" with the new web and cloud technologies may be posing a next generation of new EHR vendors that retells the Blackberry replacement by iPhone story in healthcare.

  5. Optimization-based human motion prediction using an inverse-inverse dynamics technique implemented in the AnyBody Modeling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark

    2012-01-01

    derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. The technique is demonstrated on a human model pedaling a bicycle. We use a physiology-based cost function expressing the mean square of all muscle activities over the cycle to predict a realistic motion pattern. Posture and motion prediction...... on a physics model including dynamic effects and a high level of anatomical realism. First, a musculoskeletal model comprising several hundred muscles is built in AMS. The movement is then parameterized by means of time functions controlling selected degrees of freedom of the model. Subsequently......, the parameters of these functions are optimized to produce an optimum posture or movement according to a user-defined cost function and constraints. The cost function and the constraints are typically express performance, comfort, injury risk, fatigue, muscle load, joint forces and other physiological properties...

  6. BASF and acetylene. 70 years of reppe chemistry - long-standing reliability and promising future - and now, the only natural gas based clean technology for acetylene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicari, M. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Acetylene is still an attractive intermediate synthesis component because carbon in methane from natural gas comes at a lower price than carbon in naphtha from crude oil or coal. Acetylene can be understood as a product of C-C coupling and functionalization. Beginning in the 1950s, BASF developed the partial oxidation (Pox) process, in addition to the electric arc process dating from the 1930s and the submerged flame process. The originally developed Pox process came along with severe emissions of hydrocarbons to the environment. Nowadays it is extremely important to have a clean, environmentally friendly technology. So in the 1990s a closed water-quench process was developed and built in the United States. The presentation focuses on the ways of making acetylene, the use of acetylene and BASF's closed water-quench process based on natural gas. This process will be presented including some important safety aspects. The process is available for licensing. (orig.)

  7. Model-based system engineering to evaluate I and C systems human performance in nuclear power plants - 15207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, P.; Mesquita, F.; Kessel, D.; Jung, J.

    2015-01-01

    In a Nuclear Power Plant, many advantages can be obtained by introducing digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems, such as safety improvement in fault tolerance, self-testing, signal validation, better calibration and greater data capacity. The digital system must be able to meet the needs of the plants and also be compatible with operator capabilities, in a matter that will reduce human error probability. The safety systems must be reliable, with high functionality and availability, and it is essential to have redundancy, independence and diversity among components. I and C systems require a full understanding from plant operators. This paper is intent to propose, by using the C4ISR framework, a simpler and more comprehensive way to represent the architecture of the I and C system framework. The C4ISR framework gives the possibility to define the system under 3 different views: Operational View, Systems View, and Technical View; By using the CORE model-based system engineering software, the systems view of the Plant Protection System is analyzed

  8. FLOOR IDENTIFICATION WITH COMMERCIAL SMARTPHONES IN WIFI-BASED INDOOR LOCALIZATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Ai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we utilize novel sensors built-in commercial smart devices to propose a schema which can identify floors with high accuracy and efficiency. This schema can be divided into two modules: floor identifying and floor change detection. Floor identifying module starts at initial phase of positioning, and responsible for determining which floor the positioning start. We have estimated two methods to identify initial floor based on K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and BP Neural Network, respectively. In order to improve performance of KNN algorithm, we proposed a novel method based on weighting signal strength, which can identify floors robust and quickly. Floor change detection module turns on after entering into continues positioning procedure. In this module, sensors (such as accelerometer and barometer of smart devices are used to determine whether the user is going up and down stairs or taking an elevator. This method has fused different kinds of sensor data and can adapt various motion pattern of users. We conduct our experiment with mobile client on Android Phone (Nexus 5 at a four-floors building with an open area between the second and third floor. The results demonstrate that our scheme can achieve an accuracy of 99% to identify floor and 97% to detecting floor changes as a whole.

  9. Reliability modelling and analysis of a multi-state element based on a dynamic Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Tingxue; Gu, Junyuan; Dong, Qi; Fu, Linyu

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a quantitative reliability modelling and analysis method for multi-state elements based on a combination of the Markov process and a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), taking perfect repair, imperfect repair and condition-based maintenance (CBM) into consideration. The Markov models of elements without repair and under CBM are established, and an absorbing set is introduced to determine the reliability of the repairable element. According to the state-transition relations between the states determined by the Markov process, a DBN model is built. In addition, its parameters for series and parallel systems, namely, conditional probability tables, can be calculated by referring to the conditional degradation probabilities. Finally, the power of a control unit in a failure model is used as an example. A dynamic fault tree (DFT) is translated into a Bayesian network model, and subsequently extended to a DBN. The results show the state probabilities of an element and the system without repair, with perfect and imperfect repair, and under CBM, with an absorbing set plotted by differential equations and verified. Through referring forward, the reliability value of the control unit is determined in different kinds of modes. Finally, weak nodes are noted in the control unit.

  10. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, H.; Jinlu, S.; Shaoxiang, Z.; Qing, H.; Li-wen, T.; Chengjun, G.; Tang, X.; Jiang, S. B.; Xiano-lin, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  11. Audio-based detection and evaluation of eating behavior using the smartwatch platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, Haik; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, smartwatches have emerged as a viable platform for a variety of medical and health-related applications. In addition to the benefits of a stable hardware platform, these devices have a significant advantage over other wrist-worn devices, in that user acceptance of watches is higher than other custom hardware solutions. In this paper, we describe signal-processing techniques for identification of chews and swallows using a smartwatch device׳s built-in microphone. Moreover, we conduct a survey to evaluate the potential of the smartwatch as a platform for monitoring nutrition. The focus of this paper is to analyze the overall applicability of a smartwatch-based system for food-intake monitoring. Evaluation results confirm the efficacy of our technique; classification was performed between apple and potato chip bites, water swallows, talking, and ambient noise, with an F-measure of 94.5% based on 250 collected samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resonator-Based Silicon Electro-Optic Modulator with Low Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Maoqing; Danner, Aaron J.; Eng Png, Ching; Thor Lim, Soon

    2009-04-01

    This paper demonstrates, via simulation, an electro-optic modulator based on a subwavelength Fabry-Perot resonator cavity with low power consumption of 86 µW/µm. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest power reported for silicon photonic bandgap modulators. The device is modulated at a doped p-i-n junction overlapping the cavity in a silicon waveguide perforated with etched holes, with the doping area optimized for minimum power consumption. The surface area of the entire device is only 2.1 µm2, which compares favorably to other silicon-based modulators. A modulation speed of at least 300 MHz is detected from the electrical simulator after sidewall doping is introduced which is suitable for sensing or fiber to the home (FTTH) technologies, where speed can be traded for low cost and power consumption. The device does not rely on ultra-high Q, and could serve as a sensor, modulator, or passive filter with built-in calibration.

  13. Graphene- gold based nanocomposites applications in cancer diseases; Efficient detection and therapeutic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Lina A; AlSaadi, Mohammed A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Hashim, Najihah M; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili M; Yehye, Wageeh A

    2017-10-20

    Early detection and efficient treatment of cancer disease remains a drastic challenge in 21st century. Throughout the bulk of funds, studies, and current therapeutics, cancer seems to aggressively advance with drug resistance strains and recurrence rates. Nevertheless, nanotechnologies have indeed given hope to be the next generation for oncology applications. According to US National cancer institute, it is anticipated to revolutionize the perspectives of cancer diagnosis and therapy. With such success, nano-hybrid strategy creates a marvelous preference. Herein, graphene-gold based composites are being increasingly studied in the field of oncology, for their outstanding performance as robust vehicle of therapeutic agents, built-in optical diagnostic features, and functionality as theranostic system. Additional modes of treatments are also applicable including photothermal, photodynamic, as well as combined therapy. This review aims to demonstrate the various cancer-related applications of graphene-gold based hybrids in terms of detection and therapy, highlighting the major attributes that led to designate such system as a promising ally in the war against cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  15. Neural network based expert system for fault diagnosis of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewidar, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Particle accelerators are generators that produce beams of charged particles, acquiring different energies, depending on the accelerator type. The MGC-20 cyclotron is a cyclic particle accelerator used for accelerating protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and helium-3 to different energies. Its applications include isotope production, nuclear reaction, and mass spectroscopy studies. It is a complicated machine, it consists of five main parts, the ion source, the deflector, the beam transport system, the concentric and harmonic coils, and the radio frequency system. The diagnosis of this device is a very complex task. it depends on the conditions of 27 indicators of the control panel of the device. The accurate diagnosis can lead to a high system reliability and save maintenance costs. so an expert system for the cyclotron fault diagnosis is necessary to be built. In this thesis , a hybrid expert system was developed for the fault diagnosis of the MGC-20 cyclotron. Two intelligent techniques, multilayer feed forward back propagation neural network and the rule based expert system, are integrated as a pre-processor loosely coupled model to build the proposed hybrid expert system. The architecture of the developed hybrid expert system consists of two levels. The first level is two feed forward back propagation neural networks, used for isolating the faulty part of the cyclotron. The second level is the rule based expert system, used for troubleshooting the faults inside the isolated faulty part. 4-6 tabs., 4-5 figs., 36 refs

  16. Mobile phone based mini-spectrometer for rapid screening of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman; Swedish, Tristan; Wahi, Akshat; Moufarrej, Mira; Noland, Marie; Gurry, Thomas; Aranda-Michel, Edgar; Aksel, Deniz; Wagh, Sneha; Sadashivaiah, Vijay; Zhang, Xu; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive mobile phone based spectrometer that has potential to detect cancerous skin lesions in a rapid, non-invasive manner. Earlier reports of low cost spectrometers utilize the camera of the mobile phone to image the field after moving through a diffraction grating. These approaches are inherently limited by the closed nature of mobile phone image sensors and built in optical elements. The system presented uses a novel integrated grating and sensor that is compact, accurate and calibrated. Resolutions of about 10 nm can be achieved. Additionally, UV and visible LED excitation sources are built into the device. Data collection and analysis is simplified using the wireless interfaces and logical control on the smart phone. Furthermore, by utilizing an external sensor, the mobile phone camera can be used in conjunction with spectral measurements. We are exploring ways to use this device to measure endogenous fluorescence of skin in order to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous lesions with a mobile phone based dermatoscope.

  17. Mo1-xWxSe2-Based Schottky Junction Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sum-Gyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Sungjin; Oh, Donggun; Choi, Hwan Young; Lee, Nara; Choi, Young Jai; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-12-14

    We developed Schottky junction photovoltaic cells based on multilayer Mo 1-x W x Se 2 with x = 0, 0.5, and 1. To generate built-in potentials, Pd and Al were used as the source and drain electrodes in a lateral structure, and Pd and graphene were used as the bottom and top electrodes in a vertical structure. These devices exhibited gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and photovoltaic responses. Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 Schottky diodes with Pd and Al electrodes exhibited higher photovoltaic efficiency than MoSe 2 and WSe 2 devices with Pd and Al electrodes, likely because of the greater adjusted band alignment in Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 devices. Furthermore, we showed that Mo 0.5 W 0.5 Se 2 -based vertical Schottky diodes yield a power conversion efficiency of ∼16% under 532 nm light and ∼13% under a standard air mass 1.5 spectrum, demonstrating their remarkable potential for photovoltaic applications.

  18. Adoption of web-based group decision support systems: experiences from the field and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos van Hillegersberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While organizations have massively adopted enterprise information systems to support business processes, business meetings in which key decisions are made about products, services and processes, are usually held without much support of information systems. This is remarkable as group decision support systems (GDSS seems to fit for this purpose. They have existed for decades and modern versions benefit of web-based technologies, enabling low cost any-place, any time and device independent meeting support. In this exploratory case research, we study nine organizations in four different adoption categories to learn more about the reasons for the relatively slow adoption of web-based GDSS. Using the Fit-Viability adoption framework we conduct interviews with organizations that have experience with using GDSS. We conclude that adopting GDSS requires considerable and carefully planned change of processes that are deeply grounded in the organization. Existing meeting routines need to be adapted. Introduction needs to be carefully planned and room for face-to-face meetings and creativity sessions away from the keyboard need to be built in depending on the type of meeting. Not all companies find the cost level affordable. Clear and convincing business cases are lacking. Still the added value is ranked highly and there are frequent and enthusiastic user organizations that may lead the way for others. Their success stories show others how to mitigate problems.

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W., E-mail: zbigniew.w.kowalski@pwr.wroc.pl; Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor [Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Silberring, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  20. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensors based on thin film on ASIC technology

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Anelli, G; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Rusack, R; Saramad, S; Wyrsch, N

    2006-01-01

    The performance and limitations of a novel detector technology based on the deposition of a thin-film sensor on top of processed integrated circuits have been studied. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been deposited on top of CMOS circuits developed for these studies and the resulting "thin-film on ASIC" (TFA) detectors are presented. The leakage current of the a-Si:H sensor at high reverse biases turns out to be an important parameter limiting the performance of a TFA detector. Its detailed study and the pixel segmentation of the detector are presented. High internal electric fields (in the order of 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ V/cm) can be built in the a-Si:H sensor and overcome the low mobility of electrons and holes in a-Si:H. Signal induction by generated carrier motion and speed in the a-Si:H sensor have been studied with a 660 nm pulsed laser on a TFA detector based on an ASIC integrating 5 ns peaking time pre- amplifiers. The measurement set-up also permits to study the depletion of the senso...

  1. Feature Selection and Kernel Learning for Local Learning-Based Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Cheung, Yiu-ming

    2011-08-01

    The performance of the most clustering algorithms highly relies on the representation of data in the input space or the Hilbert space of kernel methods. This paper is to obtain an appropriate data representation through feature selection or kernel learning within the framework of the Local Learning-Based Clustering (LLC) (Wu and Schölkopf 2006) method, which can outperform the global learning-based ones when dealing with the high-dimensional data lying on manifold. Specifically, we associate a weight to each feature or kernel and incorporate it into the built-in regularization of the LLC algorithm to take into account the relevance of each feature or kernel for the clustering. Accordingly, the weights are estimated iteratively in the clustering process. We show that the resulting weighted regularization with an additional constraint on the weights is equivalent to a known sparse-promoting penalty. Hence, the weights of those irrelevant features or kernels can be shrunk toward zero. Extensive experiments show the efficacy of the proposed methods on the benchmark data sets.

  2. Estimation of thermal transmittance based on temperature measurements with the application of perturbation numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowoświat, Artur; Skrzypczyk, Jerzy; Krause, Paweł; Steidl, Tomasz; Winkler-Skalna, Agnieszka

    2018-05-01

    Fast estimation of thermal transmittance based on temperature measurements is uncertain, and the obtained results can be burdened with a large error. Nevertheless, such attempts should be undertaken merely due to the fact that a precise measurement by means of heat flux measurements is not always possible in field conditions (resentment of the residents during the measurements carried out inside their living quarters), and the calculation methods do not allow for the nonlinearity of thermal insulation, heat bridges or other fragments of building envelope of diversified thermal conductivity. The present paper offers the estimation of thermal transmittance and internal surface resistance with the use of temperature measurements (in particular with the use of thermovision). The proposed method has been verified through tests carried out on a laboratory test stand built in the open space, subjected to the influence of real meteorological conditions. The present elaboration involves the estimation of thermal transmittance by means of temperature measurements. Basing on the mentioned estimation, the authors present correction coefficients which have impact on the estimation accuracy. Furthermore, in the final part of the paper, various types of disturbance were allowed for using perturbation numbers, and the introduced by the authors "credibility area of thermal transmittance estimation" was determined.

  3. Development of a web-based, work-related asthma educational tool for patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajar-Khosravi, Shadi; Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M; Chignell, Mark; Ribeiro, Marcos; Levinson, Anthony J; Gupta, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic condition. Work-related asthma (WRA) has a large socioeconomic impact and is increasing in prevalence but remains under-recognized. Although international guidelines recommend patient education, no widely available educational tool exists. To develop a WRA educational website for adults with asthma. An evidence-based database for website content was developed, which applied evidence-based website design principles to create a website prototype. This was subsequently tested and serially revised according to patient feedback in three moderated phases (one focus group and two interview phases), followed by face validation by asthma educators. Patients (n=10) were 20 to 28 years of age; seven (70%) were female, three (30%) were in university, two (20%) were in college and five (50%) were currently employed. Key format preferences included: well-spaced, bulleted text; movies (as opposed to animations); photos (as opposed to cartoons); an explicit listing of website aims on the home page; and an exploding tab structure. Participants disliked integrated games and knowledge quizzes. Desired informational content included a list of triggers, prevention⁄control methods, currently available tools and resources, a self-test for WRA, real-life scenario presentations, compensation information, information for colleagues on how to react during an asthma attack and a WRA discussion forum. The website met the perceived needs of young asthmatic patients. This resource could be disseminated widely and should be tested for its effects on patient behaviour, including job choice, workplace irritant⁄allergen avoidance and⁄or protective equipment, asthma medication use and physician prompting for management of WRA symptoms.

  4. Adaptive PID control based on orthogonal endocrine neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Miroslav B; Antić, Dragan S; Milojković, Marko T; Nikolić, Saša S; Perić, Staniša Lj; Spasić, Miodrag D

    2016-12-01

    A new intelligent hybrid structure used for online tuning of a PID controller is proposed in this paper. The structure is based on two adaptive neural networks, both with built-in Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials. First substructure network is a regular orthogonal neural network with implemented artificial endocrine factor (OENN), in the form of environmental stimuli, to its weights. It is used for approximation of control signals and for processing system deviation/disturbance signals which are introduced in the form of environmental stimuli. The output values of OENN are used to calculate artificial environmental stimuli (AES), which represent required adaptation measure of a second network-orthogonal endocrine adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (OEANFIS). OEANFIS is used to process control, output and error signals of a system and to generate adjustable values of proportional, derivative, and integral parameters, used for online tuning of a PID controller. The developed structure is experimentally tested on a laboratory model of the 3D crane system in terms of analysing tracking performances and deviation signals (error signals) of a payload. OENN-OEANFIS performances are compared with traditional PID and 6 intelligent PID type controllers. Tracking performance comparisons (in transient and steady-state period) showed that the proposed adaptive controller possesses performances within the range of other tested controllers. The main contribution of OENN-OEANFIS structure is significant minimization of deviation signals (17%-79%) compared to other controllers. It is recommended to exploit it when dealing with a highly nonlinear system which operates in the presence of undesirable disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Retrospective analysis of 'gamma distribution' based IMRT QA criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, C.; Chappell, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: IMRT has been implemented into clinical practice at Royal Hobart Hospital (RHH) since mid 2006 for treating patients with Head and Neck (H and N) or prostate tumours. A local quality assurance (QA) acceptance criteria based on 'gamma distribution' for approving IMRT plan was developed and implemented in early 2007. A retrospective analysis of such criteria over 194 clinical cases will be presented. The RHH IMRT criteria was established with assumption that gamma distribution obtained through inter-comparison of 2 D dose maps between planned and delivered was governed by a positive-hail' normal distribution. A commercial system-MapCheck was used for 2 D dose map comparison with a built-in gamma analysis tool. Gamma distribution histogram was generated and recorded for all cases. By retrospectively analysing those distributions using curve fitting technique, a statistical gamma distribution can be obtained and evaluated. This analytical result can be used for future IMRT planing and treatment delivery. The analyses indicate that gamma distribution obtained through MapCheckTM is well under the normal distribution, particularly for prostate cases. The applied pass/fail criteria is not overly sensitive to identify 'false fails' but can be further tighten-up for smaller field while for larger field found in both H and N and prostate cases, the criteria was correctly applied. Non-uniform distribution of detectors in MapCheck and experience level of planners are two major factors to variation in gamma distribution among clinical cases. This criteria derived from clinical statistics is superior and more accurate than single-valued criteria for lMRT QA acceptance procedure. (author)

  6. Complex signal-based optical coherence tomography angiography enables in vivo visualization of choriocapillaris in human choroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhongdi; Chen, Chieh-Li; Zhang, Qinqin; Pepple, Kathryn; Durbin, Mary; Gregori, Giovanni; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-12-01

    The choriocapillaris (CC) plays an essential role in maintaining the normal functions of the human eye. There is increasing interest in the community to develop an imaging technique for visualizing the CC, yet this remains underexplored due to technical limitations. We propose an approach for the visualization of the CC in humans via a complex signal-based optical microangiography (OMAG) algorithm, based on commercially available spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We show that the complex signal-based OMAG was superior to both the phase and amplitude signal-based approaches in detailing the vascular lobules previously seen with histological analysis. With this improved ability to visualize the lobular vascular networks, it is possible to identify the feeding arterioles and draining venules around the lobules, which is important in understanding the role of the CC in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. With built-in FastTrac™ and montage scanning capabilities, we also demonstrate wide-field SD-OCT angiograms of the CC with a field of view at 9×11 mm2.

  7. WYNBERG MILITARY BASE AND THE ARMY OFFICERS' CLUB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ished; a few of those built in the latter half of the nineteenth century still remain scattered in- ... Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, Vol 19, Nr 1, 1989. ..... Molo, J.Military Fashion,Barrie and Jenkins, London, 1972. 15.

  8. Preparation and characterization of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of portable electronic devices is increasing tremendously. The continuous rise in the amount of built-in functionality, e.g in mobile phones, makes the power consumption of these devices ever higher. This puts very high demands on the portable energy source that is used for a

  9. Web-Based, Active Learning Experiences for Biology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kerri M.; Hoback, W. Wyatt

    2003-01-01

    Presents a website that addresses concepts that form a foundation for understanding ecology, pest management, and environmental ethics. Key features of the website include its self-contained, non-linear design; a learning environment that allows students to test ideas without penalty; real-world examples; and built-in assessment tools that…

  10. Innovative Research on the Development of Game-based Tourism Information Services Using Component-based Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsin Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted exploring the potential of digital tour guides, that is, multimedia components (e.g., 2D graphic, 3D models, and sound effects that can be integrated into digital storytelling with location-based services. This study uses component-based software engineering to develop the content of game-based tourism information services. The results of this study are combined with 3D VR/AR technology to implement the digital 2D/3D interactive tour guide and show all the attractions’ information on a service platform for the gamification of cultural tourism. Nine kinds of game templates have been built in the component module. Five locations have completed indoor or external 3D VR real scenes and provide online visitors with a virtual tour of the indoor or outdoor attractions. The AR interactive work has three logos. The interactive digital guide includes animated tour guides, interactive guided tours, directions and interactive guides. Based on the usage analysis of the component databases built by this study, VR game types are suited to object-oriented game templates, such as the puzzle game template and the treasure hunt game template. Background music is the database component required for each game. The icons and cue tones are the most commonly used components in 2D graphics and sound effects, but the icons are gathered in different directions to approximate the shape of the component to be consistent. This study built a vivid story of a scene tour for online visitors to enhance the interactive digital guide. However, the developer can rapidly build new digital guides by rearranging the components of the modules to shorten the development time by taking advantage of the usage frequency of various databases that have been built by this study to effectively continue to build and expand the database components. Therefore, more game-based digital tour guides can be created to make better defined high

  11. On the Role of Built-in Electric Fields on the Ignition of Oxide Coated NanoAluminum: Ion Mobility versus Fickian Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    on Al ion diffu- sion can be computed using the Nernst –Planck equation . The Nernst –Plank equation is given in Eq. 4,22 J = − D dC dx − zFDC RT d dx...The use of the bulk diffusion equation is reason- able since during the time scales considered the movement of only the atoms initially on the surface

  12. Lessons learned from exchanges between the french and german safety authorities. Comparison of the safety levels achieved for reactors built in these two countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droulers, Y.

    1988-12-01

    It is important to emphasize, right at the beginning, the exceptional extent of the assessment work performed over several years on the nuclear power plants in each country (exchange of confidential documents, communication of incidents during the plant building stage, specialist visits to the site, joint reports by the Franco-German Commission on all important safety problems). The D.F.K. (Franco-German Commission) has been the official framework for these exchanges since 1976 (the exchanges relating to FESSENHEIM and its ''twin'' plant NECKARWESTHEIM 1 began as far back as 1973 and were pursued, when construction of CATTENOM began, by a comparison with PHILIPPSBURG). Apart from its annual plenary session, it presently comprises 6 standing working groups dealing respectively with general safety problems (including primary system technology problems and exchanges on incidents discussed by two subcommittees), emergency plans, radiation protection problems, radioactive waste, fuel cycle installations, fast breeder reactors. It is also worth noting the regular meetings held by the standing groups of experts (GPR and RSK), which have enabled periodical assessment of the extent to which the approaches of the two countries to the main safety problems are tending to converge (severe accidents, operating feedback, containment, followup on the TMI and CHERNOBYL accidents, etc) and the exchanges between the IPSN and the GRS on the corresponding research programs

  13. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF EXISTING MID-RISE REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO SPECIFICATION FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES TO BE BUILT IN DISASTER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İNEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, Turkey has been hit by devastating earthquakes and remarkable number of reinforced concrete buildings has been damaged in the high seismicity regions of our country. The aim of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of the mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings that are major part of building stock of our earthquake-prone country, according to recent Turkish Earthquake Code. 4- and 7-story buildings were selected to represent mid-rise building stock. After determining the structural parameters, each building was subjected to pushover analysis and the capacity curves were obtained. Earthquake performance of each building was determined in the light of their capacity curves according to the recent Turkish Earthquake Code.

  14. Active Pixel HgCdTe Detectors With Built-in Dark Current Reduction for Near-Room Temperature Operation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High sensitivity HgCdTe infrared arrays operating at 77K can now be tailored in a wide range of wavelengths from 1 to 14 microns. However, due to the cooling...

  15. The churches dedicated to Saint Bishop and Martyr Stanisław in Kraków, built in 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szymon Wroński

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Die Pfarrkirche Zum Hl Bischof und Märtyrer Stanislaus in Dąbie Dąbie liegt 3 Kilometer östlich vom Stadtzentrum entfernt. In die Stadt wurde es 1911 eingemeindet. In den Jahren 1965-75 entstand hier eine Wohnsiedlung. In den nächsten Jahren -infolge der zunehmenden Einwohnerzahl - erfolgte eine Verdichtung der Wohnsiedlungsbebauung. Das Grundstück, auf dem die Kirche steht, liegt im Winkel zwischen der Weichsel und der Białucha, im Bereich der ehemaligen österreichischen Schanze FS-16. Es war stark mit Bäumen bepflanzt. Das bereitete aber viele Schwierigkeiten, d.h. es gab Probleme sowohl mit der Ausdünnung der Bäume, als auch mit der Erhaltung des restlichen Baumbestandes. Am 11. März 1982 erhielt Dąbie endlich eine Baugenehmigung für den Bau einer Kirche in der Wohnsiedlung. Die Kirche, die nach einem Projekt des Architekten Henryk Kamiński in den Jahren 1984-2000 errichtet wurde, ist der Gemeinde zur Verfügung gestellt, aber im Innern noch nicht ausgestattet. Der Bau der Kirche zerfällt in zwei Phasen: die erste Phase dauerte bis zum Jahre 1989, in dem es zu einem Probstwechsel kam. Der neue Probst und zugleich der Investor Wiesław Macuda übernahm den Bau in dem Moment, als die Mauern der Kirche bis zu den Sohlbänken ausgeführt waren. Mit voller Energie ging er ans Werk, um den Bau weiterzuführen. Die Kirche hat zwei Geschosse: - die sog. Unterkirche im Erdgeschoss und die Oberkirche. Die Kirche hat einen fast quadratischen Grundriss, der diagonal gestellt und stark modifiziert ist. Die eigentliche Kirche - die Oberkirche ist dreischiffig. Die Seitenschiffe sind von dem Mittelschiff durch (je einen Pfeiler getrennt. Das Mittelschiff hat einen Obergaden (Region der Fenster im Mittelschiff iner Basilika in der Form einer Lichtnische, durch die das Licht in den Raum hineinfällt und die ganze Kirche mit Licht überflutet ist. Von hier aus streben die „Scheiben-wände” der Obergadenlichtnische nach oben. Ziel ist die größte Höhe über dem Altarraum. Die Stahlbetondecke ist in mehrere Flächen zergliedert, die auf vielen Ebenen liegen. Der Altar steht auf einem vielstufigem Podest. Ihm gegenüber liegt der Chor, der aus Konstruktionsgründen drei Etagen hat (eine Seltenheit in der Architektur Krakaus. Die Schönheit der Kirche drückt sich in ihrer Geräumigkeit, der vielflächigen Decke aus, die reichgestaltet ist und dadurch Licht-Schatteneffekte hervorruft. Da die Kirche unter der Schutzherrschaft des Hl. Bischofs Stanislaus steht, hat sie eine symbolträchtige Form. Sowohl der Grundriss als auch der Baukörper der Kirche nahm die Form einer Mitra an (zwei schildförmige Wände, vom und hinten gebogen, oben dreieckig - spitz zulaufend, die durch Balkenträger verbunden sind. Architektonisch gesehen, gehört die Kirche der späteren Moderne an. 2. Die Pfarrkirche Zum Hl. Bischof und Märtyrer Stanislaus in Kantorowice Sie ist als typischer Integrationsbau niedrig gehalten und zwischen den Siedlungshäusern eingebunden. Die Kirche wurde in den Jahren 1985-1986 als Notkirche errichtet und zwei Jahre darauf vom Bischof Kazimierz Nycz eingeweiht. Als eigene Pfarrei existiert sie erst seit dem 2. Februar 1994. Die Kirche ist ein eingessossiger Längsbau, der mit einem Satteldach gedeckt ist. Von außen sieht sie wie ein größeres Wirtschaftsgebäude aus, mit einem Dachreiter (Signaturtürmchen auf dem Dachfirst. Beim Betreten des Innenraumes bemerkt man, daß der Bau in drei Schiffe eingeteilt ist. Das rechte Seitenschiff hat die Rundbogenarkaden und dient zusätzlich als Kapelle, das linke aber ruht nur auf einem Pfeiler und bildet mit dem Hauptschiff einen Raum. An der Altarwand hängt das Bild des Hl. Stanislaus, das vom Maler Piotr Moskal gemalt wurde. Der Altar steht auf einem einstufigem Podest. Stilistisch gehört die Kirche zur Moderne. 3. Die Kirche Zum Hl. Bischof und Märtyrer Stanislaus in Tonie Tonie ist ein ehemaliges Dorf am Sudolufer malerisch gelegen. Es liegt 7 Kilometer nördlich vom Stadtzentrum, an der alten Handelsstraße über Będzin nach Schlesien. 1961 wurde es in die Stadt eingemeindet. In Tonie steht ein alter Bildstock, der den Hl. Stanislaus (den Bischof und Märtyrer darstellt. Er ist wahrscheinlich eine Replik des berühmt gewordenen Bildstocks des Hl. Stanislaus Auf dem Felsen. An diesem Bildstock, der von der dortigen Bevölkerung verehrt wurde, fanden Maiandachten statt und später wurden Messen gelesen. Es stand daher fest, daß die Kirche, die in Zukunft gebaut werden sollte, den Namen des Hl. Stanislaus tragen muß. Am 3. September 1990 begann Priester Jan Urbański eine seelsorgerische Tätigkeit in Tonie. Im März nächsten Jahres begann der Neubau unter seiner Leitung. Der Plan der Kirche wurde vom Architekten Wiesław Stefański unter Mitarbeit von Ireneusz Piotrowski vorbereitet. Nach dem Ablauf der sieben Monate stand die Kirche fertig und der Kardinal Franciszek Macharski konnte die erste Messe in den rohen Mauern dieser neuen Kirche lesen. Am 20. Mai 1993 wurde offiziell ein Seelsorgezentrum ins Leben gerufen. Die Kirche hat einen originellen Plan. Sie ist ein Längsbau, dreischiffig. Diese Dreischiffigkeit ist aber ungewöhnlich gestaltet, d.h. das Hauptschiff ist von der Achse „pendelartig” abgerückt, so daß die beiden Seitenschiffe keilhaft oder besser gesagt trapezförmig gestaltet sind. Die Richtung der Schiffe läuft nicht, wie üblich, parallel zu Außenwänden; durch die Schrägstellung des Mittelschiffes sind die Seitenschiffe trapezförmig. Eine ähnliche Originalität zeigt die Gestaltung der Apsis, die in der Form einer Schleife gebaut wurde. Die Chortreppe ist auch anders als sonst gestaltet. Der eine Treppenlauf hängt über dem Eingang, um zu zeigen, daß der Eintretende geistig in die Kirche steigen muß. Alles andere ist hier fast wie im alten Kirchenbau. Der Baukörper erinnert an schlichte italienische Kirchenbauten des Mittelalters. Stilistisch gehört die Kirche zur Postmodeme mit einigen de-konstruktiven Elementen.

  16. Computer-Supported Argumentative Writer : An authoring tool with built-in scaffolding and self-regulation for novice writers of argumentative texts

    OpenAIRE

    Benetos, Kalliopi

    2006-01-01

    Argumentative writing is a valued genre in a range of disciplines and curricula because it requires that writers develop relationships between ideas and build a deep and multifaceted understanding of the topic. Due to the multifaceted demands, and inherent structure and conventions of argumentative writing, it is also among the most difficult to master. The aim of this masters thesis is to create a prototype of an authoring tool that can help novices (13-19 years old) of argumentative essay w...

  17. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemsitry in the region of Thulium, Lutetium, and Tantalum I. Results of Built in Spherical Symmetry in a Deformed Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-06

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from Terbium (Z = 65) to Rhenium (Z = 75). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Tm, Lu, and Ta including reactions on isomeric targets.

  18. A built-in sensor with carbon nanotubes coated by Ag clusters for deformation monitoring of glass fibre/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodian, P.; Riha, P.; Matyas, J.; Olejnik, R.; Lloret Pertegás, S.; Schledjewski, R.; Kovar, M.

    2018-03-01

    A multiwalled carbon nanotube network embedded in a polyurethane membrane was integrated into a glass fibre reinforced epoxy composite by means of vacuum infusion to become a part of the composite and has been serving for a strain self-sensing functionality. Besides the pristine nanotubes also nanotubes with Ag nanoparticles attached to their surfaces were used to increase strain sensing. Moreover, the design of the carbon nanotube/polyurethane sensor allowed formation of network micro-sized cracks which increased its reversible electrical resistance resulted in an enhancement of strain sensing. The resistance sensitivity, quantified by a gauge factor, increased more than hundredfold in case of a pre-strained sensor with Ag decorated nanotubes in comparison with the sensor with pristine nanotubes.

  19. Incorporation of Immune Checkpoint Blockade into Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells (CAR-Ts): Combination or Built-In CAR-T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dok Hyun; Osborn, Mark J; Tolar, Jakub; Kim, Chong Jai

    2018-01-24

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy represents the first U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved gene therapy and these engineered cells function with unprecedented efficacy in the treatment of refractory CD19 positive hematologic malignancies. CAR translation to solid tumors is also being actively investigated; however, efficacy to date has been variable due to tumor-evolved mechanisms that inhibit local immune cell activity. To bolster the potency of CAR-T cells, modulation of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment with immune-checkpoint blockade is a promising strategy. The impact of this approach on hematological malignancies is in its infancy, and in this review we discuss CAR-T cells and their synergy with immune-checkpoint blockade.

  20. Development of signal processing electronics for self powered neutron detector signal with built-in on-line insulation monitoring [Paper No.:E3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amitabha; Chaganty, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) are employed to monitor in-core neutron flux in nuclear reactors for control, safety and mapping of in-core neutron flux. The d.c. current produced by SPND is converted into a proportional d.c. voltage, which in turn is used for various purposes stated above. This paper describes various features of the SPND amplifier developed in the Electronics Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). It also outlines the principle of working of on-line monitoring of insulation resistance (IR) of the detector and associated mineral insulated (MI) and soft cables. The amplifier generates an alarm in case of the IR of the detector and the cable assembly falls below an accepted value or the cable is not connected to the amplifier and relieves the operator from periodic and manual checking of each of the individual detectors and ensures the validity of the signal for further processing. (author). 3 figs