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Sample records for based biokinetic pbbk

  1. Identification of nevadensin as an important herb-based constituent inhibiting estragole bioactivation and physiology-based biokinetic modeling of its possible in vivo effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhusainy, W.; Paini, A.; Punt, A.; Louisse, J.; Spenkelink, A.; Vervoort, J.; Delatour, T.; Scholz, G.; Schilter, B.; Adams, T.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Estragole is a natural constituent of several herbs and spices including sweet basil. In rodent bioassays, estragole induces hepatomas, an effect ascribed to estragole bioactivation to 1'-sulfooxyestragole resulting in DNA adduct formation. The present paper identifies nevadensin as a basil constituent able to inhibit DNA adduct formation in rat hepatocytes exposed to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole and nevadensin. This inhibition occurs at the level of sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated bioactivation of 1'-hydroxyestragole. The Ki for SULT inhibition by nevadensin was 4 nM in male rat and human liver fractions. Furthermore, nevadensin up to 20 μM did not inhibit 1'-hydroxyestragole detoxification by glucuronidation and oxidation. The inhibition of SULT by nevadensin was incorporated into the recently developed physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) rat and human models for estragole bioactivation and detoxification. The results predict that co-administration of estragole at a level inducing hepatic tumors in vivo (50 mg/kg bw) with nevadensin at a molar ratio of 0.06, representing the ratio of their occurrence in basil, results in almost 100% inhibition of the ultimate carcinogen 1'-sulfooxyestragole when assuming 100% uptake of nevadensin. Assuming 1% uptake, inhibition would still amount to more than 83%. Altogether these data point at a nevadensin-mediated inhibition of the formation of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole, without reducing the capacity to detoxify 1'-hydroxyestragole via glucuronidation or oxidation. These data also point at a potential reduction of the cancer risk when estragole exposure occurs within a food matrix containing SULT inhibitors compared to what is observed upon exposure to pure estragole.

  2. Lead Bioaccumulation Factor of Cockle Shell (Anadara granosa) Base on Biokinetic Study that Used Radiotracer 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru Umbara; Heny Suseno

    2007-01-01

    Lead is kind of hazardous heavy metal to human health and the concentration in the coastal environment should be monitored continuously because lead could be accumulated by marine biota. One of the monitoring techniques is bio indicator. Anadara granosa is a marine biota which spread in almost all Indonesian coastal, life in the bottom and mud sandy environment in the depth of until 4 meter and relatively still. Base on the book of environmental equilibrium balance DKI Jakarta, Anadara granosa is a macrozobenthos in Jakarta bay which have second highest density after Donax or with density of 14 individual per meter square. Base on the environmental equilibrium balance from 26 locations, 22 locations can be found Anadara granosa so this mollusk could be used for bio indicator. The objective of research for bioaccumulation that use 210 Pb as a tracer is to find bio indicator base on biokinetic process which include concentration factor, uptake and depuration processes and biology half life. The result shows that Anadara granosa could be use as a lead bio indicator in Jakarta bay. (author)

  3. A physiologically based biokinetic model for cesium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.; Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A physiologically descriptive model of the biological behavior of cesium in the human body has been constructed around a detailed blood flow model. The rate of transfer from plasma into a tissue is determined by the blood perfusion rate and the tissue-specific extraction fraction of Cs during passage from arterial to venous plasma. Information on tissue-specific extraction of Cs is supplemented with information on the Cs analogues, K and Rb, and known patterns of discrimination between these metals by tissues. The rate of return from a tissue to plasma is estimated from the relative contents of Cs in plasma and the tissue at equilibrium as estimated from environmental studies. Transfers of Cs other than exchange between plasma and tissues (e.g. secretions into the gastrointestinal tract) are based on a combination of physiological considerations and empirical data on Cs or related elements. Model predictions are consistent with the sizable database on the time-dependent distribution and retention of radiocesium in the human body

  4. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation

  5. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and endogenous excretion of zinc have been derived as fits to data for specific study groups. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and the model for zinc currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection yield reasonably similar estimates of total-body retention and effective dose for internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but much different systemic distributions of activity and much different dose estimates for some individual tissues, particularly the liver. - Highlights: ► Zinc is an essential trace element with numerous functions in the human body. ► Several biokinetic models for zinc have been developed from tracer studies on humans. ► More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed in radiation protection. ► Biokinetic data for zinc are reviewed and a new biokinetic model is proposed for radiation protection. ► The proposed model may also be useful for investigation of zinc physiology and homeostasis.

  6. Biokinetic model for 137 Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Dunstana Rabelo de

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to provide a realistic biokinetic model for 137 Cs metabolism. This model was based on the retention of cesium in 57 people contaminated in the Goiania accident, ages 1 to 73 y old, complemented by data obtained in an experiment with beagle dogs, and data taken from the open literature. Cesium is distributed among all tissues and organs of the body. Its main retention site is the skeletal muscle tissue. Mathematically, cesium retention in the body may be described by a sum of three terms exponential equation. The first term represents the fraction which is rapidly eliminated in urine. This fraction is weight dependent (negative correlation). The second term represents the retention of cesium in tissues and organs of the body. For children and adolescents, the second term biological half-life is a function of the weight. For adults, it is correlated with sex. Men present a higher retention of cesium than women. The third term correspond to a retention fraction of the order of 0,1% of the initial body burden. It is characterized by a very long half-life and represents a subcellular retention of cesium in the skeletal muscle tissue. During pregnancy the transfer factor from the mother to the fetus is correlated to the amount of cesium in the blood and it is equal to 1, if the intake of cesium occurs pregnancy. (author)

  7. Stable tracer investigations in humans for assessing the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Cantone, M.C.; Giussani, A.; Maggioni, T.; Birattari, C.; Bondardi, M.; Groppi, F.; Garlaschelli, I.; Werner, E.; Roth, P.; Hoellriegl, V.; Louvat, P.; Felgenhauer, N.; Zilker, Th.

    2003-01-01

    The interest in the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium in humans is justified by the potential radiological risk represented by their radionuclides. Only a few data related to the biokinetics of ruthenium and zirconium in humans are available and, accordingly, the biokinetic models currently recommended by the ICRP for these elements are mainly based on data from animal experiments. The use of stable isotopes as tracers, coupled with a proper analytical technique (nuclear activation analysis with protons) for their determination in biological samples, represents an ethically acceptable methodology for biokinetic investigations, being free from any radiation risk for the volunteer subjects. In this work, the results obtained in eight biokinetic investigations for ruthenium, conducted on a total of three healthy volunteers, and six for zirconium, performed on a total of three subjects, are presented and compared to the predictions of the ICRP models. (author)

  8. The Effect of Body Size in Mercury Accumulation Biokinetic of Cockle Shell (Anadara Granosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyu Retno Prihatiningsih

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of mercury biokinetic in cockle shell (Anadara granosa) through water pathway has been investigated under laboratory condition. The objective of research is to find the effect of body size in mercury biokinetic of Anadara granosa and to find bioindicator based on biokinetic parameter. The research shows that body size of Anadara granosa give an effect to concentration factor and could barrier mercury contaminant. Concentration factor for size 1.9, 2.5 and 3.9 cm of biota moving high and reach steady state condition after 24 days. Concentration factor of Anadara granosa in size 1.9, 2.5 and 3.9 is 0.1476, 0.1645 and 0.2573 day. Based on mechanism of mercury biokinetic process, it was proof that Anadara granosa is an ideal invertebrate for bioindicator. (author)

  9. Towards a consensus-based biokinetic model for green microalgae - The ASM-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Sæbø, Mariann; Bregua de la Sotilla, Marta; Van Wagenen, Jonathan; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2016-10-15

    Cultivation of microalgae in open ponds and closed photobioreactors (PBRs) using wastewater resources offers an opportunity for biochemical nutrient recovery. Effective reactor system design and process control of PBRs requires process models. Several models with different complexities have been developed to predict microalgal growth. However, none of these models can effectively describe all the relevant processes when microalgal growth is coupled with nutrient removal and recovery from wastewaters. Here, we present a mathematical model developed to simulate green microalgal growth (ASM-A) using the systematic approach of the activated sludge modelling (ASM) framework. The process model - identified based on a literature review and using new experimental data - accounts for factors influencing photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microalgal growth, nutrient uptake and storage (i.e. Droop model) and decay of microalgae. Model parameters were estimated using laboratory-scale batch and sequenced batch experiments using the novel Latin Hypercube Sampling based Simplex (LHSS) method. The model was evaluated using independent data obtained in a 24-L PBR operated in sequenced batch mode. Identifiability of the model was assessed. The model can effectively describe microalgal biomass growth, ammonia and phosphate concentrations as well as the phosphorus storage using a set of average parameter values estimated with the experimental data. A statistical analysis of simulation and measured data suggests that culture history and substrate availability can introduce significant variability on parameter values for predicting the reaction rates for bulk nitrate and the intracellularly stored nitrogen state-variables, thereby requiring scenario specific model calibration. ASM-A was identified using standard cultivation medium and it can provide a platform for extensions accounting for factors influencing algal growth and nutrient storage using wastewater resources. Copyright

  10. The STATFLUX code: a statistical method for calculation of flow and set of parameters, based on the Multiple-Compartment Biokinetical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F.; Mesa, J.; Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.; Helene, O.; Vanin, V.; Milian, F.; Deppman, A.; Rodrigues, T. E.; Rodriguez, O.

    2007-03-01

    The code STATFLUX, implementing a new and simple statistical procedure for the calculation of transfer coefficients in radionuclide transport to animals and plants, is proposed. The method is based on the general multiple-compartment model, which uses a system of linear equations involving geometrical volume considerations. Flow parameters were estimated by employing two different least-squares procedures: Derivative and Gauss-Marquardt methods, with the available experimental data of radionuclide concentrations as the input functions of time. The solution of the inverse problem, which relates a given set of flow parameter with the time evolution of concentration functions, is achieved via a Monte Carlo simulation procedure. Program summaryTitle of program:STATFLUX Catalogue identifier:ADYS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYS_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested:Micro-computer with Intel Pentium III, 3.0 GHz Installation:Laboratory of Linear Accelerator, Department of Experimental Physics, University of São Paulo, Brazil Operating system:Windows 2000 and Windows XP Programming language used:Fortran-77 as implemented in Microsoft Fortran 4.0. NOTE: Microsoft Fortran includes non-standard features which are used in this program. Standard Fortran compilers such as, g77, f77, ifort and NAG95, are not able to compile the code and therefore it has not been possible for the CPC Program Library to test the program. Memory required to execute with typical data:8 Mbytes of RAM memory and 100 MB of Hard disk memory No. of bits in a word:16 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:6912 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:229 541 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of the physical problem:The investigation of transport mechanisms for

  11. Biokinetics of radiotellurium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Sahoo, S.K.; Kim, S.; Homma-Takeda, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Inaba, J.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotellurium is present in the environment primarily due to its release during nuclear reactor accidents. Little is known of tellurium metabolism in juveniles, although the element is relatively abundant and has a number of industrial uses. A biokinetic study of radiotellurium in rats was done using gamma-ray counting. Wistar strain rats were used to determine the uptake of H 2 123 Te m O 3 by the whole-body retention of juvenile rats and the conceptus in relation to its gestational stages, by measurements in the placenta, fetal membranes, fetal fluid, and fetus. The whole-body retention of 123 Te m in juvenile rats was higher than that of adult rats. The relative concentration in the placenta and fetal membranes was higher than in the fetus. No activity was observed in the fetal fluid. These results indicate that the placenta and fetal membranes play significant roles as barriers to the transfer of 123 Te m into the fetus. The ratio, relative concentration in fetus/relative concentration in mother (C F /C M ), was calculated. The C F /C M ratio was dependent on the stage of gestation and ranged from 0.2 to 0.5. A little 123 Te m was transferred to the suckling rats through the mother's milk when the isotope was administered intravenously to the mother. (author)

  12. Consistent biokinetic models for the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The biokinetic models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were developed within a generic framework that depicts gradual burial of skeletal activity in bone volume, depicts recycling of activity released to blood and links excretion to retention and translocation of activity. For other actinide elements such as Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es, the ICRP still uses simplistic retention models that assign all skeletal activity to bone surface and depicts one-directional flow of activity from blood to long-term depositories to excreta. This mixture of updated and older models in ICRP documents has led to inconsistencies in dose estimates and interpretation of bioassay for radionuclides with reasonably similar biokinetics. This paper proposes new biokinetic models for Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es that are consistent with the updated models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. The proposed models are developed within the ICRP's generic model framework for bone-surface-seeking radionuclides, and an effort has been made to develop parameter values that are consistent with results of comparative biokinetic data on the different actinide elements. (author)

  13. Biokinetics and internal dosimetry of inhaled metal tritide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansheng

    1998-12-01

    Metal tritides (MT), stable chemical compounds of tritium, are widely used in nuclear engineering facilities. MT particles can be released as aerosols. Inhaling MT particles is a potential occupational radiation hazard. Little information is available on their dissolution behavior, biokinetics, and dosimetry. The objectives of present dissertation are to estimate dissolution rates, to develop biokinetic models, to improve internal dosimetric considerations, and to classify MT materials. This study consisted of three phases: In vitro dissolution in a simulated lung fluid, In vivo rat experiments on retention and clearance, and biokinetic modeling and dosimetric evaluation. There was a supporting study on self- absorption of tritium beta in MT particles. MT materials used in this study were titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) tritides. Results shows considerable self-absorption of beta particles and their energy, even for respirable MT particles smaller than 5 μm. The self-absorption factors should be required for counting MT particle samples and for estimating absorbed dose to tissues. In vitro and in vivo dissolution data indicate that Ti and Zr tritides are poorly soluble materials. Ti tritide belongs to the W class or M type while Zr tritide can be classified as Y class or S type. Due to long retention time of the MT particles, tritium betas directly from the particles contribute over 90% of the absorbed dose to lung. The lung dose contributes most of the effective dose to the whole body. Dissolved tritium including tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT) has less effect on the lung dose and effective dose. Results on the annual limit on intake (ALI) indicate that the current radiation protection guideline based on HTO is not adequate for inhalation exposure to MT particles and needs to be modified. The biokinetic models developed in this study have predictive powers to estimate the consequences of a human inhalation exposure to MT aerosols. The

  14. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part I, parameter uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential in internal dose assessments and radiation risk analysis for the public, occupational workers, and patients exposed to radionuclides. In this paper, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part of the study published here, the uncertainty sources of the model parameters for zirconium (Zr), developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), were identified and analyzed. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the biokinetic experimental measurement performed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU) for developing a new biokinetic model of Zr was analyzed according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, published by the International Organization for Standardization. The confidence interval and distribution of model parameters of the ICRP and HMGU Zr biokinetic models were evaluated. As a result of computer biokinetic modelings, the mean, standard uncertainty, and confidence interval of model prediction calculated based on the model parameter uncertainty were presented and compared to the plasma clearance and urinary excretion measured after intravenous administration. It was shown that for the most important compartment, the plasma, the uncertainty evaluated for the HMGU model was much smaller than that for the ICRP model; that phenomenon was observed for other organs and tissues as well. The uncertainty of the integral of the radioactivity of Zr up to 50 y calculated by the HMGU model after ingestion by adult members of the public was shown to be smaller by a factor of two than that of the ICRP model. It was also shown that the distribution type of the model parameter strongly influences the model prediction, and the correlation of the model input parameters affects the model prediction to a

  15. Development, implementation and quality assurance of biokinetic models within CONRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosske, D.; Birchall, A.; Blanchardon, E.; Breustedt, B.; Giussani, A.; Luciani, A.; Oeh, U.; Lopez, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The work of the Task Group 5.2 'Research Studies on Biokinetic Models' of the CONRAD project is presented. New biokinetic models have been implemented by several European institutions. Quality assurance procedures included intercomparison of the results as well as quality assurance of model formulation. Additionally, the use of the models was examined leading to proposals of tuning parameters. Stable isotope studies were evaluated with respect to their implications to the new models, and new biokinetic models were proposed on the basis of their results. Furthermore, the development of a biokinetic model describing the effects of decorporation of actinides by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid treatment was initiated. (authors)

  16. Basis for the ICRP's age-specific biokinetic model for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is developing age-specific biokinetic models and dose coefficients for environmentally important radionuclides. This paper describes the ICRP's age-specific biokinetic model for uranium. The model is constructed within a physiologically based framework originally developed for application to the alkaline earth elements but sufficiently general to apply to the larger class of bone-volume-seeking elements. Transfer rates for a reference adult are based mainly on: (1) measurements of uranium in blood and excreta of several human subjects who were intravenously injected with uranium; (2) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of some of those subjects; (3) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of occupationally and non-occupationally exposed subjects; (4) data on baboons, dogs, and smaller laboratory animals exposed to uranium for experimental purposes; and (5) consideration of the physiological processes thought to control retention and translocation of uranium in the body. Transfer rates for the adult are extended to children by application of a set of generic assumptions applied by the ICRP to calcium-like elements. These assumptions were derived mainly from observations of the age-specific biokinetics of the alkaline earth elements and lead in humans and laboratory animals but are consistent with available age-specific biokinetic data on uranium. 82 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Biokinetics and dosimetry of radioactively labelled organic C-14 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krins, A.; Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, T.

    2003-12-01

    The report starts with summarising research work and the resulting scientific information in connection with the dosimetry of C-14 labelled organic compounds. Biokinetic models are developed for compounds such as benzene, phenol, aniline, nitrobenzene, and a selection of pharmaceuticals, in order to show the radioactivity distribution after administration of the C-14 labelled substances. Based on the those models, dose coefficients and excretion rates are derived. The following synoptic view of the available data library leads on to a discussion of various aspects, as eg. the question of whether and how monitoring for detection of incorporation of C-14 administered with labelled organic compounds is possible. None of the questions and aspects arising in connection with this subject can be adequately dealt with in the present document, but concepts and methods are presented which permit an interpretation of radioactivity excretion data measured after incorporation of C-14 labelled organic substances. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Improvements in the biokinetic model for strontium with allowance for age and gender differences in bone mineral metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N.B.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O.

    2003-01-01

    An age- and gender-dependent biokinetic model for strontium was developed based on the study of a population living along the Techa River exposed to effluents from the Mayak Production Association. To estimate parameters of a new model (Techa biokinetic model, TBM) many data sets have been assembled: our whole-body counter data on long-term retention of 90 Sr in humans, data from studies during the period of global fallout, data resulting from deliberate injections of strontium radionuclides, and non-radiological data regarding bone formation and resorption, mineral content of the body, etc. The model was developed using the basic structure of the ICRP biokinetic model for strontium, but new age- and gender-specific parameters were derived. This paper discusses the approaches applied to develop the new model. (author)

  19. Biokinetics of radionuclides and treatment of accidental intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; Stradling, G.N.; Menetrier, F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and reviews the progress of EULEP Working Party 5, convened under the auspices of the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme, to 'cluster' two EU-supported contracts, Biokinetics and Dosimetry of Internal Contamination (BIODOS (EU Contract FIS5-1999-00214)) and Radionuclide Biokinetics Database (EULEP) ( RBDATA-EULEP (Concerted Action Contract FIS5-1999-00218), and two non-EU funded projects, Biokinetics of Radionuclides in Human Volunteers (RNHV (non-EU Funded Project) and Treatment of Accidental Intakes of Radionuclides (TAIR (part-funded by EULEP)). (author)

  20. Comparative biokinetics of radiogallium and radioindium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Lathrop, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    The biokinetics of radiogallium and radioindium in normal mice are compared using the compartmental modelling analysis. The rate constants obtained provide useful information in understanding the physiological and biochemical kinetics of radionuclides in the intact object. A comparison of the compartmental models for gallium and indium reveals the similarities and differences between the biokinetics of the two radionuclides. Furthermore, the results provide valuable information and guidance for human studies and clinical use

  1. Biokinetic model-based multi-objective optimization of Dunaliella tertiolecta cultivation using elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Snehal K; Kumar, Mithilesh; Guria, Chandan; Kumar, Anup; Banerjee, Chiranjib

    2017-10-01

    Algal model based multi-objective optimization using elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with inheritance was carried out for batch cultivation of Dunaliella tertiolecta using NPK-fertilizer. Optimization problems involving two- and three-objective functions were solved simultaneously. The objective functions are: maximization of algae-biomass and lipid productivity with minimization of cultivation time and cost. Time variant light intensity and temperature including NPK-fertilizer, NaCl and NaHCO 3 loadings are the important decision variables. Algal model involving Monod/Andrews adsorption kinetics and Droop model with internal nutrient cell quota was used for optimization studies. Sets of non-dominated (equally good) Pareto optimal solutions were obtained for the problems studied. It was observed that time variant optimal light intensity and temperature trajectories, including optimum NPK fertilizer, NaCl and NaHCO 3 concentration has significant influence to improve biomass and lipid productivity under minimum cultivation time and cost. Proposed optimization studies may be helpful to implement the control strategy in scale-up operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laboratory-scale in situ bioremediation in heterogeneous porous media: biokinetics-limited scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin; Hong, Eunyoung; Seagren, Eric A

    2014-03-01

    Subsurface heterogeneities influence interfacial mass-transfer processes and affect the application of in situ bioremediation by impacting the availability of substrates to the microorganisms. However, for difficult-to-degrade compounds, and/or cases with inhibitory biodegradation conditions, slow biokinetics may also limit the overall bioremediation rate, or be as limiting as mass-transfer processes. In this work, a quantitative framework based on a set of dimensionless coefficients was used to capture the effects of the competing interfacial and biokinetic processes and define the overall rate-limiting process. An integrated numerical modeling and experimental approach was used to evaluate application of the quantitative framework for a scenario in which slow-biokinetics limited the overall bioremediation rate of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (naphthalene). Numerical modeling was conducted to simulate the groundwater flow and naphthalene transport and verify the system parameters, which were used in the quantitative framework application. The experiments examined the movement and biodegradation of naphthalene in a saturated, heterogeneous intermediate-scale flow cell with two layers of contrasting hydraulic conductivities. These experiments were conducted in two phases: Phase I, simulating an inhibited slow biodegradation; and Phase II, simulating an engineered bioremediation, with system perturbations selected to enhance the slow biodegradation rate. In Phase II, two engineered perturbations to the system were selected to examine their ability to enhance in situ biodegradation. In the first perturbation, nitrogen and phosphorus in excess of the required stoichiometric amounts were spiked into the influent solution to mimic a common remedial action taken in the field. The results showed that this perturbation had a moderate positive impact, consistent with slow biokinetics being the overall rate-limiting process. However, the second perturbation, which was to

  3. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of biokinetic models for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W. B.; Hoeschen, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models for kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in humans were developed and are used to estimate the radiation absorbed dose for patients in nuclear medicine by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. However, due to the fact that the residence times used were derived from different subjects, partially even with different ethnic backgrounds, a large variation in the model parameters propagates to a high uncertainty of the dose estimation. In this work, a method was developed for analysing the uncertainty and sensitivity of biokinetic models that are used to calculate the residence times. The biokinetic model of 18 F-FDG (FDG) developed by the MIRD Committee was analysed by this developed method. The sources of uncertainty of all model parameters were evaluated based on the experiments. The Latin hypercube sampling technique was used to sample the parameters for model input. Kinetic modelling of FDG in humans was performed. Sensitivity of model parameters was indicated by combining the model input and output, using regression and partial correlation analysis. The transfer rate parameter of plasma to other tissue fast is the parameter with the greatest influence on the residence time of plasma. Optimisation of biokinetic data acquisition in the clinical practice by exploitation of the sensitivity of model parameters obtained in this study is discussed. (authors)

  4. Proposal of a new biokinetic model for niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Roges

    2006-01-01

    There are two niobium isotopes generated in nuclear power plants: 95 Nb and 94 Nb. Workers and members of the public are subjects to intake these radionuclides in accident situation. For dose calculation purpose, it is very important to develop a model that describes in a more realistic way the kinetics of niobium inside of the human body. Presently the model adopted by ICRP (ICRP, 1989) is based on animal studies and describes the behavior of niobium in human being in a simple manner. The new model proposal describes the kinetics of the niobium from the intake into the blood until the excretion, doing this in a more realistic form and considering not only data from animals but data from human beings as well. For this objective, a workers group of a niobium extraction and processing industry exposed to stable niobium (93 Nb) in oxide insoluble form with associated uranium, was monitored for uranium and niobium determination in urinary and fecal excretion, by mass spectrometry. Based in the ratios of the niobium concentration in urinary and faecal excretion of this workers and animal data study, a new biokinetic model for niobium was proposed, with the followings modifications relative to ICRP model: a new compartment that represents muscular tissue; the fractions which are deposited into the compartment are modified; a third component in the retention equation of the bone tissue; introduction of recirculation between organs and blood. The new model was applied for a case of accidental intake and described adequately the experimental data

  5. The biokinetic of incorporates radionuclides; Die Biokinetik von inkorporierten Radionukliden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung; Giussani, Augusto [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Externe und interne Dosimetrie, Biokinetik' '

    2017-08-01

    Incorporated radionuclides from nuclear accidents, fission product releases or nuclear medical administration are distributed in the human body in organs and tissue, absorbed 9or excreted. The interpretation of incorporation monitoring results and the estimation of the internal doses that cannot be measured directly need mathematical methods and the formulation of biokinetic models.

  6. The biokinetics of ruthenium in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The biokinetics of ruthenium (Ru) in the human body is of interest due mainly to the potential for occupational or environmental exposure to 106Ru (T1/2 = 373.6 d) and 103Ru (T1/2 = 39.3 d), which typically represent a significant portion of the fission products in a reactor inventory. During reactor operations or nuclear fuel reprocessing these ruthenium isotopes may be present as ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) vapor, a highly mobile form of ruthenium that has been involved in a number of cases of accidental exposure to 106Ru or 103Ru. This paper summarizes the biokinetic database for ruthenium and proposes a new respiratory model for inhaled RuO4 vapor, a new biokinetic for systemic (absorbed) ruthenium, and material-specific gastrointestinal absorption fractions for ruthenium. The proposed respiratory model for RuO4 differs from the current ICRP model mainly in that it depicts slower clearance of deposited activity from the respiratory tract and lower absorption to blood than depicted in the current ICRP model. The proposed systemic biokinetic model depicts more realistic paths of movement of absorbed ruthenium in the body than the current ICRP model and, in contrast to the present model, a less uniform distribution of systemic activity. Implications of the proposed models with regard to inhalation and ingestion dose coefficients for 106Ru are examined.

  7. Biokinetics – the development of a health profession from physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biokinetics – the development of a health profession from physical education - a historical perspective. ... In this respect some medical aid funds supported this philosophy of health promotion, as the curative treatment of health problems are becoming increasingly expensive and are burdening health-care costs. At present ...

  8. 99mTc-UBI Biokinetics: A Specific Peptide for Infection Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Meléndez-Alafort, L.; Herrera-Rodríguez, R.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Mitsoura, E.; Martínez-Duncker, C.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as new agents to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Based on these considerations, Ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 (UBI) has been labeled with 99mTc using a new direct method showing a radiochemical purity > 97 %, high stability in human serum, and low protein binding. In addition 99mTc-UBI showed a specific in vitro and in vivo binding to bacteria. However its biokinetic parameters have not been evaluated since it is one of the new generation radiopharmaceuticals based on peptide structures. Therefore the aim of this project was to establish the biokinetic model for 99mTc-UBI. An activity from 74 to 148 MBq was injected to patients with bone infection and 5 whole body scans were taken at 1, 30, 120, 240 min and 24 h after radiopharmaceutical administration, with a dual head scanner. Urine was collected for 24 h. An antropomorphic phantom was previously used to calculate the effect of attenuation and scattered radiation on the gamma camera acquisition images. ROIs of the selected organs in patients (kidney, liver, heart, bone, soft tissue and lesion) were drawn, and attenuation and scatter corrected. The % urine elimination at 24 h and time integrated ROIs (cpm/pixel/ROIs) were used to obtain the residence time (τ) in each tissue and to establish the biokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic data show that blood clearance is biexponential with a mean residence time in the central compartment of 0.52 h. The images showed non-accumulation in metabolic organs. More than 75 % of the injected activity was eliminated by renal clearance 4 h after 99mTc-UBI administration. The mean radiation dose calculated according to the MIRD formalism was 0.130 mGy/MBq for kidney and the effective dose was 4.29 × 10-3 mSv/MBq.

  9. Strontium biokinetic model for the pregnant woman and fetus: application to Techa River studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Fell, T P; Harrison, J D

    2015-01-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium (Sr) for the pregnant woman and fetus (Sr-PWF model) has been developed for use in the quantification of doses from internal radiation exposures following maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes before or during pregnancy. The model relates in particular to the population of the Techa River villages exposed to significant amounts of ingested Sr radioisotopes as a result of releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. The biokinetic model for Sr metabolism in the pregnant woman was based on a biokinetic model for the adult female modified to account for changes in mineral metabolism during pregnancy. The model for non-pregnant females of all ages was developed earlier with the use of extensive data on 90 Sr-body measurements in the Techa Riverside residents. To determine changes in model parameter values to take account of changing mineral metabolism during pregnancy, data from longitudinal studies of calcium homeostasis during human pregnancy were analysed and applied. Exchanges between maternal and fetal circulations and retention in fetal skeleton and soft tissues were modelled as adaptations of previously published models, taking account of data on Sr and calcium (Ca) metabolism obtained in Russia (Southern Urals and Moscow) relating to dietary calcium intakes, calcium contents in maternal and fetal skeletons and strontium transfer to the fetus. The model was validated using independent data on 90 Sr in the fetal skeleton from global fallout as well as unique data on 90 Sr-body burden in mothers and their still-born children for Techa River residents. While the Sr-PWF model has been developed specifically for ingestion of Sr isotopes by Techa River residents, it is also more widely applicable to maternal ingestion of Sr radioisotopes at different times before and during pregnancy and different ages of pregnant women in a general population. (paper)

  10. A biokinetic model of inhaled Cm compounds in dogs: Application to human exposure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Curium isotopes are major by-products in irradiated nuclear reactor fuel and comprise a significant fraction of the alpha-emitting radionuclide inventory. Although little use is currently being made of purified Cm sources, such usage is possible if reprocessing of spent fuel becomes feasible. Because little information is available on the biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm compounds, a study was conducted in which adult beagle dogs received a single inhalation exposure to either a monodisperse aerosol of 244Cm2O3 (1.4 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter [AMAD]; sigma g = 1.16) or a polydisperse aerosol of 244Cm (NO3)3 (1.1 micron AMAD; sigma g = 1.74). At times ranging from 4 h to 2 y after exposure, animals were sacrificed and their tissues analyzed for Cm content. The data describing the uptake and retention of 244Cm in the different organs and tissues and the measured rates of excretion of these dogs formed the basis on which a biokinetic model of Cm metabolism was constructed. This Cm model was based on a previously published model of the biokinetics of 241Am that was shown to be applicable to data from human cases of inhalation exposure to 241Am aerosols. This Cm model was found to be adequate to describe the biological distribution of Cm in dogs and was also applied to the sparse data from humans. Reasonable agreement was found between the model predictions for lung retention of Cm and for urinary excretion patterns in humans

  11. Different biokinetics of nanomedicines linking to their toxicity; an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the extreme rise to the knowledge of nanotechnology in pharmaceutical sciences, there are currently limited experimental works studying the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs and the biological system. Adjustment of size and surface area plays the main role in the reaction between NPs and cells leading to their increased entrance into cells through skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory system. Moreover, change in physicochemical reactivity of NPs causes them to interact with circulatory and cellular proteins differentially leading to the altered parameters of their biokinetics, including adsorption, distribution, translocation, transformation, and elimination. A direct relationship between the surface area, reactive oxygen species generating capability, and proinflammatory effects of NPs have been found in respiratory tract toxicity. Additionally, complement-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to liposomes and other lipid-based nanodrugs have been well defined. Inhalation studies of some NPs have confirmed the translocation of inhaled materials to extra pulmonary organs such as central nervous system (CNS via olfactory neurons and induction of inflammatory response. Injectable uncoated NPs have a tendency to remain on the injection site while the poly ethanol glycol (PEG-coated NPs can be notably drained from the injection site to get as far as the lymph nodes where they accumulate. This confirms the existence of channels within the extracellular matrix for NPs to move along. Furthermore, induction of DNA strand breaks and formation of micronuclei have been recorded for exposure to some NPs such as single-walled carbon nanotubes. In the recent years, most of the studies have simply outlined better efficacy of nanodrugs, but few discussed their possible toxic reactions specially if used chronically. Therefore, we emphasize that this part of the nanoscience must not be undermined and toxicologists must be sensitive to

  12. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

  13. The biokinetics of uranium migrating from embedded DU fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Pellmar, T.C.

    2003-01-01

    Military uses of depleted uranium (DU) munitions have resulted in casualties with embedded DU fragments. Assessment of radiological or chemical health risks from these fragments requires a model relating urinary U to the rate of migration of U from the fragments, and its accumulation in systemic tissues. A detailed biokinetic model for U has been published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), but its applicability to U migrating from embedded DU fragments is uncertain. Recently, ) conducted a study at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) on the redistribution and toxicology of U in rats with implanted DU pellets, simulating embedded fragments. This paper compares the biokinetic data from that study with the behavior of commonly studied forms of U in rats (e.g., intravenously injected U nitrate). The comparisons indicate that the biokinetics of U migrating from embedded DU is similar to that of commonly studied forms of U with regard to long-term accumulation in kidneys, bone, and liver. The results provide limited support for the application of the ICRP's model to persons with embedded DU fragments. Additional information is needed with regard to the short-term behavior of migrating U and its accumulation in lymph nodes, brain, testicles, and other infrequently studied U repositories

  14. A physiological biokinetic model for the [7(N)-{sup 3}H]-cholesterol dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos; Martins, Joao Francisco Trencher; Velo, Alexandre Franca; Hamada, Margarida M.; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de, E-mail: adriano_oliveira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major source of deaths worldwide according to WHO (World Health Organization). It is well-known that the change of the level of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the cholesterol transport in the bloodstream, is a main cause of these diseases. For this reason, to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deepen the understanding of associated diseases. The main objective of this work is to provide a biokinetic model in order to estimate the radiometric dose, due to the intake of [7(N){sup -3}H] –Cholesterol in physiological issues, in metabolic studies. The internal dosimetry is important to know the biological effects of radiation. The model was based on Schwartz et al (2004), using parameters for the plasmatic lipoproteins and ICRP 30 (1979) gastrointestinal tract; the dose in the compartments were calculated using the MIRD methodology and the compartmental analysis by Matlab® software. The coefficients were estimated for an adult phantom with a body mass of 73.3 kg. (author)

  15. A physiological skeletal model for radionuclide and stable element biokinetics in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    A physiological skeletal model (PSM) is described that represents the skeletal uptake, retention and clearance of both bone-surface-seeking and bone-volume-seeking radionuclides and stable elements. A key objective of the PSM is to model the higher skeletal growth and bone turnover in infants and children (compared to adults) in order to to account for their greater uptake and cancer risk from bone-seeking contaminants such as lead and plutonium. The PSM is a compartmental model that allows for the incorporation of organic and inorganic material in the bone volume via quiescent bone surfaces, forming bone surfaces and the lacuno-canaliculi system. The model uniquely incorporates a tertiary phase of mineralization via bone fluids. The PSM's structural concepts and biokinetic parameters - such as realistic mass transfers, organ and tissue masses, and bone remodelling half times - are selected mainly on the basis of physiological and anatomical criteria. For brevity, model parameter values or evaluated for adults only. The PSM is an improvement on existing skeletal models that are based more on compartment structures and pathways that rendered good fits to biokinetic data rather than on being anatomically and physiologically accurate. (author)

  16. A physiological biokinetic model for the [7(N)-3H]-cholesterol dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos; Martins, Joao Francisco Trencher; Velo, Alexandre Franca; Hamada, Margarida M.; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major source of deaths worldwide according to WHO (World Health Organization). It is well-known that the change of the level of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the cholesterol transport in the bloodstream, is a main cause of these diseases. For this reason, to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deepen the understanding of associated diseases. The main objective of this work is to provide a biokinetic model in order to estimate the radiometric dose, due to the intake of [7(N) -3 H] –Cholesterol in physiological issues, in metabolic studies. The internal dosimetry is important to know the biological effects of radiation. The model was based on Schwartz et al (2004), using parameters for the plasmatic lipoproteins and ICRP 30 (1979) gastrointestinal tract; the dose in the compartments were calculated using the MIRD methodology and the compartmental analysis by Matlab® software. The coefficients were estimated for an adult phantom with a body mass of 73.3 kg. (author)

  17. Software for biokinetic modeling of the radiopharmaceuticals used in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, Leanderson P.; Vieira, Igor F.; Lima, Fernando R.A. de; Vieira, Jose W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work will be presented the current state of software in development to estimate the dose from PET images. Will be given the main biokinetic models used in PET, as well as the general features of a tool in development, whose current features allow quantitative analysis of compartmental models. Further, the tool allows display images 2D PET (in DICOM format) and quantify the intensity map of regions of interest in counts per second coincidence events. The next step is to insert in the same tool to estimate the activity concentration for ROI and estimate dose from PET images static and / or dynamic

  18. Biokinetic models for the metabolism of uranium: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertelli, Luiz; Lipsztein, Joyce L.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Puerta, Anselmo; Wrenn, McDonald E.

    1997-01-01

    This work reviews the main experiments involving uranium injection and inhalation into several animal species and those associated with humans as well. The literature was carefully selected to involve the uranium intake, distribution and excretion in humans and mammals. The available biokinetic models for the uranium metabolism, proposed by ICRP in Publications 2, 30 and 69, were shortly described and tested against the data. Human data which incorporates measurements of urine, autopsy and biopsy samples were also used completing the review of models associated with the systemic part. (author). 21 refs., 4 figs

  19. Biokinetics and dosimetric studies about 99mTc(V)DMSA distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, M.B.L.; Magnata, S.S.L.P.; Silva, I.M.S.; Lima, F.F.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Research for radiodiagnostic agents should considerate biological critical parameters as half-life effective, target/not target uptake ratio and metabolites that together will determinate the biokinetic. Each parameter give own contribution in the absorbed dose. The dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) labeled with 99m Tc(VN) is a radiopharmaceutical which has well established role in medullar thyroid carcinoma and has been proposed in complementary evaluation of bone metastasis. The aim of this work was study the biokinetics and dosimetry of 99m Tc(V)-DMSA by animal model. The 99m Tc(V)-DMSA was prepared by (III)DMSA kit alkalized. The methodology used mice, 70 days old, both males and females. The animals (n=5) received 99m Tc(V)DMSA administered IV (tail vein). After determinate times (30 min, 1h, 5h and 12h) the animals were sacrificed, the organs (blood, lungs, kidneys, muscle and bone) were excised and the activities were measured by a gamma counter. The results were evaluated based on %activity/g and the absorbed dose was estimated by extrapolation of data from animal to human, using the residence time to each organ in the MIRDOSE 3.0 program. The results show that the majority of organs reaches the top uptake at 30 min, the kidney has the greatest uptake in this time, (4.81 ± 1.38) % activity per gram, while the bone presents its highest uptake at 1h (5.49 ± 0.47)% activity per gram, after 1h all the organs had activity exponential decrease. About the absorbed dose estimated to human scale, the preliminary results showed higher value to bone, being the soft tissue dose relatively low. These dose values, however, are submitted to biological implications which are under studying yet. The biokinetic profile of 99m Tc(V)-DMSA, prepared from a DMSA kit by IPEN, was well established, allowing quantifying of residence time, while the dosimetric model presented preliminary data which directs to new analyzes

  20. A biokinetic study of {sup 209}Po in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricsson, C.F.; Ranebo, Y. [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences in Lund, Lund University, Skane University Hospital in Lund (Sweden); Hansson, M. [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmoe, Lund University, Skane University Hospital in Malmoe (Sweden); Raeaef, C.L., E-mail: Christopher.Raaf@med.lu.se [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmoe, Lund University, Skane University Hospital in Malmoe (Sweden); Holm, E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Osteras (Norway)

    2012-10-15

    Five adult volunteers participated in a biokinetic study of radioactive polonium. Portions of about 10 Bq of {sup 209}Po were orally administrated to four of the volunteers in a single ingestion. The fifth volunteer ingested a daily amount of 53 mBq of 209Po for 243 d to study the time to achieve equilibrium between intake and excretion for protracted intakes. For the subjects ingesting single intakes of {sup 209}Po complete sampling of urine and feces was subsequently collected the first few days upon the ingestion. The samples were processed with radiochemical extraction and analyzed with alpha spectrometry. In the study, the maximum daily excretion rates in feces were 18-50% of the ingested activity, observed within 3 d after intake. Regarding the urine excretion, the daily excretion peaked, on average, at 0.15-1% of the ingested activity within two days upon intake. These results indicate an average gastro-intestinal uptake fraction of 0.46 {+-} 0.08, which agrees well with earlier biokinetic studies of polonium in man. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human metabolism of an oral intake of polonium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4 individuals were administrated about 10 Bq polonium-209. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gastro-intestinal uptake fraction, if orally administrated polonium-209 was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biological half-time of polonium in human body was studied.

  1. An optimization strategy for a biokinetic model of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyr, L.J.; Griffith, W.C.; Boecker, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    Models for material disposition and dosimetry involve predictions of the biokinetics of the material among compartments representing organs and tissues in the body. Because of a lack of human data for most toxicants, many of the basic data are derived by modeling the results obtained from studies using laboratory animals. Such a biomathematical model is usually developed by adjusting the model parameters to make the model predictions match the measured retention and excretion data visually. The fitting process can be very time-consuming for a complicated model, and visual model selections may be subjective and easily biased by the scale or the data used. Due to the development of computerized optimization methods, manual fitting could benefit from an automated process. However, for a complicated model, an automated process without an optimization strategy will not be efficient, and may not produce fruitful results. In this paper, procedures for, and implementation of, an optimization strategy for a complicated mathematical model is demonstrated by optimizing a biokinetic model for 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles inhaled by beagle dogs. The optimized results using SimuSolv were compared to manual fitting results obtained previously using the model simulation software GASP. Also, statistical criteria provided by SimuSolv, such as likelihood function values, were used to help or verify visual model selections

  2. A recycling model of the biokinetics of systemic tellurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, Augusto

    2014-11-01

    To develop a compartmental model of the systemic biokinetics of tellurium required for calculating the internal dose and interpreting bioassay measurements after incorporation of radioactive tellurium. The compartmental model for tellurium was developed with the software SAAM II v. 2.0 (©The Epsilon Group, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA). Model parameters were determined on the basis of published retention and excretion data in humans and animals. The model consists of two blood compartments, one compartment each for liver, kidneys, thyroid, four compartments for bone tissues and a generic compartment for the soft tissues. The model predicts a rapid urinary excretion of systemic tellurium: 45% in the first 24 h and 84% after 50 d. Faecal excretion amounts to 0.4% after 3 d and 9% after 50 d. Whole body retention is 55% after one day, and 2.8% after 100 d. These values as well as the retained fractions in the single organs are reasonably consistent with the available human and animal data (studies with swine and guinea pigs). The proposed model gives a realistic description of the available biokinetic data for tellurium and will be adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for applications in internal dosimetry.

  3. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monleau, M.

    2005-12-01

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure. It

  4. Study of the influence of radionuclide biokinetics on in vivo counting using voxel phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, St.

    2008-10-01

    The in vivo measurement is an efficient method to estimate the retention of activity in case of internal contamination. However, it is currently limited by the use of physical phantoms for the calibration, not enabling to reproduce neither the morphology of the measured person nor the actual distribution of the contamination. The current method of calibration therefore leads to significant systematic uncertainties on the quantification of the contamination. To improve the in vivo measurement, the Laboratory of Internal Dose Assessment (LEDI, IRSN) has developed an original numerical calibration method with the OEDIPE software. It is based on voxel phantoms created from the medical images of persons, and associated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code of particle transport. The first version of this software enabled to model simple homogeneous sources and to better estimate the systematic uncertainties in the lung counting of actinides due to the detector position and to the heterogeneous distribution of activity inside the lungs. However, it was not possible to take into account the dynamic feature, and often heterogeneous distribution between body organs and tissues of the activity. Still, the efficiency of the detection system depends on the distribution of the source of activity. The main purpose of the thesis work is to answer to the question: what is the influence of the biokinetics of the radionuclides on the in vivo counting? To answer it, it was necessary to deeply modify OEDIPE. This new development enabled to model the source of activity more realistically from the reference biokinetic models defined by the ICRP. The first part of the work consisted in developing the numerical tools needed to integrate the biokinetics in OEDIPE. Then, a methodology was developed to quantify its influence on the in vivo counting from the results of simulations. This method was carried out and validated on the model of the in vivo counting system of the LEDI. Finally, the

  5. Performance analysis of numeric solutions applied to biokinetics of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingatos, Danielle dos Santos; Bevilacqua, Joyce da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Biokinetics models for radionuclides applied to dosimetry problems are constantly reviewed by ICRP. The radionuclide trajectory could be represented by compartmental models, assuming constant transfer rates between compartments. A better understanding of physiological or biochemical phenomena, improve the comprehension of radionuclide behavior in the human body and, in general, more complex compartmental models are proposed, increasing the difficulty of obtaining the analytical solution for the system of first order differential equations. Even with constant transfer rates numerical solutions must be carefully implemented because of almost singular characteristic of the matrix of coefficients. In this work we compare numerical methods with different strategies for ICRP-78 models for Thorium-228 and Uranium-234. The impact of uncertainty in the parameters of the equations is also estimated for local and global truncation errors. (author)

  6. Transuranic biokinetic parameters for marine invertebrates--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T P

    2002-04-01

    A catalogue of biokinetic parameters for the transuranic elements plutonium, americium, curium, neptunium, and californium in marine invertebrates is presented. The parameters considered are: the seawater-animal concentration factor (CF); the sediment-animal concentration ratio (CR); transuranic assimilation efficiency; transuranic tissue distribution and transuranic elimination rates. With respect to the seawater-animal CF, authors differ considerably on how they define this parameter and a seven-point reporting system is suggested. Transuranic uptake from sediment by animals is characterised by low CRs. The assimilation efficiencies of transuranic elements in marine invertebrates are high compared to vertebrates and mammals in general and the distribution of transuranics within the body tissue of an animal is dependent on the uptake path. The elimination of transuranics from most species examined conformed to a standard biphasic exponential model though some examples with three elimination phases were identified.

  7. The biokinetics and radiotoxicology of curium: A comparison with americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menetrier, F. [CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Taylor, D.M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: davtay@btinternet.com; Comte, A. [CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2008-05-15

    The human and animal data on the biokinetics of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 244}Cm are reviewed and shown to be very similar to those for {sup 241}Am. Liver and skeleton are the main organs of deposition and the retention of curium in the skeleton is very prolonged in all the species examined. Retention of both curium and americium in the liver appears to be species-dependent, being relatively rapidly removed from the liver of rats, and probably humans, but being tenaciously retained in dogs and some other species. The radiotoxicity of curium is also reviewed and it is shown that, as with {sup 241}Am, lung and bone tumour induction are the major hazards from inhaled and systemically deposited {sup 244}Cm. The use of chelating agents for the treatment of accidental contamination of the human body with {sup 242,244}Cm is also discussed.

  8. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for the metabolism of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Bertelli, L.; Durbin, P.W.; Eckerman, K.F.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Singh, N.P.

    1995-10-01

    Experiments involving injection and inhalation of uranium compounds into several animal species as well as those associated with humans are described and analyzed. A revised biokinetic and dosimetric model for the metabolism of uranium suitable for bioassay procedures is proposed. The model consists of a systematic part coupled to a model of the respiratory tract. The model has been tested against human data which incorporates in vivo measurements over the chest and measurements of urine, feces, and autopsy and biopsy samples.In particular the lung model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 30 ( ICRP-30 ), has been modified in order to provide a model which more nearly predicts urinary excretion in accord with the experiences in humans and animals. We have also tested the data against the new ICRP (LUDEP) lung model. (author). 55 refs., 14 tabs., 33 figs

  9. A case of accidental intake of Molybdenum Radionuclides: analysis of data with a revised biokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Cantone, M.C.; Tavola, F.; Lopez, M.A.; Navarro, T.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a series of investigations on the biokinetics of molybdenum in humans, conducted using stable isotopes of Mo as tracers, has provided valuable experimental data about the dynamics of relevant processes such as the uptake from the gut walls, the clearance from the systemic circulation and the elimination pathways. The results of these studies are in good agreement with the findings of a group of nutritionist who also performed biokinetic studies with stable tracers. All measurements show several deviations from the predictions of the current ICRP model. On the basis of these data, a preliminary revision of the biokinetic model for Mo was presented. The modified model was thus used as a starting point for a new series of biokinetic investigations, aimed at a better definition of some of its features. In a total of 54 studies conducted in 15 volunteers, the influence of the mass and of the chemical form on intestinal absorption, internal kinetics and urinary excretion was investigated

  10. A generic biokinetic model for predicting the behaviour of the lanthanide elements in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; Leggett, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the biokinetics of the 15 elements of the lanthanide series, 57 La to 71 Lu, is too sparse to permit individual development of meaningful biokinetic models to describe the behaviour of each of the elements in humans. The lanthanides show a regular gradation in chemical properties across the series, and animal studies indicate that this is reflected in regular differences in their deposition in tissues such as the liver and skeleton. These regular differences in chemical and biological behaviour have been utilised to construct a generic lanthanide biokinetic model and to define element-specific parameters for each element in the series. This report describes the use of the available biokinetic data for humans and animals to derive the parameters for each of the elements. (author)

  11. Biokinetic study of 131I following ablation dose administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, A.C.H.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, B.M.; Rebelo, A.M.O.; Mello, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this investigation is to study biokinetics from internally 131 I deposited for thyroid cancer patients during radioiodine therapy (2 to 3 days), after ablation dose administration (3.7 GBq). These data will help in the elaboration of a metabolic model, which will permit absorbed dose assessment for this specific case, since the biokinetic models for iodine available in scientific literature can not be applied to thyroidectomized patient's studies. Material and Methods: Four females patients, between 22 and 50 years old, without metastases, between 1.9 to 6% of remnant thyroid tissue uptake, agreed to contribute to this study. For the in vivo bioassay, periodical measurements were performed along internment time (2 to 3 days), just after Na 131 I dose administration (3.7 GBq). For this, we used the counting system for Nuclear Medicine model 13S002, IEN/CNEN- Brazil, which was adapted with lead filters, in order to allow the work with high rate counting. The measurements were performed in two geometries: thyroid region and thigh. Results: For each patient, we have done approximately 26 measurements for both geometries, starting at the first hour following dose administration until the release from hospital of patient. The results of counting rate (cps) were plotted against time (h). The measurements suggest a relation between remnant thyroid tissue uptake values and the time where counting rates start decreasing. In addition, it was observed a correlation between remnant thyroid tissue radioactive burdens and the circulating iodine through time. Conclusion: It is necessary to follow-up a greater number of patients aiming to confirm the observed correlations and with a greater number of measurements during the first 24 hours, in other to delimit the time range of increasing and decreasing counting rate

  12. Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi SJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Jin Choi,1 Jin-Ho Choy2 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, 2Center for Intelligent Nano Bio Materials (CINBM, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle–protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins. Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, biokinetics, distribution, excretion, fate, interaction

  13. Strontium biokinetic model for the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk: application to Techa River studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Fell, T P; Smith, T J; Harrison, J D

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a biokinetic model for strontium metabolism in the lactating woman and transfer to breast milk for members of Techa River communities exposed as a result of discharges of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Russia) in the early 1950s. This model was based on that developed for the International Commission for Radiological Protection with modifications to account for population specific features of breastfeeding and maternal bone mineral metabolism. The model is based on a biokinetic model for the adult female with allowances made for changes in mineral metabolism during periods of exclusive and partial breast-feeding. The model for females of all ages was developed earlier from extensive data on 90 Sr-body measurements for Techa Riverside residents. Measurements of 90 Sr concentrations in the maternal skeleton and breast milk obtained in the1960s during monitoring of global fallout in the Southern Urals region were used for evaluation of strontium transfer to breast and breast milk. The model was validated with independent data from studies of global fallout in Canada and measurements of 90 Sr body-burden in women living in the Techa River villages who were breastfeeding during maximum 90 Sr-dietary intakes. The model will be used in evaluations of the intake of strontium radioisotopes in breast milk by children born in Techa River villages during the radioactive releases and quantification of 90 Sr retention in the maternal skeleton. (paper)

  14. Multigenerational cadmium acclimation and biokinetics in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rui; Wang Wenxiong

    2006-01-01

    A Cd exposure (3 μg L -1 ) experiment was conducted for six successive generations to investigate the responses to chronic Cd stress in Daphnia magna. We observed a biphasic accumulation of Cd in the six generations and suggested a similar pattern with respect to daphnids' tolerance. Cd assimilation efficiencies, daphnid growth, and reproduction corresponded to the changes of tolerance, which was partially accounted for by metallothionein induction. When maternally exposed neonates grew in Cd-free water for one or two generations, their growth, MT concentration and biokinetic parameters partially or totally recovered. The rapid recovery suggests the high potential for ecological restoration from Cd pollution. Our results indicate that the tolerance of sensitive D. magna clones to Cd was dependent on long-term or multigenerational exposure. The tolerance developed within the first several generations might not be maintained, and the animals may become even more sensitive to Cd stress in subsequent generations. - Tolerance of sensitive Daphnia magna clones to cadmium was dependent on long-term or multigenerational exposure

  15. The biokinetics of Rhuthenium and Zirconium radionuclides in humans studied with stable tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronese, I.; Cantone, M.C.; Giussani, A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of the internal radiation dose delivered by radionuclides incorporated in the human body after accidental release into the environment requires the use of suitable biokinetic models. These models describe the absorption of radionuclides into the blood circulation, their distribution and retention in various organs and tissues, and the excretion routes. Biokinetic models are also employed for interpreting bioassay measurements in exposed subjects, like activity concentration measurements in body fluids (e.g. urine, blood), in order to estimate the incorporated amount of radioactive substances. The reliability of a biokinetic model is closely linked to the available experimental data used to develop the model itself. Biokinetic data for human subjects are available for most essential elements, as well as for some important non-essential elements such as caesium, lead, radium, uranium, americium and plutonium. For many other radionuclides, either very little or no information is available from human studies, and the respective models must be derived from other sources. These may include results from studies in animals, comparative data on the behaviour of similar radionuclides or chemical analogues in vitro. Biokinetic models developed from such a variety of data sources can be applied to humans only with a limited degree of confidence. The availability of data directly obtained on human subjects is therefore fundamental to set up more reliable and realistic models. Ruthenium and zirconium are among the elements characterised by a serious lack of reliable data in humans

  16. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  17. Quantitative analysis of multiple biokinetic models using a dynamic water phantom: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Fu-Tsai; Li, Pei-Jung; Chung, Shih-Ping; Pan, Lung-Fa; Pan, Lung-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study analyzed multiple biokinetic models using a dynamic water phantom. The phantom was custom-made with acrylic materials to model metabolic mechanisms in the human body. It had 4 spherical chambers of different sizes, connected by 8 ditches to form a complex and adjustable water loop. One infusion and drain pole connected the chambers to an auxiliary silicon-based hose, respectively. The radio-active compound solution (TC-99m-MDP labeled) formed a sealed and static water loop inside the phantom. As clean feed water was infused to replace the original solution, the system mimicked metabolic mechanisms for data acquisition. Five cases with different water loop settings were tested and analyzed, with case settings changed by controlling valve poles located in the ditches. The phantom could also be changed from model A to model B by transferring its vertical configuration. The phantom was surveyed with a clinical gamma camera to determine the time-dependent intensity of every chamber. The recorded counts per pixel in each chamber were analyzed and normalized to compare with theoretical estimations from the MATLAB program. Every preset case was represented by uniquely defined, time-dependent, simultaneous differential equations, and a corresponding MATLAB program optimized the solutions by comparing theoretical calculations and practical measurements. A dimensionless agreement (AT) index was recommended to evaluate the comparison in each case. ATs varied from 5.6 to 48.7 over the 5 cases, indicating that this work presented an acceptable feasibility study. PMID:27286096

  18. The computation of ICRP dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides with PLEIADES: biokinetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, T P

    2007-01-01

    The ICRP has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients conveniently divides into two distinct parts--the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper gives a brief summary of the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES.

  19. The computation of ICRP dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides with PLEIADES: biokinetic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ICRP has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients conveniently divides into two distinct parts - the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper gives a brief summary of the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES. (author)

  20. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Biokinetics and dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.; Bailly-Despiney, I.

    2000-01-01

    The final report 'Biokinetics and Dosimetry of Incorporated Radionuclides' presented here is one part of the 5 individual reports. The work to be carried out within this project is structured into four Work Packages: Workpackage 1 concentrates on ingested radionuclides, considering doses to the GI tract and radionuclide absorption. A major objective is the development of a new dosimetric model of the GI tract, taking account of most recent data on gut transit and dose to sensitive cells. Workpackage 2 seeks to improve and extend biokinetic and dosimetric models for systemic radionuclides. Existing models for adults and children will be extended to other elements and new models will be developed for the embryo and fetus. Workpackage 3 is to improve assessment of localised distribution of dose within tissues at the cellular level for specific examples of Auger emitters and alpha emitting isotopes, in relation to observed effects. The work will include experimental studies of dose/effect relationship and the development of localisation methods. Workpackage 4 concerns the development of computer codes for the new dosimetric models, quality assurance of the models and the calculation of dose coefficients. Formal sensitivity analysis will be used to identify critical areas of model development and to investigate the effects of variability and incertainty in biokinetic parameters. (orig.)

  1. A profile of Biokinetics service provided by the University of Kwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biokinetics can be viewed as an emerging member of the South African health professions in comparison to the longstanding professions of physiotherapy, chiropractics and occupational therapy which were established in 1924, 1939 and 1945, respectively. The aim of this investigation was to determine the profile of the ...

  2. Distribution and biokinetic analysis of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in poultry due to ingestion of dicalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casacuberta, N., E-mail: Nuria.Casacuberta@uab.es [Departament de Fisica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Traversa, F.L. [Departament d' Electronica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J. [Departament de Fisica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Anguita, M.; Gasa, J. [Departament de Ciencia Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) is used as a calcium supplement for food producing animals (i.e., cattle, poultry and pig). When DCP is produced via wet acid digestion of the phosphate rock and depending on the acid used in the industrial process, the final product can result in enhanced {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po specific activities ({approx} 2000 Bq.kg{sup -1}). Both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po are of great interest because their contribution to the dose received by ingestion is potentially large. The aims of this work are to examine the accumulation of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in chicken tissues during the first 42 days of life and to build a suitable single-compartment biokinetic model to understand the behavior of both radionuclides within the entire animal using the experimental results. Three commercial corn-soybean-based diets containing different amounts and sources of DCP were fed to broilers during a period of 42 days. The results show that diets containing enhanced concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po lead to larger specific accumulation in broiler tissues compared to the blank diet. Radionuclides do not accumulate homogeneously within the animal body: {sup 210}Pb follows the calcium pathways to some extent and accumulates largely in bones, while {sup 210}Po accumulates to a large extent in liver and kidneys. However, the total amount of radionuclide accumulation in tissues is small compared to the amounts excreted in feces. The single-compartment non-linear biokinetic model proposed here for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the whole animal takes into account the size evolution and is self-consistent in that no fitting parameterization of intake and excretions rates is required.

  3. Bayesian model selection validates a biokinetic model for zirconium processing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In radiation protection, biokinetic models for zirconium processing are of crucial importance in dose estimation and further risk analysis for humans exposed to this radioactive substance. They provide limiting values of detrimental effects and build the basis for applications in internal dosimetry, the prediction for radioactive zirconium retention in various organs as well as retrospective dosimetry. Multi-compartmental models are the tool of choice for simulating the processing of zirconium. Although easily interpretable, determining the exact compartment structure and interaction mechanisms is generally daunting. In the context of observing the dynamics of multiple compartments, Bayesian methods provide efficient tools for model inference and selection. Results We are the first to apply a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to compute Bayes factors for the evaluation of two competing models for zirconium processing in the human body after ingestion. Based on in vivo measurements of human plasma and urine levels we were able to show that a recently published model is superior to the standard model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The Bayes factors were estimated by means of the numerically stable thermodynamic integration in combination with a recently developed copula-based Metropolis-Hastings sampler. Conclusions In contrast to the standard model the novel model predicts lower accretion of zirconium in bones. This results in lower levels of noxious doses for exposed individuals. Moreover, the Bayesian approach allows for retrospective dose assessment, including credible intervals for the initially ingested zirconium, in a significantly more reliable fashion than previously possible. All methods presented here are readily applicable to many modeling tasks in systems biology. PMID:22863152

  4. Controlling intake of uranium in the workplace: Applications of biokinetic modeling and occupational monitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; McGinn, Wilson [ORNL; Meck, Dr. Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2012-01-01

    This report provides methods for interpreting and applying occupational uranium monitoring data. The methods are based on current international radiation protection guidance, current information on the chemical toxicity of uranium, and best available biokinetic models for uranium. Emphasis is on air monitoring data and three types of bioassay data: the concentration of uranium in urine; the concentration of uranium in feces; and the externally measured content of uranium in the chest. Primary Reference guidance levels for prevention of chemical effects and limitation of radiation effects are selected based on a review of current scientific data and regulatory principles for setting standards. Generic investigation levels and immediate action levels are then defined in terms of these primary guidance levels. The generic investigation and immediate actions levels are stated in terms of radiation dose and concentration of uranium in the kidneys. These are not directly measurable quantities, but models can be used to relate the generic levels to the concentration of uranium in air, urine, or feces, or the total uranium activity in the chest. Default investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest are recommended for situations in which there is little information on the form of uranium taken into the body. Methods are prescribed also for deriving case-specific investigation and immediate action levels for uranium in air, urine, feces, and chest when there is sufficient information on the form of uranium to narrow the range of predictions of accumulation of uranium in the main target organs for uranium: kidneys for chemical effects and lungs for radiological effects. In addition, methods for using the information herein for alternative guidance levels, different from the ones selected for this report, are described.

  5. Surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton: current approach and recent developments in biokinetic modelling for humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, A.; Polig, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, the biokinetics of surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton has been the object of several studies. Investigations were carried out to determine the kinetics of plutonium and americium in the skeleton of humans and beagles. As a result of these investigations, in recent years the models presented by ICRP in Publication 67 for humans were partially revised, particularly the skeletal part. The aim of the present work is to present recent developments in the biokinetic modelling of surface-seeking radionuclides (plutonium and americium) in beagles and humans. Various assumptions and physiological interpretations of the different approaches to the biokinetic modelling of the skeleton are discussed. Current ICRP concepts and skeleton modelling of plutonium and americium in humans are compared to the latest developments in biokinetic modelling in beagles. (authors)

  6. A quantitative evaluation of multiple biokinetic models using an assembled water phantom: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Yeh

    Full Text Available This study examined the feasibility of quantitatively evaluating multiple biokinetic models and established the validity of the different compartment models using an assembled water phantom. Most commercialized phantoms are made to survey the imaging system since this is essential to increase the diagnostic accuracy for quality assurance. In contrast, few customized phantoms are specifically made to represent multi-compartment biokinetic models. This is because the complicated calculations as defined to solve the biokinetic models and the time-consuming verifications of the obtained solutions are impeded greatly the progress over the past decade. Nevertheless, in this work, five biokinetic models were separately defined by five groups of simultaneous differential equations to obtain the time-dependent radioactive concentration changes inside the water phantom. The water phantom was assembled by seven acrylic boxes in four different sizes, and the boxes were linked to varying combinations of hoses to signify the multiple biokinetic models from the biomedical perspective. The boxes that were connected by hoses were then regarded as a closed water loop with only one infusion and drain. 129.1±24.2 MBq of Tc-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP solution was thoroughly infused into the water boxes before gamma scanning; then the water was replaced with de-ionized water to simulate the biological removal rate among the boxes. The water was driven by an automatic infusion pump at 6.7 c.c./min, while the biological half-life of the four different-sized boxes (64, 144, 252, and 612 c.c. was 4.8, 10.7, 18.8, and 45.5 min, respectively. The five models of derived time-dependent concentrations for the boxes were estimated either by a self-developed program run in MATLAB or by scanning via a gamma camera facility. Either agreement or disagreement between the practical scanning and the theoretical prediction in five models was thoroughly discussed. The

  7. An empirical multivariate log-normal distribution representing uncertainty of biokinetic parameters for 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Martz, H.; Bertelli, L.; Melo, D.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified biokinetic model for 137 Cs has six parameters representing transfer of material to and from various compartments. Using a Bayesian analysis, the joint probability distribution of these six parameters is determined empirically for two cases with quite a lot of bioassay data. The distribution is found to be a multivariate log-normal. Correlations between different parameters are obtained. The method utilises a fairly large number of pre-determined forward biokinetic calculations, whose results are stored in interpolation tables. Four different methods to sample the multidimensional parameter space with a limited number of samples are investigated: random, stratified, Latin Hypercube sampling with a uniform distribution of parameters and importance sampling using a lognormal distribution that approximates the posterior distribution. The importance sampling method gives much smaller sampling uncertainty. No sampling method-dependent differences are perceptible for the uniform distribution methods. (authors)

  8. Reliability of a new biokinetic model of zirconium in internal dosimetry: part II, parameter sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei Bo; Greiter, Matthias; Oeh, Uwe; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    The reliability of biokinetic models is essential for the assessment of internal doses and a radiation risk analysis for the public and occupational workers exposed to radionuclides. In the present study, a method for assessing the reliability of biokinetic models by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis was developed. In the first part of the paper, the parameter uncertainty was analyzed for two biokinetic models of zirconium (Zr); one was reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and one was developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health (HMGU). In the second part of the paper, the parameter uncertainties and distributions of the Zr biokinetic models evaluated in Part I are used as the model inputs for identifying the most influential parameters in the models. Furthermore, the most influential model parameter on the integral of the radioactivity of Zr over 50 y in source organs after ingestion was identified. The results of the systemic HMGU Zr model showed that over the first 10 d, the parameters of transfer rates between blood and other soft tissues have the largest influence on the content of Zr in the blood and the daily urinary excretion; however, after day 1,000, the transfer rate from bone to blood becomes dominant. For the retention in bone, the transfer rate from blood to bone surfaces has the most influence out to the endpoint of the simulation; the transfer rate from blood to the upper larger intestine contributes a lot in the later days; i.e., after day 300. The alimentary tract absorption factor (fA) influences mostly the integral of radioactivity of Zr in most source organs after ingestion.

  9. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic; Jennings, Paul

    2015-12-25

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to biokinetics to identify cell stress response pathways induced by cisplatin. The human renal proximal tubular cell line RPTEC/TERT1 was treated with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of cisplatin (0.5 and 2 μM) in a daily repeat dose treating regime for up to 14 days. Biokinetic analysis showed that cisplatin was taken up from the basolateral compartment, transported to the apical compartment, and accumulated in cells over time. This is in line with basolateral uptake of cisplatin via organic cation transporter 2 and bioactivation via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase located on the apical side of proximal tubular cells. Cisplatin affected several pathways including, p53 signalling, Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response, mitochondrial processes, mTOR and AMPK signalling. In addition, we identified novel pathways changed by cisplatin, including eIF2 signalling, actin nucleation via the ARP/WASP complex and regulation of cell polarization. In conclusion, using an integrated omic approach together with biokinetics we have identified both novel and established mechanisms of cisplatin toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proposal of a new biokinetic model for niobium; Proposta de um novo modelo biocinetico para o niobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Roges

    2006-07-01

    There are two niobium isotopes generated in nuclear power plants: 95 Nb and 94 Nb. Workers and members of the public are subjects to intake these radionuclides in accident situation. For dose calculation purpose, it is very important to develop a model that describes in a more realistic way the kinetics of niobium inside of the human body. Presently the model adopted by ICRP (ICRP, 1989) is based on animal studies and describes the behavior of niobium in human being in a simple manner. The new model proposal describes the kinetics of the niobium from the intake into the blood until the excretion, doing this in a more realistic form and considering not only data from animals but data from human beings as well. For this objective, a workers group of a niobium extraction and processing industry exposed to stable niobium (93 Nb) in oxide insoluble form with associated uranium, was monitored for uranium and niobium determination in urinary and fecal excretion, by mass spectrometry. Based in the ratios of the niobium concentration in urinary and faecal excretion of this workers and animal data study, a new biokinetic model for niobium was proposed, with the followings modifications relative to ICRP model: a new compartment that represents muscular tissue; the fractions which are deposited into the compartment are modified; a third component in the retention equation of the bone tissue; introduction of recirculation between organs and blood. The new model was applied for a case of accidental intake and described adequately the experimental data.

  11. Recent developments in biokinetic models and the calculation of internal dose coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, T.P.; Phipps, A.W.; Kendall, G.M.; Stradling, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    In most cases the measurement of radioactivity in an environmental or biological sample will be followed by some estimation of dose and possibly risk, either to a population or an individual. This will normally involve the use of a dose coefficient (dose per unit intake value) taken from a compendium. In recent years the calculation of dose coefficients has seen many developments in both biokinetic modelling and computational capabilities. ICRP has recommended new models for the respiratory tract and for the systemic behavior of many of the more important elements. As well as this, a general age-dependent calculation method has been developed which involves an effectively continuous variation of both biokinetic and dosimetric parameters, facilitating more realistic estimation of doses to young people. These new developments were used in work for recent ICRP, IAEA and CEC compendia of dose coefficients for both members of the public (including children) and workers. This paper presents a general overview of the method of calculation of internal doses with particular reference to the actinides. Some of the implications for dose coefficients of the new models are discussed. For example it is shown that compared with data in ICRP Publications 30 and 54: the new respiratory tract model generally predicts lower deposition in systemic tissues per unit intake; the new biokinetic models for actinides allow for burial of material deposited on bone surfaces; age-dependent models generally feature faster turnover of material in young people. All of these factors can lead to substantially different estimates of dose and examples of the new dose coefficients are given to illustrate these differences. During the development of the new models for actinides, human bioassay data were used to validate the model. Thus, one would expect the new models to give reasonable predictions of bioassay quantities. Some examples of the bioassay applications, e.g., excretion data for the

  12. Quantitative biokinetic analysis of radioactively labelled, inhaled Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Wenk, Alexander; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Lungenbiologie und Erkrankungen, Netzwerk Nanopartikel und Gesundheit

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this project was the determination of the biokinetics of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP) in the whole body of healthy adult rats after NP administration to the respiratory tract - either via inhalation or instillation. We developed an own methodology to freshly synthesize and aerosolize TiO{sub 2}-NP in our lab for the use of inhalation studies. These NP underwent a detailed physical and chemical characterization providing pure polycrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2}-NP of about 20 nm (geometric standard deviation 1.6) and a specific surface area of 270 m{sup 2}/g. In addition, we developed techniques for sufficiently stable radioactive {sup 48}V labelling of the TiO{sub 2} NP. The kinetics of solubility of {sup 48}V was thoroughly determined. The methodology of quantitative biokinetics allows for a quantitative balance of the retained and excreted NP in control of the administered NP dose and provides a much more precise determination of NP fractions and concentrations of NP in organs and tissues of interest as compared to spotting biokinetics studies. Small fractions of TiO{sub 2}-NP translocate across the air-blood-barrier and accumulate in secondary target organs, soft tissue and skeleton. The amount of translocated TiO{sub 2}-NP is approximately 2% of TiO{sub 2}-NP deposited in the lungs. A prominent fraction of these translocated TiO{sub 2}-NP was found in the remainder. Smaller amounts of TiO{sub 2}-NP accumulate in secondary organs following particular kinetics. TiO{sub 2}-NP translocation was grossly accomplished within the first 2-4 hours after inhalation followed by retention in all organs and tissues studied without any detectable clearance of these biopersistent TiO{sub 2}-NP within 28 days. Therefore, our data suggest crossing of the air-blood-barrier of the lungs and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues depends on the NP material and its physico-chemical properties. Furthermore, we extrapolate that during repeated or chronic

  13. Quantitative biokinetic analysis of radioactively labelled, inhaled Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Wenk, Alexander; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project was the determination of the biokinetics of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NP) in the whole body of healthy adult rats after NP administration to the respiratory tract - either via inhalation or instillation. We developed an own methodology to freshly synthesize and aerosolize TiO 2 -NP in our lab for the use of inhalation studies. These NP underwent a detailed physical and chemical characterization providing pure polycrystalline anatase TiO 2 -NP of about 20 nm (geometric standard deviation 1.6) and a specific surface area of 270 m 2 /g. In addition, we developed techniques for sufficiently stable radioactive 48 V labelling of the TiO 2 NP. The kinetics of solubility of 48 V was thoroughly determined. The methodology of quantitative biokinetics allows for a quantitative balance of the retained and excreted NP in control of the administered NP dose and provides a much more precise determination of NP fractions and concentrations of NP in organs and tissues of interest as compared to spotting biokinetics studies. Small fractions of TiO 2 -NP translocate across the air-blood-barrier and accumulate in secondary target organs, soft tissue and skeleton. The amount of translocated TiO 2 -NP is approximately 2% of TiO 2 -NP deposited in the lungs. A prominent fraction of these translocated TiO 2 -NP was found in the remainder. Smaller amounts of TiO 2 -NP accumulate in secondary organs following particular kinetics. TiO 2 -NP translocation was grossly accomplished within the first 2-4 hours after inhalation followed by retention in all organs and tissues studied without any detectable clearance of these biopersistent TiO 2 -NP within 28 days. Therefore, our data suggest crossing of the air-blood-barrier of the lungs and subsequent accumulation in secondary organs and tissues depends on the NP material and its physico-chemical properties. Furthermore, we extrapolate that during repeated or chronic exposure to insoluble NP the translocated fraction of NP will

  14. Comparison of predicted with observed biokinetics of inhaled plutonium nitrate and gadolinium oxide in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, A.; Shutt, A.L.; Etherington, G.; Hodgson, S.A.; Rance, E.; Stradling, G.N.; Youngman, M.J.; Ziesenis, A.; Kreyling, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The absorption kinetics to blood of plutonium and gadolinium after inhalation as nitrate and oxide in humans and animals has been studied. For each material, values describing the time dependence of absorption were derived from the studies in animals and used with the ICRP human respiratory tract model to predict lung retention and cumulative amounts to blood for the volunteers inhaling the same materials. Comparison with the observed behaviour in the volunteers suggests that absorption of plutonium and gadolinium is reasonably species independent, and that data obtained from animal studies can be used to assess their biokinetic behaviour in humans. (author)

  15. Biokinetics and bacterial communities of propionate oxidizing bacteria in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J; Verastegui, Yris; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-03-15

    Phased anaerobic digestion is a promising technology and may be a potential source of bio-energy production. Anaerobic digesters are widely used for sewage sludge stabilization and thus a better understanding of the microbial process and kinetics may allow increased volatile solids reduction and methane production through robust process operation. In this study, we analyzed the impact of phase separation and operational conditions on the bio-kinetic characteristics and communities of bacteria associated with four phased anaerobic digestion systems. In addition to significant differences between bacterial communities associated with different digester operating temperatures, our results also revealed that bacterial communities in the phased anaerobic digestion systems differed between the 1st and 2nd phase digesters and we identified strong community composition correlations with several measured physicochemical parameters. The maximum specific growth rates of propionate oxidizing bacteria (POB) in the mesophilic and thermophilic 1st phases were 11 and 23.7 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively, while those of the mesophilic and thermophilic 2nd-phase digesters were 6.7 and 18.6 mgCOD mgCOD(-1) d(-1), respectively. Hence, the biokinetic characteristics of the POB population were dependent on the digester loading. In addition, we observed that the temperature dependency factor (θ) values were higher for the less heavily loaded digesters as compared to the values obtained for the 1st-phase digesters. Our results suggested the appropriate application of two sets of POB bio-kinetic that reflect the differing growth responses as a function of propionate concentration (and/or organic loading rates). Also, modeling acetogenesis in phased anaerobic sludge digestion systems will be improved considering a population shift in separate phases. On the basis of the bio-kinetic values estimated in various digesters, high levels of propionate in the thermophilic digesters may be

  16. Biokinetics aand dosimetry of inhaled 238PuO2 in the beagle dog: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Diel, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of 238 Pu have been measured during the course of a dose-response study of the biological effects of inhaled 238 PuO 2 in Beagle dogs. These measurements were done on the dose-response study animals, as well as a separate group of dogs exposed to similar aerosols and killed serially out to 4 y after exposure. The data from this latter group provided the basis for the development of a biokinetic/dosimetric model for 238 PuO 2 in dogs. Since the publication of this model, several important findings have been made that affected the dosimetric evaluations. The first involved the discovery of significant quantities of natural uranium (U) in the feces samples. The U was measured with the plutonium (Pu), which inflated the values for purported Pu in feces. The second finding involved the addition of Pu biokinetics data from the dose-response dogs, which increased the period of observation from 4 y to 15 y; these later data were not consistent with the earlier model predictions. The purpose of this investigation was (1) to remove the analytical bias in the 238 Pu radiochemical data due to the U and (2) to modify the original model of Mewhinney and Diel, taking into account all data from both studies

  17. Relevance of the ICRP biokinetic model for dietary organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1999-10-01

    Ingested dietary tritium can participate in metabolic processes, and become synthesized into organically bound tritium in the tissues and organs. The distribution and retention of the organically bound tritium throughout the body are much different than tritium in the body water. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 56 (1989) has a biokinetic model to calculate dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium. The model predicts that the dose from the ingestion of organically bound dietary tritium is about 2.3 times higher than from the ingestion of the same activity of tritiated water. Under steady-state conditions, the calculated dose rate (using the first principle approach) from the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium can be twice that from the ingestion of tritiated water. For an adult, the upper-bound dose estimate for the ingestion of dietary organically bound tritium is estimated to be close to 2.3 times higher than that of tritiated water. Therefore, given the uncertainty in the dose calculation with respect to the actual relevant dose, the ICRP biokinetic model for organically bound tritium is sufficient for dosimetry for adults. (author)

  18. Biokinetic study of plutonium and americium associated to the particulates of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Martinez, J.; Iranzo, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the biokinetic parameters of different Plutonium isotopes and Americium inhaled in the state in which they are found in the environment as a result of their deposition in the soil, from an aviation accident that generated different plutonium oxides. to achieve this objective, two lines of work planned. One was the determination of the mineralogical composition and associations that plutonium and americium present in that soil 22 years after the nuclear accident. Other studies were directed to determine the biokinetic of the plutonium isotopes and americium (contained in the dust) deposited tracheally and inhaled by laboratory animals (rats) and in vitro experiments by pulmonary leaching simulation. The in vivo tests have been developed in NRPB (U.K.) and the in vitro experiment, geochemical associations studies, assessment of internal doses to humans resulting from intake of plutonium and americium bearing dusts present in the contaminated area and establishment of ALIs for inhalation, were carried out in CIEMAT (Spain). In this work only determinations and experiments carried out by CIEMAT are includes as a part of the EU Project ''INHALATION AND INGESTION OF RADIONUCLIDES'' contract: FI3P-CT920064a. (Author) 10 refs

  19. Acquisition of biokinetic data for internal dose calculations for some novel radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.; Zanelli, G.D.; Crawley, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Estimation of radiation dose commitment, expresses as an effective dose equivalent, is a prior requisite to the application for a license to administer radiopharmaceuticals and, therefore, in the case of novel radiopharmaceuticals is leading to an increasing awareness of the need for dosimetry-orientated studies. In this laboratory potential new radiopharmaceuticals are investigated initially by animal studies to assess the possible distribution in man, and subsequently in controlled volunteer studies designed to obtain the maximum possible amount of biokinetic data to allow accurate estimation of radiation dose. A variety of techniques are used for this purpose, including profile counting, partial and whole-body scanning by LFOV gamma camera and whole-body counting, in addition to the analysis of radioactivity in blood and excreta. The use of these techniques is illustrated for the acquisition of biokinetic data and subsequent dosimetry of three novel radiopharmaceuticals: 77 Br-p-bromospiperone (quantification of dopamine receptors in the brain). 99 Tc/sup m/-porphyrins and 99 Tc/sup m/ DEPE (a possible novel blood pool marker for MUGA studies). 14 references, 14 figures, 2 tables

  20. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity; Biocinetique et toxicite de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A

    2000-07-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation.

  1. Identification of Biokinetic Models Using the Concept of Extents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašić, Alma; Srinivasan, Sriniketh; Billeter, Julien; Bonvin, Dominique; Villez, Kris

    2017-07-05

    The development of a wide array of process technologies to enable the shift from conventional biological wastewater treatment processes to resource recovery systems is matched by an increasing demand for predictive capabilities. Mathematical models are excellent tools to meet this demand. However, obtaining reliable and fit-for-purpose models remains a cumbersome task due to the inherent complexity of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this work, we present a first study in the context of environmental biotechnology that adopts and explores the use of extents as a way to simplify and streamline the dynamic process modeling task. In addition, the extent-based modeling strategy is enhanced by optimal accounting for nonlinear algebraic equilibria and nonlinear measurement equations. Finally, a thorough discussion of our results explains the benefits of extent-based modeling and its potential to turn environmental process modeling into a highly automated task.

  2. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-03-10

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments.

  3. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: Effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rui; Wang Wenxiong

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments

  4. The in vitro biokinetics of chlorpromazine and diazepam in aggregating rat brain cell cultures after repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Jessica J W; Hermens, Joop L M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxic effects of compounds can be tested in vitro using cell systems. One example is aggregating rat brain cell cultures. For the extrapolation of in vitro data to the in vivo situation, it is important to take the biokinetics of the test compound into account. In addition, the exposure in vivo

  5. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...

  6. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous...

  7. Biokinetics of 237Np in two marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    The long-lived alpha-emitting actinide 237 Np (T 1/2 = 2.2 x 10 6 y) enters the aquatic environment directly from nuclear testing and reprocessing plant wastes as well as indirectly by in situ generation from 241 Am. Earlier studies on 239 Np in the Columbia river ecosystem demonstrated that neptunium accumulated in aquatic species such as algae, sponges and insect larvae but was not detectable in higher trophic level organisms. Based on these findings and the fact that neptunium is chemically similar to the rare earth elements, it has been suggested that this actinide would not easily become incorporated into aquatic biota

  8. A multiple-compartment model for biokinetics studies in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Fermin; Pietrobron, Flavio; Fonseca, Agnes M.F.; Mol, Anderson W.; Rodriguez, Oscar; Guzman, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    In the present work is used the system of linear equations based in the general Assimakopoulos's GMCM model , for the development of a new method that will determine the flow's parameters and transfer coefficients in plants. The need of mathematical models to quantify the penetration of a trace substance in animals and plants, has often been stressed in the literature. Usually, in radiological environment studies, it is used the mean value of contaminant concentrations on whole or edible part plant body, without taking in account vegetable physiology regularities. In this work concepts and mathematical formulation of a Vegetable Multi-compartment Model (VMCM), taking into account the plant's physiology regularities is presented. The model based in general ideas of the GMCM , and statistical Square Minimum Method STATFLUX is proposed to use in inverse sense: the experimental time dependence of concentration in each compartment, should be input, and the parameters should be determined from this data in a statistical approach. The case of Uranium metabolism is discussed. (author)

  9. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater

  10. Nanomaterial translocation - the biokinetics, tissue accumulation, toxicity and fate of materials in secondary organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Balharry, Dominique; Wallin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    into the toxicity posed by the NMs in these secondary organs is expanding due to the realisation that some materials may reach and accumulate in these target sites. The translocation to secondary organs includes, but is not limited to, the hepatic, central nervous, cardiovascular and renal systems. Current data...... dioxide and quantum dots) or fast (e.g. zinc oxide) solubility. The translocation of NMs following intratracheal, intranasal and pharyngeal aspiration is higher (up to 10% of administered dose), however the relevance of these routes for risk assessment is questionable. Uptake of the materials from....... For toxicological and risk evaluation, further information on the toxicokinetics and persistence of NMs is crucial. The overall aim of this review is to outline the data currently available in the literature on the biokinetics, accumulation, toxicity and eventual fate of NMs in order to assess the potential risks...

  11. Biokinetics of carbohydrate and lipid matabolism in normal laying hen; pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Y.H.; Riis, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The radiochemical purity of sup(14)C(U)-glucose solution to be injected to normal laying hen was investigated for studying biokinetics of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The liquid scintillation counter was employed for determining the activity of carbon-14. The barium hydroxide and zinc sulfate were adopted to precipitate the protein in the solution. The glucose content in the solution was observed as 0.912 mg per ml. applying Hultman's method. The specific activity of sup(14)C(U)-glucose solution was known as 31.3 nCi/mg glucose. The glucose pentaacetate was synthesized to isolate the pure glucose from the solution. The specific activity of pure glucose was measured as 28.5 nCi/mg glucose. Therefore, it was known that the radiochemical purity of the solution was 82.7%. (Author)

  12. Critical review of membrane bioreactor models--part 1: biokinetic and filtration models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naessens, W; Maere, T; Nopens, I

    2012-10-01

    Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can significantly benefit from mathematical modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on modelling MBR biokinetics and filtration is critically reviewed. It was found that models cover the wide range of empirical to detailed mechanistic descriptions and have mainly been used for knowledge development and to a lesser extent for system optimisation/control. Moreover, studies are still predominantly performed at lab or pilot scale. Trends are discussed, knowledge gaps identified and interesting routes for further research suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J. (Oregon State Univ., Newport (USA). Marine Science Center)

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  14. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labelled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, is approximately 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  15. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater. (author)

  16. Selenium-75 and technetium-95m biokinetics in rats at different physiological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archimbaud, Yves; Grillon, Gerard; Poncy, Jean-Luc; Masse, Roland

    1992-06-01

    Selenium 79 ( 79 Se) and technetium ( 99 Tc), beta emitters, components of nuclear wastes, may increase the dose equivalent to members of the public. Data used by ICRP show that there is relatively little information on Te and Se biokinetics at different physiologic stages. Retention was almost equivalent for young, male adult and pregnant rat. Selenium was concentrated in the testis, the kidneys, the liver and the spleen as technetium was in the skin, the thyroid and the kidneys. The biological half-time for Se and Te was respectively 20 and 41 days for pregnant rats, 33 and 15 days for young rats. Placental transfer per one fetus was 0.56% of the initial activity for Te and 1.27% for Se. These data point out the eventually high doses delivered to the skin for Te and to the testis for Se. They may be taken into consideration in estimating risk by humans at different stages of life [fr

  17. Accuracy of internal dose calculations with special consideration of radiopharmaceutical biokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedler, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The individual steps of internal dose calculation, including the models and data used, as well as error considerations, are analysed following a short synopsis on the formalism of absorbed dose calculation. The mean dose in a target tissue depends on the administered activity, the residence time of the activity in the source tissues and the mean absorbed dose in the target tissue per transformation in a source tissue. Usually, a standard dosage is applied in radionuclide studies except in children. Actually administered and nomial activities generally differ by less than 10%. For the purpose of internal dose calculation, the biokinetics of a radiopharmaceutical are reflected in the residence times for the individual source tissues. The methods and the evaluation of measurements of biodistribution and retention data are discussed. The extrapolation of animal data to man is treated in some detail, including a survey of the methods used, as well as an attempt for validating these methods. None of these seem to yield more convincing results than the direct transfer of the residence times from animal to man, at least for the two radiopharmaceuticals discussed. The minimum period of measurement to derive residence times for the purpose of dose calculation has been determined as about one physical half-time. Some problems of the dose per transformation to a phantom are presented, including the age- or size-dependence of the internal dose. Organ doses to the phantom, calculated from different apparently reliable sets of biokinetic data, are generally compatible within a factor of 2 to 3, and somatically effective doses are generally compatible within a factor of less than 2

  18. Biokinetics of a transuranic (238PU) and a rare earth element (152Eu) in the lobster (Homarus gammarus): transfer mechanisms (accumulation and detoxification) in organs and at the cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tocquet, N.

    1995-01-01

    The work presented here is an experimental investigation of the biokinetics of transfer of a transuranic and a rare earth element ( 238 Pu and 152 Eu) in the lobster Homarus gammarus. The study of 238 Pu biokinetics forms part of a wider framework of research concerning the transfer of transuranic elements in marine species, while the study of 152 Eu is carried out with a view to supporting the analogy between the behaviour of transuranics and rare earths in living organisms. Exactly the same experimental protocol, based on techniques from various disciplines (biology, biochemistry and metrology), was used to Investigate the biokinetics of transfer of these two radionuclides. The Individual lobsters were radiolabelled by means of one-shot or chronic ingestion of spiked meals. As the first approach, the kinetics and transfer mechanisms were studied In whole animal samples and in different organs distinct series of pathways through the different organs were identified in the case of both radionuclides, being mainly linked to digestive processes induced by the meal as well as the transport function of hemo-lymph in this way, the Important role of the digestive gland was picked out, with two of four cellular types displaying a successive involvement In the fixation and then the retention of the studied radionuclides. As a corroborative approach, the digestive gland was subjected to a more detailed investigation with the aim of describing the mechanisms of Incorporation and elucidating transfer processes at the cellular and molecular levels. 238 Pu is preferentially partitioned into the cytosol, where it is associated with various constituents such as ferritin (iron-storing protein). 152 Eu is more diffusely distributed in the hepato-pancreatic cells, while the lysosomes appear to play a more important role during transfer. The results obtained in this study, both on the macroscopic scale (i.e. the whole animal and different organs) as well as the cellular and molecular

  19. Estimation of parameters biokinetics from the resolution of a model compartment for I-131. Application to a patient with thyroid carcinoma hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Jimenez Feltstrom, D.; Luis dimon, F. J.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to define a biokinetic model for the I-131, and solve it for different conditions of the patient or person affected (normal, with cancer of the thyroid or hyperthyroid). Solve the model in the case of a patient treated with I-131 for ablation of thyroid remnants with undergoing renal insufficiency and hemodialysis . Get the parameters Biokinetic this model for different situations. (Author)

  20. Calibration of hydrodynamic behavior and biokinetics for TOC removal modeling in biofilm reactors under different hydraulic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Soric, Audrey; Roche, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    In this study, total organic carbon (TOC) biodegradation was simulated by GPS-X software in biofilm reactors with carriers of plastic rings and glass beads under different hydraulic conditions. Hydrodynamic model by retention time distribution and biokinetic measurement by in-situ batch test served as two significant parts of model calibration. Experimental results showed that TOC removal efficiency was stable in both media due to the enough height of column, although the actual hydraulic volume changed during the variation of hydraulic condition. Simulated TOC removal efficiencies were close to experimental ones with low theil inequality coefficient values (below 0.15). Compared with glass beads, more TOC was removed in the filter with plastic rings due to the larger actual hydraulic volume and lower half saturation coefficient in spite of its lower maximum specific growth rate of biofilm, which highlighted the importance of calibrating hydrodynamic behavior and biokinetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intercomparison and biokinetic model validation of radionuclide intake assessment. Report of a co-ordinated research project. 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This TECDOC presents the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Intercomparison and Biokinetic Model Validation of Radionuclide Intake Assessment, including the conclusions of a Research Co-ordination Meeting held from 6 to 8 July 1998. The present CRP on Intercomparison and Biokinetic Model Validation of Radionuclide Intake Assessment is part of the activities of the IAEA's Occupational Protection programme. The objective of this programme is to promote an internationally harmonized approach for optimizing occupational radiation protection through: the development of guides, within the IAEA's activities for establishing standards for radiation protection, for restricting radiation exposures in the workplace and for applying current occupational radiation protection techniques; and the promotion of application of these guidelines

  2. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics model for estimating urinary excretion of short half-life nuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, K.; Kai, M.; Konishi, E.; Kusama, T.; Aoki, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The biokinetic model in ICRP 53 is used for calculating absorbed dose to each organ of a patient in nuclear medicine. The ICRP model is a simple compartment model based on human data; however, the model cannot produce the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals under various physiological conditions. On the other hand, a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model (PBPK model) can describe the flow of radiopharmaceuticals as a compartment model for any physiological conditions theoretically. The PBPK model was applied especially for the kidney-bladder dynamics, and similar results obtained compared with the ICRP model. This suggests the possibility of the PBPK model for predicting the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals under various physiological conditions. (Author)

  3. A review of contributions of human tissue studies to biokinetics, bio-effects and dosimetry of plutonium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the contributions made by human tissue studies to improved understanding of the biokinetics, dosimetry and potential bio-effects of plutonium in man. It includes consideration of tissue donations from both environmental and occupational populations, along with a brief history of human experience with plutonium and consideration of the bio-ethical aspects of post-mortem human tissue sampling. (authors)

  4. INDOSE V2.1.1, Internal Dosimetry Code Using Biokinetics Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, Ido

    2002-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: InDose is an internal dosimetry code developed to enable dose estimations using the new biokinetic models (presented in ICRP-56 to ICRP71) as well as the old ones. The code is written in FORTRAN90 and uses the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model and the ICRP-30 gastrointestinal tract model as well as the new and old biokinetic models. The code has been written in such a way that the user is able to change any of the parameters of any one of the models without recompiling the code. All the parameters are given in well annotated parameters files that the user may change and the code reads during invocation. As default, these files contains the values listed in ICRP publications. The full InDose code is planed to have three parts: 1) the main part includes the uptake and systemic models and is used to calculate the activities in the body tissues and excretion as a function of time for a given intake. 2) An optimization module for automatic estimation of the intake for a specific exposure case. 3) A module to calculate the dose due to the estimated intake. Currently, the code is able to perform only its main task (part 1) while the other two have to be done externally using other tools. In the future we would like to add these modules in order to provide a complete solution for the people in the laboratory. The code has been tested extensively to verify the accuracy of its results. The verification procedure was divided into three parts: 1) verification of the implementation of each model, 2) verification of the integrity of the whole code, and 3) usability test. The first two parts consisted of comparing results obtained with InDose to published results for the same cases. For example ICRP-78 monitoring data. The last part consisted of participating in the 3. EIE-IDA and assessing some of the scenarios provided in this exercise. These tests where presented in a few publications. It has been found that there is very good agreement

  5. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y.; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A. van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights • A workflow for an exposure driven chemical safety assessment to avoid animal testing. • Hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling and biokinetic considerations. • A tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing.

  6. Biokinetics and dosimetry of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.; Torres G, E.; Gonzalez V, A.; Murphy, C.A. de

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging techniques directly or indirectly monitor and record the spatiotemporal distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biologic, diagnostic or therapeutic applications. 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. Therapies using radiolabeled anti-CD20 have demonstrated their efficacy in patients with B-cell non Hodgkin's Iymphoma (NHL). The aim of this study was to establish biokinetic models for 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC and 188 Re-anti-CD20 prepared from Iyophilized kits, and to evaluate their dosimetry as target-specific radiopharmaceuticals. Whole-body images were acquired at different times after 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC or 188 Re-anti-CD20 administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities > 95 %. Regions of interest (ROls) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust the biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3 ± 0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h and the mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv. Results showed that after administration of 7 GBq of 188 Re-anti-CD20 the absorbed dose to whole body would be 0.7 Gy (0.1 mGy/MBq) which is the indicated dose for non Hodgkin's Iymphome therapies. (Author)

  7. Biokinetics of 13C in the human body after oral administration of 13C-labeled glucose as an index for the biokinetics of 14C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kensaku; Takeda, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The retention of 13 C in the human body after oral administration of 13 C-labeled glucose was studied in three healthy volunteer subjects to estimate the 50 year cumulative body burden for 13 C as an index of the committed dose of the radioisotope 14 C. After administration of 13 C-labeled glucose, the volunteers ingested controlled diets with a fixed number of calories for 112 d. Samples of breath and urine were collected up to 112 d after administration. Samples of feces were collected up to 14 d after administration. Hair samples were obtained at 119 d after administration and analyzed as a representative index of the rate of excretion of organic 13 C via pathways such as skin cell exfoliation and mucus secretion. All samples were analyzed for 13 C/ 12 C atomic ratio to determine the rate of excretion via each pathway. We then constructed a metabolic model with a total of four pathways (breath, urine, feces, and other) comprising seven compartments. We determined the values of the biokinetic parameters in the model by using the obtained excretion data. From 74% to 94% of the 13 C administered was excreted in breath, whereas    0.1). In addition, the dataset for one of the three subjects was markedly different from those of the other two. When we estimated the 50 year cumulative body burden for 13 C by using our model and we included non-statistically significant parameters, a considerable cumulative body burden was found in the compartments excreting to the other pathway. Although our results on the cumulative body burden of 13 C from orally administered carbon as glucose were inconclusive, we found that the compartments excreting to the other pathway had a markedly long residence time and therefore should be studied further to clarify the fate of carbon in the human body. In addition to excreta, data for serum and blood cell samples were also collected from the subjects to examine the metabolism of 13 C in human body.

  8. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Ahlgren, Lars; Mattsson, Soeren [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Skaane University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, Lennart [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    To review early recommendations and propose guidelines for breastfeeding interruption after administration of radiopharmaceuticals, based on additional biokinetic and dosimetric data. Activity concentrations in breast milk from 53 breastfeeding patients were determined. The milk was collected at various times after administration of 16 different radiopharmaceuticals. The fraction of the activity administered to the mother excreted in the breast milk, the absorbed doses to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the infant were estimated. The fraction of the administered activity excreted per millilitre of milk varied widely from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -3} MBq/MBq administered. For {sup 99m}Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of the administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.0057 % for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) to 19 % for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. The effective dose to an infant per unit activity administered to the mother ranged from 6.7 x 10{sup -6} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-labelled RBC to 3.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/MBq for {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. For the other radiopharmaceuticals, the total fraction of administered activity excreted in the milk varied from 0.018 % ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 48 % ({sup 131}I-NaI). The effective dose ranged from 5.6 x 10{sup -5} mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) to 106 mSv{sub infant}/MBq{sub mother} ({sup 131}I-NaI). Based on an effective dose limit of 1 mSv to the infant and a typical administered activity, we recommend cessation of breastfeeding for {sup 131}I-NaI and interruption of feeding for 12 h for {sup 125}I-iodohippurate, {sup 131}I-iodohippurate, {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA. During this 12-h period all breast milk should be expressed at least three times and discarded. For the other radiopharmaceuticals included in this study, no interruption of breastfeeding is necessary. (orig.)

  9. Uniquely high turnover of nickel in contaminated oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis: Biokinetics and subcellular distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qijun; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2018-01-01

    Despite the environmental concerns regarding nickel (Ni) especially in China, it has received little attention in aquatic animals due to its comparatively weak toxicity. In the present study, we explored the bioaccumulation, biokinetics, and subcellular distribution of Ni in an estuarine oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. We demonstrated that Ni represented a new pattern of bioaccumulation in oysters characterized by rapid elimination and low dissolved uptake. The waterborne uptake rate constant and dietary assimilation efficiency were 0.036L/g/h and 28%, respectively, and dissolved uptake was the predominant exposure route. The efflux rate constant was positively related to tissue Ni concentration, with the highest efflux of 0.155d -1 . Such high elimination resulted in a high Ni turnover and steady-state condition reached rapidly, as shown with a 4-week waterborne exposure experiment at different Ni concentrations. Ni in oysters was mainly sequestered in metallothionein-like protein (MTLP), metal-rich granule, and cellular debris. MTLP was the most important binding fraction during accumulation and depuration, and played a dynamic role leading to rapid Ni elimination. Pre-exposure to Ni significantly reduced the dissolved uptake, probably accompanied by depressed filtration activity. Overall, the high turnover and regulation of Ni in oysters were achieved by enhanced efflux, suppressed uptake, and sequestration of most Ni into the detoxified pool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Decoupling of cadmium biokinetics and metallothionein turnover in a marine polychaete after metal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tania Y.-T. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Rainbow, Philip S. [Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude [Universite de Nantes, Faculte de Pharmacie, MMS EA2160, Service d' ecotoxicologie, F-44000 Nantes (France); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: wwang@ust.hk

    2008-08-11

    This study investigated the kinetics of Cd bioaccumulation, detoxification, subcellular distribution, and efflux in the nereid polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis after Cd pre-exposure. Cd pre-exposure increased the Cd body burden in the worms, but did not affect the overall Cd uptake and efflux rates and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentrations. During short-term exposure to dissolved Cd, Cd in the cytosolic fraction increased after Cd pre-exposure, and this fraction also increased during the Cd efflux period, indicating that the insoluble fraction of Cd was presumably lost at a faster rate than the loss of cytosolic Cd. Even though the MTLP concentration remained comparable after Cd pre-exposure, both the MTLP synthesis rate and the degradation rate increased, thus leading to a high MTLP turnover in the Cd-exposed worms. However, Cd uptake and efflux into different protein size fractions did not follow the patterns of MTLP synthesis and degradation, strongly suggesting that Cd kinetics is decoupled from the MTLP kinetics in the worms. Our study adds to an increasing body of evidence on the complicated relationship between metal biokinetics and MTLP kinetics in different groups of marine invertebrates which have strong contrasts in their metal handling strategies.

  11. Mathematical solutions to problems in radiological protection involving air sampling and biokinetic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.

    1989-04-01

    Intakes of radionuclides are estimated with the personal air sampler (PAS) and by biological monitoring techniques: in the case of plutonium, there are problems with both methods. The statistical variation in activity collected when sampling radioactive aerosols with low number concentrations was investigated. It was shown that the PAS is barely adequate for monitoring plutonium at annual limit of intake (ALI) levels in typical workplace conditions. Two algorithms were developed, enabling non-recycling and recycling compartmental models to be solved. Their accuracy and speed were investigated, and methods of dealing with partitioning, continuous intake, and radioactive progeny were discussed. Analytical, rather than numerical, methods were used. These are faster, and thus ideally suited for implementation on microcomputers. The algorithms enable non-specialists to solve quickly and easily any first order compartmental model, including all the ICRP metabolic models. Non-recycling models with up to 50 compartments can be solved in seconds: recycling models take a little longer. A biokinetic model for plutonium in man following systemic uptake was developed. The proposed ICRP lung model (1989) was represented by a first order compartmental model. These two models were combined, and the recycling algorithm was used to calculate urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium following acute or chronic intake by inhalation. The results indicate much lower urinary excretion than predicted by ICRP Publication 54. (author)

  12. Decoupling of cadmium biokinetics and metallothionein turnover in a marine polychaete after metal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Tania Y.-T.; Rainbow, Philip S.; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Wang Wenxiong

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the kinetics of Cd bioaccumulation, detoxification, subcellular distribution, and efflux in the nereid polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis after Cd pre-exposure. Cd pre-exposure increased the Cd body burden in the worms, but did not affect the overall Cd uptake and efflux rates and metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentrations. During short-term exposure to dissolved Cd, Cd in the cytosolic fraction increased after Cd pre-exposure, and this fraction also increased during the Cd efflux period, indicating that the insoluble fraction of Cd was presumably lost at a faster rate than the loss of cytosolic Cd. Even though the MTLP concentration remained comparable after Cd pre-exposure, both the MTLP synthesis rate and the degradation rate increased, thus leading to a high MTLP turnover in the Cd-exposed worms. However, Cd uptake and efflux into different protein size fractions did not follow the patterns of MTLP synthesis and degradation, strongly suggesting that Cd kinetics is decoupled from the MTLP kinetics in the worms. Our study adds to an increasing body of evidence on the complicated relationship between metal biokinetics and MTLP kinetics in different groups of marine invertebrates which have strong contrasts in their metal handling strategies

  13. Biokinetics of copper in black-banded rainbowfish (Melanotaenia nigrans) tolerant to elevated copper concentrations, using the radioisotope 64Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, S.; Jeffree, R.; Smith, S.; Lim, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: For over 40 years black-banded rainbowfish (Melanotaenia nigrans) living in the East Branch of the Finniss River, Northern Territory have been exposed to elevated copper concentrations due to mine waste from the Rum Jungle uranium/copper mine. In the 1970s prior to remediation of the mine, fish kills were observed along the length of the East Branch. While copper concentrations remain comparatively high (up to 2000 μg/L) in the East Branch since remediation of the mine site, M. nigrans have been observed in the area. It was, therefore, hypothesised that due to selective pressure of lethal exposure, the population of black-banded rainbowfish in the East Branch have developed a tolerance to elevated copper concentrations. This project aimed to demonstrate copper tolerance and evaluate possible mechanism(s). In May 2000, fish were collected from the East Branch (exposed fish) and from a catchment previously unexposed to elevated metal concentrations (reference fish). The 96-hour EC 50 , fish imbalance (i.e. the concentration of copper that affects 50% of fish over 96 hours) for the exposed fish was over 8 times higher than the reference fish. Using the radioisotope, 64 Cu, the biokinetics of newly accumulated copper was traced in exposed and reference fish at low and elevated copper concentrations. The uptake rate, and therefore body burden, were significantly (p=0.000) lower in exposed fish, at both low and elevated copper concentrations compared to reference fish. Possible mechanisms of reducing copper uptake will be discussed. Tolerance was not lost when fish were maintained in relatively low copper concentrations in the laboratory. Also, the two populations of fish were genetically dissimilar based on allozyme analysis, which suggests that the mechanism is genetically mediated. The outcome of this project will be important in assisting accurate risk assessment and the development of environmental management strategies for the conservation of biota. The

  14. Investigation on biokinetics of 134Cs and 241Am radionuclides in three different organisms and a new evaluation by using discrete time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guengoer, N.

    1999-05-01

    In this study, 134 Cs and 241 Am biokinetic experiments have been observed originally for Black Sea condition with using the gastropod Patella coerulea and the macro algae Enteremorpha linza and the common mussel Mytilus galloprovlncialis as bio indicator organisms. The experiments that have at least three originality, have been carried out very carefully and biokinetic parameters have been calculated by using classical model. The results are compared with the proportionally similar experiments in the literature globally. In this thesis, a new model application has proposed for the biokinetic evaluation for loss experiments of organisms. That is discrete time model. Loss experiments can be evaluated proportionally in a quick and easy way by using this model. Then, it can be observed that the calculated decreasing factor (r) by discrete time model, shows the loss process quality. Moreover, the loss experiments can be stopped when the decreasing factor goes to 1. So, the loss experiment can be evaluated rapidly and quickly with the adequate reliability by using discrete time model. Furthermore, the loss process in the organisms becomes slower and biologic half-lives becomes longer, when the decreasing factor (r) goes to 1. On the other hand, the biological depuration rate (k) goes to nearly zero. So, the proposed discrete time model that is applied in this thesis originally for biokinetic, can be evident that it has an adequate reliability for the biokinetic evaluation

  15. 99mTc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide: biokinetics and radiation dosimetry in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-García, Blanca E; Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Luna-Gutiérrez, Myrna A; Ignacio-Alvarez, Eleazar; Pedraza-López, Martha; Manzano-Mayoral, Cesar

    2017-11-01

    About 90% of insulinomas are benign and 5-15% are malignant. Benign insulinomas express the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, which recognizes exendin-4 and low levels of the somatostatin receptor (SSTR, which recognizes octreotide), whereas malignant insulinomas overexpress SSTR and low levels of GLP-1R. Recently, Lys(Tc-EDDA/HYNIC)-exendin(9-39)/Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr-octreotide was formulated to detect 100% of insulinomas. The aim of this study was to estimate the biokinetics and dosimetry of Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide in four healthy individuals. Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide was obtained from a lyophilized formulation with radiochemical purities of more than 97%, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Whole-body images from four healthy individuals were acquired at 20 min, 2, 6, and 24 h after Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide administration. Regions of interest were drawn around the source organs on each time frame. Each region of interest was corrected by background, attenuation, scattered radiation, and physical decay. The image sequence was used to extrapolate the Tc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide time-activity curves of each organ to adjust the biokinetic model and calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation doses. Furthermore, in a patient suspicious of harboring an insulinoma, whole-body single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images were obtained at 3 h. For four healthy individuals, the blood activity showed a half-life value of 1.20 min for the fast component (T1/2 α=ln 2/34.71), 8.7 min for the first slow component (T1/2 β=ln 2/4.76), and 1.7 h for the second slow component (T1/2 γ=ln 2/0.401). The average equivalent doses calculated for a study using 555 MBq were 15.10, 4.13, 3.08, 2.61, and 1.90 mSv for the kidneys, upper large intestinal wall, lower large

  16. Radionuclide decorporation: matching the biokinetics of actinides by transdermal delivery of pro-chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism by the deliberate detonation of a nuclear weapon or radiological dispersion device ("dirty bomb") has made emergency response planning a priority. The only FDA-approved treatments for contamination with isotopes of the transuranic elements Am, Pu, and Cm are the Ca and Zn salts of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). These injectable products are not well suited for use in a mass contamination scenario as they require skilled professionals for their administration and are rapidly cleared from the circulation. To overcome the mismatch in the pharmacokinetics of the DTPA and the biokinetics of these transuranic elements, which are slowly released from contamination sites, the penta-ethyl ester of DTPA (C2E5) was prepared and formulated in a nonaqueous gel for transdermal administration. When gels comprised of 40% C2E5, 40-45% Miglyol® 840, and 15-20% ethyl cellulose were spiked with [(14)C]-C2E5 and applied to rat skin; over 60% of the applied dose was absorbed within a 24-h period. Radioactivity was observed in urinary and fecal excretions for over 3 days after removal of the gel. Using an (241)Am wound contamination model, transdermal C2E5 gels were able to enhance total body elimination and reduce the liver and skeletal burden of (241)Am in a dose-dependent manner. The efficacy achieved by a single 1,000 mg/kg dose to contaminated rats was statistically comparable to intravenous Ca-DTPA at 14 mg/kg. The effectiveness of this treatment, favorable sustained release profile of pro-chelators, and ease of administration support its use following radiological emergencies and for its inclusion in the Strategic National Stockpile.

  17. From Technique of Tattooing to Biokinetics and Toxicology of Injected Tattoo Ink Particles and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattoo colourants are colourful nano- and microparticles, which are practically insoluble and thus permanent once installed in the dermis by the tattooist. Tattoo ink also has soluble ingredients and contaminants. Pigments can distribute via the lymph and possibly also directly to the blood, and a minute fraction may over time undergo metabolic breakdown and as hapten(s) induce allergic reactions of red tattoos. Carbon black of black tattoos has a tendency to agglomerate and form larger bodies that can elicit foreign body reactions in black tattoos and even granuloma formation with overlap to sarcoidosis in the clinic. Very little is known about the biokinetics and safety profile of the many tattoo pigments in use, and no specific pigment-related chemical of tattoo ink causing identified adverse reactions in humans has been depicted. Inks have many ingredients and contaminants. Insoluble and soluble ingredients of inks supposedly have very different characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, with pigments being extremely slowly excreted, contrasting soluble ingredients with fast elimination. Tattoos are a single-dose exposure. Controlling the safety of tattoo inks by banning potentially critical chemicals hitherto has been unsuccessful due to lacking documentation of clinical and epidemiological relevance and because the tattoo industry is already internationally established, free, and in the ownership of the people. Doctors treating patients with tattoo complications consequently have a key role in identifying risk situations and local outbreaks, which needs clarification, therapy, and the intervention of authorities. In the treatment of complications, as seen in general practice and in other specialties, basic insight into the fate of tattoo pigments in the body is necessary. Tattoo complications are complicated and facetted with many entities and disease mechanisms; they are a new subspecialty in medicine and dermatology. © 2017 S

  18. Effect of wastewater treatment on bio-kinetics of dissolved oxygen in Ravi river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, H.; Ali, W.

    2010-01-01

    Waste management studies are usually done using calibrated and verified water quality models. Ravi River located in Lahore, Pakistan is receiving untreated wastewater from number of out falls and . Surfaced rains and thus model calibration and verification are done using the data under the prevailing conditions. The water quality objectives can only be met with wastewater treatment wherein the model rate coefficients may change. The objective of this paper is to study the changes that may occur in these coefficients as a result of wastewater treatment. For this purpose, long-term BOD analyses have been carried out using river water and wastewater after different degrees of treatment. A laboratory scale biological reactor was used to study the effect of biological treatment on rate coefficients at 3, 6 and 10 days detention times. The study results show that CBOD biokinetic rate coefficient (K) reduces significantly from 0.25 day/sup -1/ for raw waste water to 0.1 day for the wastewater treatment for 3 days detention time in the biological reactor. Further reductions in the value of K to 0.07 day/sup -1 and 0.05 day/sup -1/ occurred for a treatment level corresponding to 6 and 10 days detention times, respectively. The NBOD rate coefficient (K/sub n/ was found to be 0.08 day/sup -1/ for 3 days detention time and 0.06 day/sup -1/ after treatment in the biological reactor at 6 and 10 days detention times. (author)

  19. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Paretzke, H.G.; Roth, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Association Contract covers a range of research domains that are important to the Radiation Protection Research Action, especially in the areas 'Evaluation of Radiation Risks' and 'Understanding Radiation Mechanisms and Epidemiology'. Three research projects concentrate on radiation dosimetry research and two projects on the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis. The following list gives an overview on the topics and responsible scientific project leaders of the Association Contract: Study of radiation fields and dosimetry at aviation altitudes. Biokinetics and dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides. Dose reconstruction. Biophysical models for the induction of cancer by radiation. Experimental data for the induction of cancer by radiation of different qualities. (orig.)

  20. Amiodarone biokinetics, the formation of its major oxidative metabolite and neurotoxicity after acute and repeated exposure of brain cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponio, Giuliana; Zurich, Marie-Gabrielle; Schultz, Luise; Weiss, Dieter G; Romanelli, Luca; Gramowski-Voss, Alexandra; Di Consiglio, Emma; Testai, Emanuela

    2015-12-25

    The difficulty in mimicking nervous system complexity and cell-cell interactions as well as the lack of kinetics information has limited the use of in vitro neurotoxicity data. Here, we assessed the biokinetic profile as well as the neurotoxicity of Amiodarone after acute and repeated exposure in two advanced rodent brain cell culture models, consisting of both neurons and glial cells organized in 2 or 3 dimensions to mimic the brain histiotypic structure and function. A strategy was applied to evidence the abiotic processes possibly affecting Amiodarone in vitro bioavailability, showing its ability to adsorb to the plastic devices. At clinically relevant Amiodarone concentrations, known to induce neurotoxicity in some patients during therapeutic treatment, a complete uptake was observed in both models in 24 h, after single exposure. After repeated treatments, bioaccumulation was observed, especially in the 3D cell model, together with a greater alteration of neurotoxicity markers. After 14 days, Amiodarone major oxidative metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) was detected at limited levels, indicating the presence of active drug metabolism enzymes (i.e. cytochrome P450) in both models. The assessment of biokinetics provides useful information on the relevance of in vitro toxicity data and should be considered in the design of an Integrated Testing Strategy aimed to identify specific neurotoxic alerts, and to improve the neurotoxicity assay predictivity for human acute and repeated exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biokinetics and dosimetry with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Ferro-Flores, Ge; Pedraza-López, M.; Murphy-Stack, E.

    Malignant pancreatic tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to determine biokinetic parameters in mice, in order to estimate the induced pancreatic tumour absorbed doses and to evaluate an `in house' 177Lu-DOTA-TATE radiopharmaceutical as part of preclinical studies for targeted therapy in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (nD22) to obtain biokinetic and dosimetric data of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. The mean tumour uptake 2 h post injection was 14.76±1.9% I.A./g; kidney and pancreas uptake, at the same time, were 7.27±1.1% I.A./g (1.71±0.90%/organ) and 4.20±0.98% I.A./g (0.42±0.03%/organ), respectively. The mean absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 0.58±0.02 Gy/MBq; 0.23±0.01 Gy/MBq and 0.14±0.01 Gy/MBq, respectively. These studies justify further dosimetric estimations to ensure that 177Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in humans.

  2. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity.

  3. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, José Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods A software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C# programming language. Results With the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion The user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. PMID:25741101

  4. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal Neto, Viriato; Vieira, Jose Wilson; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and methods: a software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiacoes Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C ⧣ programming language. Results: with the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion: the user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. (author)

  5. Application for internal dosimetry using biokinetic distribution of photons based on nuclear medicine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Neto, Viriato, E-mail: viriatoleal@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose Wilson [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: this article presents a way to obtain estimates of dose in patients submitted to radiotherapy with basis on the analysis of regions of interest on nuclear medicine images. Materials and methods: a software called DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiacoes Ionizantes [Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry]) was developed to receive information about source organs and target organs, generating graphical and numerical results. The nuclear medicine images utilized in the present study were obtained from catalogs provided by medical physicists. The simulations were performed with computational exposure models consisting of voxel phantoms coupled with the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code. The software was developed with the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Service Pack and the project template Windows Presentation Foundation for C ⧣ programming language. Results: with the mentioned tools, the authors obtained the file for optimization of Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc; organization and compaction of dosimetry results with all radioactive sources; selection of regions of interest; evaluation of grayscale intensity in regions of interest; the file of weighted sources; and, finally, all the charts and numerical results. Conclusion: the user interface may be adapted for use in clinical nuclear medicine as a computer-aided tool to estimate the administered activity. (author)

  6. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure. It

  7. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure

  8. Cadmium bioavailability to Hyalella azteca from a periphyton diet compared to an artificial diet and application of a biokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, Lisa A., E-mail: lisa.golding@csiro.au [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Borgmann, Uwe [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); George Dixon, D. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Differences between the bioavailability of cadmium in a periphyton diet and an artificial laboratory diet (TetraMin{sup Registered-Sign }) have important consequences for predicting bioaccumulation and toxicity in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. The assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd was compared between periphyton and TetraMin{sup Registered-Sign} at low (1510 and 358 nmol/g ash-free dry mass respectively) and chronically lethal (31,200 and 2890 nmol/g ash-free dry mass respectively) Cd concentrations and in fresh and dry forms using a {sup 109}Cd radiotracer pulse-chase feeding technique. Assimilation efficiency of Cd from periphyton (AE = 3-14%) was lower than that for TetraMin{sup Registered-Sign} (AE = 44-86%) regardless of Cd concentration or food form. Ingestion rate (IR) was lower for dry than fresh forms of periphyton (0.042 and 0.16 g AFDM/g H. azteca/day respectively) and TetraMin{sup Registered-Sign} (0.19 and 0.87 AFDM/g H. azteca/day respectively) and depuration rate (k{sub e}) did not differ statistically with food type, form or Cd concentration (0.032-0.094 d{sup -1}). Biokinetic models with parameters of AE, IR and k{sub e} were used to estimate bioaccumulation from the separate food types. These estimates were compared to those from an independent chronic Cd saturation bioaccumulation model. While the model estimates did not concur, a sensitivity analysis indicated that AE and IR were the most influential biokinetic model parameters for Cd in periphyton and TetraMin{sup Registered-Sign} respectively. It was hypothesized that AE was underestimated for Cd in periphyton due to a non-adapted gut enzyme system and IR was overestimated for Cd in TetraMin{sup Registered-Sign} due to an initial rapid ingestion phase in H. azteca's feeding habits. This research demonstrated the importance of using ecologically relevant food types in laboratory experiments and verifying acute biokinetic model predictions of dietary metal contribution with

  9. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdElHaleem, H S [Cairo Univ.-CivlI Eng. Dept., Giza (Egypt); EI-Ahwany, A H [CairoUlmrsity- Faculty ofEngincering - Chemical Engineering Department, Giza (Egypt); Ibrahim, H I [Helwan University- Faculty of Engineering - Biomedical Engineering Department, Helwan (Egypt); Ibrahim, G [Menofia University- Faculty of Engineering Sbebin EI Kom- Basic Eng. Sc. Dept., Menofia (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type.

  10. Biokinetic data of various radioactive cationic molecules. An attempt at evaluation of significant chemical properties of myotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munze, R.; Kretzschmar, M.; Syhre, R.; Kampf, G.; Klotzer, D.; Guthert, I.; Bergmann, R.

    1986-01-01

    Research on lipophilic cationic radiopharmaceuticals has been established as an important field of modern radiopharmacology and experimental nuclear medicine. The present state is best demonstrated by scintigrams obtained with Tc-TBI (TBI = tertiary butylisocyanide). These images clearly reveal the advantage of these compounds, namely high information density, which resulted in an excellent delineation of activity accumulations, as well as the lasting drawback represented by partial overlapping of the right lobe of the liver in a certain region of the inferior wall of the heart. Current research is mainly focused on overcoming this disadvantage by synthesizing appropriate compounds with higher heart/liver uptake in man. A more sophisticated rationale than cationic charge and lipophilicity would be much appreciated. This paper deals with possible correlations between the biodistribution and biokinetics of such compounds, though not exclusively for technetium cations, and their important chemical properties such as composition, size, and polar regions within the lipophilic molecule, which are considered significant parameters

  11. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous......-flow lab-scale assay. NH4 + removal capacity, estimated from short term loading up-shifts, was at least 10 times higher in the top than in the middle and bottom filter layers, consistent with the stratification of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB). AOB density increased consistently with the NH4 + removal...... rate, indicating their primarily role in nitrification under the imposed experimental conditions. The maximum AOB cell specific NH4 + removal rate observed at the bottom was at least 3 times lower compared to the top and middle layers. Additionally, a significant up-shift capacity (4.6 and 3.5 times...

  12. Modeling Aspects of Activated Sludge Processes Part l l: Mathematical Process Modeling and Biokinetics of Activated Sludge Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdElHaleem, H.S.; EI-Ahwany, A. H.; Ibrahim, H.I.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical process modeling and biokinetics of activated sludge process were reviewed considering different types of models. It has been evaluated the task group models of ASMI. and 2, and 3 versioned by Henze et al considering the conditions of each model and the different processes of which every model consists. It is revealed that ASMI contains some defects avoided in ASM3. Relied on homogeneity, Models can be classified into homogenous models characterized by taking the activated sludge process as one phase. In this type of models, the internal mass transfer inside the floes was neglected.. Hence, the kinetic parameter produces can be considered inaccurate. The other type of models is the heterogeneous model This type considers the mass transfer operations in addition to the biochemical reaction processes; hence, the resulted kinetic parameters can be considered more accurate than that of homogenous type

  13. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 14C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2002-08-01

    14 C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used 14 C-breath tests: 14 C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low 14 C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform 14 C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of 14 C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: 14 C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, 14 C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, 14 C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and 14 C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the 14 C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  14. Biokinetic and dosimetric studies of 188Re-hyaluronic acid: a new radiopharmaceutical for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Nadali, Anna; Zangoni, Elena; Banzato, Alessandra; Rondina, Maria; Rosato, Antonio; Mazzi, Ulderico

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and has very limited therapeutic options. Recently, it has been found that hyaluronic acid (HA) shows selective binding to CD44 receptors expressed in most cancer histotypes. Since the trend in cancer treatment is the use of targeted radionuclide therapy, the aim of this research was to label HA with rhenium-188 and to evaluate its potential use as a hepatocarcinoma therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Methods: 188 Re-HA was prepared by a direct labelling method to produce a ReO(O-COO) 2 -type coordination complex. 188 Re-HA protein binding and its stability in saline, phosphate buffer, human serum and cysteine solutions were determined. Biokinetic and dosimetric data were estimated in healthy mice (n=60) using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose methodology and mouse model beta-absorbed fractions. To evaluate liver toxicity, alanine aminotranferase (AST) and aspartate aminotranferase (ALT) levels in mice were assessed and the liver maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 188 Re-HA was determined. Results: A stable complex of 188 Re-HA was obtained with high radiochemical purity (>90%) and low serum protein binding (2%). Biokinetic studies showed a rapid blood clearance (T 1/2 α=21 min). Four hours after administration, 188 Re-HA was almost totally removed from the blood by the liver due to the selective uptake via HA-specific receptors (73.47±5.11% of the injected dose). The liver MTD in mice was ∼40 Gy after 7.4 MBq of 188 Re-HA injection. Conclusions: 188 Re-HA complex showed good stability, pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics that confirm its potential as a new agent for HCC radiation therapy.

  15. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide prepared from lyophilized kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vázquez, Armando; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Gutiérrez-García, Zohar

    2006-07-01

    99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a biokinetic model for 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC prepared from lyophilized kits, and to evaluate its dosimetry as a tumor imaging agent in patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine tumors. Whole-body images from eight patients were acquired at 5, 60, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities >95%. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all eight scans and the count per minute (cpm) of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust a biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3+/-0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h. The mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv.

  16. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide prepared from lyophilized kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Armando; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Gutierrez-Garcia, Zohar

    2006-01-01

    99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotide ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC) has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a biokinetic model for 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC prepared from lyophilized kits, and to evaluate its dosimetry as a tumor imaging agent in patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine tumors. Whole-body images from eight patients were acquired at 5, 60, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities >95%. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all eight scans and the count per minute (cpm) of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust a biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3±0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h. The mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv

  17. Biokinetic and dosimetric studies of {sup 188}Re-hyaluronic acid: a new radiopharmaceutical for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy); Nadali, Anna; Zangoni, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy); Banzato, Alessandra; Rondina, Maria [Dipartimento di Scienze Oncologiche e Chirurgiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Rosato, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Oncologiche e Chirurgiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Istituto Oncologico Veneto, IOV, Padova, Padua (Italy); Mazzi, Ulderico [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and has very limited therapeutic options. Recently, it has been found that hyaluronic acid (HA) shows selective binding to CD44 receptors expressed in most cancer histotypes. Since the trend in cancer treatment is the use of targeted radionuclide therapy, the aim of this research was to label HA with rhenium-188 and to evaluate its potential use as a hepatocarcinoma therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Methods: {sup 188}Re-HA was prepared by a direct labelling method to produce a ReO(O-COO){sub 2}-type coordination complex. {sup 188}Re-HA protein binding and its stability in saline, phosphate buffer, human serum and cysteine solutions were determined. Biokinetic and dosimetric data were estimated in healthy mice (n=60) using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose methodology and mouse model beta-absorbed fractions. To evaluate liver toxicity, alanine aminotranferase (AST) and aspartate aminotranferase (ALT) levels in mice were assessed and the liver maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of {sup 188}Re-HA was determined. Results: A stable complex of {sup 188}Re-HA was obtained with high radiochemical purity (>90%) and low serum protein binding (2%). Biokinetic studies showed a rapid blood clearance (T{sub 1/2}{alpha}=21 min). Four hours after administration, {sup 188}Re-HA was almost totally removed from the blood by the liver due to the selective uptake via HA-specific receptors (73.47{+-}5.11% of the injected dose). The liver MTD in mice was {approx}40 Gy after 7.4 MBq of {sup 188}Re-HA injection. Conclusions: {sup 188}Re-HA complex showed good stability, pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics that confirm its potential as a new agent for HCC radiation therapy.

  18. Dosimetric evaluation in organs of the Tc99m, I123 bio-kinetics to estimate dose in thyroid children 1 and 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, A. M.; Quispe, R.; Vasquez, D. J.; Rocha, M. D.; Morales, N. R.; Marin, R. K.; Zelada, A. L.

    2012-10-01

    Using the formalism MIRD and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for the thyroid in children of 1 and 5 years, is demonstrated that the dosimetric contribution of the organs of I 123 (iodure) bio-kinetics is not significant in the dose estimate. The total dose absorbed by the gland is its auto dose. The dosimetric contribution of the organs source of the Tc 99m (pertechnetate) bio-kinetics in the gland is significant in the dose estimate like to be ignored. The reported results for the iodure are not significantly different to the found for the Marinelli scheme (auto-dose) for thyroid represented by a sphere of 1,78 and 3,45 grams. (Author)

  19. Biokinetics of radiolabeled Iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (I-123-IPPA) and thallium-201 in a rabbit model of chronic myocardial infarction measured using a series of thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medich, David Christopher

    1997-09-01

    The biokinetics of Iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-IPPA) during a chronic period of myocardial infarction were determined and compared to 201Tl. IPPA was assessed as a perfusion and metabolic tracer in the scintigraphic diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The myocardial clearance kinetics were measured by placing a series of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on normal and infarcted tissue to measure the local myocardial activity content over time. The arterial blood pool activity was fit to a bi-exponential function for 201Tl and a tri-exponential function for 123I-IPPA to estimate the left ventricle contribution to TLD response. At equilibrium, the blood pool contribution was estimated experimentally to be less than 5% of the total TLD response. The method was unable to resolve the initial uptake of the imaging agent due in part to the 2 minute TLD response integration time and in part to the 30 second lag time for the first TLD placement. A noticeable disparity was observed between the tracer concentrations of IPPA in normal and ischemic tissue of approximately 2:1. The fitting parameters (representing the biokinetic eigenvalue rate constants) were related to the fundamental rate constants of a recycling biokinetic model. The myocardial IPPA content within normal tissue was elevated after approximately 130 minutes post injection. This phenomenon was observed in all but one (950215) of the IPPA TLD kinetics curves.

  20. Influence of zinc on the biokinetics of Zn-65 and hepatic trace elements of ethanol treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, D.K.; Pathak, A.; Pathak, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2002-01-01

    Influence of zinc on the biokinetics of 65 Zn and hepatic trace elements of ethanol treated rats. The effect of zinc on the biokinetics of 65 Zn in liver and whole body and its relation to the hepatic levels of different elements was evaluated in male wistar rats under alcoholic conditions. The rats were segregated into four treatment groups viz., normal control, ethanol treated, zinc treated and combined zinc+ethanol treated. Animals were fed 3ml of 30% ethanol orally daily and zinc in the form of zinc sulfate (ZnSo 4 7H 2 O) was administrated to rats at a dose level of 227mg/L mixed in their drinking water for a total duration of 2 months. Whole body counting studies indicated that the Tb 1 i.e., the faster elimination of the radiotracer. On the contrary, Tb 2 i.e., the slower component was increased significantly following ethanol treatment. Percent uptake values of 65 Zn were found to be increased in liver, intestine, muscle and kidney and decreased in bone under alcoholic conditions. A significant elevation was noticed in in vitro uptake 65 Zn in ethanol treated animals. In the above said conditions, the values were reverted back to within normal limits upon zinc supplementation to these ethanol intoxicated animals, except in the case of in vitro 65 Zn uptake in liver where the uptake was further increased upon combined treatment. A significant decrease in zinc contents was noticed in ethanol treated rats, which however were raised to normal levels upon zinc supplementation. Copper levels, on the other hand, were found to be significantly enhanced in both ethanol fed and combined ethanol+zinc supplemented animals. Calcium levels were found to e significantly decreased in both ethanol and zinc treated rats, which however were further reduced upon zinc supplementation to ethanol fed rats. However, no significant change was observed in the concentrations of sodium and potassium in any of the treatment groups. Therefore, zinc appears to play a protective role by

  1. Investigations by gamma spectrometry and histoaudiography of the biokinetics of colloidal 232ThO2 ('Thorotrast')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, U.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in mice in order to determine activity ratios and distribution kinetics of ThO 2 and its decay products. The data will be used as a basic for dose calculations. In supplementary investigations, the microdistribution, localisation, and quantitative enrichment of thorotrast were determined in order to provide a basis for microdosimetric evaluation of late thorotrast lesions. The radioactive colloid was injected intravenously into the tail vein of the animals (25 to 250 μl). Whole-body activity was measured at regular intervals. The animals were killed at different times after incorporation, and their livers, spleens, and skeleton without bone marrow were investigated by gammy spectrometry and histoautoradiography. With the findings obtained for the macroscopic distribution of colloid 232 ThO 2 and its decay products on the cellular level as a function of the duration of thorotrast storage, the mean radiation exposure of RHS organs can be determined and at least the order of magnitude of the local dose can be estimated. It will require long-term animal experiments to determine the biological effects of thorotrast incorporation and correlate them with the results of these dose calculations on the basis of the studies on thorotrast biokinetics. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Biokinetics of a transuranic ({sup 238}PU) and a rare earth element ({sup 152}Eu) in the lobster (Homarus gammarus): transfer mechanisms (accumulation and detoxification) in organs and at the cellular level; Biocinetiques d'un element transuranien, le {sup 238}PU, et d'une terre rare, le {sup 152}EU, chez le homard homarus gammarus (organes et niveau cellulaire) modalites des transferts (accumulation et detoxication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocquet, N

    1995-07-01

    The work presented here is an experimental investigation of the biokinetics of transfer of a transuranic and a rare earth element ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 152}Eu) in the lobster Homarus gammarus. The study of {sup 238}Pu biokinetics forms part of a wider framework of research concerning the transfer of transuranic elements in marine species, while the study of {sup 152}Eu is carried out with a view to supporting the analogy between the behaviour of transuranics and rare earths in living organisms. Exactly the same experimental protocol, based on techniques from various disciplines (biology, biochemistry and metrology), was used to Investigate the biokinetics of transfer of these two radionuclides. The Individual lobsters were radiolabelled by means of one-shot or chronic ingestion of spiked meals. As the first approach, the kinetics and transfer mechanisms were studied In whole animal samples and in different organs distinct series of pathways through the different organs were identified in the case of both radionuclides, being mainly linked to digestive processes induced by the meal as well as the transport function of hemo-lymph in this way, the Important role of the digestive gland was picked out, with two of four cellular types displaying a successive involvement In the fixation and then the retention of the studied radionuclides. As a corroborative approach, the digestive gland was subjected to a more detailed investigation with the aim of describing the mechanisms of Incorporation and elucidating transfer processes at the cellular and molecular levels. {sup 238}Pu is preferentially partitioned into the cytosol, where it is associated with various constituents such as ferritin (iron-storing protein). {sup 152}Eu is more diffusely distributed in the hepato-pancreatic cells, while the lysosomes appear to play a more important role during transfer. The results obtained in this study, both on the macroscopic scale (i.e. the whole animal and different organs) as well

  3. Biokinetics of a transuranic ({sup 238}PU) and a rare earth element ({sup 152}Eu) in the lobster (Homarus gammarus): transfer mechanisms (accumulation and detoxification) in organs and at the cellular level; Biocinetiques d'un element transuranien, le {sup 238}PU, et d'une terre rare, le {sup 152}EU, chez le homard homarus gammarus (organes et niveau cellulaire) modalites des transferts (accumulation et detoxication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocquet, N

    1995-07-01

    The work presented here is an experimental investigation of the biokinetics of transfer of a transuranic and a rare earth element ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 152}Eu) in the lobster Homarus gammarus. The study of {sup 238}Pu biokinetics forms part of a wider framework of research concerning the transfer of transuranic elements in marine species, while the study of {sup 152}Eu is carried out with a view to supporting the analogy between the behaviour of transuranics and rare earths in living organisms. Exactly the same experimental protocol, based on techniques from various disciplines (biology, biochemistry and metrology), was used to Investigate the biokinetics of transfer of these two radionuclides. The Individual lobsters were radiolabelled by means of one-shot or chronic ingestion of spiked meals. As the first approach, the kinetics and transfer mechanisms were studied In whole animal samples and in different organs distinct series of pathways through the different organs were identified in the case of both radionuclides, being mainly linked to digestive processes induced by the meal as well as the transport function of hemo-lymph in this way, the Important role of the digestive gland was picked out, with two of four cellular types displaying a successive involvement In the fixation and then the retention of the studied radionuclides. As a corroborative approach, the digestive gland was subjected to a more detailed investigation with the aim of describing the mechanisms of Incorporation and elucidating transfer processes at the cellular and molecular levels. {sup 238}Pu is preferentially partitioned into the cytosol, where it is associated with various constituents such as ferritin (iron-storing protein). {sup 152}Eu is more diffusely distributed in the hepato-pancreatic cells, while the lysosomes appear to play a more important role during transfer. The results obtained in this study, both on the macroscopic scale (i.e. the whole animal and different organs) as well

  4. Dosimetric contribution of the organs of the I123, I124 and I131 bio-kinetics in the dose estimate for euthyroid adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, A. M.; Rojas, A. R.; Castillo, D. C.; Idrogo, C. J.; Flores, U. H.

    2011-10-01

    Using the formalism MIRD and the representation of Crysty-Eckerman for the thyroid adult, is demonstrated that the dosimetric contributions of source organs of the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceuticals I 123 , I 124 and I 131 (iodine) are not significant in the dose estimate. Therefore, the total absorbed dose by the gland is its auto-dose. Equally, the reported results do not present significant differences to the results found by the Marinelli scheme (auto-dose) for the thyroid represented by a sphere of 20 grams. (Author)

  5. Kit preparation and biokinetics in women of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 for breast cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Arzate, Zareth; Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Ocampo-García, Blanca E; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; García-Becerra, Rocío; Estrada, Gisela; Gómez-Argumosa, Edgar; Izquierdo-Sánchez, Vanessa

    2014-04-01

    In breast cancer, α(ν)β(3) and/or α(ν)β(5) integrins are overexpressed in both endothelial and tumour cells. Radiolabelled peptides based on the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence are radiopharmaceuticals with high affinity and selectivity for these integrins. The RGD-dimer peptide (E-[c(RGDfK)]2) radiolabelled with (99m)Tc has been reported as a radiopharmaceutical with a 10-fold higher affinity for the α(ν)β(3) integrin compared with the RGD-monomer. Ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) is a hydrophilic molecule that may favour renal excretion when used as coligand in the (99m)Tc labelling of hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) peptides and can easily be formulated in a lyophilized kit. The aim of this study was to establish a biokinetic model for (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 prepared from lyophilized kits and evaluate its dosimetry as a tumour-imaging agent in seven healthy women and three breast cancer patients. (99m)Tc labelling was performed by adding sodium pertechnetate solution and 0.2 mol/l phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to a lyophilized formulation containing E-[c(RGDfK)]2, EDDA, tricine, mannitol and stannous chloride. The radiochemical purity was evaluated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography on silica gel analyses. Stability studies in human serum were carried out using size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. In-vitro cell uptake was tested using breast cancer cells (MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231) with blocked and nonblocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumour uptake were determined in MCF7 tumour-bearing nude mice with blocked and nonblocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/PET/CT. Whole-body images from seven healthy women were acquired at 0.5, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 administration with radiochemical purities greater than 94%. Regions of interest were drawn around the source organs at each time frame. Each region of

  6. Biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 111}In-DOTA-NOC-ATE compared with {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubaker, Ariane; Prior, John O.; Champendal, Melanie; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika [Lausanne University Hospital, CHUV, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); Willi, Jean-Pierre [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Kosinski, Marek; Baechler, Sebastien [Lausanne University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Ginj, Mihaela [University Health Network, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Buchegger, Franz [Lausanne University Hospital, CHUV, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne (Switzerland); University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    The biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 111}In-DOTA-NOC-ATE (NOCATE), a high-affinity ligand of SSTR-2 and SSTR-5, and {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide (Octreoscan trademark, OCTREO) were compared in the same patients. Seventeen patients (10 men, 7 women; mean age 60 years), referred for an OCTREO scan for imaging of a neuroendocrine tumour (15), thymoma (1) or medullary thyroid carcinoma (1), agreed to undergo a second study with NOCATE. Whole-body anterior-posterior scans were recorded 0.5 (100 % reference scan), 4, 24 and 48 h (17 patients) and 120 h (5 patients) after injection. In 16 patients the OCTREO scan (178 {+-} 15 MBq) was performed 16 {+-} 5 days before the NOCATE scan (108 {+-} 14 MBq) with identical timing; 1 patient had the NOCATE scan before the OCTREO scan. Blood samples were obtained from 14 patients 5 min to 48 h after injection. Activities expressed as percent of the initial (reference) activity in the whole body, lung, kidney, liver, spleen and blood were fitted to biexponential or single exponential functions. Dosimetry was performed using OLINDA/EXM. Initial whole-body, lung and kidney activities were similar, but retention of NOCATE was higher than that of OCTREO. Liver and spleen uptakes of NOCATE were higher from the start (p < 0.001) and remained so over time. Whole-body activity showed similar {alpha} and {beta} half-lives, but the {beta} fraction of NOCATE was double that of OCTREO. Blood T{sub 1/2}{beta} for NOCATE was longer (19 vs. 6 h). As a result, the effective dose of NOCATE (105 {mu}Sv/MBq) exceeded that of OCTREO (52 {mu}Sv/MBq), and the latter result was similar to the ICRP 106 value of 54 {mu}Sv/MBq. Differential activity measurement in blood cells and plasma showed an average of <5 % of NOCATE and OCTREO attached to globular blood components. NOCATE showed a slower clearance from normal tissues and its effective dose was roughly double that of OCTREO. (orig.)

  7. Biokinetics and dosimetry of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys3]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy, C.A de; Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the 99- mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-Bombesin ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38±1.68, 0.59±0.08, 2.07±0.60, 0.58±0.1, 0.75±0.09 and 0.43±0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64±0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the 99m Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  8. Biokinetic and therapeutic use of 131I-MIBG in nude mice hosting human neuroblastoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laubenbacher, C.; Kriegel, H.; Moellenstaedt, S.; Senekowitsch, R.; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1988-01-01

    The biological halflife of 131 I-MIBG in nude mice with xenotransplanted human neuroblastoma derived from the SK-N-SH cell line comes to 6 h. The adrenal gland and the neuroblastoma show the highest uptake of MIBG. Based on these datas it could be calculated that 185 MBq would be necessary to get 60 Gy radiation absorbed dose in the tumor. 15-20 days after injection of this activity the tumors could no longer be palpated and they remained missing over the whole observation period. 92.5 MBq weren't enough getting a stable remission. Eleven days p.i. neuroblastoma started growing again. For the first time it could be shown that only high activity of 131 I-MIBG is able to restrain neuroblastoma totally. (orig.)

  9. Biokinetic modelling development and analysis of arsenic dissolution into the gastrointestinal tract using SAAM II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perama, Yasmin Mohd Idris; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2018-04-01

    A mathematical model comprising 8 compartments were designed to describe the kinetic dissolution of arsenic (As) from water leach purification (WLP) waste samples ingested into the gastrointestinal system. A totally reengineered software system named Simulation, Analysis and Modelling II (SAAM II) was employed to aid in the experimental design and data analysis. As a powerful tool that creates, simulate and analyze data accurately and rapidly, SAAM II computationally creates a system of ordinary differential equations according to the specified compartmental model structure and simulates the solutions based upon the parameter and model inputs provided. The experimental design of in vitro DIN approach was applied to create an artificial gastric and gastrointestinal fluids. These synthetic fluids assay were produced to determine the concentrations of As ingested into the gastrointestinal tract. The model outputs were created based upon the experimental inputs and the recommended fractional transfer rates parameter. As a result, the measured and predicted As concentrations in gastric fluids were much similar against the time of study. In contrast, the concentrations of As in the gastrointestinal fluids were only similar during the first hour and eventually started decreasing until the fifth hours of study between the measured and predicted values. This is due to the loss of As through the fractional transfer rates of q2 compartment to corresponding compartments of q3 and q5 which are involved with excretion and distribution to the whole body, respectively. The model outputs obtained after best fit to the data were influenced significantly by the fractional transfer rates between each compartment. Therefore, a series of compartmental model created with the association of fractional transfer rates parameter with the aid of SAAM II provides better estimation that simulate the kinetic behavior of As ingested into the gastrointestinal system.

  10. Dosimetric contribution of organs of biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I to estimate radiation doses in thyroids of children of 1 and 5 years; Contribucion dosimetrica de organos de la biocinetica del {sup 99m}Tc y {sup 123}I para estimar dosis en tiroides de ninos de 1 y 5 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.V.; Castillo, C.E.; Abanto, D.M.; Rocha, D.; Garcia, W.H.; Marin, K., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (UNT), Trujillo (Peru); Quispe, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, UNAM, Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The absorbed doses by thyroids during uptake studies through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing {sup 123}I (iodine) or {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) are estimated. Using the MIRD scheme and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for thyroids in children of 1 and 5 years, the objective of the study was to determine whether the dosimetric biokinetic contributions of the organs of {sup 123}I (iodide) and {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) biokinetic are significant in the estimated of the absorbed dose for thyroid uptake studies.

  11. Synthesis, labeling with 99mTc and biokinetics of brains scintigraphy diaminodithiol perfusion radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Marcos Moises

    1999-01-01

    The recent tomography status using radiopharmaceuticals have been contributing greatly with the 'age of certainty' in the diagnosis examination of syndromes, pathologies and clinical signs, because they can evidence some phenomena occurring in a molecular manner. The purpose of this work have had the development of new diaminodithiol (DADT) perfusion radiopharmaceuticals to be used in brain diagnosis using S.P.E.T. (Single Photon Emission Tomography). Initially, the rational planning had been performed with the new DADT molecular structures as radiopharmaceutical candidates. Using of Q.S.A.R. (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) techniques, the molecular descriptors such as partition coefficient and effective polarizability, have been studied in order to increase the blood brain barrier transport and the brain uptake respectively. Applying the Q.S.P.R. (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) concepts to perform drug latentiation, based on bio-labile functional groups, the congener DADT derivative has been transformed into a pro-drug that works as a DADT moiety carrier, allowing the increasing of brain radiopharmaceutical uptake. Later on, synthetic routes and chemical purifications have been developed allowing the creation of the proposed chemical structure. Each new DADT derivative has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of elemental analysis, infrared and NMR spectra, in order to confirm its proposed chemical structure. Then, the new derivative has been labeled with 99m Tc, radiochemically purified, intravenously injected in Swiss mice, allowing its biodistribution to evidence its brain transport and uptake. The rational planning studies have been re-evaluated after each biodistribution had been performed, to see what kind of molecular descriptor was responsible for causing a stronger optimization in the brain perfusion characteristics and then, new DADT derivatives have been prepared. Three new DADT derivatives have been obtained by using

  12. Towards a consensus-based biokinetic model for green microalgae – The ASM-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Valverde Pérez, Borja; Sæbø, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    developed to predict microalgal growth. However, none of these models can effectively describe all the relevant processes when microalgal growth is coupled with nutrient removal and recovery from wastewaters. Here, we present a mathematical model developed to simulate green microalgal growth (ASM-A) using...... and substrate availability can introduce significant variability on parameter values for predicting the reaction rates for bulk nitrate and the intracellularly stored nitrogen state-variables, thereby requiring scenario specific model calibration. ASM-A was identified using standard cultivation medium...

  13. Plutonium biokinetics in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.; Ham, G.; McCarthy, W.; Lands, C.

    1994-01-01

    By using an 'unusual' isotope it is possible to carry out experiments with plutonium in volunteers at minimal radiation dose levels. Measurements have been made of the gut transfer factor and the urinary excretion of plutonium after intravenous injection. (author)

  14. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of 99mTc-HYNIC-Lys3-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos C, C. L.

    2007-01-01

    The bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is over-expressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently [ 99m Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-Lys 3 -bombesin ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-r binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN to image GRP-r and to assess the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics and dosimetry in 4 breast cancer patients and in 7 healthy women. Methods: Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 11 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ in order to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions, according with MIRD methodology. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Results: Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with renal excretion as predominant route. 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in cancer mammary glands and well differentiated from the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in normal breast, lungs and airways. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the radiation absorbed doses between cancer patients and healthy women. The average equivalent doses (n=11) for a study using 740 MBq were 24.8 +- 8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3 +- 1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5 +- 4.0 mSv (breast) 2.0 +- 0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6 +- 0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2 +- 0.2 mSv (ovaries) and 1.0 +- 0.2 mSv (red marrow). The mean effective dose

  15. Blood doses and remnant biokinetics after thyroid ablation therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer: withdrawal vs. rh TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, Michael; Haenscheid, Heribert; Luster, Markus; Reiners, Christoph; Ablation, Trial Study Group

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An international randomized multicenter trial (9 sites; North America: 5, Europe: 4) was carried out investigating the effectiveness of ablation therapy with 3.7 GBq 131 I in differentiated thyroid cancer. We present the results of the trial dosimetry assessments. 63 patients were randomized after thyroidectomy to either hypothyroidism (THW) or euthyroidism in combination with rh TSH (0.9 mg q d x 2, Thyrogen). The biokinetics and residence times (RT) of the remnants were assessed from 3 neck scans starting 48 h after administration. The blood doses (a surrogate for the bone marrow dose) were calculated from activity concentrations in blood samples and 131 I whole body retention measurements between 2 and 168 h after 131 I administration. The overall dosimetry results were calculated centrally (Wuerzberg) in an externally audited standardized data evaluation procedure. The patient ablation rate was 100%. The 48 h 131 I uptake was lower in the remnant tissue of the rh TSH group: 0.5 ± 0.7%; THW group: 0.9 ±1.0% (p=0.1), the effective half life showed smaller values for the THW group (48.0 ± 52.6 h vs. 67.6 ± 48.9 h, p=0.0116). The mean RT in the remnant tissue was shorter in the rh TSH group: 0.9 ± 1.3 h; THW group: 1.4 ± 1.5 h (p=0.1). A greater decrease in the mean percentage of administered activity in the blood at 48 h, and a lower mean residence time was seen in the rh TSH group: 0.8%, RT: 2.3 ± 0.7 h; THW group: 1.8% (p=0.0011), RT: 3.5 ± 1.63 h (p=0.0004). The mean specific blood dose was significantly lower (p<0.0001) in the rh TSH group (0.072 ± 0.017 mGy/MBq, blood vessel radius (VR):0.2 mm; 0.104 ± 0.025 mGy/MBq, VR: 5 mm) than in the Hypothyroid group (0.106 ± 0.037 mGy/MBq, VR: 0.2 mm; 0.158 ± 0.059 mGy/MBq, VR: 5 mm). Conclusion: Although the remnant RT tended to be lower in the rh TSH group the ablation rates in the 2 study arms were comparable. The radiation dose to the blood was significantly lower in the rh TSH group. This

  16. Biokinetics of radioiodine (125I) during pre and post-natal development and the interference with the induction of developmental effects in the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konermann, G.

    1992-01-01

    On day 13 post-conception, pregnant mice were injected with equal activities of either 125 I-sodium iodide or 5-( 125 I)-iodo-2-deoxyuridine in order to study the biokinetic behaviour in relation to the induction of developmental long-term damage to the brain. Brain weight, cortex diameters and alignment of cortical neurons were more affected by 125 I-IUdR (37-231 kBq.g -1 ) than by 125 I-NaI, consistent with decay sites within the DNA or mainly extranuclear sites, respectively. Dose calculations according to the MIRD scheme gave underestimates of the radiotoxicity, especially for the DNA bound 125 I. This is consistent with pronounced RBE effects derived from in vitro studies. The transfer of these RBE effects to the developing brain is, however, limited by the complex interference between the manifestation and compensation of damage within the prolonged response chains. (author)

  17. Biokinetics of radioiodine ( sup 125 I) during pre and post-natal development and the interference with the induction of developmental effects in the mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konermann, G. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1992-01-01

    On day 13 post-conception, pregnant mice were injected with equal activities of either {sup 125}I-sodium iodide or 5-({sup 125}I)-iodo-2-deoxyuridine in order to study the biokinetic behaviour in relation to the induction of developmental long-term damage to the brain. Brain weight, cortex diameters and alignment of cortical neurons were more affected by {sup 125}I-IUdR (37-231 kBq.g{sup -1}) than by {sup 125}I-NaI, consistent with decay sites within the DNA or mainly extranuclear sites, respectively. Dose calculations according to the MIRD scheme gave underestimates of the radiotoxicity, especially for the DNA bound {sup 125}I. This is consistent with pronounced RBE effects derived from in vitro studies. The transfer of these RBE effects to the developing brain is, however, limited by the complex interference between the manifestation and compensation of damage within the prolonged response chains. (author).

  18. Performance analysis of numeric solutions applied to biokinetics of radionuclides; Analise de desempenho de solucoes numericas aplicadas a biocinetica de radionuclideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingatos, Danielle dos Santos; Bevilacqua, Joyce da Silva, E-mail: dani@ime.usp.br, E-mail: joyce@ime.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica; Todo, Alberto Saburo; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando, E-mail: astodo@ipen.br, E-mail: rodrijr@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Biokinetics models for radionuclides applied to dosimetry problems are constantly reviewed by ICRP. The radionuclide trajectory could be represented by compartmental models, assuming constant transfer rates between compartments. A better understanding of physiological or biochemical phenomena, improve the comprehension of radionuclide behavior in the human body and, in general, more complex compartmental models are proposed, increasing the difficulty of obtaining the analytical solution for the system of first order differential equations. Even with constant transfer rates numerical solutions must be carefully implemented because of almost singular characteristic of the matrix of coefficients. In this work we compare numerical methods with different strategies for ICRP-78 models for Thorium-228 and Uranium-234. The impact of uncertainty in the parameters of the equations is also estimated for local and global truncation errors. (author)

  19. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of {sup 14}C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2002-08-01

    {sup 14}C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used {sup 14}C-breath tests: {sup 14}C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low {sup 14}C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform {sup 14}C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of {sup 14}C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: {sup 14}C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and {sup 14}C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the {sup 14}C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  20. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide prepared from lyophilized kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Armando [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar (Mexico); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ferro-Flores, Guillermina [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52045 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gff@nuclear.inin.mx; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico); Gutierrez-Garcia, Zohar [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC) has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a biokinetic model for {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC prepared from lyophilized kits, and to evaluate its dosimetry as a tumor imaging agent in patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine tumors. Whole-body images from eight patients were acquired at 5, 60, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities >95%. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all eight scans and the count per minute (cpm) of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust a biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3{+-}0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h. The mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv.

  1. Prediction of iodine-131 biokinetics and radiation doses from therapy on the basis of tracer studies: an important question for therapy planning in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Pelissoni, Rogério A; Lima, Beatriz C G D; Sapienza, Marcelo T; Coura-Filho, George B; Buchpiguel, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to present a comparison of iodine-131 (I) biokinetics and radiation doses to red-marrow (rm) and whole-body (wb), following the administration of tracer and therapeutic activities, as a means of confirming whether I clearance and radiation doses for therapy procedures can be predicted by tracer activities. Eleven differentiated thyroid cancer patients were followed after receiving tracer and therapeutic I activity. Whole-body I clearance was estimated using radiation detectors and OLINDA/EXM software was used to calculate radiation doses to rm and wb. Tracer I activity of 86 (±14) MBq and therapeutic activity of 8.04 (±1.18) GBq were administered to patients, thereby producing an average wb I effective half-time and residence time of, respectively, 13.51 (±4.05) and 23.13 (±5.98) h for tracer activities and 13.32 (±3.38) and 19.63 (±4.77) h for therapy. Radiation doses to rm and wb were, respectively, 0.0467 (±0.0208) and 0.0589 (±0.0207) mGy/MBq in tracer studies and 0.0396 (±0.0169) and 0.0500 (±0.0163) mGy/MBq in therapy. Although the differences were not considered statistically significant between averages, those between the values of effective half-times (P=0.906), residence times (P=0.145), and radiation doses to rm (P=0.393) and to wb (P=0.272), from tracer and therapy procedures, large differences of up to 80% in wb I clearance, and up to 50% in radiation doses were observed when patients were analyzed individually, thus impacting on the total amount of I activity calculated to be safe for application in individual therapy. I biokinetics and radiation doses to rm and wb in therapy procedures are well predicted by diagnostic activities when average values of a group of patients are compared. Nonetheless, when patients are analyzed individually, significant differences may be encountered, thus implying that nuclear medicine therapy-planning requires due consideration of changes in individual patient-body status from

  2. 99mTc-labeled PSMA inhibitor: Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry in healthy subjects and imaging of prostate cancer tumors in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cuevas, Clara; Davanzo, Jenny; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; García-Pérez, Francisco O; Ocampo-García, Blanca; Ignacio-Alvarez, Eleazar; Gómez-Argumosa, Edgar; Pedraza-López, Martha

    2017-09-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed in epithelial cells of the prostate and highly overexpressed in 95% of advanced prostate cancers. The aims of this study was to estimate the biokinetics and dosimetry of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA ( 99m Tc-labeled PSMA inhibitor) in eight healthy subjects and evaluate its usefulness as a tumor-imaging agent in eight prostate cancer patients. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA was obtained from a lyophilized formulation with radiochemical purities >98%, determined by reversed-phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. Whole-body images from eight healthy subjects were acquired at 20min, and at 2, 6 and 24h after 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the source organs on each time frame. Each ROI was corrected by background, attenuation, scattered radiation and physical decay. The image sequence was used to extrapolate the 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA time-activity curves of each organ to adjust the biokinetic model and calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation doses. In eight prostate cancer patients with histologically confirmed cancer, whole-body SPECT/CT images were obtained at 3h. The blood activity showed a half-life value of 4.98min for the fast component (T 1/2 α=ln2/8.34), 2.49h for the first slow component (T 1/2 β=ln2/0.278), and 9.24h for the second slow component (T 1/2 γ=ln2/0.076). Images from patients showed an average tumor/background ratio of 8.99±3.27 at 3h. The average equivalent doses calculated for a study using 740MBq were 3.80, 7.06, 9.69, 10.70, and 28.80mSv for the breast, spleen, salivary glands, liver, and kidneys respectively, with an effective dose of 3.42±0.78mSv. All the absorbed doses were comparable to those known for most of the 99m Tc studies. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA obtained from kit formulations showed high tumor uptake in

  3. Estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Pelissoni, Rogerio Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araujo, E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and methods: fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of {sup 131}I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (T{sub eff}) and residence time of {sup 131}I in the body. Results: the mean values for T{sub eff} and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the T{sub eff} (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion: there is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is ineffective in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of {sup 131}I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. (author)

  4. Biokinetics and dosimetry of a hybrid formulation of 9mTc-BN and 99mTc-RGD2 starting from optic images in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo A, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    This work has the purpose of evaluate the biokinetics and absorbed dose of radiation of hybrid formulation 99m Tc-BN / 99m Tc-RGD 2 in a murine model by optical imaging techniques using the multimodal preclinical in vivo image system Xtreme. The used method were the 99m Tc-BN, 99m Tc-RGD 2 and 99m Tc-BN/ 99m Tc-RGD 2 formulas, with specific recognition for GRPr and the integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) respectively, was injected in the vein tail of three nude mousses with induce breast cancer tumors (cell line T-47-D), by the preclinical multimodal imaging system Xtreme (Bruker), optical images in different times was acquired (5, 10, 20 min, 2 and 24 h), using Images Processing Toolbox of MATLAB these images was transform from RGB format to gray scales and sectioned in five independent images corresponding to heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor areas. The intensity of each images was computed in counts per pixel, then those intensities was corrected for background, attenuation and scattering, using different factors for each phenomena previously calculated. Finally the activity values quantified vs time was fitted into a biokinetic model to obtain the disintegrations number and cumulate activities in each organ. With these data the radiation absorbed dose were calculated using MIRD methodology. Results: The number of disintegration and absorbed dose calculated in MBq h/MBq and mGy/MBq, of injected mouse with the 99m Tc-BN/ 99m Tc-RGD 2 formulation, was: 0.035 ± 0.65 E-02, 0.25 x 10 -5 ± 0.46 E-07; 0.393 ± 0.51 E-1, 2.85 E-05 ± 3.7 E-06; 0.306 ± 0.21 E-01, 2.11 E-05 ± 1.45 E-06 and 0.151 ± 0.19 E-01, 1.09 E-05 ± 1.42 E-06 , in heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor, respectively. The number of disintegration obtained in kidneys is comparable to those reported for Trinidad B. 2014 Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that using optical images and a code for image analyses development in MATLAB, could achieve comparable quantitative results as the conventional

  5. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996 - 1999. Mid-term reports for the period 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Paretzke, H G; Roth, P [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Michael, B D [Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom). Gray Lab.; O` Sullivan, D [Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland)

    1999-12-31

    The main objectives of the first dosimetry project are the measurement of neutron and charged particle flux and energy spectra at altitudes in civil aviation, the determination of response characteristics for detectors, the investigation of calibration procedures, and the evaluation of exposures of aircrews. The overall objective of the second dosimetry project is to improve estimates of dose following the intake of radionuclides by adults and children. The work includes the development of biokinetic and dosimetric models, including models of the gastrointestinal tract, for the systemic behaviour of radionuclides, and for the developing embryo and foetus. Further subjects are target cell dosimetry for short-range particles and the development of computational tools for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis models. The third dosimetry project encompasses the study of different methods for retrospective dose assessments for individuals or groups of individuals accidentally exposed to increased levels of radiation. The methods investigated include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of tooth enamel and chromosome painting (FISH) for lymphocytes in peripheral blood for individual retrospective dose assessments, luminescence techniques on materials in inhabited environment (ceramics, bricks) and model calculations using environmental data as input. (orig.)

  6. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996 - 1999. Mid-term reports for the period 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.; Paretzke, H.G.; Roth, P. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Michael, B.D. [Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (United Kingdom). Gray Lab.; O`Sullivan, D. [Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The main objectives of the first dosimetry project are the measurement of neutron and charged particle flux and energy spectra at altitudes in civil aviation, the determination of response characteristics for detectors, the investigation of calibration procedures, and the evaluation of exposures of aircrews. The overall objective of the second dosimetry project is to improve estimates of dose following the intake of radionuclides by adults and children. The work includes the development of biokinetic and dosimetric models, including models of the gastrointestinal tract, for the systemic behaviour of radionuclides, and for the developing embryo and foetus. Further subjects are target cell dosimetry for short-range particles and the development of computational tools for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis models. The third dosimetry project encompasses the study of different methods for retrospective dose assessments for individuals or groups of individuals accidentally exposed to increased levels of radiation. The methods investigated include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of tooth enamel and chromosome painting (FISH) for lymphocytes in peripheral blood for individual retrospective dose assessments, luminescence techniques on materials in inhabited environment (ceramics, bricks) and model calculations using environmental data as input. (orig.)

  7. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996 - 1999. Mid-term reports for the period 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Paretzke, H.G.; Roth, P.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of the first dosimetry project are the measurement of neutron and charged particle flux and energy spectra at altitudes in civil aviation, the determination of response characteristics for detectors, the investigation of calibration procedures, and the evaluation of exposures of aircrews. The overall objective of the second dosimetry project is to improve estimates of dose following the intake of radionuclides by adults and children. The work includes the development of biokinetic and dosimetric models, including models of the gastrointestinal tract, for the systemic behaviour of radionuclides, and for the developing embryo and foetus. Further subjects are target cell dosimetry for short-range particles and the development of computational tools for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis models. The third dosimetry project encompasses the study of different methods for retrospective dose assessments for individuals or groups of individuals accidentally exposed to increased levels of radiation. The methods investigated include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of tooth enamel and chromosome painting (FISH) for lymphocytes in peripheral blood for individual retrospective dose assessments, luminescence techniques on materials in inhabited environment (ceramics, bricks) and model calculations using environmental data as input. (orig.)

  8. Energy use and carbon footprints differ dramatically for diverse wastewater-derived carbonaceous substrates: An integrated exploration of biokinetics and life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbo; Wang, Xu; Butler, David; Liu, Junxin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-03-21

    Energy neutrality and reduction of carbon emissions are significant challenges to the enhanced sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Harvesting energy from wastewater carbonaceous substrates can offset energy demands and enable net power generation; yet, there is limited research about how carbonaceous substrates influence energy and carbon implications of WWTPs with integrated energy recovery at systems-level. Consequently, this research uses biokinetics modelling and life cycle assessment philology to explore this notion, by tracing and assessing the quantitative flows of energy embodied or captured, and by exploring the carbon footprint throughout an energy-intensive activated sludge process with integrated energy recovery facilities. The results indicate that energy use and carbon footprint per cubic meter of wastewater treated, varies markedly with the carbon substrate. Compared with systems driven with proteins, carbohydrates or other short-chain fatty acids, systems fed with acetic acid realized energy neutrality with maximal net gain of power from methane combustion (0.198 kWh) and incineration of residual biosolids (0.153 kWh); and also achieved a negative carbon footprint (72.6 g CO 2 ). The findings from this work help us to better understand and develop new technical schemes for improving the energy efficiency of WWTPs by repurposing the stream of carbon substrates across systems.

  9. Dimer of the peptide cycle (Ar-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) radiolabeled with 99mTc for the integrin s over-expression image: formulation, biokinetics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz A, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In breast cancer, α(v)β(3) and/or α(v)β(5) integrin s are over-expressed in both endothelial and tumour cells. Radiolabeled peptides based on the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence are radiopharmaceuticals with high affinity and selectivity for those integrin s. The RGD-dimer peptide (E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 ) radiolabeled with 99m Tc has been reported as a radiopharmaceutical with 10-fold higher affinity for the α(v)β(3) integrin as compared to the RGD-monomer. EDDA (Ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid) is a hydrophilic molecule that may favours renal excretion when used as coligand in the 99m Tc labelling of HYNIC-peptides and can easily be formulated in a lyophilized kit. Aim: Establish a biokinetic model for 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 prepared from lyophilized kits and evaluate the dosimetry as breast cancer imaging agent. Methods: 99m Tc labelling was performed by addition of sodium pertechnetate solution and 0.2 M phosphate buffer ph 7.0 to a lyophilized formulation containing E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 , EDDA, tricine, mannitol and stannous chloride. Radiochemical purity was evaluated by reversed phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. Stability studies in human serum were carried out by size-exclusion HPLC. In-vitro cell uptake was tested using breast cancer cells (MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231) with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumour uptake were determined in MCF7 tumour-bearing nude mice with blocked and non-blocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT. Whole-body images from seven healthy women were acquired at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 administration obtained with radiochemical purities of >94 %. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. Each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 time-activity curves in each organ in order to adjust the biokinetic model and to

  10. Targeted imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys3]-bombesin: biokinetics and dosimetry in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Pichardo-Romero, Pablo A

    2008-08-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is overexpressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small-cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. Recently, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys]-bombesin (99mTc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-R binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to determine the biokinetics and dosimetry of 99mTc-HYNIC-BN and the feasibility of using this radiopharmaceutical to image GRP-R in four early breast cancer patients and seven healthy women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min, and 24 h after 99mTc-HYNIC-BN administration. The same regions of interest were drawn around source organs on each time frame and regions of interest were converted to activity (conjugate view counting method). The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99mTc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. 99mTc-HYNIC-BN had a rapid blood clearance with mainly renal excretion. No statistically significant differences (P>0.05) in the radiation-absorbed doses among cancer patients and healthy women were observed. The average equivalent doses (n=11) were 24.8+/-8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3+/-1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5+/-4.0 mSv (breast), 2.0+/-0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6+/-0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2+/-0.2 mSv (ovaries), and 1.0+/-0.2 mSv (red marrow). The effective dose was 3.3+/-0.6 mSv. The images showed well-differentiated concentration of 99mTc-HYNIC-BN in cancer mammary tissue. All the absorbed doses were comparable with those known for most of the 99mTc studies. 99mTc-HYNIC-BN shows high tumor uptake in breasts with malignant tumors so it is a promising imaging radiopharmaceutical to target site-specific early breast cancer. The results obtained

  11. Biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 99m} Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A de [INCMNSZ, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Oncologia Centro Medico Siglo XXI, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the {sup 99-}mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-Bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38{+-}1.68, 0.59{+-}0.08, 2.07{+-}0.60, 0.58{+-}0.1, 0.75{+-}0.09 and 0.43{+-}0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64{+-}0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  12. Bibliographic study on molybdenum biokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzberger, A.

    1988-05-01

    This bibliographical study compiles and analyzes findings about the metabolism and resorption of molybdenum. Besides including studies on the physiology of molybdenum 99, a general survey is given on molybdenum in the environment and on its physiological behaviour. In particular, information on the dependence of molybdenum resorption on various factors, such as the chemical form, antagonisms etc., are gathered from literature. These factors have to be considered for sensibly carrying out necessary experiments. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Matrix modulation of the toxicity of alkenylbenzenes, studied by an integrated approach using in vitro, in vivo, and physiologically based biokinetic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Husainy, W.A.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Alkenylbenzenes such as estragole and methyleugenol are common components of spices and herbs such as tarragon, basil, fennel, mace, allspice, star anise and anise and their essential oils (Smithet al., 2002). There is an interest in the safety evaluation of alkenylbenzenes because

  14. Synchrotron-based nu-XRF mapping and mu-FTIR microscopy enable to look into the fate and effects of tattoo pigments in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiver , Ines; Hesse , Bernhard; Seim , Christian; Castillo-Michel , Hiram; Villanova , Julie; Laux , Peter; Dreiack , Nadine; Penning , Randolf; Tucoulou , Remi; Cotte , Marine; Luch , Andreas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body. We used skin and lymphatic tissues from human corpses to address local biokinetics by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques at both the micro (mu) and nano (nu) scale. Additional advanced mass spectrometry-based methodology enabled to demonstrate simultaneous transport of organic pigments, heavy metals and titanium di...

  15. Dosimetric evaluation in organs of the Tc{sup 99m}, I{sup 123} bio-kinetics to estimate dose in thyroid children 1 and 5 years; Evaluacion dosimetrica en organos de la biocinetica del Tc{sup 99m}, I{sup 123} para estimar dosis en tiroides ninos 1 y 5 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, A. M.; Quispe, R.; Vasquez, D. J.; Rocha, M. D.; Morales, N. R.; Marin, R. K. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Trujillo (Peru); Zelada, A. L., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Cesar Vallejo, Grupo de Fisica Medica, Av. Larco s/n, Trujillo (Peru)

    2012-10-15

    Using the formalism MIRD and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for the thyroid in children of 1 and 5 years, is demonstrated that the dosimetric contribution of the organs of I{sup 123} (iodure) bio-kinetics is not significant in the dose estimate. The total dose absorbed by the gland is its auto dose. The dosimetric contribution of the organs source of the Tc{sup 99m} (pertechnetate) bio-kinetics in the gland is significant in the dose estimate like to be ignored. The reported results for the iodure are not significantly different to the found for the Marinelli scheme (auto-dose) for thyroid represented by a sphere of 1,78 and 3,45 grams. (Author)

  16. Empleo de isótopos radiactivos en estudios biocinéticos con animales de experimentación Use of radioisotopes in biokinetic models with experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Martín Martín

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se pretende realizar una revisión de las diferentes técnicas radioisotópicas que se utilizan con animales de experimentación a la hora de desarrollar modelos biocinéticos tanto de sustancias como de elementos químicos presentes en el medio ambiente. Dicha experimentación permite relacionar la exposición externa a un xenobiótico con la medida interna de la dosis en el organismo y, consecuentemente, sus posibles efectos tóxicos, todo ello con vistas a evaluar los efectos adversos que pudieran existir sobre la salud humana. Se hace hincapié en la macroautorradiografía de animal completo, técnica que permite la detección, localización y cuantificación del radionucleido de interés en diferentes órganos/tejidos del organismo y, por tanto, contribuye a la estimación de la dosis interna y al conocimiento del comportamiento biocinético del compuesto/elemento objeto de estudio. Se presentan algunos ejemplos de la utilidad de esta técnica en estudios biocinéticos con animales de experimentación de interés en diferentes áreas relacionadas con la Salud y el Medio Ambiente. Se destaca la utilidad que presenta esta experimentación a la hora de extrapolar el comportamiento metabólico de contaminantes de máxima radiotoxicidad en personas expuestas a la radiación ionizante, con el objeto de optimizar las evaluaciones dosimétricas y los protocolos de vigilancia que ayudan a conocer con más exactitud los daños de la exposición interna sobre la salud humana.Biokinetic models are useful tools to relate external exposures to internal measures of dose. The knowledge of internal dose and factors that influence absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination in experimental animals provide a scientific rationale for estimating low-dose human risk. A bioanalytical procedure to support biokinetic studies is the use of radiolabeled compounds, so that mass balance, autoradiography, and preliminary metabolism

  17. Dosimetric contribution of the organs of the I{sup 123}, I{sup 124} and I{sup 131} bio-kinetics in the dose estimate for euthyroid adults; Contribucion dosimetrica de los organos de la biocinetica de I{sup 123}, I{sup 124} y I{sup 131} en el estimado de dosis para adultos eutiroideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, A. M.; Rojas, A. R.; Castillo, D. C.; Idrogo, C. J.; Flores, U. H., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Trujillo (Peru)

    2011-10-15

    Using the formalism MIRD and the representation of Crysty-Eckerman for the thyroid adult, is demonstrated that the dosimetric contributions of source organs of the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceuticals I{sup 123}, I{sup 124} and I{sup 131} (iodine) are not significant in the dose estimate. Therefore, the total absorbed dose by the gland is its auto-dose. Equally, the reported results do not present significant differences to the results found by the Marinelli scheme (auto-dose) for the thyroid represented by a sphere of 20 grams. (Author)

  18. Dimer of the peptide cycle (Ar-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc for the integrin s over-expression image: formulation, biokinetics and dosimetry; Dimero del peptido ciclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) radiomarcado con {sup 99m}Tc para la imagen de sobre-expresion de integrinas: formulacion, biocinetica y dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz A, Z.

    2013-07-01

    In breast cancer, α(v)β(3) and/or α(v)β(5) integrin s are over-expressed in both endothelial and tumour cells. Radiolabeled peptides based on the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence are radiopharmaceuticals with high affinity and selectivity for those integrin s. The RGD-dimer peptide (E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}) radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc has been reported as a radiopharmaceutical with 10-fold higher affinity for the α(v)β(3) integrin as compared to the RGD-monomer. EDDA (Ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid) is a hydrophilic molecule that may favours renal excretion when used as coligand in the {sup 99m}Tc labelling of HYNIC-peptides and can easily be formulated in a lyophilized kit. Aim: Establish a biokinetic model for {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} prepared from lyophilized kits and evaluate the dosimetry as breast cancer imaging agent. Methods: {sup 99m}Tc labelling was performed by addition of sodium pertechnetate solution and 0.2 M phosphate buffer ph 7.0 to a lyophilized formulation containing E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}, EDDA, tricine, mannitol and stannous chloride. Radiochemical purity was evaluated by reversed phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. Stability studies in human serum were carried out by size-exclusion HPLC. In-vitro cell uptake was tested using breast cancer cells (MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231) with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumour uptake were determined in MCF7 tumour-bearing nude mice with blocked and non-blocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT. Whole-body images from seven healthy women were acquired at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} administration obtained with radiochemical purities of >94 %. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. Each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} time-activity curves in each

  19. Bench-scale studies of reactor-based treatment of fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, D.D.; Britto, R.; Sherrard, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of hazardous wastes from accidental spills or underground storage tank leaks has generated interest in bioremediation as a natural, economical mechanism for site decontamination. Because of drawbacks of batch systems, and the successful use of continuous flow treatment of wastewater for several decades, it was felt that continuous treatment of such soils would be a feasible alternative treatment technique. Therefore, bench-scale bioreactor treatability studies were conducted and used contaminated soil made in the laboratory using No. 2 diesel fuel and sand. Contamination levels studied were from 1,335--6,675 mg (TPH) as derived from No. 2 fuel oil per kg sand. Variation in mean cell age was obtained between reactors, with sufficient nutrients and oxygen made available to ensure the fuel oil organics were the only limit to microbial growth. A theoretical biokinetic model was formulated based on Monod's theory of limiting substrate and continuous cultures. Biokinetic constants and removal efficiencies were evaluated. The off-gases, CO 2 , and volatile hydrocarbons were monitored for mass balance analysis of the process. The solids retention times for evaluating final TPH concentration of 100 mg/kg were also calculated. Removal efficiencies of up to 91% were attained at a loading of 1,335 mg TPH/kg wet sand, operated at a biological solid retention time (BSRT) of 60 days. Experiments also showed that TPH desorption and volatilization were not rate-limiting in the overall removal process. Sand-to-moisture ratios in excess of 3:1 were also shown to retard TPH removal rates very little. However, biokinetic constants were found to vary over a range of values. This was particularly true at varying diesel loading levels. Nevertheless, significant removal efficiency (up to 86%) was noted at the highest loading level tested, 6,675 mg TPH/kg wet sand

  20. Evaluation of the Enantiomer Specific Biokinetics and Radiation Doses of [18F]Fluspidine—A New Tracer in Clinical Translation for Imaging of σ1 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kranz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantiomers of [18F]fluspidine, recently developed for imaging of σ1 receptors, possess distinct pharmacokinetics facilitating their use in different clinical settings. To support their translational potential, we estimated the human radiation dose of (S-(−-[18F]fluspidine and (R-(+-[18F]fluspidine from ex vivo biodistribution and PET/MRI data in mice after extrapolation to the human scale. In addition, we validated the preclinical results by performing a first-in-human PET/CT study using (S-(−-[18F]fluspidine. Based on the respective time-activity curves, we calculated using OLINDA the particular organ doses (ODs and effective doses (EDs. The ED values of (S-(−-[18F]fluspidine and (R-(+-[18F]fluspidine differed significantly with image-derived values obtained in mice with 12.9 μSv/MBq and 14.0 μSv/MBq (p < 0.025, respectively. A comparable ratio was estimated from the biodistribution data. In the human study, the ED of (S-(−-[18F]fluspidine was calculated as 21.0 μSv/MBq. Altogether, the ED values for both [18F]fluspidine enantiomers determined from the preclinical studies are comparable with other 18F-labeled PET imaging agents. In addition, the first-in-human study confirmed that the radiation risk of (S-(−-[18F]fluspidine imaging is within acceptable limits. However, as already shown for other PET tracers, the actual ED of (S-(−-[18F]fluspidine in humans was underestimated by preclinical imaging which needs to be considered in other first-in-human studies.

  1. Biokinetic of plutonium in human beings. Analysis and modification of ICRP 67 model; Biocinetica del plutonio nell'organismo umano. Analisi e modifica del modello ICRP 67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, A.; Castellani, C.M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    A preliminary research of the available data and empirical functions for the plutonium excretion after injection was carried out. The ICRP model presented in the Publication no. 67 was then analyzed comparing its predictions for the activity in urine and, at a lesser extent, in feces and blood, with the collected data and empirical curves. The model was modified and an optimized age-related compartmental model was developed. A new skeletal model recently developed was also introduced and age depending bone remodelling rates were assumed on the basis of the ICRP Publication 70. This model provides a better agreement with measured urinary excretion data than the current ICRP 67 model, avoiding unphysiological assumptions such as the transfer of activity from soft tissue to urinary bladder, that were part of the ICRP model. The new optimized model predictions of the activity in faeces and in blood after an injection are also closer to the available data than the ICRP 67 estimations. A good agreement with the partitioning factor of plutonium between skeleton and liver obtained from different autopsy studies was also observed. [Italian] E' stata effettuata preliminarmente una ricerca bibliografica dei dati e delle funzioni di escrezione del plutonio attualmente disponibili in letteratura. Sulla base dei risultati di tale ricerca e' stato verificato il modello proposto dall'ICRP nella Pubblicazione n. 67. Tale modello e' stato quindi modificato al fine non solo di avere una piu' realistica descrizione dei valori predetti per l'escrezione urinaria, ma anche di modellare la cinetica del plutonio evitando quelle assunzioni introdotte appositamente nel modello dell'ICRP per correggere le previsini del modello ma che mancano di una chiara spiegazione di carattere fisiologico. Esso fornisce valutazioni piu' realistiche anche per l'attivita' nelle feci e nel sangue. Il modello sviluppato comprende un modello scheletrico

  2. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients administered with 111In-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide: implications for internal radiotherapy with 90Y-DOTATOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremonesi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Maecke, H.R.; Tosi, G.; Zoboli, S.; Chinol, M.; Fiorenza, M.; Paganelli, G.; Stabin, M.G.; Orsi, F.O.; Jermann, E.; Robertson, C.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in receptor-mediated tumour imaging have resulted in the development of a new somatostatin analogue, DOTA-dPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide. This new compound, named DOTATOC, has shown high affinity for somatostatin receptors, ease of labelling and stability with yttrium-90 and favourable biodistribution in animal models. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biodistribution and dosimetry of DOTATOC radiolabelled with indium-111, in anticipation of therapy trials with 90 Y-DOTATOC in patients. Eighteen patients were injected with DOTATOC (10 μg), labelled with 150-185 MBq of 111 In. Blood and urine samples were collected throughout the duration of the study (0-2 days). Planar and single-photon emission tomography images were acquired at 0.5, 3-4, 24 and 48 h and time-activity curves were obtained for organs and tumours. A compartmental model was used to determine the kinetic parameters for each organ. Dose calculations were performed according to the MIRD formalism. Specific activities of >37 GBq/ μmol were routinely achieved. Patients showed no acute or delayed adverse reactions. The residence time for 111 In-DOTATOC in blood was 0.9±0.4 h. The injected activity excreted in the urine in the first 24 h was 73%±11%. The agent localized primarily in spleen, kidneys and liver. The residence times in source organs were: 2.2±1.8 h in spleen, 1.7±1.2 h in kidneys, 2.4±1.9 h in liver, 1.5±0.3 h in urinary bladder and 9.4±5.5 h in the remainder of the body; the mean residence time in tumour was 0.47 h (range: 0.03-6.50 h). Based on our findings, the predicted absorbed doses for 90 Y-DOTATOC would be 7.6±6.3 (spleen), 3.3±2.2 (kidneys), 0.7±0.6 (liver), 2.2±0.3 (bladder), 0.03±0.01 (red marrow) and 10.1 (range: 1.4-31.0) (tumour) mGy/MBq. These results indicate that high activities of 90 Y-DOTATOC can be administered with low risk of myelotoxicity, although with potentially high radiation doses to the spleen and kidneys. Tumour doses were high

  3. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients administered with {sup 111}In-DOTA-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide: implications for internal radiotherapy with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Maecke, H.R.; Tosi, G. [Department of Health Physics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Zoboli, S.; Chinol, M.; Fiorenza, M.; Paganelli, G. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti, 435, I-20141-Milan (Italy); Stabin, M.G. [Nuclear Energy Department, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Orsi, F.O. [Department of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Jermann, E. [Nuclear Medicine Department, University of Basel (Switzerland); Robertson, C. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    Recent advances in receptor-mediated tumour imaging have resulted in the development of a new somatostatin analogue, DOTA-dPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide. This new compound, named DOTATOC, has shown high affinity for somatostatin receptors, ease of labelling and stability with yttrium-90 and favourable biodistribution in animal models. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biodistribution and dosimetry of DOTATOC radiolabelled with indium-111, in anticipation of therapy trials with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC in patients. Eighteen patients were injected with DOTATOC (10 {mu}g), labelled with 150-185 MBq of {sup 111}In. Blood and urine samples were collected throughout the duration of the study (0-2 days). Planar and single-photon emission tomography images were acquired at 0.5, 3-4, 24 and 48 h and time-activity curves were obtained for organs and tumours. A compartmental model was used to determine the kinetic parameters for each organ. Dose calculations were performed according to the MIRD formalism. Specific activities of >37 GBq/ {mu}mol were routinely achieved. Patients showed no acute or delayed adverse reactions. The residence time for {sup 111}In-DOTATOC in blood was 0.9{+-}0.4 h. The injected activity excreted in the urine in the first 24 h was 73%{+-}11%. The agent localized primarily in spleen, kidneys and liver. The residence times in source organs were: 2.2{+-}1.8 h in spleen, 1.7{+-}1.2 h in kidneys, 2.4{+-}1.9 h in liver, 1.5{+-}0.3 h in urinary bladder and 9.4{+-}5.5 h in the remainder of the body; the mean residence time in tumour was 0.47 h (range: 0.03-6.50 h). Based on our findings, the predicted absorbed doses for {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC would be 7.6{+-}6.3 (spleen), 3.3{+-}2.2 (kidneys), 0.7{+-}0.6 (liver), 2.2{+-}0.3 (bladder), 0.03{+-}0.01 (red marrow) and 10.1 (range: 1.4-31.0) (tumour) mGy/MBq. These results indicate that high activities of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC can be administered with low risk of myelotoxicity, although with potentially high radiation

  4. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients administered with [sup 111]In-DOTA-Tyr[sup 3]-octreotide: implications for internal radiotherapy with [sup 90]Y-DOTATOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Maecke, H.R.; Tosi, G. (Department of Health Physics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)); Zoboli, S.; Chinol, M.; Fiorenza, M.; Paganelli, G. (Division of Nuclear Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, via Ripamonti, 435, I-20141-Milan (Italy)); Stabin, M.G. (Nuclear Energy Department, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)); Orsi, F.O. (Department of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)); Jermann, E. (Nuclear Medicine Department, University of Basel (Switzerland)); Robertson, C. (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy))

    1999-08-01

    Recent advances in receptor-mediated tumour imaging have resulted in the development of a new somatostatin analogue, DOTA-dPhe[sup 1]-Tyr[sup 3]-octreotide. This new compound, named DOTATOC, has shown high affinity for somatostatin receptors, ease of labelling and stability with yttrium-90 and favourable biodistribution in animal models. The aim of this work was to evaluate the biodistribution and dosimetry of DOTATOC radiolabelled with indium-111, in anticipation of therapy trials with [sup 90]Y-DOTATOC in patients. Eighteen patients were injected with DOTATOC (10 [mu]g), labelled with 150-185 MBq of [sup 111]In. Blood and urine samples were collected throughout the duration of the study (0-2 days). Planar and single-photon emission tomography images were acquired at 0.5, 3-4, 24 and 48 h and time-activity curves were obtained for organs and tumours. A compartmental model was used to determine the kinetic parameters for each organ. Dose calculations were performed according to the MIRD formalism. Specific activities of >37 GBq/ [mu]mol were routinely achieved. Patients showed no acute or delayed adverse reactions. The residence time for [sup 111]In-DOTATOC in blood was 0.9[+-]0.4 h. The injected activity excreted in the urine in the first 24 h was 73%[+-]11%. The agent localized primarily in spleen, kidneys and liver. The residence times in source organs were: 2.2[+-]1.8 h in spleen, 1.7[+-]1.2 h in kidneys, 2.4[+-]1.9 h in liver, 1.5[+-]0.3 h in urinary bladder and 9.4[+-]5.5 h in the remainder of the body; the mean residence time in tumour was 0.47 h (range: 0.03-6.50 h). Based on our findings, the predicted absorbed doses for [sup 90]Y-DOTATOC would be 7.6[+-]6.3 (spleen), 3.3[+-]2.2 (kidneys), 0.7[+-]0.6 (liver), 2.2[+-]0.3 (bladder), 0.03[+-]0.01 (red marrow) and 10.1 (range: 1.4-31.0) (tumour) mGy/MBq. These results indicate that high activities of [sup 90]Y-DOTATOC can be administered with low risk of myelotoxicity, although with potentially high radiation

  5. Biokinetics and Biodynamics of Nanomaterial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    HEK viability. The medium from each treatment set of the dosed cells was removed, pooled into a microfuge tube , and quickly frozen to -80ºC until...Trump’s fixative at 4ºC. The cells were rinsed in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.2), pelleted in a microfuge tube , resuspended, and quickly pelleted in 3...formulation on in vitro human skin localized NP in the upper stratum corneum with minimal penetration (Cross et al., 2007) and microfine zinc oxide with a

  6. the Sweet Hearts biokinetics pilot study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    2Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Business and Management. Sciences ... (DoH) - outlines three main public health strategies: 1) prevent. NCDs and ... physical activity and healthy nutritional habits in those who participated.

  7. Biokinetics of 131I in human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanska, J.; Nemec, J.; Karny, M.; Guy, T.V.; Jirsa, L.; Blazek, T.

    1995-01-01

    Time evolution of the cumulated activity in human body is one of the key characteristics determining medical impacts of ionizing radiation. In nuclear medicine, so called effective half-life is mostly used for the evolution description. This quantity is usually estimated by fitting a straight line in semi-logarithmic coordinates. Its novel Bayesian estimate was also proposed and its advantageous properties were verified. During extensive tests, it was found that the effective half-live has limited use as the underlying deterministic relationship time - activity can hardly be taken as (mono)exponential. It stimulated the research for a better and still simple model. A quadratic dependence of ln(activity) on ln(time) was found as an adequate candidate. Preliminary experiments on a restricted set of real data were promising enough to justify its further elaboration. (authors) 1 tab., 19 refs

  8. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors; Biocinetica y dosimetria en humanos de {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesina: imagenes de receptores GRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C L [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is over-expressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently [{sup 99m}Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-r binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN to image GRP-r and to assess the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics and dosimetry in 4 breast cancer patients and in 7 healthy women. Methods: Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 11 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ in order to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions, according with MIRD methodology. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Results: Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with renal excretion as predominant route. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in cancer mammary glands and well differentiated from the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in normal breast, lungs and airways. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the radiation absorbed doses between cancer patients and healthy women. The average equivalent doses (n=11) for a study using 740 MBq were 24.8 +- 8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3 +- 1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5 +- 4.0 mSv (breast) 2.0 +- 0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6 +- 0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2 +- 0.2 mSv (ovaries) and 1.0 +- 0.2 mSv (red

  9. Developing a physiologically based approach for modeling plutonium decorporation therapy with DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Manuel; Giussani, Augusto; Blanchardon, Eric; Breustedt, Bastian; Fritsch, Paul; Hoeschen, Christoph; Lopez, Maria Antonia

    2014-11-01

    To develop a physiologically based compartmental approach for modeling plutonium decorporation therapy with the chelating agent Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Ca-DTPA/Zn-DTPA). Model calculations were performed using the software package SAAM II (©The Epsilon Group, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA). The Luciani/Polig compartmental model with age-dependent description of the bone recycling processes was used for the biokinetics of plutonium. The Luciani/Polig model was slightly modified in order to account for the speciation of plutonium in blood and for the different affinities for DTPA of the present chemical species. The introduction of two separate blood compartments, describing low-molecular-weight complexes of plutonium (Pu-LW) and transferrin-bound plutonium (Pu-Tf), respectively, and one additional compartment describing plutonium in the interstitial fluids was performed successfully. The next step of the work is the modeling of the chelation process, coupling the physiologically modified structure with the biokinetic model for DTPA. RESULTS of animal studies performed under controlled conditions will enable to better understand the principles of the involved mechanisms.

  10. Biokinetics and dosimetry of a hybrid formulation of {sup 9{sup m}}Tc-BN and {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} starting from optic images in a murine model; Biocinetica y dosimetria de una formulacion hibrida de {sup 99m}Tc-BN y {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} a partir de imagenes opticas en un modelo murino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo A, L. G.

    2015-07-01

    This work has the purpose of evaluate the biokinetics and absorbed dose of radiation of hybrid formulation {sup 99m}Tc-BN /{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} in a murine model by optical imaging techniques using the multimodal preclinical in vivo image system Xtreme. The used method were the {sup 99m}Tc-BN, {sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} and {sup 99m}Tc-BN/{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} formulas, with specific recognition for GRPr and the integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) respectively, was injected in the vein tail of three nude mousses with induce breast cancer tumors (cell line T-47-D), by the preclinical multimodal imaging system Xtreme (Bruker), optical images in different times was acquired (5, 10, 20 min, 2 and 24 h), using Images Processing Toolbox of MATLAB these images was transform from RGB format to gray scales and sectioned in five independent images corresponding to heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor areas. The intensity of each images was computed in counts per pixel, then those intensities was corrected for background, attenuation and scattering, using different factors for each phenomena previously calculated. Finally the activity values quantified vs time was fitted into a biokinetic model to obtain the disintegrations number and cumulate activities in each organ. With these data the radiation absorbed dose were calculated using MIRD methodology. Results: The number of disintegration and absorbed dose calculated in MBq h/MBq and mGy/MBq, of injected mouse with the {sup 99m}Tc-BN/{sup 99m}Tc-RGD{sub 2} formulation, was: 0.035 ± 0.65 E-02, 0.25 x 10{sub -5} ± 0.46 E-07; 0.393 ± 0.51 E-1, 2.85 E-05 ± 3.7 E-06; 0.306 ± 0.21 E-01, 2.11 E-05 ± 1.45 E-06 and 0.151 ± 0.19 E-01, 1.09 E-05 ± 1.42 E-06 , in heart, kidneys, bladder and tumor, respectively. The number of disintegration obtained in kidneys is comparable to those reported for Trinidad B. 2014 Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that using optical images and a code for image analyses development in MATLAB, could

  11. Radiation exposure of the patient in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Experimental studies of the biokinetics of 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, 99mTc-MIBI, 14C-triolein and 14C-urea, and development of dosimetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leide Svegborn, S.

    1999-03-01

    Biokinetic and dosimetric models for a number of clinically used radiopharmaceuticals, for which information on the radiation dosimetry is scarce, have been produced. On patients undergoing investigations with 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 -octreotide (for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours) and 99m Tc-MIBI (for myocardial perfusion imaging), whole body gamma camera scanning was performed several times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Total body and organ activity content was determined using the geometric mean of the number of counts in two 180 deg opposed planar images. A thorough investigation of sources influencing the accuracy of the quantification of activity was carried out, showing an overall uncertainty varying from 10% to 30% for organs with a significant uptake and 5% for the whole body. The activity in blood and urine was also measured. 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 -octreotide was predominantly excreted via the kidney-bladder system and a typical investigation with 1200 MBq resulted in an effective dose of 8.4 mSv (0.076 mSv/MBq). 99m Tc-MIBI was to a great extent excreted via the gastrointestinal tract and an investigation with 1200 MBq resulted in an effective dose of 13 mSv (0.011 mSv/MBq). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the possibility to measure ultra-low activity concentrations of 14 CO 2 , in exhaled air from patients undergoing 14 C-breath tests, with special application to 14 C-triolein (for study of fat malabsorption). AMS was proven to be a useful technique for long-term retention studies of 14 C, and was used together with liquid scintillation counting in an investigation of the biokinetics of 14 C-urea in adult and paediatric patients (for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in the upper gastrointestinal tract). The effective dose for 14 C-urea was 0.019 mSv/MBq for adults and from 0.041 to 0.019 mSv/MBq for seven- to fourteen -year-old children, resulting in an effective dose of approximately 0.002 mSv per

  12. Radiation exposure of the patient in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Experimental studies of the biokinetics of {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 14}C-triolein and {sup 14}C-urea, and development of dosimetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide Svegborn, S

    1999-03-01

    Biokinetic and dosimetric models for a number of clinically used radiopharmaceuticals, for which information on the radiation dosimetry is scarce, have been produced. On patients undergoing investigations with {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide (for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours) and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (for myocardial perfusion imaging), whole body gamma camera scanning was performed several times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Total body and organ activity content was determined using the geometric mean of the number of counts in two 180 deg opposed planar images. A thorough investigation of sources influencing the accuracy of the quantification of activity was carried out, showing an overall uncertainty varying from 10% to 30% for organs with a significant uptake and 5% for the whole body. The activity in blood and urine was also measured. {sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}-octreotide was predominantly excreted via the kidney-bladder system and a typical investigation with 1200 MBq resulted in an effective dose of 8.4 mSv (0.076 mSv/MBq). {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI was to a great extent excreted via the gastrointestinal tract and an investigation with 1200 MBq resulted in an effective dose of 13 mSv (0.011 mSv/MBq). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the possibility to measure ultra-low activity concentrations of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, in exhaled air from patients undergoing {sup 14}C-breath tests, with special application to {sup 14}C-triolein (for study of fat malabsorption). AMS was proven to be a useful technique for long-term retention studies of {sup 14}C, and was used together with liquid scintillation counting in an investigation of the biokinetics of {sup 14}C-urea in adult and paediatric patients (for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in the upper gastrointestinal tract). The effective dose for {sup 14}C-urea was 0.019 mSv/MBq for adults and from 0.041 to 0.019 mSv/MBq for seven- to fourteen -year-old children

  13. Annual limits on intake of radionuclides by workers based on the 1990 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Commission's new radiation protection recommendations (ICRP, 1991) were developed to take into account new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposures and supersede earlier recommendations in Publication 26 (ICRP, 1977). Adoption of the recommendations necessitates a revision in the Commission's secondary limits contained in Publication 30, Parts 1-4 (ICRP, 1979a, 1980, 1981b, 1988). In order to permit immediate application of these new recommendations, new values of the Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) which incorporate the new dose limits, radiation weighting factors, and tissue weighting factors and the metabolic and biokinetic information from Publication 30 have been calculated. Presented here are secondary limits for the 1990 Recommendations based on the dosimetric data assembled during the preparation of Publication 30. (author)

  14. Synthesis, labeling with {sup 99m}Tc and biokinetics of brains scintigraphy diaminodithiol perfusion radiopharmaceuticals; Sintese, marcacao com {sup 99m}Tc e biocinetica de radiofarmacos perfusorios diaminoditiolicos para cintilografias cerebrais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcos Moises

    1999-07-01

    The recent tomography status using radiopharmaceuticals have been contributing greatly with the 'age of certainty' in the diagnosis examination of syndromes, pathologies and clinical signs, because they can evidence some phenomena occurring in a molecular manner. The purpose of this work have had the development of new diaminodithiol (DADT) perfusion radiopharmaceuticals to be used in brain diagnosis using S.P.E.T. (Single Photon Emission Tomography). Initially, the rational planning had been performed with the new DADT molecular structures as radiopharmaceutical candidates. Using of Q.S.A.R. (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) techniques, the molecular descriptors such as partition coefficient and effective polarizability, have been studied in order to increase the blood brain barrier transport and the brain uptake respectively. Applying the Q.S.P.R. (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) concepts to perform drug latentiation, based on bio-labile functional groups, the congener DADT derivative has been transformed into a pro-drug that works as a DADT moiety carrier, allowing the increasing of brain radiopharmaceutical uptake. Later on, synthetic routes and chemical purifications have been developed allowing the creation of the proposed chemical structure. Each new DADT derivative has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of elemental analysis, infrared and NMR spectra, in order to confirm its proposed chemical structure. Then, the new derivative has been labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, radiochemically purified, intravenously injected in Swiss mice, allowing its biodistribution to evidence its brain transport and uptake. The rational planning studies have been re-evaluated after each biodistribution had been performed, to see what kind of molecular descriptor was responsible for causing a stronger optimization in the brain perfusion characteristics and then, new DADT derivatives have been prepared. Three new DADT derivatives have been

  15. Synthesis, labeling with {sup 99m}Tc and biokinetics of brains scintigraphy diaminodithiol perfusion radiopharmaceuticals; Sintese, marcacao com {sup 99m}Tc e biocinetica de radiofarmacos perfusorios diaminoditiolicos para cintilografias cerebrais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcos Moises

    1999-07-01

    The recent tomography status using radiopharmaceuticals have been contributing greatly with the 'age of certainty' in the diagnosis examination of syndromes, pathologies and clinical signs, because they can evidence some phenomena occurring in a molecular manner. The purpose of this work have had the development of new diaminodithiol (DADT) perfusion radiopharmaceuticals to be used in brain diagnosis using S.P.E.T. (Single Photon Emission Tomography). Initially, the rational planning had been performed with the new DADT molecular structures as radiopharmaceutical candidates. Using of Q.S.A.R. (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) techniques, the molecular descriptors such as partition coefficient and effective polarizability, have been studied in order to increase the blood brain barrier transport and the brain uptake respectively. Applying the Q.S.P.R. (Quantitative Structure Property Relationship) concepts to perform drug latentiation, based on bio-labile functional groups, the congener DADT derivative has been transformed into a pro-drug that works as a DADT moiety carrier, allowing the increasing of brain radiopharmaceutical uptake. Later on, synthetic routes and chemical purifications have been developed allowing the creation of the proposed chemical structure. Each new DADT derivative has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of elemental analysis, infrared and NMR spectra, in order to confirm its proposed chemical structure. Then, the new derivative has been labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, radiochemically purified, intravenously injected in Swiss mice, allowing its biodistribution to evidence its brain transport and uptake. The rational planning studies have been re-evaluated after each biodistribution had been performed, to see what kind of molecular descriptor was responsible for causing a stronger optimization in the brain perfusion characteristics and then, new DADT derivatives have been prepared. Three new DADT derivatives have been obtained by

  16. Bibliographic study on molybdenum biokinetics. Literaturstudie zur Biokinetik von Molybdaen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erzberger, A.

    1988-05-01

    This bibliographical study compiles and analyzes findings about the metabolism and resorption of molybdenum. Besides including studies on the physiology of molybdenum 99, a general survey is given on molybdenum in the environment and on its physiological behaviour. In particular, information on the dependence of molybdenum resorption on various factors, such as the chemical form, antagonisms etc., are gathered from literature. These factors have to be considered for sensibly carrying out necessary experiments.

  17. Biokinetics of 237Np in mussels and shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. Bioaccumulation of 237 Np from water was relatively slow in both species, reaching whole body concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature; this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated 237 Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp, molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this transuranic in the marine environment. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the 237 Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination

  18. Investigations on the biokinetics of carbon 14 in algae cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, W.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of 14 C by Scenedesmus quadricauda is quantitatively investigated by simulation models of radio ecological relevance. Due to the complexing of the procedures in the natural ecosystem, it was only possible to consider idealized conditions. The batch culture ressembles the conditons of still waters or relatively still waters without notable water exchange. The effect of the 14 C enrichment, as well as the drastic carbon reduction in the substrate as a result of algae growth, was avoided in the modified batch culture under conditions of simultaneous substrate diffusion by means of a permeation system. The 14 C and 12 C uptake of the cells thus took place solely under the conditions of constant concentration in the culture medium. The consequences for flowing water resulting from a nuclear power plant accident are to be simulated for the extent of the 14 C uptake by green algae using the continuous culture model with dynamic 14 C exposure. The continuous infusion of 14 C in the continuous culture corresponds to the possible cases where 14 C escapes into a flowing water at a constant rate over a long period of time, whether this may be via chronical release from a nuclear power plant or by 'fallout' resulting from nuclear arms testing. The results shown lead to the conclusion that the emission of 14 C to the environment, which according to prognoses will be considerably higher after the year 2000, presents a serious radioactivity potential which man and environment will have to live with should these developments continue and the prognoses come true. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Nitrification biokinetics in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina

    Danmarks drikkevandsforsyning er udelukkende baseret på grundvand – og mere end 2500 vandværker behandler hver dag vand til de danske forbrugere. Selv om denne vandbehandling betegnes som simpel, er den i virkeligheden baseret på komplicerede mikrobielle processer, som vi hidtil har vidst relativ...

  20. Biokinetic aspects of tissue-bound tritium in algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Kistner, G.

    1978-01-01

    For the estimate of the radiation exposure of man and for the calculation of the risk of artificial tritium from nuclear power plants, organic tissue-bound tritium is of decisive importance. In model experiments, a tritium incorporation of 61 to 71% was found from tritiated water (HTO) into organic matter of planctonic algae under reproducible conditions and this was related to the theoretical value. In further experiments the tritium release from these high tritiated algae was of interest. Kept in darkness in tritium-free, non-sterile river water, so that autolytic processes and bacterial decomposition could occur, the concentration of HTO was measured over a period of three weeks. A relatively long half-life of tissue-bound tritium was found under various temperature conditions. Therefore it must be considered that a significant retention of tritium in biological matter has to be taken into account in a natural ecosystem. In streams into which the cooling water of a nuclear reactor is released all conditions are found already for a long turnover and cycling of artificial tritium in living organisms as well as the conditions for a favourable transport of tritium by food chains to man. (Auth.)

  1. Biokinetic studies on 14C-chitosan in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Minghong; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yukawa, M.

    1998-05-01

    The absorption and the basic metabolism of chitosan in rats are investigated. The results indicated that 14 C-chitosan from gastrointestinal tract was absorbed, metabolized and excreted quickly without re-bioavailability. The radioactive compounds perhaps with specifically chemical forms in serum, liver and the contents of small intestines were separated on GPC column and measured by radioactivity counting. A big pile of peaks with the retention volume almost same as that of standard 14 C-chitosan and another sharp one with the retention volume in the range of higher molecular weight same as that of BSA were discovered in analysis respectively for contents of intestine and serum or liver. The sharp peak would disappear if the proteins contained in the serum or liver were removed. In addition, and interesting tail peak, followed with the pile ones and eluted with the retention volume of lower molecular weight range same as that of chitooligosaccharides was also found in each of the 3 samples, ignoring the protein removal or not. These results suggested that most of 14 C-chitosan was not to be digested in intestine. On the other hand, a small amount of 14 C-chitosan was likely to be absorbed directly or after degraded to small molecular compounds into blood, liver and other tissues, and then connected with the proteins. Perhaps it is these trace materials that were playing important roles in reduction of the bioavailability of radiostrontium in rats

  2. Biokinetics of {sup 131}I in human organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanska, J; Nemec, J [Faculty Hospital Motol, Prague (Czech Republic). Clinic of Nuclear Madecine; Karny, M; Guy, T V [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Ist. of Information Theory and Automation; Jirsa, L; Blazek, T [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). 2nd Medical Faculty

    1996-12-31

    Time evolution of the cumulated activity in human body is one of the key characteristics determining medical impacts of ionizing radiation. In nuclear medicine, so called effective half-life is mostly used for the evolution description. This quantity is usually estimated by fitting a straight line in semi-logarithmic coordinates. Its novel Bayesian estimate was also proposed and its advantageous properties were verified. During extensive tests, it was found that the effective half-live has limited use as the underlying deterministic relationship time - activity can hardly be taken as (mono)exponential. It stimulated the research for a better and still simple model. A quadratic dependence of ln(activity) on ln(time) was found as an adequate candidate. Preliminary experiments on a restricted set of real data were promising enough to justify its further elaboration. (authors) 1 tab., 19 refs.

  3. Micro-dosing for early biokinetic studies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, K.; Sydoff, M.; Mattsson, S.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-dosing is a new concept in drug development that-if implemented in the pharmaceutical industry-would mean that new drugs can be tested earlier in humans than done today. The human micro-dosing concept-or 'Phase 0'-may offer improved candidate selection, reduced failure rates in the drug development line and a reduction in the use of laboratory animals in early drug development, factors which will help to speed up drug development and also reduce the costs. Micro-dosing utilises sub-pharmacological amounts of the substance to open opportunities for early studies in man. Three technologies are used for micro-dosing: accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), positron emission tomography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This paper focuses on the principle of AMS and discusses the current status of micro-dosing with AMS. (authors)

  4. Bio-kinetic energy harvesting using electroactive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeremiah R.; Bowman, Jeremy; Kornbluh, Roy

    2012-06-01

    In hybrid vehicles, electric motors are used on each wheel to not only propel the car but also to decelerate the car by acting as generators. In the case of the human body, muscles spend about half of their time acting as a brake, absorbing energy, or doing what is known as negative work. Using dielectric elastomers it is possible to use the "braking" phases of walking to generate power without restricting or fatiguing the Warfighter. Infoscitex and SRI have developed and demonstrated methods for using electroactive polymers (EAPs) to tap into the negative work generated at the knee during the deceleration phase of the human gait cycle and convert it into electrical power that can be used to support wearable information systems, including display and communication technologies. The specific class of EAP that has been selected for these applications is termed dielectric elastomers. Because dielectric elastomers dissipate very little mechanical energy into heat, greater amounts of energy can be converted into electricity than by any other method. The long term vision of this concept is to have EAP energy harvesting cells located in components of the Warfighter ensemble, such as the boot uppers, knee pads and eventually even the clothing itself. By properly locating EAPs at these sites it will be possible to not only harvest power from the negative work phase but to actually reduce the amount of work done by the Warfighter's muscles during this phase, thereby reducing fatigue and minimizing the forces transmitted to the joints.

  5. Evaluating Alternate Biokinetic Models for Trace Pollutant Cometabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Binning, Philip John; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models of cometabolic biodegradation kinetics can improve our understanding of the relevant microbial reactions and allow us to design in situ or in-reactor applications of cometabolic bioremediation. A variety of models are available, but their ability to describe experimental data...

  6. Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte; Johansson, Christer

    2004-01-01

    BASE - Engelsk basisgrammatik er resultatet af Lise-Lotte Hjulmands grundige bearbejdning og omfattende revidering af Christer Johanssons Engelska basgrammatik. Grammatikken adskiller sig fra det svenske forlæg på en lang række punkter. Den er bl.a. tilpasset til et dansk publikum og det danske...

  7. A Common Decision of Compartmental Models on the Base of Laplace Transform and Retain Function Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, L.; Tzvetkova, A.; Nikolov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The compartmental models have a variety of applications in the analysis of the transport of radioactive and non-radioactive material in complex systems as atmosphere, hydrosphere, food chains, human body. The analysis of the biokinetic behaviour of the radioactive material into a human body gives a possibility for correct assessment of the dose from internal irradiation. Skrable has given a decision of non-cyclic linear compartmental models in case of a single intake of material in the compartments as an initial condition. The main purpose of our article is to write down a procedure for analysis of a general compartmental model in case of continuous intake of material into the compartments. This procedure is related to retain function concept and had developed on the base of Laplace transform. On the base on the proposed procedure a non-cyclic linear compartmental model decisions are given in case of both a single and a continuous intake. The Laplace images of cyclic and circular linear compartmental model decisions and their originals in some cases are given too. (author)

  8. Ab initio chemical safety assessment: A workflow based on exposure considerations and non-animal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Elisabet; White, Andrew; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Paini, Alicia; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Bois, Frederic Y; Exner, Thomas; Leite, Sofia; Grunsven, Leo A van; Worth, Andrew; Mahony, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    We describe and illustrate a workflow for chemical safety assessment that completely avoids animal testing. The workflow, which was developed within the SEURAT-1 initiative, is designed to be applicable to cosmetic ingredients as well as to other types of chemicals, e.g. active ingredients in plant protection products, biocides or pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to develop a workflow to assess chemical safety without relying on any animal testing, but instead constructing a hypothesis based on existing data, in silico modelling, biokinetic considerations and then by targeted non-animal testing. For illustrative purposes, we consider a hypothetical new ingredient x as a new component in a body lotion formulation. The workflow is divided into tiers in which points of departure are established through in vitro testing and in silico prediction, as the basis for estimating a safe external dose in a repeated use scenario. The workflow includes a series of possible exit (decision) points, with increasing levels of confidence, based on the sequential application of the Threshold of Toxicological (TTC) approach, read-across, followed by an "ab initio" assessment, in which chemical safety is determined entirely by new in vitro testing and in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by means of mathematical modelling. We believe that this workflow could be applied as a tool to inform targeted and toxicologically relevant in vitro testing, where necessary, and to gain confidence in safety decision making without the need for animal testing.

  9. Maza and Ojo (16)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    intake was high, the brain was quite susceptible to mercury intoxication, even at low doses. Keyword: Human PBBK Models, Binary Mixtures, Mercury/Selenium, Lead/Selenium. ABSTRACT .... the published work of these authors, however,.

  10. Fetal organ dosimetry for the Techa River and Ozyorsk offspring cohorts. Pt. 1. A Urals-based series of fetal computational phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Bolch, Wesley E. [University of Florida, Advanced Laboratory for Radiation Dosimetry Studies (ALRADS), J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shagina, Natalia B.; Tolstykh, Evgenia I.; Degteva, Marina O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Fell, Tim P. [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Health, Didcot, Chilton, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    The European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) project aims to improve understanding of cancer risks associated with chronic in utero radiation exposure. A comprehensive series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms was previously developed at the University of Florida in order to provide the SOLO project with the capability of computationally simulating and quantifying radiation exposures to individual fetal bones and soft tissue organs. To improve harmonization between the SOLO fetal biokinetic models and the computational phantoms, a subset of those phantoms was systematically modified to create a novel series of phantoms matching anatomical data representing Russian fetal biometry in the Southern Urals. Using previously established modeling techniques, eight computational Urals-based phantoms aged 8, 12, 18, 22, 26, 30, 34, and 38 weeks post-conception were constructed to match appropriate age-dependent femur lengths, biparietal diameters, individual bone masses and whole-body masses. Bone and soft tissue organ mass differences between the common ages of the subset of UF phantom series and the Urals-based phantom series illustrated the need for improved understanding of fetal bone densities as a critical parameter of computational phantom development. In anticipation for SOLO radiation dosimetry studies involving the developing fetus and pregnant female, the completed phantom series was successfully converted to a cuboidal voxel format easily interpreted by radiation transport software. (orig.)

  11. Generally applicable limits on intakes of uranium based on its chemical toxicity and the radiological significance of intakes at those limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M C; Wilson, J

    2015-01-01

    Uranium is chemically toxic and radioactive, and both considerations have to be taken into account when limiting intakes of the element, in the context of both occupational and public exposures. Herein, the most recent information available on the chemical toxicity and biokinetics of uranium is used to propose new standards for limiting intakes of the element. The approach adopted allows coherent standards to be set for ingestion and inhalation of different chemical forms of the element by various age groups. It also allows coherent standards to be set for occupational and public exposures (including exposures of different age groups) and for various exposure regimes (including short-term and chronic exposures). The proposed standards are more restrictive than those used previously, but are less restrictive than the Minimal Risk Levels proposed recently by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Having developed a set of proposed limits based solely on chemical toxicity considerations, the radiological implications of exposure at those proposed limits are investigated for natural, depleted and enriched uranium. (paper)

  12. High Throughput PBPK: Evaluating EPA's Open-Source Data and Tools for Dosimetry and Exposure Reconstruction (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To address this need, new tools have been created for characterizing, simulating, and evaluating chemical biokinetics. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models provide estimates of chemical exposures that produce potentially hazardous tissue concentrations, while tissu...

  13. The role of patient-based treatment planning in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardiansyah, Deni; Attarwala, Ali Asgar [Heidelberg University, Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany); Maass, Christian; Glatting, Gerhard [Heidelberg University, Medical Radiation Physics/Radiation Protection, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Mueller, Berthold [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Aachen (Germany); Kletting, Peter [Universitaet Ulm, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Ulm (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen University, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Accurate treatment planning is recommended in peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) to minimize the toxicity to organs at risk while maximizing tumor cell sterilization. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of different degrees of individualization on the prediction accuracy of individual therapeutic biodistributions in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). A recently developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was fitted to the biokinetic data of 15 patients with NETs after pre-therapeutic injection of {sup 111}In-DTPAOC. Mathematical phantom patients (MPP) were defined using the assumed true (true MPP), mean (MPP 1A) and median (MPP 1B) parameter values of the patient group. Alterations of the degree of individualization were introduced to both mean and median patients by including patient-specific information as a priori knowledge: physical parameters and hematocrit (MPP 2A/2B). Successively, measurable individual biokinetic parameters were added: tumor volume V{sub tu} (MPP 3A/3B), glomerular filtration rate GFR (MPP 4A/4B), and tumor perfusion f{sub tu} (MPP 5A/5B). Furthermore, parameters of MPP 5A/5B and a simulated {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE PET measurement 60 min p.i. were used together with the population values used as Bayesian parameters (MPP 6A/6B). Therapeutic biodistributions were simulated assuming an infusion of {sup 90}Y-DOTATATE (3.3 GBq) over 30 min to all MPPs. Time-integrated activity coefficients were predicted for all MPPs and compared to the true MPPs for each patient in tumor, kidneys, spleen, liver, remainder, and whole body to obtain the relative differences RD. The large RD values of MPP 1A [RD{sub tumor} = (625 ± 1266)%, RD{sub kidneys} = (11 ± 38)% ], and MPP 1B [RD{sub tumor} = (197 ± 505)%, RD{sub kidneys} = (11 ± 39)% ] demonstrate that individual treatment planning is needed due to large physiological differences between patients. Although addition of individual patient parameters reduced the

  14. Activated sludge model (ASM) based modelling of membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes: a critical review with special regard to MBR specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenu, A; Guglielmi, G; Jimenez, J; Spèrandio, M; Saroj, D; Lesjean, B; Brepols, C; Thoeye, C; Nopens, I

    2010-08-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been increasingly employed for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment in the last decade. The efforts for modelling of such wastewater treatment systems have always targeted either the biological processes (treatment quality target) as well as the various aspects of engineering (cost effective design and operation). The development of Activated Sludge Models (ASM) was an important evolution in the modelling of Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS) processes and their use is now very well established. However, although they were initially developed to describe CAS processes, they have simply been transferred and applied to MBR processes. Recent studies on MBR biological processes have reported several crucial specificities: medium to very high sludge retention times, high mixed liquor concentration, accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) rejected by the membrane filtration step, and high aeration rates for scouring purposes. These aspects raise the question as to what extent the ASM framework is applicable to MBR processes. Several studies highlighting some of the aforementioned issues are scattered through the literature. Hence, through a concise and structured overview of the past developments and current state-of-the-art in biological modelling of MBR, this review explores ASM-based modelling applied to MBR processes. The work aims to synthesize previous studies and differentiates between unmodified and modified applications of ASM to MBR. Particular emphasis is placed on influent fractionation, biokinetics, and soluble microbial products (SMPs)/exo-polymeric substances (EPS) modelling, and suggestions are put forward as to good modelling practice with regard to MBR modelling both for end-users and academia. A last section highlights shortcomings and future needs for improved biological modelling of MBR processes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the various biokinetic models of liberation from characteristic deposition fraction of brazilian population sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene A. dos; Cardoso, Joaquim C.S.; Lourenco, Maria Cristina

    2005-01-01

    The Publication 66 of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1994) presented the Human Respiratory tract Model that simulates the deposition and translocation of radioactive material in the air that penetrates in the body by inhalation. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the variation in fractional activity absorbed into blood when physiological and morphological parameters from Brazilian population are applied in the deposition model. The clearance model was implemented in the software Excel (version 2000) using a system of differential equations to solve simultaneous process of translocation and absorption of material deposited. After implementation were applied in the model fractional deposition calculated by deposition model using physiological and morphological parameters from Brazilian population. The results show that the variation in the clearance model depends on the material dissolution. For materials of rapid absorption, the variations calculated are not significant. Materials of moderate and slow absorption, presented variation greater than 20% in fractional activity absorbed into blood, depending on levels of exercise. (author)

  16. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters 237 Pu and 241 Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much 237 Pu being taken up by whole octopus as 241 Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the 237 Pu and 241 Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to 241 Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging 241 Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the 241 Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body 241 Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of 241 Am excretion in O. vulgaris. (orig.)

  17. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-03-05

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much /sup 237/Pu being taken up by whole octopus as /sup 241/Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to /sup 241/Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging /sup 241/Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the /sup 241/Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body /sup 241/Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of /sup 241/Am excretion in O. vulgaris.

  18. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Bloody Cockle (Anadara senilis) from Ghana: Biokinetics and Human Bioaccessibility Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    A series of experimental studies has been carried out to study the kinetic of accumulation and human exposure to trace metals using the bloody cockle (Anadara senilis) as a model organism. This species is of ecological and economic importance in Ghana and other parts of Western Africa where they are commonly found. Trace metals mainly Mn, Co, Zn, Ag and Cd were studied using both laboratory mesocosm and field investigations. The laboratory experiments were carried out through the use of radiotracers: "5"4Mn, "5"7Co, "6"5Zn, "1"1"0"mAg and "1"0"9Cd, to study the kinetics of metal accumulation in the cockle through 2 different exposure pathways. The variability of metal bioaccumulation in the bloody cockle as a function of environmental and physiological conditions was also investigated. Metal subcellular fractionation, tissue distribution and simulating human digestion through the use of in vitro methodology were incorporated to understand the processes governing metal accumulation and human health risk assessment from the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Following a 2-hour single feeding and a 28-day depuration period, metals ingested with food (Isochrysis galbana or Skeletonema costatum) were moderate to highly assimilated in the cockle (11 to 72%), although, the degree of assimilation was dependant on the type of phytoplankton strain, the studied metals and the size of the cockle. Retention of assimilated metals was metal dependant being described as weak for Ag (T_b_1_/_2 of 2 to 6 days), moderate for Mn, Co and Zn (T_b_1_/_2 of 13 to 47 days) and strong for Cd (T_b_1_/_2 ≥ 97 days). Over a 28-day dissolved exposure period, bioconcentration kinetics of metals in two size classes of bloody cockles studied under different exposure conditions (high and low salinity) generally were best described by a saturation model assuming an apparent steady state concentration. The results showed strong variability on the kinetics of metal uptake among different size classes and salinity. Small sized class and high salinity conditions exhibited the highest uptake rate for most of the metals, with the exception of Ag. After the exposure period and when samples were placed in uncontaminated conditions to allow for a 35 days depuration period, metals were efficiently retained, although, elimination was independent of either environmental or biological attributes. Results on subcellular distribution revealed the soluble fraction as the principal binding pool for Cd, Zn, Mn and Co irrespective of the exposure conditions. On the other hand, Ag was mainly associated with the insoluble fraction for both dietary and dissolved exposures. The study further demonstrated at higher biological organization level that accumulated metals were partitioned differently among the soft part and shells. The shells were the preferential storage compartments for Mn and to some extent Co (dissolved exposures), whereas Zn, Ag and Cd were mostly abundant in the soft part. For the first time, studies on bio accessibility of nutrients and contaminants using bloody cockles have been reported. The bio accessibility assessment using a 3-stage in vitro digestion showed an exceptionally high bio accessibility for Co (ranging from 73 to 80%) among all cooking techniques. In contrast, Ag was the least bio accessible metal being <44% irrespective of exposure conditions and cooking types. The different treatments prior to cooking affected the bio accessibility of the metals in the cockles and should therefore, be considered to minimise risk to potentially toxic metals contained in food products. Overall, the physiological parameters quantified suggest that the bloody cockle could be considered as a suitable indicator for metal accumulation in coastal ecosystems in Ghana. In addition, information generated from the in vitro digestion is useful for dietary risk assessment of metals in humans. (au)

  19. From Technique of Tattooing to Biokinetics and Toxicology of Injected Tattoo Ink Particles and Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    by banning potentially critical chemicals hitherto has been unsuccessful due to lacking documentation of clinical and epidemiological relevance and because the tattoo industry is already internationally established, free, and in the ownership of the people. Doctors treating patients with tattoo complications...

  20. Biokinetic of plutonium in human beings. Analysis and modification of ICRP 67 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, A.; Castellani, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary research of the available data and empirical functions for the plutonium excretion after injection was carried out. The ICRP model presented in the Publication no. 67 was then analyzed comparing its predictions for the activity in urine and, at a lesser extent, in feces and blood, with the collected data and empirical curves. The model was modified and an optimized age-related compartmental model was developed. A new skeletal model recently developed was also introduced and age depending bone remodelling rates were assumed on the basis of the ICRP Publication 70. This model provides a better agreement with measured urinary excretion data than the current ICRP 67 model, avoiding unphysiological assumptions such as the transfer of activity from soft tissue to urinary bladder, that were part of the ICRP model. The new optimized model predictions of the activity in faeces and in blood after an injection are also closer to the available data than the ICRP 67 estimations. A good agreement with the partitioning factor of plutonium between skeleton and liver obtained from different autopsy studies was also observed [it

  1. Review of biokinetic and biological transport of transuranic radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Cross, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    Present understanding of the uptake, retention, and loss of transuranic radionuclides by marine biota is limited. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that for certain species assimilation of plutonium and americium from labeled food is an efficient process and that direct uptake from seawater is important in the bioaccumulation of all transuranic radionuclides studied to date. Organisms appear to play an important role in the vertical transport of these radioelements from the surface layers of the ocean to greater depths

  2. CFD simulation of fluid dynamic and biokinetic processes within activated sludge reactors under intermittent aeration regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F; Rey, H; Viedma, A; Nicolás-Pérez, F; Kaiser, A S; Martínez, M

    2018-08-01

    Due to the aeration system, biological reactors are the most energy-consuming facilities of convectional WWTPs. Many biological reactors work under intermittent aeration regime; the optimization of the aeration process (air diffuser layout, air flow rate per diffuser, aeration length …) is necessary to ensure an efficient performance; satisfying the effluent requirements with the minimum energy consumption. This work develops a CFD modelling of an activated sludge reactor (ASR) which works under intermittent aeration regime. The model considers the fluid dynamic and biological processes within the ASR. The biological simulation, which is transient, takes into account the intermittent aeration regime. The CFD modelling is employed for the selection of the aeration system of an ASR. Two different aeration configurations are simulated. The model evaluates the aeration power consumption necessary to satisfy the effluent requirements. An improvement of 2.8% in terms of energy consumption is achieved by modifying the air diffuser layout. An analysis of the influence of the air flow rate per diffuser on the ASR performance is carried out. The results show a reduction of 14.5% in the energy consumption of the aeration system when the air flow rate per diffuser is reduced. The model provides an insight into the aeration inefficiencies produced within ASRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the incorporation of biokinetic and mechanistic data in modeling for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clewell, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the studies described in this thesis was to foster the increased use of emerging scientific information and innovative methods in chemical risk assessments, in order to assure the protection of public health while limiting the economic and social consequences of over-regulation. The

  4. Biokinetics of indium-111 labeled platelets after cryotherapy of hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.; Kirsch, C.-M.; Pistorius, G.; Feifel, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The present investigation was performed to evaluate mean platelet live-span and the proportion of platelet disposal in different organs in patients after hepatic cryotherapy. Seven patients with advanced colorectal cancer and liver metastases were included. Directly before the surgical procedure a blood specimen was drawn and an in vitro labeling of patients platelets with 18 MBq Indium-111 oxime was performed. Reinjection was done intraoperatively just before cryotherapy. Blood specimen were drawn at 1, 2, 3, 24 und 48 h p.i.. Whole-body scintigraphy was acquired on day two alter operation. The evaluation comprised the calculation of mean platelet live-span and of organ activities as percentage of whole-body activity. The local disposal of platelets at the site of cryotherapy ranged from 0 to 35.2 percent, the mean value was 16,2 ± 12,2 percent (mean ± SD). The mean half-time of time-activity curve gave 0.6 to 2.4 days (mean ± SD: 1.6 ± 0.6 d; normal value: 3.5-6 d), the mean platelet life-span was between 2.1 and 5.2 days corresponding to a mean value of 3.4 ± 1.0 days (normal value: 7-11 d). The evaluation of SPECT slices of large liver metastases demonstrated that platelet disposal takes place at the border zone of the metastases just around the necrotic center. We conclude that the enhanced local platelet trapping is a major cause for cryothermia-induced systemic thrombocytopenia. (author)

  5. Lead remediation and changes in human lead exposure: some physiological and biokinetic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul

    2003-02-15

    This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the various aspects of lead remediation effectiveness with particular reference to human health risk assessment. One of the key elements of lead remediation efforts at such sites as those under the Superfund program deals with populations at elevated exposure and toxicity risk in the proximity of, or at, the site of remediation, especially remediation workers, workers at other tasks on sites that were remediated down to some action level of lead concentration in soils, and groups at risk in nearby communities. A second element has to do with how one measures or models lead exposure changes with special reference to baseline and post-remediation conditions. Various biomarkers of lead exposure can be employed, but their use requires detailed knowledge of what results using each means. The most commonly used approach is measurement of blood lead (Pb-B). Recognized limitations in the use of Pb-B has led to the use of predictive Pb exposure models, which are less vulnerable to the many behavioral, physiological, and environmental parameters that can distort isolated or 'single shot' Pb-B testings. A third aspect covered in this paper presents various physiological factors that affect the methods by which one evaluates Pb remediation effectiveness. Finally, this article offers an integrated look at how lead remediation actions directed at one lead source or pathway affect the total lead exposure picture for human populations at elevated lead exposure and toxicity risk.

  6. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic Y; Jennings, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to

  7. Uranium incorporation biokinetics in poultry bones as function of phytase doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Cestari, A.C.; Zamboni, C.B.; Saiki, M.; Nogueira, G.P.; Fonseca, L.E.C.; Manso-Guevara, M.V.; Deppman, A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to study uranium incorporation in poultry bones as function of chow doped with: (a) uranium (20 ppm); (b) U-doped food (20 ppm) plus phytase (120 ppm) and (c) U-doped food (20 ppm) plus phytase (180 ppm). To investigate this situation experiments involving several groups of Cobb broilers was performed. Two animals per group were sacrificed weekly up to their adultness and uranium concentration in the tibia was measured. It was observed that the concentration of uranium (μg U/g bone) is decreasing all along the animal life spanning period of 14-42 days. This behavior suggests that the skeleton mass is growing faster than the corresponding accumulation of uranium. The administration of phytase seems not to alter this scenario. (author)

  8. Application of the new ICRP respiratory tract model to inhaled plutonium nitrate using experimental biokinetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Bailey, M.R.; Jarvis, N.S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the new ICRP respiratory tract model with particular reference to inhaled plutonium nitrate. The model is used to determine the absorption rates to blood for plutonium nitrate which when combined with the plutonium excretion functions were used to predict urinary excretion in man. The implications of the new model for radiological protection are discussed. (UK).

  9. Assessment of fetal activity concentration and fetal dose for selected radionuclides based on animal and human data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedler, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Biokinetic data of selected radionuclide compounds from investigations in man and animal were taken from literature references with the purpose to provide a basis for a comparative assessment of fetal and adult radiation doses after intake or administration of radionuclides. The following ratios of fetal to adult doses were derived from human data: 0.5 for caesium 137 and total body, 2.3 for iron 59 and liver, 0.06 - 0.3 - 1.1 for iodine 131 and thyroid, and 0.1 - 0.3 for strontium 90 and bone. The ratios of activity concentrations in fetal and adult tissues are of considerable variability - up to three orders of magnitude. Further studies on fetal and adult biokinetics specifically designed for comparative dose assessment are indispensable. 106 refs.; 6 tabs

  10. Development of derived limits for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. Y.; Lee, B. S.

    1999-01-01

    Derived limits such as the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), Derived Air Concentration (DAC) and Effluent Concentration Limit (ECL) for radiological protection against ionizing radiation based on ICRP-60 recommendations were calculated using dose limits and committed effective dose coefficients of the basic Safety Standards of IAEA (i.e. safety series 115; BSS-96). Derived limits regarding occupational exposure were derived using methodologies of ICRP-61 and dose limit stated in ICRP -60. ECL in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment were derived using methodologies of 10 CFR part 20 and dose limit stated in ICRP-60. In order to analyze the impact of implementing derived limits on nuclear facilities, the derived values in this study were compared with those prescribed in 10 CFR part 20 as well as the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of Notice No. 98-12 of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). According to the comparison results, ECLs in air and water for the control of radioactive discharge into the environment in this study are shown to have lower values (i.e. more conservative), for most part, than those in Notice No. 98-12. These differences are due to the reduction of dose limit, adoption of a weighting factor for age-dependency in dose coefficients, and application of new respiratory tract model and bio-kinetics model. Especially, for uranium elements (i.e., 235 U, 238 U, etc.), which are governing ones in the nuclear fuel industries, ECLs in water are approximately a magnitude in the order of two lower than those in Notice No. 98-12. These are attributable to the adoption of a weighting factor for age-dependency in dose coefficients, newly recommended dose coefficients for ingestion pathway, and reduction of dose limit. It was found out that the differences in ECLs in water for uranium elements originated mostly from ingestion dose coefficients recommended by BSS-96. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 524 ... Vol 18, No 4 (2016), Development of human PBBK models for mixtures: Binary ... study of an iron and steel smelting industry, Lagos, Nigeria, Abstract PDF ... Vol 16, No 3 (2014), Effect of selected factors on the current flow and voltage ... Vol 14, No 2 (2012), Effects of nutrient and light stress on some ...

  12. Experimental and theoretical study of the transport of silver nanoparticles at their prolonged administration into a mammal organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferova, A. A.; Buzulukov, Yu. P.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    The transport of silver nanoparticles in the organism of laboratory animals has been investigated. A mathematical model of the biokinetics of prolonged administration of nonmetabolizable and nonaglomerating pharmaceutical preparations is proposed, and its analytical solution is found. Based on the experimental data on the prolonged introduction and excretion of colloidal silver nanoparticles and the numerical approximation of the solutions to the equations for the proposed model, time dependences of the silver mass content in brain and blood are obtained and some other important biokinetic parameters are determined. It is concluded that both chronic1 and subchronic2 peroral application of these nanoparticles as an biologically active additive or antiseptic is potentially dangerous.

  13. Determination and reliability of dose coefficients for radiopharmaceuticals; Ermittlung der Zuverlaessigkeit von Dosiskoeffizienten fuer Radiopharmaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielmann, V.; Li, W.B.; Zankl, M.; Oeh, U.

    2015-11-15

    The dose coefficients used in nuclear medicine for dose calculations of radiopharmaceuticals are based on recommendations by ICRP (International Commission on radiological protection) and the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee) using mathematical models for the temporal activity distributions in organs and tissues (biokinetic models) and mathematical models of the human body. These models using an idealized human body do not include uncertainty estimations. The research project is aimed to determine the uncertainties and thus the reliability of the dose coefficients for radiopharmaceuticals and to identify the biokinetic and dosimetric parameters that contribute most of the uncertainties.

  14. A practical guideline for the release of patients treated by I-131 based on Monte Carlo dose calculations for family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Bolch, Wesley E

    2014-01-01

    We recently published effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv MBq −1  s −1 ) for paediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult patient released from hospital following I-131 therapy. In the present study, we intend to provide medical physicists with a methodology to estimate family member effective dose in daily clinical practice because the duration of post-radiation precautions for the patient–family member exposure scenario has not been explicitly delineated based on the effective dose. Four different exposure scenarios are considered in this study including (1) a patient and a family member standing face to face, (2) a patient and a family member lying side by side, (3) an adult female patient holding a newborn child to her chest and (4) a one-year-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient following her I-131 therapy. The results of this study suggest that an adult female hyperthyroidism (HT) patient who was administered with 740 MBq should keep a distance of 100 cm from a 15-year-old child for six days and the same distance from other adults for seven days. The HT female patient should avoid holding a newborn against her chest for at least 16 days following hospital discharge, and a female patient treated with 5550 MBq for differentiated thyroid cancer should not hold her newborn child for at least 15 days following hospital discharge. This study also gives dose coefficients allowing one to predict age-specific effective doses to family members given the measured dose rate (mSv h −1 ) of the patient. In conclusion, effective dose-based patient release criteria with a modified NRC two-component model provide a site medical physicist with less restrictive and age-specific radiation precaution guidance as they fully consider a patient’s iodine biokinetics and photon attenuation within both the patient and the exposed family members. (note)

  15. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of Cs-134 and Cd-109 in the blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar; Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Nur Hidaya Dmuliany Mohd Sidek; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and depuration study under controlled laboratory conditions of Cs and Cd in Anadara granosa collected at coastal Kapar, Selangor was carried out using respective radiotracer, Cs-134 and Cd-109. The radioactivity of Cs-134 and Cd-109 were determined using high resolution hyper germanium detector. Our results demonstrate that Cd-109 was accumulated efficiently by this species, except Cs-134. The steady state concentration factor (CF) for accumulation of Cs-134 and Cd-109 from seawater was estimated to be about 5.86 and 51.31, respectively. For the depuration stage, loss kinetics of Cs-134 and Cd-109 was best described by 2-compartment exponential model. Results shown that A. granosa exposed to Cs-134 have a total loss of 69% in compared to 19 % of Cd-109. Results gained in this experiment are a baseline data to evaluate future released of radioactive material from nuclear power programme facilities within this region. (author)

  16. Labelling study of galacturonic acid with Tc-99m and investigation of the biokinetic behaviour in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The main criterion in the selection of a proper ligand to be labelled with Technetium is to match the requirement of a radiopharmaceutical of good biological specificity, where the target organ-to-background ratio is considerably high. Perliminary study on experimental animals has shown, that galacturonic acid is among those ligands of high renal specificity after complexing with Tc-99. In this communication we describe for the first time the labelling of galacturonic acid with Tc-99, using stannous chloride as a reducing agent for pertechnetate. The radioanalytical results assessed by gelchromatography column scanning (GCS) method, reveal that, the labelling efficiency of (Tc)99-galacturonate complex is promoted by raising the pH of the reaction mixture to a value higher than 7 using tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane buffer. The optimal amounts of the reactants to obtain a high labelled and stable complex with high kidney uptake, were found to be not less than 50 mg galacturonic acid and not more than 200 Mg SnCl2.H2O in the preparation

  17. Development of a New Bio-Kinetic Model for Assessing the Environmental Property of Military Hydraulic Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhee, In-Sik

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research. Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is actively developing biodegradation technologies that can be used to minimize waste stream of Petroleum, Oils, and Lubricant...

  18. Biokinetic and dosimetry of 99mTc-14F7-monoclonal antibody in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Joaquin; Calderon, Carlos; Pimentel, Gilmara; Oliva, Juan P.; Casaco, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The 14F7 murine MAb is an IgG1 that binds specifically to GM3(Neu-Gc) ganglioside strongly recognizing the antigen displayed in human breast and melanoma tumors. A preliminary report showed in vivo evidences of presence of GM3(Neu-Gc) ganglioside in human breast primary tumors using 14F7 MAb labelled with 99m Tc. In this work the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of 99m Tc-14F7 MAb in patient with breast cancer were studied. The absorbed dose in normal organ and tumors was also calculated. The patients were selected from a Phase I/II clinical trial which included 14 female patients with cytological diagnose of breast carcinoma in stage II without previous onco-specific treatment. Three groups were conformed: Group I (0.3mg, n=5), Group II (1mg, n=5) and Group III (3mg, n=4). The activity ranged in 1.11 - 1.48GBq (30- 40mCi) was intravenously administered during 1-2min. The 99m Tc-14F7 plasma clearance was determined by blood sampling at 5, 10, 20, 30min and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h after injection. All urine excreted by patients was collected during 24h after injection at intervals of 0-2h, 2-8h and 8-24h. Prior to injection, a transmission scan of head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis was obtained using a 57 Co flood source. Anterior and posterior whole body images were acquired at 30min, 2h, 4h, 8h and 24h after injection using a Gamma Camera (SophyCamera DS7) with pinhole collimator. Static anterior and posterior images were obtained from head, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and lateral images of each breast in pendular position at 2h, 4h, 8h and 24h. Internal absorbed dose calculation was performed according to MIRD formalism using the S values for adult non-pregnant female phantom downloaded from the RADAR website. Self-absorbed tumor dose were calculated assuming those as spheres with uniform distribution of activity. The plasma clearance of radiotracer in all groups shows a monoexponential decay behaviour with biological elimination half time ranged in 15h and 19h. The distribution volume was similar to physiological volume in normal subject. A low urinary excretion was observed. The biodistribution shows a high retention of radiotracer in whole-body. A high uptake and retention was observed in bone marrow, kidneys and liver. The highest absorbed dose per MBq was observed in liver and kidneys. The 99m Tc-14F7 shows a rapid tumor uptake (<2.5h) with a delayed biological elimination half time (>4.5 days). In most cases, the maximum activity uptake in tumor (<1%/100g of tumor) was observed at 24 hours after injection. The pharmacokinetic data observed for 99m Tc-14F7 MAb behaves as a monoexponential model showing a slow clearance from plasma and a low urinary excretion. (author)

  19. Study of the biokinetic behavior of 99mTc-DMSA in renal scintigraphy of pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Felipe Simas dos

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, renal studies with 99m Tc D TPA and 99m Tc-DMSA constitute about 18% of pediatric diagnostic procedures. A retrospective non-randomized study was conducted in 2010, for absolute quantification of kidney activities. In 2010,51 patients underwent renal studies in the Hospital of the Rio de Janeiro State University - HUPE-UERJ/ RJ, Brazil. 19 of them with 9±4 years of age and body mass of 31.8±20.8 kg showed relative uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA between 45% and 55%. Still images (AP, PA and posterior oblique abdomen incidences) were acquired 4 h after intravenous administration of 115.69±42.31 MBq of 99m Tc-DMSA using gamma camera (Siemens E-Cam), LEHR collimator, matrix of 256x256 and 5min imaging. In 2012, 3 patients (9.3±2.1 years, 31.97±10.75 kg) in the previous study were followed in a prospective study. All urinary excretions samples were collected from administration of 99m Tc-DMSA to 6 h after, while simultaneously images were acquired AP and PA abdominal region with Philips model Picker Prism 2000XP. Aliquots of each urine sample were measured in gamma counter shaft GenesysTM Gamma 1 with Nal (TI) detector. For whole body, the biological half-life estimate was 11.0±2.0 h, and the residence time was found to be 5.6±0.4 h while the literature suggests 4.l±0.5 h for age range studied. Residence time for kidney was found to be 0.7±0.4 h, while the literature shows, 3.07 h and 1.4 h for patients with normal and renal pathologies, respectively. This difference may be attributed to the methodology because while the images were taken during the first 6 h, SMITH et aI. (1996) performed images of the kidneys and whole body 30 h after administration of 99mTc D MSA, incorporating the slow term of biological half-life. For liver, it was found the average residence time of 3.0±0.4 min, whereas the literature indicates 20.8 min and 25.1 min, respectively according to SMITH et. ai (1996) and ICRP (1998). The fact that the administered activity was higher than the activity estimated by 3 different criteria is not a single parameter to be considered for the optimization of doses, once for diagnostic image quality it must be ensured. Therefore, the analysis of the quality of the images should be part of the study. It is recommended to include in the study protocol whole body images on the first day and 24 h after administration of 99m Tc-DMSA. To quantify the activity in the whole body, it is recommended to perform the patient attenuation map through an emission image. For organ images, it is recommended to use physical simulator to obtain the calibration factor of the respective body. The acquisition time of the images should follow the estimated time for the biological half-life of 2 terms (fast and slow). (author)

  20. Biokinetics of osteotropic radiopharmaceuticals in metabolic osteopathies - comparison of 47Ca and sup(99m)Tc-MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, J.; Montz, R.

    1983-01-01

    Plasma clearance and osseous accumulation rates of sup(99m)Tc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the lumbar spine were measured in 11 patients with osteoporosis (OP), 7 patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT), 4 patients with osteomalacia (OM) and in 3 patients (N) who were studied to exclude metabolic bone disease. The findings in 19 patients were compared with the results of 47 Ca kinetics. The plasma elimination of sup(99m)Tc-MDP during the first hour after application was normal in almost all the patients. The sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates in the lumbar spine were raised in patients with HPT and OM (p 0,05). 47 Ca kinetics were disturbed in most of the patients with metabolic bone disease, with minimal deviations in OP. The comparison of sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates with the results of 47 Ca kinetics revealed significant correlations with exchangeable bone and soft tissue calcium. The correlations with total calcium turnover and calcium accretion were poor. Only half of the patients had equal results of sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates and bone calcium accretion rates. It is concluded that the sup(99m)Tc-MDP uptake by bone is an index of bone metabolism presumably of the organic matrix, whereas 47 Ca kinetics represent the mineral metabolism of bone. (orig.) [de

  1. Biokinetic and dosimetry of {sup 99m}Tc-14F7-monoclonal antibody in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Joaquin; Calderon, Carlos; Pimentel, Gilmara; Oliva, Juan P., E-mail: jgg@infomed.sld.cu [Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto de Oncologia y Radiobiologia, Cidad Habana (Cuba); Casaco, Angel [Division de Ensayos Clinicos, Centro de Inmunologia Molecular, Reparto Siboney, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: The 14F7 murine MAb is an IgG1 that binds specifically to GM3(Neu-Gc) ganglioside strongly recognizing the antigen displayed in human breast and melanoma tumors. A preliminary report showed in vivo evidences of presence of GM3(Neu-Gc) ganglioside in human breast primary tumors using 14F7 MAb labelled with {sup 99m}Tc. In this work the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-14F7 MAb in patient with breast cancer were studied. The absorbed dose in normal organ and tumors was also calculated. The patients were selected from a Phase I/II clinical trial which included 14 female patients with cytological diagnose of breast carcinoma in stage II without previous onco-specific treatment. Three groups were conformed: Group I (0.3mg, n=5), Group II (1mg, n=5) and Group III (3mg, n=4). The activity ranged in 1.11 - 1.48GBq (30- 40mCi) was intravenously administered during 1-2min. The {sup 99m}Tc-14F7 plasma clearance was determined by blood sampling at 5, 10, 20, 30min and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h after injection. All urine excreted by patients was collected during 24h after injection at intervals of 0-2h, 2-8h and 8-24h. Prior to injection, a transmission scan of head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis was obtained using a {sup 57}Co flood source. Anterior and posterior whole body images were acquired at 30min, 2h, 4h, 8h and 24h after injection using a Gamma Camera (SophyCamera DS7) with pinhole collimator. Static anterior and posterior images were obtained from head, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and lateral images of each breast in pendular position at 2h, 4h, 8h and 24h. Internal absorbed dose calculation was performed according to MIRD formalism using the S values for adult non-pregnant female phantom downloaded from the RADAR website. Self-absorbed tumor dose were calculated assuming those as spheres with uniform distribution of activity. The plasma clearance of radiotracer in all groups shows a monoexponential decay behaviour with biological elimination half time ranged in 15h and 19h. The distribution volume was similar to physiological volume in normal subject. A low urinary excretion was observed. The biodistribution shows a high retention of radiotracer in whole-body. A high uptake and retention was observed in bone marrow, kidneys and liver. The highest absorbed dose per MBq was observed in liver and kidneys. The {sup 99m}Tc-14F7 shows a rapid tumor uptake (<2.5h) with a delayed biological elimination half time (>4.5 days). In most cases, the maximum activity uptake in tumor (<1%/100g of tumor) was observed at 24 hours after injection. The pharmacokinetic data observed for {sup 99m}Tc-14F7 MAb behaves as a monoexponential model showing a slow clearance from plasma and a low urinary excretion. (author)

  2. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Dose reconstruction. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Aragno, D.; Bailiff, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    The project Dose Reconstruction was conducted within the five work packages: - EPR with teeth, - Chromosome painting (FISH) in lymphocytes, - Luminescence methods, - Modelling, and - Evaluation. (orig.)

  3. Variation of solubility, biokinetics and dose coefficient of industrial uranium oxides according to the specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazel, V.; Houpert, P.; Ansorbolo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Paquet, F.

    2000-01-01

    The in vitro solubility, absorption to blood, lung retention and dose coefficient of industrial UO 2 samples were studied as a function of the specific surface area (SSA) of the particles. An in vitro study has been carried out on two samples of industrial UO 4 to compare the results with those obtained with UO 2 . Ten UO 2 samples supplied by different fuel factories or research laboratories, presented specific surface areas from 1.00 to 4.45 m 2 .g -1 . The wide range of values of SSA was due to the different conditions of fabrication. Dissolution tests in cell culture medium made on these ten samples have shown that the solubility increased 2.5-fold when the SSA increased 1.7-fold. The same tendency has been found for UO 4 , a soluble compound, and for U 3 O 8 , a moderately soluble compound. Four in vivo experiments carried out on rats by intratracheal instillation of dust suspensions of UO 2 , have highlighted the decrease in lung retention and the increase of absorption to blood with the SSA. The experimental absorption parameters calculated from the in vivo data allowed specific dose coefficients to be obtained which decreased from 6.6 to 4.3 μSv.Bq -1 when the SSA increased from 1.60 to 3.08 m 2 .g -1 . Thus, the medical monitoring of workers at the workplace has to take into account any change in the fabrication process of the uranium compound which can affect the physiochemical properties and consequently the dose coefficient. (author)

  4. Excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after nuclear medicine examinations. Biokinetic and dosimetric data and recommendations on breastfeeding interruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepe, K. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany); Becker, A. [GH Hospital Frankfurt/Oder, Department of Internal Medicine, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Since the 1990s the advantages of breastfeeding have been emphasized and the number of women who nurse their infant has increased significantly. Although women in this population are generally healthy and relatively rarely need radionuclide imaging or radionuclide therapies, the issue of radiation protection of breastfed children arises because of their higher radiosensitivity. Approximately 55 papers on excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after radionuclide imaging or therapy have been published. Unfortunately, most of them are case reports or include only a small number of cases. In 1955 the first report was published about a breastfeeding woman after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis. This early study showed a higher concentration of radioiodine in breast milk than in plasma and investigated the risk to the infant, especially to the thyroid gland.

  5. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: Radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Warnau, M.; Metian, M.; Oberhaensli, F.; Rouleau, C.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-01-01

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved 203 Hg and 210 Pb were determined during the entire embryonic development of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50 d at 17 o C). 203 Hg and 210 Pb were accumulated continuously by the eggs all along the development time reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 467 ± 43 and 1301 ± 126 g, respectively. During the first month, most of the 203 Hg and 210 Pb remained associated with the eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From this time onwards, 203 Hg accumulated in the embryo, indicating that it passed through the eggshell, whereas 210 Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a significant source of exposure for the embryo. This study highlighted that the maturing embryo could be subjected to the toxic effects of Hg in the coastal waters where the embryonic development is taking place.

  6. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: Radiotracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T., E-mail: tlacouel@gmail.com [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, M., E-mail: warnaumichel@yahoo.com [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Metian, M. [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Oberhaensli, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Rouleau, C. [Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, 850 Route de la Mer, C.P. 1000, Mont-Joli, Quebec (Canada); Bustamante, P., E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)

    2009-12-01

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb were determined during the entire embryonic development of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50 d at 17 {sup o}C). {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb were accumulated continuously by the eggs all along the development time reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 467 {+-} 43 and 1301 {+-} 126 g, respectively. During the first month, most of the {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb remained associated with the eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From this time onwards, {sup 203}Hg accumulated in the embryo, indicating that it passed through the eggshell, whereas {sup 210}Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a significant source of exposure for the embryo. This study highlighted that the maturing embryo could be subjected to the toxic effects of Hg in the coastal waters where the embryonic development is taking place.

  7. Biokinetic Analysis and Metabolic Fate of 2,4-D in 2,4-D-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Joshua J; Simpson, David M; Peterson, Mark A; Riechers, Dean E

    2017-07-26

    The Enlist weed control system allows the use of 2,4-D in soybean but slight necrosis in treated leaves may be observed in the field. The objectives of this research were to measure and compare uptake, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D in Enlist (E, resistant) and non-AAD-12 transformed (NT, sensitive) soybeans. The adjuvant from the Enlist Duo herbicide formulation (ADJ) increased 2,4-D uptake (36%) and displayed the fastest rate of uptake (U 50 = 0.2 h) among treatments. E soybean demonstrated a faster rate of 2,4-D metabolism (M 50 = 0.2 h) compared to NT soybean, but glyphosate did not affect 2,4-D metabolism. Metabolites of 2,4-D in E soybean were qualitatively different than NT. Applying 2,4-D-ethylhexyl ester instead of 2,4-D choline (a quaternary ammonium salt) eliminated visual injury to E soybean, likely due to the time required for initial de-esterification and bioactivation. Excessive 2,4-D acid concentrations in E soybean resulting from ADJ-increased uptake may significantly contribute to foliar injury.

  8. Whole body MR-PET: a new internal dosimetry method for radiation transport calculation from biokinetic model data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Ana; Alves, Francisco; Patrício, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure the safe usage of new radiopharmaceuticals in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), it is necessary to quantify the doses delivered to the organs and tissues within the patients’ bodies. A framework that allows estimating the dose delivered by PET has been established by the MIRD Committee [1, 2] and ICRP []. Although this covers the most important terms and concepts in Internal Radiation Dosimetry (IRD), it does not provide a detailed guide to assist in the development of a full dosimetric study. We discuss the development, implementation, assessment and validation of an accurate method for IRD studies of PET radiotracers.

  9. Effects of hemodialysis on iodine-131 biokinetics in thyroid carcinoma patients with end-stage chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeyin, Nami; Cavdar, Iffet; Uslu, Lebriz; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Demir, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    Radioiodine therapy could be challenging in chronic renal failure patients requiring hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of hemodialysis on elimination of radioiodine from the body in thyroid carcinoma patients with end-stage chronic renal failure and to determine its effects on environmental radiation dose. Three end-stage chronic renal failure patients (four cases) diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma requiring radioiodine therapy were included in our study. Each patient was given 50-75 mCi (1850-2775 MBq) iodine-131 with 50% dose reduction. Dose rate measurement was performed at the 2nd, 24th, and 48th hour (immediately before and after hemodialysis) after radioiodine administration. The Geiger-Müller probe was held at 1 m distance at the level of the midpoint of the thorax for the dose rate measurement. The effective half-life of iodine-131 for three patients was found to be 44 h. In conclusion, the amount of radioiodine excreted per hemodialysis session was calculated to be 51.25%.

  10. Biokinetics of osteotropic radiopharmaceuticals in metabolic osteopathies - comparison of /sup 47/Ca and sup(99m)Tc-MDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knop, J.; Montz, R.

    1983-10-01

    Plasma clearance and osseous accumulation rates of sup(99m)Tc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the lumbar spine were measured in 11 patients with osteoporosis (OP), 7 patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT), 4 patients with osteomalacia (OM) and in 3 patients (N) who were studied to exclude metabolic bone disease. The findings in 19 patients were compared with the results of /sup 47/Ca kinetics. The plasma elimination of sup(99m)Tc-MDP during the first hour after application was normal in almost all the patients. The sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates in the lumbar spine were raised in patients with HPT and OM (p<=0,01) and normal in patients with OP and N (p>0,05). /sup 47/Ca kinetics were disturbed in most of the patients with metabolic bone disease, with minimal deviations in OP. The comparison of sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates with the results of /sup 47/Ca kinetics revealed significant correlations with exchangeable bone and soft tissue calcium. The correlations with total calcium turnover and calcium accretion were poor. Only half of the patients had equal results of sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates and bone calcium accretion rates. It is concluded that the sup(99m)Tc-MDP uptake by bone is an index of bone metabolism presumably of the organic matrix, whereas /sup 47/Ca kinetics represent the mineral metabolism of bone.

  11. Binary mixtures of mercury/ selenium, and lead/selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologically-based biokinetic models have been developed for predicting simultaneously the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME) properties of lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) and selenium in a number of target tissues of humans. This was done for three population groups, ...

  12. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Brown, J.; Holm, E.; Roos, P.; Saxen, R.; Outola, I.

    2012-01-01

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  13. Polonium-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial, freshwater and brackish environments Results from the NKS project GAPRAD (Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R; Brown, J; Holm, E; Roos, P; Saxen, R; Outola, I

    2012-01-15

    The background and rationale to filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for biota are presented. Concentrations of Po-210 and Pb-210 are reported for biota sampled in Dovrefjell, Norway and selected lake and brackish ecosystems in Finland. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental studies are recounted. (Author)

  14. Reliability of the ICRP's dose coefficients for members of the public: IV. Basis of the human alimentary tract model and uncertainties in model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.; Harrison, J.; Phipps, A.

    2007-01-01

    The biokinetic and dosimetric model of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract applied in current documents of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was developed in the mid-1960's. The model was based on features of a reference adult male and was first used by the ICRP in Publication 30, Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers (Part 1, 1979). In the late 1990's an ICRP task group was appointed to develop a biokinetic and dosimetric model of the alimentary tract that reflects updated information and addresses current needs in radiation protection. The new age-specific and gender-specific model, called the Human Alimentary Tract Model (HATM), has been completed and will replace the GI model of Publication 30 in upcoming ICRP documents. This paper discusses the basis for the structure and parameter values of the HATM, summarises the uncertainties associated with selected features and types of predictions of the HATM and examines the sensitivity of dose estimates to these uncertainties for selected radionuclides. Emphasis is on generic biokinetic features of the HATM, particularly transit times through the lumen of the alimentary tract, but key dosimetric features of the model are outlined, and the sensitivity of tissue dose estimates to uncertainties in dosimetric as well as biokinetic features of the HATM are examined for selected radionuclides. (authors)

  15. Lotus Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    exploration of Lotus genomic and transcriptomic data. Equally important are user-friendly in-browser tools designed for data visualization and interpretation. Here, we present Lotus Base, which opens to the research community a large, established LORE1 insertion mutant population containing an excess of 120...... such data, allowing users to construct, visualize, and annotate co-expression gene networks. Lotus Base takes advantage of modern advances in browser technology to deliver powerful data interpretation for biologists. Its modular construction and publicly available application programming interface enable...... developers to tap into the wealth of integrated Lotus data. Lotus Base is freely accessible at: https://lotus.au.dk....

  16. Touch BASE

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In a recent Nature article (see here), the BASE collaboration reported the most precise comparison of the charge-to-mass ratio of the proton to its antimatter equivalent, the antiproton. This result is just the beginning and many more challenges lie ahead.   CERN's AD Hall, where the BASE experiment is set-up. The Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) was approved in June 2013 and was ready to take data in August 2014. During these 14 months, the BASE collaboration worked hard to set up its four cryogenic Penning traps, which are the heart of the whole experiment. As their name indicates, these magnetic devices are used to trap antiparticles – antiprotons coming from the Antiproton Decelerator – and particles of matter – negative hydrogen ions produced in the system by interaction with a degrader that slows the antiprotons down, allowing scientists to perform their measurements. “We had very little time to set up the wh...

  17. Fragmentation based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Gaining the understanding of mobile agent architecture and the security concerns, in this paper, we proposed a security protocol which addresses security with mitigated computational cost. The protocol is a combination of self decryption, co-operation and obfuscation technique. To circumvent the risk of malicious code execution in attacking environment, we have proposed fragmentation based encryption technique. Our encryption technique suits the general mobile agent size and provides hard and thorny obfuscation increasing attacker’s challenge on the same plane providing better performance with respect to computational cost as compared to existing AES encryption.

  18. Fuzzy knowledge bases integration based on ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Ternovoy, Maksym; Shtogrina, Olena

    2012-01-01

    the paper describes the approach for fuzzy knowledge bases integration with the usage of ontology. This approach is based on metadata-base usage for integration of different knowledge bases with common ontology. The design process of metadata-base is described.

  19. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  20. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Biophysical models for the induction of cancer by radiation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.; Ballarini, F.; Brugmans, M.

    2000-01-01

    The overall project is organised into seven work packages. WP1 concentrates on the development of mechanistic, quantitative models for radiation oncogenesis using selected data sets from radiation epidemiology and from experimental animal studies. WP2 concentrates on the development of mechanistic, mathematical models for the induction of chromosome aberrations. WP3 develops mechanistic models for radiation mutagenesis, particularly using the HPRT-mutation as a paradigm. WP4 will develop mechanistic models for damage and repair of DNA, and compare these with experimentally derived data. WP5 concentrates on the improvement of our knowledge on the chemical reaction pathways of initial radiation chemical species in particular those that migrate to react with the DNA and on their simulation in track structure codes. WP6 models by track structure simulation codes the production of initial physical and chemical species, within DNA, water and other components of mammalian cells, in the tracks of charged particles following the physical processes of energy transfer, migration, absorption, and decay of excited states. WP7 concentrates on the determination of the start spectra of those tracks considered in WP6 for different impinging radiation fields and different irradiated biological objects. (orig.)

  1. Determination of the biodistribution and biokinetics of radiopharmaca like 166Ho-ferric-hydroxide or 153Sm-EDTMP used for therapeutic treatment by energy dispersive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.; Poljanc, K.; Aiginger, H.; Pruefert, U.; Granegger, S.; Ofluoglu, S.; Pirich, Ch.; Sinzinger, H.; Dudczak, R.; Steger, F.

    2003-01-01

    The activity distribution of beta-emitting radionuclides in the human body and the respective therapeutic dose distribution in the target and the unwanted leakage in the other organs was determined by measurement of corresponding gamma-lines. The measurement was done by scanning in a whole-body counter in the General Hospital Vienna. It is possible to localize activity and dose distribution by means of the detected activity profiles of the four detectors. Two typical treatments are reported: the treatment of synovitis using radiation of 166 Ho-Ferric-Hydroxide (characteristic gamma-line: 81 keV) and radionuclide therapy focused at the palliative treatment of bone metastases with 153 Sm-EDTMP, a bone seeking beta-emitting radionuclide (characteristic gamma-line: 103 keV). For the determination of the applied dose, the leakage and the quality assurance spectroscopic data of a clinical whole-body counter can be a useful tool for controlling and monitoring in health care. (authors)

  2. Biokinetics of cadmium, selenium, and zinc in freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus under different phosphorus and nitrogen conditions and metal transfer to Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Riqing; Wang Wenxiong

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of Cd, Se(IV) and Zn by the freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the subsequent transfer and release budget in Daphnia magna were investigated under different nutrient additions and cell incubation conditions. An increase in ambient phosphate concentrations from 0.5 μmol l -1 to 50 μmol l -1 significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of Cd (by 18x) and Zn (by 5x), but decreased the accumulation of Se (by 126x) in the alga. The percentage of these metals distributing in the intracellular pool of algae also increased substantially with increasing ambient P concentrations. Nitrate addition from 5.0 to 200 μmol l -1 did not influence the uptake of any of the three metals, although a significant decrease in the intracellular Se distribution was observed. Radiolabeled algae under different nutrient manipulations (semi-continuous culture, starvation, and P-pulse treatments) were used to measure trophic transfer assimilation efficiency (AE) in Daphnia. When the algal cells were grown in a semi-continuous culture, starved for N and P, or were treated with P-pulse, the AEs of Cd and Zn were generally independent of the nutritional conditions, but the Se AE was significantly affected by different P levels. The efflux rate constants, determined during 10 d depuration following 7 days of dietary uptake, decreased significantly for Cd and Zn, but were relatively constant for Se with increasing P concentration. N-addition caused no effect on the metal efflux rate constants. P- or N-additions did not influence the release budget (including molting, neonates, excretion and feces) for all three elements in Daphnia. Our study indicated that phosphate enrichment may substantially increase metal uptake in green alga S. obliquus. Responses of trophic transfer in Daphnia to nutrient enrichment were metal specific. P-enrichment can possibly lead to considerable decrease on Se transfer from algae to zooplankton. - Phosphorous enrichment influences metal uptake by algae, but not transfer to a zooplankton grazer

  3. The estimation of daily intake and organ content of Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in Indian population: Application to the study of their biokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Pullat, V.R.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1998-01-01

    The analytical methods involving both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques (INAA and RNAA) are being standardised for the determination of the elements Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of biological samples. The sampling method proposed to be adopted for the estimation of the daily dietary intake, of the above elements is described. Also reported in this paper are the preliminary results on the concentrations of these elements in the food ingredients which form important components of the diet of Indian population. (author)

  4. Biokinetics of cadmium, selenium, and zinc in freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus under different phosphorus and nitrogen conditions and metal transfer to Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Riqing; Wang Wenxiong

    2004-06-01

    The uptake of Cd, Se(IV) and Zn by the freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the subsequent transfer and release budget in Daphnia magna were investigated under different nutrient additions and cell incubation conditions. An increase in ambient phosphate concentrations from 0.5 {mu}mol l{sup -1} to 50 {mu}mol l{sup -1} significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of Cd (by 18x) and Zn (by 5x), but decreased the accumulation of Se (by 126x) in the alga. The percentage of these metals distributing in the intracellular pool of algae also increased substantially with increasing ambient P concentrations. Nitrate addition from 5.0 to 200 {mu}mol l{sup -1} did not influence the uptake of any of the three metals, although a significant decrease in the intracellular Se distribution was observed. Radiolabeled algae under different nutrient manipulations (semi-continuous culture, starvation, and P-pulse treatments) were used to measure trophic transfer assimilation efficiency (AE) in Daphnia. When the algal cells were grown in a semi-continuous culture, starved for N and P, or were treated with P-pulse, the AEs of Cd and Zn were generally independent of the nutritional conditions, but the Se AE was significantly affected by different P levels. The efflux rate constants, determined during 10 d depuration following 7 days of dietary uptake, decreased significantly for Cd and Zn, but were relatively constant for Se with increasing P concentration. N-addition caused no effect on the metal efflux rate constants. P- or N-additions did not influence the release budget (including molting, neonates, excretion and feces) for all three elements in Daphnia. Our study indicated that phosphate enrichment may substantially increase metal uptake in green alga S. obliquus. Responses of trophic transfer in Daphnia to nutrient enrichment were metal specific. P-enrichment can possibly lead to considerable decrease on Se transfer from algae to zooplankton. - Phosphorous enrichment influences metal uptake by algae, but not transfer to a zooplankton grazer.

  5. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  6. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of 241 Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOKINETICS DETERMINATION METHODS FOR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN SOIL TO ENHANCE IN-SITU AND ON-SITE BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of biodegradation rates of organics in soil slurry and compacted soil systems is essential for evaluating the efficacy of bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soils. In this paper, a systematic protocol has been developed for evaluating bioknetic and transp...

  8. PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOKINETICS OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN DISPERSED, COMPACTED AND INTACT SOIL SYSTEMS TO ENHANCE IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of effective in situ and on-site bioremediation technologies can facilitate the cleanup of chemically-contaminated soil sites. Knowledge of biodegradation kinetics and bioavailability of organic pollutants can facilitate decisions on the efficacy of in situ and o...

  9. In vivo biokinetic and metabolic characterization of the {sup 68}Ga-labelled α5β1-selective peptidomimetic FR366

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessandria, Calogero; Pohle, Karolin; Schwaiger, Markus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Rechenmacher, Florian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Kessler, Horst [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) and Center of Integrated Protein Science (CIPSM), Department Chemie, Garching (Germany); Notni, Johannes; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Pharmazeutische Radiochemie, Garching (Germany); Beer, Ambros J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Ulm University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors responsible for cell-cell adhesion and cell-extracellular matrix binding and play an important role in angiogenesis and tumour metastasis. For this reason, integrins are increasingly used as targets for molecular imaging. Up to now interest has mostly been focused on the integrin subtype αvβ3. However, targeting of other subtypes such as the integrin α5β1 is also of high interest due to its central role in colonization of metastatic cells, resistance of tumour cells to chemotherapy and ionizing radiation, and tumour aggressiveness. Recently, a highly active antagonist ligand (2,2'-(7-(1-carboxy-4-((6-((3-(4-(((S)-1-carboxy-2-(2- (3-guanidinobenzamido)acet amido)ethyl)carbamoyl)-3,5-dimethylphenoxy) propyl)amino)-6-oxohexyl)amino)-4-oxo butyl)-1,4,7-triazonane-1,4-diyl)diacetic acid, FR366) for the integrin subtype α5β1 with high selectivity versus αvβ3, has been developed and tested successfully in preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments. Here, we present our results of an investigation of the use of {sup 68}Ga-labelled α5β1 ligand in PET imaging. The free α5β1 peptidomimetic ligand was functionalized with a spacer (6-aminohexanoic acid) and the bifunctional chelator 1-((1,3-dicarboxy)propyl) -4,7-(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (NODAGA) to yield FR366 and labelled with {sup 68}Ga. To confirm selective in vivo targeting of α5β1, female BALB/c nude mice xenografted with α5β1-expressing RKO cells in the right shoulder and α5β1/αvβ3-expressing M21 cells in the left shoulder were subjected to PET/CT scans and biodistribution experiments. Specificity of tracer uptake was proven by blocking studies. Metabolic stability of the injected tracer was measured in urine and in plasma. MicroPET/CT scans with radiolabelled FR366 showed a good tumour-to-normal tissue ratio with low uptake in the liver (0.32 ± 0.14 %ID/g) and good retention of {sup 68}Ga-NODAGA-FR366 in the tumour (0.71 ± 0.20 %ID/g and 0.40 ± 0.12 %ID/g for RKO and M21 tumours, respectively, at 90 min after injection). Biodistribution experiments showed uptake in the α5β1-expressing RKO tumour of 1.05 ± 0.23 %ID/g at 90 min after injection. Specificity of tracer uptake was demonstrated by injection of 5 mg/kg unlabelled ligand 10 min prior to tracer injection, resulting in a 67 % reduction in uptake in the RKO tumour. The tracer was found to be metabolically stable in urine and plasma 30 min after injection. Our results show that PET imaging of α5β1 expression with the {sup 68}Ga-labelled α5β1-specific ligand is feasible with good image quality. Thus, FR366 is a promising new tool for investigating the role of α5β1 in angiogenesis and the influence of this integrin subtype on cancer aggressiveness and metastatic potential. (orig.)

  10. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of 14 C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic 14 C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings

  11. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P.

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs

  12. Influence on dose coefficients for workers of the new metabolic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Parada, I.M.; Rojo, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently reviewed the biokinetic models used in the internal contamination dose assessment. ICRP has adopted a new model for the human respiratory tract and has updated, in ICRP Publications 56, 67 and 69, some of the biokinetic models of ICRP Publication 30. In this paper, the dose coefficients for some selected radionuclides issued in ICRP Publication 68 are compared with those obtained using the software LUPED (LUng Dose Evaluation Program). The former were calculated using the new systemic models, while the latter are based on the old metabolic models. The aim is to know to what extent the new models for systematic retention influence the dose coefficients for workers. (author) [es

  13. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P. (eds.)

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs.

  14. Influence of selecting secondary settling tank sub-models on the calibration of WWTP models – A global sensitivity analysis using BSM2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Sin, Gürkan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) model performance to the selection of one-dimensional secondary settling tanks (1-D SST) models with first-order and second-order mathematical structures. We performed a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) on the benchmark...... simulation model No.2 with the input uncertainty associated to the biokinetic parameters in the activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1), a fractionation parameter in the primary clarifier, and the settling parameters in the SST model. Based on the parameter sensitivity rankings obtained in this study......, the settling parameters were found to be as influential as the biokinetic parameters on the uncertainty of WWTP model predictions, particularly for biogas production and treated water quality. However, the sensitivity measures were found to be dependent on the 1-D SST models selected. Accordingly, we suggest...

  15. Paper based electronics platform

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna Mohammad; Sevilla, Galo Andres Torres; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors

  16. DOSE210, A Semi-empirical Model for Prediction of Organ Distribution and Radiation Doses from Long Term Exposure to 210Pb and 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, P.L.; Bondarenko, O.A.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The DOSE210 model is an internal dosimetric model for 210 Pb and 210 Po which is based on current ICRP generic models. It is constrained and validated by reference to up-to-date published biokinetic data for both nuclides. The model has been validated primarily in regard to the relation between levels of chronic lifetime intake and organ concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po. To this end some adjustments to current ICRP biokinetic parameters have been made. The most substantial changes have been made to bone surface biokinetics of 210 Pb and 210 Po to reflect recent experimental studies on the microdistribution and radioactive equilibrium of these nuclides in bone, as well as measurements in biopsied human red bone marrow. An important dosimetric prediction of DOSE210 is a substantially lower dose to skeletal tissues from internal 210 Pb and 210 Po than that predicted by the current ICRP model. The most significant dose component predicted from lifetime environmental exposure to 210 Pb and 210 Po is the alpha dose to liver and kidney in infancy. Recycling of historic intakes of 210 Pb in the adult, principally from bone, is calculated to account for 22% of 210 Pb present in the plasma. (author)

  17. The physics data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The physics data base is introduced along with its associated data base management system. The emphasis is on data and their use and a classification of data and of data bases is developed to distinguish compilation organizations. The characteristics of these organizations are examined briefly and the long term consequences of the physics data base discussed. (orig.)

  18. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  19. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  20. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  1. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  2. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  3. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  4. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  5. Stolen Base Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting, the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The…

  6. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  7. Cholinesterase-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cholinesterase-based biosensors are widely used for assaying anticholinergic compounds. Primarily biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful analytical tools for fast screening of inhibitors, such as organophosphates and carbamates. The present review is aimed at compilation of the most important facts about cholinesterase based biosensors, types of physico-chemical transduction, immobilization strategies and practical applications.

  8. ARAC terrain data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.

    1982-11-01

    A terrain data base covering the continental United States at 500-meter resolution has been generated. Its function is to provide terrain data for input to mesoscale atmospheric models that are used as part of the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL). The structure of the data base as it exists on the LLNL computer system is described. The data base has been written to tapes for transfer to other systems and the format of these tapes is also described

  9. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  10. Value-based pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  11. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ...) to increase competitive advantage, innovation, and mission effectiveness. Network-based effectiveness occurs due to the influence of various factors such as people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  12. Case-based reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolodner, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Case-based reasoning is one of the fastest growing areas in the field of knowledge-based systems and this book, authored by a leader in the field, is the first comprehensive text on the subject. Case-based reasoning systems are systems that store information about situations in their memory. As new problems arise, similar situations are searched out to help solve these problems. Problems are understood and inferences are made by finding the closest cases in memory, comparing and contrasting the problem with those cases, making inferences based on those comparisons, and asking questions whe

  13. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  14. Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) is a compilation of emissions measurement and monitoring techniques associated with air pollution control devices, industrial...

  15. Imagery Data Base Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Imagery Data Base Facility supports AFRL and other government organizations by providing imagery interpretation and analysis to users for data selection, imagery...

  16. Game-Based Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines theoretical and empirical perspectives on how Game-Based Teaching can be integrated within the context of formal schooling. Initially, this is done by describing game scenarios as models for possible actions that need to be translated into curricular knowledge practices...... approaches to game-based teaching, which may or may not correspond with the pedagogical models of particular games....

  17. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  18. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a

  19. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  20. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  1. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  2. Office-based anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection, and consistency in nursing personnel. In the USA 17 -. 24% of all elective ambulatory surgery is ... knowledge base or personality to deal with the OBA environment. Compared with hospitals, office-based facilities currently ... disease or major cardiovascular risk factors). Intravenous access via a flexible cannula is.

  3. Knowledge base mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H

    1982-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.

  4. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  5. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  6. Skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base

  7. Design-Based Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove; Petersen, Trine Brun

    2012-01-01

    I denne artikel introduceres Design Based Research for første gang på dansk i et videnskabeligt tidsskrift. Artiklen præsenterer de grundlæggende antagelser, som ligger til grund for Design Based Research-traditionen, og artiklen diskuterer de principper, som ligger til grund for gennemførelse af...... et DBR-forskningsprojekt. Med udgangspunkt i forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet ELYK: E-læring, Yderområder og Klyngedannelse, præsenteres den innovationsmodel, som projektet har udviklet med udgangspunkt i Design Based Research traditionen. ELYKs DBR innovationsmodel har vist sig effektiv i forhold...

  8. Nature-based integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Oratuomi, Joose; Hellgren, Daniela

    Increased attention to, and careful planning of the integration of migrants into Nordic societies is ever more important. Nature based integration is a new solution to respond to this need. This report presents the results of a Nordic survey and workshop and illustrates current practices of nature...... based integration by case study descriptions from Denmark, Sweden Norway and Finland. Across Nordic countries several practical projects and initiatives have been launched to promote the benefits of nature in integration and there is also growing academic interest in the topic. Nordic countries have...... the potential of becoming real forerunners in nature based integration even at the global scale....

  9. Data base management study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  10. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  11. QuickBase

    CERN Document Server

    Conner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Ready to put Intuit's QuickBase to work? Our new Missing Manual shows you how to capture, modify, share, and manage data and documents with this web-based data-sharing program quickly and easily. No longer do you have to coordinate your team through a blizzard of emails or play frustrating games of "guess which document is the right one."QuickBase saves your organization time and money, letting you manage and share the information that makes your business tick: sales figures, project timelines, drafts of documents, purchase or work requests--whatever information you need to keep business flowi

  12. Cheboygan Vessel Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Cheboygan Vessel Base (CVB), located in Cheboygan, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). CVB was established by congressional...

  13. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  14. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  15. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  16. Kelomehele preemia Baseli festivalil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Baselis festivalil "VIPER - International Festival for Film Video and New Media" tunnistati parimaks CD-ROMiks Gustav Deutschi/Anna Schimeki "Odysee today", netiprojektiks itaallaste "01.ORG", äramärkimispreemia - Raivo Kelomehe "Videoweaver"

  17. Risk based modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, O.J.V.; Baker, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Risk based analysis is a tool becoming available to both engineers and managers to aid decision making concerning plant matters such as In-Service Inspection (ISI). In order to develop a risk based method, some form of Structural Reliability Risk Assessment (SRRA) needs to be performed to provide a probability of failure ranking for all sites around the plant. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can then be carried out to combine these possible events with the capability of plant safety systems and procedures, to establish the consequences of failure for the sites. In this way the probability of failures are converted into a risk based ranking which can be used to assist the process of deciding which sites should be included in an ISI programme. This paper reviews the technique and typical results of a risk based ranking assessment carried out for nuclear power plant pipework. (author)

  18. Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik; Guerra, Aida

    , the key principles remain the same everywhere. Graaff & Kolmos (2003) identify the main PBL principles as follows: 1. Problem orientation 2. Project organization through teams or group work 3. Participant-directed 4. Experiental learning 5. Activity-based learning 6. Interdisciplinary learning and 7...... model and in general problem based and project based learning. We apply the principle of teach as you preach. The poster aims to outline the visitors’ workshop programme showing the results of some recent evaluations.......Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative method to organize the learning process in such a way that the students actively engage in finding answers by themselves. During the past 40 years PBL has evolved and diversified resulting in a multitude in variations in models and practices. However...

  19. Biomimetics: nature based innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    "Based on the concept that nature offers numerous sources of inspiration for inventions related to mechanisms, materials, processes, and algorithms, this book covers the topic of biomimetics and the inspired innovation...

  20. BaseMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The goal of this project is to provide a convenient base map that can be used as a starting point for CA projects. It's simple, but designed to work at a number of...

  1. PHENANTHROLINE TEMPLATED SCHIFF BASE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA in intercalative mode and in the development of unique chemotherapeutics where they impact on the ... between base pairs of DNA. .... h, i, j, k belong to fragmentation products of impap. ..... Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA. Bull.

  2. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  3. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  4. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of con...

  5. Game-based telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B; Flynn, Sheryl M; Rizzo, A A

    2009-03-01

    This article summarizes the recent accomplishments and current challenges facing game-based virtual reality (VR) telerehabilitation. Specifically this article addresses accomplishments relative to realistic practice scenarios, part to whole practice, objective measurement of performance and progress, motivation, low cost, interaction devices and game design. Furthermore, a description of the current challenges facing game based telerehabilitation including the packaging, internet capabilities and access, data management, technical support, privacy protection, seizures, distance trials, scientific scrutiny and support from insurance companies.

  6. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  7. Swarm-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Oldenburg, Jan

    2013-09-19

    Occasionally, medical decisions have to be taken in the absence of evidence-based guidelines. Other sources can be drawn upon to fill in the gaps, including experience and intuition. Authorities or experts, with their knowledge and experience, may provide further input--known as "eminence-based medicine". Due to the Internet and digital media, interactions among physicians now take place at a higher rate than ever before. With the rising number of interconnected individuals and their communication capabilities, the medical community is obtaining the properties of a swarm. The way individual physicians act depends on other physicians; medical societies act based on their members. Swarm behavior might facilitate the generation and distribution of knowledge as an unconscious process. As such, "swarm-based medicine" may add a further source of information to the classical approaches of evidence- and eminence-based medicine. How to integrate swarm-based medicine into practice is left to the individual physician, but even this decision will be influenced by the swarm.

  8. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  9. LDEF materials data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  10. Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

    2007-06-11

    measurement. The amount of {sup 137}Cs detected is often reported in activity units of kilo-Becquerel (kBq), where 1 kBq equals 1000 Bq and 1 Bq = 1 nuclear transformation per second (t s{sup -1}). [However, in the United States the Curie (Ci) continues to be used as the unit of radioactivity; where 1 Ci = 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq.] The detection of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in bioassay (urine) samples indicates the presence of internally deposited (systemic) plutonium in the body. Urine samples that are collected in the Marshall Islands from volunteers participating in the RSMP are transported to LLNL, where measurements for {sup 239+240}Pu are performed using a state-of-the-art technology based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) (Hamilton et al., 2004, 2007; Brown et al., 2004). The urinary excretion of plutonium by RSMP volunteers is usually described in activity units, expressed as micro-Becquerel ({micro}Bq) of {sup 239+240}Pu (i.e., representing the sum of the {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu activity) excreted (lost) per day (d{sup -1}), where 1 {micro}Bq d{sup -1} = 10{sup -6} Bq d{sup -1} and 1 Bq = 1 t s{sup -1}. The systemic burden of plutonium is then estimated from biokinetic relationships as described by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (e.g., see ICRP, 1990). In general, nuclear transformations are accompanied by the emission of energy and/or particles in the form of gamma rays ({gamma}), beta particles ({beta}), and/or alpha particles ({alpha}). Tissues in the human body may adsorb these emissions, where there is a potential for any deposited energy to cause biological damage. The general term used to quantify the extent of any radiation exposure is referred to as the dose. The equivalent dose is defined by the average absorbed dose in an organ or tissue weighted by the average quality factor for the type and energy of the emission causing the dose. The effective dose equivalent (EDE; as applied to the whole body), is the sum of the average

  11. Paper based electronics platform

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna Mohammad

    2017-07-20

    A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors are provided. A method of producing a paper based sensor can include the steps of: a) providing a conventional paper product to serve as a substrate for the sensor or as an active material for the sensor or both, the paper product not further treated or functionalized; and b) applying a sensing element to the paper substrate, the sensing element selected from the group consisting of a conductive material, the conductive material providing contacts and interconnects, sensitive material film that exhibits sensitivity to pH levels, a compressible and/or porous material disposed between a pair of opposed conductive elements, or a combination of two of more said sensing elements. The method of sensing can further include measuring, using the sensing element, a change in resistance, a change in voltage, a change in current, a change in capacitance, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  12. Gossip-Based Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Roy; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Miranda, Hugo; Rodrigues, Luís

    Gossip-based networking has emerged as a viable approach to disseminate information reliably and efficiently in large-scale systems. Initially introduced for database replication [222], the applicability of the approach extends much further now. For example, it has been applied for data aggregation [415], peer sampling [416] and publish/subscribe systems [845]. Gossip-based protocols rely on a periodic peer-wise exchange of information in wired systems. By changing the way each peer is selected for the gossip communication, and which data are exchanged and processed [451], gossip systems can be used to perform different distributed tasks, such as, among others: overlay maintenance, distributed computation, and information dissemination (a collection of papers on gossip can be found in [451]). In a wired setting, the peer sampling service, allowing for a random or specific peer selection, is often provided as an independent service, able to operate independently from other gossip-based services [416].

  13. Iron-based superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Peter D; Yin, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents an in-depth review of experimental and theoretical studies on the newly discovered Fe-based superconductors.  Following the Introduction, which places iron-based superconductors in the context of other unconventional superconductors, the book is divided into three sections covering sample growth, experimental characterization, and theoretical understanding.  To understand the complex structure-property relationships of these materials, results from a wide range of experimental techniques and theoretical approaches are described that probe the electronic and magnetic proper

  14. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... meeting customer needs. We are suggesting that the effects of the use of a system should play a prominent role in the contractual definition of IT projects and that contract fulfilment should be determined on the basis of evidence of these effects. Based on two ongoing studies of home-care management...

  15. Video-based rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A

    2005-01-01

    Driven by consumer-market applications that enjoy steadily increasing economic importance, graphics hardware and rendering algorithms are a central focus of computer graphics research. Video-based rendering is an approach that aims to overcome the current bottleneck in the time-consuming modeling process and has applications in areas such as computer games, special effects, and interactive TV. This book offers an in-depth introduction to video-based rendering, a rapidly developing new interdisciplinary topic employing techniques from computer graphics, computer vision, and telecommunication en

  16. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  17. Inkjet-based micromanufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Korvink, Jan G; Shin, Dong-Youn; Brand, Oliver; Fedder, Gary K; Hierold, Christofer; Tabata, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Inkjet-based Micromanufacturing Inkjet technology goes way beyond putting ink on paper: it enables simpler, faster and more reliable manufacturing processes in the fields of micro- and nanotechnology. Modern inkjet heads are per se precision instruments that deposit droplets of fluids on a variety of surfaces in programmable, repeating patterns, allowing, after suitable modifications and adaptations, the manufacturing of devices such as thin-film transistors, polymer-based displays and photovoltaic elements. Moreover, inkjet technology facilitates the large-scale production of flexible RFID tr

  18. On multivariate Wilson bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    A Wilson system is a collection of finite linear combinations of time frequency shifts of a square integrable function. In this paper we give an account of the construction of bimodular Wilson bases in higher dimensions from Gabor frames of redundancy two.......A Wilson system is a collection of finite linear combinations of time frequency shifts of a square integrable function. In this paper we give an account of the construction of bimodular Wilson bases in higher dimensions from Gabor frames of redundancy two....

  19. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical

  20. EPICS based DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weixing; Chen Yongzhong; Zhou Weimin; Ye Kairong; Liu Dekang

    2002-01-01

    EPICS is the most popular developing platform to build control system and beam diagnostic system in modern physics experiment facilities. An EPICS based data acquisition system was built in Redhat 6.2 operation system. The system is successfully used in the beam position monitor mapping, it improves the mapping process a lot

  1. Scenario-based strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehr, Thomas; Lorenz, Ullrich; Willert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    -based efficacy and robustness. To facilitate the colla- borative strategizing in teams, we propose a matrix with robustness and efficacy as the two axes, which we call the Parmenides Matrix. We assess the impact of the novel approach by applying it in two cases, at a govern- mental agency (German Environmental...

  2. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  3. Web Based VRML Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Sarfraz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a method to connect VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java components in a Web page using EAI (External Authoring Interface), which makes it possible to interactively generate and edit VRML meshes. The meshes used are based on regular grids, to provide an interaction and modeling

  4. Surfel Based Geometry Resonstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method for retrieving a piecewise smooth surface from noisy data. In data acquired by a scanning process sampled points are almost never on the discontinuities making reconstruction of surfaces with sharp features difficult. Our method is based on a Markov Random Field (MRF) formulat...

  5. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  6. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    -makers and the research community (e.g. Boden & Epstein 2006; House of Commons 2006; Cartwright et al 2009; Rod 2010; Vohnsen 2011). This article intends to draw out some general pitfalls in the curious meeting of science and politics by focusing on a particular attempt to make evidence-based legislation in Denmark (for...

  7. Project-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcik, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Project-based science is an exciting way to teach science that aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). By focusing on core ideas along with practices and crosscutting concepts, classrooms become learning environments where teachers and students engage in science by designing and carrying out…

  8. Financing Competency Based Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Annette

    Literature on the background, causes, and current prevalence of competency based programs is synthesized in this report. According to one analysis of the actual and probable costs of minimum competency testing, estimated costs for test development, test administration, bureaucratic structures, and remedial programs for students who cannot pass the…

  9. Computer Based Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, James D.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    Claims knowledge-based expert computer systems can meet needs of rural schools for affordable expert advice and support and will play an important role in the future of rural education. Describes potential applications in prediction, interpretation, diagnosis, remediation, planning, monitoring, and instruction. (NEC)

  10. Community-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of healthcare options ... day care centers are either in churches or community centers. Adult day care is commonly used to care for people who ...

  11. Polymer based tunneling sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tianhong (Inventor); Wang, Jing (Inventor); Zhao, Yongjun (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a polymer based circuit by the following steps. A mold of a design is formed through a lithography process. The design is transferred to a polymer substrate through a hot embossing process. A metal layer is then deposited over at least part of said design and at least one electrical lead is connected to said metal layer.

  12. Evidence-based guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovira, Àlex; Wattjes, Mike P; Tintoré, Mar

    2015-01-01

    diagnosis in patients with MS. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the implementation of MRI of the brain and spinal cord in the diagnosis of patients who are suspected of having MS. These guidelines are based on an extensive review of the recent literature, as well as on the personal...

  13. School Based Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  14. Internet based benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the design of interactive, internet based benchmarking using parametric (statistical) as well as nonparametric (DEA) models. The user receives benchmarks and improvement potentials. The user is also given the possibility to search different efficiency frontiers and hereby to explore...

  15. Problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Sofie; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Loyens, S. M. M., Kirschner, P. A., & Paas, F. (2011). Problem-based learning. In S. Graham (Editor-in-Chief), A. Bus, S. Major, & L. Swanson (Associate Editors), APA educational psychology handbook: Vol. 3. Application to learning and teaching (pp. 403-425). Washington, DC: American Psychological

  16. Base tree property

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcar, B.; Doucha, Michal; Hrušák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-81 ISSN 0167-8094 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : forcing * Boolean algebras * base tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11083-013-9316-2

  17. unsymmetrical Schiff base complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the effect of the substitutional groups of the Schiff base on the oxidation and reduction potentials, we used ... Electrochemistry of these complexes showed that the presence of electron .... a solution of the ligand (1 mmol) in methanol (15 mL).

  18. Home-based care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. Patience Edoho Samson-Akpan

    study was to ascertain the relationship between home-based care and quality of life of PLWHA in support groups in. Calabar South Local Government Area. A correlational design was utilized and a purposive sample of 74 PLWHA participated in the study. A self developed and well validated questionnaire was used for data ...

  19. Mutually unbiased bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mutually unbiased bases play an important role in quantum cryptography [2] and in the optimal determination of the density operator of an ensemble [3,4]. A density operator ρ in N-dimensions depends on N2 1 real quantities. With the help of MUB's, any such density operator can be encoded, in an optimal way, in terms of ...

  20. Scenario-based strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehr, Thomas; Lorenz, Ullrich; Willert, Markus

    2017-01-01

    For over 40 years, scenarios have been promoted as a key technique for forming strategies in uncertain en- vironments. However, many challenges remain. In this article, we discuss a novel approach designed to increase the applicability of scenario-based strategizing in top management teams. Drawi...... Ministry) and a firm affected by disruptive change (Bosch, leading global supplier of technology and solutions)....

  1. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  2. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  3. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Martini, C.; Boumans, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce "rational consensus", that is, "mathematical aggregation", by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  4. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce “rational consensus”, that is, “mathematical aggregation”, by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  5. Animation-based Sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This thesis is based on the results of a three-year long PhD-study at the Department of Communication and Psychology at Aalborg University. The thesis consist of five original papers, a book manuscript, as well as a linking text with the thesis’ research questions, research design, and summary...

  6. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  7. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  8. Schiff base ligand

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Low-temperature stoichiometric Schiff base reaction in air in 3 : 1 mole ratio between benz- aldehyde and triethylenetetramine (trien) in methanol yields a novel tetraaza µ-bis(bidentate) acyclic ligand L. It was .... electrochemical work was performed as reported in ..... change in ligand shape through change in oxidation.

  9. ISFET based enzyme sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, Bart H.; Bergveld, Piet

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the results that have been reported on ISFET based enzyme sensors. The most important improvement that results from the application of ISFETs instead of glass membrane electrodes is in the method of fabrication. Problems with regard to the pH dependence of the response and the

  10. Microcontroller base process emulator

    OpenAIRE

    Jovrea Titus Claudiu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a microcontroller base emulator for a conventional industrial process. The emulator is made with microcontroller and is used for testing and evaluating the performances of the industrial regulators. The parameters of the emulated process are fully customizable online and downloadable thru a serial communication from a personal computer.

  11. REST based service composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an aim...

  12. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  13. Integrated Case Based and Rule Based Reasoning for Decision Support

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Azeb Bekele

    2009-01-01

    This project is a continuation of my specialization project which was focused on studying theoretical concepts related to case based reasoning method, rule based reasoning method and integration of them. The integration of rule-based and case-based reasoning methods has shown a substantial improvement with regards to performance over the individual methods. Verdande Technology As wants to try integrating the rule based reasoning method with an existing case based system. This project focu...

  14. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  15. Sparse approximation with bases

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  16. Problem Based Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various ...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games.......At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...

  17. Technology based Education System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kant Hiran, Kamal; Doshi, Ruchi; Henten, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Abstract - Education plays a very important role for the development of the country. Education has multiple dimensions from schooling to higher education and research. In all these domains, there is invariably a need for technology based teaching and learning tools are highly demanded in the acad......Abstract - Education plays a very important role for the development of the country. Education has multiple dimensions from schooling to higher education and research. In all these domains, there is invariably a need for technology based teaching and learning tools are highly demanded...... in the academic institutions. Thus, there is a need of comprehensive technology support system to cater the demands of all educational actors. Cloud Computing is one such comprehensive and user-friendly technology support environment that is the need of an hour. Cloud computing is the emerging technology that has...

  18. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  19. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A. [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  20. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  1. Fusion safety data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; Hardy, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this Fusion Safety Data Base Program is to provide a repository of data for the design and development of safe commercial fusion reactors. The program is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy. The function of the program is to collect, examine, permanently store, and make available the safety data to the entire US magnetic-fusion energy community. The sources of data will include domestic and foreign fusion reactor safety-related research programs. Any participant in the DOE Program may use the Data Base Program from his terminal through user friendly dialog and can view the contents in the form of text, tables, graphs, or system diagrams

  2. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  3. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...

  4. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  5. Carbon Nanotube based Nanotechnolgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M.

    2000-10-01

    Carbon nanotube(CNT) was discovered in the early 1990s and is an off-spring of C60(the fullerene or buckyball). CNT, depending on chirality and diameter, can be metallic or semiconductor and thus allows formation of metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor junctions. CNT exhibits extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties and offers remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing and data storage technology, sensors, composites, storage of hydrogen or lithium for battery development, nanoelectromechanical systems(NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy(SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. A common growth method now is based on CVD though surface catalysis is key to synthesis, in contrast to many CVD applications common in microelectronics. A plasma based variation is gaining some attention. This talk will provide an overview of CNT properties, growth methods, applications, and research challenges and opportunities ahead.

  6. Spintronics-based computing

    CERN Document Server

    Prenat, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to spintronics-based computing for the next generation of ultra-low power/highly reliable logic, which is widely considered a promising candidate to replace conventional, pure CMOS-based logic. It will cover aspects from device to system-level, including magnetic memory cells, device modeling, hybrid circuit structure, design methodology, CAD tools, and technological integration methods. This book is accessible to a variety of readers and little or no background in magnetism and spin electronics are required to understand its content.  The multidisciplinary team of expert authors from circuits, devices, computer architecture, CAD and system design reveal to readers the potential of spintronics nanodevices to reduce power consumption, improve reliability and enable new functionality.  .

  7. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  8. Luxury-based Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Kuwahara

    2006-01-01

    Assuming that there exists a preference for luxury goods and a knowledge spillover from luxury goods production to goods production, this paper constructs an endogenous economic growth model. The model predicts two steady states: one is a steady positive growth state with regard to luxury goods production, and the other is a zero growth state in the absence of luxury goods production. Thus, this study examines the polarization of economies based on luxury goods consumption

  9. Base Stability of Aminocyclopropeniums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory Weapons and Materials Research Directorate (ATTN: RDRL-WMM-G) 2800 Powder...Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-8204 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...fuel cells to test their utility in anion exchange membranes. While the aminocyclopropeniums showed poor base stability, the cyclopropenium cation

  10. Granular loess classification based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess

  11. Educational Process Material Base

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Ozerova; Irina Zabaturina; Vera Kuznetsova; Galina Kovaleva

    2012-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by the Institute for Statistical Studies and the Economics of Knowledge, National Research University - Higher School of Economics Olga Ozerova - Head of the Department for Statistics of Education, Institute for Statistical Studies and the Economics of Knowledge, National Research University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: Address: 18 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.Irina Zabaturina - senior resea...

  12. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical properties. Therefore, a detailed understanding of such organisation processes is essential for the optimisation of the performance of these materials as applied in optoelectronic devices. In order to...

  13. Graphene-based Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Electrodes were fabricated by drop casting solutions containing the graphene oxide (GO)/CNT/MnAc materials onto titanium (Ti) or stainless steel current...silicon carbide (SiC) substrate can induce a splitting of up to 0.3 eV between the maximum of the valence and minimum of the conduction bands at the...simultaneously hinders the formation of multilayer graphene domains. These results are based on a diffusion-segregation model for carbon precipitation on a Ni

  14. Spiritual-based Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruzan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although far from mainstream, the concept of spiritual-based leadership is emerging as an inclusive and yet highly personal approach to leadership that integrates a leader’s inner perspectives on identity, purpose, responsibility and success with her or his decisions and actions in the outer world...... of business—and therefore it is also emerging as a significant framework for understanding, practicing, communicating and teaching the art and profession of leadership....

  15. Arduino based laser control

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Muñoz, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    ARDUINO is a vey usefull platform for prototypes. In this project ARDUINO will be used for controling a Semiconductor Tuneable Laser. [ANGLÈS] Diode laser for communications control based on an Arduino board. Temperature control implementation. Software and hardware protection for the laser implementation. [CASTELLÀ] Control de un láser de comunicaciones ópticas desde el ordenador utilizando una placa Arduino. Implementación de un control de temperatura y protección software y hardware ...

  16. Design bases - Concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Llanos Ros, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most suitable title for Section 2 is 'Design Bases', which covers not only calculation but also the following areas: - Structural design concepts. - Project criteria. - Material specifications. These concepts are developed in more detail in the following sections. The numbering in this document is neither complete nor hierarchical since, for easier cross referencing, it corresponds to the paragraphs of Eurocode 2 Part 1 (hereinafter 'EUR-2') which are commented on. (author)

  17. Biosphere data base revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Andersson, K.; Sundblad, B.

    1985-12-01

    The turnover of long-lived radionuclides in the biosphere has been modelled some time ago and the exposure to man was calculated. The nuclides were long-lived actinides and fission products leaking from a simulated deep rock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The data base for these calculations has been updated in the present work and in addition a number of nuclides that were not included in the earlier work have been treated. (G.B.)

  18. Air Force Smart Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    initiates notification to all personnel on the base, the giant voice announces a lock down, everyone’s smart device shows an alarm requesting...location of the detected sound, they easily find a hunter and send his picture back to the IOC, where the hunter’s identity is verified through facial...computer goes into sleep mode, the thermostat goes back to unoccupied mode and his door locks as he walks through. Meanwhile over in the IOC

  19. Polypeptide based hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Hanay, Saltuk

    2018-01-01

    There is a need for biocompatible, biodegradable, 3-D printable and stable hydrogels especially in the areas of tissue engineering, drug delivery, bio-sensing technologies and antimicrobial coatings. The main aim of this Ph.D. work was to fabricate polypeptide based hydrogel which may find a potential application in those fields. Focusing on tyrosine or tryptophan-containing copolypeptides prepared by NCarboxyanhydride (NCA) polymerizations, three different crosslinking strategies have been t...

  20. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  1. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  2. As bases do petismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Samuels

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir dos dados do ESEB de 2002 o autor realiza um estudo das bases eleitorais do PT e de hipóteses sobre a natureza do petismo. Através de técnicas estatísticas multivariadas, são testadas relações do petismo com variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e variáveis relativas a questões políticas específicas. Os resultados apontam que apenas a escolaridade tem uma associação específica com o petismo, com implicações para o seu comportamento sócio-político.Based on the results of the 2002 Brazilian Electoral Study, the author analyses the electoral bases of the Worker´s Party and the factors associated with the "petismo". The relationships between the "petismo"and the socioeconomic, demographic and political variables are tested using multivariate analysis. The results indicate that the only "social category"associated with "petismo"is level of education, and it has clear implications to their social and political behavior.

  3. Value-based genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Pan, Kathy; Fakih, Marwan; Pal, Sumanta; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-03-20

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing have greatly enhanced the development of biomarker-driven cancer therapies. The affordability and availability of next-generation sequencers have allowed for the commercialization of next-generation sequencing platforms that have found widespread use for clinical-decision making and research purposes. Despite the greater availability of tumor molecular profiling by next-generation sequencing at our doorsteps, the achievement of value-based care, or improving patient outcomes while reducing overall costs or risks, in the era of precision oncology remains a looming challenge. In this review, we highlight available data through a pre-established and conceptualized framework for evaluating value-based medicine to assess the cost (efficiency), clinical benefit (effectiveness), and toxicity (safety) of genomic profiling in cancer care. We also provide perspectives on future directions of next-generation sequencing from targeted panels to whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing and describe potential strategies needed to attain value-based genomics.

  4. Nanoplatform-based molecular imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    "Nanoplathform-Based Molecular Imaging provides rationale for using nanoparticle-based probes for molecular imaging, then discusses general strategies for this underutilized, yet promising, technology...

  5. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of 60Co in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, J.Q. de; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    60 Co is a fission product of 235 U and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers in nuclear power plants, especially those involved in the maintenance of potentially contaminated parts and equipment. The control of 60 Co intake by inhalation can be performed through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the evaluation of a technique through the minimum detectable activity and the corresponding minimum detectable effective doses, based on biokinetic and dosimetric models of 60 Co in the human body. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  6. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of {sup 60}Co in the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J.Q. de; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    {sup 60}Co is a fission product of {sup 235}U and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers in nuclear power plants, especially those involved in the maintenance of potentially contaminated parts and equipment. The control of {sup 60}Co intake by inhalation can be performed through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the evaluation of a technique through the minimum detectable activity and the corresponding minimum detectable effective doses, based on biokinetic and dosimetric models of {sup 60}Co in the human body. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  7. Conjugate whole-body scanning system for quantitative measurement of organ distribution in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.M.W.; Chen, C.T.; Yasillo, N.J.; Ortega, C.J.; Charleston, D.B.; Lathrop, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of accurate, quantitative, biokinetic distribution of an internally dispersed radionuclide in humans is important in making realistic radiation absorbed dose estimates, studying biochemical transformations in health and disease, and developing clinical procedures indicative of abnormal functions. In order to collect these data, a whole-body imaging system is required which provides both adequate spatial resolution and some means of absolute quantitation. Based on these considerations, a new whole-body scanning system has been designed and constructed that employs the conjugate counting technique. The conjugate whole-body scanning system provides an efficient and accurate means of collecting absolute quantitative organ distribution data of radioactivity in vivo

  8. Exposure implications for uranium aerosols formed at a new laser enrichment facility: application of the ICRP Respiratory Tract and Systemic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansorbolo, E.; Hodgson, A.; Stradling, G.N.; Hodgson, S.; Metivier, H.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Jarvis, N.S.; Birchall, A

    1998-07-01

    A pilot enrichment facility developed in France employs laser technology. The development of this process has resulted in three different types of aerosols identified as variable mixtures of U{sub metal}+ UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. A procedure is described for assessing intakes and doses after inhalation of these dusts using site and material specific data in conjunction with the most recent ICRP biokinetic models. It is concluded that exposure control could be based on either radiotoxicity or chemical toxicity and that chest monitoring and urine assay could be useful, provided that measurements are made soon after a known acute intake. (author)

  9. Polyolefin-Based Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Kyun; Gould, George

    2012-01-01

    An organic polybutadiene (PB) rubberbased aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection, exhibiting the flexibility, resiliency, toughness, and durability typical of the parent polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with the aerogels. The rubbery behaviors of the PB rubber-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogel insulation materials. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structure, the PB rubber aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. Since PB rubber aerogels also exhibit good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure, they will provide better performance reliability and durability as well as simpler, more economic, and environmentally friendly production over the conventional silica or other inorganic-based aerogels, which require chemical treatment to make them hydrophobic. Inorganic aerogels such as silica aerogels demonstrate many unusual and useful properties. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust toward handling in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain applications. Although the cross-linked organic aerogels such as resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient

  10. Characteristics Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  11. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  12. Knowledge based Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, John

    This book is dedicated enterprising people with a technical or a scientific background who consider commercializing ideas and inventions within their field of expertise via a new business activity or a new company. It aims at distilling experiences from many successful and not so successful start......-up ventures from the Technical University of Denmark, 1988 – 2008 into practical, portable knowledge that can be used by future knowledge-based entrepreneurs to set up new companies efficiently or to stay away from it; to do what’s needed and avoid the pitfalls....

  13. Polymerization Using Phosphazene Bases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2015-09-01

    In the recent rise of metal-free polymerization techniques, organic phosphazene superbases have shown their remarkable strength as promoter/catalyst for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. Generally, the complexation of phosphazene base with the counterion (proton or lithium cation) significantly improves the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain end resulting in highly enhanced polymerization rates, as compared with conventional metalbased initiating systems. In this chapter, the general features of phosphazenepromoted/catalyzed polymerizations and the applications in macromolecular engineering (synthesis of functionalized polymers, block copolymers, and macromolecular architectures) are discussed with challenges and perspectives being pointed out.

  14. Web Based Customized Design

    OpenAIRE

    Moi, Morten Benestad

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the methods needed to create a web based application to remotely customize a CAD model. This includes customizing a CAD model by using a graphical user interface to be able to remotely control the inputs to- and outputs from the model in NX, and to get the result sent back to the user. Using CAD systems such as NX requires intensive training, is often a slow process and gives a lot of room for errors. An intuitive, simple user interface will eliminate the need for CAD trai...

  15. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception of and be...... possible. The practical contribution is my creation of the LBG Visions of Sara. People continue to play this game in Odense more than two years after its launch, and DJEEO uses it as a showcase, enabling the company to sell similar LBGs....

  16. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BASED GRANSHLAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NETESA M. I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Concrete advisable to obtain a low strength with local secondary resources for recycling and reduce the environmental burden on the environment. But it is important to design such concrete compositions with a reduced flow of cement. It is known that the coefficient of efficiency of use of cement in the concrete of the heavy and B10 is less than about 0.5, which is almost two times smaller than in class B15 concrete and above. Even lower coefficient of efficiency in light concrete cement low strength. Therefore, it is important to find patterns determining the composition of lightweight concrete based on local-products industry with more efficient use of cement in them. Purpose.. Based on the analysis of earlier research results, including with the use of methods of mathematical planning of experiments to determine the concrete contents, which can provide the requirements for the underlying layers of the floor, the compressive strength of which should correspond to the class B5. It is important to provide the required strength at minimum flow of the cement, which is the most expensive and energy-intensive part of concrete. Conclusion. Analysis of the test results of control samples of concrete in 28-day-old, the following laws. The required tensile strength of concrete compressive strength of 7.0 MPa can be obtained in the test range when used in formulations as a filler as the Dnieper hydroelectric power station fly ash and tailings Krivoy Rog iron ore YuGOK. To ensure providing the required characteristic strength of the concrete in the underlying layers of the floor is advisable to use a nominal composition per cubic meter of concrete: cement 160 kg granshlaka Plant named after Petrovsky, 675 kg of fly ash Dnieper HPP 390 kg, 400 kg of sand, 230 liters of water. Thus, while ensuring rational grain composition components can obtain the desired strength lightweight concrete based granshlaka plant Petrovsky, using as fillers

  17. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Met, Ö; Svane, I M

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... to transiently affect in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  19. WAP - based telemedicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, K.; Zhang, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the utilization of telecommunication technology for medical diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. Its aim is to provide expert-based health care to remote sites through telecommunication and information technologies. The significant advances in technologies have enabled the introduction of a broad range of telemedicine applications, which are supported by computer networks, wireless communication, and information superhighway. For example, some hospitals are using tele-radiology for remote consultation. Such a system includes medical imaging devices networked with computers and databases. Another growing area is patient monitoring, in which sensors are used to acquire biomedical signals, such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and body temperature, from a remote patient, who could be in bed or moving freely. The signals are then relayed to remote systems for viewing and analysis. Telemedicine can be divided into two basic modes of operations: real-time mode, in which the patient data can be accessed remotely in real-time, and store-and-forward mode, in which the acquired data does not have to be accessed immediately. In the recent years, many parties have demonstrated various telemedicine applications based on the Internet and cellular phone as these two fields have been developing rapidly. A current, recognizable trend in telecommunication is the convergence of wireless communication and computer network technologies. This has been reflected in recently developed telemedicine systems. For example, in 1998 J. Reponen, et al. have demonstrated transmission and display of computerized tomography (CT) examinations using a remote portable computer wirelessly connected to a computer network through TCP/IP on a GSM cellular phone. Two years later, they carried out the same tests with a GSM-based wireless personal digital assistant (PDA). The WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) Forum was founded in 1997 to create a global protocol

  20. Mars base buildup scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacic, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station

  1. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  2. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  3. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  4. Chitosan-based nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available , and hygiene devices. They thus represent a strong and emerging answer for improved and eco-friendly materials. This chapter reviews the recent developments in the area of chitosan-based nanocomposites, with a special emphasis on clay-containing nanocomposites...-sized mineral fillers like silica, talc, and clay are added to reduce the cost and improve chitosan’s performance in some way. However, the mechanical properties such as elongation at break and tensile strength of these composites decrease with the incorporation...

  5. Droplet based microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin; Pfohl, Thomas; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Droplet based microfluidics is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field of research combining soft matter physics, biochemistry and microsystems engineering. Its applications range from fast analytical systems or the synthesis of advanced materials to protein crystallization and biological assays for living cells. Precise control of droplet volumes and reliable manipulation of individual droplets such as coalescence, mixing of their contents, and sorting in combination with fast analysis tools allow us to perform chemical reactions inside the droplets under defined conditions. In this paper, we will review available drop generation and manipulation techniques. The main focus of this review is not to be comprehensive and explain all techniques in great detail but to identify and shed light on similarities and underlying physical principles. Since geometry and wetting properties of the microfluidic channels are crucial factors for droplet generation, we also briefly describe typical device fabrication methods in droplet based microfluidics. Examples of applications and reaction schemes which rely on the discussed manipulation techniques are also presented, such as the fabrication of special materials and biophysical experiments.

  6. DVD Based Electronic Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Scott J.; Pratt, Rick M.; Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Pitts, W K.; Robinson, Eric E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of a DVD based electronic pulser system (DVDEPS). Such a device is used to generate pulse streams for simulation of both gamma and neutron detector systems. The DVDEPS reproduces a random pulse stream of a full HPGe spectrum as well as a digital pulse stream representing the output of a neutron multiplicity detector. The exchangeable DVD media contains over an hour of data for both detector systems and can contain an arbitrary gamma spectrum and neutron pulse stream. The data is written to the DVD using a desktop computer program from either actual or simulated spectra. The targeted use of the DVDEPS is authentication or validation of monitoring equipment for non-proliferation purposes, but it is also of general use whenever a complex data stream is required. The DVD based pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument

  7. Evidence-based surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Rems

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is setting a new ground by the reign of evidence that was brought up by the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. While experiences and opinion of an expert count the least by the principles of EBM, randomized controlled trials (RCT and other comparative studies have gained their importance. Recommendations that were included in guidelines represent a demanding shift in surgeon’s professional thinking. Their thinking and classical education have not yet been completely based on the results of such studies and are still very very much master-pupil centred. Assessment of someone’s own experiences is threatened by objectivity as negative experiences get recorded in deeper memory. Randomized studies and meta-analyses do appear also in surgery. However, they demand an extra knowledge about critical assessment.Conclusions: Setting a patient to the foreground brings a surgeon’s decision to the field of EBM. The process has already begun and cannot be avoided. Decision hierarchy moves from the experience field to the evidence territory but to a lesser extent when compared to the rest of medicine. There exist objective restrictions with approving a new paradigm. However, these should not stop the process of EBM implementation. Finally, there is an ethic issue to be considered. Too slow activities in research, education and critical assessment can bring the surgeon to the position when a well-informed patient loses his/her trust.

  8. Microlaser-based displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  9. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  10. Challenge Based Innovation gala

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Utriainen, Tuuli Maria; Toivonen, Harri; Nordberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Challenge Based Innovation gala   There’s a new experiment starting in CERN called IdeaLab where we work together with detector R&D researchers to help them to bridge their knowledge into a more human, societally oriented context. Currently we are located in B153, but will move our activities to a new facility next to the Globe in May 2014. One of our first pilot projects is a 5 month course CBI (Challenge Based Innovation) where two multidisciplinary student teams join forces with Edusafe & TALENT projects at CERN. Their goal is to discover what kind of tools for learning could be created in collaboration with the two groups. After months of user interviews and low resolution prototyping they are ready to share the results with us in the form of an afternoon gala. We warmly welcome you to join us to see the students' results and experience the prototypes they have conceived. The event is in three parts, you are welcome to visit all of them,...

  11. [Competence based medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabó, Jorge G; Buraschi, Jorge; Olcese, Juan; Buraschi, María; Duro, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    The strategy of curriculum planning in the majority of the Schools of Medicine has shifted, in the past years, from curriculum models based in contents to outcome oriented curricula. Coincidently the interest in defining and evaluating the clinical competences that a graduate must have has grown. In our country, and particularly in the Associated Hospitals belonging to the Unidad Regional de Enseñanza IV of the UBA School of Medicine, evidence has been gathered showing that the acquisition of clinical competences during the grade is in general insufficient. The foundations and characteristics of PREM (Programa de Requisitos Esenciales Mínimos) are described. PREM is a tool to promote the apprenticeship of abilities and necessary skills for the practice of medicine. The objective of the program is to promote the apprenticeship of a well defined list of core competences considered indispensable for a general practitioner. An outcome oriented curriculum with a clear definition of the expected knowledge, skills and attitudes of a graduate of the programme, the promotion of learning experiences centered in the practice and evaluation tools based in direct observation of the student's performance should contribute to close the gap between what the Medicine Schools traditionally teach and evaluate, and what the doctor needs to know and needs to do to perform correctly its profession.

  12. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  13. Metasurface-Based Polarimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of polarization (SOP is an inherent property of light that can be used to gain crucial information about the composition and structure of materials interrogated with light. However, the SOP is difficult to experimentally determine since it involves phase information between orthogonal polarization states, and is uncorrelated with the light intensity and frequency, which can be easily determined with photodetectors and spectrometers. Rapid progress on optical gradient metasurfaces has resulted in the development of conceptually new approaches to the SOP characterization. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of and recent developments within metasurface-based polarimeters. Starting by introducing the concepts of generalized Snell’s law and Stokes parameters, we explain the Pancharatnam–Berry phase (PB-phase which is instrumental for differentiating between orthogonal circular polarizations. Then we review the recent progress in metasurface-based polarimeters, including polarimeters, spectropolarimeters, orbital angular momentum (OAM spectropolarimeters, and photodetector integrated polarimeters. The review is ended with a short conclusion and perspective for future developments.

  14. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The objectives of the risk-based indicator programme. The characteristics of the risk-based indicators. The objectives of risk-based safety indicators - in monitoring safety; in PSA applications. What indicators? How to produce the risk based indicators? PSA requirements

  15. Radioiodine Therapy of Hyperthyroidism. Simplified patient-specific absorbed dose planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Helene

    2003-10-01

    Radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism is the most frequently performed radiopharmaceutical therapy. To calculate the activity of {sup 131}I to be administered for giving a certain absorbed dose to the thyroid, the mass of the thyroid and the individual biokinetic data, normally in the form of uptake and biologic half-time, have to be determined. The biologic half-time is estimated from several uptake measurements and the first one is usually made 24 hours after the intake of the test activity. However, many hospitals consider it time-consuming since at least three visits of the patient to the hospital are required (administration of test activity, first uptake measurement, second uptake measurement plus treatment). Instead, many hospitals use a fixed effective half-time or even a fixed administered activity, only requiring two visits. However, none of these methods considers the absorbed dose to the thyroid of the individual patient. In this work a simplified patient-specific method for treating hyperthyroidism is proposed, based on one single uptake measurement, thus requiring only two visits to the hospital. The calculation is as accurate as using the individual biokinetic data. The simplified method is as patient-convenient and time effective as using a fixed effective half-time or a fixed administered activity. The simplified method is based upon a linear relation between the late uptake measurement 4-7 days after intake of the test activity and the product of the extrapolated initial uptake and the effective half-time. Treatments not considering individual biokinetics in the thyroid result in a distribution of administered absorbed dose to the thyroid, with a range of -50 % to +160 % compared to a protocol calculating the absorbed dose to the thyroid of the individual patient. Treatments with a fixed administered activity of 370 MBq will in general administer 250 % higher activity to the patient, with a range of -30 % to +770 %. The absorbed dose to other

  16. MS Based Metabonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, Elizabeth J.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-03-01

    Metabonomics is the latest and least mature of the systems biology triad, which also includes genomics and proteomics, and has its origins in the early orthomolecular medicine work pioneered by Linus Pauling and Arthur Robinson. It was defined by Nicholson and colleagues in 1999 as the quantitative measurement of perturbations in the metabolite complement of an integrated biological system in response to internal or external stimuli, and is often used today to describe many non-global types of metabolite analyses. Applications of metabonomics are extensive and include toxicology, nutrition, pharmaceutical research and development, physiological monitoring and disease diagnosis. For example, blood samples from millions of neonates are tested routinely by mass spectrometry (MS) as a diagnostic tool for inborn errors of metabolism. The metabonome encompasses a wide range of structurally diverse metabolites; therefore, no single analytical platform will be sufficient. Specialized sample preparation and detection techniques are required, and advances in NMR and MS technologies have led to enhanced metabonome coverage, which in turn demands improved data analysis approaches. The role of MS in metabonomics is still evolving as instrumentation and software becomes more sophisticated and as researchers realize the strengths and limitations of current technology. MS offers a wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and reproducible, quantitative analysis. These attributes are essential for addressing the challenges of metabonomics, as the range of metabolite concentrations easily exceeds nine orders of magnitude in biofluids, and the diversity of molecular species ranges from simple amino and organic acids to lipids and complex carbohydrates. Additional challenges arise in generating a comprehensive metabolite profile, downstream data processing and analysis, and structural characterization of important metabolites. A typical workflow of MS-based metabonomics is shown in Figure

  17. Skull base tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnaniello, Cristian; Nader, Remi; van Doormaal, Tristan; Kamel, Mahmoud; Voormolen, Eduard H J; Lasio, Giovanni; Aboud, Emad; Regli, Luca; Tulleken, Cornelius A F; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2010-11-01

    Resident duty-hours restrictions have now been instituted in many countries worldwide. Shortened training times and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. The development of educational models for brain anatomy is a fascinating innovation allowing neurosurgeons to train without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period. The authors describe the use of Stratathane resin ST-504 polymer (SRSP), which is inserted at different intracranial locations to closely mimic meningiomas and other pathological entities of the skull base, in a cadaveric model, for use in neurosurgical training. Silicone-injected and pressurized cadaveric heads were used for studying the SRSP model. The SRSP presents unique intrinsic metamorphic characteristics: liquid at first, it expands and foams when injected into the desired area of the brain, forming a solid tumorlike structure. The authors injected SRSP via different passages that did not influence routes used for the surgical approach for resection of the simulated lesion. For example, SRSP injection routes included endonasal transsphenoidal or transoral approaches if lesions were to be removed through standard skull base approach, or, alternatively, SRSP was injected via a cranial approach if the removal was planned to be via the transsphenoidal or transoral route. The model was set in place in 3 countries (US, Italy, and The Netherlands), and a pool of 13 physicians from 4 different institutions (all surgeons and surgeons in training) participated in evaluating it and provided feedback. All 13 evaluating physicians had overall positive impressions of the model. The overall score on 9 components evaluated--including comparison between the tumor model and real tumor cases, perioperative requirements, general impression, and applicability--was 88% (100% being the best possible

  18. Plasma based accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  19. Gossip-Based Broadcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João; Pereira, José; Rodrigues, Luís

    Gossip, or epidemic, protocols have emerged as a powerful strategy to implement highly scalable and resilient reliable broadcast primitives on large scale peer-to-peer networks. Epidemic protocols are scalable because they distribute the load among all nodes in the system and resilient because they have an intrinsic level of redundancy that masks node and network failures. This chapter provides an introduction to gossip-based broadcast on large-scale unstructured peer-to-peer overlay networks: it surveys the main results in the field, discusses techniques to build and maintain the overlays that support efficient dissemination strategies, and provides an in-depth discussion and experimental evaluation of two concrete protocols, named HyParView and Plumtree.

  20. Sensory bases of navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, J L

    1998-10-08

    Navigating animals need to know both the bearing of their goal (the 'map' step), and how to determine that direction (the 'compass' step). Compasses are typically arranged in hierarchies, with magnetic backup as a last resort when celestial information is unavailable. Magnetic information is often essential to calibrating celestial cues, though, and repeated recalibration between celestial and magnetic compasses is important in many species. Most magnetic compasses are based on magnetite crystals, but others make use of induction or paramagnetic interactions between short-wavelength light and visual pigments. Though odors may be used in some cases, most if not all long-range maps probably depend on magnetite. Magnetitebased map senses are used to measure only latitude in some species, but provide the distance and direction of the goal in others.

  1. Graphene based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan, E-mail: hhakan.gurel@kocaeli.edu.tr [Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Salmankurt, Bahadır [Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    Nanometer-sized graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. It is expected that biomaterials incorporating graphene will be developed for the graphene-based drug delivery systems and biomedical devices. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on nucleobases on graphene. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene by applied charging.

  2. Integrated data base program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    The IDB Program provides direct support to the DOE Nuclear Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Programs and their lead sites and support contractors by providing and maintaining a current, integrated data base of spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories and projections. All major waste types (HLW, TRU, and LLW) and sources (government, commerical fuel cycle, and I/I) are included. A major data compilation was issued in September, 1981: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories and Projections as of December 31, 1980, DOE/NE-0017. This report includes chapters on Spent Fuel, HLW, TRU Waste, LLW, Remedial Action Waste, Active Uranium Mill Tailings, and Airborne Waste, plus Appendices with more detailed data in selected areas such as isotopics, radioactivity, thermal power, projections, and land usage. The LLW sections include volumes, radioactivity, thermal power, current inventories, projected inventories and characteristics, source terms, land requirements, and a breakdown in terms of government/commercial and defense/fuel cycle/I and I

  3. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  4. Rate based failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett Emery Trabun; Gamage, Thoshitha Thanushka; Bakken, David Edward

    2018-01-02

    This disclosure describes, in part, a system management component and failure detection component for use in a power grid data network to identify anomalies within the network and systematically adjust the quality of service of data published by publishers and subscribed to by subscribers within the network. In one implementation, subscribers may identify a desired data rate, a minimum acceptable data rate, desired latency, minimum acceptable latency and a priority for each subscription. The failure detection component may identify an anomaly within the network and a source of the anomaly. Based on the identified anomaly, data rates and or data paths may be adjusted in real-time to ensure that the power grid data network does not become overloaded and/or fail.

  5. Behavior based safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhikumaran, T.V.; Mehta, S.C.; Goyal, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Behaviour Based Safety (popularly known as BBS) is a new methodology for achieving injury free work place and total Safety Culture. BBS is successfully being implemented and is being practiced as a work methodology for achieving a loss and injury free work environment and work practice. Through BBS, it was brought out that the root causes of all Industrial accidents some how originate from the 'at risk' behaviour of some individual or group of individuals at some level. The policy of NPCIL is to excel in the field of Industrial and Fire Safety in comparison to international standards. This article indents to bring out the various parameters helping in installing BBS programme at any plant. (author)

  6. Fuel cycle based safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Montmollin, J.M.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Gupta, D.

    1985-07-01

    In NPT safeguards the same model approach and absolute-quantity inspection goals are applied at present to all similar facilities, irrespective of the State's fuel cycle. There is a continuing interest and activity on the part of the IAEA in new NPT safeguards approaches that more directly address a State's nuclear activities as a whole. This fuel cycle based safeguards system is expected to a) provide a statement of findings for the entire State rather than only for individual facilities; b) allocate inspection efforts so as to reflect more realistically the different categories of nuclear materials in the different parts of the fuel cycle and c) provide more timely and better coordinated information on the inputs, outputs and inventories of nuclear materials in a State. (orig./RF) [de

  7. Bases para proyectiles dirigidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque actualmente no se ha llegado a una línea general de métodos o sistemas que gobiernen un tipo característico de rampa y servicios auxiliares necesarios para el lanzamiento al espacio de proyectiles dirigidos a grandes alturas y distancias, las experiencias obtenidas en diferentes ensayos, utilizando distintos tipos de proyectiles y trayectorias balísticas, han sentado toda una serie de procedimientos, datos y conclusiones de gran valor balístico que, aun teniendo en cuenta la continua evolución del proyectil, sus formas, combustibles y alcances, se conocen ya, con bastante aproximación, las condiciones mínimas que ha de reunir una base dedicada a este tipo de lanzamientos.

  8. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of the average family's lifestyle. These dwellings were ground-breaking when they were built, but today are clearly a product of their time. The reaction to functionalism and the postwar mass production gave rise to flexible dwelling with countless possibilities for room division. The housing of this period has...... characteristics which in the long run have proven to be unfortunate both in terms in terms of durability and architectural quality. Today there is a focus on the development of more open and functionally non-determined housing. A number of new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen reveal a variety...... of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...

  9. Liaison based assembly design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  10. Touching base with OPERA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Three seminars – at CERN, at Gran Sasso and in Japan – and an article calling for the scrutiny of the scientific community: the OPERA Collaboration opened its research publicly. In addition to huge press coverage, this triggered welcome reactions from colleagues around the world, many of whom will attempt to independently interpret and reproduce the measurement. OPERA’s Spokesperson touches base with the Bulletin.   The CERN Main Auditorium was crowded as OPERA Physics co-ordinator Dario Autiero presented the results of their research (23 September 2011). According to the OPERA strategy, the results of the measurements are in the hands of the scientific community and, as for any other scientific result, several months will be needed before other groups will be able to perform an independent measurement. In the meantime, the OPERA Collaboration is dealing with an avalanche of emails from the scientific community, members of the general public, and the press. &...

  11. Pathway-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Jack W

    2016-02-03

    New technologies for acquisition of genomic data, while offering unprecedented opportunities for genetic discovery, also impose severe burdens of interpretation and penalties for multiple testing. The Pathway-based Analyses Group of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) sought reduction of multiple-testing burden through various approaches to aggregation of highdimensional data in pathways informed by prior biological knowledge. Experimental methods testedincluded the use of "synthetic pathways" (random sets of genes) to estimate power and false-positive error rate of methods applied to simulated data; data reduction via independent components analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interaction, and use of gene sets to estimate genetic similarity; and general assessment of the efficacy of prior biological knowledge to reduce the dimensionality of complex genomic data. The work of this group explored several promising approaches to managing high-dimensional data, with the caveat that these methods are necessarily constrained by the quality of external bioinformatic annotation.

  12. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...... coherent light having a wavelength along an input light path, - producing scattering of said light from each of a plurality of interfaces within said apparatus including interfaces between said fluid and a surface bounding said fluid, said scattering producing an interference pattern formed by said...... scattered light, - cyclically varying the wavelength of said light in said input light path over a 1 nm to 20nm wide range of wavelengths a rate of from 10Hz to 50 KHz, - recording variation of intensity of the interfering light with change in wavelength of the light at an angle of observation...

  13. Transaction based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    Transaction based approach is utilized in some methodologies in business process modeling. Essential parts of these transactions are human beings. The notion of agent or actor role is usually used for them. The paper on a particular example describes possibilities of Design Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO) and Resource-Event-Agent (REA) methodology. Whereas the DEMO methodology can be regarded as a generic methodology having its foundation in the theory of Enterprise Ontology the REA methodology is regarded as the domain specific methodology and has its origin in accountancy systems. The results of these approaches is that the DEMO methodology captures everything that happens in the reality with a good empirical evidence whereas the REA methodology captures only changes connected with economic events. Economic events represent either change of the property rights to economic resource or consumption or production of economic resources. This results from the essence of economic events and their connection to economic resources.

  14. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  15. Telephone-Based Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Mindy; Sanna, Rashel S; Adams, Sara R; Goler, Nancy C; Brown, Susan D; Neugebauer, Romain S; Ferrara, Assiamira; Wiley, Deanne M; Bellamy, David J; Schmittdiel, Julie A

    2017-03-01

    Many Americans continue to smoke, increasing their risk of disease and premature death. Both telephone-based counseling and in-person tobacco cessation classes may improve access for smokers seeking convenient support to quit. Little research has assessed whether such programs are effective in real-world clinical populations. Retrospective cohort study comparing wellness coaching participants with two groups of controls. Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system. Two hundred forty-one patients who participated in telephonic tobacco cessation coaching from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, and two control groups: propensity-score-matched controls, and controls who participated in a tobacco cessation class during the same period. Wellness coaching participants received an average of two motivational interviewing-based coaching sessions that engaged the patient, evoked their reason to consider quitting, and helped them establish a quit plan. Self-reported quitting of tobacco and fills of tobacco cessation medications within 12 months of follow-up. Logistic regressions adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and primary language. After adjusting for confounders, tobacco quit rates were higher among coaching participants vs. matched controls (31% vs. 23%, p Coaching participants and class attendees filled tobacco-cessation prescriptions at a higher rate (47% for both) than matched controls (6%, p coaching was as effective as in-person classes and was associated with higher rates of quitting compared to no treatment. The telephonic modality may increase convenience and scalability for health care systems looking to reduce tobacco use and improve health.

  16. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  17. Mainstreaming gesture based interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestures are a common way of interaction with mobile devices. They emerged especially with the iPhone production. Gestures in currently used devices are usually based on the original gestures presented by Apple in its iOS (iPhone Operating System. Therefore, there is a wide agreement on the mobile gesture design. In last years, it is possible to see experiments with gesture usage also in the other areas of consumer electronics and computers. The examples can include televisions, large projections etc. These gestures can be marked as spatial or 3D gestures. They are connected with a natural 3D environment rather than with a flat 2D screen. Nevertheless, it is hard to find a comparable design agreement within the spatial gestures. Various projects are based on completely different gesture sets. This situation is confusing for their users and slows down spatial gesture adoption.This paper is focused on the standardization of spatial gestures. The review of projects focused on spatial gesture usage is provided in the first part. The main emphasis is placed on the usability point-of-view. On the basis of our analysis, we argue that the usability is the key issue enabling the wide adoption. The mobile gesture emergence was possible easily because the iPhone gestures were natural. Therefore, it was not necessary to learn them.The design and implementation of our presentation software, which is controlled by gestures, is outlined in the second part of the paper. Furthermore, the usability testing results are provided as well. We have tested our application on a group of users not instructed in the implemented gestures design. These results were compared with the other ones, obtained with our original implementation. The evaluation can be used as the basis for implementation of similar projects.

  18. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  19. Base Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett Sondreal; John Hendrikson

    2009-03-31

    In June 2009, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed 11 years of research under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Base Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40320 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy (OFE) and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A wide range of diverse research activities were performed under annual program plans approved by NETL in seven major task areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, (6) advanced materials, and (7) strategic studies. This report summarizes results of the 67 research subtasks and an additional 50 strategic studies. Selected highlights in the executive summary illustrate the contribution of the research to the energy industry in areas not adequately addressed by the private sector alone. During the period of performance of the agreement, concerns have mounted over the impact of carbon emissions on climate change, and new programs have been initiated by DOE to ensure that fossil fuel resources along with renewable resources can continue to supply the nation's transportation fuel and electric power. The agreement has addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration while expanding the supply and use of domestic energy resources for energy security. It has further contributed to goals for near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources (e.g., wind-, biomass-, and coal-based electrical generation).

  20. The office based CHIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passariello F

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fausto Passariello,1 Stefano Ermini,2 Massimo Cappelli,3 Roberto Delfrate,4 Claude Franceschi5 1Centro Diagnostico Aquarius, Napoli, Italy; 2Private Practice, Grassina, Italy; 3Private Practice, Firenze, Italy; 4Casa di Cure Figlie di Maria, Cremona, Italy; 5Hospital St Joseph, Service d'Explorations Vasculaires, Paris, France Abstract: The cure Conservatrice Hémodynamique de l'Insuffisance Veineuse en Ambulatoire (CHIVA can be office based (OB. The OB-CHIVA protocol is aimed at transferring CHIVA procedures to specialists rooms. The protocol will check the feasibility of OB-CHIVA, data pertaining to recurrence, and will offer the opportunity to study saphenous femoral junction (SFJ stump evolution, the role of the washing vessels and the arch recanalization rate, and gather new data about the effect of the length of the treated saphenous vein. A simplified diagnostic procedure will allow an essential ultrasound examination of the venous net while a schematic and easily readable algorithm guides therapeutic choices. The Riobamba draining crossotomy (RDC tactic is composed of a set of OB procedures. While some of these procedures are, at the moment, only proposals, others are already applied. Devices generally used in ablative procedures such as Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER, radio frequency, steam, and mechanical devices are used in this context to serve to conservative interventions for CHIVA. New techniques have also been proposed for devalvulation and tributary disconnection. Detailed follow-up is necessary in order to determine the effects of therapy and possible disease evolution. Finally, information is added about the informed consent and the ethical considerations of OB-CHIVA research. Keywords: CHIVA, office based procedures, LASER, RF, steam

  1. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  2. Loyalty-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichheld, F F

    1993-01-01

    Despite a flurry of activities aimed at serving customers better, few companies have systematically revamped their operations with customer loyalty in mind. Instead, most have adopted improvement programs ad hoc, and paybacks haven't materialized. Building a highly loyal customer base must be integral to a company's basic business strategy. Loyalty leaders like MBNA credit cards are successful because they have designed their entire business systems around customer loyalty--a self-reinforcing system in which the company delivers superior value consistently and reinvents cash flows to find and keep high-quality customers and employees. The economic benefits of high customer loyalty are measurable. When a company consistently delivers superior value and wins customer loyalty, market share and revenues go up, and the cost of acquiring new customers goes down. The better economics mean the company can pay workers better, which sets off a whole chain of events. Increased pay boosts employee moral and commitment; as employees stay longer, their productivity goes up and training costs fall; employees' overall job satisfaction, combined with their experience, helps them serve customers better; and customers are then more inclined to stay loyal to the company. Finally, as the best customers and employees become part of the loyalty-based system, competitors are left to survive with less desirable customers and less talented employees. To compete on loyalty, a company must understand the relationships between customer retention and the other parts of the business--and be able to quantify the linkages between loyalty and profits. It involves rethinking and aligning four important aspects of the business: customers, product/service offering, employees, and measurement systems.

  3. Absorbed Doses to Patients in Nuclear Medicine; Doskatalogen foer nukleaermedicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Mattsson, Soeren; Nosslin, Bertil [Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden). Avd. foer radiofysik; Johansson, Lennart [Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeaa (Sweden). Avd. foer radiofysik

    2004-09-01

    The work with a Swedish catalogue of radiation absorbed doses to patients undergoing nuclear medicine investigations has continued. After the previous report in 1999, biokinetic data and dose estimates (mean absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and effective dose) have been produced for a number of substances: {sup 11}C- acetate, {sup 11}C- methionine, {sup 18}F-DOPA, whole antibody labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I, fragment of antibody, F(ab'){sub 2} labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I and fragment of antibody, Fab' labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I. The absorbed dose estimates for these substances have been made from published biokinetic information. For other substances of interest, e.g. {sup 14}C-urea (children age 3-6 years), {sup 14}C-glycocholic acid, {sup 14}C-xylose and {sup 14}C-triolein, sufficient literature data have not been available. Therefore, a large number of measurements on patients and volunteers have been carried out, in order to determine the biokinetics and dosimetry for these substances. Samples of breast milk from 50 mothers, who had been subject to nuclear medicine investigations, have been collected at various times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the mother. The activity concentration in the breast milk samples has been measured. The absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the child who ingests the milk have been determined for 17 different radiopharmaceuticals. Based on these results revised recommendations for interruption of breast-feeding after nuclear medicine investigations are suggested.

  4. Foundry based approach for InP based PIC development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Europe is making significant investments in development of generic photonic foundry platform infrastructures for InP-based and Silicon Photonic ICs. Here we present the present status for the InP-based JePPIX platform.

  5. Biokinetics of dietary RRR-alpha-tocopherol in the male guinea pig at three dietary levels of vitamin C and two levels of vitamin E. Evidence that vitamin C does not spare vitamin E in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Wronska, U.; Stone, L.; Foster, D.O.; Ingold, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    The net rates of uptake of new and loss of old 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol (RRR-alpha-TOH) have been measured in the blood and in nine tissues of male guinea pigs over an eight week period by feeding diets containing deuterium-labelled alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc). There was an initial two week lead-in period during which 24 animals [the high vitamin E (HE) group] received diets containing 36 mg of unlabelled (d0) RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg of ascorbic acid per kg diet, while another 24 animals [the low vitamin E (LE) group] received diets containing 5 mg d0-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 250 mg ascorbic acid per kg diet. The HE group was then divided into three equal subgroups, which were fed diets containing 36 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5000 mg [the high vitamin C (HEHC) subgroup], 250 mg [the normal vitamin C (HENC) subgroup] and 50 mg [the low vitamin C (HELC) subgroup] ascorbic acid per kg diet. One animal from each group was sacrificed each week and the blood and tissues were analyzed for d0- and d6-RRR-alpha-TOH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The LE group was similarly divided into three equal subgroups with animals receiving diets containing 5 mg d6-RRR-alpha-TOAc and 5,000 mg (LEHC), 250 mg (LENC) and 50 mg (LELC) ascorbic acid per kg diet with a similar protocol being followed for sacrifice and analyses. In the HE group the total (d0(-) + d6-) RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations in blood and tissues remained essentially constant over the eight week experiment, whereas in the LE group the total RRR-alpha-TOH concentrations declined noticeably. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of old d0-RRR-alpha-TOH nor in the concentrations of new d6-RRR-alpha-TOH found in any tissue at a particular time between the HEHC, HENC and HELC subgroups, nor between the LEHC, LENC and LELC subgroups

  6. NMR studies concerning base-base interactions in oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogen, Y.T. van den.

    1988-01-01

    Two main subjects are treated in the present thesis. The firsst part principally deals with the base-base interactions in single-stranded oligoribonucleotides. The second part presents NMR and model-building studies of DNA and RNA duplexes containing an unpaired base. (author). 242 refs.; 26 figs.; 24 tabs

  7. Computer-based multi-channel analyzer based on internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xinzhi; Ning Jiaoxian

    2001-01-01

    Combined the technology of Internet with computer-based multi-channel analyzer, a new kind of computer-based multi-channel analyzer system which is based on browser is presented. Its framework and principle as well as its implementation are discussed

  8. Base Camp Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warebi Gabriel Brisibe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal or time line studies of change in the architecture of a particular culture are common, but an area still open to further research is change across space or place. In particular, there is need for studies on architectural change of cultures stemming from the same ethnic source split between their homeland and other Diasporas. This change may range from minor deviations to drastic shifts away from an architectural norm and the accumulation of these shifts within a time frame constitutes variations. This article focuses on identifying variations in the architecture of the Ijo fishing group that migrates along the coastline of West Africa. It examines the causes of cross-cultural variation between base camp dwellings of Ijo migrant fishermen in the Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon and Bayelsa State in Nigeria. The study draws on the idea of the inevitability of cultural and social change over time as proposed in the theories of cultural dynamism and evolution. It tests aspects of cultural transmission theory using the principal coordinates analysis to ascertain the possible causes of variation. From the findings, this research argues that migration has enhanced the forces of cultural dynamism, which have resulted in significant variations in the architecture of this fishing group.

  9. Evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Sutton, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    For the most part, managers looking to cure their organizational ills rely on obsolete knowledge they picked up in school, long-standing but never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from experience, methods they happen to be skilled in applying, and information from vendors. They could learn a thing or two from practitioners of evidence-based medicine, a movement that has taken the medical establishment by storm over the past decade. A growing number of physicians are eschewing the usual, flawed resources and are instead identifying, disseminating, and applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant. It's time for managers to do the same. The challenge is, quite simply, to ground decisions in the latest and best knowledge of what actually works. In some ways, that's more difficult to do in business than in medicine. The evidence is weaker in business; almost anyone can (and many people do) claim to be a management expert; and a motley crew of sources--Shakespeare, Billy Graham,Jack Welch, Attila the Hunare used to generate management advice. Still, it makes sense that when managers act on better logic and strong evidence, their companies will beat the competition. Like medicine, management is learned through practice and experience. Yet managers (like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from both inside and outside their companies, so they can keep updating their assumptions, skills, and knowledge.

  10. Skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikinis, R.; Matsumae, M.; Jolesz, F.A.; Black, P.M.; Cline, H.E.; Lorenson, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an image processing procedure for the planning of surgery of skull base tumors that can extract bone, vessels, tumor, and brain parenchyma and that permits resolution of cranial nerves. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were generated from double-echo long TR interleaved conventional spin-echo and fast-spin-echo MR imaging data. Sixteen cases have been analyzed preoperatively. Image processing consisted of a multistep procedure combining a supervised multivariate analysis with neighborhood operations such as connectivity and erosion/dilation. 3D renderings of anatomic structures of interest were then generated. Cases were evaluated preoperatively and manipulated interactively with the computer-generated images by a team consisting of neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and craniofacial surgeons. The preparation of 3D reconstructions required only a few hours and was performed mostly by a research assistant. The preoperative analysis of the 3D reconstructions was found to be a valuable tool, providing information complementing the surgeon's understanding of a case as derived from conventional imaging. The interactive manipulation of data proved to be a powerful way to evaluate alternative surgical approaches

  11. Constraint-based scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  12. Refractory metal based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Paula R.; Vicente, Eduardo E.; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.

    1999-01-01

    Refractory metals are looked as promising materials for primary circuits in fission reactors and even as fusion reactor components. Indeed, superalloys could be developed which take advantage of their high temperature properties together with the benefits of a two- phase (intermetallic compound-refractory metal matrix) coherent structure. In 1993, researchers of the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales of France reported the observation of such a coherent structure in the Ta-Ti-Zr-Al-Nb-Mo system although the exact composition is not reported. The intermetallic compound would be Ti 2 AlMo based. However, the formation of this compound and its possible coexistence with a disordered bcc phase in the ternary system Ti-Al-Mo is a controversial subject in the related literature. In this work we develop a technique to obtain homogeneous alloys samples with 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. The resulting specimens were characterized by optical and electronic metallography (SEM), microprobe composition measurements (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results show the evidence for a bcc (A2→B2) ordering reaction in the Ti-Al-Mo system in the 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. (author)

  13. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  14. Carbon nanotube based photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudanski, Ludovic; Minoux, Eric; Schnell, Jean-Philippe; Xavier, Stephane; Pribat, Didier; Legagneux, Pierre; Gangloff, Laurent; Teo, Kenneth B K; Robertson, John; Milne, William I

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel photocathode which is an array of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), each MWCNT being associated with one p-i-n photodiode. Unlike conventional photocathodes, the functions of photon-electron conversion and subsequent electron emission are physically separated. Photon-electron conversion is achieved with p-i-n photodiodes and the electron emission occurs from the MWCNTs. The current modulation is highly efficient as it uses an optically controlled reconfiguration of the electric field at the MWCNT locations. Such devices are compatible with high frequency and very large bandwidth operation and could lead to their application in compact, light and efficient microwave amplifiers for satellite telecommunication. To demonstrate this new photocathode concept, we have fabricated the first carbon nanotube based photocathode using silicon p-i-n photodiodes and MWCNT bunches. Using a green laser, this photocathode delivers 0.5 mA with an internal quantum efficiency of 10% and an I ON /I OFF ratio of 30

  15. Based on Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  16. Biosensors based on cantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mar; Carrascosa, Laura G; Zinoviev, Kiril; Plaza, Jose A; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Microcantilevers based-biosensors are a new label-free technique that allows the direct detection of biomolecular interactions in a label-less way and with great accuracy by translating the biointeraction into a nanomechanical motion. Low cost and reliable standard silicon technologies are widely used for the fabrication of cantilevers with well-controlled mechanical properties. Over the last years, the number of applications of these sensors has shown a fast growth in diverse fields, such as genomic or proteomic, because of the biosensor flexibility, the low sample consumption, and the non-pretreated samples required. In this chapter, we report a dedicated design and a fabrication process of highly sensitive microcantilever silicon sensors. We will describe as well an application of the device in the environmental field showing the immunodetection of an organic toxic pesticide as an example. The cantilever biofunctionalization process and the subsequent pesticide determination are detected in real time by monitoring the nanometer-scale bending of the microcantilever due to a differential surface stress generated between both surfaces of the device.

  17. Flow-Based Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: With information almost effortlessly created and spontaneously available, current progress in Information and Communication Technology (ICT has led to the complication that information must be scrutinized for trustworthiness and provenance. Information systems must become provenance-aware to be satisfactory in accountability, reproducibility, and trustworthiness of data. Background:\tMultiple models for abstract representation of provenance have been proposed to describe entities, people, and activities involved in producing a piece of data, including the Open Provenance Model (OPM and the World Wide Web Consortium. These models lack certain concepts necessary for specifying workflows and encoding the provenance of data products used and generated. Methodology: Without loss of generality, the focus of this paper is on OPM depiction of provenance in terms of a directed graph. We have redrawn several case studies in the framework of our proposed model in order to compare and evaluate it against OPM for representing these cases. Contribution: This paper offers an alternative flow-based diagrammatic language that can form a foundation for modeling of provenance. The model described here provides an (abstract machine-like representation of provenance. Findings: The results suggest a viable alternative in the area of diagrammatic representation for provenance applications. Future Research: Future work will seek to achieve more accurate comparisons with current models in the field.

  18. Communication Base Station Log Analysis Based on Hierarchical Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication base stations generate massive data every day, these base station logs play an important value in mining of the business circles. This paper use data mining technology and hierarchical clustering algorithm to group the scope of business circle for the base station by recording the data of these base stations.Through analyzing the data of different business circle based on feature extraction and comparing different business circle category characteristics, which can choose a suitable area for operators of commercial marketing.

  19. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  20. Risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The Configuration Control; The Risk-based Configuration Control (during power operation mode, and during shutdown mode). PSA requirements. Use of Risk-based Configuration Control System. Configuration Management (basic elements, benefits, information requirements)

  1. OLBS: Offline location based services

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, P; Ana Aguiar; João Correia Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Most existing location-based services rely on ubiquitous connectivity to deliver location-based contents to the users. However, connectivity is not available anywhere at anytime even in urban centres. Underground, indoors, remote areas, and foreign countries are examples situations where users commonly do not have guaranteed connectivity but could profit from location-based contents. In this work, we propose an open platform for publishing, distributing and maintaining location-based contents...

  2. ‘"Education-based Research"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    This paper lays out a concept of education-based research-the production of research knowledge within the framework of tertiary design education-as an integration of problem-based learning and research-based education. This leads to a critique of reflective practice as the primary way to facilitate...... learning at this level, a discussion of the nature of design problems in the instrumentalist tradition, and some suggestions as to how design studies curricula may facilitate education-based research....

  3. Health Physics Positions Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1992-05-01

    The Health Physics Positions (HPPOS) Data Base of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a collection of summaries of NRC staff positions on a wide range of topics in radiation protection (health physics). The bases for the data base are 247 original documents in the form of letters, memoranda, and excerpts from technical reports. The HPPOS Data Base was developed by the NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices to help ensure uniformity in inspections, enforcement, and licensing actions

  4. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving the performance of the memory-based learner. Our approach is evaluated on standard data sets and the results are compared with that of other systems. This reveals that our approach works well for ba...

  5. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): a comparison of intakes based on urine versus autopsy data from Mayak workers using the Leggett systemic model for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Dorrian, M.-D.; Suslova, K. G.; Sokolova, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2013 (MWDS-2013) uses a model developed by Leggett and colleagues to represent the biokinetic behaviour of plutonium after uptake to blood. Of particular importance, with regard to estimating intakes (and doses), is the distribution of activity between urine and body organs (particularly liver and skeleton). In this study, measurement data (urine and autopsy) from around 500 Mayak workers have been used to validate use of this model. A robust method has been developed and used to estimate intakes from both urine and autopsy data separately, and the ratio of these estimates has been calculated for each worker. The geometric mean ratio has been shown to lie within a range of 0.92-1.14, depending on assumptions made. Since this range includes 1, the hypothesis that the model is unbiased with regard to estimating intakes either with urine or autopsy data cannot be rejected on the basis of these data. This lends weight to the argument for increasing the MWDS-2013 cohort to include an additional 500 workers for whom only autopsy data are available, and who have previously been excluded from the cohort. Future directions in which this work could be extended are also suggested. (authors)

  6. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  7. Performance-Based Funding Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A number of states have made progress in implementing performance-based funding (PFB) and accountability. This policy brief summarizes main features of performance-based funding systems in three states: Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana. The brief also identifies key issues that states considering performance-based funding must address, as well as…

  8. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  9. Different perspectives on economic base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes; Nicholas E. Reyna

    1999-01-01

    Two general approaches for measuring the economic base are discussed. Each method is used to define the economic base for each of the counties included in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project area. A more detailed look at four selected counties results in similar findings from different approaches. Limitations of economic base analysis also are...

  10. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving

  11. Condition based spare parts supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, X.; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Kranenburg, A.A.; van Houtum, Geert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    We consider a spare parts stock point that serves an installed base of machines. Each machine contains the same critical component, whose degradation behavior is described by a Markov process. We consider condition based spare parts supply, and show that an optimal, condition based inventory policy

  12. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  13. Barrier Data Base user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Gould, D.J.; Wall, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    A special purpose data base for physical security barriers has been developed. In addition to barriers, the entities accommodated by the Barrier Data Base (BDB) include threats and references. A threat is established as a configuration of people and equipment which has been employed to penetrate (or attempt to penetrate) a barrier. References are used to cite publications pertinent to the barriers and threats in the data base. Utilization and maintenance of the Barrier Data Base is achieved with LIST, QUERY, ENTER, DELETE, and CHANGE commands which are used to manipulate the data base entities

  14. From oil-based mud to water-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, C.

    1991-01-01

    Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

  15. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  16. Case-based reasoning: The marriage of knowledge base and data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulaski, Kirt; Casadaban, Cyprian

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of data and knowledge has a synergistic effect when building an intelligent data base. The goal is to integrate the data and knowledge almost to the point of indistinguishability, permitting them to be used interchangeably. Examples given in this paper suggest that Case-Based Reasoning is a more integrated way to link data and knowledge than pure rule-based reasoning.

  17. Knowledge base verification based on enhanced colored petri net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it`s specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base and apply the method to verification of simple knowledge base. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  18. Knowledge base verification based on enhanced colored petri net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it`s specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base and apply the method to verification of simple knowledge base. 8 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  19. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  20. Managing the Gap between Curriculum Based and Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Buus, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    /or but rather both/and. In this paper we describe an approach to design and delivery of online courses in computer science which on the one hand is based on a specified curriculum and on the other hand gives room for different learning strategies, problem based learning being one of them. We discuss......Traditionally there has been a clear distinction between curriculum based and problem based approaches to accomplish learning. Preferred approaches depend of course on conviction, culture, traditions and also on the specific learning situation. We will argue that it is not a question of either...