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Sample records for based auto-contoured target

  1. Integrated-boost IMRT or 3-D-CRT using FET-PET based auto-contoured target volume delineation for glioblastoma multiforme - a dosimetric comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological brain tumor imaging using O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET)-PET combined with inverse treatment planning for locally restricted dose escalation in patients with glioblastoma multiforme seems to be a promising approach. The aim of this study was to compare inverse with forward treatment planning for an integrated boost dose application in patients suffering from a glioblastoma multiforme, while biological target volumes are based on FET-PET and MRI data sets. In 16 glioblastoma patients an intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique comprising an integrated boost (IB-IMRT) and a 3-dimensional conventional radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique were generated for dosimetric comparison. FET-PET, MRI and treatment planning CT (P-CT) were co-registrated. The integrated boost volume (PTV1) was auto-contoured using a cut-off tumor-to-brain ratio (TBR) of ≥ 1.6 from FET-PET. PTV2 delineation was MRI-based. The total dose was prescribed to 72 and 60 Gy for PTV1 and PTV2, using daily fractions of 2.4 and 2 Gy. After auto-contouring of PTV1 a marked target shape complexity had an impact on the dosimetric outcome. Patients with 3-4 PTV1 subvolumes vs. a single volume revealed a significant decrease in mean dose (67.7 vs. 70.6 Gy). From convex to complex shaped PTV1 mean doses decreased from 71.3 Gy to 67.7 Gy. The homogeneity and conformity for PTV1 and PTV2 was significantly improved with IB-IMRT. With the use of IB-IMRT the minimum dose within PTV1 (61.1 vs. 57.4 Gy) and PTV2 (51.4 vs. 40.9 Gy) increased significantly, and the mean EUD for PTV2 was improved (59.9 vs. 55.3 Gy, p < 0.01). The EUD for PTV1 was only slightly improved (68.3 vs. 67.3 Gy). The EUD for the brain was equal with both planning techniques. In the presented planning study the integrated boost concept based on inversely planned IB-IMRT is feasible. The FET-PET-based automatically contoured PTV1 can lead to very complex geometric configurations, limiting the achievable mean dose in the boost

  2. Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Planning Based on Manual and Automatically Generated Contours Using Deformable Image Registration in Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography of Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the implications of differences between contours drawn manually and contours generated automatically by deformable image registration for four-dimensional (4D) treatment planning. Methods and Materials: In 12 lung cancer patients intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning was performed for both manual contours and automatically generated ('auto') contours in mid and peak expiration of 4D computed tomography scans, with the manual contours in peak inspiration serving as the reference for the displacement vector fields. Manual and auto plans were analyzed with respect to their coverage of the manual contours, which were assumed to represent the anatomically correct volumes. Results: Auto contours were on average larger than manual contours by up to 9%. Objective scores, D2% and D98% of the planning target volume, homogeneity and conformity indices, and coverage of normal tissue structures (lungs, heart, esophagus, spinal cord) at defined dose levels were not significantly different between plans (p = 0.22-0.94). Differences were statistically insignificant for the generalized equivalent uniform dose of the planning target volume (p = 0.19-0.94) and normal tissue complication probabilities for lung and esophagus (p = 0.13-0.47). Dosimetric differences >2% or >1 Gy were more frequent in patients with auto/manual volume differences ≥10% (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The applied deformable image registration algorithm produces clinically plausible auto contours in the majority of structures. At this stage clinical supervision of the auto contouring process is required, and manual interventions may become necessary. Before routine use, further investigations are required, particularly to reduce imaging artifacts

  3. FOMC Targets, Base Drift and Inflationary Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Charles E. Hegji

    1989-01-01

    This paper uses a money supply-money demand model to study the effects on inflationary expectations of base drift and the Federal Open Market Committee's rebasing of its money supply targets. It is demonstrated that an averaging scheme for determining the Federal Open Market Committee's money stock target bases generates less inflationary uncertainty than no averaging. It is also shown that an alternative to target averaging is to accommodate long-run money supply strategy to changes in money...

  4. Bayesian target tracking based on particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    For being able to deal with the nonlinear or non-Gaussian problems, particle filters have been studied by many researchers. Based on particle filter, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) proposal function is applied to Bayesian target tracking. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, the resampling step, etc novel techniques are also introduced into Bayesian target tracking. And the simulation results confirm the improved particle filter with these techniques outperforms the basic one.

  5. Creation of RTOG compliant patient CT-atlases for automated atlas based contouring of local regional breast and high-risk prostate cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing use of IMRT to treat breast and prostate cancers at high risk of regional nodal spread relies on accurate contouring of targets and organs at risk, which is subject to significant inter- and intra-observer variability. This study sought to evaluate the performance of an atlas based deformable registration algorithm to create multi-patient CT based atlases for automated contouring. Breast and prostate multi-patient CT atlases (n = 50 and 14 respectively) were constructed to be consistent with RTOG consensus contouring guidelines. A commercially available software algorithm was evaluated by comparison of atlas-predicted contours against manual contours using Dice Similarity coefficients. High levels of agreement were demonstrated for prediction of OAR contours of lungs, heart, femurs, and minor editing required for the CTV breast/chest wall. CTVs generated for axillary nodes, supraclavicular nodes, prostate, and pelvic nodes demonstrated modest agreement. Small and highly variable structures, such as internal mammary nodes, lumpectomy cavity, rectum, penile bulb, and seminal vesicles had poor agreement. A method to construct and validate performance of CT-based multi-patient atlases for automated atlas based auto-contouring has been demonstrated, and can be adopted for clinical use in planning of local regional breast and high-risk prostate radiotherapy

  6. Comparison of primary target volumes delineated on four-dimensional CT and 18 F-FDG PET/CT of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the optimal threshold of 18 F-fluorodexyglucose (18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography CT (PET/CT) images that generates the best volumetric match to internal gross target volume (IGTV) based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) images. Twenty patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent enhanced three-dimensional CT (3DCT) scan followed by enhanced 4DCT scan of the thorax under normal free breathing with the administration of intravenous contrast agents. A total of 100 ml of ioversol was injected intravenously, 2 ml/s for 3DCT and 1 ml/s for 4DCT. Then 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed based on the same positioning parameters (the same immobilization devices and identical position verified by laser localizer as well as skin marks). Gross target volumes (GTVs) of the primary tumor were contoured on the ten phases images of 4DCT to generate IGTV10. GTVPET were determined with eight different threshold using an auto-contouring function. The differences in the position, volume, concordance index (CI) and degree of inclusion (DI) of the targets between GTVPET and IGTV10 were compared. The images from seventeen patients were suitable for further analysis. Significant differences between the centric coordinate positions of GTVPET (excluding GTVPET15%) and IGTV10 were observed only in z axes (P < 0.05). GTVPET15%, GTVPET25% and GTVPET2.0 were not statistically different from IGTV10 (P < 0.05). GTVPET15% approximated closely to IGTV10 with median percentage volume changes of 4.86%. The best CI was between IGTV10 and GTVPET15% (0.57). The best DI of IGTV10 in GTVPET was IGTV10 in GTVPET15% (0.80). None of the PET-based contours had both close spatial and volumetric approximation to the 4DCT IGTV10. At present 3D-PET/CT should not be used for IGTV generation

  7. Model-based target and background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert

    2000-07-01

    Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). Model based geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.

  8. Image-based air target identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glais, Thierry; Ayoun, Andre

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the main results obtained through a study on aircraft identification and attitude estimation conducted by Thomson TRT Defense for the French Ministry of Defense/Direction Generale de l'Armement/Direction des Constructions Aeronautiques. The purpose of this study was automatic assistance to aircraft identification. Indeed, modern fight airplanes are equipped with optronic systems capable of detecting and tracking enemy aircraft. In order to react quickly, the pilot must know at least the target type and possibly its identity. Recognition of the target type and attitude is obtained by matching the observed image with patterns belonging to a database. Two matching algorithms, which have been tested, are presented. The first one, based on the contour Fourier transform, needs the complete target silhouette extraction. The second one, belonging to the class of prediction and verification algorithms, compares the individual parts of the target to the database and is able to recognize the target, even when it is partially occluded or ill-segmented due to the lack of contrast between the target and its environment. An original feature of the algorithm stays in a validation process which increases the reliability of transmitted answers. In case of low confidence, no answer is provided. In addition, successive answers are consolidated. This strategy is interesting especially for image sequences where the tracked airplane achieves attitude evolution or even simply flies over various backgrounds. The main output of this study is the parametric analysis of various factors which influence performance such as contrast, background complexity, distance, attitude and type. The evaluation method, largely based on image synthesis (including image sequences), allows fine interpretation of statistical results. Misclassification errors occur when resolution is not sufficient or when complex backgrounds cause erroneous segmentation. Best results are obtained when the

  9. Panorama: A Targeted Proteomics Knowledge Base

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vagisha; Eckels, Josh; Taylor, Greg K.; Shulman, Nicholas J.; Stergachis, Andrew B.; Joyner, Shannon A.; Yan, Ping; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran N; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W.; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Carr, Steven A.; Jaffe, Jacob D

    2014-01-01

    Panorama is a web application for storing, sharing, analyzing, and reusing targeted assays created and refined with Skyline,1 an increasingly popular Windows client software tool for targeted proteomics experiments. Panorama allows laboratories to store and organize curated results contained in Skyline documents with fine-grained permissions, which facilitates distributed collaboration and secure sharing of published and unpublished data via a web-browser interface. It is fully integrated wit...

  10. Target recognition based on modified combination rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tianlu; Que Peiwen

    2006-01-01

    Evidence theory is widely used in the field of target recognition. The invalidation problem of this theory when dealing with highly conflict evidences is a research hotspot. Several alternatives of the combination rule are analyzed and compared. A new combination approach is proposed. Calculate the reliabilities of evidence sources using existing evidences. Construct reliabilities judge matrixes and get the weights of each evidence source. Weight average all inputted evidences. Combine processed evidences with D-S combination rule repeatedly to identify a target. The application in multi-sensor target recognition as well as the comparison with typical alternatives all validated that this approach can dispose highly conflict evidences efficiently and get reasonable recognition results rapidly.

  11. Research on Automatic Target Tracking Based on PTZ System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an algorithm of automatic target tracking based on PTZ system. Select the tracking target and set up the target motion trajectory in the video screen. Along the motion trajectory, the system controls the PTZ rotation automatically to track the target real-timely. At the same time, it adjusts the zoom to enlarge or reduce to make sure the target can display on the video screen center clearly at the suitable size. By testing on groups of video, verify the effectiveness of the automatic target tracking algorithm.

  12. Prediction of potential drug targets based on simple sequence properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Luhua

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decades, research and development in drug discovery have attracted much attention and efforts. However, only 324 drug targets are known for clinical drugs up to now. Identifying potential drug targets is the first step in the process of modern drug discovery for developing novel therapeutic agents. Therefore, the identification and validation of new and effective drug targets are of great value for drug discovery in both academia and pharmaceutical industry. If a protein can be predicted in advance for its potential application as a drug target, the drug discovery process targeting this protein will be greatly speeded up. In the current study, based on the properties of known drug targets, we have developed a sequence-based drug target prediction method for fast identification of novel drug targets. Results Based on simple physicochemical properties extracted from protein sequences of known drug targets, several support vector machine models have been constructed in this study. The best model can distinguish currently known drug targets from non drug targets at an accuracy of 84%. Using this model, potential protein drug targets of human origin from Swiss-Prot were predicted, some of which have already attracted much attention as potential drug targets in pharmaceutical research. Conclusion We have developed a drug target prediction method based solely on protein sequence information without the knowledge of family/domain annotation, or the protein 3D structure. This method can be applied in novel drug target identification and validation, as well as genome scale drug target predictions.

  13. Multiplex allele-specific target amplification based on PCR suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Broude, Natalia E.; Zhang, Lingang; Woodward, Karen; Englert, David; Cantor, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a strategy for multiplex PCR based on PCR suppression. PCR suppression allows DNA target amplification with only one sequence-specific primer per target and a second primer that is common for all targets. Therefore, an n-plex PCR would require only n + 1 primers. We have demonstrated uniform, efficient amplification of targeted sequences in 14-plex PCR. The high specificity of suppression PCR also provides multiplexed amplification with allele specifi...

  14. Radar target recognition based on micro-Doppler effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wei-guang; LI Yan-jun

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical vibration of target structures will modulate the phase function of radar backscattering, and will induce thefrequency modulation of returned signals from the target. It generates a side bands of the target body Doppler frequencyshift, which is helpful for target recognition. Based on this.a micro-Doppler atomic storehouse is built for the targetrecognition, and four kinds of common classifiers are used separately to perform the classified recognition. The simulationexperimental results show that this method has high recognition rate above 90%.

  15. Group II intron-based gene targeting reactions in eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mastroianni

    Full Text Available Mobile group II introns insert site-specifically into DNA target sites by a mechanism termed retrohoming in which the excised intron RNA reverse splices into a DNA strand and is reverse transcribed by the intron-encoded protein. Retrohoming is mediated by a ribonucleoprotein particle that contains the intron-encoded protein and excised intron RNA, with target specificity determined largely by base pairing of the intron RNA to the DNA target sequence. This feature enabled the development of mobile group II introns into bacterial gene targeting vectors ("targetrons" with programmable target specificity. Thus far, however, efficient group II intron-based gene targeting reactions have not been demonstrated in eukaryotes.By using a plasmid-based Xenopus laevis oocyte microinjection assay, we show that group II intron RNPs can integrate efficiently into target DNAs in a eukaryotic nucleus, but the reaction is limited by low Mg(2+ concentrations. By supplying additional Mg(2+, site-specific integration occurs in up to 38% of plasmid target sites. The integration products isolated from X. laevis nuclei are sensitive to restriction enzymes specific for double-stranded DNA, indicating second-strand synthesis via host enzymes. We also show that group II intron RNPs containing either lariat or linear intron RNA can introduce a double-strand break into a plasmid target site, thereby stimulating homologous recombination with a co-transformed DNA fragment at frequencies up to 4.8% of target sites. Chromatinization of the target DNA inhibits both types of targeting reactions, presumably by impeding RNP access. However, by using similar RNP microinjection methods, we show efficient Mg(2+-dependent group II intron integration into plasmid target sites in zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos and into plasmid and chromosomal target sites in Drosophila melanogster embryos, indicating that DNA replication can mitigate effects of chromatinization.Our results provide an

  16. Grover quantum searching algorithm based on weighted targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Panchi; Li Shiyong

    2008-01-01

    The current Grover quantum searching algorithm cannot identify the difference in importance of the search targets when it is applied to an unsorted quantum database, and the probability for each search target is equal. To solve this problem, a Grover searching algorithm based on weighted targets is proposed. First, each target is endowed a weight coefficient according to its importance. Applying these different weight coefficients, the targets are represented as quantum superposition states. Second, the novel Grover searching algorithm based on the quantum superposition of the weighted targets is constructed. Using this algorithm, the probability of getting each target can be approximated to the corresponding weight coefficient, which shows the flexibility of this algorithm.Finally, the validity of the algorithm is proved by a simple searching example.

  17. Tracking target objects orbiting earth using satellite-based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Willem H; Olivier, Scot S; Pertica, Alexander J

    2014-10-14

    A system for tracking objects that are in earth orbit via a constellation or network of satellites having imaging devices is provided. An object tracking system includes a ground controller and, for each satellite in the constellation, an onboard controller. The ground controller receives ephemeris information for a target object and directs that ephemeris information be transmitted to the satellites. Each onboard controller receives ephemeris information for a target object, collects images of the target object based on the expected location of the target object at an expected time, identifies actual locations of the target object from the collected images, and identifies a next expected location at a next expected time based on the identified actual locations of the target object. The onboard controller processes the collected image to identify the actual location of the target object and transmits the actual location information to the ground controller.

  18. Nanopore-Based Target Sequence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Trevor J; Shropshire, Tyler; Liu, Xu; Briggs, Kyle; Huynh, Cindy; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent; Wang, Hongyun; Dunbar, William B

    2016-01-01

    The promise of portable diagnostic devices relies on three basic requirements: comparable sensitivity to established platforms, inexpensive manufacturing and cost of operations, and the ability to survive rugged field conditions. Solid state nanopores can meet all these requirements, but to achieve high manufacturing yields at low costs, assays must be tolerant to fabrication imperfections and to nanopore enlargement during operation. This paper presents a model for molecular engineering techniques that meets these goals with the aim of detecting target sequences within DNA. In contrast to methods that require precise geometries, we demonstrate detection using a range of pore geometries. As a result, our assay model tolerates any pore-forming method and in-situ pore enlargement. Using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes modified for conjugation with synthetic bulk-adding molecules, pores ranging 15-50 nm in diameter are shown to detect individual PNA-bound DNA. Detection of the CFTRΔF508 gene mutation, a codon deletion responsible for ∼66% of all cystic fibrosis chromosomes, is demonstrated with a 26-36 nm pore size range by using a size-enhanced PNA probe. A mathematical framework for assessing the statistical significance of detection is also presented. PMID:27149679

  19. Nanopore-Based Target Sequence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Trevor J.; Shropshire, Tyler; Liu, Xu; Briggs, Kyle; Huynh, Cindy; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent; Wang, Hongyun; Dunbar, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of portable diagnostic devices relies on three basic requirements: comparable sensitivity to established platforms, inexpensive manufacturing and cost of operations, and the ability to survive rugged field conditions. Solid state nanopores can meet all these requirements, but to achieve high manufacturing yields at low costs, assays must be tolerant to fabrication imperfections and to nanopore enlargement during operation. This paper presents a model for molecular engineering techniques that meets these goals with the aim of detecting target sequences within DNA. In contrast to methods that require precise geometries, we demonstrate detection using a range of pore geometries. As a result, our assay model tolerates any pore-forming method and in-situ pore enlargement. Using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes modified for conjugation with synthetic bulk-adding molecules, pores ranging 15-50 nm in diameter are shown to detect individual PNA-bound DNA. Detection of the CFTRΔF508 gene mutation, a codon deletion responsible for ∼66% of all cystic fibrosis chromosomes, is demonstrated with a 26-36 nm pore size range by using a size-enhanced PNA probe. A mathematical framework for assessing the statistical significance of detection is also presented. PMID:27149679

  20. AAV-Based Targeting Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Shi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first parvovirus serotype AAV2 was isolated from human and used as a vector for gene therapy application, there have been significant progresses in AAV vector development. AAV vectors have been extensively investigated in gene therapy for a broad application. AAV vectors have been considered as the first choice of vector due to efficient infectivity, stable expression and non-pathogenicity. However, the untoward events in AAV mediated in vivo gene therapy studies proposed the new challenges for their further applications. Deep understanding of the viral life cycle, viral structure and replication, infection mechanism and efficiency of AAV DNA integration, in terms of contributing viral, host-cell factors and circumstances would promote to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages and provide more insightful information for the possible clinical applications. In this review, main effort will be focused on the recent progresses in gene delivery to the target cells via receptor-ligand interaction and DNA specific integration regulation. Furthermore AAV receptor and virus particle intracellular trafficking are also discussed.

  1. miRNA-target prediction based on transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara Toyofumi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are tiny endogenous RNAs that have been discovered in animals and plants, and direct the post-transcriptional regulation of target mRNAs for degradation or translational repression via binding to the 3'UTRs and the coding exons. To gain insight into the biological role of miRNAs, it is essential to identify the full repertoire of mRNA targets (target genes. A number of computer programs have been developed for miRNA-target prediction. These programs essentially focus on potential binding sites in 3'UTRs, which are recognized by miRNAs according to specific base-pairing rules. Results Here, we introduce a novel method for miRNA-target prediction that is entirely independent of existing approaches. The method is based on the hypothesis that transcription of a miRNA and its target genes tend to be co-regulated by common transcription factors. This hypothesis predicts the frequent occurrence of common cis-elements between promoters of a miRNA and its target genes. That is, our proposed method first identifies putative cis-elements in a promoter of a given miRNA, and then identifies genes that contain common putative cis-elements in their promoters. In this paper, we show that a significant number of common cis-elements occur in ~28% of experimentally supported human miRNA-target data. Moreover, we show that the prediction of human miRNA-targets based on our method is statistically significant. Further, we discuss the random incidence of common cis-elements, their consensus sequences, and the advantages and disadvantages of our method. Conclusions This is the first report indicating prevalence of transcriptional regulation of a miRNA and its target genes by common transcription factors and the predictive ability of miRNA-targets based on this property.

  2. Target tracking based on spatio-temporal fractal error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian S.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to target tracking using a measurement process based on spatio-temporal fractal error. Moving targets are automatically detected using one-dimensional temporal fractal error. A template derived from the two-dimensional spatial fractal error is then extracted for a designated target to allow for correlation-based template matching in subsequent frames. The outputs of both the spatial and temporal fractal error components are combined and presented as input to a kinematic tracking filter. It is shown that combining the two outputs provides improved tracking performance in the presence of noise, occlusion, other moving objects, and when the target of interest stops moving. Furthermore, reconciliation of the spatial and temporal components also provides a useful mechanism for detecting occlusion and avoiding template drift, a problem typically present in correlation-based trackers. Results are demonstrated using airborne MWIR sequences from the DARPA VIVID dataset.

  3. Photographic-based target models for LADAR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, James T.; Delashmit, Walter H.

    2009-05-01

    A long standing need for the application of laser radar (LADAR) to a wider range of targets is a technique for creating a "target model" from target photographs. This is feasible since LADAR images are 3D and photographs at selected azimuth/elevation angles will allow the required models to be created. Preferred photographic images of a wide range of selected targets were specified and collected. These photographs were processed using code developed in house and some commercial software packages. These "models" were used in model-based automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. The ATR performance was excellent. This technique differs significantly from other techniques for creating target models. Those techniques require CAD models which are much harder to manipulate and contain extraneous detail. The technique in this paper develops the photographic-based target models in component form so that any component (e.g., turret of a tank) can be independently manipulated, such as rotating the turret. This new technique also allows models to be generated for targets for which no actual LADAR data has ever been collected. A summary of the steps used in the modeling process is as follows: start with a set of input photographs, calibrate the imagery into a 3D world space to generate points corresponding to target features, create target geometry by connecting points with surfaces, mark all co-located points in each image view and verify alignment of points, place in a 3D space, create models by creating surfaces (i.e., connect points with planar curves) and scale target into real-world coordinates.

  4. Classification of Underwater Target Echoes Based on Auditory Perception Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiukun Li; Xiangxia Meng; Hang Liu; Mingye Liu

    2014-01-01

    In underwater target detection, the bottom reverberation has some of the same properties as the target echo, which has a great impact on the performance. It is essential to study the difference between target echo and reverberation. In this paper, based on the unique advantage of human listening ability on objects distinction, the Gammatone filter is taken as the auditory model. In addition, time-frequency perception features and auditory spectral features are extracted for active sonar target echo and bottom reverberation separation. The features of the experimental data have good concentration characteristics in the same class and have a large amount of differences between different classes, which shows that this method can effectively distinguish between the target echo and reverberation.

  5. A capillary based chemiluminscent multi-target immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan-Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Renewed interest in capillary format immunoassays has lead to increasingly costly and complex approaches to preparation and readout. This study describes a simple multi-target method based on a capillary platform using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled IgG to visualize an antibody antigen complex. When goat-anti-human IgG was employed as the probe and human IgG as target, the system allowed detection of target to less than 1 ng/mL using a standard detection approach. The capillaries were read visually or with a commercial grade CCD camera. Multi-target detection was demonstrated using a model system of rat-anti-mouse, goat-anti-human and mouse-anti-rat IgG. These probes were encoded to different locations in the capillary, providing a simple inexpensive approach to achieve multi-target assays. PMID:25731812

  6. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeutic efficacy of gene delivery, various carriers have been engineered and developed to provide protection to the genetic materials and efficient delivery to targeted cancer cells. Nanoparticles play an important role in the area of drug delivery and have been widely applied in cancer treatments for the purposes of controlled release and cancer cell targeting. Nanoparticles composed of artificial polymers, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids have been developed for the delivery of therapeutic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences to target cancer. In addition, the effectiveness of cancer targeting has been enhanced by surface modification or conjugation with biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. In this review article we provide an overview on the latest developments in nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancers. Firstly, we outline the conventional therapies and discuss strategies for targeted gene therapy using nanoparticles. Secondly, we provide the most representative and recent researches in lung cancers including malignant pleural mesothelioma, mainly focusing on the application of Polymeric, Lipid-based, and Metal-based nanoparticles. Finally, we discuss current achievements and future challenges. PMID:27294004

  7. Monocular Vision-Based Robot Localization and Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Fei Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based technology for localizing targets in 3D environment. It is achieved by the combination of different types of sensors including optical wheel encoders, an electrical compass, and visual observations with a single camera. Based on the robot motion model and image sequences, extended Kalman filter is applied to estimate target locations and the robot pose simultaneously. The proposed localization system is applicable in practice because it is not necessary to have the initializing setting regarding starting the system from artificial landmarks of known size. The technique is especially suitable for navigation and target tracing for an indoor robot and has a high potential extension to surveillance and monitoring for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with aerial odometry sensors. The experimental results present “cm” level accuracy of the localization of the targets in indoor environment under a high-speed robot movement.

  8. A lipase-based electrochemical biosensor for target DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lipase-based electrochemical biosensor has been fabricated for the quantitative determination of target DNA. It is based on a stem-loop nucleic acid probe labeled with ferrocene containing a butanoate ester that is hydrolyzed by lipase. The other end of the probe DNA is linked, via carboxy groups, to magnetic nanoparticles. The binding of target DNA transforms the hairpin structure of the probe DNA and causes the exposure of ester bonds. This results in the release of electro-active ferrocene after hydrolysis of the ester bonds, and in an observable electrochemical response. The quantity of target DNA in the concentration range between 1 × 10−12 mol·L−1 and 1 × 10−8 mol·L−1 can be determined by measuring the electrochemical current. The method can detect target DNA with rapid response (30 min) and low interference. (author)

  9. Identifying drug-target proteins based on network features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Proteins rarely function in isolation inside and outside cells, but operate as part of a highly intercon- nected cellular network called the interaction network. Therefore, the analysis of the properties of drug-target proteins in the biological network is especially helpful for understanding the mechanism of drug action in terms of informatics. At present, no detailed characterization and description of the topological features of drug-target proteins have been available in the human protein-protein interac- tion network. In this work, by mapping the drug-targets in DrugBank onto the interaction network of human proteins, five topological indices of drug-targets were analyzed and compared with those of the whole protein interactome set and the non-drug-target set. The experimental results showed that drug-target proteins have higher connectivity and quicker communication with each other in the PPI network. Based on these features, all proteins in the interaction network were ranked. The results showed that, of the top 100 proteins, 48 are covered by DrugBank; of the remaining 52 proteins, 9 are drug-target proteins covered by the TTD, Matador and other databases, while others have been dem- onstrated to be drug-target proteins in the literature.

  10. Identifying drug-target proteins based on network features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU MingZhu; GAO Lei; LI Xia; LIU ZhiCheng

    2009-01-01

    Proteins rarely function in isolation Inside and outside cells, but operate as part of a highly Intercon-nected cellular network called the interaction network. Therefore, the analysis of the properties of drug-target proteins in the biological network is especially helpful for understanding the mechanism of drug action In terms of informatice. At present, no detailed characterization and description of the topological features of drug-target proteins have been available in the human protein-protein interac-tion network. In this work, by mapping the drug-targets in DrugBank onto the interaction network of human proteins, five topological indices of drug-targets were analyzed and compared with those of the whole protein interactome set and the non-drug-target set. The experimental results showed that drug-target proteins have higher connectivity and quicker communication with each other in the PPI network. Based on these features, all proteins In the interaction network were ranked. The results showed that, of the top 100 proteins, 48 are covered by DrugBank; of the remaining 52 proteins, 9 are drug-target proteins covered by the TTD, Matador and other databases, while others have been dem-onstrated to be drug-target proteins in the literature.

  11. Pentanol-based target material with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1-pentanol is a promising material for a target with polarized protons owing to its high resistance to radiation damage. To develop the target, the solutions of 1-pentanol or 2-pentanol with complexes of pentavalent chromium ware investigated. The material based EHBA-Cr(V) solution in a glass-like matrix, consisting of 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol and 1,2-propanediol, was proposed as a target material. It was investigated by the electron paramagnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry methods. 24 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Ground-based observations of Kepler asteroseismic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uyttterhoeven , K.; Karoff, Christoffer

    We present the ground-based activities within the different working groups of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). The activities aim at the systematic characterization of the 5000+ KASC targets, and at the collection of ground-based follow-up time-series data of selected promising...

  13. MOVING TARGETS PATTERN RECOGNITION BASED ON THE WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Guangying; Chen Lili; Xu Jianjian

    2005-01-01

    Based on pattern recognition theory and neural network technology, moving objects automatic detection and classification method integrating advanced wavelet analysis are discussed in detail. An algorithm of moving targets pattern recognition on the combination of inter-frame difference and wavelet neural network is presented. The experimental results indicate that the designed BP wavelet network using this algorithm can recognize and classify moving targets rapidly and effectively.

  14. The Study of Target Tracking Based on ARM Embedded Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explored a solution of target tracking based on the ARM embedded platform, which gave a design and realization of removable image processing equipment to detect and track the pedestrian in the video. The integration level of embedded platform is very high, embedded platform supports real-time multitasking operating system, and comply with the requirements of real-time and miniaturization. Studying how to combine embedded platform with target tracking, it has instructional significance for robot development applications.

  15. Pricise Target Geolocation and Tracking Based on Uav Video Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, H. R.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasingly large number of applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from monitoring, mapping and target geolocation. However, most of commercial UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as C/A code GPS and a low-cost IMU on board, allowing a positioning accuracy of 5 to 10 meters. This low accuracy cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level. This paper presents a precise process for geolocation of ground targets based on thermal video imagery acquired by small UAV equipped with RTK GPS. The geolocation data is filtered using an extended Kalman filter, which provides a smoothed estimate of target location and target velocity. The accurate geo-locating of targets during image acquisition is conducted via traditional photogrammetric bundle adjustment equations using accurate exterior parameters achieved by on board IMU and RTK GPS sensors, Kalman filtering and interior orientation parameters of thermal camera from pre-flight laboratory calibration process. The results of this study compared with code-based ordinary GPS, indicate that RTK observation with proposed method shows more than 10 times improvement of accuracy in target geolocation.

  16. Component-based target recognition inspired by human vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Agyepong, Kwabena

    2009-05-01

    In contrast with machine vision, human can recognize an object from complex background with great flexibility. For example, given the task of finding and circling all cars (no further information) in a picture, you may build a virtual image in mind from the task (or target) description before looking at the picture. Specifically, the virtual car image may be composed of the key components such as driver cabin and wheels. In this paper, we propose a component-based target recognition method by simulating the human recognition process. The component templates (equivalent to the virtual image in mind) of the target (car) are manually decomposed from the target feature image. Meanwhile, the edges of the testing image can be extracted by using a difference of Gaussian (DOG) model that simulates the spatiotemporal response in visual process. A phase correlation matching algorithm is then applied to match the templates with the testing edge image. If all key component templates are matched with the examining object, then this object is recognized as the target. Besides the recognition accuracy, we will also investigate if this method works with part targets (half cars). In our experiments, several natural pictures taken on streets were used to test the proposed method. The preliminary results show that the component-based recognition method is very promising.

  17. An Algorithm of Sensor Management Based on Dynamic Target Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXianxing; ZHOULin; JINYong

    2005-01-01

    The probability density of stationary target is only evolved at measurement update, but the probability density of dynamic target is evolved not only at measurement update but also during measurements, this paper researches an algorithm of dynamic targets detection. Firstly, it presents the evolution of probability density at measurement update by Bayes' rule and the evolution of probability density during measurements by Fokker-Planck differential equations, respectively. Secondly, the method of obtaining information entropy by the probability density is given and sensor resources are distributed based on the evolution of information entropy viz. the maximization of information gain. Simulation results show that compared with the algorithm of serial search, this algorithm is feasible and effective when it is used to detect dynamic target.

  18. Hydrocarbon microseepage mapping using signature based target detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Hilal; Koz, Alper; Şebnem Düzgün, H.; Aydin Alatan, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we compare the conventional methods in hydrocarbon seepage anomalies with the signature based detection algorithms. The Crosta technique [1] is selected as a basement in the experimental comparisons for the conventional approach. The Crosta technique utilizes the characteristic bands of the searched target for principal component transformation in order to determine the components characterizing the target in interest. Desired Target Detection and Classification Algorithm (DTDCA), Spectral Matched Filter (SMF), and Normalized Correlation (NC) are employed for signature based target detection. Signature based target detection algorithms are applied to the whole spectrum benefiting from the information stored in all spectral bands. The selected methods are applied to a multispectral Advanced SpaceBorne Thermal Emission and Radiometer (ASTER) image of the study region, with an atmospheric correction prior to the realization of the algorithms. ASTER provides multispectral bands covering visible, short wave, and thermal infrared region, which serves as a useful tool for the interpretation of the areas with hydrocarbon anomalies. The exploration area is selected as Gemrik Anticline which is located in South East Anatolia, Adıyaman, Bozova Oil Field, where microseeps can be observed with almost no vegetation cover. The spectral signatures collected with Analytical Spectral Devices Inc. (ASD) spectrometer from the reference valley [2] have been utilized as an input to the signature based detection algorithms. The experiments have indicated that DTDCA and MF outperforms the Crosta technique by locating the microseepage patterns along the mitigation pathways with a better contrast. On the other hand, NC has not been able to map the searched target with a visible distinction. It is concluded that the signature based algorithms can be more effective than the conventional methods for the detection of microseepage induced anomalies.

  19. Advances in the targeting molecules modified chitosan-based nanoformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongliang; Cai, Xiaoqing; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan, a cationic polysaccharide, has prompted the continuous impetus for the development of safe and effective drug delivery systems due to its unique properties such as mucoadhesive feature, absorption enhancement and active functional groups for chemical modifications. By using chitosan-based nanoformulations, many studies have attempted to improve the dispersion of loaded hydrophobic drugs in aqueous environment, protect the encapsulated proteins and genes against enzymatic degradation, and increase their absorption by target tissues. It's noteworthy that the derivatization of chitosan-based carriers with a ligand leads to the selective targeting of the nanoformulations to selected cells, thereby facilitating far more sensitive internalization and localization of nanoformulations for diseases' diagnosis and treatment. As such, this review focuses on some of the most poignant reports of the utility of targeting molecules such as carbohydrates, antibodies, peptides and some small molecules in chitosan-based nanoformulations for targeted delivery. Additionally, the affinity mechanism of different targeting molecules and the pros and cons of their conjugation strategies will be illustrated summarily. PMID:23469876

  20. Target Recognition Algorithm Based on BP Networks and Invariant Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Tian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of multi-sensor fusion algorithm, a target recognition algorithm based on Back Propagation (BP neural networks and invariant moments was proposed. Invariant moment takes advantage of overall information of the targets. It has good differentiating effect and high identification technique. On the other hand, BP neural networks not only have the adaptive learning ability, but also are insensitive to imperfection of input mode. Therefore, it has proper classification and extensibility. It is effective for the algorithm based on BP neural networks and invariant moments that decrease the adverse impacts for the images, which are always subject to the changes of imaging distance, direction and position. Simulation results show that the algorithm has strong recognition capability for surface targets from infrared image sensors.

  1. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, it is possible to arrange for a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy (“heavy-ion fusion”). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly “wobbling” each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. It is found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  2. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States) and The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion Science (United States)

    2012-06-15

    By manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, it is possible to arrange for a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy ('heavy-ion fusion'). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly 'wobbling' each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. It is found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  3. Arc-based smoothing of ion beam intensity on targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alex

    2012-06-01

    By manipulating a set of ion beams upstream of a target, it is possible to arrange for a smoother deposition pattern, so as to achieve more uniform illumination of the target. A uniform energy deposition pattern is important for applications including ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion energy ("heavy-ion fusion"). Here, we consider an approach to such smoothing that is based on rapidly "wobbling" each of the beams back and forth along a short arc-shaped path, via oscillating fields applied upstream of the final pulse compression. In this technique, uniformity is achieved in the time-averaged sense; this is sufficient provided the beam oscillation timescale is short relative to the hydrodynamic timescale of the target implosion. This work builds on two earlier concepts: elliptical beams applied to a distributed-radiator target [D. A. Callahan and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)] and beams that are wobbled so as to trace a number of full rotations around a circular or elliptical path [R. C. Arnold et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 199, 557 (1982)]. Here, we describe the arc-based smoothing approach and compare it to results obtainable using an elliptical-beam prescription. In particular, we assess the potential of these approaches for minimization of azimuthal asymmetry, for the case of a ring of beams arranged on a cone. It is found that, for small numbers of beams on the ring, the arc-based smoothing approach offers superior uniformity. In contrast with the full-rotation approach, arc-based smoothing remains usable when the geometry precludes wobbling the beams around a full circle, e.g., for the X-target [E. Henestroza, B. G. Logan, and L. J. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)] and some classes of distributed-radiator targets.

  4. Future target-based drug discovery for tuberculosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Bavesh Davandra; Karakousis, Petros C; Parish, Tanya; Dick, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    New drugs that retain potency against multidrug/extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the additional benefit of a shortened treatment duration and ease of administration, are urgently needed by tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Efforts to develop this new generation of treatment interventions have been plagued with numerous problems, the most significant being our insufficient understanding of mycobacterial metabolism during disease. This, combined with limited chemical diversity and poor entry of small molecules into the cell, has limited the number of new bioactive agents that result from drug screening efforts. The biochemical, target-driven approach to drug development has been largely abandoned in the TB field, to be replaced by whole-cell or target-based whole-cell screening approaches. In this context, the properties of a good drug target are unclear, since these are directly determined by the ability to find compounds, using current screening algorithms, which are able to kill M. tuberculosis. In this review, we discuss issues related to the identification and validation of drug targets and highlight some key properties for promising targets. Some of these include essentiality for growth, vulnerability, druggability, reduced propensity to evolve drug resistance and target location to facilitate ready access to drugs during chemotherapy. We present these in the context of recent drugs that have emerged through various approaches with the aim of consolidating the knowledge gained from these experiences to inform future efforts. PMID:25458615

  5. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is constr

  6. Spatial distorted target recognition based on improved MACH filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

    2014-11-01

    Joint transform correlator (JTC) can make targets recognized and located accurately, but the bottleneck technique of JTC is how to recognize spatial distorted targets in cluttered scene. This has restricted the development of the pattern recognition with JTC to a great extent. In order to solve the problem, improved maximum average correlation height (MACH) filter algorithm is presented in this paper. The MACH algorithm has powerful capability of recognition for spatial distorted targets (rotation and scale changed etc.). The controlling parameters of the synthesized filter are optimized in this paper, which makes the filter have higher distortion tolerance and can suppress cluttered noise effectively. When improved MACH filter algorithm in frequency domain is projected to space domain, the MACH reference template image can be obtained which includes various forms of distorted target image. Based on amounts of computer simulation and optical experiments, MACH reference template is proved to have the capability of sharpening the correlation peaks and expanding recognizing scope for distorted targets in cluttered scene. MATLAB software is applied to produce MACH reference image for the detected target images and conduct simulation experiments for its powerful calculation capability of matrix. In order to prove the feasibility of MACH reference in JTC and determine the recognition scope, experiments for an aircraft target in the sky are carried out. After the original image is processed by edge extraction, a MACH filter reference template is obtained in space domain from improved MACH filter in frequency domain. From simulation experiments, the improved MACH filter is proved to have the feasibility of sharpening correlation peaks for distorted targets. Optical experiments are given to verify the effectiveness further. The experiments show the angular distortion tolerance can reach up to +/-15 degrees and scale distortion tolerance can reach up to +/-23%. Within this

  7. A Non Parametric Estimation Based Underwater Target Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binesh T, Supriya M.H & P.R.Saseendran Pillai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Underwater noise sources constitute a prominent class of input signal in most underwater signalprocessing systems. The problem of identification of noise sources in the ocean is of greatimportance because of its numerous practical applications. In this paper, a methodology ispresented for the detection and identification of underwater targets and noise sources based onnon parametric indicators. The proposed system utilizes Cepstral coefficient analysis and theKruskal-Wallis H statistic along with other statistical indicators like F-test statistic for the effectivedetection and classification of noise sources in the ocean. Simulation results for typicalunderwater noise data and the set of identified underwater targets are also presented in thispaper.

  8. Radionuclide-Based Cancer Imaging Targeting the Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, highly expressed in many cancer types, is an important target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide-based imaging techniques (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] and positron emission tomography [PET] have been extensively explored for CEA-targeted cancer imaging both preclinically and clinically. Briefly, these studies can be divided into three major categories: antibody-based, antibody fragment-based and pretargeted imaging. Radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies, reported the earliest among the three categories, typically gave suboptimal tumor contrast due to the prolonged circulation life time of intact antibodies. Subsequently, a number of engineered anti-CEA antibody fragments (e.g. Fab’, scFv, minibody, diabody and scFv-Fc have been labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for CEA imaging, many of which have entered clinical investigation. CEA-Scan (a 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA Fab’ fragment has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer imaging. Meanwhile, pretargeting strategies have also been developed for CEA imaging which can give much better tumor contrast than the other two methods, if the system is designed properly. In this review article, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of radionuclide-based cancer imaging targeting CEA. Generally, isotopes with short half-lives (e.g. 18F and 99mTc are more suitable for labeling small engineered antibody fragments while the isotopes with longer half-lives (e.g. 123I and 111In are needed for antibody labeling to match its relatively long circulation half-life. With further improvement in tumor targeting efficacy and radiolabeling strategies, novel CEA-targeted agents may play an important role in cancer patient management, paving the way to “personalized medicine”.

  9. Target Image Matching Algorithm Based on Binocular CCD Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed target image in a subpixel level matching algorithm for binocular CCD ranging, which is based on the principle of binocular CCD ranging. In the paper, firstly, we introduced the ranging principle of the binocular ranging system and deduced a binocular parallax formula. Secondly, we deduced the algorithm which was named improved cross-correlation matching algorithm and cubic surface fitting algorithm for target images matched, and it could achieve a subpixel level matching for binocular CCD ranging images. Lastly, through experiment we have analyzed and verified the actual CCD ranging images, then analyzed the errors of the experimental results and corrected the formula of calculating system errors. Experimental results showed that the actual measurement accuracy of a target within 3 km was higher than 0.52%, which meet the accuracy requirements of the high precision binocular ranging.

  10. Target detection and recognition in SAR imagery based on KFDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Gao; Jingyuan Mei; Jinping Sun; Jun Wang; Erfu Yang; Amir Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Current research on target detection and recognition from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is usual y carried out separately. It is difficult to verify the ability of a target recognition algorithm for adapting to changes in the environment. To realize the whole process of SAR automatic target recognition (ATR), es-pecial y for the detection and recognition of vehicles, an algorithm based on kernel fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA) is proposed. First, in order to make a better description of the difference be-tween the background and the target, KFDA is extended to the detection part. Image samples are obtained with a dual-window approach and features of the inner and outer window samples are extracted by using KFDA. The difference between the features of inner and outer window samples is compared with a threshold to determine whether a vehicle exists. Second, for the target area, we propose an improved KFDA-IMED (image Euclidean distance) combined with a support vector machine (SVM) to recognize the vehicles. Experimental results validate the performance of our method. On the detection task, our proposed method obtains not only a high detection rate but also a low false alarm rate without using any prior information. For the recognition task, our method overcomes the SAR image aspect angle sensitivity, reduces the requirements for image preprocessing and improves the recogni-tion rate.

  11. Network-based target ranking for polypharmacological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesca; Mulas, Francesca; Marini, Pietro; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2013-10-01

    With the growing understanding of complex diseases, the focus of drug discovery has shifted from the well-accepted "one target, one drug" model, to a new "multi-target, multi-drug" model, aimed at systemically modulating multiple targets. In this context, polypharmacology has emerged as a new paradigm to overcome the recent decline in productivity of pharmaceutical research. However, finding methods to evaluate multicomponent therapeutics and ranking synergistic agent combinations is still a demanding task. At the same time, the data gathered on complex diseases has been progressively collected in public data and knowledge repositories, such as protein-protein interaction (PPI) databases. The PPI networks are increasingly used as universal platforms for data integration and analysis. A novel computational network-based approach for feasible and efficient identification of multicomponent synergistic agents is proposed in this paper. Given a complex disease, the method exploits the topological features of the related PPI network to identify possible combinations of hit targets. The best ranked combinations are subsequently computed on the basis of a synergistic score. We illustrate the potential of the method through a study on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The results highlight its ability to retrieve novel target candidates, which role is also confirmed by the analysis of the related literature. PMID:23850841

  12. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Jill W; Latouche, Eduardo L; Sano, Michael B; Rossmeisl, John H; Davalos, Rafael V; Verbridge, Scott S

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors. PMID:26596248

  13. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-11-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  14. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  15. Folate-targeted docetaxel-lipid-based-nanosuspensions for active-targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lili Wang, Min Li, Na ZhangSchool of Pharmaceutical Science, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, ChinaAbstract: The purpose of this study was to develop two novel drug delivery systems based on biodegradable docetaxel-lipid-based-nanosuspensions. The first one was poly(ethylene glycol-modified docetaxel-lipid-based-nanosuspensions (pLNS. It was developed to increase the cycle time of the drug within the body and enhance the accumulation of the drug at the tumor site. The second one was targeted docetaxel-lipid-based-nanosuspensions (tLNS using folate as the target ligand. The tLNS could target the tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR. The morphology, particle size, and zeta potential of pLNS and tLNS were characterized, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of Duopafei®, pLNS, and tLNS were performed in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma HepG2 (FR- and B16 (FR+ cells, respectively. The in vivo antitumor efficacy and pharmacokinetics, as well as the drug tissue distribution, were evaluated in Kunming mice bearing B16 cells. The particle size of pLNS was 204.2 ± 6.18 nm and tLNS had a mean particle size of 220.6 ± 9.54 nm. Cytotoxicity of tLNS against B16 (FR+ cell lines was superior to pLNS (P < 0.05, while there was no significant difference in the half maximum inhibitory concentration values for HepG2 (FR- cells between pLNS and tLNS. The results of the in vivo antitumor efficacy evaluation showed that tLNS exhibited higher antitumor efficacy by reducing tumor volume (P < 0.01 compared with Duopafei and pLNS, respectively. The results of the in vivo biodistribution study indicate that the better antitumor efficacy of tLNS was attributed to the increased accumulation of the drug in the tumor.Keywords: lipid-based-nanosuspensions, docetaxel, cancer therapy, folate, target drug delivery

  16. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ivey, Jill W.; Eduardo L. Latouche; Sano, Michael B.; John H. Rossmeisl; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pu...

  17. Delivery of Retinoid-Based Therapies To Target Tissues†

    OpenAIRE

    Moise, Alexander R.; Noy, Noa; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Blaner, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Through its various metabolites, vitamin A controls essential physiological functions. Both naturally occurring metabolites and novel retinoid analogues have shown effectiveness in many clinical settings that include skin diseases and cancer, and in animal models of human conditions affecting vision. In this review, we analyze several potential retinoid-based therapies from the point of view of drug metabolism and transport to target tissues. We focus on the endogenous factors that affect the...

  18. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Junhua Sun; Huabin He; Debing Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three), while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphe...

  19. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  20. Auto Target Tracking Robot Design Based on Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Shuen De Wu; Kei-Siang You

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a robot tracking control design based on a smartphone using a commercial microprocessor. The system hardware consists of four major parts: an Android smartphone with an embedded camera, a Microchip microprocessor, a motor driver circuit and an Attacknid robot. First, an image of the surrounding environment is captured by the high definition camera embedded in the smartphone. The target is then recognized from the image using an algorithm developed in Android OS and OpenCV...

  1. Mass spectrometry based targeted protein quantification: methods and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Sheng; Aebersold, Ruedi; Chen, Ru; Rush, John; Goodlett, David R.; McIntosh, Martin W.; Zhang, Jing; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    The recent advance in technology for mass spectrometry-based targeted protein quantification has opened new avenues for a broad range of proteomic applications in clinical research. The major breakthroughs are highlighted by the capability of using a “universal” approach to perform quantitative assays for a wide spectrum of proteins with minimum restrictions, and the ease of assembling multiplex detections in a single measurement. The quantitative approach relies on the use of synthetic stabl...

  2. Beryllium Target for Accelerator - Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a project for developing Accelerator Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB- BNCT) for which the generation of neutrons through nuclear reactions like 9Be(d,n) is necessary. In this paper first results of the design and development of such neutron production targets are presented. For this purpose, the neutron production target has to be able to withstand the mechanical and thermal stresses produced by intense beams of deuterons (of 1.4 MeV with a total current of about 30mA). In particular, the target should be able to dissipate an energy density of up to 1 kW/cm2 and preserve its physical and mechanical properties for a sufficient length of time under irradiation conditions and hydrogen damage. The target is proposed to consist of a thin Be deposit (neutron producing material) on a thin W or Mo layer to stop the beam and a Cu backing to help carry away the heat load. To achieve the adhesion of the Be films on W, Mo and Cu substrates, a powder blasting technique was applied with quartz and alumina microspheres. On the other hand, Ag deposits were made on some of the substrates previously blasted to favor the chemical affinity between Beryllium and the substrate thus improving adhesion. Be deposits were characterized by means of different techniques including Electron Microscopy (Sem) and Xr Diffraction. Roughness and thickness measurements were also made. To satisfy the power dissipation requirements for the neutron production target, a microchannel system model is proposed. The simulation based on this model permits to determine the geometric parameters of the prototype complying with the requirements of a microchannel system. Results were compared with those in several publications and discrepancies lower than 10% were found in all cases. A prototype for model validation is designed here for which simulations of fluid and structural mechanics were carried out and discussed

  3. Atlas-based identification of targets for functional radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional disorders of the brain, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain, may exhibit poor response to medical therapy. In such cases, surgical intervention may become necessary. Modern surgical approaches to such disorders include radio-frequency lesioning and deep brain stimulation (DBS). The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is one of the most useful stereotactic targets available: STN DBS is known to induce substantial improvement in patients with end-stage Parkinson's disease. Other targets include the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) for dystonia and Parkinson's disease, and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus (CMN) for neuropathic pain. Radiosurgery is an attractive noninvasive alternative to treat some functional brain disorders. The main technical limitation to radiosurgery is that the target can be selected only on the basis of magnetic resonance anatomy without electrophysiological confirmation. The aim of this work is to provide a method for the correct atlas-based identification of the target to be used in functional neurosurgery treatment planning. The coordinates of STN, CMN, and GPi were identified in the Talairach and Tournoux atlas and transformed to the corresponding regions of the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) electronic atlas. Binary masks describing the target nuclei were created. The MNI electronic atlas was deformed onto the patient magnetic resonance imaging-T1 scan by applying an affine transformation followed by a local nonrigid registration. The first transformation was based on normalized cross correlation and the second on optimization of a two-part objective function consisting of similarity criteria and weighted regularization. The obtained deformation field was then applied to the target masks. The minimum distance between the surface of an implanted electrode and the surface of the deformed mask was calculated. The validation of the method consisted of comparing the electrode-mask distance to

  4. Ground-based observations of Kepler asteroseismic targets

    CERN Document Server

    Uytterhoeven, K; Southworth, J; Randall, S; Ostensen, R; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Marconi, M; Kurtz, D W; Kiss, L; Gutierrez-Soto, J; Frandsen, S; De Cat, P; Bruntt, H; Briquet, M; Zhang, X B; Telting, J H; Steslicki, M; Ripepi, V; Pigulski, A; Paparo, M; Oreiro, R; Choong, Ngeow Chow; Niemczura, E; Nemec, J; Narwid, A; Mathias, P; Martin-Ruiz, S; Lehman, H; Kopacki, G; Karoff, C; Jackiewicz, J; Henden, A A; Handler, G; Grigachene, A; Green, E M; Garrido, R; Machado, L Fox; Debosscher, J; Creevey, O L; Catanzaro, G; Bognar, Z; Biazzo, K; Bernabei, S

    2010-01-01

    We present the ground-based activities within the different working groups of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). The activities aim at the systematic characterization of the 5000+ KASC targets, and at the collection of ground-based follow-up time-series data of selected promising Kepler pulsators. So far, 35 different instruments at 30 telescopes on 22 different observatories in 12 countries are in use, and a total of more than 530 observing nights has been awarded. (Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope, William Herschel Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Mercator Telescope (La Palma, Spain), and IAC-80 (Tenerife, Spain). Also based on observations taken at the observatories of Sierra Nevada, San Pedro Martir, Vienna, Xinglong, Apache Point, Lulin, Tautenburg, Loiano, Serra la Nave, Asiago, McDonald, Skinakas, Pic du Midi, Mauna Kea, Steward Observatory, Bialkow Observatory of the Wroclaw University, Piszkesteto Mountain Station, Observato...

  5. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason S. Lewis

    2012-04-09

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust

  6. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) (1,2). These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) (2). A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) (3). Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles (1). Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi

  7. Threat Assessment of Targets Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Huai-ping; LIU Jing-xu; CHEN Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In the context of cooperative engagement of armored vehicles, the threat factors of offensive targets are analyzed, and a threat assessment (TA) model is built based on a support v.ector machine (SVM) method. The SVM-based model has some advantages over the traditional method-based models: the complex factors of threat are considered in the cooperative engagement; the shortcomings of neural networks, such as local minimum and "over fitting", are overcome to improve the generalization ability; its operation speed is high and meets the needs of real time C2 of cooperative engagement; the assessment results could be more reasonable because of its self-learning capability. The analysis and simulation indicate that the SVM method is an effective method to resolve the TA problems.

  8. NETWORK BASED BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION TARGETING THE BOP MARKET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jacob; Kroghstrup Nielsen, Martin; Lindgren, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Through innovation of products, process and business models targeting the needs of 4 billion poor people living at "the base of pyramid" (BoP) (Prahalad & Hart 2002) in developing countries the private sector can actively support poverty alleviation and at the same time reach new untouched market...... countries seems to show up in the literature: The technological line - exemplified by the - exemplified by the Life Straw business model - a high tech "straw" consisting of 12 chemical filters to purify water - an example of technology driven innovation to meet the BoP demands for clean water (Kandachar...

  9. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  10. High-Temperature Target Recognition Based on Spectral Radiation Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Xueliang; Cheng Xiaofang; Xu Jun

    2006-01-01

    Based on the principles of optics and radiometry, the imaging mathematical model is established and the factors of the contrast (signal-noise-ratio) of high-temperature target and the scenery are given. By analyzing not only the differences in spectral properties between objects in the scene, but also the CCD spectral response theoretically, a new method of enhancement of contrast is given. By optimizing the initial image capture stage, using liquid crystal light valve to make a simple modification of the imaging system, the goal of high-temperature object recognition is achieved. The experimental results agree with the theoretical predict.

  11. Targeted vaccine adjuvants based on modified cholera toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, Nils

    2005-09-01

    The present review describes immunomodulation with targeted adjuvants that will allow for the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines. We have studied cholera toxin (CT) and derivatives thereof, to rationally design vaccine adjuvant vectors that are both highly efficacious as well as safe and non-toxic. Two strategies were exploited; the first using CT or the enzymatically inactive receptor-binding B-subunit of CT (CTB) and the second, using CTA1 or an enzymatically inactive mutant CTA1R7K., that was linked, in a fusion protein, to the B-cell targeting moiety, DD, from Staphylococcus areus proteinA. Our studies provide compelling evidence that delivery of Ag in the absence of ADP-ribosylation can promote tolerance, whereas, ADP-ribosyltransferase-active conjugates, prevent tolerance but induce IgA immunity. Our analysis revealed unique subsets of mucosal and systemic DC that appeared to be responsible for the ADP-ribosyltransferase sensitive dichotomy between tolerance and IgA immunity. Whether targeting of B cells suffice for tolerance-induction or requires participation of DCs, is at present an unresolved issue. Nevertheless, enzymatic modulation differentiates and matures the DC to promote CD4 T cell help for IgA B cell development. Ag-presentation in the absence of enzyme, as seen with CTA1R7K-DD, expands specific T cells to a similar extent as enzymatically active CTA1-DD, but fails to recruit help for germinal center expansion of activated B cells. We have given special attention to the genes that adjuvants turn on using Affymetrix technology. In particular, modulation of the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on the targeted APC; CD80, CD86, CD83 and B7RP-1, play important roles for the effect of the ADP-ribosylating CTA1-based adjuvants for the development of tolerance or active IgA immunity. PMID:16178769

  12. Disulfide-based multifunctional conjugates for targeted theranostic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hee; Sessler, Jonathan L; Kim, Jong Seung

    2015-11-17

    Theranostics, chemical entities designed to combine therapeutic effects and imaging capability within one molecular system, have received considerable attention in recent years. Much of this interest reflects the promise inherent in personalized medicine, including disease-targeted treatments for cancer patients. One important approach to realizing this latter promise involves the development of so-called theranostic conjugates, multicomponent constructs that selectively target cancer cells and deliver cytotoxic agents while producing a readily detectable signal that can be monitored both in vitro and in vivo. This requires the synthesis of relatively complex systems comprising imaging reporters, masked chemotherapeutic drugs, cleavable linkers, and cancer targeting ligands. Ideally, the cleavage process should take place within or near cancer cells and be activated by cellular components that are associated with cancer states or specifically expressed at a higher level in cancer cells. Among the cleavable linkers currently being explored for the construction of such localizing conjugates, disulfide bonds are particularly attractive. This is because disulfide bonds are stable in most blood pools but are efficiently cleaved by cellular thiols, including glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx), which are generally found at elevated levels in tumors. When disulfide bonds are linked to fluorophores, changes in emission intensity or shifts in the emission maxima are typically seen upon cleavage as the result of perturbations to internal charge transfer (ICT) processes. In well-designed systems, this allows for facile imaging. In this Account, we summarize our recent studies involving disulfide-based fluorescent drug delivery conjugates, including preliminary tests of their biological utility in vitro and in vivo. To date, a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and camptothecin, have been used to create disulfide-based conjugates, as have

  13. Quantitative targeting maps based on experimental investigations for a branched tube model in magnetic drug targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitter, K., E-mail: kurt.gitter@tu-dresden.de [TU Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Odenbach, S. [TU Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Magnetic drug targeting (MDT), because of its high targeting efficiency, is a promising approach for tumour treatment. Unwanted side effects are considerably reduced, since the nanoparticles are concentrated within the target region due to the influence of a magnetic field. Nevertheless, understanding the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in an artery system is still challenging. This work presents experimental results for a branched tube model. Quantitative results describe, for example, the net amount of nanoparticles that are targeted towards the chosen region due to the influence of a magnetic field. As a result of measurements, novel drug targeting maps, combining, e.g. the magnetic volume force, the position of the magnet and the net amount of targeted nanoparticles, are presented. The targeting maps are valuable for evaluation and comparison of setups and are also helpful for the design and the optimisation of a magnet system with an appropriate strength and distribution of the field gradient. The maps indicate the danger of accretion within the tube and also show the promising result of magnetic drug targeting that up to 97% of the nanoparticles were successfully targeted. - Highlights: > Quantitative targeting maps summarise a series of measurements. > Targeting maps combine quantitative data, magnetic volume forces and magnet position. > Here, up to 97% of injected particles were targeted towards the tumour region. > High concentration of injected ferrofluid brings the danger of accretion. > Low miscibility of ferrofluid by water modelling the blood flow is detected.

  14. Design and implementation of location-based wireless targeted advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Benjamin; Xu, Deyin

    2001-10-01

    As advertisements are time and location sensitive, a challenge for wireless marketing is to have advertisements delivered when and where they are most convenient. In this paper we introduce a two-stage auction model for location-based wireless targeted advertising. This system extends the notion of location-based service by using location information to target advertising, and does so specifically by enabling advertisers to specify their preferences and bid for advertisement delivery, where those preferences are then used in a subsequent automated auction of actual deliveries to wireless data users. The automated auction in the second stage is especially effective because it can use information about the individual user profile data, including customer relationship management system contents as well as location from the wireless system's location management service, including potentially location history such as current trajectory from recent history and longer-term historical trip records for that user. Through two-stage auction, real-time bidding by advertisers and matching ads contents to mobile users help advertising information reach maximal value.

  15. In silico design of targeted SRM-based experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahnsen Sven

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Selected reaction monitoring (SRM-based proteomics approaches enable highly sensitive and reproducible assays for profiling of thousands of peptides in one experiment. The development of such assays involves the determination of retention time, detectability and fragmentation properties of peptides, followed by an optimal selection of transitions. If those properties have to be identified experimentally, the assay development becomes a time-consuming task. We introduce a computational framework for the optimal selection of transitions for a given set of proteins based on their sequence information alone or in conjunction with already existing transition databases. The presented method enables the rapid and fully automated initial development of assays for targeted proteomics. We introduce the relevant methods, report and discuss a step-wise and generic protocol and we also show that we can reach an ad hoc coverage of 80 % of the targeted proteins. The presented algorithmic procedure is implemented in the open-source software package OpenMS/TOPP.

  16. Graphene-Based Interfaces Do Not Alter Target Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Scaini, Denis; León, Verónica; Vázquez, Ester; Cellot, Giada; Privitera, Giulia; Lombardi, Lucia; Torrisi, Felice; Tomarchio, Flavia; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bosi, Susanna; Ferrari, Andrea C; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio

    2016-01-26

    Neural-interfaces rely on the ability of electrodes to transduce stimuli into electrical patterns delivered to the brain. In addition to sensitivity to the stimuli, stability in the operating conditions and efficient charge transfer to neurons, the electrodes should not alter the physiological properties of the target tissue. Graphene is emerging as a promising material for neuro-interfacing applications, given its outstanding physico-chemical properties. Here, we use graphene-based substrates (GBSs) to interface neuronal growth. We test our GBSs on brain cell cultures by measuring functional and synaptic integrity of the emerging neuronal networks. We show that GBSs are permissive interfaces, even when uncoated by cell adhesion layers, retaining unaltered neuronal signaling properties, thus being suitable for carbon-based neural prosthetic devices. PMID:26700626

  17. Camouflage target reconnaissance based on hyperspectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong; Liu, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Efficient camouflaged target reconnaissance technology makes great influence on modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. Hyperspectral target detection and classification technology are utilized to achieve single class and multi-class camouflaged targets reconnaissance respectively. Constrained energy minimization (CEM), a widely used algorithm in hyperspectral target detection, is employed to achieve one class camouflage target reconnaissance. Then, support vector machine (SVM), a classification method, is proposed to achieve multi-class camouflage target reconnaissance. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. A Target Advertisement System Based on TV Viewer's Profile Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munjo; Lee, Bumshik; Kim, Munchurl; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Han-Kyu

    With the rapidly growing Internet, the Internet broadcasting and web casting service have been one of the well-known services. Specially, it is expected that the IPTV service will be one of the principal services in the broadband network [2]. However, the current broadcasting environment is served for the general public and requires the passive attitude to consume the TV programs. For the advanced broadcasting environments, various research of the personalized broadcasting is needed. For example, the current unidirectional advertisement provides to the TV viewers the advertisement contents, depending on the popularity of TV programs, the viewing rates, the age groups of TV viewers, and the time bands of the TV programs being broadcast. It is not an efficient way to provide the useful information to the TV viewers from customization perspective. If a TV viewer does not need particular advertisement contents, then information may be wasteful to the TV viewer. Therefore, it is expected that the target advertisement service will be one of the important services in the personalized broadcasting environments. The current research in the area of the target advertisement classifies the TV viewers into clustered groups who have similar preference. The digital TV collaborative filtering estimates the user's favourite advertisement contents by using the usage history [1, 4, 5]. In these studies, the TV viewers are required to provide their profile information such as the gender, job, and ages to the service providers via a PC or Set-Top Box (STB) which is connected to digital TV. Based on explicit information, the advertisement contents are provided to the TV viewers in a customized way with tailored advertisement contents. However, the TV viewers may dislike exposing to the service providers their private information because of the misuse of it. In this case, it is difficult to provide appropriate target advertisement service.

  19. GIS-Based Target Tree Management Supporting System Based on Plug-In Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiang Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional forest management models based on stand or landscape level should be transformed to concluding an individual tree level at the same time. Target tree management individual operation method based on close-to-nature sivlculture need to develop to implement such transformation. Aiming to complicated analysis, large computing and the status of lack of effective analysis tool for the operation method, we tried to develop GIS-based plug-in Target Tree Management system Supporting System (TTMSS to meet this requirement combing plug-in technology of .Net framework, C# and ArcGIS Engine 9.3 components kit. A target tree management individual operation method was established by designing target trees and interference trees decision processes and methods based on Geographic Information System (GIS. The results showed that the operation method improved the feasibility and reduced the difficulty of the target tree management with GIS technology to help improve the operations on the individual tree level. It was proved that TTMSS was an effective tool for target tree management. Under this plug-in mode, the users merely need to do is add or replace plug-ins if one wants to expand or upgrade the system, extremely improve TTMSS’s portability and expandability.

  20. Airborne Infrared and Visible Image Fusion for Target Perception Based on Target Region Segmentation and Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared and visible image fusion is an important precondition of realizing target perception for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, then UAV can perform various given missions. Information of texture and color in visible images are abundant, while target information in infrared images is more outstanding. The conventional fusion methods are mostly based on region segmentation; as a result, the fused image for target recognition could not be actually acquired. In this paper, a novel fusion method of airborne infrared and visible image based on target region segmentation and discrete wavelet transform (DWT is proposed, which can gain more target information and preserve more background information. The fusion experiments are done on condition that the target is unmoving and observable both in visible and infrared images, targets are moving and observable both in visible and infrared images, and the target is observable only in an infrared image. Experimental results show that the proposed method can generate better fused image for airborne target perception.

  1. Seismic design and evaluation criteria based on target performance goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic design and evaluation criteria have been developed based on target probabilistic performance goals. These criteria include selection of design/evaluation seismic input from probabilistic seismic hazard curves combined with commonly practiced deterministic response evaluation methods and acceptance criteria with controlled levels of conservatism. Conservatism is intentionally introduced in specification of material strengths and capacities, in the allowance of limited inelastic behavior, and by a seismic scale factor. Criteria have been developed following a graded approach for several performance goals ranging from that appropriate for normal-use facilities to that appropriate for facilities involving hazardous or critical operations. Performance goals are comprised of qualitative expressions of acceptable behavior and of quantitative probabilities that acceptable limits of behavior are maintained. The criteria are simple procedures but with a sound, rigorous basis for the achievement of goals

  2. Auto Target Tracking Robot Design Based on Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuen De Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robot tracking control design based on a smartphone using a commercial microprocessor. The system hardware consists of four major parts: an Android smartphone with an embedded camera, a Microchip microprocessor, a motor driver circuit and an Attacknid robot. First, an image of the surrounding environment is captured by the high definition camera embedded in the smartphone. The target is then recognized from the image using an algorithm developed in Android OS and OpenCV library. Third, motion control and laser activation strategies are achieved using the proposed algorithm implemented in Java. Fourth, the motion commands are delivered to the microchip processor through a USB interface. Finally, the processor produces a pulse width modulation (PWM voltage to control the robot’s motion and activate the laser diode according commands sent from the smart phone. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this proposed architecture.

  3. Facilities for preparing actinide or fission product-based targets

    CERN Document Server

    Sors, M

    1999-01-01

    Research and development work is currently in progress in France on the feasibility of transmutation of very long-lived radionuclides such as americium, blended with an inert medium such as magnesium oxide and pelletized for irradiation in a fast neutron reactor. The process is primarily designed to produce ceramics for nuclear reactors, but could also be used to produce targets for accelerators. The Actinide Development Laboratory is part of the ATALANTE complex at Marcoule, where the CEA investigates reprocessing, liquid and solid waste treatment and vitrification processes. The laboratory produces radioactive sources; after use, their constituents are recycled, notably through R and D programs requiring such materials. Recovered americium is purified, characterized and transformed for an experiment known as ECRIX, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating americium-based ceramics and to determine the reactor transmutation coefficients.

  4. Efficient target control of complex networks based on preferential matching

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xizhe; Lv, Tianyang

    2016-01-01

    Controlling a complex network towards a desire state is of great importance in many applications. Existing works present an approximate algorithm to find the driver nodes used to control partial nodes of the network. However, the driver nodes obtained by this algorithm depend on the matching order of nodes and cannot get the optimum results. Here we present a novel algorithm to find the driver nodes for target control based on preferential matching. The algorithm elaborately arrange the matching order of nodes in order to minimize the size of the driver nodes set. The results on both synthetic and real networks indicate that the performance of proposed algorithm are better than the previous one. The algorithm may have various application in controlling complex networks.

  5. Automatic target validation based on neuroscientific literature mining for tractography

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Vasques; Renaud Richardet; Etienne Pralong; LAURA CIF

    2015-01-01

    Target identification for tractography studies requires solid anatomical knowledge validated by an extensive literature review across species for each seed structure to be studied. Manual literature review to identify targets for a given seed region is tedious and potentially subjective. Therefore, complementary approaches would be useful. We propose to use text-mining models to automatically suggest potential targets from the neuroscientific literature, full-text articles and abstracts, so t...

  6. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeuti...

  7. The effects of target motion in kV-CBCT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To study the impact of target motion in kV-CBCT imaging. Material/Methods: To simulate the respiratory movement, dynamic phantom was programmed to move in three dimension with a period of four seconds and of two different amplitudes (PA1 and PA2). The targets of well defined geometries (cylinder, sphere, solid triangle, U-shaped and dumbbell) were made using wax. The static targets were CT imaged (reference image). Using CBCT, the targets in static and dynamic modes were imaged under full-fan beam. The line profiles along cranio-caudal direction, influence of target's initial moving phase and volume estimation using auto-contouring tool were used to analyze the effects of target motion on CBCT imaging. Results: Comparing the line profiles of targets in CBCT with CT, the length of average HU spread was reduced by 42.5 1.85%, except the cylindrical target which is by 19.35% for PA1. The percentage difference in reconstructed volume of static targets imaged using CBCT and CT (HU WW - 500 to 0) ranges from -1.32% to -5.94%. The volume losses for targets imaged in dynamic mode PA1 ranges from 14.35% to 30.95% and for PA2 it was 21.29% to 43.80%. The solid triangle and cylindrical targets suffered the maximum and minimum volume losses respectively. Conclusions: Non-gated CBCT imaging of the moving targets encounters significant loss of volumetric information, due to scatter artifacts. These may result in a systematic error in re-contouring when CBCT images are used for the re-planning work. (authors)

  8. Automatic target recognition of moving target based on empirical mode decomposition and genetic algorithm support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 欧建平; 占荣辉

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve measurement accuracy of moving target signals, an automatic target recognition model of moving target signals was established based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and support vector machine (SVM). Automatic target recognition process on the nonlinear and non-stationary of Doppler signals of military target by using automatic target recognition model can be expressed as follows. Firstly, the nonlinearity and non-stationary of Doppler signals were decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using EMD. After the Hilbert transform of IMF, the energy ratio of each IMF to the total IMFs can be extracted as the features of military target. Then, the SVM was trained through using the energy ratio to classify the military targets, and genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize SVM parameters in the solution space. The experimental results show that this algorithm can achieve the recognition accuracies of 86.15%, 87.93%, and 82.28%for tank, vehicle and soldier, respectively.

  9. Constant false alarm rate algorithm for the dim-small target detection based on the distribution characteristics of target coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiao-Liang; Ren, Kan; Qian, Wei-xian; Wang, Peng-cheng

    2015-10-01

    CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) is a key technology in Infrared dim-small target detection system. Because the traditional constant false alarm rate detection algorithm gets the probability density distribution which is based on the pixel information of each area in the whole image and calculates the target segmentation threshold of each area by formula of Constant false alarm rate, the problems including the difficulty of probability distribution statistics and large amount of algorithm calculation and long delay time are existing. In order to solve the above problems effectively, a formula of Constant false alarm rate based on target coordinates distribution is presented. Firstly, this paper proposes a new formula of Constant false alarm rate by improving the traditional formula of Constant false alarm rate based on the single grayscale distribution which objective statistical distribution features are introduced. So the control of false alarm according to the target distribution information is implemented more accurately and the problem of high false alarm that is caused of the complex background in local area as the cloud reflection and the ground clutter interference is solved. At the same time, in order to reduce the amount of algorithm calculation and improve the real-time characteristics of algorithm, this paper divides the constant false-alarm statistical area through two-dimensional probability density distribution of target number adaptively which is different from the general identifying methods of constant false-alarm statistical area. Finally, the target segmentation threshold of next frame is calculated by iteration based on the function of target distribution probability density in image sequence which can achieve the purpose of controlling the false alarm until the false alarm is down to the upper limit. The experiment results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the operation time and meet the real-time requirements on

  10. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three, while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphere center, a parameter equation is used to describe the sphere projection model. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out to analyze the factors that affect the calibration accuracy. Simulation results show that the parameter equation can largely improve the reconstruction accuracy. In the experiments, a two-camera system calibrated by our method is used to measure a distance about 578 mm, and the root mean squared error is within 0.14 mm. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the method has simple operation and good flexibility, especially for the onsite multiple cameras without common field of view.

  11. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junhua; He, Huabin; Zeng, Debing

    2016-01-01

    Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three), while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphere center, a parameter equation is used to describe the sphere projection model. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out to analyze the factors that affect the calibration accuracy. Simulation results show that the parameter equation can largely improve the reconstruction accuracy. In the experiments, a two-camera system calibrated by our method is used to measure a distance about 578 mm, and the root mean squared error is within 0.14 mm. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the method has simple operation and good flexibility, especially for the onsite multiple cameras without common field of view. PMID:26761007

  12. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junhua; He, Huabin; Zeng, Debing

    2016-01-01

    Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three), while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphere center, a parameter equation is used to describe the sphere projection model. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out to analyze the factors that affect the calibration accuracy. Simulation results show that the parameter equation can largely improve the reconstruction accuracy. In the experiments, a two-camera system calibrated by our method is used to measure a distance about 578 mm, and the root mean squared error is within 0.14 mm. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the method has simple operation and good flexibility, especially for the onsite multiple cameras without common field of view. PMID:26761007

  13. Adaptive tracking of maneuvering targets based on IR image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybeck, Peter S.

    1989-06-01

    The capability of tracking dynamic targets from forward looking infrared (FLIR) measurements was improved substantially by replacing standard correlation trackers with adaptive extended Kalman filters or enhanced correlator/Kalman filter combinations. A tracker able to handle multiple hot-spot targets, in which digital and/or optical signal processing is employed on the FLIR data to identify the underlying target shape is investigated. Furthermore, multiple model adaptive filtering is investigated as a means of changing the field-of-view as well as the tracker bandwidth when target acceleration can vary over a wide range. Enhancements are developed and analyzed: (1) allowing some of the elemental filters within the adaptive algorithm to have rectangular fields-of-view and to be tuned for target dynamics that are harsher in one direction than others; (2) considering both Gauss-Markov acceleration models and constant turn-rate models for target dynamics; and (3) devising an initial target acquisition algorithm to remove important biases in the estimated target template to be used within the tracker. The performance potential of such a tracking algorithm is shown to be substantial.

  14. Polysaccharide-based Noncovalent Assembly for Targeted Delivery of Taxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Yong; Chen, Jia-Tong; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The construction of synthetic straightforward, biocompatible and biodegradable targeted drug delivery system with fluorescent tracking abilities, high anticancer activities and low side effects is still a challenge in the field of biochemistry and material chemistry. In this work, we constructed targeted paclitaxel (Taxol) delivery nanoparticles composed of permethyl-β-cyclodextrin modified hyaluronic acid (HApCD) and porphyrin modified paclitaxel prodrug (PorTaxol), through host-guest and amphiphilic interactions. The obtained nanoparticles (HATXP) were biocompatible and enzymatic biodegradable due to their hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) shell and hydrophobic Taxol core, and exhibited specific targeting internalization into cancer cells via HA receptor mediated endocytosis effects. The cytotoxicity experiments showed that the HATXP exhibited similar anticancer activities to, but much lower side effects than commercial anticancer drug Taxol. The present work would provide a platform for targeted paclitaxel drug delivery and a general protocol for the design of advanced multifunctional nanoscale biomaterials for targeted drug/gene delivery. PMID:26759029

  15. Spallation target design and integration into an accelerator-based transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallation target design and system integration is critical for the success of accelerator-based transmutation systems. Issues which must be considered in the design of spallation targets are identified, and representative parametric studies on the system integration of a sample target are given. The results illustrate the importance of a systems-driven target design approach due to the large effects that the target design can have on both the economics and physics performance of the system

  16. Accelerator-based fusion with a low temperature target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron generators are in use in a number of scientific and commercial endeavors. They function by triggering fusion reactions between accelerated ions (usually deuterons) and a stationary cold target (e.g., containing tritium). This setup has the potential to generate energy. It has been shown that if the energy transfer between injected ions and target electrons is sufficiently small, net energy gain can be achieved. Three possible avenues are: (a) a hot target with high electron temperature, (b) a cold non-neutral target with an electron deficiency, or (c) a cold target with a high Fermi energy. A study of the third possibility is reported in light of recent research that points to a new phase of hydrogen, which is hypothesized to be related to metallic hydrogen. As such, the target is considered to be composed of nuclei and delocalized electrons. The electrons are treated as conduction electrons, with the average minimum excitation energy being approximately equal to 40% of the Fermi energy. The Fermi energy is directly related to the electron density. Preliminary results indicate that if the claimed electron densities in the new phase of hydrogen were achieved in a target, the energy transfer to electrons would be small enough to allow net energy gain.

  17. Hairpin DNA probes based on target-induced in situ generation of luminescent silver nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Wu, Zhengjun; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Liu, Zhihong

    2014-05-14

    Novel hairpin DNA probes are designed and constructed based on target-induced in situ generation of luminescent silver nanoclusters. This design allows specific and versatile detection of diverse targets with easy operation and low cost. PMID:24686790

  18. Automatic target validation based on neuroscientific literature mining for tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Vasques

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target identification for tractography studies requires solid anatomical knowledge validated by an extensive literature review across species for each seed structure to be studied. Manual literature review to identify targets for a given seed region is tedious and potentially subjective. Therefore, complementary approaches would be useful. We propose to use text-mining models to automatically suggest potential targets from the neuroscientific literature, full-text articles and abstracts, so that they can be used for anatomical connection studies and more specifically for tractography. We applied text-mining models to three structures: two well studied structures, since validated deep brain stimulation targets, the internal globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus and, the nucleus accumbens, an exploratory target for treating psychiatric disorders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to document the projections of the three selected structures and compared it with the targets proposed by text-mining models, both in rat and primate (including human. We ran probabilistic tractography on the nucleus accumbens and compared the output with the results of the text-mining models and literature review. Overall, text-mining the literature could find three times as many targets as two man-weeks of curation could. The overall efficiency of the text-mining against literature review in our study was 98% recall (at 36% precision, meaning that over all the targets for the three selected seeds, only one target has been missed by text-mining. We demonstrate that connectivity for a structure of interest can be extracted from a very large amount of publications and abstracts. We believe this tool will be useful in helping the neuroscience community to facilitate connectivity studies of particular brain regions. The text mining tools used for the study are part of the HBP Neuroinformatics Platform, publicly available at http://connectivity-brainer.rhcloud.com/.

  19. The combinative analysis of spraying target image based on chroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyao; Zhang, Fajun

    2009-10-01

    Recently, intelligent spray system with vision is a research hotspot due to its application security. This paper propose the design of a novel spraying target extraction system, which is capable of identifying crown of a tree structures that are mainly used in the prevention and treatment of the plant's diseases and insects in the urban tree lawn. But how to differentiate the billboard on the both sides of the streets, especially the green overhead structure billboard, the chroma parameters(three primary colors factor's) of spray-targets, and the character of combination were analyzed by normalization experiment in this paper. In comparative studies, the experiment verified effectively the performance of the chroma combination operation by 2G-R-B processing, and showed this method can effectively strategy that the normalization combination arithmetic preceded the simplification operator for eliminating no spray-target image and divide the crown target effectively from the background.

  20. Multiple extended target tracking algorithm based on Gaussian surface matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinlong Yang; Peng Li; Zhihua Li; Le Yang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of irregular shapes tracking for multiple extended targets by introducing the Gaussian surface matrix (GSM) into the framework of the random finite set (RFS) theory. The Gaussian surface function is constructed first by the measurements, and it is used to define the GSM via a mapping function. We then integrate the GSM with the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter, the Bayesian recursion formulas of GSM-PHD are derived and the Gaussian mixture implementation is employed to obtain the closed-form solutions. Moreover, the estimated shapes are designed to guide the measurement set sub-partition, which can cope with the problem of the spatialy close target tracking. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively estimate irregular target shapes and exhibit good robustness in cross extended target tracking.

  1. Target Tracking Feature Selection Algorithm Based on Adaboost

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Yi

    2013-01-01

         With the development of image processing technology and popularization of computer technology, intelligent machine vision technology has a wide range of application in the medical, military, industrial and other fields. Target tracking feature selection algorithm is one of research focuses in the machine intelligent vision technology. Therefore, to design the target tracking feature selection algorithm with high accuracy and good stability is extremely necessary. This paper presents a ta...

  2. Monitoring urban subsidence based on SAR lnterferometric point target analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Gong, W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    lnterferometric point target analysis (IPTA) is one of the latest developments in radar interferometric processing. It is achieved by analysis of the interferometric phases of some individual point targets, which are discrete and present temporarily stable backscattering characteristics, in long temporal series of interferometric SAR images. This paper analyzes the interferometric phase model of point targets, and then addresses two key issues within IPTA process. Firstly, a spatial searching method is proposed to unwrap the interferometric phase difference between two neighboring point targets. The height residual error and linear deformation rate of each point target can then be calculated, when a global reference point with known height correction and deformation history is chosen. Secondly, a spatial-temporal filtering scheme is proposed to further separate the atmosphere phase and nonlinear deformation phase from the residual interferometric phase. Finally, an experiment of the developed IPTA methodology is conducted over Suzhou urban area. Totally 38 ERS-1/2 SAR scenes are analyzed, and the deformation information over 3 546 point targets in the time span of 1992-2002 are generated. The IPTA-derived deformation shows very good agreement with the published result, which demonstrates that the IPTA technique can be developed into an operational tool to map the ground subsidence over urban area.

  3. Computer-based prediction of mitochondria-targeting peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pier Luigi; Savojardo, Castrense; Fariselli, Piero; Tasco, Gianluca; Casadio, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods are invaluable when protein sequences, directly derived from genomic data, need functional and structural annotation. Subcellular localization is a feature necessary for understanding the protein role and the compartment where the mature protein is active and very difficult to characterize experimentally. Mitochondrial proteins encoded on the cytosolic ribosomes carry specific patterns in the precursor sequence from where it is possible to recognize a peptide targeting the protein to its final destination. Here we discuss to which extent it is feasible to develop computational methods for detecting mitochondrial targeting peptides in the precursor sequences and benchmark our and other methods on the human mitochondrial proteins endowed with experimentally characterized targeting peptides. Furthermore, we illustrate our newly implemented web server and its usage on the whole human proteome in order to infer mitochondrial targeting peptides, their cleavage sites, and whether the targeting peptide regions contain or not arginine-rich recurrent motifs. By this, we add some other 2,800 human proteins to the 124 ones already experimentally annotated with a mitochondrial targeting peptide. PMID:25631024

  4. Target cell specific antibody-based photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Lauren T.; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Kakareka, John W.; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-03-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), localized monochromatic light is used to activate targeted photosensitizers (PS) to induce cellular damage through the generation of cytotoxic species such as singlet oxygen. While first-generation PS passively targeted malignancies, a variety of targeting mechanisms have since been studied, including specifically activatable agents. Antibody internalization has previously been employed as a fluorescence activation system and could potentially enable similar activation of PS. TAMRA, Rhodamine-B and Rhodamine-6G were conjugated to trastuzumab (brand name Herceptin), a humanized monoclonal antibody with specificity for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), to create quenched PS (Tra-TAM, Tra-RhoB, and Tra-Rho6G). Specific PDT with Tra-TAM and Tra-Rho6G, which formed covalently bound H-dimers, was demonstrated in HER2+ cells: Minimal cell death (SDS-PAGE).

  5. SCENARIO AND TARGET SIMULATION FOR A GROUND BASED MULTIFUNCTION PHASED ARRAY RADAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario and target simulation which operates in non real-time to provide full closed-loop operation of the ground based multifunction phased array radar simulation system in support of ballistic missile defence experiments against countermeasure.By simulating the target scattering signature and dynamical signature,this scenario and target simulation provide re- alistic scenario source to evaluate the system performance of multifunction phased array radar,and the key algorithms verification and validation such as target tracking,multi-target imaging and target recognition.

  6. Discovery of Ligands for a Novel Target, the Human Telomerase RNA, Based on Flexible-Target Virtual Screening and NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Irene Gómez; Guilbert, Christophe; Ulyanov, Nikolai B.; Stearns, Jay; James, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The human ribonucleoprotein telomerase is a validated anticancer drug target, and hTRP2b is a part of the human telomerase RNA (hTR) essential for its activity. Interesting ligands that bind hTR-P2b were identified by iteratively using a tandem structure-based approach: docking of potential ligands from small databases to hTR-P2b via the program MORDOR, which permits flexibility in both ligand and target, with subsequent NMR screening of high-ranking compounds. A high percentage of the compou...

  7. Identifying problematic drugs based on the characteristics of their targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Jose eDa Silva Lopes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying promising compounds during the early stages of drug development is a major challenge for both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. The difficulties are even more pronounced when we consider multi-target pharmacology, where the compounds often target more than one protein, or multiple compounds are used together. Here, we address this problem by using machine learning and network analysis to process sequence and interaction data from human proteins to identify promising compounds. We used this strategy to identify properties that make certain proteins more likely to cause harmful effects when targeted; such proteins usually have domains commonly found throughout the human proteome. Additionally, since currently marketed drugs hit multiple targets simultaneously, we combined the information from individual proteins to devise a score that quantifies the likelihood of a compound being harmful to humans. This approach enabled us to distinguish between approved and problematic drugs with an accuracy of 60%¬–70%. Moreover, our approach can be applied as soon as candidate drugs are available, as demonstrated with predictions for more than 5000 experimental drugs. These resources are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/psin/.

  8. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  9. Nanoparticle Based Combination Treatments for Targeting Multiple Hallmarks of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, D; Kyriacopulos, P; Yassini, B; Wright, A; Burkhart, E; Jacek, S; Pratt, M; Peterson, CR; Rai, P

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of cancer remains one of the most challenging tasks facing the healthcare system. Cancer affects the lives of millions of people and is often fatal. Current treatment methods include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapies or some combinations of these. However, recurrence is a major problem. These treatments can be invasive with severe side effects. Inefficacies in treatments are a result of the complex and variable biology of cancerous cells. Malignant tumor cells and normal functioning cells share many of the same biological characteristics but the main difference is that in cancer cells there is in an overuse and over expression of these biological characteristics. These pertinent characteristics can be grouped into eight hallmarks, as illustrated by Hanahan and Weinberg. These characteristics include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, activating invasion and metastasis, reprogramming energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction. In order to provide a noninvasive, effective treatment, delivery methods must be explored in order to transport cytotoxic agents used for targeting the hallmarks of cancer in a safer and more effective fashion. The use of nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers provides an effective method in which multiple cytotoxic agents can be safely delivered to cancer tissue to simultaneously target multiple hallmarks. By targeting multiple hallmarks of cancer at once, the efficacy of cancer treatments could be improved drastically. This review explores the uses and efficacy of combination therapies using nanoparticles that can simultaneously target multiple hallmarks of cancer. PMID:27547592

  10. FTIR-based airborne spectral imagery for target interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Tracy L.; St. Germain, Daniel; Nadeau, Denis

    2007-09-01

    DRDC Valcartier is continuing to developed infrared spectral imagery systems for a variety of military applications. Recently a hybrid airborne spectral imager / broadband imager system has been developed for ground target interrogation (AIRIS). This system employs a Fourier Transform Interferometer system coupled to two 8x8 element detector arrays to create spectral imagery in the region from 2.0 to 12 microns (830 to 5000 cm -1) at a spectral resolution of up to 1 cm -1. In addition, coupled to this sensor are three broadband imagers operating in the visible, mid-wave and long-wave infrared regions. AIRIS uses an on-board tracking capability to: dwell on a target, select multiple targets sequentially, or build a mosaic description of the environment around a specified target point. Currently AIRIS is being modified to include real-time spectral imagery calibration and application processing. In this paper the flexibility of the AIRIS system will be described, its concept of operation discussed and examples of measurements will be shown.

  11. A unified algorithm for target detection and tracing based on data of array sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong; CHEN Fuhu

    2008-01-01

    A unified method for target detection and tracing based on data from sensors of array is presented in order to improve detection and tracking abilities of the weak targets with low signal-to-noise ratio. Assuming that the multiple targets are uncorrelated each other and the number of the targets is known a priori, the status of the targets can be estimated with the maximum a-posteriori (MAP) method directly through the sensors data. The proposed method is different from the classical method, by which it can detect and track targets simultaneously by adding the target's signal energy information besides its direction of arrival(DOA) information.Simulated and sea trial data results show that the detection and tracing capabilities of weak targets can be improved and wrong tracing and missing tracing problems, which exist in the classical tracing method when it is faced with the crossing targets, can be resolved by the proposed method.

  12. A Tracking-Based Target Locating Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xue-bin; ZHOU Zheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a tracking-based target locating algorithm to locate a target moving in a geographical region under the surveillance of a wireless sensor network. This algorithm first finds a sensor node that has detected the target, and then uses local messages between neighboring nodes to track the trail of the target. The authors implement this algorithm and compare it with an optimized flood-based target locating algorithm. Simulation results show that this algorithm effectively reduces the message transmission, conserves energy and consequently enhances the practicability of resource-limited wireless sensor networks.

  13. tcTKB: an integrated cardiovascular toxicity knowledge base for targeted cancer drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer drugs are often associated with unexpectedly high cardiovascular (CV) adverse events. Systematic approaches to studying CV events associated with targeted anticancer drugs have high potential for elucidating the complex pathways underlying targeted anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we built tcTKB, a comprehensive CV toxicity knowledge base for targeted cancer drugs, by extracting drug-CV pairs from five large-scale and complementary data sources. The data sources include FDA d...

  14. Automatic Shape-Based Target Extraction for Close-Range Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Chen, Y.; Wang, C.; Cheng, M.; Wen, C.; Yu, J.

    2016-06-01

    In order to perform precise identification and location of artificial coded targets in natural scenes, a novel design of circle-based coded target and the corresponding coarse-fine extraction algorithm are presented. The designed target separates the target box and coding box totally and owns an advantage of rotation invariance. Based on the original target, templates are prepared by three geometric transformations and are used as the input of shape-based template matching. Finally, region growing and parity check methods are used to extract the coded targets as final results. No human involvement is required except for the preparation of templates and adjustment of thresholds in the beginning, which is conducive to the automation of close-range photogrammetry. The experimental results show that the proposed recognition method for the designed coded target is robust and accurate.

  15. Target distribution in cooperative combat based on Bayesian optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhifu; Zhang An; Wang Anli

    2006-01-01

    Target distribution in cooperative combat is a difficult and emphases. We build up the optimization model according to the rule of fire distribution. We have researched on the optimization model with BOA. The BOA can estimate the joint probability distribution of the variables with Bayesian network, and the new candidate solutions also can be generated by the joint distribution. The simulation example verified that the method could be used to solve the complex question, the operation was quickly and the solution was best.

  16. Singular Vector Based Targeted Observations of Atmospheric Chemical Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Goris, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the earth's environment provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their insufficient temporal and spatial density. In face of these limitations, the measurement configurations need to be optimized to get a best possible state estimate. One possibility to optimize the state estimate is provided by targeted observations of sensitive system states, where measurements are of great value for forecast improvements. In the recent years, numerical weather predict...

  17. Targeting Customers for Demand Response Based on Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kwac, Jungsuk; Rajagopal, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Selecting customers for demand response programs is challenging and existing methodologies are hard to scale and poor in performance. The existing methods were limited by lack of temporal consumption information at the individual customer level. We propose a scalable methodology for demand response targeting utilizing novel data available from smart meters. The approach relies on formulating the problem as a stochastic integer program involving predicted customer responses. A novel approximat...

  18. Design of Nanoparticle-Based Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojiao Yu; Ian Trase; Muqing Ren; Kayla Duval; Xing Guo; Zi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have shown promise as both drug delivery vehicles and direct antitumor systems, but they must be properly designed in order to maximize efficacy. Computational modeling is often used both to design new nanoparticles and to better understand existing ones. Modeled processes include the release of drugs at the tumor site and the physical interaction between the nanoparticle and cancer cells. In this paper, we provide an overview of three different targeted drug delivery methods (p...

  19. Fractal-based weak target detection within sea clutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LV Xiaowen; LIU Kuisheng; ZHAO Shangzhuo

    2014-01-01

    The target on the sea surface is complex and difficult to detect due to the interference of backscattered returns from the sea surface illuminated by the radar pulse. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been used successfully to extract the time-domain Hurst exponent of sea-clutter series. Since the frequency of the sea clutter mainly concentrates around Doppler center so that we consider to extract frequency-do-main fractal characterization and then detect a weak target within sea clutter by using the difference of frequency-domain fractal characterization. The generalized detrended fluctuation analysis (GDFA) is more flexible than traditional DFA owing to its smoothing action for the clutters. In this paper, we apply the GDFA to evaluate the generalized Hurst exponent of sea-clutter series in the frequency domain. The difference of generalized Hurst exponents between different sea-clutter range bins would be used to determine whether the target exists. Moreover, some simulations with the real IPIX radar data have also been demonstrated in order to support this conclusion.

  20. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  1. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  2. Detection algorithm of infrared small target based on improved SUSAN operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingmiao; Wang, Shicheng; Zhao, Jing

    2010-10-01

    The methods of detecting small moving targets in infrared image sequences that contain moving nuisance objects and background noise is analyzed in this paper. A novel infrared small target detection algorithm based on improved SUSAN operator is put forward. The algorithm selects double templates for the infrared small target detection: one size is greater than the small target point size and another size is equal to the small target point size. First, the algorithm uses the big template to calculate the USAN of each pixel in the image and detect the small target, the edge of the image and isolated noise pixels; Then the algorithm uses the another template to calculate the USAN of pixels detected in the first step and improves the principles of SUSAN algorithm based on the characteristics of the small target so that the algorithm can only detect small targets and don't sensitive to the edge pixels of the image and isolated noise pixels. So the interference of the edge of the image and isolate noise points are removed and the candidate target points can be identified; At last, the target is detected by utilizing the continuity and consistency of target movement. The experimental results indicate that the improved SUSAN detection algorithm can quickly and effectively detect the infrared small targets.

  3. 42 CFR 419.30 - Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. 419.30 Section 419.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Services § 419.30 Base expenditure target for calendar year 1999. (a) CMS estimates the aggregate...

  4. Camouflaged target detection based on polarized spectral features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Zhang, Junping; Zou, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The polarized hyperspectral images (PHSI) include polarization, spectral, spatial and radiant features, which provide more information about objects and scenes than traditional intensity or spectrum ones. And polarization can suppress the background and highlight the object, leading to the high potential to improve camouflaged target detection. So polarized hyperspectral imaging technique has aroused extensive concern in the last few years. Nowadays, the detection methods are still not very mature, most of which are rooted in the detection of hyperspectral image. And before using these algorithms, Stokes vector is used to process the original four-dimensional polarized hyperspectral data firstly. However, when the data is large and complex, the amount of calculation and error will increase. In this paper, tensor is applied to reconstruct the original four-dimensional data into new three-dimensional data, then, the constraint energy minimization (CEM) is used to process the new data, which adds the polarization information to construct the polarized spectral filter operator and takes full advantages of spectral and polarized information. This way deals with the original data without extracting the Stokes vector, so as to reduce the computation and error greatly. The experimental results also show that the proposed method in this paper is more suitable for the target detection of the PHSI.

  5. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Landrum, D. B.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an approach in which a magnetized target plasma is compressed inertially by an imploding material wall. A high energy plasma liner may be used to produce the required implosion. The plasma liner is formed by the merging of a number of high momentum plasma jets converging towards the center of a sphere where two compact toroids have been introduced. Preliminary 3-D hydrodynamics modeling results using the SPHINX code of Los Alamos National Laboratory have been very encouraging and confirm earlier theoretical expectations. The concept appears ready for experimental exploration and plans for doing so are being pursued. In this talk, we explore conceptually how this innovative fusion approach could be packaged for space propulsion for interplanetary travel. We discuss the generally generic components of a baseline propulsion concept including the fusion engine, high velocity plasma accelerators, generators of compact toroids using conical theta pinches, magnetic nozzle, neutron absorption blanket, tritium reprocessing system, shock absorber, magnetohydrodynamic generator, capacitor pulsed power system, thermal management system, and micrometeorite shields.

  6. Research on target tracking in coal mine based on optical flow method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongye; Xiao, Qingwei

    2015-03-01

    To recognize, track and count the bolting machine in coal mine video images, a real-time target tracking method based on the Lucas-Kanade sparse optical flow is proposed in this paper. In the method, we judge whether the moving target deviate from its trajectory, predicate and correct the position of the moving target. The method solves the problem of failure to track the target or lose the target because of the weak light, uneven illumination and blocking. Using the VC++ platform and Opencv lib we complete the recognition and tracking. The validity of the method is verified by the result of the experiment.

  7. Detection of Multiple Unresolved Targets Based on Complex Indicated Angle Difference Using Multistatic Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Tao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The detection of multiple unresolved targets is critical in radar technology. To precisely detect multiple unresolved targets is a prerequisite and the basis of all other processes. For monostatic radar, the detection method of multiple unresolved targets based on the complex indicated angle difference technique is first analyzed and then extended to multistatic radar. The detector of multiple unresolved targets is designed and simulation tests are presented under several scenarios. Moreover, the effect on detection performance of SNR, sensor number, and the geometrical configuration of targets and sensors are analyzed. The results show that with the same SNR, the multistatic radar detector performs better than the monostatic radar detector.

  8. An N-sulfanylethylanilide-based traceable linker for enrichment and selective labelling of target proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Takuya; Denda, Masaya; Yamamoto, Jun; Tsuji, Daisuke; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Itoh, Kohji; Shigenaga, Akira; Otaka, Akira

    2016-05-25

    An N-sulfanylethylanilide-based traceable linker, developed to facilitate identification of target proteins of bioactive compounds, was introduced into an alkynylated target protein. Subsequent adsorption onto streptavidin beads allowed it to be treated with a cysteine-fluorophore conjugate in the presence of phosphate. This induced the N-S acyl transfer reaction of the N-sulfanylethylanilide unit. The subsequent native chemical ligation of the fluorophore resulted in cleavage of the linker for target elution and fluorescence labelling of the target, allowing it to be distinguished from non-target proteins. PMID:27146590

  9. Spmk and Grabcut Based Target Extraction from High Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weihong; Wang, Guofeng; Feng, Chenyi; Zheng, Yiwei; Li, Jonathan; Zhang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Target detection and extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a basic and wide needed application. In this paper, to improve the efficiency of image interpretation, we propose a detection and segmentation combined method to realize semi-automatic target extraction. We introduce the dense transform color scale invariant feature transform (TC-SIFT) descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) & HSV descriptor to characterize the spatial structure and color information of the targets. With the k-means cluster method, we get the bag of visual words, and then, we adopt three levels' spatial pyramid (SP) to represent the target patch. After gathering lots of different kinds of target image patches from many high resolution UAV images, and using the TC-SIFT-SP and the multi-scale HOG & HSV feature, we constructed the SVM classifier to detect the target. In this paper, we take buildings as the targets. Experiment results show that the target detection accuracy of buildings can reach to above 90%. Based on the detection results which are a series of rectangle regions of the targets. We select the rectangle regions as candidates for foreground and adopt the GrabCut based and boundary regularized semi-auto interactive segmentation algorithm to get the accurate boundary of the target. Experiment results show its accuracy and efficiency. It can be an effective way for some special targets extraction.

  10. Shared Representation of SAR Target and Shadow Based on Multilayer Auto-encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhi-jun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Target Recognition (ATR of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image is investigated. A SAR feature extraction algorithm based on multilayer auto-encoder is proposed. The method makes use of a probabilistic neural network, Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM modeling probability distribution of environment. Through the formation of more expressive multilayer neural network, the deep learning model learns shared representation of the target and its shadow outline reflecting the target shape characteristics. Targets are classified automatically through two recognition models. The experiment results based on the MSTAR verify the effectiveness of proposed algorithm.

  11. Scale-space point spread function based framework to boost infrared target detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Saed; Moallem, Payman; Sabahi, Mohamad Farzan

    2016-07-01

    Small target detection is one of the major concern in the development of infrared surveillance systems. Detection algorithms based on Gaussian target modeling have attracted most attention from researchers in this field. However, the lack of accurate target modeling limits the performance of this type of infrared small target detection algorithms. In this paper, signal to clutter ratio (SCR) improvement mechanism based on the matched filter is described in detail and effect of Point Spread Function (PSF) on the intensity and spatial distribution of the target pixels is clarified comprehensively. In the following, a new parametric model for small infrared targets is developed based on the PSF of imaging system which can be considered as a matched filter. Based on this model, a new framework to boost model-based infrared target detection algorithms is presented. In order to show the performance of this new framework, the proposed model is adopted in Laplacian scale-space algorithms which is a well-known algorithm in the small infrared target detection field. Simulation results show that the proposed framework has better detection performance in comparison with the Gaussian one and improves the overall performance of IRST system. By analyzing the performance of the proposed algorithm based on this new framework in a quantitative manner, this new framework shows at least 20% improvement in the output SCR values in comparison with Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) algorithm.

  12. Tailoring nanoparticle designs to target cancer based on tumor pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Edward A.; Dai, Qin; Sarsons, Christopher D.; Chen, Juan; Rocheleau, Jonathan V.; Hwang, David M.; Zheng, Gang; Cramb, David T.; Rinker, Kristina D.; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles can provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. How nanoparticle size, shape, and surface chemistry can affect their accumulation, retention, and penetration in tumors remains heavily investigated, because such findings provide guiding principles for engineering optimal nanosystems for tumor targeting. Currently, the experimental focus has been on particle design and not the biological system. Here, we varied tumor volume to determine whether cancer pathophysiology can influence tumor accumulation and penetration of different sized nanoparticles. Monte Carlo simulations were also used to model the process of nanoparticle accumulation. We discovered that changes in pathophysiology associated with tumor volume can selectively change tumor uptake of nanoparticles of varying size. We further determine that nanoparticle retention within tumors depends on the frequency of interaction of particles with the perivascular extracellular matrix for smaller nanoparticles, whereas transport of larger nanomaterials is dominated by Brownian motion. These results reveal that nanoparticles can potentially be personalized according to a patient's disease state to achieve optimal diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes.

  13. Integrating Activity-Based Costing with Target Costing and Principal-Agent Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Huang; Lijun Li; Liping Yu

    2009-01-01

    The current studies of cost management mainly focus on the cost control of transactions and activities, which is a basic function of cost management. This paper analyzes activity-based costing (ABC) and principal-agent incentives, and target costing (TC) and principal-agent incentives with regard to both functional and institutional aspects of cost management in agent theory framework, and reaches the point that a integration of activity-based costing and target costing based on principal-age...

  14. Small Target Extraction Based on Independent Component Analysis for Hyperspectral Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei; YU Xuchu

    2006-01-01

    A small target detection approach based on independent component analysis for hyperspectral data is put forward. In this algorithm, firstly the fast independent component analysis(FICA) is used to collect target information hided in high-dimensional data and projects them into low-dimensional space.Secondly, the feature images are selected with kurtosis .At last, small targets are extracted with histogram image segmentation which has been labeled by skewness.

  15. Automatic Target Recognition in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Images Based on Geometrical Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    J. Del Rio Vera; Coiras, E.; Groen, J; Evans, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new supervised classification approach for automated target recognition (ATR) in SAS images. The recognition procedure starts with a novel segmentation stage based on the Hilbert transform. A number of geometrical features are then extracted and used to classify observed objects against a previously compiled database of target and non-target features. The proposed approach has been tested on a set of 1528 simulated images created by the NURC SIGMAS sonar model, achieving...

  16. Automatic Target Recognition in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Images Based on Geometrical Feature Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio Vera, J.; Coiras, E.; Groen, J.; Evans, B.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a new supervised classification approach for automated target recognition (ATR) in SAS images. The recognition procedure starts with a novel segmentation stage based on the Hilbert transform. A number of geometrical features are then extracted and used to classify observed objects against a previously compiled database of target and non-target features. The proposed approach has been tested on a set of 1528 simulated images created by the NURC SIGMAS sonar model, achieving up to 95% classification accuracy.

  17. Shared Representation of SAR Target and Shadow Based on Multilayer Auto-encoder

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Zhi-jun; Xue Lei; Xu Yang-ming; Sun Zhi-yong

    2013-01-01

    Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is investigated. A SAR feature extraction algorithm based on multilayer auto-encoder is proposed. The method makes use of a probabilistic neural network, Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) modeling probability distribution of environment. Through the formation of more expressive multilayer neural network, the deep learning model learns shared representation of the target and its shadow outline reflecting the target sha...

  18. FISST Based Method for Multi-Target Tracking in the Image Plane of Optical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Xu; Wei An; Hui Xu; Yang Xu

    2012-01-01

    A finite set statistics (FISST)-based method is proposed for multi-target tracking in the image plane of optical sensors. The method involves using signal amplitude information in probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter which is derived from FISST to improve multi-target tracking performance. The amplitude of signals generated by the optical sensor is modeled first, from which the amplitude likelihood ratio between target and clutter is derived. An alternative approach is adopted for the ...

  19. Dim moving target tracking algorithm based on particle discriminative sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengzhou; Li, Jianing; Ge, Fengzeng; Shao, Wanxing; Liu, Bing; Jin, Gang

    2016-03-01

    The small dim moving target usually submerged in strong noise, and its motion observability is debased by numerous false alarms for low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A target tracking algorithm based on particle filter and discriminative sparse representation is proposed in this paper to cope with the uncertainty of dim moving target tracking. The weight of every particle is the crucial factor to ensuring the accuracy of dim target tracking for particle filter (PF) that can achieve excellent performance even under the situation of non-linear and non-Gaussian motion. In discriminative over-complete dictionary constructed according to image sequence, the target dictionary describes target signal and the background dictionary embeds background clutter. The difference between target particle and background particle is enhanced to a great extent, and the weight of every particle is then measured by means of the residual after reconstruction using the prescribed number of target atoms and their corresponding coefficients. The movement state of dim moving target is then estimated and finally tracked by these weighted particles. Meanwhile, the subspace of over-complete dictionary is updated online by the stochastic estimation algorithm. Some experiments are induced and the experimental results show the proposed algorithm could improve the performance of moving target tracking by enhancing the consistency between the posteriori probability distribution and the moving target state.

  20. A Method of Target Region Detection Based on Multi-channel Weighted Visual Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For traditional imagery attention model, the extraction of the bottom-up visual attention information of each channel is not thinking about the disadvantages of top-down task. A top-down guidance based feature vector weighted integration strategy is designed and implemented to compare the multi-feature-channel features of the target and the whole image. Based on the strategy, the weight of each feature channel in integration and the different map between the target and each image can be calculated to guide the generation of saliency map. A new method of target region detection based on multi-channel weighted visual attention is proposed to provide a calculation mechanism for quick location on images. The experimental results indicate that the method proposed in paper can search and lock the region more quickly which the target is most likely exist, and improve the efficiency of target searching.

  1. Passive Target Tracking Based on Current Statistical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-long; XIE Jian-ying; YANG Yu-pu

    2005-01-01

    Bearing-only passive tracking is regarded as a nonlinear hard tracking problem. There are still no completely good solutions to this problem until now. Based on current statistical model, the novel solution to this problem utilizing particle filter (PF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed. The new solution adopts data fusion from two observers to increase the observability of passive tracking. It applies the residual resampling step to reduce the degeneracy of PF and it introduces the Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) to reduce the effect of the "sample impoverish". Based on current statistical model, the EKF, the UKF and particle filter with various proposal distributions are compared in the passive tracking experiments with two observers. The simulation results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed new filtering methods with the novel techniques.

  2. Network based elucidation of drug response: from modulators to targets

    OpenAIRE

    Iorio, Francesco; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Bernardo, Diego di

    2013-01-01

    Network-based drug discovery aims at harnessing the power of networks to investigate the mechanism of action of existing drugs, or new molecules, in order to identify innovative therapeutic treatments. In this review, we describe some of the most recent advances in the field of network pharmacology, starting with approaches relying on computational models of transcriptional networks, then moving to protein and signaling network models and concluding with “drug networks”. These networks are de...

  3. TARGET-ORIENTED GENERIC FINGERPRINT-BASED MOLECULAR REPRESENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Skoda; David Hoksza

    2014-01-01

    The screening of chemical libraries is an important step in the drug discovery process. The existing chemical libraries contain up to millions of compounds. As the screening at such scale is expensive, the virtual screening is often utilized. There exist several variants of virtual screening and ligand-based virtual screening is one of them. It utilizes the similarity of screened chemical compounds to known compounds. Besides the employed similarity measure, another aspect grea...

  4. The Cost of Event-Based Prospective Memory: Salient Target Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; McVay, Jennifer C.; McConnell, Melissa D.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has begun to accumulate showing that successful performance of event-based prospective memory (PM) comes at a cost to other ongoing activities. The current study builds on previous work by examining the cost associated with PM when the target event is salient. Target salience is among the criteria for automatic retrieval of intentions…

  5. Low velocity target detection based on time-frequency image for high frequency ground wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Songhua; WU Shicai; WEN Biyang

    2007-01-01

    The Doppler spectral broadening resulted from non-stationary movement of target and radio-frequency interference will decrease the veracity of target detection by high frequency ground wave(HEGW)radar.By displaying the change of signal energy on two dimensional time-frequency images based on time-frequency analysis,a new mathematical morphology method to distinguish target from nonlinear time-frequency curves is presented.The analyzed results from the measured data verify that with this new method the target can be detected correctly from wide Doppler spectrum.

  6. Corpus-based collocation research targeted at Japanese language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses corpus-based research on collocations, introduces various tools for querying and extracting Japanese collocations and presents an analysis of Japanese collocations using language corpora and related tools. First, major corpus query tools such as Sketch Engine, NINJAL-NLP, Natsume, Chunagon, which can be used by learners and teachers of Japanese language, are briefly described. Focus then shifts to adjectival and nominal collocates and the resource "Collocation data of adjectives and nouns" which consists of adjective headwords and their nominal collocates extracted from two large corpora, BCCWJ and JpTenTen: 500 adjectives and 9,218 collocate nouns, and 500 adjectives and 23,220 collocate nouns from each corpus respectively. Finally, it is shown that corpus-based resources can be used in the creation of reference materials for learners of the Japanese language. The benefits of empirical research into collocations are also shown by comparing the obtained results with collocations in textbooks for Japanese as foreign language.

  7. Infrared moving point target detection based on spatial-temporal local contrast filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lizhen; Zhu, Hu; Tao, Chao; Wei, Yantao

    2016-05-01

    Infrared moving point target detection is a challenging task. In this paper, we define a novel spatial local contrast (SLC) and a novel temporal local contrast (TLC) to enhance the target's contrast. Based on the defined spatial local contrast and temporal local contrast, we propose a simple but powerful spatial-temporal local contrast filter (STLCF) to detect moving point target from infrared image sequences. In order to verify the performance of spatial-temporal local contrast filter on detecting moving point target, different detection methods are used to detect the target from several infrared image sequences for comparison. The experimental results show that the proposed spatial-temporal local contrast filter has great superiority in moving point target detection.

  8. Diffusion-based separation methods: dry distillation of zinc, cadmium and mercury isotopes from irradiated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-based separation methods allow the extraction of produced radionuclides with a low loss of target material, which is of special importance when enriched target material is used. We present a simple, non-destructive and rapid method to separate radioactive isotopes of IIB group elements (zinc, cadmium and mercury) from IB group metal targets irradiated with protons. Irradiated target foils were heated to a temperature 20oC below the melting point of the target material. During these conditions at least 90% of the desired radioactivity was evaporated with negligible loss of target material. Separation time was 15 min for mercury, 60 min for cadmium and 120 min for zinc. (author)

  9. A robust infrared dim target detection method based on template filtering and saliency extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguang; Li, Chenming; Shi, Jianing

    2015-11-01

    Dim target detection in infrared image with complex background and low signal-clutter ratio (SCR) is a significant and difficult task in the infrared target tracking system. A robust infrared dim target detection method based on template filtering and saliency extraction is proposed in this paper. The weighted gray map is obtained from the infrared image to highlight the target which is brighter than its neighbors and has weak correlation with its background. The target saliency map is then calculated by phase spectrum of Fourier Transform, so that the dim target detection could be converted to salient region extraction. The potential targets are finally extracted by combining the two maps. Moreover, position discrimination between targets in the two maps is used to exclude the false alarms and extract the targets. Experimental results on measured images indicate that our method is feasible, adaptable and robust in different backgrounds. The ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves obtained from the simulated images demonstrate the proposed method outperforms some existing typical methods in both detection rate and false alarm rate, for target detection with low SCR.

  10. AN EVIDENT SIDELOBE CONTROL METHOD BASED ON NSCT FOR SHIP TARGET IN SAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueying; Yin Dong; Zhang Rong; Wang Kui

    2011-01-01

    Evident sidelobe on faint ship target seriously affects the accuracy of the target segmentation in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images.To avoid this problem,a novel sidelobe control method based on NonSubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) for ship targets in SAR images is presented in this paper.This method enhances the SAR images in NSCT domain based on target azimuth estimation and then inhibits the sidelobe directionally in NSCT high-pass frequency subbands.Experimental results on RADARSAT-2 images demonstrate that the proposed method can not only reduce the strong sidelobes effectively,but also enhance the intensity of the objects successfully.Therefore,it gives a good segmentation result on the dark ship images with strong sidelobe,and enhances the detection rate on these targets.

  11. Designing a Clustering and Prediction-based Protocol for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hosseini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Target tracking is one of the applications of wireless sensor network which is set up in the areas of field surveillance, habitat monitoring, and intruder tracking. Energy saving is one of the main challenges in target tracking sensor networks. In this paper, we present a Clustering and Prediction-Based Protocol (CPBP for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Also, the Base Station (BS was exploited as a cluster formation manager and target movement predictor. Our protocol uses two parameters, distance and energy, for clustering algorithm. For evaluation, the proposed protocol was compared to a number of protocols in terms of network lifetime, number of transmitted packets and number of target miss during network lifetime. Performance of the proposed protocol was compared with cluster size 5 and 7. The simulation results represented desirable performance of the presented protocol.

  12. Active radar guides missile to its target: receptor-based targeted treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma by nanoparticulate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing-Jun; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Lin, Ju-Sheng; He, Xing-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually present at advanced stages and do not benefit from surgical resection, so drug therapy should deserve a prominent place in unresectable HCC treatment. But chemotherapy agents, such as doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel, frequently encounter important problems such as low specificity and non-selective biodistribution. Recently, the development of nanotechnology led to significant breakthroughs to overcome these problems. Decorating the surfaces of nanoparticulate-based drug carriers with homing devices has demonstrated its potential in concentrating chemotherapy agents specifically to HCC cells. In this paper, we reviewed the current status of active targeting strategies for nanoparticulate systems based on various receptors such as asialoglycoprotein receptor, transferrin receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, folate receptor, integrin, and CD44, which are abundantly expressed on the surfaces of hepatocytes or liver cancer cells. Furthermore, we pointed out their merits and defects and provided theoretical references for further research. PMID:25424700

  13. A Method of SAR Target Recognition Based on Gabor Filter and Local Texture Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lu; Zhang Fan; Li Wei; Xie Xiao-ming; Hu Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel texture feature extraction method based on a Gabor filter and Three-Patch Local Binary Patterns (TPLBP) for Synthetic Aperture Rader (SAR) target recognition. First, SAR images are processed by a Gabor filter in different directions to enhance the significant features of the targets and their shadows. Then, the effective local texture features based on the Gabor filtered images are extracted by TPLBP. This not only overcomes the shortcoming of Local Binary Patterns...

  14. The study of target damage assessment system based on image change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Yang, Fan; Feng, Xinxi

    2009-10-01

    Target Damage Assessment (TDA) system is an important component of the intelligent command and control system. The method of building TDA based on Image Change Detection can greatly improve the system efficiency and accuracy, thus get a fast and precise assessment results. This paper firstly analyzes the structure of TDA system. Then studies the key technology in this system. Finally, gives an evaluation criteria based on image change detection of the target damage assessment system.

  15. Novel apigenin based small molecule that targets snake venom metalloproteases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalaiah Srinivasa

    Full Text Available The classical antivenom therapy has appreciably reduced snakebite mortality rate and thus is the only savior drug available. Unfortunately, it considerably fails to shield the viper bite complications like hemorrhage, local tissue degradation and necrosis responsible for severe morbidity. Moreover, the therapy is also tagged with limitations including anaphylaxis, serum sickness and poor availability. Over the last decade, snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs are reported to be the primary component responsible for hemorrhage and tissue degradation at bitten site. Thus, antivenom inability to offset viper venom-induced local toxicity has been a basis for an insistent search for SVMP inhibitors. Here we report the inhibitory effect of compound 5d, an apigenin based molecule against SVMPs both in silico and in vivo. Several apigenin analogues are synthesized using multicomponent Ugi reactions. Among them, compound 5d effectively abrogated Echis carinatus (EC venom-induced local hemorrhage, tissue necrosis and myotoxicity in a dose dependant fashion. The histopathological study further conferred effective inhibition of basement membrane degradation, and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the site of EC venom inoculation. The compound also protected EC venom-induced fibrin and fibrinogen degradation. The molecular docking of compound 5d and bothropasin demonstrated the direct interaction of hydroxyl group of compound with Glu146 present in hydrophobic pocket of active site and does not chelate Zn2+. Hence, it is concluded that compound 5d could be a potent agent in viper bite management.

  16. Calibration method for line-structured light vision sensor based on a single ball target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaojing; Li, Fengjiao; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-06-01

    Profile feature imaging for ball targets is unaffected by the position of the target. On this basis, this study proposes a method for the rapid calibration of a line-structured light system based on a single ball target. The calibration process is as follows: the ball target is placed at least once and is illuminated by the light stripe from the laser projector. The vision sensor captures an image of this target. The laser stripe and profile images of the ball target are then extracted. Based on these extracted features and the optical centre of the camera, the spatial equations of the ball target and a cone profile are calculated. The plane on which the intersection line of the two equations lies is the light plane. Finally, the optimal solution for the light plane equation is obtained through nonlinear optimization under a maximum likelihood criterion. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation and physical experiments. In the physical experiment, the field of view of the structured light vision sensor measures 300 mm×250 mm. A calibration accuracy of 0.04 mm can be achieved using the proposed method. This accuracy is comparable to that of the calibration method which utilizes planar targets.

  17. Information-management data base for fusion-target fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-based data-management system has been developed to handle data associated with target-fabrication processes including glass microballoon characterization, gas filling, materials coating, and storage locations. The system provides automatic data storage and computation, flexible data-entry procedures, fast access, automated report generation, and secure data transfer. It resides on a CDC CYBER 175 computer and is compatible with the CDC data-base-language Query Update, but is based on custom FORTRAN software interacting directly with the CYBER's file-management system. The described data base maintains detailed, accurate, and readily available records of fusion targets information

  18. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from 0.56+/- 0.05 mm (mean  ±  SD) to 0.05+/- 0.05 mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm.

  19. Tumor Targeting Potential of Lipid-Based Nano-Pharmaceuticals (LNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kshitij; Yavlovich, Amichai; Puri, Anu; Blumenthal, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated targeted drug delivery has become the modality of interest for cancer/tumor therapy as it reduces the undesirable delivery to normal cells and improves efficacy of the pharmaceuticals. Among all the nanosystems, lipid-based nano-pharmaceuticals (LNPs) have been most extensively studied for cancer therapy. Doxil formulation was the first LNP that has been approved for cancer treatment. When conjugated with ligands, LNPs can be targeted to tumor cells. This chapter focuses on the targeting potential of LNPs for cancer therapy. We will discuss the advantages of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect (passive targeting) for preferential tumor accumulation of LNPs, the importance of pegylation to avoid reticulo-endothelial system uptake and active targeting strategies using various targeting ligands that can be coupled to the LNP surface to target the tumor region (tumor cells/tumor vasculature). Targeted LNPs show higher binding affinity, greater intracellular localization and thereby increased cancer cell killing in comparison to non targeted LNPs. However, contrasting reports exist that pose challenges to the notion that targeted LNPs are advantageous. Recent trends have also demonstrated the concept of dual targeting that simultaneously homes LNPs to receptors on the tumor cells and biomarkers expressed on the tumor vasculature. In addition, targeting with multiple ligands on the LNPs has also been explored. These approaches may prove to be a better answer for next generation of LNPs for delivery of anti-cancer agents. However, more extensive studies are required to get their clinical approval in anti-cancer therapy.

  20. Prediction of drug-target interactions for drug repositioning only based on genomic expression similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    Full Text Available Small drug molecules usually bind to multiple protein targets or even unintended off-targets. Such drug promiscuity has often led to unwanted or unexplained drug reactions, resulting in side effects or drug repositioning opportunities. So it is always an important issue in pharmacology to identify potential drug-target interactions (DTI. However, DTI discovery by experiment remains a challenging task, due to high expense of time and resources. Many computational methods are therefore developed to predict DTI with high throughput biological and clinical data. Here, we initiatively demonstrate that the on-target and off-target effects could be characterized by drug-induced in vitro genomic expression changes, e.g. the data in Connectivity Map (CMap. Thus, unknown ligands of a certain target can be found from the compounds showing high gene-expression similarity to the known ligands. Then to clarify the detailed practice of CMap based DTI prediction, we objectively evaluate how well each target is characterized by CMap. The results suggest that (1 some targets are better characterized than others, so the prediction models specific to these well characterized targets would be more accurate and reliable; (2 in some cases, a family of ligands for the same target tend to interact with common off-targets, which may help increase the efficiency of DTI discovery and explain the mechanisms of complicated drug actions. In the present study, CMap expression similarity is proposed as a novel indicator of drug-target interactions. The detailed strategies of improving data quality by decreasing the batch effect and building prediction models are also effectively established. We believe the success in CMap can be further translated into other public and commercial data of genomic expression, thus increasing research productivity towards valid drug repositioning and minimal side effects.

  1. Discovery of ligands for a novel target, the human telomerase RNA, based on flexible-target virtual screening and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Irene Gómez; Guilbert, Christophe; Ulyanov, Nikolai B; Stearns, Jay; James, Thomas L

    2008-11-27

    The human ribonucleoprotein telomerase is a validated anticancer drug target, and hTR-P2b is a part of the human telomerase RNA (hTR) essential for its activity. Interesting ligands that bind hTR-P2b were identified by iteratively using a tandem structure-based approach: docking of potential ligands from small databases to hTR-P2b via the program MORDOR, which permits flexibility in both ligand and target, with subsequent NMR screening of high-ranking compounds. A high percentage of the compounds tested experimentally were found via NMR to bind to the U-rich region of hTR-P2b; most have MW < 500 Da and are from different compound classes, and several possess a charge of 0 or +1. Of the 48 ligands identified, 24 exhibit a decided preference to bind hTR-P2b RNA rather than A-site rRNA and 10 do not bind A-site rRNA at all. Binding affinity was measured by monitoring RNA imino proton resonances for some of the compounds that showed hTR binding preference. PMID:18950148

  2. Feature-based fusion of infrared and visible dynamic images using target detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congyi Liu; Zhongliang Jing; Gang Xiao; Bo Yang

    2007-01-01

    We employ the target detection to improve the performance of the feature-based fusion of infrared and visible dynamic images, which forms a novel fusion scheme. First, the target detection is used to segment the source image sequences into target and background regions. Then, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is proposed to decompose all the source image sequences. Different fusion rules are applied respectively in target and background regions to preserve the target information as much as possible. Real world infrared and visible image sequences are used to validate the performance of the proposed novel scheme. Compared with the previous fusion approaches of image sequences, the improvements of shift invariance, temporal stability and consistency, and computation cost are all ensured.

  3. Multiple Maneuvering Target Tracking by Improved Particle Filter Based on Multiscan JPDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple maneuvering target tracking algorithm based on a particle filter is addressed. The equivalent-noise approach is adopted, which uses a simple dynamic model consisting of target state and equivalent noise which accounts for the combined effects of the process noise and maneuvers. The equivalent-noise approach converts the problem of maneuvering target tracking to that of state estimation in the presence of nonstationary process noise with unknown statistics. A novel method for identifying the nonstationary process noise is proposed in the particle filter framework. Furthermore, a particle filter based multiscan Joint Probability Data Association (JPDA filter is proposed to deal with the data association problem in a multiple maneuvering target tracking. In the proposed multiscan JPDA algorithm, the distributions of interest are the marginal filtering distributions for each of the targets, and these distributions are approximated with particles. The multiscan JPDA algorithm examines the joint association events in a multiscan sliding window and calculates the marginal posterior probability based on the multiscan joint association events. The proposed algorithm is illustrated via an example involving the tracking of two highly maneuvering, at times closely spaced and crossed, targets, based on resolved measurements.

  4. MAXIMUM A POSTERIORI-BASED AUTOMATIC TARGET DETECTION IN SAR IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yimin; An Jinwen

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an algorithm of automatic target detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) images based on Maximum A Posteriori(MAP). The algorithm is divided into three steps. First, it employs Gaussian mixture distribution to approximate and estimate multi-modal histogram of SAR image. Then, based on the principle of MAP, when a priori probability is both unknown and learned respectively, the sample pixels are classified into different classes c = {target,shadow, background}. Last, it compares the results of two different target detections. Simulation results preferably indicate that the presented algorithm is fast and robust, with the learned a priori probability, an approach to target detection is reliable and promising.

  5. Through-Wall Multiple Targets Vital Signs Tracking Based on VMD Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Yan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Targets located at the same distance are easily neglected in most through-wall multiple targets detecting applications which use the single-input single-output (SISO ultra-wideband (UWB radar system. In this paper, a novel multiple targets vital signs tracking algorithm for through-wall detection using SISO UWB radar has been proposed. Taking advantage of the high-resolution decomposition of the Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD based algorithm, the respiration signals of different targets can be decomposed into different sub-signals, and then, we can track the time-varying respiration signals accurately when human targets located in the same distance. Intensive evaluation has been conducted to show the effectiveness of our scheme with a 0.15 m thick concrete brick wall. Constant, piecewise-constant and time-varying vital signs could be separated and tracked successfully with the proposed VMD based algorithm for two targets, even up to three targets. For the multiple targets’ vital signs tracking issues like urban search and rescue missions, our algorithm has superior capability in most detection applications.

  6. ICA Based Speckle Filtering for Target Extraction in SAR Images Using Adaptive Space Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; ZHOU Yue; YANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach based on independent component analysis (ICA) for speckle filtering and target extraction of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is proposed using adaptive space separation with weighted information entropy (WIE) incorporated. First the basis and the independent components are respectively obtained by ICA technique, and WIE of the image is computed; then based on the threshold computed from function T-WIE (threshold versus weighted-information-entropy), independent components are adaptively separated and the bases are classified accordingly. Thus, the image space is separated into two subspaces: "clean" and "noise". Then, a proposed nonlinear operator ABO is applied on each component of the 'clean' subspace for further optimization. Finally, recovery image is obtained reconstructing this subspace and target is easily extracted with binarisation. Note that here T-WIE is an interpolated function based on several representative target SAR images using proposed space separation algorithm.

  7. Algorithm for Target Recognition Based on Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets with Grey Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve exact recognition ratios for aerial targets, this paper presents a novel algorithm for target recognition based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets with grey correlation. Drawbacks of some previously proposed methods are analyzed, and then a novel algorithm is presented. Recognition matrix of an aerial target is established first. Every entry associated with the matrix is an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy number, which is composed of interval-valued membership and nonmembership, representing the relation of the target to one category in terms of one characteristic parameter. Then grey correlation theory is used to analyze the recognition matrix to obtain the grey correlation degree of this unknown target to every category. 200 sets of target recognition data are used to compare the proposed algorithm with traditional methods. Experimental results verify that the correct recognition ratio can be up to 99.5% that satisfies the expectations, which shows the proposed algorithm can solve the target recognition problems better. The proposed algorithm can be used to solve the uncertain inference problems, such as target recognition, threat assessment, and decision making.

  8. Translational Motion Compensation for Ballistic Targets Based on Delayed Conjugated Multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Si-san

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The micro-motion is combined with the high velocity of translation motion for ballistic targets. The translation motion should be compensated for micro-Doppler information extraction. A new method based on delay conjugate multiplication is proposed to compensate the translation motion of ballistic target. By delay conjugate multiplication of the received signal, the micro-Doppler information are canceled out and the translation motion parameters estimation problem is transformed as an multi-polynomial phase signal parameters estimation problem. Thus, the translation parameters can be estimated. Simulation results suggest that the proposed algorithm can achieve high-precision compensation for ballistic targets under low SNR.

  9. Automatic Target Recognition in Synthetic Aperture Sonar Images Based on Geometrical Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Del Rio Vera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new supervised classification approach for automated target recognition (ATR in SAS images. The recognition procedure starts with a novel segmentation stage based on the Hilbert transform. A number of geometrical features are then extracted and used to classify observed objects against a previously compiled database of target and non-target features. The proposed approach has been tested on a set of 1528 simulated images created by the NURC SIGMAS sonar model, achieving up to 95% classification accuracy.

  10. Translational Motion Compensation for Ballistic Targets Based on Delayed Conjugated Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    He Si-san; Zhao Hui-ning; Zhang Yong-shun

    2014-01-01

    The micro-motion is combined with the high velocity of translation motion for ballistic targets. The translation motion should be compensated for micro-Doppler information extraction. A new method based on delay conjugate multiplication is proposed to compensate the translation motion of ballistic target. By delay conjugate multiplication of the received signal, the micro-Doppler information are canceled out and the translation motion parameters estimation problem is transformed as an multi-p...

  11. Infrared small target detection via line-based reconstruction and entropy-induced suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ke; Sun, Xiao; Tian, Jinwen; Li, Yansheng; Ma, Jiayi

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel infrared small target detection method which is composed of two stages. The first stage is implemented by line-based reconstruction for suppressing the background clutter, and the second stage is induced by information entropy for further standing out the targets. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed approach is able to achieve better performance in terms of efficiency and accuracy.

  12. Robotics Vision-based Heuristic Reasoning for Underwater Target Tracking and Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chua Kia; Mohd Rizal Arshad

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robotics vision-based heuristic reasoning system for underwater target tracking and navigation. This system is introduced to improve the level of automation of underwater Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs) operations. A prototype which combines computer vision with an underwater robotics system is successfully designed and developed to perform target tracking and intelligent navigation. This study focuses on developing image processing algorithms and fuzzy inference system ...

  13. Study on Multi-Target Tracking Based on Particle Filter Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Junying Meng; Jiaomin Liu; Yongzheng Li; Juan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Particle filter is a probability estimation method based on Bayesian framework and it has unique advantage to describe the target tracking non-linear and non-Gaussian. In this study, firstly, analyses the particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment in particle filter multi-target tracking algorithm and secondly, it applies Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to improve re-sampling process and enhance performance of particle filter algorithm.

  14. Cluster-based Dynamic Energy Management for Collaborative Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dao-Wei Bi; Sheng Wang; Jun-Jie Ma; Xue Wang

    2007-01-01

    A primary criterion of wireless sensor network is energy efficiency. Focused on the energy problem of target tracking in wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes a cluster-based dynamic energy management mechanism. Target tracking problem is formulated by the multi-sensor detection model as well as energy consumption model. A distributed adaptive clustering approach is investigated to form a reasonable routing framework which has uniform cluster head distribution. Dijkstra's algorithm is...

  15. Structure-Based DNA-Targeting Strategies with Small Molecule Ligands for Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jia; Gan, Jianhua; Huang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acids are the molecular targets of many clinical anticancer drugs. However, compared with proteins, nucleic acids have traditionally attracted much less attention as drug targets in structure-based drug design, partially because limited structural information of nucleic acids complexed with potential drugs is available. Over the past several years, enormous progresses in nucleic acid crystallization, heavy-atom derivatization, phasing, and structural biology have been made. Many compl...

  16. Detection-Discrimination Method for Multiple Repeater False Targets Based on Radar Polarization Echoes

    OpenAIRE

    ZONG, Z. W.; L. F. SHI; Y. Z. LI; X.S. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Multiple repeat false targets (RFTs), created by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) system of jammer, are widely used in practical to effectively exhaust the limited tracking and discrimination resource of defence radar. In this paper, common characteristic of radar polarization echoes of multiple RFTs is used for target recognition. Based on the echoes from two receiving polarization channels, the instantaneous polarization radio (IPR) is defined and its variance is derived by employi...

  17. Triplex targeted genomic crosslinks enter separable deletion and base substitution pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Sally; Liu, Su-ting; Majumdar, Alokes; Liu, Ji-Lan; Nairn, Rodney S.; Bernier, Michel; Maher, Veronica; Seidman, Michael M.

    2005-01-01

    We have synthesized triple helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) that target a psoralen (pso) interstrand crosslink to a specific chromosomal site in mammalian cells. Mutagenesis of the targeted crosslinks results in base substitutions and deletions. Identification of the gene products involved in mutation formation is important for developing practical applications of pso-TFOs, and may be informative about the metabolism of other interstrand crosslinks. We have studied mutagenesis of a pso-T...

  18. Study of high-speed interaction processes between fluoropolymer projectiles and aluminum-based targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evgeny A. KHMELNIKOV; Alexey V. STYROV; Konstantin V. SMAGIN; Natalia S. KRAVCHENKO; Valery L. RUDENKO; Vladimir I. FALALEEV; Sergey S. SOKOLOV; Artem V. SVIDINSKY; Natalia F. SVIDINSKAYA

    2015-01-01

    The experimental results and numerical modeling of penetration process of fluoropolymer projectiles in aluminum-based targets are pre-sented. Analysis of mathematical models for interaction of elastoplastic projectile and target without taking additional energy released during interaction of fluoropolymer and aluminum into consideration is carried out. Energy fraction which is spent effectively on the increase in cavity volume is determined. The experimental and calculated results of penetration by combined and inert projectiles are compared.

  19. ANALYSIS OF GROUND TARGET STEALTH BASED ON PASSIVE MILLIMETER-WAVE DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xiang; Lou Guowei; Li Xingguo

    2008-01-01

    Passive Millimeter-Wave (MMW) detection has become a threat to ground targets. To nhance the survivability of the ground target in the future battlefield, passive MMW stealth tech- nology is analyzed in this paper. Based on the passive MMW detection principle, computation and analysis are made for the MMW apparent temperature of tank in different actual combat conditions. The necessity of the passive MMW stealth is analyzed and the passive MMW stealth methods are also studied.

  20. Infrared dim target detection based on fractal dimension and third-order characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Lei Liu; Zhenmin Tang

    2009-01-01

    Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing 210094,ChinaWe propose an improved algorithm based on fractal dimension and third-order characterization to detect dim target with cluttered background in an infrared (IR) image.We also illustrate the performance and efficiency comparisons between the presented algorithm and the traditional fractal detection method on real IR images.The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is robust and efficient for IR dim target detection.

  1. Design, Synthesis and Bio-evaluation of an EphA2-based Targeted Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Barile, Elisa; Wang, Si; Das, Swadesh K.; Noberini, Roberta; Dahl, Russell; Stebbins, John L.; Pasquale, Elena B.; Fisher, Paul B.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a new targeted delivery system based on specific EphA2 receptor targeting peptides conjugated with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. In this manuscript we investigate the chemical determinants responsible for the stability and degradation of these agents in plasma. Introducing modifications in both the peptide and the linker between the peptide and paclitaxel, resulted in drug conjugates that are both long-lived in rat plasma and that markedly reduced tumor size in ...

  2. Online Variational Bayesian Filtering-Based Mobile Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bingpeng Zhou; Qingchun Chen; Tiffany Jing Li; Pei Xiao

    2014-01-01

    The received signal strength (RSS)-based online tracking for a mobile node in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is investigated in this paper. Firstly, a multi-layer dynamic Bayesian network (MDBN) is introduced to characterize the target mobility with either directional or undirected movement. In particular, it is proposed to employ the Wishart distribution to approximate the time-varying RSS measurement precision's randomness due to the target movement. It is shown that the proposed MDBN offe...

  3. Distributed Information Compression for Target Tracking in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shi-Kuan; Lai, Kai-Jay; Tsai, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Target tracking is a critical wireless sensor application, which involves signal and information processing technologies. In conventional target position estimation methods, an estimate is usually demonstrated by an average target position. In contrast, this work proposes a distributed information compression method to describe the measurement uncertainty of tracking problems in cluster-based wireless sensor networks. The leader-based information processing scheme is applied to perform target positioning and energy conservation. A two-level hierarchical network topology is adopted for energy-efficient target tracking with information compression. A Level 1 network architecture is a cluster-based network topology for managing network operations. A Level 2 network architecture is an event-based and leader-based topology, utilizing the concept of information compression to process the estimates of sensor nodes. The simulation results show that compared to conventional schemes, the proposed data processing scheme has a balanced system performance in terms of tracking accuracy, data size for transmission and energy consumption. PMID:27338417

  4. Distributed Information Compression for Target Tracking in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Kuan Liao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Target tracking is a critical wireless sensor application, which involves signal and information processing technologies. In conventional target position estimation methods, an estimate is usually demonstrated by an average target position. In contrast, this work proposes a distributed information compression method to describe the measurement uncertainty of tracking problems in cluster-based wireless sensor networks. The leader-based information processing scheme is applied to perform target positioning and energy conservation. A two-level hierarchical network topology is adopted for energy-efficient target tracking with information compression. A Level 1 network architecture is a cluster-based network topology for managing network operations. A Level 2 network architecture is an event-based and leader-based topology, utilizing the concept of information compression to process the estimates of sensor nodes. The simulation results show that compared to conventional schemes, the proposed data processing scheme has a balanced system performance in terms of tracking accuracy, data size for transmission and energy consumption.

  5. Distributed Information Compression for Target Tracking in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shi-Kuan; Lai, Kai-Jay; Tsai, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Target tracking is a critical wireless sensor application, which involves signal and information processing technologies. In conventional target position estimation methods, an estimate is usually demonstrated by an average target position. In contrast, this work proposes a distributed information compression method to describe the measurement uncertainty of tracking problems in cluster-based wireless sensor networks. The leader-based information processing scheme is applied to perform target positioning and energy conservation. A two-level hierarchical network topology is adopted for energy-efficient target tracking with information compression. A Level 1 network architecture is a cluster-based network topology for managing network operations. A Level 2 network architecture is an event-based and leader-based topology, utilizing the concept of information compression to process the estimates of sensor nodes. The simulation results show that compared to conventional schemes, the proposed data processing scheme has a balanced system performance in terms of tracking accuracy, data size for transmission and energy consumption. PMID:27338417

  6. Predicting Molecular Targets for Small-Molecule Drugs with a Ligand-Based Interaction Fingerprint Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ran; Wang, Yanli

    2016-06-20

    The computational prediction of molecular targets for small-molecule drugs remains a great challenge. Herein we describe a ligand-based interaction fingerprint (LIFt) approach for target prediction. Together with physics-based docking and sampling methods, we assessed the performance systematically by modeling the polypharmacology of 12 kinase inhibitors in three stages. First, we examined the capacity of this approach to differentiate true targets from false targets with the promiscuous binder staurosporine, based on native complex structures. Second, we performed large-scale profiling of kinase selectivity on the clinical drug sunitinib by means of computational simulation. Third, we extended the study beyond kinases by modeling the cross-inhibition of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) for 10 well-established kinase inhibitors. On this basis, we made prospective predictions by exploring new kinase targets for the anticancer drug candidate TN-16, originally known as a colchicine site binder and microtubule disruptor. As a result, p38α was highlighted from a panel of 187 different kinases. Encouragingly, our prediction was validated by an in vitro kinase assay, which showed TN-16 as a low-micromolar p38α inhibitor. Collectively, our results suggest the promise of the LIFt approach in predicting potential targets for small-molecule drugs. PMID:26222196

  7. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  8. Selective targeting of melanoma by PEG-masked protein-based multifunctional nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannucci L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Luca Vannucci1,*, Elisabetta Falvo2,*, Manuela Fornara3, Patrizio Di Micco4, Oldrich Benada1, Jiri Krizan1, Jan Svoboda1, Katarina Hulikova-Capkova1, Veronica Morea3, Alberto Boffi4,5, Pierpaolo Ceci3 1Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, VVI, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacogenomic Unit, 3National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Molecular Biology and Pathology, 4Department of Biochemical Sciences “A Rossi Fanelli”, University of Rome “Sapienza”, 5Center for Life Nano Science at Sapienza, Italian Institute of Technology, Rome, Italy *These two authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Nanoparticle-based systems are promising for the development of imaging and therapeutic agents. The main advantage of nanoparticles over traditional systems lies in the possibility of loading multiple functionalities onto a single molecule, which are useful for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. These functionalities include targeting moieties which are able to recognize receptors overexpressed by specific cells and tissues. However, targeted delivery of nanoparticles requires an accurate system design. We present here a rationally designed, genetically engineered, and chemically modified protein-based nanoplatform for cell/tissue-specific targeting.Methods: Our nanoparticle constructs were based on the heavy chain of the human protein ferritin (HFt, a highly symmetrical assembly of 24 subunits enclosing a hollow cavity. HFt-based nanoparticles were produced using both genetic engineering and chemical functionalization methods to impart several functionalities, ie, the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide as a melanoma-targeting moiety, stabilizing and HFt-masking polyethylene glycol molecules, rhodamine fluorophores, and magnetic resonance imaging agents. The constructs produced were extensively characterized by a number of physicochemical

  9. Polysaccharide-based micro/nanocarriers for oral colon-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Sang, Yuan; Feng, Jing; Li, Zhaoming; Zhao, Aili

    2016-08-01

    Oral colon-targeted drug delivery has attracted many researchers because of its distinct advantages of increasing the bioavailability of the drug at the target site and reducing the side effects. Polysaccharides that are precisely activated by the physiological environment of the colon hold greater promise for colon targeting. Considerable research efforts have been directed towards developing polysaccharide-based micro/nanocarriers. Types of polysaccharides for colon targeting and in vitro/in vivo assessments of polysaccharide-based carriers for oral colon-targeted drug delivery are summarised. Polysaccharide-based microspheres have gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon (colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), amoebiasis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)), but also for it's potential for the delivery of anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-chronic stable angina drugs. Besides, Polysaccharide-based micro/nanocarriers such as microbeads, microcapsules, microparticles, nanoparticles, nanogels and nanospheres are also introduced in this review. PMID:26766303

  10. Multispectral excitation based multiple fluorescent targets resolving in fluorescence molecular tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Guang, Huizhi; Pu, Huangsheng; Zhang, Jiulou; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can visualize biological activities at cellular and molecular levels in vivo, and has been extensively used in drug delivery and tumor detection research of small animals. The ill-posedness of the FMT inverse problem makes it difficult to reconstruct and resolve multiple adjacent fluorescent targets that have different functional features but are labeled with the same fluorochrome. An algorithm based on independent component analysis (ICA) for multispectral excited FMT is proposed to resolve multiple fluorescent targets in this study. Fluorescent targets are excited by multispectral excitation, and the three-dimensional distribution of fluorescent yields under the excitation spectrum is reconstructed by an iterative Tikhonov regularization algorithm. Subsequently, multiple fluorescent targets are resolved from mixed fluorescence signals by employing ICA. Simulations were performed and the results demonstrate that multiple adjacent fluorescent targets can be resolved if the number of excitation wavelengths is not smaller than that of fluorescent targets with different concentrations. The algorithm obtains both independent components that provide spatial information of different fluorescent targets and spectral courses that reflect variation trends of fluorescent yields along with the excitation spectrum. By using this method, it is possible to visualize the metabolism status of drugs in different structure organs, and quantitatively depict the variation trends of fluorescent yields of each functional organ under the excitation spectrum. This method may provide a pattern for tumor detection, drug delivery and treatment monitoring in vivo.

  11. High-Speed Target Identification System Based on the Plume’s Spectral Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the target of high speed quickly and accurately, an identification system was designed based on analysis of the distribution characteristics of the plume spectrum. In the system, the target was aligned with visible light tracking module, and the spectral analysis of the target’s plume radiation was achieved by interference module. The distinguishing factor recognition algorithm was designed on basis of ratio of multifeature band peaks and valley mean values. Effective recognition of the high speed moving target could be achieved after partition of the active region and the influence of target motion on spectral acquisition was analyzed. In the experiment the small rocket combustion was used as the target. The spectral detection experiment was conducted at different speeds 2.0 km away from the detection system. Experimental results showed that spectral distribution had significant spectral offset in the same sampling period for the target with different speeds, but the spectral distribution was basically consistent. Through calculation of the inclusion relationship between distinguishing factor and distinction interval of the peak value and the valley value at the corresponding wave-bands, effective identification of target could be achieved.

  12. Cluster-based Dynamic Energy Management for Collaborative Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Wei Bi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A primary criterion of wireless sensor network is energy efficiency. Focused onthe energy problem of target tracking in wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes acluster-based dynamic energy management mechanism. Target tracking problem isformulated by the multi-sensor detection model as well as energy consumption model. Adistributed adaptive clustering approach is investigated to form a reasonable routingframework which has uniform cluster head distribution. Dijkstra’s algorithm is utilized toobtain optimal intra-cluster routing. Target position is predicted by particle filter. Thepredicted target position is adopted to estimate the idle interval of sensor nodes. Hence,dynamic awakening approach is exploited to prolong sleep time of sensor nodes so that theoperation energy consumption of wireless sensor network can be reduced. The sensornodes around the target wake up on time and act as sensing candidates. With the candidatesensor nodes and predicted target position, the optimal sensor node selection is considered.Binary particle swarm optimization is proposed to minimize the total energy consumptionduring collaborative sensing and data reporting. Experimental results verify that theproposed clustering approach establishes a low-energy communication structure while theenergy efficiency of wireless sensor networks is enhanced by cluster-based dynamic energymanagement.

  13. TRUSTWORTHY OPTIMIZED CLUSTERING BASED TARGET DETECTION AND TRACKING FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jehan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient approach is proposed to address the problem of target tracking in wireless sensor network (WSN. The problem being tackled here uses adaptive dynamic clustering scheme for tracking the target. It is a specific problem in object tracking. The proposed adaptive dynamic clustering target tracking scheme uses three steps for target tracking. The first step deals with the identification of clusters and cluster heads using OGSAFCM. Here, kernel fuzzy c-means (KFCM and gravitational search algorithm (GSA are combined to create clusters. At first, oppositional gravitational search algorithm (OGSA is used to optimize the initial clustering center and then the KFCM algorithm is availed to guide the classification and the cluster formation process. In the OGSA, the concept of the opposition based population initialization in the basic GSA to improve the convergence profile. The identified clusters are changed dynamically. The second step deals with the data transmission to the cluster heads. The third step deals with the transmission of aggregated data to the base station as well as the detection of target. From the experimental results, the proposed scheme efficiently and efficiently identifies the target. As a result the tracking error is minimized.

  14. Targets Separation and Imaging Method in Sparse Scene Based on Cluster Result of Range Profile Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Qiu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging of space-sparse targets such as ships on the sea, and proposes a method of targets separation and imaging of sparse scene based on cluster result of range profile peaks. Firstly, wavelet de-noising algorithm is used to preprocess the original echo, and then the range profile at different viewing positions can be obtained by range compression and range migration correction. Peaks of the range profiles can be detected by the fast peak detection algorithm based on second order difference operator. Targets with sparse energy intervals can be imaged through azimuth compression after clustering of peaks in range dimension. What's more, targets without coupling in range energy interval and direction synthetic aperture time can be imaged through azimuth compression after clustering of peaks both in range and direction dimension. Lastly, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulations. Results of experiment demonstrate that space-sparse targets such as ships can be imaged separately and completely with a small computation in azimuth compression, and the images are more beneficial for target recognition.

  15. Target location for IR image based on IR/visual image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-ying; Zhou, Fu-gen; Bai, Xiang-zhi

    2009-07-01

    We propose an effective algorithm of IR target location based on image registration. This approach includes four steps--pre-processing, typical region and feature points extraction, point pattern matching, target location. Firstly, by analying the characters of the visual and IR images, a pre-processing procedure is introduced to improve the IR image quality and to make the gray distribution in IR and visual images more consistent. Secondly, mathematical morphology is used to extract typical regions around the target, and we mark the feature points based on the extracted typical regions. Thirdly, point pattern matching algorithm is applied to realize the preliminary registration of IR/visual images, triangle geometry similarity is utilized as the similarity measure to establish two points set correspondance. Finally, we take twostage location strategy to accurately locate the IR targets, least square method and mutual information theory are applied in the location strategy. Experiment results demonstrate a high rate (above 93%) of success for predicting target location, the results showed that this method can effectively meet the requirement of target detection in low resolution and low contrast IR images.

  16. The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment ...

  17. Advances of Targeted Therapy Based on Estrogen Receptor Signaling Pathway 
in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang XU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that estrogen promotes tumor growth in both estrogen target organs and non-target organs. Estrogen regulates cell proliferation and differentiation via two different receptors, estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ. In recent decades, with the clarification of the ERα-mediated signaling pathways in breast cancer, targeted therapy through these pathways have successfully been used in clinical application. Tamoxifen, the classic representative, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM. Along with the elucidation of the role of estrogen in the pathophysiology of lung cancer, targeted lung cancer treatment based on the ER signaling pathways is also gradually being applied and it could become an important part of the comprehensive treatment for lung cancer.

  18. Detection Algorithm for LFM Echo of Underwater Moving Targets Based on Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mismatch between echo and replica caused by underwater moving target(UMT)'s radial velocity degrades the detection performance of the matched filter(MF) for the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal. By using the focusing property of fractional Fourier transform(FRFT) to that signal, a detection algorithm for UMT's LFM echo based on the discrete fractional Fourier transform(DFRFT) is proposed. This algorithm is less affected by the target's radial velocity compared with the other MF detection algorithm utilizing zero radial velocity replica(ZRVR), and the mathematical relation between the output peak positions of these two algorithms exists in the case of existence of target echo. The algorithm can also estimate the target distance by using this relation. The simulation and experiment show that this algorithm's detection performance is better than or equivalent to that of the other MF algorithm utilizing ZRVR for the LFM echo of UMT with unknown radial velocity under reverberation noise background.

  19. Seed-based systematic discovery of specific transcription factor target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowka, Ralf; Blüthgen, Nils; Fähling, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Reliable prediction of specific transcription factor target genes is a major challenge in systems biology and functional genomics. Current sequence-based methods yield many false predictions, due to the short and degenerated DNA-binding motifs. Here, we describe a new systematic genome-wide approach, the seed-distribution-distance method, that searches large-scale genome-wide expression data for genes that are similarly expressed as known targets. This method is used to identify genes that are likely targets, allowing sequence-based methods to focus on a subset of genes, giving rise to fewer false-positive predictions. We show by cross-validation that this method is robust in recovering specific target genes. Furthermore, this method identifies genes with typical functions and binding motifs of the seed. The method is illustrated by predicting novel targets of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). Among the new targets is optineurin, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acquired blindness caused by adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma. We show experimentally that the optineurin gene and other predicted genes are targets of NF-kappaB. Thus, our data provide a missing link in the signalling of NF-kappaB and the damping function of optineurin in signalling feedback of NF-kappaB. We present a robust and reliable method to enhance the genome-wide prediction of specific transcription factor target genes that exploits the vast amount of expression information available in public databases today. PMID:18485006

  20. Prediction of drug-target interactions and drug repositioning via network-based inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixiong Cheng

    Full Text Available Drug-target interaction (DTI is the basis of drug discovery and design. It is time consuming and costly to determine DTI experimentally. Hence, it is necessary to develop computational methods for the prediction of potential DTI. Based on complex network theory, three supervised inference methods were developed here to predict DTI and used for drug repositioning, namely drug-based similarity inference (DBSI, target-based similarity inference (TBSI and network-based inference (NBI. Among them, NBI performed best on four benchmark data sets. Then a drug-target network was created with NBI based on 12,483 FDA-approved and experimental drug-target binary links, and some new DTIs were further predicted. In vitro assays confirmed that five old drugs, namely montelukast, diclofenac, simvastatin, ketoconazole, and itraconazole, showed polypharmacological features on estrogen receptors or dipeptidyl peptidase-IV with half maximal inhibitory or effective concentration ranged from 0.2 to 10 µM. Moreover, simvastatin and ketoconazole showed potent antiproliferative activities on human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in MTT assays. The results indicated that these methods could be powerful tools in prediction of DTIs and drug repositioning.

  1. A neutron production target for ESS based upon the Canned-rods concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiglino, A., E-mail: angeloglinovoa@gmail.com [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Terrón, S. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomsen, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Wolters, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Magán, M.; Martínez, F.; Vicente, P.J. de; Vivanco, R.; Sordo, F. [ESS-BILBAO, Parque Tecnológico Bizkaia, Laida Bidea, Edificio 207 B Planta Baja, 48160 Derio (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Butzek, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear - UPM, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, C/José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, F.J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-21

    The neutron production targets operating within the present day spallation neutron sources in the MW power range are either based on water-cooled solid state devices such as that implemented at the SINQ source at PSI or liquid metal loops such as those installed at SNS and MLSF. Here we describe a water-cooled rotating solid target as an option for the 5 MW ESS project as an alternative to the current design based upon a helium-cooled solid rotating target. Implementation of the proposed option would provide comparable neutronic performance to that of the gas-cooled concept and furthermore, it would involve a relatively straightforward adaptation of the current ESS baseline geometry.

  2. A Method of SAR Target Recognition Based on Gabor Filter and Local Texture Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel texture feature extraction method based on a Gabor filter and Three-Patch Local Binary Patterns (TPLBP for Synthetic Aperture Rader (SAR target recognition. First, SAR images are processed by a Gabor filter in different directions to enhance the significant features of the targets and their shadows. Then, the effective local texture features based on the Gabor filtered images are extracted by TPLBP. This not only overcomes the shortcoming of Local Binary Patterns (LBP, which cannot describe texture features for large scale neighborhoods, but also maintains the rotation invariant characteristic which alleviates the impact of the direction variations of SAR targets on recognition performance. Finally, we use an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM classifier and extract the texture features. The experimental results of MSTAR database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. SMC-PHD based multi-target track-before-detect with nonstandard point observations model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占荣辉; 高彦钊; 胡杰民; 张军

    2015-01-01

    Detection and tracking of multi-target with unknown and varying number is a challenging issue, especially under the condition of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A modified multi-target track-before-detect (TBD) method was proposed to tackle this issue using a nonstandard point observation model. The method was developed from sequential Monte Carlo (SMC)-based probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter, and it was implemented by modifying the original calculation in update weights of the particles and by adopting an adaptive particle sampling strategy. To efficiently execute the SMC-PHD based TBD method, a fast implementation approach was also presented by partitioning the particles into multiple subsets according to their position coordinates in 2D resolution cells of the sensor. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for time-varying multi-target tracking using raw observation data.

  4. An Efficient Moving Target Detection Algorithm Based on Sparsity-Aware Spectrum Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Shen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient direct data domain space-time adaptive processing (STAP algorithm for moving targets detection is proposed, which is achieved based on the distinct spectrum features of clutter and target signals in the angle-Doppler domain. To reduce the computational complexity, the high-resolution angle-Doppler spectrum is obtained by finding the sparsest coefficients in the angle domain using the reduced-dimension data within each Doppler bin. Moreover, we will then present a knowledge-aided block-size detection algorithm that can discriminate between the moving targets and the clutter based on the extracted spectrum features. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are validated through both numerical simulations and raw data processing results.

  5. Passive Target Tracking in Non-cooperative Radar System Based on Particle Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuo; TAO Ran

    2006-01-01

    We propose a target tracking method based on particle filtering(PF) to solve the nonlinear non-Gaussian target-tracking problem in the bistatic radar systems using external radiation sources. Traditional nonlinear state estimation method is extended Kalman filtering (EKF), which is to do the first level Taylor series extension. It will cause an inaccuracy or even a scatter estimation result on condition that there is either a highly nonlinear target or a large noise square-error. Besides, Kalman filtering is the optimal resolution under a Gaussian noise assumption, and is not suitable to the non-Gaussian condition. PF is a sort of statistic filtering based on Monte Carlo simulation that is using some random samples (particles) to simulate the posterior probability density of system random variables. This method can be used in any nonlinear random system. It can be concluded through simulation that PF can achieve higher accuracy than the traditional EKF.

  6. Target localization techniques for vehicle-based electromagnetic induction array applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Schultz, Gregory M.; Shubitidze, Fridon; Marble, Jay A.

    2010-04-01

    State-of-the-art electromagnetic induction (EMI) arrays provide significant capability enhancement to landmine, unexploded ordnance (UXO), and buried explosives detection applications. Arrays that are easily configured for integration with a variety of mobile platforms offer improved safety and efficiency to personnel conducting detection operations including site remediation, explosive ordnance disposal, and humanitarian demining missions. We present results from an evaluation of two vehicle-based frequency domain EMI arrays. Our research includes implementation of a simple circuit model to estimate target location from sensor measurements of the scattered vertical magnetic field component. Specifically, we characterize any conductive or magnetic target using a set of parameters that describe the eddy current and magnetic polarizations induced about a set of orthogonal axes. Parameter estimations are based on the fundamental resonance mode of a series inductance and resistance circuit. This technique can be adapted to a variety of EMI array configurations, and thus offers target localization capabilities to a number of applications.

  7. Multi-target Tracking Using Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Higher-Order Voronoi Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Abdelkader

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in integrated electronic devices motivated the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in many applications including target surveillance and tracking. A number of sensor nodes are scattered within a sensitive region to detect the presence of intruders and forward subsequent events to the analysis center(s. Obviously, the sensor deployment should guarantee an optimal event detection rate.This paper proposes a tracking framework based on Voronoi tessellations. Two mobility models are proposed to control the coverage degree according to target presence. The objective is to set a non-uniform coverage within the monitored zone to allow detecting the target(s by multiple sensor nodes. We show how the proposed algorithm adapts to the situation where multiple targets move in the monitored zone. Moreover, we introduce an algorithm to discover redundant nodes (which do not provide additional information about target position. This algorithm is shown to be effective in reducing the energy consumption using an activity scheduling approach. Simulations are carried out to underline the efficiency of the proposed models.

  8. Dynamic RCS Simulation of a Missile Target Group Based on the High-frequency Asymptotic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To simulate dynamic Radar Cross Section (RCS of missile target group, an efficient RCS prediction approach is proposed based on the high-frequency asymptotic theory. The minimal energy trajectory and coordinate transformation is used to get trajectories of the missile, decoys and roll booster, and establish the dynamic scene for the separate procedure of the target group, and the dynamic RCS including specular reflection, edge diffraction and multi-reflection from the target group are obtained by Physical Optics (PO, Equivalent Edge Currents (EEC and Shooting-and-Bouncing Ray (SBR methods. Compared with the dynamic RCS result with the common interpolation method, the proposed method is consistent with the common method when the targets in the scene are far away from each other and each target is not sheltered by others in the incident direction. When the target group is densely distributed and the shelter effect can not be neglected, the interpolation method is extremely difficult to realize, whereas the proposed method is successful.

  9. Infrared Image Small Target Detection Based on Bi-orthogonal Wavelet and Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Jian-nan; ZHANG Zhao-hui; WANG Dong-shu; HAO Yan-shuang

    2007-01-01

    An image multi-scale edge detection method based on anti-symmetrical bi-orthogonal wavelet is given in theory. Convolution operation property and function as a differential operator are analyzed,which anti-symmetrical bi-orthogonal wavelet transform have. An algorithm for wavelet reconstruction in which multi-scale edge can be detected is put forward. Based on it, a detection method for small target in infrared image with sea or sky background based on the anti-symmetrical bi-orthogonal wavelet and morphology is proposed. The small target detection is considered as a process in which structural background is removed, correlative background is suppressed, and noise is restrained. In this approach, the multi-scale edge is extracted by means of the anti-symmetrical bi-orthogonal wavelet decomposition. Then, module maximum chains formed by complicated background of clouds, sea wave and sea-sky-line are removed, and the image background becomes smoother. Finally, the morphology based edge detection method is used to get small target and restrain undulate background and noise. Experiment results show that the approach can suppress clutter background and detect the small target effectively.

  10. Development of system based code (2). Application of reliability target for configuration of ISI requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of System Based Code (SBC) has been proposed to achieve compatibility in matters of reliability, safety, and cost of fast breeder reactors (FBRs). This code extends the present structural design standard to include the broad areas such as load setting, fabrication, inspection, and maintenance related to FBR design and operation. Therefore, a quantitative index that can correlate these different areas is required. One such index is the probability of failure. The determination of a target value is also one of the key points to implement the SBC concept. We have proposed a new method to determine reliability targets for structures and components in FBR plants from the viewpoint of safety. Analysis models based on probabilistic safety assessments are used in the method for determining reliability targets. In this study, the effectiveness of the probability of failure as an index and the reliability targets produced using the new method are investigated through a trial setting of an in-service inspection (ISI) requirement for a reactor vessel. The probability of failure due to fatigue-creep interaction is calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The reliability targets for failure related to the risks arising from internal initiating events are derived using the new method. The summation of the probability of failure and of the reliability targets up to the end of the in-service period enables us to compare them directly. The results show that the reactor vessel has sufficient reliability even without an ISI. Through this example, we demonstrate that the probability of failure is a promising index and that reliability targets derived using the new method are compatible with SBC. (author)

  11. High neutronic efficiency, low current targets for accelerator-based BNCT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic efficiency of target/filters for accelerator-based BNCT applications is measured by the proton current required to achieve a desirable neutron current at the treatment port (109 n/cm2/s). In this paper the authors describe two possible targeyt/filter concepts wihch minimize the required current. Both concepts are based on the Li-7 (p,n)Be-7 reaction. Targets that operate near the threshold energy generate neutrons that are close tothe desired energy for BNCT treatment. Thus, the filter can be extremely thin (∼ 5 cm iron). However, this approach has an extremely low neutron yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-6)), thus requiring a high proton current. The proposed solutino is to design a target consisting of multiple extremely thin targets (proton energy loss per target ∼ 10 keV), and re-accelerate the protons between each target. Targets operating at ihgher proton energies (∼ 2.5 MeV) have a much higher yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-4)). However, at these energies the maximum neutron energy is approximately 800 keV, and thus a neutron filter is required to degrade the average neutron energy to the range of interest for BNCT (10--20 keV). A neutron filter consisting of fluorine compounds and iron has been investigated for this case. Typically a proton current of approximately 5 mA is required to generate the desired neutron current at the treatment port. The efficiency of these filter designs can be further increased by incorporating neutron reflectors that are co-axial with the neutron source. These reflectors are made of materials which have high scattering cross sections in the range 0.1--1.0 MeV

  12. Yeast-based assay identifies novel Shh/Gli target genes in vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of developmental events and molecular mechanisms associated with the Hedgehog (Hh pathway from Drosophila to vertebrates, suggest that gene regulation is crucial for diverse cellular responses, including target genes not yet described. Although several high-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded information at the genomic, transcriptional and proteomic levels, the specificity of Gli binding sites related to direct target gene activation still remain elusive. This study aims to identify novel putative targets of Gli transcription factors through a protein-DNA binding assay using yeast, and validating a subset of targets both in-vitro and in-vivo. Testing in different Hh/Gli gain- and loss-of-function scenarios we here identified known (e.g., ptc1 and novel Hh-regulated genes in zebrafish embryos. Results The combined yeast-based screening and MEME/MAST analysis were able to predict Gli transcription factor binding sites, and position mapping of these sequences upstream or in the first intron of promoters served to identify new putative target genes of Gli regulation. These candidates were validated by qPCR in combination with either the pharmacological Hh/Gli antagonist cyc or the agonist pur in Hh-responsive C3H10T1/2 cells. We also used small-hairpin RNAs against Gli proteins to evaluate targets and confirm specific Gli regulation their expression. Taking advantage of mutants that have been identified affecting different components of the Hh/Gli signaling system in the zebrafish model, we further analyzed specific novel candidates. Studying Hh function with pharmacological inhibition or activation complemented these genetic loss-of-function approaches. We provide evidence that in zebrafish embryos, Hh signaling regulates sfrp2, neo1, and c-myc expression in-vivo. Conclusion A recently described yeast-based screening allowed us to identify new Hh/Gli target genes, functionally important in

  13. Rapid context-based identification of target sounds in an auditory scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Marissa L.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    To make sense of our dynamic and complex auditory environment, we must be able to parse the sensory input into usable parts and pick out relevant sounds from all the potentially distracting auditory information. While it is unclear exactly how we accomplish this difficult task, Gamble and Woldorff (2014) recently reported an ERP study of an auditory target-search task in a temporally and spatially distributed, rapidly presented, auditory scene. They reported an early, differential, bilateral activation (beginning ~60 ms) between feature-deviating Target stimuli and physically equivalent feature-deviating Nontargets, reflecting a rapid Target-detection process. This was followed shortly later (~130 ms) by the lateralized N2ac ERP activation, reflecting the focusing of auditory spatial attention toward the Target sound and paralleling attentional-shifting processes widely studied in vision. Here we directly examined the early, bilateral, Target-selective effect to better understand its nature and functional role. Participants listened to midline-presented sounds that included Target and Nontarget stimuli that were randomly either embedded in a brief rapid stream or presented alone. The results indicate that this early bilateral effect results from a template for the Target that utilizes its feature deviancy within a stream to enable rapid identification. Moreover, individual-differences analysis showed that the size of this effect was larger for subjects with faster response times. The findings support the hypothesis that our auditory attentional systems can implement and utilize a context-based relational template for a Target sound, making use of additional auditory information in the environment when needing to rapidly detect a relevant sound. PMID:25848684

  14. A novel evaluation metric based on visual perception for moving target detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Cui, Minjie; Li, He

    2016-05-01

    Traditional performance evaluation index for moving target detection algorithm, whose each index's emphasis is different when it is used to evaluate the performance of the moving target detection algorithm, is inconvenient for people to make an evaluation of the performance of algorithm comprehensively and objectively. Particularly, when the detection results of different algorithms have the same number of the foreground point and the background point, the algorithm's each traditional index is the same, and we can't use the traditional index to compare the performance of the moving target detection algorithms, which is the disadvantage of traditional evaluation index that takes pixel as a unit when calculating the index. To solve this problem, combining with the feature of human's visual perception system, this paper presents a new evaluation index-Visual Fluctuation (VF) based on the principle of image block to evaluate the performance of moving target detection algorithm. Experiments showed that the new evaluation index based on the visual perception makes up for the deficiency of traditional one, and the calculation results are not only in accordance with visual perception of human, but also evaluate the performance of the moving target detection algorithm more objectively.

  15. Target Tracking in 3-D Using Estimation Based Nonlinear Control Laws for UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation based backstepping like control law design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to track a moving target in 3-D space. A ground-based sensor or an onboard seeker antenna provides range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle measurements to a chaser UAV that implements an extended Kalman filter (EKF to estimate the full state of the target. A nonlinear controller then utilizes this estimated target state and the chaser’s state to provide speed, flight path, and course/heading angle commands to the chaser UAV. Tracking performance with respect to measurement uncertainty is evaluated for three cases: (1 stationary white noise; (2 stationary colored noise and (3 non-stationary (range correlated white noise. Furthermore, in an effort to improve tracking performance, the measurement model is made more realistic by taking into consideration range-dependent uncertainties in the measurements, i.e., as the chaser closes in on the target, measurement uncertainties are reduced in the EKF, thus providing the UAV with more accurate control commands. Simulation results for these cases are shown to illustrate target state estimation and trajectory tracking performance.

  16. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  17. Micro-Doppler Effect of Extended Streamlined Targets Based on Sliding Scattering Centre Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Tang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scattering center of extended streamlined targets can slide when the direction of radiation is changed. The sliding scattering center has influence on the micro-Doppler effect of micro-motion of the extended streamlined target. This paper focused on the micro-Doppler of the extended streamlined target for the bistatic radar. Based on the analysis, the analytical expressions of the micro-Doppler of coning motion with sliding scattering center model were given for bistatic radar. And the results were validated by the simulated results of the scattering field based on the full-wave method of the electromagnetic computation. The results showed that the sliding of the scattering center can make the micro-Doppler be less and distorted, and the influence of the sliding is different for two different types of the sliding scattering centers: sliding on the surface and sliding on the bottom circle. The analytical expressions of the micro-Doppler are helpful to analyze the time-frequency presentations (TFR of the coning motion of the extended streamlined target and to estimate the parameters of the target.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tumor-Targeted Gene Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Niess, Hanno; Conrad, Claudius; Schwarz, Bettina; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Huss, Ralf; Peter J Nelson; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem (or stromal) cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells that can be obtained from bone marrow aspirates or adipose tissue, expanded and genetically modified in vitro, and then used for cancer therapeutic strategies in vivo. Here, we review available data regarding the application of MSC-based tumor-targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer, provide an overview of the general history of MSC-based gene therapy in cancer research, and discuss potential problems associa...

  19. Targets Separation and Imaging Method in Sparse Scene Based on Cluster Result of Range Profile Peaks

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qiu; Qun ZHANG; Wang, Min; Sun, Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging of space-sparse targets such as ships on the sea, and proposes a method of targets separation and imaging of sparse scene based on cluster result of range profile peaks. Firstly, wavelet de-noising algorithm is used to preprocess the original echo, and then the range profile at different viewing positions can be obtained by range compression and range migration correction. Peaks of the range profiles can be detected by the fast ...

  20. Setting up GHG-based energy efficiency targets in buildings: The Ecolabel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union has recently updated the regulations for energy performance of buildings and on the certification of energy-related products. The world is in the process of constructing policy frameworks to underwrite carbon emission reduction targets, best exemplified by the Kyoto Protocol. This requires complex technical and economical concepts to be presented in an understandable, transparent, and justifiable format. A building's energy efficiency was traditionally determined based on its annual consumption relative to some average performance level. Emissions are calculated as a derivative of consumptions and their aggregated values allow verification of the level of fulfillment of the objectives. Here we take a different approach: considering that the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) objectives must be achieved; hence, we fix the efficiency standard based on emissions objectives, and then derive the corresponding reference values of consumption. Accordingly, we propose a certification scheme for energy efficiency in buildings based on targets of GHG emissions levels. This proposed framework includes both a label, namely the Ecolabel, and a fiche showing a set of indices and complementary information. The Ecolabel is designed to provide a flexible, evolvable, simple to use at the point of application, and transparent framework. - Highlights: • In this paper we consider the interaction between greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and building energy efficiency. • Specifically we propose an ‘‘Ecolabel” for buildings that is a GHG emissions liability index, which forms a labeling process. • The label follows the Kyoto Protocol philosophy and translates national GHG targets to targets for each and every building. • The approach provides both a new form of efficiency rating on which emissions reduction policy can be based

  1. Fish species identification based on its acoustic target strength using in situ measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja-Bidin Raja-Hassan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is fish species identification using acoustic target strength (TS. Insitu measurement has been deployed at the South China Sea of Terengganu Malaysia using Furuno FQ-80 Scientific Echo Sounder which included in the research vessel of KK Senangin II. The transducer isplaced 2.8 meter under sea surface while fish put in the net cage under the vessel. TS data have beencollected independently for commercial fish in Malaysia, there are Selar boops (Oxeye scad, Alepesdjedaba (Shrimp scad, Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, and Decapterus maruadsi/b> (Japanese scad.TS value, depth, and position of specific target have been observed using echogram. TS of every speciesis different although similar size and at the similar range from transducer. Thus, the specific fish specieshas been identified based on its acoustic target strength.

  2. Graph theoretic framework based cooperative control and estimation of multiple UAVs for target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mousumi

    Designing the control technique for nonlinear dynamic systems is a significant challenge. Approaches to designing a nonlinear controller are studied and an extensive study on backstepping based technique is performed in this research with the purpose of tracking a moving target autonomously. Our main motivation is to explore the controller for cooperative and coordinating unmanned vehicles in a target tracking application. To start with, a general theoretical framework for target tracking is studied and a controller in three dimensional environment for a single UAV is designed. This research is primarily focused on finding a generalized method which can be applied to track almost any reference trajectory. The backstepping technique is employed to derive the controller for a simplified UAV kinematic model. This controller can compute three autopilot modes i.e. velocity, ground heading (or course angle), and flight path angle for tracking the unmanned vehicle. Numerical implementation is performed in MATLAB with the assumption of having perfect and full state information of the target to investigate the accuracy of the proposed controller. This controller is then frozen for the multi-vehicle problem. Distributed or decentralized cooperative control is discussed in the context of multi-agent systems. A consensus based cooperative control is studied; such consensus based control problem can be viewed from the algebraic graph theory concepts. The communication structure between the UAVs is represented by the dynamic graph where UAVs are represented by the nodes and the communication links are represented by the edges. The previously designed controller is augmented to account for the group to obtain consensus based on their communication. A theoretical development of the controller for the cooperative group of UAVs is presented and the simulation results for different communication topologies are shown. This research also investigates the cases where the communication

  3. Type I-E CRISPR-cas systems discriminate target from non-target DNA through base pairing-independent PAM recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edze R Westra

    Full Text Available Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism.

  4. Ground maneuvering target tracking based on the strong tracking and the cubature Kalman filter algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Yulong; Zhang, Baoquan

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to improve the tracking accuracy of the ground maneuvering target in infrared images, a method is proposed based on the strong tracking filter (STF) and the cubature Kalman filter (CKF) algorithms. In this method, the fading factor is introduced from the STF algorithm and is calculated by transforming the nonlinear measurement variance matrix to be linear approximately, and then the fading factor is used to correct the prediction error covariance matrix (PECM) of CKF, so that the gain matrix can be adjusted at real time and hence the tracking ability of the maneuvering target could be improved. After the digital simulation experiment, it is shown that, comparing with CKF and the unscented Kalman filter algorithms, the average tracking accuracy of the location is increased by more than 20% with the target velocity under 20 m/s and acceleration under 5 m/s2, and it can even be increased by 50% when the target step maneuver occurs. With the tracking experiment on the real infrared tank images, it can be concluded that the target could be tracked stably by the proposed method, and the maximum tracking error is not more than 8 pixels even though the 180 deg turning takes place.

  5. Effect of advanced nanowire-based targets in nanosecond laser-matter interaction (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzalone, G., E-mail: Gaetano.Lanzalone@ct.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Altana, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D.; Tudisco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Malferrari, L.; Odorici, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Malandrino, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche and INSTM UdR, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate the effects of innovative nanostructured targets based on Ag nanowires on laser energy absorption in the ns time domain has been carried out at the Laser Energy for Nuclear Science laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania. The tested targets were realized at INFN-Bologna by anodizing aluminium sheets in order to obtain layers of porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of different thicknesses, on which nanowires of various metals are grown by electro-deposition with different heights. Targets were then irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser at different pumping energies. Advanced diagnostic tools were used for characterizing the plasma plume and ion production. As compared with targets of pure Al, a huge enhancement (of almost two order of magnitude) of the X-ray flux emitted by the plasma has been observed when using the nanostructured targets, with a corresponding decrease of the “optical range” signal, pointing out that the energetic content of the laser produced plasma was remarkably increased. This analysis was furthermore confirmed from time-of-flight spectra.

  6. Pricise Target Geolocation Based on Integeration of Thermal Video Imagery and Rtk GPS in Uavs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, H. R.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasingly large number of uses for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from surveillance, mapping and target geolocation. However, most of commercial UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as C/A code GPS and a low-cost IMU on board, allowing a positioning accuracy of 5 to 10 meters. This low accuracy which implicates that it cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level. This paper presents a precise process for geolocation of ground targets based on thermal video imagery acquired by small UAV equipped with RTK GPS. The geolocation data is filtered using a linear Kalman filter, which provides a smoothed estimate of target location and target velocity. The accurate geo-locating of targets during image acquisition is conducted via traditional photogrammetric bundle adjustment equations using accurate exterior parameters achieved by on board IMU and RTK GPS sensors and Kalman filtering and interior orientation parameters of thermal camera from pre-flight laboratory calibration process.

  7. PRICISE TARGET GEOLOCATION BASED ON INTEGERATION OF THERMAL VIDEO IMAGERY AND RTK GPS IN UAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Hosseinpoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are an increasingly large number of uses for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs from surveillance, mapping and target geolocation. However, most of commercial UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as C/A code GPS and a low-cost IMU on board, allowing a positioning accuracy of 5 to 10 meters. This low accuracy which implicates that it cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level. This paper presents a precise process for geolocation of ground targets based on thermal video imagery acquired by small UAV equipped with RTK GPS. The geolocation data is filtered using a linear Kalman filter, which provides a smoothed estimate of target location and target velocity. The accurate geo-locating of targets during image acquisition is conducted via traditional photogrammetric bundle adjustment equations using accurate exterior parameters achieved by on board IMU and RTK GPS sensors and Kalman filtering and interior orientation parameters of thermal camera from pre-flight laboratory calibration process.

  8. Epigenetic-based therapy: From single- to multi-target approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Conte, Mariarosaria; Iside, Concetta; Altucci, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of cancer has traditionally been based on the identification of a single molecule and/or enzymatic function (target) responsible for a particular phenotype, and therefore on the ability to stimulate, attenuate or inhibit its activity through the use of selective compounds. However, cancer is no longer considered a disease caused by a single factor, but is now recognized as a multi-factorial disorder. Genetic, epigenetic and metabolic factors all contribute to neoplasia, causing significant changes in molecular networks that govern cell growth, development, death and specialization. Consequently, many antitumor therapies are no longer directed against a single target but the biological system as a whole, in which functions determining the onset and maintenance of a physio-pathological state are modulated. The field of epi-drug discovery is currently in a transitional phase where the search for putative anticancer drugs is shifting from single-target-oriented molecules to network-active compounds and to epi-drugs used in combination with other epi-agents and with traditional chemotherapeutics. This review illustrates the pros and cons of each therapeutic option, providing examples in support of single-target and multi (network)-target epi-drug approaches. PMID:26494003

  9. Deceptive jamming for countering UWB-SAR based on Doppler frequency phase template of false target

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Tang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    A false target deceptive jamming method for countering ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB-SAR) is proposed in this paper, which is based on dechirp processing to intercepted UWB-SAR signal and inverse dechirp to jamming signal. The jammer quadrature down-converts and dechirps the intercepted UWB-SAR signal using a linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal oscillator, which could reduce the bandwidth and sample rate of analog-to-digital converter. Then, the jammer utilises the azimuth direction Doppler frequency phase between the false target and the jammer, and backward reflection coefficient template to modulate the phase of the intercepted UWB-SAR signal, and then delayed the modulated phase and also modulated the range direction Doppler frequency phase to the that. Finally, the jammer uses LFM signal oscillator to up-convert the narrowband jamming signal in order to recover the bandwidth of the signal. Parameter errors analysis and simulation results have shown that the detected parameters and motion characteristic errors reduce the resolution and offset the expected position of the false target, but it still could obtain an expected false target image. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicated that the jamming signal proposed in this paper could produce a false target in the UWB-SAR image, which provide a feasible method for countering UWB-SAR in real time.

  10. A small dim infrared maritime target detection algorithm based on local peak detection and pipeline-filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Lili; Zhao, Ming; Xu, Wenhai

    2015-12-01

    In order to realize accurate detection for small dim infrared maritime target, this paper proposes a target detection algorithm based on local peak detection and pipeline-filtering. This method firstly extracts some suspected targets through local peak detection and removes most of non-target peaks with self-adaptive threshold process. And then pipeline-filtering is used to eliminate residual interferences so that only real target can be retained. The experiment results prove that this method has high performance on target detection, and its missing alarm rate and false alarm rate can basically meet practical requirements.

  11. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation technology of wide-band radar targets based on scattering center model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Hao; Pan Minghai; Lu Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation technology can verify and evaluate the radar by simulating the radio frequency environment in an anechoic chamber. The HWIL simulation technology of wide-band radar targets can accurately generate wide-band radar target echo which stands for the radar target scattering characteristics and pulse modulation of radar transmitting sig-nal. This paper analyzes the wide-band radar target scattering properties first. Since the responses of target are composed of many separate scattering centers, the target scattering characteristic is restructured by scattering centers model. Based on the scattering centers model of wide-band radar target, the wide-band radar target echo modeling and the simulation method are discussed. The wide-band radar target echo is reconstructed in real-time by convoluting the transmitting signal to the target scattering parameters. Using the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) system, the HWIL simulation of wide-band radar target echo with high accuracy can be actualized. A typical wide-band radar target simulation is taken to demonstrate the preferable simulation effect of the reconstruction method of wide-band radar target echo. Finally, the radar target time-domain echo and high-resolution range profile (HRRP) are given. The results show that the HWIL simulation gives a high-resolution range distribution of wide-band radar target scattering centers.

  12. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation technology of wide-band radar targets based on scattering center model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL simulation technology can verify and evaluate the radar by simulating the radio frequency environment in an anechoic chamber. The HWIL simulation technology of wide-band radar targets can accurately generate wide-band radar target echo which stands for the radar target scattering characteristics and pulse modulation of radar transmitting signal. This paper analyzes the wide-band radar target scattering properties first. Since the responses of target are composed of many separate scattering centers, the target scattering characteristic is restructured by scattering centers model. Based on the scattering centers model of wide-band radar target, the wide-band radar target echo modeling and the simulation method are discussed. The wide-band radar target echo is reconstructed in real-time by convoluting the transmitting signal to the target scattering parameters. Using the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM system, the HWIL simulation of wide-band radar target echo with high accuracy can be actualized. A typical wide-band radar target simulation is taken to demonstrate the preferable simulation effect of the reconstruction method of wide-band radar target echo. Finally, the radar target time-domain echo and high-resolution range profile (HRRP are given. The results show that the HWIL simulation gives a high-resolution range distribution of wide-band radar target scattering centers.

  13. Ligand-target interaction-based weighting of substructures for virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisman, Thomas J; Sisay, Mihiret T; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    A methodology is introduced to assign energy-based scores to two-dimensional (2D) structural features based on three-dimensional (3D) ligand-target interaction information and utilize interaction-annotated features in virtual screening. Database molecules containing such fragments are assigned cumulative scores that serve as a measure of similarity to active reference compounds. The Interaction Annotated Structural Features (IASF) method is applied to mine five high-throughput screening (HTS) data sets and often identifies more hits than conventional fragment-based similarity searching or ligand-protein docking. PMID:18821751

  14. Passive bearings-only target motion analysis based on association of multiple arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xuanmin; YAO Lan

    2000-01-01

    The method for Bearings-Only Target Motion Analysis (BO-TMA) based on bearing measurements fusion of two arrays is studied. The algorithms of pseudolinear processing,extended Kalman filter and maximum likelihood estimation are presented. The results of simulation experiments show that the BO-TMA method based on association of multiple arrays not only makes contributions towards eliminating maneuvers needed by bearings-only TMA based on single array, but also improves the stabilization and global convergence for varied estimation algorithms.

  15. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the deployed

  16. Lymphatic atlas-based target volume definition for intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the improvements in current imaging modalities such as CT and MRI, the detection of normal or malignant lymph nodes remains a challenge due to the large variability in lymph node characteristics and the variation in imaging quality and the limited imaging resolution. A computerized lymph node atlas could be the ideal tool for target volume definition based on the distribution of normal lymph nodes surrounding the verified malignant nodes to improve the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The standard lymph node topography in the newly constructed 3D lymph node atlas offers a detailed topographical distribution of discrete nodal locations in relation to surrounding organs at risk. In the present paper, the recently developed lymph node atlas is used for selection and delineation of target volumes in the head and neck, thorax and pelvic region. Image registration techniques were implemented to integrate the topography of the lymph node atlas into the patient's data set. By combining the knowledge-based lymph node distribution with the patient's data set, more detailed definitions of the target volumes were obtained to facilitate biologically based treatment plan optimization. The response values of the biologically optimized treatment plans were used to derive the probability of tumor control and the probability of complications in organs at risk. The treatment outcome of the lung reference plan showed a lower probability of recurrence in comparison to planning without the lymph node atlas. The lymph node atlas can improve and standardize the target volume definition by including more accurate anatomical knowledge for target volume definition and biologically optimized radiation therapy planning

  17. Dual-layered and double-targeted nanogold based lateral flow immunoassay for influenza virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a highly sensitive lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for influenza A which serves as a model antigen. Gold nanoparticles conjugated to monoclonal antibodies specific to the two most abundant influenza A proteins, nucleoprotein and matrix protein, were used as detector probes. Using this approach, the nucleoprotein and matrix protein in the virion were detected simultaneously. The signal was further amplified via a signal amplification strategy that is making use of two-layered nanogold in combination with a double-targeted detection format. Under optimized conditions, the system is capable of detecting influenza A antigens in infected cells at levels as low as 47 TCID50 · mL−1 (50 % tissue culture infectious dose) within 15 min. Compared to the conventional LFIA based on single-targeted detection, the detection capability of this system is better by a factor of 8 without requiring additional steps or instruments. In addition to its simplicity and rapidity, this LFIA also can detect the target analyte in even complex biological matrix. This proof-of-principle of a dual-layered and double-targeted nanogold-based LFIA is deemed to be useful for developing single-step, rapid, and sensitive tests for screening and diagnosis. (author)

  18. Radiochemical separation and quality assessment for the 68Zn target based 64Cu radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiochemical separation of the different radionuclides (64Cu, 67Cu, 67Ga, 66Ga, 56Ni, 57Ni, 55Co, 56Co, 57Co, 65Zn, 196Au ) induced in the Ni supported Cu substrate - 68Zn target system, which was bombarded with the 29.0 MeV proton beam, was performed by ion-exchange chromatography using successive isocratic and/or concentration gradient elution techniques. The overlapped gamma-ray spectrum analysis method was developed to assess the 67Ga and 67Cu content in the 64Cu product and even in the post-67Ga production 68Zn target solution without the support of radiochemical separation. This method was used for the assessment of 64+67Cu radioisotope separation from 67Ga , the quality control of 64Cu product and the determination of the 68Zn (p,2p)67Cu reaction yield. The improvement in the targetry and the optimization of proton beam energy for the 68Zn target based 64Cu and 67Ga production were proposed based on the stopping power and range of the incident proton and on the excitation functions, reaction yields and different radionuclides induced in the target system. (author)

  19. Computational identification of condition-specific miRNA targets based on gene expression profiles and sequence information

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Zhangjun; Joung Je-Gun

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small and noncoding RNAs that play important roles in various biological processes. They regulate target mRNAs post-transcriptionally through complementary base pairing. Since the changes of miRNAs affect the expression of target genes, the expression levels of target genes in specific biological processes could be different from those of non-target genes. Here we demonstrate that gene expression profiles contain useful information in separating miRN...

  20. Targeted Killing of Cancer Cells In vivo and In vitro with EGF-directed Carbon Nanotube-based Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bhirde, Ashwin A; Patel, Vyomesh; Gavard, Julie; Zhang, Guofeng; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Leapman, Richard D.; Weigert, Roberto; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Rusling, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-based drug delivery holds great promise for cancer therapy. Herein we report the first targeted, in vivo killing of cancer cells using a drug-single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bioconjugate, and demonstrate efficacy superior to non-targeted bioconjugates. First line anti-cancer agent cisplatin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were attached to SWNTs to specifically target squamous cancer, and the non-targeted control was SWNT-cisplatin without EGF. Initialin vitro imaging stud...

  1. One-Step Targeted Minimum Loss-based Estimation Based on Universal Least Favorable One-Dimensional Submodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Mark; Gruber, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Consider a study in which one observes n independent and identically distributed random variables whose probability distribution is known to be an element of a particular statistical model, and one is concerned with estimation of a particular real valued pathwise differentiable target parameter of this data probability distribution. The targeted maximum likelihood estimator (TMLE) is an asymptotically efficient substitution estimator obtained by constructing a so called least favorable parametric submodel through an initial estimator with score, at zero fluctuation of the initial estimator, that spans the efficient influence curve, and iteratively maximizing the corresponding parametric likelihood till no more updates occur, at which point the updated initial estimator solves the so called efficient influence curve equation. In this article we construct a one-dimensional universal least favorable submodel for which the TMLE only takes one step, and thereby requires minimal extra data fitting to achieve its goal of solving the efficient influence curve equation. We generalize these to universal least favorable submodels through the relevant part of the data distribution as required for targeted minimum loss-based estimation. Finally, remarkably, given a multidimensional target parameter, we develop a universal canonical one-dimensional submodel such that the one-step TMLE, only maximizing the log-likelihood over a univariate parameter, solves the multivariate efficient influence curve equation. This allows us to construct a one-step TMLE based on a one-dimensional parametric submodel through the initial estimator, that solves any multivariate desired set of estimating equations. PMID:27227728

  2. Detection-Discrimination Method for Multiple Repeater False Targets Based on Radar Polarization Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. ZONG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeat false targets (RFTs, created by the digital radio frequency memory (DRFM system of jammer, are widely used in practical to effectively exhaust the limited tracking and discrimination resource of defence radar. In this paper, common characteristic of radar polarization echoes of multiple RFTs is used for target recognition. Based on the echoes from two receiving polarization channels, the instantaneous polarization radio (IPR is defined and its variance is derived by employing Taylor series expansion. A detection-discrimination method is designed based on probability grids. By using the data from microwave anechoic chamber, the detection threshold of the method is confirmed. Theoretical analysis and simulations indicate that the method is valid and feasible. Furthermore, the estimation performance of IPRs of RFTs due to the influence of signal noise ratio (SNR is also covered.

  3. Elevation estimation for low-angle target based on reflection paths suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the signal processing for metrewave radar,the reflection paths of target echoes can cause severe error in the elevation estimation for the low-angle target tracking.The exact angles of the reflection paths are unknown beforehand,and therefore,the reflection paths can not be suppressed easily.Therefore,in this article,an improved reflection paths suppression approach is presented.A block matrix aggregate is constructed based on the possible angles of the reflection paths.Combined with the beamforming-like processing,a generalized maximum likelihood estimation is derived to optimize the estimation.Moreover,the noise reduction method based on the Toeplitz covariance matrix is used for better performance.This approach is applied to the real data collected by the low-angle tracking radar with 8-channel vertical array.The experiment results show that the reflection effects are reduced and the accuracy of the elevation estimate is improved.

  4. APPLICATION OF THE HARD AND SOFT, ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB) THEORY TO TOXICANT-TARGET INTERACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    LoPachin, Richard M.; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony; David S Barber

    2011-01-01

    Many chemical toxicants and/or their active metabolites are electrophiles that cause cell injury by forming covalent bonds with nucleophilic targets on biological macromolecules. Covalent reactions between nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents are however discriminatory, since there is a significant degree of selectivity associated with these interactions. Over the course of the past few decades, the theory of Hard and Soft, Acid and Bases (HSAB) has proven to be a useful tool in predicting...

  5. Design and cancer-targeting potential of antibody-based molecules directed against carcinoembryonic antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Huhalov, A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines the use of protein engineering to create antibody-based molecules for cancer treatment. The targeting unit used for these molecules was the single chain Fv antibody fragment MFE-23, which is directed against the tumour-associated marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). It was hypothesised that implementation of molecular design features such as humanisation, high affinity, multivalency and mannose glycosylation to accelerate systemic clearance would result in the favourabl...

  6. Molecular Bases of Viral RNA Targeting by Viral Small Interfering RNA-Programmed RISC▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Szittya, György; Burgyán, József

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing is conserved in a broad range of eukaryotes and operates in the development and maintenance of genome integrity in many organisms. Plants have adapted this system for antiviral defense, and plant viruses have in turn developed mechanisms to suppress RNA silencing. RNA silencing-related RNA inactivation is likely based on target RNA cleavage or translational arrest. Although it is widely assumed that virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) promotes the endonucleolytic cleavage of the...

  7. Behavior-based cooperative robotics applied to multi-target observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-12-31

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement - determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the author investigates the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. The author focuses primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. The initial efforts on this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. The author then presents a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control. The low-level control is described in terms of force fields emanating from the targets and the robots. The higher level control is presented in the ALLIANCE formalism, which provides mechanisms for fault tolerant cooperative control, and allows robot team members to adjust their low-level actions based upon the actions of their teammates. The author then presents the results of the ongoing implementation of this approach, both in simulation and on physical robots. To the authors knowledge, this is the first paper addressing this research problem that has been implemented on physical robot teams.

  8. A target based approach identifies genomic predictors of breast cancer patient response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallett Robin M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of chemotherapy regimens in breast cancer patients is variable and unpredictable. Whether individual patients either achieve long-term remission or suffer recurrence after therapy may be dictated by intrinsic properties of their breast tumors including genetic lesions and consequent aberrant transcriptional programs. Global gene expression profiling provides a powerful tool to identify such tumor-intrinsic transcriptional programs, whose analyses provide insight into the underlying biology of individual patient tumors. For example, multi-gene expression signatures have been identified that can predict the likelihood of disease reccurrence, and thus guide patient prognosis. Whereas such prognostic signatures are being introduced in the clinical setting, similar signatures that predict sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy are not currently clinically available. Methods We used gene expression profiling to identify genes that were co-expressed with genes whose transcripts encode the protein targets of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. Results Here, we present target based expression indices that predict breast tumor response to anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy. Indeed, these signatures were independently predictive of chemotherapy response after adjusting for standard clinic-pathological variables such as age, grade, and estrogen receptor status in a cohort of 488 breast cancer patients treated with adriamycin and taxotere/taxol. Conclusions Importantly, our findings suggest the practicality of developing target based indices that predict response to therapeutics, as well as highlight the possibility of using gene signatures to guide the use of chemotherapy during treatment of breast cancer patients.

  9. Iodinated hyaluronic acid oligomer-based nanoassemblies for tumor-targeted drug delivery and cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Young; Chung, Suk-Jae; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2016-04-01

    Nano-sized self-assemblies based on amphiphilic iodinated hyaluronic acid (HA) were developed for use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) was conjugated to an HA oligomer as a computed tomography (CT) imaging modality and a hydrophobic residue. Nanoassembly based on HA-TIBA was fabricated for tumor-targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). Cellular uptake of DOX from nanoassembly, compared to a DOX solution group, was enhanced via an HA-CD44 receptor interaction, and subsequently, the in vitro antitumor efficacy of DOX-loaded nanoassembly was improved in SCC7 (CD44 receptor positive squamous cell carcinoma) cells. Cy5.5, a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye, was attached to the HA-TIBA conjugate and the in vivo tumor targetability of HA-TIBA nanoassembly, which is based on the interaction between HA and CD44 receptor, was demonstrated in a NIRF imaging study using an SCC7 tumor-xenografted mouse model. Tumor targeting and cancer diagnosis with HA-TIBA nanoassembly were verified in a CT imaging study using the SCC7 tumor-xenografted mouse model. In addition to efficient cancer diagnosis using NIRF and CT imaging modalities, improved antitumor efficacies were shown. HA and TIBA can be used to produce HA-TIBA nanoassembly that may be a promising theranostic nanosystem for cancers that express the CD44 receptor. PMID:26874284

  10. Target-based vs. phenotypic screenings in Leishmania drug discovery: A marriage of convenience or a dialogue of the deaf?

    OpenAIRE

    Reguera, Rosa M.; Estefanía Calvo-Álvarez; Raquel Álvarez-Velilla; Rafael Balaña-Fouce

    2014-01-01

    Drug discovery programs sponsored by public or private initiatives pursue the same ambitious goal: a crushing defeat of major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) during this decade. Both target-based and target-free screenings have pros and cons when it comes to finding potential small-molecule leads among chemical libraries consisting of myriads of compounds. Within the target-based strategy, crystals of pathogen recombinant-proteins are being used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) structures ...

  11. Coordinated target localization base on pseudo measurement for clustered space robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Guang; Zhang Jingrui; Zhou Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coordinated target localization method for clustered space robot. According to the different measuring capabilities of cluster members, the master-slave coordinated relative navigation strategy for target localization with respect to slavery space robots is proposed;then the basic mathematical models, including coordinated relative measurement model and cluster centralized dynamics, are established respectively. By employing the linear Kalman filter theorem, the centralized estimator based on truth measurements is developed and analyzed firstly, and with an intention to inhabit the initial uncertainties related to target localization, the globally stabilized estimator is designed through introduction of pseudo measurements. Furthermore, the observabil-ity and controllability of stochastic system are also analyzed to qualitatively evaluate the conver-gence performance of pseudo measurement estimator. Finally, on-orbit target approaching scenario is simulated by using semi-physical simulation system, which is used to verify the conver-gence performance of proposed estimator. During the simulation, both the known and unknown maneuvering acceleration cases are considered to demonstrate the robustness of coordinated local-ization strategy.

  12. Colonic luminal surface retention of meloxicam microsponges delivered by erosion based colon-targeted matrix tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishabh; Kumar, Deepesh; Pathak, Kamla

    2012-05-10

    The work was aimed at developing calcium-pectinate matrix tablet for colon-targeted delivery of meloxicam (MLX) microsponges. Modified quassi-emulsion solvent diffusion method was used to formulate microsponges (MS), based on 3(2) full factorial design. The effects of volume of dichloromethane and EudragitRS100 content (independent variables) were determined on the particle size, entrapment efficiency and %cumulative drug release of MS1-MS9. The optimized formulation, MS5 (d(mean)=44.47 μm, %EE=98.73, %CDR=97.32 and followed zero order release) was developed into colon-targeted matrix tablet using calcium pectinate as the matrix. The optimized colon-targeted tablet (MS5T2) shielded MLX loaded microsponges in gastrointestinal region and selectively delivered them to colon, as vizualized by vivo fluoroscopy in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic evaluation of MS5T2 in rabbits, revealed appearance of drug appeared in plasma after a lag time of 7h; a t(max) of 30 h with Fr=61.047%, thus presenting a formulation suitable for targeted colonic delivery. CLSM studies provided an evidence for colonic luminal retentive ability of microsponges at the end of 8h upon oral administration of MS5T2. Thus calcium pectinate matrix tablet loaded with MLX microsponges was developed as a promising system for the colon-specific delivery that has potential for use as an adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. PMID:22306039

  13. A spallation neutron source based on Pb target surrounded by U blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new spallation source, efficient for transmutation experiments, was designed and constructed at the Dubna High Energy Laboratory (LHE). The spallation source has a cylindrical shape Pb target surrounded by natU rods. Experiments with protons of 0.7-2 GeV were performed and neutron spatial distribution on the surface of U blanket was studied. Total neutron fluences and estimates of their energy distributions were determined using solid state nuclear track detectors. Slow and fast neutron components were studied as a function of the proton beam energy. The experimental results were fitted and compared with calculations derived from empirical relations based on physics near high-energy accelerators. The results show that neutron spatial distribution along the U blanket surface (parallel to the beam direction) has the same shape independent of the proton beam energy. The neutron fluence spatial distribution is characterized by an increase at the beginning of the target and after reaching a maximum drops as a function of the target thickness. The maximum is reached at about one mean free path of protons in the Pb target. The total number of neutrons produced, as was measured on U blanket surface, is an increasing function of the proton beam energy

  14. Autonomous target tracking of UAVs based on low-power neural network hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Jin, Zhanpeng; Thiem, Clare; Wysocki, Bryant; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

    2014-05-01

    Detecting and identifying targets in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images and videos have been challenging problems due to various types of image distortion. Moreover, the significantly high processing overhead of existing image/video processing techniques and the limited computing resources available on UAVs force most of the processing tasks to be performed by the ground control station (GCS) in an off-line manner. In order to achieve fast and autonomous target identification on UAVs, it is thus imperative to investigate novel processing paradigms that can fulfill the real-time processing requirements, while fitting the size, weight, and power (SWaP) constrained environment. In this paper, we present a new autonomous target identification approach on UAVs, leveraging the emerging neuromorphic hardware which is capable of massively parallel pattern recognition processing and demands only a limited level of power consumption. A proof-of-concept prototype was developed based on a micro-UAV platform (Parrot AR Drone) and the CogniMemTMneural network chip, for processing the video data acquired from a UAV camera on the y. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of incorporating emerging neuromorphic hardware into next-generation UAVs and their superior performance and power advantages towards the real-time, autonomous target tracking.

  15. Development of antibody-based c-Met inhibitors for targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dongheon Lee, Eun-Sil Sung, Jin-Hyung Ahn, Sungwon An, Jiwon Huh, Weon-Kyoo You Hanwha Chemical R&D Center, Biologics Business Unit, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Signaling pathways mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs and their ligands play important roles in the development and progression of human cancers, which makes RTK-mediated signaling pathways promising therapeutic targets in the treatment of cancer. Compared with small-molecule compounds, antibody-based therapeutics can more specifically recognize and bind to ligands and RTKs. Several antibody inhibitors of RTK-mediated signaling pathways, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, have been developed and are widely used to treat cancer patients. However, since the therapeutic options are still limited in terms of therapeutic efficacy and types of cancers that can be treated, efforts are being made to identify and evaluate novel RTK-mediated signaling pathways as targets for more efficacious cancer treatment. The hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway has come into the spotlight as a promising target for development of potent cancer therapeutic agents. Multiple antibody-based therapeutics targeting hepatocyte growth factor or c-Met are currently in preclinical or clinical development. This review focuses on the development of inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway for cancer treatment, including critical issues in clinical development and future perspectives for antibody-based therapeutics. Keywords: hepatocyte growth factor, ligands, receptor tyrosine kinase, signaling pathway, therapeutic agent

  16. A Volterra series-based method for extracting target echoes in the seafloor mining environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiming; Ji, Yaqian; Hong, Yujiu; Hao, Qi; Ma, Liyong

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the applicability of the Volterra adaptive method to predict the target echo of an ultrasonic signal in an underwater seafloor mining environment. There is growing interest in mining of seafloor minerals because they offer an alternative source of rare metals. Mining the minerals cause the seafloor sediments to be stirred up and suspended in sea water. In such an environment, the target signals used for seafloor mapping are unable to be detected because of the unavoidable presence of volume reverberation induced by the suspended sediments. The detection of target signals in reverberation is currently performed using a stochastic model (for example, the autoregressive (AR) model) based on the statistical characterisation of reverberation. However, we examined a new method of signal detection in volume reverberation based on the Volterra series by confirming that the reverberation is a chaotic signal and generated by a deterministic process. The advantage of this method over the stochastic model is that attributions of the specific physical process are considered in the signal detection problem. To test the Volterra series based method and its applicability to target signal detection in the volume reverberation environment derived from the seafloor mining process, we simulated the real-life conditions of seafloor mining in a water filled tank of dimensions of 5×3×1.8m. The bottom of the tank was covered with 10cm of an irregular sand layer under which 5cm of an irregular cobalt-rich crusts layer was placed. The bottom was interrogated by an acoustic wave generated as 16μs pulses of 500kHz frequency. This frequency is demonstrated to ensure a resolution on the order of one centimetre, which is adequate in exploration practice. Echo signals were collected with a data acquisition card (PCI 1714 UL, 12-bit). Detection of the target echo in these signals was performed by both the Volterra series based model and the AR model

  17. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases using monoclonal antibodies : the most specific tools for targeted-based cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Mehdi; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) family is comprised of different cell surface glycoproteins. These enzymes participate and regulate vital processes such as cell proliferation, polarity, differentiation, cell to cell interactions, signaling, and cell survival. Dysregulation of RTKs contributes to the development of different types of tumors. RTKs deregulation in cancer has been reported for more than 30 RTKs. Due to critical roles of these molecules in cancer, the specific targeting of RTKs i...

  18. Identification of Covalent Binding Sites Targeting Cysteines Based on Computational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Danfeng; Tian, Haozhong; Jiao, Yu; Shi, Zhihao; Ran, Ting; Liu, Haichun; Lu, Shuai; Xu, Anyang; Qiao, Xin; Pan, Jing; Yin, Lingfeng; Zhou, Weineng; Lu, Tao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-09-01

    Covalent drugs have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to good inhibitory activity and selectivity. Targeting noncatalytic cysteines with irreversible inhibitors is a powerful approach for enhancing pharmacological potency and selectivity because cysteines can form covalent bonds with inhibitors through their nucleophilic thiol groups. However, most human kinases have multiple noncatalytic cysteines within the active site; to accurately predict which cysteine is most likely to form covalent bonds is of great importance but remains a challenge when designing irreversible inhibitors. In this work, FTMap was first applied to check its ability in predicting covalent binding site defined as the region where covalent bonds are formed between cysteines and irreversible inhibitors. Results show that it has excellent performance in detecting the hot spots within the binding pocket, and its hydrogen bond interaction frequency analysis could give us some interesting instructions for identification of covalent binding cysteines. Furthermore, we proposed a simple but useful covalent fragment probing approach and showed that it successfully predicted the covalent binding site of seven targets. By adopting a distance-based method, we observed that the closer the nucleophiles of covalent warheads are to the thiol group of a cysteine, the higher the possibility that a cysteine is prone to form a covalent bond. We believe that the combination of FTMap and our distance-based covalent fragment probing method can become a useful tool in detecting the covalent binding site of these targets. PMID:27483186

  19. Autonomous robotic capture of non-cooperative target by adaptive extended Kalman filter based visual servo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gangqi; Zhu, Zheng H.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a real-time, vision-based algorithm for the pose and motion estimation of non-cooperative targets and its application in visual servo robotic manipulator to perform autonomous capture. A hybrid approach of adaptive extended Kalman filter and photogrammetry is developed for the real-time pose and motion estimation of non-cooperative targets. Based on the pose and motion estimates, the desired pose and trajectory of end-effector is defined and the corresponding desired joint angles of the robotic manipulator are derived by inverse kinematics. A close-loop visual servo control scheme is then developed for the robotic manipulator to track, approach and capture the target. Validating experiments are designed and performed on a custom-built six degrees of freedom robotic manipulator with an eye-in-hand configuration. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness and robustness of the proposed adaptive extended Kalman filter enabled pose and motion estimation and visual servo strategy.

  20. Robotics Vision-based Heuristic Reasoning for Underwater Target Tracking and Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Kia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robotics vision-based heuristic reasoning system for underwater target tracking and navigation. This system is introduced to improve the level of automation of underwater Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs operations. A prototype which combines computer vision with an underwater robotics system is successfully designed and developed to perform target tracking and intelligent navigation. This study focuses on developing image processing algorithms and fuzzy inference system for the analysis of the terrain. The vision system developed is capable of interpreting underwater scene by extracting subjective uncertainties of the object of interest. Subjective uncertainties are further processed as multiple inputs of a fuzzy inference system that is capable of making crisp decisions concerning where to navigate. The important part of the image analysis is morphological filtering. The applications focus on binary images with the extension of gray-level concepts. An open-loop fuzzy control system is developed for classifying the traverse of terrain. The great achievement is the system's capability to recognize and perform target tracking of the object of interest (pipeline in perspective view based on perceived condition. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by computer and prototype simulations. This work is originated from the desire to develop robotics vision system with the ability to mimic the human expert's judgement and reasoning when maneuvering ROV in the traverse of the underwater terrain.

  1. Production and release of gas and volatile elements from sodium-based targets

    CERN Multimedia

    Plewinski, F; Wildner, E; Catherall, R

    Several large scale facilities being studied for Europe use sodium or a sodium-based alloy either as a target or as a coolant for heavier solid targets subjected to MW proton beams, such as the European Spallation Source (ESS) and $\\beta$-beam projects. ESS will be the neutron source in use from the year 2020 in Europe, providing high intensity neutron fluxes over large energy spectra ( from 10$^{-3}$ eV to 10$^{3}$ eV) to scientists, to explore materials from 10$^{-2}$m to 10$^{-16}$m scale. A sodium-cooled array of tungsten blocks is one of the potential solutions for the target that will convert protons from the 5 MW 2.5 GeV linac into neutrons. Sodium is a tried and tested coolant in fast nuclear reactors with associated technologies and design standards. Its application to a spallation environment however remains to be validated. The ISOLDE facility is well placed to perform detailed measurements of radioisotopes produced in sodium with a proton beam whose energy of 1.4 GeV is very close to the ESS base...

  2. Aptamer-based radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of epithelial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missailidis, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences]. E-mail: s.missailidis@open.ac.uk; Perkins, Alan [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    In the continuous search for earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic modalities against cancer, based on our constantly increasing knowledge of cancer biology, aptamers hold the promise to expand on current antibody success, but overcoming some of the problems faced with antibodies as therapeutic or delivery agents in cancer. However, as the first aptamer reached the market as an inhibitor against angiogenesis for the treatment of macular degeneration, aptamers have found only limited applications or interest in oncology, and even less as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of tumours. Yet, the chemistry for the labelling of aptamers and the options to alter their pharmacokinetic properties, to make them suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals is now available and recent advances in their development can demonstrate that these molecules would make them ideal delivery vehicles for the development of targeted radiopharmaceuticals that could deliver their radiation load with accuracy to the tumour site, offering improved therapeutic properties and reduced side effects. (author)

  3. A computational theory for the classification of natural biosonar targets based on a spike code

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, R

    2003-01-01

    A computational theory for classification of natural biosonar targets is developed based on the properties of an example stimulus ensemble. An extensive set of echoes 84 800 from four different foliages was transcribed into a spike code using a parsimonious model (linear filtering, half-wave rectification, thresholding). The spike code is assumed to consist of time differences (interspike intervals) between threshold crossings. Among the elementary interspike intervals flanked by exceedances of adjacent thresholds, a few intervals triggered by disjoint half-cycles of the carrier oscillation stand out in terms of resolvability, visibility across resolution levels and a simple stochastic structure (uncorrelatedness). They are therefore argued to be a stochastic analogue to edges in vision. A three-dimensional feature vector representing these interspike intervals sustained a reliable target classification performance (0.06% classification error) in a sequential probability ratio test, which models sequential pr...

  4. Single-qubit gates based on targeted phase shifts in a 3D neutral atom array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Kumar, Aishwarya; Wu, Tsung-Yao; Weiss, David S

    2016-06-24

    Although the quality of individual quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates has been steadily improving, the number of qubits in a single system has increased quite slowly. Here, we demonstrate arbitrary single-qubit gates based on targeted phase shifts, an approach that can be applied to atom, ion, or other atom-like systems. These gates are highly insensitive to addressing beam imperfections and have little cross-talk, allowing for a dramatic scaling up of qubit number. We have performed gates in series on 48 individually targeted sites in a 40% full 5 by 5 by 5 three-dimensional array created by an optical lattice. Using randomized benchmarking, we demonstrate an average gate fidelity of 0.9962(16), with an average cross-talk fidelity of 0.9979(2) (numbers in parentheses indicate the one standard deviation uncertainty in the final digits). PMID:27339984

  5. Development and optimization of targeted radionuclide tumor therapy using folate based radiopharmaceuticals

    CERN Document Server

    Reber, Josefine Astrid

    The folate receptor (FR) has been used for a quarter of a century as a tumor-associated target for selective delivery of drugs and imaging agents to cancer cells. While several folic acid radioconjugates have been successfully employed for imaging purposes in (pre)clinical studies, a therapeutic application of folic acid radioconjugates has not yet reached the critical stage which would allow a clinical translation. Due to a substantial expression of the FR in the proximal tubule cells, radiofolates accumulate in the kidneys which are at risk of damage by particle-radiation. To improve this situation, we aimed to develop and evaluate strategies for the performance of FR-targeted radionuclide therapy by decreasing the renal uptake of radiofolates and thereby reducing potential nephrotoxic effects. Two different strategies were investigated. First, the combination of radiofolates with chemotherapeutic agents such as pemetrexed (PMX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and secondly, an approach based on radioiodinated fol...

  6. Target detection method based on supervised saliency map and efficient subwindow search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songtao; Jiang, Ning; Liu, Zhenxing

    2015-10-01

    In order to realize fast target detection under complex image scene, a novel method is proposed based on supervised saliency map and efficient subwindow search. Supervised saliency map generation mainly includes: (1) the original image is segmented by different parameters to obtain multi-segmentation results; (2) regional feature is mapped for salient value by random forest regressor; (3) obtain saliency map by fusing multi-level segmentation results. Efficient subwindow search method is implemented by transforming salient target detection as maximum saliency density, and using branch and bound algorithm to localize the maximum saliency density in global optimum. The experimental results show that the new method can not only detect salient region, but also recognize this region in some extent.

  7. Aptamer-based radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of epithelial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the continuous search for earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic modalities against cancer, based on our constantly increasing knowledge of cancer biology, aptamers hold the promise to expand on current antibody success, but overcoming some of the problems faced with antibodies as therapeutic or delivery agents in cancer. However, as the first aptamer reached the market as an inhibitor against angiogenesis for the treatment of macular degeneration, aptamers have found only limited applications or interest in oncology, and even less as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of tumours. Yet, the chemistry for the labelling of aptamers and the options to alter their pharmacokinetic properties, to make them suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals is now available and recent advances in their development can demonstrate that these molecules would make them ideal delivery vehicles for the development of targeted radiopharmaceuticals that could deliver their radiation load with accuracy to the tumour site, offering improved therapeutic properties and reduced side effects. (author)

  8. Design and Implementation of a Storage Virtualization System Based on SCSI Target Simulator in SAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bigang; SHU Jiwu; ZHENG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    The ideal storage virtualization system is compatible with all operating systems in storage area networks (SANs). However, current storage systems on clustered hosts and multiple operating systems are not practical. This paper presents a storage virtualization system based on a SCSI target simulator in a SAN to solve these problems. This storage virtualization system runs in the target hosts of the SAN, dynamically stores the physical information, and uses the mapping table method to modify the SCSI command addresses. The system uses the bitmap technique to manage the free space. The storage virtualization system provides various functions, such as logical volume resizing, data mirroring, and snapshots, and is compatible with clustered hosts and multiple operating systems, such as Windows NT and RedHat.

  9. Image-Based Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking of Moving Targets During Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard, E-mail: perpolse@rm.dk [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Fledelius, Walther [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Cho, Byungchul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keall, Paul [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) enables efficient and highly conformal dose delivery. However, intrafraction motion may compromise the delivered target dose distribution. Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking can potentially mitigate the impact of target motion on the dose. The purpose of this study was to use a single kV imager for DMLC tracking during IMAT and to investigate the ability of this tracking to maintain the dose distribution. Methods: A motion phantom carrying a two-dimensional (2D) ion chamber array and buildup material with an embedded gold marker reproduced eight representative tumor trajectories (four lung tumors, four prostate). For each trajectory, a low and high IMAT plan were delivered with and without DMLC tracking. The three-dimensional (3D) real-time target position signal for tracking was provided by fluoroscopic kV images acquired immediately before and during treatment. For each image, the 3D position of the embedded marker was estimated from the imaged 2D position by a probability-based method. The MLC leaves were continuously refitted to the estimated 3D position. For lung, prediction was used to compensate for the tracking latency. The delivered 2D dose distributions were measured with the ion chamber array and compared with a reference dose distribution delivered without target motion using a 3%/3 mm {gamma}-test. Results: For lung tumor motion, tracking reduced the mean {gamma}-failure rate from 38% to 0.7% for low-modulation IMAT plans and from 44% to 2.8% for high-modulation plans. For prostate, the {gamma}-failure rate reduction was from 19% to 0% (low modulation) and from 20% to 2.7% (high modulation). The dominant contributor to the residual {gamma}-failures during tracking was target localization errors for most lung cases and leaf fitting errors for most prostate cases. Conclusion: Image-based tracking for IMAT was demonstrated for the first time. The tracking greatly improved the dose distributions to

  10. Image-Based Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking of Moving Targets During Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) enables efficient and highly conformal dose delivery. However, intrafraction motion may compromise the delivered target dose distribution. Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking can potentially mitigate the impact of target motion on the dose. The purpose of this study was to use a single kV imager for DMLC tracking during IMAT and to investigate the ability of this tracking to maintain the dose distribution. Methods: A motion phantom carrying a two-dimensional (2D) ion chamber array and buildup material with an embedded gold marker reproduced eight representative tumor trajectories (four lung tumors, four prostate). For each trajectory, a low and high IMAT plan were delivered with and without DMLC tracking. The three-dimensional (3D) real-time target position signal for tracking was provided by fluoroscopic kV images acquired immediately before and during treatment. For each image, the 3D position of the embedded marker was estimated from the imaged 2D position by a probability-based method. The MLC leaves were continuously refitted to the estimated 3D position. For lung, prediction was used to compensate for the tracking latency. The delivered 2D dose distributions were measured with the ion chamber array and compared with a reference dose distribution delivered without target motion using a 3%/3 mm γ-test. Results: For lung tumor motion, tracking reduced the mean γ-failure rate from 38% to 0.7% for low-modulation IMAT plans and from 44% to 2.8% for high-modulation plans. For prostate, the γ-failure rate reduction was from 19% to 0% (low modulation) and from 20% to 2.7% (high modulation). The dominant contributor to the residual γ-failures during tracking was target localization errors for most lung cases and leaf fitting errors for most prostate cases. Conclusion: Image-based tracking for IMAT was demonstrated for the first time. The tracking greatly improved the dose distributions to moving targets.

  11. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

  12. Caleosin-based nanoscale oil bodies for targeted delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale artificial oil bodies (NOBs) could be assembled from plant oil, phospholipids (PLs), and oleosin (Ole) as previously reported. NOBs have a lipid-based structure that contains a central oil space enclosed by a monolayer of Ole-bound PLs. As an oil structural protein, Ole functions to maintain the integrity of NOBs. Like Ole, caleosin (Cal) is a plant oil-associated protein. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of NOBs assembled by Cal for targeted delivery of drugs. Cal was first fused with anti-HER2/neu affibody (ZH2), and the resulting fusion gene (Cal–ZH2) was then expressed in Escherichia coli. Consequently, NOBs assembled with the fusion protein were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-positive tumor cells. The internalization efficiency could reach as high as 90%. Furthermore, a hydrophobic anticancer drug, Camptothecin (CPT), was encapsulated into Cal-based NOBs. These CPT-loaded NOBs had a size around 200 nm and were resistant to hemolysis. Release of CPT from NOBs at the non-permissive condition followed a sustained and prolonged profile. After administration of the CPT formulation, Cal–ZH2-displayed NOBs exhibited a strong antitumor activity toward HER2/neu-positive cells both in vitro and in vivo. The result indicates the potential of Cal-based NOBs for targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

  13. Changes in DNA base sequence induced by targeted mutagenesis of lambda phage by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In targeted mutagenesis of lambda phage by ultraviolet light, the mutations are caused by radiation-induced lesions in the phage DNA. Of 62 mutations in the lambda cI gene that were sequenced, 41 of the targeted mutations were transitions, with similar numbers of C.G to T.A and T.A to C.G base changes. The remaining 21 mutations were about equally divided among eight transversions, seven frameshifts (5 additions and 2 deletions), and six double events with either two nearby base changes or a base change and a nearby frameshift. Of the 62 mutations, 60 could be associated with -Pyr-Pyr- sequences in the DNA, sites of likely photoproducts. For more information on this point, lambda phage were irradiated with 313 nm light in the presence of acetophenone for which the major photoproduct is reported to be the thymine-thymine cyclobutyl dimer, with no measurable Pyr(6-4)Pyo photoproducts. Of 22 mutations sequenced, 19 were transversions and only one was a transition, permitting the conclusion that thymine-thymine cyclobutyl dimers are not the primary cause of ultraviolet light-induced transitions. A consideration of all the data strongly suggests that Pyr(6-4)Pyo photoproducts are mutagenic lesions. (author)

  14. DIANA-TarBase and DIANA Suite Tools: Studying Experimentally Supported microRNA Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs (∼22 nts) present in animals, plants, and viruses. They are considered central post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and are key components in a great number of physiological and pathological conditions. The accurate characterization of their targets is considered essential to a series of applications and basic or applied research settings. DIANA-TarBase (http://www.microrna.gr/tarbase) was initially launched in 2006. It is a reference repository indexing experimentally derived miRNA-gene interactions in different cell types, tissues, and conditions across numerous species. This unit focuses on the study of experimentally supported miRNA-gene interactions, as well as their functional interpretation through the use of available tools in the DIANA suite (http://www.microrna.gr). The proposed use-case scenarios are presented in protocols, describing how to utilize the DIANA-TarBase database and DIANA-microT-CDS server and perform miRNA-targeted pathway analysis with DIANA-miRPath-v3. All analyses are directly invoked or initiated from DIANA-TarBase. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27603020

  15. Targeted revision: A learning-based approach for incremental community detection in dynamic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jiaxing; Liu, Lianchen; Li, Xin; Xie, Feng; Wu, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Community detection is a fundamental task in network analysis. Applications on massive dynamic networks require more efficient solutions and lead to incremental community detection, which revises the community assignments of new or changed vertices during network updates. In this paper, we propose to use machine learning classifiers to predict the vertices that need to be inspected for community assignment revision. This learning-based targeted revision (LBTR) approach aims to improve community detection efficiency by filtering out the unchanged vertices from unnecessary processing. In this paper, we design features that can be used for efficient target classification and analyze the time complexity of our framework. We conduct experiments on two real-world datasets, which show our LBTR approach significantly reduces the computational time while keeping a high community detection quality. Furthermore, as compared with the benchmarks, we find our approach's performance is stable on both growing networks and networks with vertex/edge removals. Experiments suggest that one should increase the target classification precision while keeping recall at a reasonable level when implementing our proposed approach. The study provides a unique perspective in incremental community detection.

  16. Designing calcium phosphate-based bifunctional nanocapsules with bone-targeting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khung, Yit-Lung; Bastari, Kelsen; Cho, Xing Ling; Yee, Wu Aik; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-06-15

    Using sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles as template, hollow-cored calcium phosphate nanocapsules were produced. The surfaces of the nanocapsule were subsequently silanised by a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based silane with an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester end groups which permits for further attachment with bisphosphonates (BP). Characterisations of these nanocapsules were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. To further validate the bone-targeting potential, dentine discs were incubated with these functionalised nanocapsules. FESEM analysis showed that these surface-modified nanocapsules would bind strongly to dentine surfaces compared to non-functionalised nanocapsules. We envisage that respective components would give this construct a bifunctional attribute, whereby (1) the shell of the calcium phosphate nanocapsule would serve as biocompatible coating aiding in gradual osteoconduction, while (2) surface BP moieties, acting as targeting ligands, would provide the bone-targeting potential of these calcium phosphate nanocapsules.

  17. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling of target-mediated drug disposition of bortezomib in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Mager, Donald E

    2015-10-01

    Bortezomib is a reversible proteasome inhibitor with potent antineoplastic activity that exhibits dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics (PK). Proteasome-mediated bortezomib disposition is proposed as the primary source of its nonlinear and apparent nonstationary PK behavior. Single intravenous (IV) doses of bortezomib (0.25 and 1 mg/kg) were administrated to BALB/c mice, with blood and tissue samples obtained over 144 h, which were analyzed by LC/MS/MS. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating tissue drug-target binding was developed to test the hypothesis of proteasome-mediated bortezomib disposition. The final model reasonably captured bortezomib plasma and tissue PK profiles, and parameters were estimated with good precision. The rank-order of model estimated tissue target density correlated well with experimentally measured proteasome concentrations reported in the literature, supporting the hypothesis that binding to proteasome influences bortezomib disposition. The PBPK model was further scaled-up to humans to assess the similarity of bortezomib disposition among species. Human plasma bortezomib PK profiles following multiple IV dosing (1.3 mg/m(2)) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 were simulated by appropriately scaling estimated mouse parameters. Simulated and observed bortezomib concentrations after multiple dosing were in good agreement, suggesting target-mediated bortezomib disposition is likely for both mice and humans. Furthermore, the model predicts that renal impairment should exert minimal influence on bortezomib exposure in humans, confirming that bortezomib dose adjustment is not necessary for patients with renal impairment. PMID:26391023

  18. Suppression of Repeat-Intensive False Targets Based on Temporal Pulse Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of suppressing the repeat-intensive false targets produced by a deception electronic attack (EA system equipped with a Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM device. Different from a conventional repeat jammer, this type of jamming intensively retransmits the intercepted signal stored in a DRFM to the victim radar in a very short time-delay interval relative to a radar pulse wide. A multipeak matched-filtering output is then produced other than the merely expected true target. An electronic protection (EP algorithm based on the space time block code (STBC is proposed to suppress the adverse effects of this jammer. By transmitting a pulse sequence generated from the STBC in succession and the following cancellation process applied upon the received signal, this algorithm performs successfully in a single antenna system provided that the target models are nonfluctuating or slow fluctuating and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF is comparatively high. The performance in white and correlated Gaussian disturbance is evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Contrast-based moving target detection with the randomized linear receive array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Kenneth; Martone, Anthony; Innocenti, Roberto; Nguyen, Lam

    2012-06-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has, in the past, demonstrated the effectiveness of low frequency, ultrawideband radar for detection of slow-moving targets located behind walls. While these initial results were promising, they also indicated that sidelobe artifacts produced by moving target indication (MTI) processing could pose serious problems. Such artifacts induced false alarms and necessitated the introduction of a tracker stage to eliminate them. Of course, the tracker algorithm was also imperfect, and it tended to pass any persistent, nearly collocated false alarms. In this work we describe the incorporation of a sidelobe-reduction technique-the randomized linear receiver array (RA)-into our MTI processing chain. To perform this investigation, we leverage data collected by ARL's synchronous impulse reconstruction (SIRE) radar. We begin by calculating MTI imagery using both the non-random and randomized array methods. We then compare the sidelobe levels in each image and quantify the differences. Finally, we apply a local-contrast target detection algorithm based on constant false alarm rate (CFAR) principles, and we analyze probabilities of detection and false alarm for each MTI image.

  20. A web-based search engine for triplex-forming oligonucleotide target sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Sara S; Wu, Qi; Thames, Howard D; DiGiovanni, John; Walborg, Earl F; MacLeod, Michael C; Vasquez, Karen M

    2006-01-01

    Triplex technology offers a useful approach for site-specific modification of gene structure and function both in vitro and in vivo. Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) bind to their target sites in duplex DNA, thereby forming triple-helical DNA structures via Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding. TFO binding has been demonstrated to site-specifically inhibit gene expression, enhance homologous recombination, induce mutation, inhibit protein binding, and direct DNA damage, thus providing a tool for gene-specific manipulation of DNA. We have developed a flexible web-based search engine to find and annotate TFO target sequences within the human and mouse genomes. Descriptive information about each site, including sequence context and gene region (intron, exon, or promoter), is provided. The engine assists the user in finding highly specific TFO target sequences by eliminating or flagging known repeat sequences and flagging overlapping genes. A convenient way to check for the uniqueness of a potential TFO binding site is provided via NCBI BLAST. The search engine may be accessed at spi.mdanderson.org/tfo. PMID:16764543

  1. Tobacco mosaic virus-based protein nanoparticles and nanorods for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Michael A; Czapar, Anna E; VanMeter, Allen; Randolph, Lauren N; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-06-10

    Drug delivery systems are required for drug targeting to avoid adverse effects associated with chemotherapy treatment regimes. Our approach is focused on the study and development of plant virus-based materials as drug delivery systems; specifically, this work focuses on the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Native TMV forms a hollow, high aspect-ratio nanotube measuring 300×18nm with a 4nm-wide central channel. Heat-transformation can be applied to TMV yielding spherical nanoparticles (SNPs) measuring ~50nm in size. While bioconjugate chemistries have been established to modify the TMV rod, such methods have not yet been described for the SNP platform. In this work, we probed the reactivity of SNPs toward bioconjugate reactions targeting lysine, glutamine/aspartic acid, and cysteine residues. We demonstrate functionalization of SNPs using these chemistries yielding efficient payload conjugation. In addition to covalent labeling techniques, we developed encapsulation techniques, where the cargo is loaded into the SNP during heat-transition from rod-to-sphere. Finally, we developed TMV and SNP formulations loaded with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, and we demonstrate the application of TMV rods and spheres for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer. PMID:26941034

  2. Method for Multiple Targets Tracking in Cognitive Radar Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A multiple targets cognitive radar tracking method based on Compressed Sensing (CS is proposed. In this method, the theory of CS is introduced to the case of cognitive radar tracking process in multiple targets scenario. The echo signal is sparsely expressed. The designs of sparse matrix and measurement matrix are accomplished by expressing the echo signal sparsely, and subsequently, the restruction of measurement signal under the down-sampling condition is realized. On the receiving end, after considering that the problems that traditional particle filter suffers from degeneracy, and require a large number of particles, the particle swarm optimization particle filter is used to track the targets. On the transmitting end, the Posterior Cramér-Rao Bounds (PCRB of the tracking accuracy is deduced, and the radar waveform parameters are further cognitively designed using PCRB. Simulation results show that the proposed method can not only reduce the data quantity, but also provide a better tracking performance compared with traditional method.

  3. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  4. Glucose transport carrier of human erythrocytes. Radiation target size measurement based on flux inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intact human erythrocytes frozen in the presence of cryoprotective reagents and irradiated with an electron beam retained their diffusion barrier to L-glucose. The carrier-mediated flux of D-glucose, on the other hand, was inactivated as a simple exponential function of the radiation dose. Classical target size analysis of this data yielded a molecular size of 185,000 daltons for the carrier. This represents the first measurement of the functional size of a transport protein based directly on flux inactivation

  5. Common Risk Target for severe accidents of nuclear power plants based on IAEA INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has repeatedly recommended that the nuclear community should arrive at a common understanding and definition of safety goals for severe accidents in nuclear power plants. The recommendation has only found partial answers, despite the numerous working groups and forums devoted to this effort. The most widely accepted definition of goals is based on the concept of Large (Early) Release Frequencies (L(E)RF) and its derivatives, a surrogate concept derived from results of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) which was first introduced in the USA almost twenty years ago and much later accepted by the USNRC for risk informed decision making, but not for safety demonstrations. Other types of Safety Goals have been adopted by some nuclear authorities, but the main drawback of all current definitions is that they may apply only to LWRs. The lack of unifying safety/risk parameter throughout of PSAs worldwide is the basis of the present work, and an attempt is made to arrive at the definition of a Risk Target for severe accidents in NPPs, consistent with the IAEA definitions having a technical basis, which can be adopted without modifications for Generation IV power plants. The proposal of Common Risk Target in this work represents an attempt to define a Common Risk Target based on technical reasoning, reflecting IAEA definitions as well as harmonization requirements raised by the whole European Community in various OECD, ASAMPSA2 and SARNET (Guentay et al., 2006) conclusions and Council Directive of The European Union (Community Framework, 2009) as well as lastly performed stress tests of nuclear power plants throughout the Europe (Peer Review Report, 2012). The basic concept of CRT was first introduced and developed within the European project ASAMPSA2 by the authors of this article and was accepted by majority of world PSA experts participating in final evaluation and survey of the project (Guentay, 2011). In the proposed Risk Target concept an innovative

  6. The research of edge extraction and target recognition based on inherent feature of objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu-chan; Lin, Yu-chi; Huang, Yin-guo

    2008-03-01

    Current research on computer vision often needs specific techniques for particular problems. Little use has been made of high-level aspects of computer vision, such as three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, that are appropriate for large classes of problems and situations. In particular, high-level vision often focuses mainly on the extraction of symbolic descriptions, and pays little attention to the speed of processing. In order to extract and recognize target intelligently and rapidly, in this paper we developed a new 3D target recognition method based on inherent feature of objects in which cuboid was taken as model. On the basis of analysis cuboid nature contour and greyhound distributing characteristics, overall fuzzy evaluating technique was utilized to recognize and segment the target. Then Hough transform was used to extract and match model's main edges, we reconstruct aim edges by stereo technology in the end. There are three major contributions in this paper. Firstly, the corresponding relations between the parameters of cuboid model's straight edges lines in an image field and in the transform field were summed up. By those, the aimless computations and searches in Hough transform processing can be reduced greatly and the efficiency is improved. Secondly, as the priori knowledge about cuboids contour's geometry character known already, the intersections of the component extracted edges are taken, and assess the geometry of candidate edges matches based on the intersections, rather than the extracted edges. Therefore the outlines are enhanced and the noise is depressed. Finally, a 3-D target recognition method is proposed. Compared with other recognition methods, this new method has a quick response time and can be achieved with high-level computer vision. The method present here can be used widely in vision-guide techniques to strengthen its intelligence and generalization, which can also play an important role in object tracking, port AGV, robots

  7. Development of spiropyran-based electrochemical sensor via simultaneous photochemical and target-activatable electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jia; Li, Yinhui; Zhao, Peng; Li, Jishan; Duan, Yu; Zhao, Wenjie; Yang, Ronghua

    2014-12-15

    In traditional electrochemical sensors, the electrochemical signal transduction of the redox-active material is usually controlled by the analytical target. Due to non-specific interaction between the redox mediator and the target, false signal by single stimulus may not be avoided. To address this issue, we have developed a new electrochemical sensor that uses a functional spiropyran, an important class of photo and thermochromic compounds, as both recognition receptor and latent redox mediator, to realize simultaneous photochemical and target-modulated electron transfer. As a proof of principle, β-galactosidase was chosen as a model target. The new synthesized spiropyran probe, SP-β-gal, undergoes reversibly structural isomerization to form merocyanine under UV light irradiation. After the glycosidic bond being cleaved by β-galactosidase, the opened merocyanine of SP-β-gal forms redox-active 2-(2.5-dihydroxystyryl)-1.3.3-trimethyl-3H-indolium, and thus produces a pair of reversible redox current peaks under the electrochemical scanning. To amplify the detection signal, SP-β-gal was self-assembled with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the surface of glass carbon electrode. Kinetics experiments confirm that the probe is an ideal candidate for the determination of different concentrations of β-galactosidase digestion kinetics. Further, the SP-β-gal/SWCNTs-modified electrode is chemically stable in complex biological fluids. It was successfully applied to monitor β-galactosidase activity in the 10% calf thymus. This work represents not only a significant step forward in the further development of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials/small organic molecular probes-based electrochemical biosensors, but also a new platform which may be extended to the assay of other enzyme such as β-D-glycosidase and so on by translating the biorecognition into electrochemical signal responses. PMID:24997369

  8. Targeting the poorest in a performance-based financing programme in northern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ilse Je; Ziebe, Roland; Vagaï, Djebba; van de Looij, Frank; van 't Riet, Hilda; Houweling, Tanja Aj

    2016-07-01

    Performance-Based Financing (PBF) is a promising approach to improve health system performance in developing countries, but there are concerns that it may inadequately address inequalities in access to care. Incentives for reaching the poor may prove beneficial, but evidence remains limited. We evaluated a system of targeting the poorest of society ('indigents') in a PBF programme in Cameroon, examining (under)coverage, leakage and perceived positive and negative effects. We conducted a documentation review, 59 key informant interviews and 33 focus group discussions with community members (poor and vulnerable people-registered as indigents and those not registered as such). We found that community health workers were able to identify very poor and vulnerable people with a minimal chance of leakage to non-poor people. Nevertheless, the targeting system only reached a tiny proportion (≤1%) of the catchment population, and other poor and vulnerable people were missed. Low a priori set objectives and implementation problems-including a focus on easily identifiable groups (elderly, orphans), unclarity about pre-defined criteria, lack of transport for identification and insufficient motivation of community health workers-are likely to explain the low coverage. Registered indigents perceived improvements in access, quality and promptness of care, and improvements in economic status and less financial worries. However, lack of transport and insufficient knowledge about the targeting benefits, remained barriers for health care use. Negative effects of the system as experienced by indigents included negative reactions (e.g. jealousy) of community members. In conclusion, a system of targeting the poorest of society in PBF programmes may help reduce inequalities in health care use, but only when design and implementation problems leading to substantial under-coverage are addressed. Furthermore, remaining barriers to health care use (e.g. transport) and negative reactions

  9. Targeting carbonic anhydrase IX by nitroimidazole based sulfamides enhances the therapeutic effect of tumor irradiation: A new concept of dual targeting drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) plays an important role in pH regulation processes critical for tumor cell growth and metastasis. We hypothesize that a dual targeting bioreductive nitroimidazole based anti-CAIX sulfamide drug (DH348) will reduce tumor growth and sensitize tumors to irradiation in a CAIX dependent manner. Material and methods: The effect of the dual targeting anti-CAIX (DH348) and its single targeting control drugs on extracellular acidification and radiosensitivity was examined in HT-29 colorectal carcinoma cells. Tumor growth and time to reach 4× start volume (T4×SV) was monitored for animals receiving DH348 (10 mg/kg) combined with tumor single dose irradiation (10 Gy). Results: In vitro, DH348 reduced hypoxia-induced extracellular acidosis, but did not change hypoxic radiosensitivity. In vivo, DH348 monotherapy decreased tumor growth rate and sensitized tumors to radiation (enhancement ratio 1.50) without systemic toxicity only for CAIX expressing tumors. Conclusions: A newly designed nitroimidazole and sulfamide dual targeting drug reduces hypoxic extracellular acidification, slows down tumor growth at nontoxic doses and sensitizes tumors to irradiation all in a CAIX dependent manner, suggesting no “off-target” effects. Our data therefore indicate the potential utility of a dual drug approach as a new strategy for tumor-specific targeting

  10. PLS-Based and Regularization-Based Methods for the Selection of Relevant Variables in Non-targeted Metabolomics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Daghir-Wojtkowiak, Emilia; Kaliszan, Roman; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2016-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolomics constitutes a part of the systems biology and aims at determining numerous metabolites in complex biological samples. Datasets obtained in the non-targeted metabolomics studies are high-dimensional due to sensitivity of mass spectrometry-based detection methods as well as complexity of biological matrices. Therefore, a proper selection of variables which contribute into group classification is a crucial step, especially in metabolomics studies which are focused on searching for disease biomarker candidates. In the present study, three different statistical approaches were tested using two metabolomics datasets (RH and PH study). The orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) without and with multiple testing correction as well as the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) with bootstrapping, were tested and compared. For the RH study, OPLS-DA model built without multiple testing correction selected 46 and 218 variables based on the VIP criteria using Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. For the PH study, 217 and 320 variables were selected based on the VIP criteria using Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. In the RH study, OPLS-DA model built after correcting for multiple testing, selected 4 and 19 variables as in terms of Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. For the PH study, 14 and 18 variables were selected based on the VIP criteria in terms of Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. In the RH and PH study, the LASSO selected 14 and 4 variables with reproducibility between 99.3 and 100%, respectively. In the light of PLS-based models, the larger the search space the higher the probability of developing models that fit the training data well with simultaneous poor predictive performance on the validation set. The LASSO offers potential improvements over standard linear regression due to the presence of the constrain, which promotes sparse solutions. This paper is the first one to date

  11. 75 FR 13127 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Exposure Reduction. In the Federal Register dated April 22, 2008 (73 FR 21692), EPA promulgated final TSCA... are conducted in target housing and child-occupied facilities: 1. Establish the discipline of lead... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child...

  12. 75 FR 51808 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... April 22, 2008, (73 FR 21692), EPA promulgated final TSCA section 402(c)(3) regulations governing... in target housing and child-occupied facilities. These rules: 1. Establish the discipline of lead... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child...

  13. A flexible calibration method for laser displacement sensors based on a stereo-target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser displacement sensors (LDSs) are widely used in online measurement owing to their characteristics of non-contact, high measurement speed, etc. However, existing calibration methods for LDSs based on the traditional triangulation measurement model are time-consuming and tedious to operate. In this paper, a calibration method for LDSs based on a vision measurement model of the LDS is presented. According to the constraint relationships of the model parameters, the calibration is implemented by freely moving a stereo-target at least twice in the field of view of the LDS. Both simulation analyses and real experiments were conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the calibration method achieves an accuracy of 0.044 mm within the measurement range of about 150 mm. Compared to traditional calibration methods, the proposed method has no special limitation on the relative position of the LDS and the target. The linearity approximation of the measurement model in the calibration is not needed, and thus the measurement range is not limited in the linearity range. It is easy and quick to implement the calibration for the LDS. The method can be applied in wider fields. (paper)

  14. Combating malaria with nanotechnology-based targeted and combinatorial drug delivery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Miloni; S, Brijesh

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advancement of science, infectious diseases such as malaria remain an ongoing challenge globally. The main reason this disease still remains a menace in many countries around the world is the development of resistance to many of the currently available anti-malarial drugs. While developing new drugs is rather expensive and the prospect of a potent vaccine is still evading our dream of a malaria-free world, one of the feasible options is to package the older drugs in newer ways. For this, nano-sized drug delivery vehicles have been used and are proving to be promising prospects in the way malaria will be treated in the future. Since, monotherapy has given way to combination therapy in malaria treatment, nanotechnology-based delivery carriers enable to encapsulate various drug moieties in the same package, thus avoiding the complications involved in conjugation chemistry to produce hybrid drug molecules. Further, we envisage that using targeted delivery approaches, we may be able to achieve a much better radical cure and curb the side effects associated with the existing drug molecules. Thus, this review will focus on some of the nanotechnology-based combination and targeted therapies and will discuss the possibilities of better therapies that may be developed in the future. PMID:27067712

  15. Electrosprayed nanocomposites based on hyaluronic acid derivative and Soluplus for tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song Yi; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Ko, Seung-Hak; Shim, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jongkook; Heo, Moon Young; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2016-09-01

    Nanocomposite (NC) based on hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE) and Soluplus (SP) was fabricated by electrospraying for the tumor-targeted delivery of resveratrol (RSV). Amphiphilic property of both HACE and SP has been used to entrap RSV in the internal cavity of NC. Electrospraying with established experimental conditions produced HACE/SP/RSV NC with 230nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and >80% drug entrapment efficiency. Sustained and pH-dependent drug release profiles were observed in drug release test. Cellular uptake efficiency of HACE/SP NC was higher than that of SP NC, mainly based on HA-CD44 receptor interaction, in MDA-MB-231 (CD44 receptor-positive human breast cancer) cells. Selective tumor targetability of HACE/SP NC, compared to SP NC, was also confirmed in MDA-MB-231 tumor-xenograted mouse model using a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. According to the results of pharmacokinetic study in rats, decreased in vivo clearance and increased half-life of RSV in NC group, compared to drug solution group, were shown. Given that these experimental results, developed HACE/SP NC can be a promising theranostic nanosystem for CD44 receptor-expressed cancers. PMID:27208440

  16. Does Angling Technique Selectively Target Fishes Based on Their Behavioural Type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D M Wilson

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing recognition that fish harvesting practices can have important impacts on the phenotypic distributions and diversity of natural populations through a phenomenon known as fisheries-induced evolution. Here we experimentally show that two common recreational angling techniques (active crank baits versus passive soft plastics differentially target wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris based on variation in their behavioural tendencies. Fish were first angled in the wild using both techniques and then brought back to the laboratory and tested for individual-level differences in common estimates of personality (refuge emergence, flight-initiation-distance, latency-to-recapture and with a net, and general activity in an in-lake experimental arena. We found that different angling techniques appear to selectively target these species based on their boldness (as characterized by refuge emergence, a standard measure of boldness in fishes but not other assays of personality. We also observed that body size was independently a significant predictor of personality in both species, though this varied between traits and species. Our results suggest a context-dependency for vulnerability to capture relative to behaviour in these fish species. Ascertaining the selective pressures angling practices exert on natural populations is an important area of fisheries research with significant implications for ecology, evolution, and resource management.

  17. Research on the image fusion and target extraction based on bionic compound eye system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowei; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Zihan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shiyu

    2015-08-01

    People attach more and more importance to bionic compound eye due to its advantages such as small volume, large field of view and sensitivity to high-speed moving objects. Small field of view and large volume are the disadvantages of traditional image sensor and in order to avoid these defects, this paper intends to build a set of compound eye system based on insect compound eye structure and visual processing mechanism. In the center of this system is the primary sensor which has high resolution ratio. The primary sensor is surrounded by the other six sensors which have low resolution ratio. Based on this system, this paper will study the target image fusion and extraction method by using plane compound eye structure. This paper designs a control module which can combine the distinguishing features of high resolution image with local features of low resolution image so as to conduct target detection, recognition and location. Compared with traditional ways, the way of high resolution in the center and low resolution around makes this system own the advantages of high resolution and large field of view and enables the system to detect the object quickly and recognize the object accurately.

  18. Autocrine-Based Selection of Drugs That Target Ion Channels from Combinatorial Venom Peptide Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongkai; Du, Mingjuan; Xie, Jia; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Jingying; Wang, Wei; Xin, Xiu; Possani, Lourival D; Yea, Kyungmoo; Lerner, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Animal venoms represent a rich source of pharmacologically active peptides that interact with ion channels. However, a challenge to discovering drugs remains because of the slow pace at which venom peptides are discovered and refined. An efficient autocrine-based high-throughput selection system was developed to discover and refine venom peptides that target ion channels. The utility of this system was demonstrated by the discovery of novel Kv1.3 channel blockers from a natural venom peptide library that was formatted for autocrine-based selection. We also engineered a Kv1.3 blocker peptide (ShK) derived from sea anemone to generate a subtype-selective Kv1.3 blocker with a long half-life in vivo. PMID:27197631

  19. Ionic liquid-salt based aqueous biphasic system separation of 109Cd from silver target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABS) is becoming more important from green chemistry point of view replacing conventional liquid-liquid extraction system. The most of the aqueous biphasic systems reported in the literature are based on Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different salts. Although ABS based on water soluble room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride ((bmim)CI) and concentrated solutions of kosmotropic salt K2HPO4 was reported in 2007 but the efficiency of this system for metal partitioning has been rarely explored. We report for the first time separation of no-carrier-added (NCA) 109Cd from the α-particle irradiated Ag target using this ABS

  20. Quantifying Synergy, Thermostability, and Targeting of Cellulolytic Enzymes and Cellulosomes with Polymerization-Based Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Klara H; Rind, Thomas; Verdorfer, Tobias; Gaub, Hermann E; Nash, Michael A

    2015-07-21

    We present a polymerization-based assay for determining the potency of cellulolytic enzyme formulations on pretreated biomass substrates. Our system relies on monitoring the autofluorescence of cellulose and measuring the attenuation of this fluorescent signal as a hydrogel consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymerizes on top of the cellulose in response to glucose produced during saccharification. The one-pot method we present is label-free, rapid, highly sensitive, and requires only a single pipetting step. Using model enzyme formulations derived from Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Talaromyces emersonii and recombinant bacterial minicellulosomes from Clostridium thermocellum, we demonstrate the ability to differentiate enzyme performance based on differences in thermostability, cellulose-binding domain targeting, and endo/exoglucanase synergy. On the basis of its ease of use, we expect this cellulase assay platform to be applicable to enzyme screening for improved bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26114625

  1. BACTERIAL DNA GYRASE IS NOT THE TARGET OF QUINOLINE-BASED ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few quinoline-based synthetic compounds (2, 8 Dicyclopentyl-4-methyl quinoline and 2, 8 Dicyclohexyl-4-methyl quinoline, the synthesis of which have been already shown by our medicinal chemistry group, were found to be potent inhibitor of mycobacterial growth. Based on the results of cell culture-based cell killing assays using DNA gyrase positive E. coli strains, we presumed that bacterial DNA gyrase might be a probable target of quinolines. The resemblance of the basic skeletal structural moiety of quinolone and quinoline inspired us to hypothesize that these quinolines might inhibit DNA gyrase. While the non-gyrase inhibitors like ethambutol and isoniazid did not inhibit the growth of these strains. The genesis of the notion of using E. coli DNA gyrase as an alternative to DNA gyrase from the pathogenic Mycobacterium, stems from the fact that E. coli DNA gyrase is found to be about eighty times more sensitive to the action of quinolones than the Mycobacterium DNA gyrase. Therefore, we had used E. coli DNA gyrase as a model enzyme for studying the action of some synthetic quinoline compounds synthesized by us. In the present work, we have used cell killing assay, gel electrophoresis assay (for DNA supercoiling and UV spectroscopy-based coupled assay (for ATP hydrolysis for characterizing the activity of DNA gyrase. Quinolones exhibited low IC50 values as compared to the studied quinolines on DNA gyrase positive E. coli strains We found that although quinolones are the potent inhibitors of supercoiling activity of E. coli DNA gyrase, quinolines are not. We further found that ATPase activity of E. coli DNA gyrase (Non-specific inhibitor was inhibited to a very minor extent in the presence of very high concentration of these synthetic quinolines. DNA gyrase is not the primary target of these synthetic quinolines (2, 8 Dicyclopentyl-4-methyl quinoline and 2, 8 Dicyclohexyl-4-methyl quinoline.

  2. Joint detection and tracking of size-varying infrared targets based on block-wise sparse decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Lin, Zaiping; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2016-05-01

    The high variability of target size makes small target detection in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) a challenging task. A joint detection and tracking method based on block-wise sparse decomposition is proposed to address this problem. For detection, the infrared image is divided into overlapped blocks, and each block is weighted on the local image complexity and target existence probabilities. Target-background decomposition is solved by block-wise inexact augmented Lagrange multipliers. For tracking, label multi-Bernoulli (LMB) tracker tracks multiple targets taking the result of single-frame detection as input, and provides corresponding target existence probabilities for detection. Unlike fixed-size methods, the proposed method can accommodate size-varying targets, due to no special assumption for the size and shape of small targets. Because of exact decomposition, classical target measurements are extended and additional direction information is provided to improve tracking performance. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively suppress background clutters, detect and track size-varying targets in infrared images.

  3. A graphene oxide based smart drug delivery system for tumor mitochondria-targeting photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanchun; Zhou, Feifan; Zhang, Da; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2016-02-01

    Subcellular organelles play critical roles in cell survival. In this work, a novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug delivery and phototoxicity on/off nano-system based on graphene oxide (NGO) as the carrier is developed to implement subcellular targeting and attacking. To construct the nanodrug (PPa-NGO-mAb), NGO is modified with the integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for tumor targeting. Pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) conjugated with polyethylene-glycol is used to cover the surface of the NGO to induce phototoxicity. Polyethylene-glycol phospholipid is loaded to enhance water solubility. The results show that the phototoxicity of PPa on NGO can be switched on and off in organic and aqueous environments, respectively. The PPa-NGO-mAb assembly is able to effectively target the αvβ3-positive tumor cells with surface ligand and receptor recognition; once endocytosized by the cells, they are observed escaping from lysosomes and subsequently transferring to the mitochondria. In the mitochondria, the `on' state PPa-NGO-mAb performs its effective phototoxicity to kill cells. The biological and physical dual selections and on/off control of PPa-NGO-mAb significantly enhance mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of PDT. This smart system offers a potential alternative to drug delivery systems for cancer therapy.Subcellular organelles play critical roles in cell survival. In this work, a novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug delivery and phototoxicity on/off nano-system based on graphene oxide (NGO) as the carrier is developed to implement subcellular targeting and attacking. To construct the nanodrug (PPa-NGO-mAb), NGO is modified with the integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for tumor targeting. Pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) conjugated with polyethylene-glycol is used to cover the surface of the NGO to induce phototoxicity. Polyethylene-glycol phospholipid is loaded to enhance water solubility. The results show that the phototoxicity of PPa on NGO can be switched on and off in

  4. APPLICATION OF THE HARD AND SOFT, ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB) THEORY TO TOXICANT-TARGET INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPachin, Richard M.; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony; Barber, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Many chemical toxicants and/or their active metabolites are electrophiles that cause cell injury by forming covalent bonds with nucleophilic targets on biological macromolecules. Covalent reactions between nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents are however discriminatory, since there is a significant degree of selectivity associated with these interactions. Over the course of the past few decades, the theory of Hard and Soft, Acid and Bases (HSAB) has proven to be a useful tool in predicting the outcome of such reactions. This concept utilizes the inherent electronic characteristic of polarizability to define, for example, reacting electrophiles and nucleophiles as either hard or soft. These HSAB definitions have been successfully applied to chemical-induced toxicity in biological systems. Thus, according to this principle, a toxic electrophile reacts preferentially with biological targets of similar hardness or softness. The soft/hard classification of a xenobiotic electrophile has obvious utility in discerning plausible biological targets and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. The purpose of this Perspective is to discuss the HSAB theory of electrophiles and nucleophiles within a toxicological framework. In principle, covalent bond formation can be described by using the properties of their outermost or frontier orbitals. Because these orbital energies for most chemicals can be calculated using quantum mechanical models, it is possible to quantify the relative softness (σ) or hardness (η) of electrophiles or nucleophiles and to subsequently convert this information into useful indices of reactivity. This atomic level information can provide insight into the design of corroborative laboratory research and thereby help investigators discern corresponding molecular sites and mechanisms of toxicant action. The use of HSAB parameters has also been instrumental in the development and identification of potential nucleophilic cytoprotectants that can scavenge toxic

  5. Application of the Hard and Soft, Acids and Bases (HSAB) theory to toxicant--target interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopachin, Richard M; Gavin, Terrence; Decaprio, Anthony; Barber, David S

    2012-02-20

    Many chemical toxicants and/or their active metabolites are electrophiles that cause cell injury by forming covalent bonds with nucleophilic targets on biological macromolecules. Covalent reactions between nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents are, however, discriminatory since there is a significant degree of selectivity associated with these interactions. Over the course of the past few decades, the theory of Hard and Soft, Acids and Bases (HSAB) has proven to be a useful tool in predicting the outcome of such reactions. This concept utilizes the inherent electronic characteristic of polarizability to define, for example, reacting electrophiles and nucleophiles as either hard or soft. These HSAB definitions have been successfully applied to chemical-induced toxicity in biological systems. Thus, according to this principle, a toxic electrophile reacts preferentially with biological targets of similar hardness or softness. The soft/hard classification of a xenobiotic electrophile has obvious utility in discerning plausible biological targets and molecular mechanisms of toxicity. The purpose of this perspective is to discuss the HSAB theory of electrophiles and nucleophiles within a toxicological framework. In principle, covalent bond formation can be described by using the properties of their outermost or frontier orbitals. Because these orbital energies for most chemicals can be calculated using quantum mechanical models, it is possible to quantify the relative softness (σ) or hardness (η) of electrophiles or nucleophiles and to subsequently convert this information into useful indices of reactivity. This atomic level information can provide insight into the design of corroborative laboratory research and thereby help investigators discern corresponding molecular sites and mechanisms of toxicant action. The use of HSAB parameters has also been instrumental in the development and identification of potential nucleophilic cytoprotectants that can scavenge toxic

  6. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase--a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in. PMID:26806463

  7. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase-a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in. PMID:26806463

  8. High brightness EUV sources based on laser plasma at using droplet liquid metal target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodov, A. Yu; Krivokorytov, M. S.; Sidelnikov, Yu V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Medvedev, V. V.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2016-05-01

    We present the study of a source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation based on laser plasma generated due to the interaction of radiation from a nanosecond Nd : YAG laser with a liquidmetal droplet target consisting of a low-temperature eutectic indium–tin alloy. The generator of droplets is constructed using a commercial nozzle and operates on the principle of forced capillary jet decomposition. Long-term spatial stability of the centre-of-mass position of the droplet with the root-mean-square deviation of ~0.5 μm is demonstrated. The use of a low-temperature working substance instead of pure tin increases the reliability and lifetime of the droplet generator. For the time- and space-averaged power density of laser radiation on the droplet target 4 × 1011 W cm-2 and the diameter of radiating plasma ~80 μm, the mean efficiency of conversion of laser energy into the energy of EUV radiation at 13.5 +/- 0.135 nm equal to 2.3% (2π sr)-1 is achieved. Using the doublepulse method, we have modelled the repetitively pulsed regime of the source operation and demonstrated the possibility of its stable functioning with the repetition rate up to 8 kHz for the droplet generation repetition rate of more than 32 kHz, which will allow the source brightness to be as large as ~0.96 kW (mm2 sr)-1.

  9. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics including optical backscatter, time-integrated and gated X-ray sensors, and laser velocity interferometry. Diagnostics to diagnose fusion ignition implosion and neutron emissions are being planned. Many diagnostics will be developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. An instrument-based controls (I-BC) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the I-BC architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. I-BCs are reusable by replication and reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and better reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing I-BCs. This paper discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the I-BC architecture and framework

  10. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  11. Local node selection for target tracking based on underwater wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Chaojie; Liu, Meiqin; Zhang, Senlin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional sonar-array-based target tracking algorithms may be unsuitable for on-demand tracking missions, since they assume that the sonar arrays should be towed or mounted by a submarine or a ship. Alternatively, underwater wireless sensor networks can offer a promising solution approach. First, each underwater node is battery-powered, so saving energy expenditure is a critical issue. Instead of keeping all sensor nodes active, this paper provides a local node selection (LNS) scheme which increases energy efficiency by waking up only a small part of nodes at each time. Second, considering node's limited computing ability and the real-time requirement for the tracking algorithm, instead of employing the centralised fusion structure, we utilise the distributed Kalman filtering fusion with feedback in this paper. Finally, instead of assuming one sensor node can uniquely determine target's location, a more practical range-only measurement model is proposed. Then the LNS scheme and distributed fusion with feedback are extended to our range-only measurement model. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of our scheme.

  12. Target-Oriented Routing Algorithm Based on Sequential Coordinates for Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors implementation in process automation applications is a forwarding step for wireless sensor network. Autonomous network structure is considered as an option for such implementation. Autonomous wireless sensor/actuator networks require a target-oriented routing algorithm. In the first section the perception of autonomous network with an example is explained. It is clarified which features from the routing algorithm are expected. In the second section, Sequential Coordinate Routing Algorithm (SCAR is proposed and its development, functionality and properties are discussed. Besides the target-oriented property as a main feature of the SCAR, based on the mathematical claim and its proof, it is shown how the minimum energy consumption is taken into consideration. By realizing the core of the routing algorithm, it is presented that not only void problem does not exist like other algorithms but also it is easy to compute. By this algorithm any two nodes are able to communicate to each other without need to pass message through central node of the network.

  13. Gene Ontology and KEGG Pathway Enrichment Analysis of a Drug Target-Based Classification System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Drug-target interaction (DTI is a key aspect in pharmaceutical research. With the ever-increasing new drug data resources, computational approaches have emerged as powerful and labor-saving tools in predicting new DTIs. However, so far, most of these predictions have been based on structural similarities rather than biological relevance. In this study, we proposed for the first time a "GO and KEGG enrichment score" method to represent a certain category of drug molecules by further classification and interpretation of the DTI database. A benchmark dataset consisting of 2,015 drugs that are assigned to nine categories ((1 G protein-coupled receptors, (2 cytokine receptors, (3 nuclear receptors, (4 ion channels, (5 transporters, (6 enzymes, (7 protein kinases, (8 cellular antigens and (9 pathogens was constructed by collecting data from KEGG. We analyzed each category and each drug for its contribution in GO terms and KEGG pathways using the popular feature selection "minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR" method, and key GO terms and KEGG pathways were extracted. Our analysis revealed the top enriched GO terms and KEGG pathways of each drug category, which were highly enriched in the literature and clinical trials. Our results provide for the first time the biological relevance among drugs, targets and biological functions, which serves as a new basis for future DTI predictions.

  14. Cluster-based centralized data fusion for tracking maneuvering targets using interacting multiple model algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Vaidehi; K Kalavidya; S Indira Gandhi

    2004-04-01

    The interacting multiple model (IMM) algorithm has proved to be useful in tracking maneuvering targets. Tracking accuracy can be further improved using data fusion. Tracking of multiple targets using multiple sensors and fusing them at a central site using centralized architecture involves communication of large volumes of measurements to a common site. This results in heavy processing requirement at the central site. Moreover, track updates have to be obtained in the fusion centre before the next measurement arrives. For solving this computational complexity, a cluster-based parallel processing solution is presented in this paper. In this scheme, measurements are sent to the data fusion centre where the measurements are partitioned and given to the slave processors in the cluster. The slave processors use the IMM algorithm to get accurate updates of the tracks. The master processor collects the updated tracks and performs data fusion using ‘weight decision approach’. The improvement in the computation time using clusters in the data fusion centre is presented in this paper.

  15. Tumor targeting profiling of hyaluronan-coated lipid based-nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahy, Shoshy; Goldsmith, Meir; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Kisin-Finfer, Einat; Redy, Orit; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Shabat, Doron; Godin, Biana; Peer, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a naturally occurring high Mw (HMw) glycosaminoglycan, has been shown to play crucial roles in cell growth, embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation, and tumor development and progression. Low Mw (LMw, Hyaluronan (HA), a naturally occurring high Mw (HMw) glycosaminoglycan, has been shown to play crucial roles in cell growth, embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation, and tumor development and progression. Low Mw (LMw, <10 kDa) HA has been reported to provoke inflammatory responses, such as induction of cytokines, chemokines, reactive nitrogen species and growth factors. Herein, we prepared and characterized two types of HA coated (LMw and HMw) lipid-based targeted and stabilized nanoparticles (tsNPs) and tested their binding to tumor cells expressing the HA receptor (CD44), systemic immunotoxicity, and biodistribution in tumor bearing mice. In vitro, the Mw of the surface anchored HA had a significant influence on the affinity towards CD44 on B16F10 murine melanoma cells. LMw HA-tsNPs exhibited weak binding, while binding of tsNPs coated with HMw HA was characterized by high binding. Both types of tsNPs had no measured effect on cytokine induction in vivo following intravenous administration to healthy C57BL/6 mice suggesting no immune activation. HMw HA-tsNPs showed enhanced circulation time and tumor targeting specificity, mainly by accumulating in the tumor and its vicinity compared with LMw HA-tsNPs. Finally, we show that methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in cancer chemotherapy, entrapped in HMw HA-tsNPs slowly diffused from the particles with a half-life of 13.75 days, and improved the therapeutic outcome in a murine B16F10 melanoma model compared with NPs suggesting an active cellular targeting beyond the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Taken together, these findings have major implications for the use of high molecular weight HA in nanomedicine as a selective and safe active cellular

  16. A prospective study of nomogram-based adaptation of prostate radiotherapy target volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a novel approach to the treatment of patients with high risk prostate cancer (HRPC) through the use of a nomogram to tailor radiotherapy target volumes. Twenty seven subjects with HRPC were treated with a mildly hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen using image-guided IMRT technique between Jun/2013-Jan/2015. A set of validated prognostic factors were inputted into the Memorial-Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prostate cancer nomogram to estimate risk of loco-regional spread (LRS). The nomogram risk estimates for extra-capsular extension (ECE), seminal vesicles involvement (SVI), and pelvic lymph nodes involvement (LNI) were used to adapt radiotherapy treatment volumes based on a risk threshold of ≥15 % in all cases. A planning guide was used to delineate target volumes and organs at risk (OAR). Up to three dose levels were administered over 28 fractions; 70Gy for gross disease in the prostate +/− seminal vesicles (2.5Gy/fraction), 61.6Gy for subclinical peri-prostatic disease (2.2Gy/fraction) and 50.4Gy to pelvic nodes (1.8Gy/fraction). Data regarding protocol adherence, nomogram use, radiotherapy dose distribution, and acute toxicity were collected. Nomogram use 100 % of patients were treated for ECE, 88.9 % for SVI, and 70.4 % for LNI. The three areas at risk of LRS were appropriately treated according to the study protocol in 98.8 % cases. The MSKCC nomogram estimates for LRS differed significantly between the time of recruitment and analysis. Contouring protocol compliance Compliance with the trial contouring protocol for up to seven target volumes was 93.0 % (159/171). Compliance with protocol for small bowel contouring was poor (59.3 %). Dose constraints compliance Compliance with dose constraints for target volumes was 97.4 % (191/196). Compliance with dose constraints for OAR was 88.2 % (285/323). Acute toxicity There were no grade 3 acute toxicities observed. 20/27 (74

  17. Distance-to-Agreement Investigation of Tomotherapy's Bony Anatomy-Based Autoregistration and Planning Target Volume Contour-Based Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare Tomotherapy's megavoltage computed tomography bony anatomy autoregistration with the best achievable registration, assuming no deformation and perfect knowledge of planning target volume (PTV) location. Methods and Materials: Distance-to-agreement (DTA) of the PTV was determined by applying a rigid-body shift to the PTV region of interest of the prostate from its reference position, assuming no deformations. Planning target volume region of interest of the prostate was extracted from the patient archives. The reference position was set by the 6 degrees of freedom (dof)—x, y, z, roll, pitch, and yaw—optimization results from the previous study at this institution. The DTA and the compensating parameters were calculated by the shift of the PTV from the reference 6-dof to the 4-dof—x, y, z, and roll—optimization. In this study, the effectiveness of Tomotherapy's 4-dof bony anatomy–based autoregistration was compared with the idealized 4-dof PTV contour-based optimization. Results: The maximum DTA (maxDTA) of the bony anatomy-based autoregistration was 3.2 ± 1.9 mm, with the maximum value of 8.0 mm. The maxDTA of the contour-based optimization was 1.8 ± 1.3 mm, with the maximum value of 5.7 mm. Comparison of Pearson correlation of the compensating parameters between the 2 4-dof optimization algorithms shows that there is a small but statistically significant correlation in y and z (0.236 and 0.300, respectively), whereas there is very weak correlation in x and roll (0.062 and 0.025, respectively). Conclusions: We find that there is an average improvement of approximately 1 mm in terms of maxDTA on the PTV going from 4-dof bony anatomy-based autoregistration to the 4-dof contour-based optimization. Pearson correlation analysis of the 2 4-dof optimizations suggests that uncertainties due to deformation and inadequate resolution account for much of the compensating parameters, but pitch variation also makes a statistically significant

  18. ISAR Imaging of Maneuvering Targets Based on the Modified Discrete Polynomial-Phase Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging of a maneuvering target is a challenging task in the field of radar signal processing. The azimuth echo can be characterized as a multi-component polynomial phase signal (PPS after the translational compensation, and the high quality ISAR images can be obtained by the parameters estimation of it combined with the Range-Instantaneous-Doppler (RID technique. In this paper, a novel parameters estimation algorithm of the multi-component PPS with order three (cubic phase signal-CPS based on the modified discrete polynomial-phase transform (MDPT is proposed, and the corresponding new ISAR imaging algorithm is presented consequently. This algorithm is efficient and accurate to generate a focused ISAR image, and the results of real data demonstrate the effectiveness of it.

  19. Claudins Overexpression in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Targets for Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE Based Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P. English

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Claudins are a family of tight junction proteins regulating paracellular permeability and cell polarity with different patterns of expression in benign and malignant human tissues. There are approximately 27 members of the claudin family identified to date with varying cell and tissue-specific expression. Claudins-3, -4 and -7 represent the most highly differentially expressed claudins in ovarian cancer. While their exact role in ovarian tumors is still being elucidated, these proteins are thought to be critical for ovarian cancer cell invasion/dissemination and resistance to chemotherapy. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 are the natural receptors for the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE, a potent cytolytic toxin. These surface proteins may therefore represent attractive targets for the detection and treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer and other aggressive solid tumors overexpressing claudin-3 and -4 using CPE-based theranostic agents.

  20. Biocompatibility of ferritin-based nanoparticles as targeted MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Jennifer R; Pearl, Valeria M; Denotti, Anna R; Lee, Jonathan B; Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Scindia, Yogesh M; Charlton, Nathan P; Baldelomar, Edwin J; Beeman, Scott C; Bennett, Kevin M

    2016-08-01

    Ferritin is a naturally occurring iron storage protein, proposed as a clinically relevant nanoparticle with applications as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent. Cationic ferritin is a targeted, injectable contrast agent to measure kidney microstructure with MRI. Here, the toxicity of horse spleen ferritin is assessed as a step to clinical translation. Adult male mice received cationic, native and high dose cationic ferritin (CF, NF, or HDCF) or saline and were monitored for 3weeks. Transient weight loss occurred in the ferritin groups with no difference in renal function parameters. Ferritin-injected mice demonstrated a lower serum iron 3weeks after administration. In ferritin-injected animals pre-treated with hydrocortisone, there were no structural or weight differences in the kidneys, liver, lung, heart, or spleen. This study demonstrates a lack of significant detrimental effects of horse-derived ferritin-based nanoparticles at MRI-detectable doses, allowing further exploration of these agents in basic research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:27071333

  1. A Powerful CRISPR/Cas9-Based Method for Targeted Transcriptional Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Shota; Moriguchi, Tetsuo; Ohtsu, Naoki; Kondo, Toru

    2016-05-23

    Targeted transcriptional activation of endogenous genes is important for understanding physiological transcriptional networks, synthesizing genetic circuits, and inducing cellular phenotype changes. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has great potential to achieve this purpose, however, it has not yet been successfully used to efficiently activate endogenous genes and induce changes in cellular phenotype. A powerful method for transcriptional activation by using CRISPR/Cas9 was developed. Replacement of a methylated promoter with an unmethylated one by CRISPR/Cas9 was sufficient to activate the expression of the neural cell gene OLIG2 and the embryonic stem cell gene NANOG in HEK293T cells. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-based OLIG2 activation induced the embryonic carcinoma cell line NTERA-2 to express the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin. PMID:27079176

  2. Identification of targets of miR-200b by a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arivusudar Marimuthu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available miRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to cognate mRNAs causing mRNA degradation or translational repression. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis is being widely used to identify miRNA targets. The miR-200b miRNA cluster is often overexpressed in multiple cancer types, but the identity of the targets remains elusive. Using SILAC-based analysis, we examined the effects of overexpression of a miR-200b mimic or a control miRNA in fibrosarcoma cells. We identified around 300 potential targets of miR-200b based on a change in the expression of protein levels. We validated a subset of potential targets at the transcript level using quantitative PCR.

  3. Pharmaceutical and clinical development of phosphonate-based radiopharmaceuticals for the targeted treatment of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rogier; Ter Heine, Rob; Knapp, Russ Ff; de Klerk, John M H; Bloemendal, Haiko J; Hendrikse, N Harry

    2016-10-01

    Therapeutic phosphonate-based radiopharmaceuticals radiolabeled with beta, alpha and conversion electron emitting radioisotopes have been investigated for the targeted treatment of painful bone metastases for >35years. We performed a systematic literature search and focused on the pharmaceutical development, preclinical research and early human studies of these radiopharmaceuticals. The characteristics of an ideal bone-targeting therapeutic radiopharmaceutical are presented and compliance with these criteria by the compounds discussed is verified. The importance of both composition and preparation conditions for the stability and biodistribution of several agents is discussed. Very few studies have described the characterization of these products, although knowledge on the molecular structure is important with respect to in vivo behavior. This review discusses a total of 91 phosphonate-based therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, of which only six agents have progressed to clinical use. Extensive clinical studies have only been described for (186)Re-HEDP, (188)Re-HEDP and (153)Sm-EDTMP. Of these, (153)Sm-EDTMP represents the only compound with worldwide marketing authorization. (177)Lu-EDTMP has recently received approval for clinical use in India. This review illustrates that a thorough understanding of the radiochemistry of these agents is required to design simple and robust preparation and quality control methods, which are needed to fully exploit the potential benefits of these theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Extensive biodistribution and dosimetry studies are indispensable to provide the portfolios that are required for assessment before human administration is possible. Use of the existing knowledge collected in this review should guide future research efforts and may lead to the approval of new promising agents. PMID:27496068

  4. A multifunctional metal-organic framework based tumor targeting drug delivery system for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Dong, Zhi-Yue; Cheng, Hong; Wan, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Wei-Hai; Zou, Mei-Zhen; Huo, Jia-Wei; Deng, He-Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDSs) with biocompatibility and precise drug delivery are eagerly needed to overcome the paradox in chemotherapy that high drug doses are required to compensate for the poor biodistribution of drugs with frequent dose-related side effects. In this work, we reported a metal-organic framework (MOF) based tumor targeting DDS developed by a one-pot, and organic solvent-free ``green'' post-synthetic surface modification procedure, starting from the nanoscale MOF MIL-101. Owing to the multifunctional surface coating, premature drug release from this DDS was prevented. Due to the pH responsive benzoic imine bond and the redox responsive disulfide bond at the modified surface, this DDS exhibited tumor acid environment enhanced cellular uptake and intracellular reducing environment triggered drug release. In vitro and in vivo results showed that DOX loaded into this DDS exhibited effective cancer cell inhibition with much reduced side effects.Drug delivery systems (DDSs) with biocompatibility and precise drug delivery are eagerly needed to overcome the paradox in chemotherapy that high drug doses are required to compensate for the poor biodistribution of drugs with frequent dose-related side effects. In this work, we reported a metal-organic framework (MOF) based tumor targeting DDS developed by a one-pot, and organic solvent-free ``green'' post-synthetic surface modification procedure, starting from the nanoscale MOF MIL-101. Owing to the multifunctional surface coating, premature drug release from this DDS was prevented. Due to the pH responsive benzoic imine bond and the redox responsive disulfide bond at the modified surface, this DDS exhibited tumor acid environment enhanced cellular uptake and intracellular reducing environment triggered drug release. In vitro and in vivo results showed that DOX loaded into this DDS exhibited effective cancer cell inhibition with much reduced side effects. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  5. Design of X-ray target for a CNT based high brightness microfocus X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target for a high-brightness microfocus x-ray tube, which is based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) as electron source, is designed. The x-ray tube has the following specifications: brightness of 1 x 1011 ph/s-mm2mrad2, spot size ∼ 5μm, and average x-ray energy of 20∼40 keV. In order to satisfy the specifications, the design parameters of the target, such as configuration, material, thickness of the target as well as the required beam current, were optimized using computer code MCNPX. The design parameters were determined from the calculation of both x-ray spectrum and intensity distribution. From the calculation, transmission type was chosen for the target configuration. The material of the target was selected as molybdenum (Mo) and the optimized thickness was 7.2μm . Since such a thin target should withstand vacuum pressure and localized thermal loading, structural stability and temperature distribution were also considered. According to the analytic calculation, the transmission Mo target itself could not withstand the vacuum pressure. An alternative is to use backing material of 150μm beryllium (Be) on the backside of the Mo target. In addition, the calculation shows that the maximum temperature of the transmission target can be reduced to a stable-operation regime by forced air-convection cooling

  6. Infrared small moving target detection using sparse representation-based image decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hanlin; Han, Jiaojiao; Yan, Xiang; Zeng, Qingjie; Zhou, Huixin; Li, Jia; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Infrared small moving target detection is one of the crucial techniques in infrared search and tracking systems. This paper presents a novel small moving target detection method for infrared image sequence with complicated background. The key points are given as follows: (1) since target detection mainly depends on the incoherence between target and background, the proposed method separate the target from the background according to the morphological feature diversity between target and background; (2) considering the continuity of target motion in time domain, the target trajectory is extracted by the RX filter in random projection. The experiments on various clutter background sequences have validated the detection capability of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed method can robustly provide a higher detection probability and a lower false alarm rate than baseline methods.

  7. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures

  8. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ran, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliubme@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  9. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  10. Unsupervised learning in persistent sensing for target recognition by wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In previous work by the author, effective persistent and pervasive sensing for recognition and tracking of battlefield targets were seen to be achieved, using intelligent algorithms implemented by distributed mobile agents over a composite system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for persistence and a wireless network of unattended ground sensors for pervasive coverage of the mission environment. While simulated performance results for the supervised algorithms of the composite system are shown to provide satisfactory target recognition over relatively brief periods of system operation, this performance can degrade by as much as 50% as target dynamics in the environment evolve beyond the period of system operation in which the training data are representative. To overcome this limitation, this paper applies the distributed approach using mobile agents to the network of ground-based wireless sensors alone, without the UAV subsystem, to provide persistent as well as pervasive sensing for target recognition and tracking. The supervised algorithms used in the earlier work are supplanted by unsupervised routines, including competitive-learning neural networks (CLNNs) and new versions of support vector machines (SVMs) for characterization of an unknown target environment. To capture the same physical phenomena from battlefield targets as the composite system, the suite of ground-based sensors can be expanded to include imaging and video capabilities. The spatial density of deployed sensor nodes is increased to allow more precise ground-based location and tracking of detected targets by active nodes. The "swarm" mobile agents enabling WSN intelligence are organized in a three processing stages: detection, recognition and sustained tracking of ground targets. Features formed from the compressed sensor data are down-selected according to an information-theoretic algorithm that reduces redundancy within the feature set, reducing the dimension of samples used in the target

  11. Target localization in wireless sensor networks based on received signal strength

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh N Bharadwaj; Jagadeesha S N; Ravindra S

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of localizing a target taking the help of a set of anchor beacon nodes. A small number of beacon nodes are deployed at known locations in the area. The target can detect a beacon provided it happens to lie within the beacon’s transmission range. Thus, the target obtains a measurement vector containing the readings of the beacons: ‘1’ corresponding to a beacon if it is able to detect the target, and ‘0’ if the beacon is not able to detect the target. The goal is twofold...

  12. SU-E-J-220: Evaluation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation (ABAS) in Head-And-Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluate the accuracy of atlas-based auto segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) on both helical CT (HCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) images in head and neck (HN) cancer adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Methods: Six HN patients treated in the ART process were included in this study. For each patient, three images were selected: pretreatment planning CT (PreTx-HCT), in treatment CT for replanning (InTx-HCT) and a CBCT acquired in the same day of the InTx-HCT. Three clinical procedures of auto segmentation and deformable registration performed in the ART process were evaluated: a) auto segmentation on PreTx-HCT using multi-subject atlases, b) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to InTx-HCT using deformable HCT-to-HCT image registration, and c) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to CBCT using deformable CBCT-to-HCT image registration. Seven OARs (brainstem, cord, L/R parotid, L/R submandibular gland and mandible) were manually contoured on PreTx-HCT and InTx-HCT for comparison. In addition, manual contours on InTx-CT were copied on the same day CBCT, and a local region rigid body registration was performed accordingly for each individual OAR. For procedures a) and b), auto contours were compared to manual contours, and for c) auto contours were compared to those rigidly transferred contours on CBCT. Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and mean surface distances of agreement (MSDA) were calculated for evaluation. Results: For procedure a), the mean DSC/MSDA of most OARs are >80%/±2mm. For intra-patient HCT-to-HCT propagation, the Resultimproved to >85%/±1.5mm. Compared to HCT-to-HCT, the mean DSC for HCT-to-CBCT propagation drops ∼2–3% and MSDA increases ∼0.2mm. This Resultindicates that the inferior imaging quality of CBCT seems only degrade auto propagation performance slightly. Conclusion: Auto segmentation and deformable propagation can generate OAR structures on HCT and CBCT images with clinically acceptable accuracy. Therefore

  13. SU-E-J-220: Evaluation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation (ABAS) in Head-And-Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q; Yan, D [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the accuracy of atlas-based auto segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) on both helical CT (HCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) images in head and neck (HN) cancer adaptive radiotherapy (ART). Methods: Six HN patients treated in the ART process were included in this study. For each patient, three images were selected: pretreatment planning CT (PreTx-HCT), in treatment CT for replanning (InTx-HCT) and a CBCT acquired in the same day of the InTx-HCT. Three clinical procedures of auto segmentation and deformable registration performed in the ART process were evaluated: a) auto segmentation on PreTx-HCT using multi-subject atlases, b) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to InTx-HCT using deformable HCT-to-HCT image registration, and c) intra-patient propagation of OARs from PreTx-HCT to CBCT using deformable CBCT-to-HCT image registration. Seven OARs (brainstem, cord, L/R parotid, L/R submandibular gland and mandible) were manually contoured on PreTx-HCT and InTx-HCT for comparison. In addition, manual contours on InTx-CT were copied on the same day CBCT, and a local region rigid body registration was performed accordingly for each individual OAR. For procedures a) and b), auto contours were compared to manual contours, and for c) auto contours were compared to those rigidly transferred contours on CBCT. Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and mean surface distances of agreement (MSDA) were calculated for evaluation. Results: For procedure a), the mean DSC/MSDA of most OARs are >80%/±2mm. For intra-patient HCT-to-HCT propagation, the Resultimproved to >85%/±1.5mm. Compared to HCT-to-HCT, the mean DSC for HCT-to-CBCT propagation drops ∼2–3% and MSDA increases ∼0.2mm. This Resultindicates that the inferior imaging quality of CBCT seems only degrade auto propagation performance slightly. Conclusion: Auto segmentation and deformable propagation can generate OAR structures on HCT and CBCT images with clinically acceptable accuracy. Therefore

  14. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC-QTOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz-Lomba, J A; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-03-31

    The quantification of illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in sewage has been shown to be a valuable tool that complements existing approaches in monitoring the patterns and trends of drug use. The present work delineates the development of a novel analytical tool and dynamic workflow for the analysis of a wide range of substances in sewage-based samples. The validated method can simultaneously quantify 51 target psychoactive substances and pharmaceuticals in sewage-based samples using an off-line automated solid phase extraction (SPE-DEX) method, using Oasis HLB disks, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) in MS(e). Quantification and matrix effect corrections were overcome with the use of 25 isotopic labeled internal standards (ILIS). Recoveries were generally greater than 60% and the limits of quantification were in the low nanogram-per-liter range (0.4-187 ng L(-1)). The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug scene poses a specific analytical challenge since their market is highly dynamic with new compounds continuously entering the market. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) simultaneously allowed the unequivocal identification of NPS based on a mass accuracy criteria of 5 ppm (of the molecular ion and at least two fragments) and retention time (2.5% tolerance) using the UNIFI screening platform. Applying MS(e) data against a suspect screening database of over 1000 drugs and metabolites, this method becomes a broad and reliable tool to detect and confirm NPS occurrence. This was demonstrated through the HRMS analysis of three different sewage-based sample types; influent wastewater, passive sampler extracts and pooled urine samples resulting in the concurrent quantification of known psychoactive substances and the identification of NPS and pharmaceuticals. PMID:26965330

  15. Development of a vision-based ground target detection and tracking system for a small unmanned helicopter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Feng; LUM Kai-Yew; CHEN Ben M.; LEE Tong H

    2009-01-01

    It is undoubted that the latest trend in the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) community is towards visionbased unmanned small-scale helicopter,utilizing the maneuvering capabilities of the helicopter and the rich information of visual sensors,in order to arrive at a versatile platform for a variety of applications such as navigation,surveillance,tracking,etc.In this paper,we present the development of a visionbased ground target detection and tracking system for a small UAV helicopter.More specifically,we propose a real-time vision algorithm,based on moment invariants and two-stage pattern recognition,to achieve automatic ground target detection.In the proposed algorithm,the key geometry features of the target are extracted to detect and identify the target.Simultaneously,a Kalman filter is used to estimate and predict the position of the target,referred to as dynamic features,based on its motion model.These dynamic features are then combined with geometry features to identify the target in the second-stage of pattern recognition,when geometry features of the target change significantly due to noise and disturbance in the environment.Once the target is identified,an automatic control scheme is utilized to control the pan/tilt visual mechanism mounted on the helicopter such that the identified target is to be tracked at the center of the captured images.Experimental results based on images captured by the small-scale unmanned helicopter,SheLion,in actual flight tests demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the overall system.

  16. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H.; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most

  17. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most

  18. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most

  19. Prediction of TF target sites based on atomistic models of protein-DNA complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado-Vides Julio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The specific recognition of genomic cis-regulatory elements by transcription factors (TFs plays an essential role in the regulation of coordinated gene expression. Studying the mechanisms determining binding specificity in protein-DNA interactions is thus an important goal. Most current approaches for modeling TF specific recognition rely on the knowledge of large sets of cognate target sites and consider only the information contained in their primary sequence. Results Here we describe a structure-based methodology for predicting sequence motifs starting from the coordinates of a TF-DNA complex. Our algorithm combines information regarding the direct and indirect readout of DNA into an atomistic statistical model, which is used to estimate the interaction potential. We first measure the ability of our method to correctly estimate the binding specificities of eight prokaryotic and eukaryotic TFs that belong to different structural superfamilies. Secondly, the method is applied to two homology models, finding that sampling of interface side-chain rotamers remarkably improves the results. Thirdly, the algorithm is compared with a reference structural method based on contact counts, obtaining comparable predictions for the experimental complexes and more accurate sequence motifs for the homology models. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that atomic-detail structural information can be feasibly used to predict TF binding sites. The computational method presented here is universal and might be applied to other systems involving protein-DNA recognition.

  20. [Gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) in radiotherapy of benign skull base tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, J P; Liguoro, D; San Galli, F

    2001-10-01

    Skull base tumours represent about 35 to 40% of all intracranial tumours. There are now many reports in the literature confirming the fact that about 80 to 90% of such tumours are controlled with fractionated radiotherapy. Stereotactic and 3-dimensional treatment planning techniques increase local control and central nervous system tolerance. Definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV) is generally easy with currently available medical imaging systems and computers for 3-dimensional dosimetry. The definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) is more difficult to appreciate; it is defined from the CTV plus a margin, which depends on the histology and anterior therapeutic history of the tumour. It is important to take into account the visible tumour and its possible extension pathways (adjacent bone, holes at the base of skull) and/or an anatomic region (sella turcica + adjacent cavernous sinus). It is necessary to evaluate these volumes with CT Scan and MRI to appreciate tumor extension in a 3-dimentional approach, in order to reduce the risk of marginal recurrences. The aim of this paper is to discuss volume definition as a function of tumour site and tumour type to be irradiated. PMID:11715310

  1. Cell-based phenotypic screening of mast cell degranulation unveils kinetic perturbations of agents targeting phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shenlu; Wang, Xumeng; Wu, Huanwen; Xiao, Peng; Cheng, Hongqiang; Zhang, Xue; Ke, Yuehai

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells play an essential role in initiating allergic diseases. The activation of mast cells are controlled by a complicated signal network of reversible phosphorylation, and finding the key regulators involved in this network has been the focus of the pharmaceutical industry. In this work, we used a method named Time-dependent cell responding profile (TCRP) to track the process of mast cell degranulation under various perturbations caused by agents targeting phosphorylation. To test the feasibility of this high-throughput cell-based phenotypic screening method, a variety of biological techniques were used. We further screened 145 inhibitors and clustered them based on the similarities of their TCRPs. Stat3 phosphorylation has been widely reported as a key step in mast cell degranulation. Interestingly, our TCRP results showed that a Stat3 inhibitor JSI124 did not inhibit degranulation like other Stat3 inhibitors, such as Stattic, clearly inhibited degranulation. Regular endpoint assays demonstrated that the distinctive TCRP of JSI124 potentially correlated with the ability to induce apoptosis. Consequently, different agents possibly have disparate functions, which can be conveniently detected by TCRP. From this perspective, our TCRP screening method is reliable and sensitive when it comes to discovering and selecting novel compounds for new drug developments. PMID:27502076

  2. A versatile fluorescent biosensor based on target-responsive graphene oxide hydrogel for antibiotic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Zhao, Huimin; Du, Lei; Gan, Xiaorong; Quan, Xie

    2016-09-15

    A fluorescent sensing platform based on graphene oxide (GO) hydrogel was developed through a fast and facile gelation, immersion and fluorescence determination process, in which the adenosine and aptamer worked as the co-crosslinkers to connect the GO sheets and then form the three-dimensional (3D) macrostructures. The as-prepared hydrogel showed high mechanical strength and thermal stability. The optimal hydrogel had a linear response for oxytetracycline (OTC) of 25-1000μg/L and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 25μg/L. Moreover, together with the high affinity of the aptamer for its target, this assay exhibited excellent sensitivity and selectivity. According to its design principle, the as-designed hydrogel was also tested to possess the generic detection function for other molecules by simply replacing its recognition element, which is expected to lay a foundation to realize the assembly of functionalized hierarchical graphene-based materials for practical applications in analytical field. PMID:27132000

  3. Identification of direct regulatory targets of the transcription factor Sox10 based on function and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sanghyuk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox10, a member of the Sry-related HMG-Box gene family, is a critical transcription factor for several important cell lineages, most notably the neural crest stem cells and the derivative peripheral glial cells and melanocytes. Thus far, only a handful of direct target genes are known for this transcription factor limiting our understanding of the biological network it governs. Results We describe identification of multiple direct regulatory target genes of Sox10 through a procedure based on function and conservation. By combining RNA interference technique and DNA microarray technology, we have identified a set of genes that show significant down-regulation upon introduction of Sox10 specific siRNA into Schwannoma cells. Subsequent comparative genomics analyses led to potential binding sites for Sox10 protein conserved across several mammalian species within the genomic region proximal to these genes. Multiple sites belonging to 4 different genes (proteolipid protein, Sox10, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and pleiotrophin were shown to directly interact with Sox10 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We further confirmed the direct regulation through the identified cis-element for one of the genes, extracellular superoxide dismutase, using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and reporter assay. Conclusion In sum, the process of combining differential expression profiling and comparative genomics successfully led to further defining the role of Sox10, a critical transcription factor for the development of peripheral glia. Our strategy utilizing relatively accessible techniques and tools should be applicable to studying the function of other transcription factors.

  4. AMD3100: A Versatile Platform for CXCR4 Targeting (68)Ga-Based Radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poty, Sophie; Gourni, Eleni; Désogère, Pauline; Boschetti, Frédéric; Goze, Christine; Maecke, Helmut R; Denat, Franck

    2016-03-16

    CXCR4 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which is overexpressed in numerous diseases, particularly in multiple cancers. Therefore, this receptor represents a valuable target for imaging and therapeutic purposes. Among the different approaches, which were developed for CXCR4 imaging, a CXCR4 antagonist biscyclam system (AMD3100, also called Mozobil), currently used in the clinic for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells, was radiolabeled with different radiometals such as (62)Zn, (64)Cu, (67)Ga, or (99m)Tc. However, cyclam is not an ideal chelator for most of these radiometals, and could lead to the release of the radionuclide in vivo. In the current study, a new family of CXCR4 imaging agents is presented, in which AMD3100 is used as a carrier for specific delivery of an imaging reporter, i.e., a (68)Ga complex for PET imaging. AMD3100 was functionalized on the phenyl moiety with different linkers, either ethylenediamine or diamino-polyethylene glycol 3 (PEG3). The resulting AMD3100 analogues were further coupled with two different chelators, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA). Five potential CXCR4 targeting agents were obtained. The derived AMD3100-based ligands were labeled with (68)Ga, highlighting the influence of the spacer nature on the (68)Ga-labeling yield. The lipophilic character of the different systems was also investigated, as well as their affinity for the CXCR4 receptor. The most promising compound was further evaluated in vivo in H69 tumor xenografts by biodistribution and PET imaging studies, validating the proof of principle of our concept. PMID:26886512

  5. Multifunctional nanosheets based on folic acid modified manganese oxide for tumor-targeting theranostic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Bingxiang; Zhao, Hongjuan; Niu, Mengya; Hu, Yujie; Zheng, Cuixia; Zhang, Hongling; Chang, Junbiao; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    It is highly desirable to develop smart nanocarriers with stimuli-responsive drug-releasing and diagnostic-imaging functions for cancer theranostics. Herein, we develop a reduction and pH dual-responsive tumor theranostic platform based on degradable manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets. The MnO2 nanosheets with a size of 20-60 nm were first synthesized and modified with (3-Aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS) to get amine-functionalized MnO2, and then functionalized by NH2-PEG2000-COOH (PEG). The tumor-targeting group, folic acid (FA), was finally conjugated with the PEGylated MnO2 nanosheets. Then, doxorubicin (DOX), a chemotherapeutic agent, was loaded onto the modified nanosheets through a physical adsorption, which was designated as MnO2-PEG-FA/DOX. The prepared MnO2-PEG-FA/DOX nanosheets with good biocompatibility can not only efficiently deliver DOX to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, leading to enhanced anti-tumor efficiency, but can also respond to a slightly acidic environment and high concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), which caused degradation of MnO2 into manganese ions enabling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The longitudinal relaxation rate r 1 was 2.26 mM-1 s-1 at pH 5.0 containing 2 mM GSH. These reduction and pH dual-responsive biodegradable nanosheets combining efficient MRI and chemotherapy provide a novel and promising platform for tumor-targeting theranostic application.

  6. Multifunctional aptamer-based nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to circumvent cancer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wei, Tuo; Zhao, Jing; Huang, Yuanyu; Deng, Hua; Kumar, Anil; Wang, Chenxuan; Liang, Zicai; Ma, Xiaowei; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-06-01

    By its unique advantages over traditional medicine, nanomedicine has offered new strategies for cancer treatment. In particular, the development of drug delivery strategies has focused on nanoscale particles to improve bioavailability. However, many of these nanoparticles are unable to overcome tumor resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Recently, new opportunities for drug delivery have been provided by oligonucleotides that can self-assemble into three-dimensional nanostructures. In this work, we have designed and developed functional DNA nanostructures to deliver the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (Dox) to resistant cancer cells. These nanostructures have two components. The first component is a DNA aptamer, which forms a dimeric G-quadruplex nanostructure to target cancer cells by binding with nucleolin. The second component is double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which is rich in -GC- base pairs that can be applied for Dox delivery. We demonstrated that Dox was able to efficiently intercalate into dsDNA and this intercalation did not affect the aptamer's three-dimensional structure. In addition, the Aptamer-dsDNA (ApS) nanoparticle showed good stability and protected the dsDNA from degradation in bovine serum. More importantly, the ApS&Dox nanoparticle efficiently reversed the resistance of human breast cancer cells to Dox. The mechanism circumventing doxorubicin resistance by ApS&Dox nanoparticles may be predominantly by cell cycle arrest in S phase, effectively increased cell uptake and decreased cell efflux of doxorubicin. Furthermore, the ApS&Dox nanoparticles could effectively inhibit tumor growth, while less cardiotoxicity was observed. Overall, this functional DNA nanostructure provides new insights into the design of nanocarriers to overcome multidrug resistance through targeted drug delivery. PMID:26994877

  7. Improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents: Gd(DOTA) conjugates of a cycloalkane-based RGD peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji-Ae, E-mail: jpark@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin; Ko, In Ok [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Min [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Young, E-mail: jykim@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Development of improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents. • To increase the targeting ability of RGD, we developed cycloalkane-based RGD peptides. • Gd(DOTA) conjugates of cycloalkane-based RGD peptide show improved tumor signal enhancement in vivo MR images. - Abstract: Two new MRI contrast agents, Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACP-K) (1) and Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACH-K) (2), which were designed by incorporating aminocyclopentane (ACP)- or aminocyclohexane (ACH)-carboxylic acid into Gd-DOTA (gadolinium-tetraazacyclo dodecanetetraacetic acid) and cyclic RGDK peptides, were synthesized and evaluated for tumor-targeting ability in vitro and in vivo. Binding affinity studies showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited higher affinity for integrin receptors than cyclic RGDyK peptides, which were used as a reference. These complexes showed high relaxivity and good stability in human serum and have the potential to improve target-specific signal enhancement in vivo MR images.

  8. Track infrared point targets based on projection coefficient templates and non-linear correlation combined with Kalman prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiming; Li, Xuelong; Han, Lei; Meng, Jiao

    2013-03-01

    For a long time, tracking IR point targets is a great challenge task. We propose a tracking framework based on template matching combined with Kalman prediction. Firstly, a novel template matching method for detecting infrared point targets is presented. Different from the classic template matching, the projection coefficients obtained from principal component analysis are used as templates and the non-linear correlation coefficient is used to measure the matching degree. The non-linear correlation can capture the higher-order statistics. So the detection performance is improved greatly. Secondly, a framework of tracking point targets, based on the proposed detection method and Kalman prediction, is developed. Kalman prediction reduces the searching region for the detection method and, in turn, the detection method provides the more precise measurement for Kalman prediction. They bring out the best in each other. Results of experiments show that this framework is competent to track infrared point targets.

  9. Improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents: Gd(DOTA) conjugates of a cycloalkane-based RGD peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of improved tumor-targeting MRI contrast agents. • To increase the targeting ability of RGD, we developed cycloalkane-based RGD peptides. • Gd(DOTA) conjugates of cycloalkane-based RGD peptide show improved tumor signal enhancement in vivo MR images. - Abstract: Two new MRI contrast agents, Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACP-K) (1) and Gd-DOTA-c(RGD-ACH-K) (2), which were designed by incorporating aminocyclopentane (ACP)- or aminocyclohexane (ACH)-carboxylic acid into Gd-DOTA (gadolinium-tetraazacyclo dodecanetetraacetic acid) and cyclic RGDK peptides, were synthesized and evaluated for tumor-targeting ability in vitro and in vivo. Binding affinity studies showed that both 1 and 2 exhibited higher affinity for integrin receptors than cyclic RGDyK peptides, which were used as a reference. These complexes showed high relaxivity and good stability in human serum and have the potential to improve target-specific signal enhancement in vivo MR images

  10. Research on the algorithm of infrared target detection based on the frame difference and background subtraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Yijian

    2015-09-01

    As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.

  11. In-frame and inter-frame information based infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Minjie; Gu, Guohua; Cao, Ercong; Hu, Xiaobo; Qian, Weixian; Ren, Kan

    2016-05-01

    Infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds is one of the key techniques of infrared search and track (IRST) systems. This paper proposes a novel method based on in-frame inter-frame information to detect infrared moving small targets accurately. For a single frame, in the spatial domain, a directional max-median filter is developed to make a pre-processing and a background suppression filtering template is utilized on the denoised image to highlight target. Then, targets in cloud regions and non-cloud regions are extracted by different thresholds according to a cloud discrimination method so that a spatial domain map (SDM) is acquired. In the frequency domain, we design an α-DoB band-pass filter to conduct coarse saliency detection and make an amplitude transformation with smoothing processing which is the so-called elaborate saliency detection. Furthermore, a frequency domain map (FDM) is acquired by an adaptive binary segmentation method. Lastly, candidate targets in single frame are extracted by a discrimination based on intensity and spatial distance criteria. For consecutive frames, a false alarm suppression is conducted on account of differences of motion features between moving target and false alarms to improve detection accuracy again. Large numbers of experiments demonstrate that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness for infrared moving small target detection under complex cloud backgrounds.

  12. Experience in using based embedded controllers with EPICS environment for beam transport in SPES off-line target prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPICS was chosen as general framework to develop the control system of the SPES accelerator facility under construction at LNL in Italy. We report some experience in using some commercial devices based on Debian Linux to control the electrostatic deflectors installed on the beam line at the output of target chamber. We discuss this solution and compare it to other IOC implementations in use in the Target control system. (authors)

  13. Hill Air Force Base: Archaeological Monitoring of Target and Access Road Development for the TS-5-2 Target Area, Utah Test and Training Range, Tooele County, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Daron

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District, contracted with Geo-Marine, Inc., to conduct archaeologial monitoring for a U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) project on the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR), which is under the jurisdiction of Hill Air Force Base and located in Tooele County, western Utah. Monitoring of ground disturbing activities associated with ACC development of Target TS-5-2 and a 2.5-mile dirt access road on the TS-5 (Wild Isle) area of UTTR was undertake...

  14. Multifunctional disulfide-based cationic dextran conjugates for intravenous gene delivery targeting ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanyan; Lou, Bo; Zhao, Peng; Lin, Chao

    2014-07-01

    A folate-decorated, disulfide-based cationic dextran conjugate having dextran as the main chain and disulfide-linked 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine (BAP) residues as the grafts was designed and successfully prepared as a multifunctional gene delivery vector for targeted gene delivery to ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Initially, a new bioreducible cationic polyamide (denoted as pSSBAP) was prepared by polycondensation reaction of bis(p-nitrophenyl)-3,3'-dithiodipropanoate, a disulfide-containing monomer, and BAP. It was found that the pSSBAP was highly efficient for in vitro gene delivery against MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cell lines. Subsequently, two cationic dextran conjugates with different amounts of BAP residues (denoted as Dex-SSBAP6 and Dex-SSBAP30, respectively) were synthesized by coupling BAP to disulfide-linked carboxylated dextran or coupling pSSBAP-oligomer to p-nitrophenyl carbonated dextran. Both two conjugates were able to bind DNA to form nanosized polyplexes with an improved colloidal stability in physiological conditions. The polyplexes, however, were rapidly dissociated to liberate DNA in a reducing environment. In vitro transfection experiments revealed that the polyplexes of Dex-SSBAP30 efficiently transfected SKOV-3 cells, yielding transfection efficiency that is comparable to that of linear polyethylenimine or lipofectamine 2000. AlamarBlue assay showed that the conjugates had low cytotoxicity in vitro at a high concentration of 100 mg/L. Further, Dex-SSBAP30 has primary amine side groups and thus allows for folate (FA) conjugation, yielding FA-coupled Dex-SSBAP30 (Dex-SSBAP30-FA). It was found that Dex-SSBAP30-FA was efficient for targeted gene delivery to SKOV-3 tumor xenografted in a nude mouse model by intravenous injection, inducing a higher level of gene expression in the tumor as compared to Dex-SSBAP30 lacking FA and comparable gene expression to linear polyethylenimine as one of the most efficient polymeric vectors for

  15. Weight-Based Clustering Decision Fusion Algorithm for Distributed Target Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Haiping Huang; Lei Chen; Xiao Cao; Ruchuan Wang; Qianyi Wang

    2013-01-01

    We use a great deal of wireless sensor nodes to detect target signal that is more accurate than the traditional single radar detection method. Each local sensor detects the target signal in the region of interests and collects relevant data, and then it sends the respective data to the data fusion center (DFC) for aggregation processing and judgment making whether the target signal exists or not. However, the current judgment fusion rules such as Counting Rule (CR) and Clustering-Counting Rul...

  16. In Vivo Tumor Vasculature Targeting of CuS@MSN Based Theranostic Nanomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feng; Hong, Hao; Goel, Shreya; Graves, Stephen A.; Orbay, Hakan; Ehlerding, Emily B.; Shi, Sixiang; Theuer, Charles P.; Robert J. Nickles; Cai, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Actively targeted theranostic nanomedicine may be the key for future personalized cancer management. Although numerous types of theranostic nanoparticles have been developed in the past decade for cancer treatment, challenges still exist in the engineering of biocompatible theranostic nanoparticles with highly specific in vivo tumor targeting capabilities. Here, we report the design, synthesis, surface engineering, and in vivo active vasculature targeting of a new category of theranostic nano...

  17. Advances of Targeted Therapy Based on Estrogen Receptor Signaling Pathway 
in Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Liqiang; Liao, Yongde; Hexiao TANG; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Zhaoguo

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that estrogen promotes tumor growth in both estrogen target organs and non-target organs. Estrogen regulates cell proliferation and differentiation via two different receptors, estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ). In recent decades, with the clarification of the ERα-mediated signaling pathways in breast cancer, targeted therapy through these pathways have successfully been used in clinical application. Tamoxifen, the classic representative, is a selective es...

  18. Prediction of Drug-Target Interactions for Drug Repositioning Only Based on Genomic Expression Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Kejian Wang; Jiazhi Sun; Shufeng Zhou; Chunling Wan; Shengying Qin; Can Li; Lin He; Lun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Small drug molecules usually bind to multiple protein targets or even unintended off-targets. Such drug promiscuity has often led to unwanted or unexplained drug reactions, resulting in side effects or drug repositioning opportunities. So it is always an important issue in pharmacology to identify potential drug-target interactions (DTI). However, DTI discovery by experiment remains a challenging task, due to high expense of time and resources. Many computational methods are therefore develop...

  19. A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Leach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient’s health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in the past to develop targeted drug delivery systems for solid cancer treatment. In this study, a new aptamer, A10-3-J1, which recognizes the extracellular domain of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, was designed. A super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer-doxorubicin (SPIO-Apt-Dox was fabricated and employed as a targeted drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This DNA RNA hybridized aptamer antitumor agent was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of targeted cells while minimizing collateral damage to non-targeted cells. This SPIO-Apt-Dox nanoparticle has specificity to PSMA+ prostate cancer cells. Aptamer inhibited nonspecific uptake of membrane-permeable doxorubic to the non-target cells, leading to reduced untargeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake while enhancing targeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake. The experimental results indicate that the drug delivery platform can yield statistically significant effectiveness being more cytotoxic to the targeted cells as opposed to the non-targeted cells.

  20. A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, John C.; Wang, Andrew; Ye, Kaiming; Jin, Sha

    2016-01-01

    The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient’s health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in the past to develop targeted drug delivery systems for solid cancer treatment. In this study, a new aptamer, A10-3-J1, which recognizes the extracellular domain of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), was designed. A super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-aptamer-doxorubicin (SPIO-Apt-Dox) was fabricated and employed as a targeted drug delivery platform for cancer therapy. This DNA RNA hybridized aptamer antitumor agent was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of targeted cells while minimizing collateral damage to non-targeted cells. This SPIO-Apt-Dox nanoparticle has specificity to PSMA+ prostate cancer cells. Aptamer inhibited nonspecific uptake of membrane-permeable doxorubic to the non-target cells, leading to reduced untargeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake while enhancing targeted cytotoxicity and endocytic uptake. The experimental results indicate that the drug delivery platform can yield statistically significant effectiveness being more cytotoxic to the targeted cells as opposed to the non-targeted cells. PMID:26985893

  1. Target-based vs. phenotypic screenings in Leishmania drug discovery: A marriage of convenience or a dialogue of the deaf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Rosa M.; Calvo-Álvarez, Estefanía; Álvarez-Velilla, Raquel; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Drug discovery programs sponsored by public or private initiatives pursue the same ambitious goal: a crushing defeat of major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) during this decade. Both target-based and target-free screenings have pros and cons when it comes to finding potential small-molecule leads among chemical libraries consisting of myriads of compounds. Within the target-based strategy, crystals of pathogen recombinant-proteins are being used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) structures in silico for the discovery of structure-based inhibitors. On the other hand, genetically modified parasites expressing easily detectable reporters are in the pipeline of target-free (phenotypic) screenings. Furthermore, lead compounds can be scaled up to in vivo preclinical trials using rodent models of infection monitoring parasite loads by means of cutting-edge bioimaging devices. As such, those preferred are fluorescent and bioluminescent readouts due to their reproducibility and rapidity, which reduces the number of animals used in the trials and allows for an earlier stage detection of the infective process as compared with classical methods. In this review, we focus on the current differences between target-based and phenotypic screenings in Leishmania, as an approach that leads to the discovery of new potential drugs against leishmaniasis. PMID:25516847

  2. Target-based vs. phenotypic screenings in Leishmania drug discovery: A marriage of convenience or a dialogue of the deaf?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Reguera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery programs sponsored by public or private initiatives pursue the same ambitious goal: a crushing defeat of major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs during this decade. Both target-based and target-free screenings have pros and cons when it comes to finding potential small-molecule leads among chemical libraries consisting of myriads of compounds. Within the target-based strategy, crystals of pathogen recombinant-proteins are being used to obtain three-dimensional (3D structures in silico for the discovery of structure-based inhibitors. On the other hand, genetically modified parasites expressing easily detectable reporters are in the pipeline of target-free (phenotypic screenings. Furthermore, lead compounds can be scaled up to in vivo preclinical trials using rodent models of infection monitoring parasite loads by means of cutting-edge bioimaging devices. As such, those preferred are fluorescent and bioluminescent readouts due to their reproducibility and rapidity, which reduces the number of animals used in the trials and allows for an earlier stage detection of the infective process as compared with classical methods. In this review, we focus on the current differences between target-based and phenotypic screenings in Leishmania, as an approach that leads to the discovery of new potential drugs against leishmaniasis.

  3. Target-based vs. phenotypic screenings in Leishmania drug discovery: A marriage of convenience or a dialogue of the deaf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Rosa M; Calvo-Álvarez, Estefanía; Alvarez-Velilla, Raquel; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Drug discovery programs sponsored by public or private initiatives pursue the same ambitious goal: a crushing defeat of major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) during this decade. Both target-based and target-free screenings have pros and cons when it comes to finding potential small-molecule leads among chemical libraries consisting of myriads of compounds. Within the target-based strategy, crystals of pathogen recombinant-proteins are being used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) structures in silico for the discovery of structure-based inhibitors. On the other hand, genetically modified parasites expressing easily detectable reporters are in the pipeline of target-free (phenotypic) screenings. Furthermore, lead compounds can be scaled up to in vivo preclinical trials using rodent models of infection monitoring parasite loads by means of cutting-edge bioimaging devices. As such, those preferred are fluorescent and bioluminescent readouts due to their reproducibility and rapidity, which reduces the number of animals used in the trials and allows for an earlier stage detection of the infective process as compared with classical methods. In this review, we focus on the current differences between target-based and phenotypic screenings in Leishmania, as an approach that leads to the discovery of new potential drugs against leishmaniasis. PMID:25516847

  4. Involvement of HMGB1 in Resistance to Tumor Vessel-Targeted, Monoclonal Antibody-Based Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolo, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a member of the “danger associated molecular patterns” (DAMPs) than can localize in various compartments of the cell (from the nucleus to the cell surface) and subserve different functions accordingly. HMGB1 is implicated in maintenance of genomic stability, autophagy, immune regulation, and tumor growth. HMGB1-induced autophagy promotes tumor resistance to chemotherapy, as shown in different models of malignancy, for example, osteosarcoma, leukemia, and gastric cancer. To the best of our knowledge, there is virtually no information on the relationships between HMGB1 and resistance to immunotherapy. A recent study from our group has shed new light on this latter issue. We have demonstrated that targeting of tumor-derived endothelial cells with an anti-human CD31 monoclonal antibody in a human neuroblastoma model was unsuccessful due to a complex chain of events involving the participation of HMGB1. These results are discussed in detail since they provide the first evidence for a role of HMGB1 in resistance of tumor cells to monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy. PMID:26925422

  5. Optimal Decision Rules for Biomarker-Based Subgroup Selection for a Targeted Therapy in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Krisam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing interest regarding the evaluation of so-called targeted therapies. These therapies are assumed to show a greater benefit in a pre-specified subgroup of patients—commonly identified by a predictive biomarker—as compared to the total patient population of interest. This situation has led to the necessity to develop biostatistical methods allowing an efficient evaluation of such treatments. Among others, adaptive enrichment designs have been proposed as a solution. These designs allow the selection of the most promising patient population based on an efficacy analysis at interim and restricting recruitment to these patients afterwards. As has recently been shown, the performance of the applied interim decision rule in such a design plays a crucial role in ensuring a successful trial. In this work, we investigate the situation when the primary outcome of the trial is a binary variable. Optimal decision rules are derived which incorporate the uncertainty about the treatment effects. These optimal decision rules are evaluated with respect to their performance in an adaptive enrichment design in terms of correct selection probability and power, and are compared to proposed ad hoc decision rules. Our methods are illustrated by means of a clinical trial example.

  6. PETModule: a motif module based approach for enhancer target gene prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changyong; Li, Xiaoman; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The identification of enhancer-target gene (ETG) pairs is vital for the understanding of gene transcriptional regulation. Experimental approaches such as Hi-C have generated valuable resources of ETG pairs. Several computational methods have also been developed to successfully predict ETG interactions. Despite these progresses, high-throughput experimental approaches are still costly and existing computational approaches are still suboptimal and not easy to apply. Here we developed a motif module based approach called PETModule that predicts ETG pairs. Tested on eight human cell types and two mouse cell types, we showed that a large number of our predictions were supported by Hi-C and/or ChIA-PET experiments. Compared with two recently developed approaches for ETG pair prediction, we shown that PETModule had a much better recall, a similar or better F1 score, and a larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The PETModule tool is freely available at http://hulab.ucf.edu/research/projects/PETModule/. PMID:27436110

  7. Dextran based nanosized carrier for the controlled and targeted delivery of curcumin to liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, Thayyath Sreenivasan; Binusreejayan

    2016-07-01

    Curcumin (Cur), a poly phenolic yellow colored compound present in Indian spice turmeric, has a wide variety of biological properties. Bioavailability of Cur is limited by its low water solubility, rapid metabolism and low stability. In the present study, we mainly focus on synthesis and characterization of dextran based nano-sized drug carrier (GHDx) for the delivery of Cur. A liver targeting moiety is incorporated in GHDx so as to improve the therapeutic efficiency and decrease adverse effects of conventional cancer therapy. The effect of different parameters on grafting variables was studied. GHDx was characterised by FTIR, (1)H NMR XRD, TG/DTG, TEM, SEM, AFM, DLS and zeta potential analyses. Adsorption experiments were carried out for drug loading. Swelling of GHDx was studied as a function of pH and temperature. Three step release of Cur from GHDx was confirmed by analyzing in vitro release data in simulated intracellular pH using different kinetic models. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis on L929 and Hep G2 cells shows that GHDx is safe carrier while Cur loaded GHDx exhibits high toxicity with slow drug release towards hepatic cells. The results show that the GHDx can be customized as a stimuli sensitive potential carrier for the delivery of drugs. PMID:27012895

  8. Pilot evaluation of a web-based intervention targeting sexual health service access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K E; Newby, K; Caley, M; Danahay, A; Kehal, I

    2016-04-01

    Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among 13-19-year olds are reported. A pre-post questionnaire-based design was used. Matched baseline and follow-up data were identified from 148 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome measures were self-reported service access, self-reported intention to access services and beliefs about services and service access identified through needs analysis. Objective service access data provided by local sexual health services were also analyzed. Analysis suggests the intervention had a significant positive effect on psychological barriers to and antecedents of service access among females. Males, who reported greater confidence in service access compared with females, significantly increased service access by time 2 follow-up. Available objective service access data support the assertion that the intervention may have led to increases in service access. There is real promise for this novel digital intervention. Further evaluation is planned as the model is licensed to and rolled out by other local authorities in the United Kingdom. PMID:26928566

  9. A cascading activity-based probe sequentially targets E1-E2-E3 ubiquitin enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique P C; Witting, Katharina; Berlin, Ilana; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Chang, Jer-Gung; Merkx, Remco; Bialas, Johanna; Groettrup, Marcus; Vertegaal, Alfred C O; Schulman, Brenda A; Komander, David; Neefjes, Jacques; El Oualid, Farid; Ovaa, Huib

    2016-07-01

    Post-translational modifications of proteins with ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like modifiers (Ubls), orchestrated by a cascade of specialized E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, control a wide range of cellular processes. To monitor catalysis along these complex reaction pathways, we developed a cascading activity-based probe, UbDha. Similarly to the native Ub, upon ATP-dependent activation by the E1, UbDha can travel downstream to the E2 (and subsequently E3) enzymes through sequential trans-thioesterifications. Unlike the native Ub, at each step along the cascade, UbDha has the option to react irreversibly with active site cysteine residues of target enzymes, thus enabling their detection. We show that our cascading probe 'hops' and 'traps' catalytically active Ub-modifying enzymes (but not their substrates) by a mechanism diversifiable to Ubls. Our founder methodology, amenable to structural studies, proteome-wide profiling and monitoring of enzymatic activity in living cells, presents novel and versatile tools to interrogate Ub and Ubl cascades. PMID:27182664

  10. A New MCMC Sampling Based Segment Model for Radar Target Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hadavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main tools in radar target recognition is high resolution range profile (HRRP‎. ‎However‎, ‎it is very sensitive to the aspect angle‎. ‎One solution to this problem is to assume the consecutive samples of HRRP identically independently distributed (IID in small frames of aspect angles‎, ‎an assumption which is not true in reality‎. ‎However, b‎‎ased on this assumption‎, ‎some models have been developed to characterize the sequential information contained in the multi-aspect radar echoes‎. ‎Therefore‎, ‎they only consider the short dependency between consecutive samples‎. ‎Here‎, ‎we propose an alternative model‎, ‎the segment model‎, ‎to address the shortcomings of these assumptions‎. ‎In addition‎, ‎using a Markov chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC based Gibbs sampler as an iterative approach to estimate the parameters of the segment model‎, ‎we will show that the proposed method is able to estimate the parameters with quite satisfying accuracy and computational load‎.

  11. Entamoeba thiol-based redox metabolism: A potential target for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is an intestinal infection widespread throughout the world caused by the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole has been a drug of choice against amebiasis for decades despite its low efficacy against asymptomatic cyst carriers and emergence of resistance in other protozoa with similar anaerobic metabolism. Therefore, identification and characterization of specific targets is urgently needed to design new therapeutics for improved treatment against amebiasis. Toward this goal, thiol-dependent redox metabolism is of particular interest. The thiol-dependent redox metabolism in E. histolytica consists of proteins including peroxiredoxin, rubrerythrin, Fe-superoxide dismutase, flavodiiron proteins, NADPH: flavin oxidoreductase, and amino acids including l-cysteine, S-methyl-l-cysteine, and thioprolines (thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids). E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione and its metabolism, and l-cysteine is the major intracellular low molecular mass thiol. Moreover, this parasite possesses a functional thioredoxin system consisting of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, which is a ubiquitous oxidoreductase system with antioxidant and redox regulatory roles. In this review, we summarize and highlight the thiol-based redox metabolism and its control mechanisms in E. histolytica, in particular, the features of the system unique to E. histolytica, and its potential use for drug development against amebiasis. PMID:26775086

  12. An integrated structure- and system-based framework to identify new targets of metabolites and known drugs

    KAUST Repository

    Naveed, Hammad

    2015-08-18

    Motivation: The inherent promiscuity of small molecules towards protein targets impedes our understanding of healthy versus diseased metabolism. This promiscuity also poses a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry as identifying all protein targets is important to assess (side) effects and repositioning opportunities for a drug. Results: Here, we present a novel integrated structure- and system-based approach of drug-target prediction (iDTP) to enable the large-scale discovery of new targets for small molecules, such as pharmaceutical drugs, co-factors and metabolites (collectively called ‘drugs’). For a given drug, our method uses sequence order–independent structure alignment, hierarchical clustering, and probabilistic sequence similarity to construct a probabilistic pocket ensemble (PPE) that captures promiscuous structural features of different binding sites on known targets. A drug’s PPE is combined with an approximation of its delivery profile to reduce false positives. In our cross-validation study, we use iDTP to predict the known targets of eleven drugs, with 63% sensitivity and 81% specificity. We then predicted novel targets for these drugs—two that are of high pharmacological interest, the nuclear receptor PPARγ and the oncogene Bcl-2, were successfully validated through in vitro binding experiments. Our method is broadly applicable for the prediction of protein-small molecule interactions with several novel applications to biological research and drug development.

  13. Accelerator-based neutron source using a cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Phillips

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A neutron generator is considered in which a beam of tritons is incident on a hypothetical cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons. The energy efficiency of neutron generation is found to increase substantially with electron density. Recent reports of potential targets are discussed.

  14. A NUFFT Based Step-frequency Chirp Signal High Resolution Imaging Algorithm and Target Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR is the key technique to be breaked through in the fuure development of intelligent weapon system. Compared to the 2-D SAR image target recognition, High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP target recognition has the advantage of low data dimension, low requirement of radar system's calculation and storage ability, and the imaging algorithm is also not complicated. HRRP imaging is the first and the key process in target recognition, its speed and imaging quality can directly influence the real-time capability and accuracy of target recognition. In this paper a new HRRP imaging algorithm — NUFFT algorithm is proposed, the derivation of mathematical expression is given, both for the echo simulation process and the imaging process. In the meantime, by analyzing each step's calculation complexity, we compared the calculation complexity of four different imaging algorithms, we also simulate two target's imaging and target recognition processing. Theoretical analysis and simulation both prove that the proposed algorithm's calculation complexity is improved in various degree compared with the others, thus can be effectively used in target recognition.

  15. Track extraction of moving targets in astronomical images based on the algorithm of NCST-PCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Sun, Huayan; Zhang, Tinghua; Xu, Taohu

    2015-10-01

    Space targets in astronomical images such as spacecraft and space debris are always in the low level of brightness and hold a small amount of pixels, which are difficult to distinguish from fixed stars. Because of the difficulties of space target information extraction, dynamic object monitoring plays an important role in the military, aerospace and other fields, track extraction of moving targets in short-exposure astronomical images holds great significance. Firstly, capture the interesting stars by region growing method in the sequence of short-exposure images and extract the barycenter of interesting star by gray weighted method. Secondly, use adaptive threshold method to remove the error matching points and register the sequence of astronomical images. Thirdly, fuse the registered images by NCST-PCNN image fusion algorithm to hold the energy of stars in the images. Fourthly, get the difference of fused star image and final star image by subtraction of brightness value in the two images, the interesting possible moving targets will be captured by energy accumulation method. Finally, the track of moving target in astronomical images will be extracted by judging the accuracy of moving targets by track association and excluding the false moving targets. The algorithm proposed in the paper can effectively extract the moving target which is added artificially from three images or four images respectively, which verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  16. Unconstrained underwater multi-target tracking in passive sonar systems using two-stage PF-based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Jacques; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2014-03-01

    A robust particle filter (PF)-based multi-target tracking solution for passive sonar systems able to track an unknown time-varying number of multiple targets, while keeping continuous tracks of such targets, is presented in this article. PF is a nonlinear filtering technique that can accommodate arbitrary sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF is employed and is called Mixture PF. The commonly used sampling/importance resampling PF samples from the prior importance density, while Mixture PF samples from both the prior and the observation likelihood. In order to be able to track an unknown time-varying number of multiple targets, two Mixture PFs are used, one for target detection and the other for tracking multiple targets, and a density-based clustering technique is used after the first filter. This article demonstrates the applicability of the proposed technique for the passive problem, which suffers from the lack of measurements and the small detection range of the buoys, especially for weak signals. A contact-level simulation was used to generate different scenarios and the performance of the proposed technique called Clustered-Mixture PF was examined with either bearing measurement only or bearing and Doppler measurements, and it demonstrated its high performance.

  17. Exonuclease III-based target recycling for ultrasensitive homogeneous monitoring of HIV DNA using Ag(+)-coordinated hairpin probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ai-Li; Deng, Kun; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2015-12-15

    A new homogeneous electrochemical sensing strategy based on exonuclease III-assisted target recycling amplification was utilized for simple, rapid and highly sensitive detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA on an immobilization-free Ag(I)-assisted hairpin DNA through the cytosine-Ag(+)-cytosine coordination chemistry. The assay involved target-induced strand-displacement reaction accompanying dissociation of the chelated Ag(+) in the hairpins and exonuclease III-triggered target recycling. Initially, the added target DNA hybridized with hairpin DNA to disrupt the Ag(I)-coordinated hairpin probe and releases the coordinated Ag(+) ion. Then, the newly formed DNA double-stranded DNA could be cleaved by exonuclease III, and released target HIV DNA, which retriggered the strand-displacement reaction with the hairpin for target recycling, thereby resulting in formation of numerous free Ag(+) ions in the detection cell. The released Ag(+) ions can be readily captured by the negatively charged electrode, and subsequent anodic-stripping voltammetric detection of the captured Ag(+) ions are conducted to form the anodic current for the production of the electronic signal within the applied potential. Under optimal conditions, the exonuclease III-based sensing system exhibited good electrochemical responses for the detection of HIV DNA at a concentration as low as 23 fM. PMID:26120811

  18. Economic assessment of FEC-based targeted selective drenching in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, Guillaume; Cortet, Jacques; Koch, Christine; Reigner, Fabrice; Cabaret, Jacques

    2015-11-30

    In the face of an increased prevalence of drug-resistant cyathostomin populations, a targeted selective treatment (TST) strategy based on Faecal Egg Counts (FECs) has been proposed as an alternative management strategy. However, associated costs may be a barrier to the uptake of this strategy. Our study aims to provide an economic assessment of FEC-based TST. FECs were determined in a Welsh pony herd thrice a year from 2010 to 2014. This database was used to explore the impact of FEC price, sampling strategy (individual or pooled) and labour-associated costs. Drug price was set at the cheapest level, hence providing a conservative framework to determine the maximum viable FEC price in the context of a cost-driven horse industry. The maximum viable FEC price for a cost-efficient individual based strategy was determined by an in silico bootstrap approach consisting of randomly sampling 1000 virtual pony herds of various sizes (1 to 100 ponies) from the available database and estimating the associated costs (FEC price ranging from € 1 to € 10, anthelmintic costs and labour-associated costs). The costs and benefits of the pooling strategy that consists of basing the decision to treat on group FEC values were also investigated. This is thought to reduce FEC-based costs but may result in highly infected individuals being left undrenched, i.e. in false-negatives, as a result of FEC overdispersion. For various pool-sizes (1-20 ponies) and various cut-off thresholds (50-200 eggs/g), we sampled 1000 pony herds in silico to estimate the associated costs and determine the number of positive ponies within a negative pool. Following these simulations, pool-based FECs of various sizes were performed on 40 ponies to compare predictions with real data. Within 4 years, anthelmintic costs were cut by 80%, albeit with free FECs. In silico estimations suggested that an individual FEC-based TST would not be cost-efficient in this context for an FEC price above € 5. With a pooled

  19. In Vivo Tumor Vasculature Targeting of CuS@MSN Based Theranostic Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Hong, Hao; Goel, Shreya; Graves, Stephen A; Orbay, Hakan; Ehlerding, Emily B; Shi, Sixiang; Theuer, Charles P; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Actively targeted theranostic nanomedicine may be the key for future personalized cancer management. Although numerous types of theranostic nanoparticles have been developed in the past decade for cancer treatment, challenges still exist in the engineering of biocompatible theranostic nanoparticles with highly specific in vivo tumor targeting capabilities. Here, we report the design, synthesis, surface engineering, and in vivo active vasculature targeting of a new category of theranostic nanoparticle for future cancer management. Water-soluble photothermally sensitive copper sulfide nanoparticles were encapsulated in biocompatible mesoporous silica shells, followed by multistep surface engineering to form the final theranostic nanoparticles. Systematic in vitro targeting, an in vivo long-term toxicity study, photothermal ablation evaluation, in vivo vasculature targeted imaging, biodistribution and histology studies were performed to fully explore the potential of as-developed new theranostic nanoparticles. PMID:25843647

  20. Study of target tracking techniques based on non-scanning imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sui; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuhao; Shan, Bin; Li, Xiaoyang; Peng, Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Non-scanning imaging lidar, as a sensor, is applied in target tracking system to acquire distance image, intensity image and amplitude image, which makes it possible to achieve information fusion of the target. This system applies ARM as a hardware development platform which makes it easy to carry and achieve the system miniaturization. Target characteristics are extracted by the method combines codebook model and connected domain denoising to improve the accuracy of target characteristics extraction. Qt/Embedded development platform applied in building graphical user interface has a good architecture and programming mode which improves man-machine interaction and control efficiency. The results show the high accuracy of the target tracking, excellent man-machine interaction and perfect interface functions of the designed system.

  1. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Goodwin, Peter M; Keller, Richard A.; Nolan, Rhiannon L.

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  2. Theoretical Design and First Test in Laboratory of a Composite Visual Servo-Based Target Spray Robotic System

    OpenAIRE

    Dongjie Zhao; Ying Zhao; Xuelei Wang; Bin Zhang,

    2016-01-01

    In order to spray onto the canopy of interval planting crop, an approach of using a target spray robot with a composite vision servo system based on monocular scene vision and monocular eye-in-hand vision was proposed. Scene camera was used to roughly locate target crop, and then the image-processing methods for background segmentation, crop canopy centroid extraction, and 3D positioning were studied. Eye-in-hand camera was used to precisely determine spray position of each crop. Based on the...

  3. Design and operation strategies of the system for destroying time-sensitive target based on system effectiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the effect of destroying time-sensitive target (TST), a method of operational effectiveness evaluation is presented and some influential factors are analyzed based on the combat flow of system for destroying TST. Considering the possible operation modes of the system, a waved operation mode and a continuous operation mode are put forward at first. At the same time, some relative formulas are modified. In examples, the influential factors and operation modes are analyzed based on the system effectiveness. From simulation results, some design and operation strategies of the system for destroying time sensitive targets are concluded, which benefit to the improvement of the system effectiveness.

  4. HuMiTar: A sequence-based method for prediction of human microRNA targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRs are small noncoding RNAs that bind to complementary/partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes to regulate protein production of the target transcript and to induce mRNA degradation or mRNA cleavage. The ability to perform accurate, high-throughput identification of physiologically active miR targets would enable functional characterization of individual miRs. Current target prediction methods include traditional approaches that are based on specific base-pairing rules in the miR's seed region and implementation of cross-species conservation of the target site, and machine learning (ML methods that explore patterns that contrast true and false miR-mRNA duplexes. However, in the case of the traditional methods research shows that some seed region matches that are conserved are false positives and that some of the experimentally validated target sites are not conserved. Results We present HuMiTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of miRs, which is based on a scoring function that considers base-pairing for both seed and non-seed positions for human miR-mRNA duplexes. Our design shows that certain non-seed miR nucleotides, such as 14, 18, 13, 11, and 17, are characterized by a strong bias towards formation of Watson-Crick pairing. We contrasted HuMiTar with several representative competing methods on two sets of human miR targets and a set of ten glioblastoma oncogenes. Comparison with the two best performing traditional methods, PicTar and TargetScanS, and a representative ML method that considers the non-seed positions, NBmiRTar, shows that HuMiTar predictions include majority of the predictions of the other three methods. At the same time, the proposed method is also capable of finding more true positive targets as a trade-off for an increased number of predictions. Genome-wide predictions show that the proposed method is characterized by 1.99 signal

  5. Targeting miRNA-based medicines to cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells using nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKiernan PJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul J McKiernan,2 Orla Cunninghamm,1,2 Catherine M Greenem,2 Sally-Ann Cryan1,31School of Pharmacy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 2Respiratory Research Division, Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital, 3Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandAbstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disorder characterized by chronic airway inflammation. microRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs which act on messenger (mRNA at a post transcriptional level, and there is a growing understanding that altered expression of miRNA is involved in the CF phenotype. Modulation of miRNA by replacement using miRNA mimics (premiRs presents a new therapeutic paradigm for CF, but effective and safe methods of delivery to the CF epithelium are limiting clinical translation. Herein, polymeric nanoparticles are investigated for delivery of miRNA mimics into CF airway epithelial cells, using miR-126 as a proof-of-concept premiR cargo to determine efficiency. Two polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI and chitosan, were used to prepare miRNA nanomedicines, characterized for their size, surface (zeta potential, and RNA complexation efficiency, and screened for delivery and cytotoxicity in CFBE41o- (human F508del cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator bronchial epithelial cells using a novel high content analysis method. RNA extraction was carried out 24 hours post transfection, and miR-126 and TOM1 (target of Myb1 expression (a validated miR-126 target was assessed. Manufacture was optimized to produce small nanoparticles that effectively complexed miRNA. Using high content analysis, PEI-based nanoparticles were more effective than chitosan-based nanoparticles in facilitating uptake of miRNA into CFBE41o- cells and this was confirmed in miR-126 assays. PEI-premiR-126 nanoparticles at low nitrogen/phosphate (N/P ratios resulted in significant knockdown of

  6. Targeted drug delivery nanosystems based on copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Doan Do, Hai; Thong Phan, Quoc; Nguyet Tran Thi, Minh; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Nhung Hoang Thi, My; Huong Le, Mai; Nguyen, Linh Toan; Quang Bui, Thuc; Hieu Phan, Van

    2016-03-01

    Along with the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery nanosystems (DDNSs) have attracted a great deal of concern among scientists over the world, especially in cancer treatment. DDNSs not only improve water solubility of anticancer drugs but also increase therapeutic efficacy and minimize the side effects of treatment methods through targeting mechanisms including passive and active targeting. Passive targeting is based on the nano-size of drug delivery systems while active targeting is based on the specific bindings between targeting ligands attached on the drug delivery systems and the unique receptors on the cancer cell surface. In this article we present some of our results in the synthesis and testing of DDNSs prepared from copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA-TPGS), which carry anticancer drugs including curcumin, paclitaxel and doxorubicin. In order to increase the targeting effect to cancer cells, active targeting ligand folate was attached to the DDNSs. The results showed copolymer PLA-TPGS to be an excellent carrier for loading hydrophobic drugs (curcumin and paclitaxel). The fabricated DDNSs had a very small size (50-100 nm) and enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of drugs. Most notably, folate-decorated paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles (Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs) were tested on tumor-bearing nude mice. During the treatment time, Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs always exhibited the best tumor growth inhibition compared to free paclitaxel and paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles. All results evidenced the promising potential of copolymer PLA-TPGS in fabricating targeted DDNSs for cancer treatment.

  7. Development of beryllium-based neutron target system with three-layer structure for accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugano, Tomei; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The iBNCT project team with University of Tsukuba is developing an accelerator-based neutron source. Regarding neutron target material, our project has applied beryllium. To deal with large heat load and blistering of the target system, we developed a three-layer structure for the target system that includes a blistering mitigation material between the beryllium used as the neutron generator and the copper heat sink. The three materials were bonded through diffusion bonding using a hot isostatic pressing method. Based on several verifications, our project chose palladium as the intermediate layer. A prototype of the neutron target system was produced. We will verify that sufficient neutrons for BNCT treatment are generated by the device in the near future. PMID:26260448

  8. Establishment of Smad2 conditional gene targeting mice based on the Cre-LoxP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Jiang(周江); CHENG; Xuan(程萱); SUN; Yanxun(孙彦洵); HUANG; Peitang(黄培堂); HUANG; Cuifen(黄翠芬); YANG; Xiao(杨晓)

    2002-01-01

    Smads is a new gene family in transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) signaling pathway. Smad2 mutated in multiple human tumors and may be a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Targeted disruption of murine Smad2 gene resulted in embryonic lethality at E6.5. To study the function of Smad2 in vertebrate organgenesis and tumorigenesis, we constructed the Smad2 conditional targeting vector in which two LoxP sequences were placed to flank the sequences encoding the C terminal functional domain of Smad2. The validity of the LoxP sites in the targeting construct was tested in E. coli that express the Cre recombinase constitutively. The vector was electroporated into ES cells and 3 targeted ES cell clones were obtained by Southern blot screening. Targeted ES cells were introduced into C57BL/6J blastocysts by microinjection to generate germ-line chimeras. Genotyping analysis showed that 2 progeny among these chimeras carried the Smad2 conditional targeted allele. The establishment of Smad2 conditional gene targeting mouse has laid a solid foundation for producing the tissue specific Smad2 gene knockout mice.

  9. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Donat, Markus G.; Pitman, Andy J.; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. We illustrate this approach using regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in regional extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean.

  10. TRPV1 channel as a target for cancer therapy using CNT-based drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Guerrero, Andres; Espinosa-Duran, John M; Velasco-Medina, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being considered for the design of drug delivery systems (DDSs) due to their capacity to internalize molecules and control their release. However, for cellular uptake of drugs, this approach requires an active translocation pathway or a channel to transport the drug into the cell. To address this issue, it is suggested to use TRPV1 ion channels as a potential target for drug release by nano-DDSs since these channels are overexpressed in cancer cells and allow the permeation of large cationic molecules. Considering these facts, this work presents three studies using molecular dynamics simulations of a human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) channel built here. The purpose of these simulations is to study the interaction between a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and hTRPV1, and the diffusion of doxorubicin (DOX) across hTRPV1 and across a POPC lipid membrane. The first study shows an attractive potential between the SWCNT surface and hTRPV1, tilting the adsorbed SWCNT. The second study shows low diffusion probability of DOX across the open hTRPV1 due to a high free energy barrier. Although, the potential energy between DOX and hTRPV1 reveals an attractive interaction while DOX is inside hTRPV1. These results suggest that if the channel is dilated, then DOX diffusion could occur. The third study shows a lower free energy barrier for DOX across the lipid membrane than for DOX across hTRPV1. Taking into account the results obtained, it is feasible to design novel nano-DDSs based on SWCNTs to accomplish controlled drug release into cells using as translocation pathway, the hTRPV1 ion channel. PMID:26872481

  11. Improved Plant-based Production of E1 endoglucanase Using Potato: Expression Optimization and Tissue Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hooker, Brian S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Daniel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomas, Steven R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Optimization of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) gene expression in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was examined in this study, where the E1 coding sequence was transcribed under control of a leaf specific promoter (tomato RbcS-3C) or the Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of mannopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region). Average E1 activity in leaf extracts of potato transformants, in which E1 protein was targeted by a chloroplast signal peptide and an apoplast signal peptide were much higher than those by an E1 native signal peptide and a vacuole signal peptide. E1 protein accumulated up to 2.6% of total leaf soluble protein, where E1 gene was under control of the RbcS-3C promoter, alfalfa mosaic virus 5-untranslated leader, and RbcS-2A signal peptide. E1 protein production, based on average E1 activity and E1 protein accumulation in leaf extracts, is higher in potato than those measured previously in transgenic tobacco bearing the same transgene constructs. Comparisons of E1 activity, protein accumulation, and relative mRNA levels showed that E1 expression under control of tomato RbcS-3C promoter was specifically localized in leaf tissues, while E1 gene was expressed in both leaf and tuber tissues under control of Mac promoter. This suggests dual-crop applications in which potato vines serve as enzyme production `bioreactors' while tubers are preserved for culinary applications.

  12. An Integral Model for Target Tracking Based on the Use of a WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Manzoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN in tracking applications is growing at a fast pace. In these applications, the sensor nodes discover, monitor and track an event or target object. A significant number of proposals relating the use of WSNs for target tracking have been published to date. However, they either focus on the tracking algorithm or on the communication protocol, and none of them address the problem integrally. In this paper, a comprehensive proposal for target detection and tracking is discussed. We introduce a tracking algorithm to detect and estimate a target location. Moreover, we introduce a low-overhead routing protocol to be used along with our tracking algorithm. The proposed algorithm has low computational complexity and has been designed considering the use of a mobile sink while generating minimal delay and packet loss. We also discuss the results of the evaluation of the proposed algorithms.

  13. Reliable and Energy Efficient Distributed Clustering based Target Tracking Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jehan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In WSN most of the target detection and tracking algorithms require the sensors to work in groups in order to advance the consistency of target tracking algorithms. This makes it necessary for deploying sensors to discover and group together so that their coverage can be maximized. In this study we have proposed a distributed clustering algorithm for effectively detecting the Target location. The proposed clustering algorithm is distributed in nature and has the ability to reconfigure in the event of node failure. The algorithm is highly localized and hence does not need flooding across the entire network. Since the algorithm allows for more clusters to track the same region the system reliability is greatly improved. The algorithm builds a series of over-lapping clusters which allow for more than one cluster to track a region. This redundancy improves the overall system reliability. The overlapping clusters also allow for tracking of curvilinear targets.

  14. A QFD-Based Mathematical Model for New Product Development Considering the Target Market Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Hsuan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Responding to customer needs is important for business success. Quality function deployment provides systematic procedures for converting customer needs into technical requirements to ensure maximum customer satisfaction. The existing literature mainly focuses on the achievement of maximum customer satisfaction under a budgetary limit via mathematical models. The market goal of the new product for the target market segment is usually ignored. In this study, the proposed approach thus considers the target customer satisfaction degree for the target market segment in the model by formulating the overall customer satisfaction as a function of the quality level. In addition, the proposed approach emphasizes the cost-effectiveness concept in the design stage via the achievement of the target customer satisfaction degree using the minimal total cost. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach and its characteristics are discussed.

  15. Sparsity-based moving target localization using multiple dual-frequency radars under phase errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadry, Khodour; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we consider moving target localization in urban environments using a multiplicity of dual-frequency radars. Dual-frequency radars offer the benefit of reduced complexity and fast computation time, thereby permitting real-time indoor target localization and tracking. The multiple radar units are deployed in a distributed system configuration, which provides robustness against target obscuration. We develop the dual-frequency signal model for the distributed radar system under phase errors and employ a joint sparse scene reconstruction and phase error correction technique to provide accurate target location and velocity estimates. Simulation results are provided that validate the performance of the proposed scheme under both full and reduced data volumes.

  16. Experimentally based simulations on modulated lidar for shallow underwater target detection and localization

    OpenAIRE

    Jézéquel, Vincent; Audo, Frédéric; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Jeune, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    14 pages International audience Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is currently used for bathymetric measurement or underwater target detection. A new underwater-target detection scheme named modulated lidar was recently proposed. The study reported here deals with optimization of the modulation process to be applied under such detection conditions. A theoretical model was extracted from available experimental results by deconvolution and further used to simulate realistic backscattere...

  17. Estimating Target Heights Based on the Earth Curvature Model and Micromultipath Effect in Skywave OTH Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Chengyu; Wang Yuxin; Chen Jiawei

    2014-01-01

    Skywave over-the-horizon (OTH) radar systems have important long-range strategic warning values. They exploit skywave propagation reflection of high frequency signals from the ionosphere, which provides the ultra-long-range surveillance capabilities to detect and track maneuvering targets. Current OTH radar systems are capable of localizing targets in range and azimuth but are unable to achieve reliable instantaneous altitude estimation. Most existing height measurement methods of skywave OTH...

  18. POMDP-based online target detection and recognition for autonomous UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Ponzoni Carvalho Chanel, Caroline; Teichteil-Königsbuch, Florent; Lesire, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a target detection and recognition mission by an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicule (UAV), modeled as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP). The POMDP model deals in a single framework with both perception actions (controlling the camera's view angle), and mission actions (moving between zones and flight levels, landing) needed to achieve the goal of the mission, i.e. landing in a zone containing a car whose model is recognized as a desired target model w...

  19. Improved Poly (D,L-lactide) nanoparticles-based formulation for hair follicle targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Bruno Pacheco; Silva, R.; Ribeiro, Artur J.; Matamá, Maria Teresa; Gomes, A. C.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hair follicles are widely recognized as the preferential target and site of accumulation for nanoparticles after topical application. This feature is of particular importance for hair cosmetics, having the potential to refine the treatment of several hair follicle-related disorders. The aim of this work was to improve the preparation of Poly (D,L-lactide) (PLA) nanoparticles for in vivo follicular target and drug delivery. Methods Envisaging a future industrial scale-up of ...

  20. Quantum dot-based multiphoton fluorescent pipettes for targeted neuronal electrophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Andrásfalvy, Bertalan K.; Galiñanes, Gregorio L.; Huber, Daniel; Barbic, Mladen; Macklin, John J.; Susumu, Kimihiro; Delehanty, James B.; Huston, Alan L.; Makara, Judit K.; Medintz, Igor L.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting visually-identified neurons for electrophysiological recording is a fundamental neuroscience technique; however, its potential is hampered by poor visualization of pipette tips in deep brain tissue. We describe a technique whereby quantum dots coat glass pipettes providing strong two-photon contrast at deeper penetration depths than current methods. We demonstrate utility in targeted patch-clamp recording experiments and single cell electroporation from identified rat and mouse neur...

  1. Quantum dot-based multiphoton fluorescent pipettes for targeted neuronal electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrásfalvy, Bertalan K; Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Huber, Daniel; Barbic, Mladen; Macklin, John J; Susumu, Kimihiro; Delehanty, James B; Huston, Alan L; Makara, Judit K; Medintz, Igor L

    2014-12-01

    Targeting visually identified neurons for electrophysiological recording is a fundamental neuroscience technique; however, its potential is hampered by poor visualization of pipette tips in deep brain tissue. We describe quantum dot-coated glass pipettes that provide strong two-photon contrast at deeper penetration depths than those achievable with current methods. We demonstrated the pipettes' utility in targeted patch-clamp recording experiments and single-cell electroporation of identified rat and mouse neurons in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25326662

  2. Bidirectional Role of Accuracy and Recognition in Internet-Based Targeted Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Zhao; Shu-e Mei; Wei-jun Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The effective media strategy in advertising is gradually becoming the premise of company that lives in the competition of marketing. Due to the rapid growth of new advertising media and technologies, it is possible for a firm to precisely target advertising to the potential consumer segment within a market. This research explores the extent to which an advertiser should regulate the quality of its targeting and effect on consumers' surplus and social welfare. The authors present a theoretic m...

  3. Passive target tracking with intermittent measurement based on random finite set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小波; 范红旗; 宋志勇; 付强

    2014-01-01

    In the tracking problem for the maritime radiation source by a passive sensor, there are three main difficulties, i.e., the poor observability of the radiation source, the detection uncertainty (false and missed detections) and the uncertainty of the target appearing/disappearing in the field of view. These difficulties can make the establishment or maintenance of the radiation source target track invalid. By incorporating the elevation information of the passive sensor into the automatic bearings-only tracking (BOT) and consolidating these uncertainties under the framework of random finite set (RFS), a novel approach for tracking maritime radiation source target with intermittent measurement was proposed. Under the RFS framework, the target state was represented as a set that can take on either an empty set or a singleton; meanwhile, the measurement uncertainty was modeled as a Bernoulli random finite set. Moreover, the elevation information of the sensor platform was introduced to ensure observability of passive measurements and obtain the unique target localization. Simulation experiments verify the validity of the proposed approach for tracking maritime radiation source and demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach in comparison with the traditional integrated probabilistic data association (IPDA) method. The tracking performance under different conditions, particularly involving different existence probabilities and different appearance durations of the target, indicates that the method to solve our problem is robust and effective.

  4. A Randomized Trial Adapting Contingency Management Targets Based on Initial Abstinence Status of Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Barry, Danielle; Alessi, Sheila M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) reduces drug use, but questions remain regarding optimal targets and magnitudes of reinforcement. We evaluated the efficacy of CM reinforcing attendance in patients who initiated treatment with cocaine-negative samples, and of higher magnitude abstinence-based CM in patients who began treatment positive.…

  5. Sensitive targeted multiple protein quantification based on elemental detection of Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel generic platform for multiparametric quantification of proteins. • QDs labeling and ICP-MS detection allow significant analytical signal amplification. • ICP-MS mass balances information provided an internal validation of the immunoassay. • Multiparametric determination of 5 proteins in human serum samples. • ICP-MS reduced matrix effects as compared to other conventional detection techniques. - Abstract: A generic strategy based on the use of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) as elemental labels for protein quantification, using immunoassays with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), detection is presented. In this strategy, streptavidin modified QDs (QDs-SA) are bioconjugated to a biotinylated secondary antibody (b-Ab2). After a multi-technique characterization of the synthesized generic platform (QDs-SA-b-Ab2) it was applied to the sequential quantification of five proteins (transferrin, complement C3, apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin and apolipoprotein A4) at different concentration levels in human serum samples. It is shown how this generic strategy does only require the appropriate unlabeled primary antibody for each protein to be detected. Therefore, it introduces a way out to the need for the cumbersome and specific bioconjugation of the QDs to the corresponding specific recognition antibody for every target analyte (protein). Results obtained were validated with those obtained using UV–vis spectrophotometry and commercial ELISA Kits. As expected, ICP-MS offered one order of magnitude lower DL (0.23 fmol absolute for transferrin) than the classical spectrophotometric detection (3.2 fmol absolute). ICP-MS precision and detection limits, however turned out to be compromised by procedural blanks. The full analytical performance of the ICP-MS-based immunoassay proposed was assessed for detection of transferrin (Tf), present at the low ng mL−1 range in a complex “model” synthetic matrix, where the total protein concentration was

  6. Sensitive targeted multiple protein quantification based on elemental detection of Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R.; Garcia-Cortes, Marta [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); González-Iglesias, Hector [Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernandez-Vega, Avenida Doctores Fernández-Vega, 34, Oviedo 33012 (Spain); Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Costa-Fernández, José M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Coca-Prados, Miguel [Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernandez-Vega, Avenida Doctores Fernández-Vega, 34, Oviedo 33012 (Spain); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Sanz-Medel, Alfredo, E-mail: asm@uniovi.es [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julián Clavería 8, Oviedo 33006 (Spain)

    2015-06-16

    Highlights: • Novel generic platform for multiparametric quantification of proteins. • QDs labeling and ICP-MS detection allow significant analytical signal amplification. • ICP-MS mass balances information provided an internal validation of the immunoassay. • Multiparametric determination of 5 proteins in human serum samples. • ICP-MS reduced matrix effects as compared to other conventional detection techniques. - Abstract: A generic strategy based on the use of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs) as elemental labels for protein quantification, using immunoassays with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), detection is presented. In this strategy, streptavidin modified QDs (QDs-SA) are bioconjugated to a biotinylated secondary antibody (b-Ab{sub 2}). After a multi-technique characterization of the synthesized generic platform (QDs-SA-b-Ab{sub 2}) it was applied to the sequential quantification of five proteins (transferrin, complement C3, apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin and apolipoprotein A4) at different concentration levels in human serum samples. It is shown how this generic strategy does only require the appropriate unlabeled primary antibody for each protein to be detected. Therefore, it introduces a way out to the need for the cumbersome and specific bioconjugation of the QDs to the corresponding specific recognition antibody for every target analyte (protein). Results obtained were validated with those obtained using UV–vis spectrophotometry and commercial ELISA Kits. As expected, ICP-MS offered one order of magnitude lower DL (0.23 fmol absolute for transferrin) than the classical spectrophotometric detection (3.2 fmol absolute). ICP-MS precision and detection limits, however turned out to be compromised by procedural blanks. The full analytical performance of the ICP-MS-based immunoassay proposed was assessed for detection of transferrin (Tf), present at the low ng mL{sup −1} range in a complex “model” synthetic matrix, where the total protein

  7. Identification of colorectal cancer-restricted microRNAs and their target genes based on high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Huang, Liya; Cao, Qing; Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    To identify potential key microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes for colorectal cancer (CRC). High-throughput sequencing data of miRNA expression and gene expression (ID: GSE46622) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including matched colon tumor, normal colon epithelium, and liver metastasis tissues from eight CRC patients. Paired t-test and NOISeq separately were utilized to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) and genes. Then, target genes with differential expression and opposite expression trends were identified for DE-miRNAs. Combined with tumor suppressor gene, tumor-associated gene, and TRANSFAC databases, CRC-restricted miRNAs were screened out based on miRNA-target pairs. Compared with normal tissues, there were 56 up- and 37 downregulated miRNAs in metastasis tissues, as well as eight up- and 30 downregulated miRNAs in tumor tissues. miRNA-1 was downregulated in tumor and metastasis tissues, while its target oncogenes TWIST1 and GATA4 were upregulated. Besides, miRNA-let-7f-1-3p was downregulated in tumor tissues, which also targeted TWIST1. In addition, miRNA-133b and miRNA-4458 were downregulated in tumor tissues, while their common target gene DUSP9 was upregulated. Conversely, miRNA-450-b-3p was upregulated in metastasis tissues, while its target tumor suppressor gene CEACAM7 showed downregulation. The identified CRC-restricted miRNAs might be implicated in cancer progression via their target genes, suggesting their potential usage in CRC treatment. PMID:27069368

  8. Identification of colorectal cancer-restricted microRNAs and their target genes based on high-throughput sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing Chang, Liya Huang, Qing Cao, Fang Liu Department of Gerontology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To identify potential key microRNAs (miRNAs and their target genes for colorectal cancer (CRC. High-throughput sequencing data of miRNA expression and gene expression (ID: GSE46622 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including matched colon tumor, normal colon epithelium, and liver metastasis tissues from eight CRC patients. Paired t-test and NOISeq separately were utilized to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs and genes. Then, target genes with differential expression and opposite expression trends were identified for DE-miRNAs. Combined with tumor suppressor gene, tumor-associated gene, and TRANSFAC databases, CRC-restricted miRNAs were screened out based on miRNA-target pairs. Compared with normal tissues, there were 56 up- and 37 downregulated miRNAs in metastasis tissues, as well as eight up- and 30 downregulated miRNAs in tumor tissues. miRNA-1 was downregulated in tumor and metastasis tissues, while its target oncogenes TWIST1 and GATA4 were upregulated. Besides, miRNA-let-7f-1-3p was downregulated in tumor tissues, which also targeted TWIST1. In addition, miRNA-133b and miRNA-4458 were downregulated in tumor tissues, while their common target gene DUSP9 was upregulated. Conversely, miRNA-450b-3p was upregulated in metastasis tissues, while its target tumor suppressor gene CEACAM7 showed downregulation. The identified CRC-restricted miRNAs might be implicated in cancer progression via their target genes, suggesting their potential usage in CRC treatment. Keywords: colorectal cancer, differentially expressed microRNAs, differentially expressed genes, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes

  9. Conceptual design study of an accelerator-based actinide transmutation plant with sodium-cooled solid target/core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development works on accelerator-based nuclear waste transmutation are carried out at JAERI under the national program OMEGA. The preliminary design of the proposed minor actinide transmutation plant with a solid target/core is described. The plant consists of a high intensity proton accelerator, spallation target of solid tungsten, and subcritical core loaded with actinide alloy fuel. Minor actinides are transmuted by fast fission reactions. The target and core are cooled by the forced flow of liquid sodium coolant. Thermal energy is recovered to supply electricity to power its own accelerator. The core with an effective multiplication factor of about 0.9 generates. The thermal power of 820 MW by using a 1.5 GeV proton beam with a current of 39 mA. The average burnup is about 8%, about 250 kg of actinides, after one year operation at an 80% of load factor. With the conventional steam turbine cycle, electric output of about 246 MW is produced. The design of the transmutation plant with sodium-cooled solid target/core is mostly based on the well-established technology of current LMFRs. Advantages and disadvantages of solid target/core are discussed. Recent progress in the development of intense proton accelerator, the development of simulation code system, and the spallation integral experiment is also presented. (author)

  10. Kernel density estimation and marginalized-particle based probability hypothesis density filter for multi-target tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路平; 王鲁平; 李飚; 赵明

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of the probability hypothesis density (PHD) algorithm based particle filter (PF) in terms of number estimation and states extraction of multiple targets, a new probability hypothesis density filter algorithm based on marginalized particle and kernel density estimation is proposed, which utilizes the idea of marginalized particle filter to enhance the estimating performance of the PHD. The state variables are decomposed into linear and non-linear parts. The particle filter is adopted to predict and estimate the nonlinear states of multi-target after dimensionality reduction, while the Kalman filter is applied to estimate the linear parts under linear Gaussian condition. Embedding the information of the linear states into the estimated nonlinear states helps to reduce the estimating variance and improve the accuracy of target number estimation. The meanshift kernel density estimation, being of the inherent nature of searching peak value via an adaptive gradient ascent iteration, is introduced to cluster particles and extract target states, which is independent of the target number and can converge to the local peak position of the PHD distribution while avoiding the errors due to the inaccuracy in modeling and parameters estimation. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can obtain higher tracking accuracy when using fewer sampling particles and is of lower computational complexity compared with the PF-PHD.

  11. The Effects of Attention Pre-Allocation and Target-Background Integration on Object-Based Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Fengpei; Jiao, Changyong; Zhao, Songpo; Dong, Huahua; Liu, Xiao; Yi, Yuji; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Object-based attention has been documented as an important mechanism with which to control attention in several studies. To date, two main hypotheses have been proposed to interpret object-based attention: attention spreading and prioritization of search. There is evidence that supports these hypotheses in the literature. In the present study, we sought to compare these two hypotheses systematically by manipulating two factors: the integration of the target and background and the presence of ...

  12. Discriminating between camouflaged targets by their time of detection by a human-based observer assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selj, G. K.; Søderblom, M.

    2015-10-01

    Detection of a camouflaged object in natural sceneries requires the target to be distinguishable from its local background. The development of any new camouflage pattern therefore has to rely on a well-founded test methodology - which has to be correlated with the final purpose of the pattern - as well as an evaluation procedure, containing the optimal criteria for i) discriminating between the targets and then eventually ii) for a final rank of the targets. In this study we present results from a recent camouflage assessment trial where human observers were used in a search by photo methodology to assess generic test camouflage patterns. We conducted a study to investigate possible improvements in camouflage patterns for battle dress uniforms. The aim was to do a comparative study of potential, and generic patterns intended for use in arid areas (sparsely vegetated, semi desert). We developed a test methodology that was intended to be simple, reliable and realistic with respect to the operational benefit of camouflage. Therefore we chose to conduct a human based observer trial founded on imagery of realistic targets in natural backgrounds. Inspired by a recent and similar trial in the UK, we developed new and purpose-based software to be able to conduct the observer trial. Our preferred assessment methodology - the observer trial - was based on target recordings in 12 different, but operational relevant scenes, collected in a dry and sparsely vegetated area (Rhodes). The scenes were chosen with the intention to span as broadly as possible. The targets were human-shaped mannequins and were situated identically in each of the scenes to allow for a relative comparison of camouflage effectiveness in each scene. Test of significance, among the targets' performance, was carried out by non-parametric tests as the corresponding time of detection distributions in overall were found to be difficult to parameterize. From the trial, containing 12 different scenes from

  13. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection.

  14. Investigating a multi-purpose target for electron linac based photoneutron sources for BNCT of deep-seated tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoudi, S. Farhad, E-mail: masoudi@kntu.ac.ir; Rasouli, Fatemeh S.

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies in BNCT have focused on investigating appropriate neutron sources as alternatives for nuclear reactors. As the most prominent facilities, the electron linac based photoneutron sources benefit from two consecutive reactions, (e, γ) and (γ, n). The photoneutron sources designed so far are composed of bipartite targets which involve practical problems and are far from the objective of achieving an optimized neutron source. This simulation study deals with designing a compact, optimized, and geometrically simple target for a photoneutron source based on an electron linac. Based on a set of MCNPX simulations, tungsten is found to have the potential of utilizing as both photon converter and photoneutron target. Besides, it is shown that an optimized dimension for such a target slows-down the produced neutrons toward the desired energy range while keeping them economy, which makes achieving the recommended criteria for BNCT of deep-tumors more available. This multi-purpose target does not involve complicated designing, and can be considered as a significant step toward finding application of photoneutron sources for in-hospital treatments. In order to shape the neutron beam emitted from such a target, the beam is planned to pass through an optimized arrangement of materials composed of moderators, filters, reflector, and collimator. By assessment with the recommended in-air parameters, it is shown that the designed beam provides high intensity of desired neutrons, as well as low background contamination. The last section of this study is devoted to investigate the performance of the resultant beam in deep tissue. A typical simulated liver tumor, located within a phantom of human body, was subjected to the irradiation of the designed spectrum. The dosimetric results, including evaluated depth-dose curves and carried out in-phantom parameters show that the proposed configuration establishes acceptable agreement between the appropriate neutron intensity, and

  15. Endothelial precursor cell-based therapy to target the pathologic angiogenesis and compensate tumor hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Guillaume; Szade, Krzysztof; Nowak, Witold; Klimkiewicz, Krzysztof; El Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra; Szczepanek, Karol; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Weglarczyk, Kazimierz; Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Guichard, Alan; Mazan, Andrzej; Nadim, Mahdi; Fasani, Fabienne; Lamerant-Fayel, Nathalie; Grillon, Catherine; Petoud, Stéphane; Beloeil, Jean-Claude; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef; Kieda, Claudine

    2016-01-28

    Hypoxia-inducing pathologies as cancer develop pathologic and inefficient angiogenesis which rules tumor facilitating microenvironment, a key target for therapy. As such, the putative ability of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) to specifically home to hypoxic sites of neovascularization prompted to design optimized, site-specific, cell-mediated, drug-/gene-targeting approach. Thus, EPC lines were established from aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) of murine 10.5 dpc and 11.5 dpc embryo when endothelial repertoire is completed. Lines representing early endothelial differentiation steps were selected: MAgEC10.5 and MagEC11.5. Distinct in maturation, they differently express VEGF receptors, VE-cadherin and chemokine/receptors. MAgEC11.5, more differentiated than MAgEC 10.5, displayed faster angiogenesis in vitro, different response to hypoxia and chemokines. Both MAgEC lines cooperated to tube-like formation with mature endothelial cells and invaded tumor spheroids through a vasculogenesis-like process. In vivo, both MAgEC-formed vessels established blood flow. Intravenously injected, both MAgECs invaded Matrigel(TM)-plugs and targeted tumors. Here we show that EPCs (MAgEC11.5) target tumor angiogenesis and allow local overexpression of hypoxia-driven soluble VEGF-receptor2 enabling drastic tumor growth reduction. We propose that such EPCs, able to target tumor angiogenesis, could act as therapeutic gene vehicles to inhibit tumor growth by vessel normalization resulting from tumor hypoxia alleviation. PMID:26577811

  16. Target Region Location Based on Texture Analysis and Active Contour Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoxuan; BAI Zhuofu; WU Jiapeng; CHEN Yang

    2009-01-01

    Traditional texture region location methods with Gabor features are often limited in the selection of Gabor filters and fail to deal with the target which contains both texture and non-texture parts.Thus,to solve this problem,a two-step new model was proposed.In the first step,the original features extracted by Gabor filters are applied to training a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and a novel merging scheme is presented to achieve the clustering.A back propagation (BP) network is used as a classifier to locate the target region approximately.In the second step,Chan-Vese active contour model is applied to detecting the boundary of the target region accurately and morphological processing is used to create a connected domain whose convex hull can cover the target region.In the experiments,the proposed method is demonstrated accurate and robust in localizing target on texture database and practical barcode location system as well.

  17. A global calibration method for multiple vision sensors based on multiple targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global calibration of multiple vision sensors (MVS) has been widely studied in the last two decades. In this paper, we present a global calibration method for MVS with non-overlapping fields of view (FOVs) using multiple targets (MT). MT is constructed by fixing several targets, called sub-targets, together. The mutual coordinate transformations between sub-targets need not be known. The main procedures of the proposed method are as follows: one vision sensor is selected from MVS to establish the global coordinate frame (GCF). MT is placed in front of the vision sensors for several (at least four) times. Using the constraint that the relative positions of all sub-targets are invariant, the transformation matrix from the coordinate frame of each vision sensor to GCF can be solved. Both synthetic and real experiments are carried out and good result is obtained. The proposed method has been applied to several real measurement systems and shown to be both flexible and accurate. It can serve as an attractive alternative to existing global calibration methods

  18. Targeted Screening With Combined Age- and Morphology-Based Criteria Enriches Detection of Lynch Syndrome in Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Douglas I; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2016-06-01

    Endometrial cancer is associated with Lynch syndrome in 2% to 6% of cases. Adequate screening may prevent of a second cancer and incident cancers in family members via risk-reducing strategies. The goal of the study was to evaluate the detection rate of Lynch syndrome via a targeted screening approach. In 2009, we incorporated targeted Lynch syndrome screening via immunohistochemistry for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6, followed by MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, in select cases of endometrial carcinoma. Criteria for patient selection included (1) all patients ovarian carcinomas); (3) clinician's request based on family or personal history; and (4) ad hoc retrospective testing based on the established criteria on patients discovered on follow-up visits. By using a targeted screening approach in a 4.5-year period, approximately 2.1% of endometrial cancers (7 of 328) were potentially associated with Lynch syndrome. Therefore, targeted screening with combined age and morphology based criteria enriches detection of Lynch syndrome in endometrial cancer. However, the detection rate is lower than the rates from published series that offer universal screening. PMID:26842347

  19. Modification of base-side {sup 99}MO production processes for LEU metal-foil targets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Leonard, R. A.; Aase, S.; Sedlet, J.; Koma, Y.; Conner, C.; Clark, C. R.; Meyer, M. K.

    1999-09-30

    Argonne National Laboratory is cooperating with the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic (CNEA) to convert their {sup 99}Mo production process, which uses high enriched uranium (HEU), to low-enriched uranium (LEU), The program is multifaceted; however, discussed in this paper are (1) results of laboratory experiments to develop means for substituting LEU metal-foil targets into the current process and (2) preparation of uranium-alloy or uranium-metal/aluminum-dispersion targets. Although {sup 99}Mo production is a multi-step process, the first two steps (target dissolution and primary molybdenum recovery) are by far the most important in the conversion. Commonly, once molybdenum is separated from the bulk of the uranium, the remainder of the process need not be modified. Our results show that up to this point in our study, conversion of the CNEA process to LEU appears viable.

  20. targetDP: an Abstraction of Lattice Based Parallelism with Portable Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Alan

    2014-01-01

    To achieve high performance on modern computers, it is vital to map algorithmic parallelism to that inherent in the hardware. From an application developer's perspective, it is also important that code can be maintained in a portable manner across a range of hardware. Here we present targetDP, a lightweight programming layer that allows the abstraction of data parallelism for applications that employ structured grids. A single source code may be used to target both thread level parallelism (TLP) and instruction level parallelism (ILP) on either SIMD multi-core CPUs or GPU-accelerated platforms. targetDP is implemented via standard C preprocessor macros and library functions, can be added to existing applications incrementally, and can be combined with higher-level paradigms such as MPI. We present CPU and GPU performance results for a benchmark taken from the lattice Boltzmann application that motivated this work. These demonstrate not only performance portability, but also the improved optimisation resulting...

  1. Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I; Donat, Markus G; Pitman, Andy J; Knutti, Reto; Wilby, Robert L

    2016-01-28

    Global temperature targets, such as the widely accepted limit of an increase above pre-industrial temperatures of two degrees Celsius, may fail to communicate the urgency of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The translation of CO2 emissions into regional- and impact-related climate targets could be more powerful because such targets are more directly aligned with individual national interests. We illustrate this approach using regional changes in extreme temperatures and precipitation. These scale robustly with global temperature across scenarios, and thus with cumulative CO2 emissions. This is particularly relevant for changes in regional extreme temperatures on land, which are much greater than changes in the associated global mean. PMID:26789252

  2. Feature extraction for SAR target recognition based on supervised manifold learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of manifold learning theory, a new feature extraction method for Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target recognition is proposed. First, the proposed algorithm estimates the within-class and between-class local neighbourhood surrounding each SAR sample. After computing the local tangent space for each neighbourhood, the proposed algorithm seeks for the optimal projecting matrix by preserving the local within-class property and simultaneously maximizing the local between-class separability. The use of uncorrelated constraint can also enhance the discriminating power of the optimal projecting matrix. Finally, the nearest neighbour classifier is applied to recognize SAR targets in the projected feature subspace. Experimental results on MSTAR datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can provide a higher recognition rate than traditional feature extraction algorithms in SAR target recognition

  3. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yeol Ahn

    Full Text Available The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  4. An infrared small target detection algorithm based on high-speed local contrast method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zheng; Yang, Jingli; Jiang, Shouda; Li, Junbao

    2016-05-01

    Small-target detection in infrared imagery with a complex background is always an important task in remote sensing fields. It is important to improve the detection capabilities such as detection rate, false alarm rate, and speed. However, current algorithms usually improve one or two of the detection capabilities while sacrificing the other. In this letter, an Infrared (IR) small target detection algorithm with two layers inspired by Human Visual System (HVS) is proposed to balance those detection capabilities. The first layer uses high speed simplified local contrast method to select significant information. And the second layer uses machine learning classifier to separate targets from background clutters. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm pursue good performance in detection rate, false alarm rate and speed simultaneously.

  5. Weapon target assignment problem satisfying expected damage probabilities based on ant colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yanxia; Qian Longjun; Guo Zhi; Ma Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    A weapon target assignment (WTA) model satisfying expected damage probabilities with an ant colony algorithm is proposed.In order to save armament resource and attack the targets effectively,the strategy of the weapon assignment is that the target with greater threat degree has higher priority to be intercepted.The effect of this WTA model is not maximizing the damage probability but satisfying the whole assignment result.Ant colony algorithm has been successfully used in many fields,especially in combination optimization.The ant colony algorithm for this WTA problem is described by analyzing path selection,pheromone update,and tabu table update.The effectiveness of the model and the algorithm is demonstrated with an example.

  6. Finite Element Based Design Optimization of WENDELSTEIN 7-X Divertor Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fusion experiment WENDELSTEIN 7-X divertor plasma facing components have to withstand severe loading conditions. In general thermally induced mechanical stressing turns out to be most critical with respect to life time predictions of the component. In the specific case flat tiles of CFC grade NB31 are joined to the precipitation hardened CuCrZr heat sink by employing an active metal cast (AMC)-Cu as an interlayer between CFC and CuCrZr. Residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing process act as initial stresses in the subsequent operational heat flux loading. For the latter loading regime these stresses intrinsically are generated due to the large contrast in the CTE for CFC and Cu. Different design variants of those CFC flat tile armoured target elements have been analysed via the finite element package ABAQUS aiming at derivation of an optimized component design. The numerical study comprises variants with different degrees of tessellation of the CFC flat tile section, orientation of the CFC, lamellar design of the AMC-interlayer, and different designs of the cooling channels. The thermo-mechanical material characteristics are accounted for the finite element models with elastic-plastic properties being assigned to the metallic sections CuCrZr and AMC-Cu, respectively, and orthotropic nonlinear-elastic properties being used to the CFC section. The latter has been realized in form of a user-defined material subroutine that is used at the integration point level of the finite element model. In particular, twelve scalar-type damage parameters obeying their own evolution equations with respect to the loading history account for specific stress-strain relationships in the three principal material directions and planes with six damage parameters being used for normal loading under tensile and compressive stress states, respectively, and six parameters being used for shear loading. For the aim of model verification calculated surface temperatures, global

  7. Impact of reaction parameters on the chemical profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine synthesized via reductive amination: target analysis based on GC-qMS compared to non-targeted analysis based on GC×GC-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, M; Dieckmann, S; Pütz, M; Kohles, T; Pyell, U; Zimmermann, R

    2013-12-10

    The most common clandestine manufacturing procedure for the ecstasy derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), is the reductive amination of piperonylmethylketone (PMK) via platinum(IV) oxide/hydrogen. Deviations of the reaction conditions during the synthesis may result in different chemical profiles of the products. The chemical analysis of these profiles is an important objective for forensic drug intelligence. In this work we studied the impact of a systematic variation of the hydrogenation time, the reaction temperature and the precursor batch on the resulting organic chemical profiles of the MDMA bases and MDMA hydrochlorides. Target analysis was based on a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method which was harmonized during the European project CHAMP.(2) In addition, samples were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and subjected to non-targeted data analysis for a comprehensive analysis of the complete profiles. The reaction temperature, followed by the used precursor batch, revealed the highest impact on the chemical profile. The effect on individual impurity compounds is discussed in detail. With respect to the interpretation of the data, the profiles were compared to the profiles of MDMA samples obtained by reductive amination using sodium borohydride ("cold method") and aluminium/mercury amalgam as alternative reducing agents. Non-targeted analysis revealed that the discrimination according to the synthetic route and the batch of precursor used for the synthesis strongly depends on the selected target compounds. PMID:24314521

  8. Design and recognition of three dimensional calibration target based on coded marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, You; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Luan; Gu, Dalong

    2015-08-01

    Traditional three-dimensional (3D) calibration targets consist of two or three mutual orthogonal planes (each of the planes contains several control points constituted by corners or circular points) that cannot be captured simultaneously by cameras in front view. Therefore, large perspective distortions exist in the images of the calibration targets resulting in inaccurate image coordinate detection of the control points. Besides, in order to eliminate mismatches, recognition of the control points usually needs manual intervention consuming large amount of time. A new design of 3D calibration target is presented for automatic and accurate camera calibration. The target employs two parallel planes instead of orthogonal planes to reduce perspective distortion, which can be captured simultaneously by cameras in front view. Control points of the target are constituted by carefully designed circular coded markers, which can be used to realize automatic recognition without manual intervention. Due to perspective projection, projections of the circular coded markers' centers deviate from the centers of their corresponding imaging ellipses. Colinearity of the control points is used to correct perspective distortions of the imaging ellipses. Experiment results show that the calibration target can be automatically and correctly recognized under large illumination and viewpoint change. The image extraction errors of the control points are under 0.1 pixels. When applied to binocular cameras calibration, the mean reprojection errors are less than 0.15 pixels and the 3D measurement errors are less than 0.2mm in x and y axis and 0.5mm in z axis respectively.

  9. Is China's carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hao; Hua Liao; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    To curb CO2 emissions, the Chinese government has announced ambitious goals to reduce the CO2 intensity of GDP, and the total target has been allocated to all Chinese provinces during the twelfth "Five-year Plan" period (2011-2015). Although setting the target allocation plan is an efficient way to achieve this goal, some key questions, including how the plan is designed, remained unanswered. From an economic perspective, this requires us to test for the existence of convergence in the CO2 in...

  10. Target selection of classical pulsating variables for space-based photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Plachy, E; Szabó, R; Kolenberg, K; Bányai, E

    2016-01-01

    In a few years the Kepler and TESS missions will provide ultra-precise photometry for thousands of RR Lyrae and hundreds of Cepheid stars. In the extended Kepler mission all targets are proposed in the Guest Observer (GO) Program, while the TESS space telescope will work with full frame images and a ~15-16th mag brightness limit with the possibility of short cadence measurements for a limited number of pre-selected objects. This paper highlights some details of the enormous and important work of the target selection process made by the members of Working Group 7 (WG#7) of the Kepler and TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium.

  11. Algorithm for Multi-laser-target Tracking Based on Clustering Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-qun; LI Yan-jun; ZHANG Ke

    2007-01-01

    Multi-laser-target tracking is an important subject in the field of signal processing of laser warners. A clustering method is applied to the measurement of laser warner, and the space-time fusion for measurements in the same cluster is accomplished. Real-time tracking of multi-laser-target and real-time picking of multi-laser-signal are introduced using data fusion of the measurements. A prototype device of the algorithm is built up. The results of experiments show that the algorithm is very effective.

  12. Target selection of classical pulsating variables for space-based photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachy, E.; Molnar, L.; Szabo, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Banyai, E.

    2016-05-01

    In a few years the Kepler and TESS missions will provide ultra- precise photometry for thousands of RR Lyrae and hundreds of Cepheid stars. In the extended Kepler mission all targets are proposed in the Guest Observer (GO) Program, while the TESS space telescope will work with full frame images and a ~15-16th mag brightness limit with the possibility of short cadence measurements for a limited number of pre-selected objects. This paper highlights some details of the enormous and important work of the target selection process made by the members of Working Group 7 (WG#7) of the Kepler and TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium.

  13. FPGA-Based Real-Time Moving Target Detection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Application

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Wei Tang; Nasir Shaikh-Husin; Usman Ullah Sheikh; M. N. Marsono

    2016-01-01

    Moving target detection is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to find and track object of interest from a bird’s eye view in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications such as search and rescue operation. The complex detection algorithm can be implemented in a real-time embedded system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This paper presents the development of real-time moving target detection System-on-Chip (SoC) using FPGA for deployment on a UAV. The de...

  14. Velocity measurement technique for high-speed targets based on digital fine spectral line tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Shuliang; Yuan Qi

    2006-01-01

    Target velocity and acceleration are two of the most important features for identification of warheads and decoys in ballistic missile defense phased array radar systems. Velocity compensation is also the necessary step for one-dimensional range profile imaging. According to the high-velocity characteristics of ballistic objects and the low data rate of phased array radars with multiple target tracking, a fine spectral line digital velocity tracking frame is presented and a new method is developed to extract velocity error and resolve the velocity ambiguity in the measurement loop. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  15. A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, John C.; Andrew Wang; Kaiming Ye; Sha Jin

    2016-01-01

    The side effects of radio- and chemo-therapy pose long-term challenges on a cancer patient’s health. It is, therefore, highly desirable to develop more effective therapies that can specifically target carcinoma cells without damaging normal and healthy cells. Tremendous efforts have been made in the past to develop targeted drug delivery systems for solid cancer treatment. In this study, a new aptamer, A10-3-J1, which recognizes the extracellular domain of the prostate specific membrane antig...

  16. Preliminary study of a target-moderator assembly for a linac-based neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report concerns a design of a future pulsed neutron source at an electron linac. A massive target is irradiated with an electron beam and the neutrons are generated mainly by collisions of the Bremsstrahlung photons. A first step of the work, related to the optimization of the target materials and geometry using numerical simulations, is presented. The Monte Carlo FLUKA and MCNP codes are used. The water-cooled tantalum target is investigated: 0.41 cm Ta slices separated with 0.15 cm H2O layers. Two different sizes of the cylindrical target are assumed: 5 or 2.5 cm in diameter. The 1 GeV and 1.5 GeV electron beams are tested. The outgoing neutron angular-energy spectra are presented. The angular space 0o - 180o is divided in 10-degree intervals. The neutron emission in the direction perpendicular to the originated electron beam has been observed in the particularly narrow (2o) interval. The FLUKA results of a comparison of the neutron currents in main directions (0o - forward, 90o - perpendicular, 180o - backward) are as follows. For the 5 cm target the distribution is quite uniform: at 1 GeV input electrons - n(180o)/n(0o) = 1.00, n(90o)/n(0o) = 1.04, and at 1.5 GeV electrons - n(180o)/n(0o) = 0.91, n(90o)/n(0o) = 1.00. For the 2.5 cm target the relative neutron current in the perpendicular direction is significantly higher: at 1 GeV electrons - n(180o)/n(0o) = 1.02, n(90o)/n(0o) = 1.53, and at 1.5 GeV electrons - n(180o)/n(0o) = 0.93, n(90o)/n(0o) = 1.45. In the cases when the FLUKA and MCNP simulation results can be compared, a high similarity of the neutron energy distributions is stated although a possible discrepancy of the values reaches 20 %. Spectra of the accompanying radiation (photons, electrons, positrons, protons, charged pions) have been also obtained. The angular distributions of photons, electrons, and positrons are strongly peaked up towards the beam direction. Their emission at 90o is significantly lower, which means a decrease of the

  17. Design study of Be-target for proton accelerator based neutron source with 13MeV cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a cyclotron named KIRAMS-13 in Pusan National University, Busan, Korea, which has the proton energy of 13MeV and the beam current of 0.05mA. Originally, it was developed for producing medical radioisotopes and nuclear physics research. To improve the utilization of the facility, we are considering the possibilities of installing a neutron generation target in it. The Beryllium target has been considered and neutrons can be generated by 9Be(p,n)9B reaction above the threshold proton energy of 2.057MeV. In this presentation, we suggest candidate materials and structures, thicknesses, metal layers and cooling systems of target, which is optimal for the KIRAMS-13. We chose the Beryllium material of 1.14mm thick, which is calculated by stopping power of Beryllium, based on PSTAR, NIST. As for the cooling system, we chose to use water as a coolant, which will also act as a moderator. As protons pass through the target, hydrogen ions continue to pile up in the material and this makes the material brittle. To solve this problem, we chose Vanadium material because it has high hydrogen diffusion coefficient and short half-life isotope after being activated by neutrons. We simulated the neutron characteristics by the Monte Carlo simulation code, Geant4, CERN and performed thermal analysis on the target. The design of target system is very important to produce neutrons for the desired purposes. There are several other existing facilities in Korea, in addition to the cyclotron facility considered in this study, where new neutron target system can be installed and neutrons can be generated. Two prominent facilities are KOMAC, Gyeongju and RFT-30, Jeongeup and we are planning to do study on the possibilities of utilizing the accelerators for neutron generation.

  18. An in silico comparison between margin-based and probabilistic target-planning approaches in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To apply target probabilistic planning (TPP) approach to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Material and methods: Twenty plans of HNC patients were re-planned replacing the simultaneous integrated boost IMRT optimization objectives for minimum dose on the boost target and the elective volumes with research probabilistic objectives: the latter allow for explicit handling of systematic and random geometric uncertainties, enabling confidence level based probabilistic treatment planning. Monte-Carlo evaluations of geometrical errors were performed, with endpoints D98%, D2% and Dmean, calculated at a confidence level of 90%. The dose distribution was expanded outside the patient to prevent large bilateral elective treatment volumes ending up in air for probabilistic shifts. Results: TPP resulted in more regular isodoses and in reduced dose, on average, to organs at risk (OAR), up to more than 6 Gy, while maintaining target coverage and keeping the maximum dose to limiting structures within requirements. In particular, when the surrounding OARs overlap with the planning target volume (PTV) but not with the clinical target volume (CTV), better results were achieved. Conclusion: The TPP approach was evaluated in HNC patients, and proven to be an efficient tool for managing uncertainties

  19. An indirect adaptive neural control of a visual-based quadrotor robot for pursuing a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadeh, Masoud; Amirkhani, Abdollah; Jalali, Aliakbar; Mosavi, Mohammad R

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to use a visual-based control mechanism to control a quadrotor type aerial robot which is in pursuit of a moving target. The nonlinear nature of a quadrotor, on the one hand, and the difficulty of obtaining an exact model for it, on the other hand, constitute two serious challenges in designing a controller for this UAV. A potential solution for such problems is the use of intelligent control methods such as those that rely on artificial neural networks and other similar approaches. In addition to the two mentioned problems, another problem that emerges due to the moving nature of a target is the uncertainty that exists in the target image. By employing an artificial neural network with a Radial Basis Function (RBF) an indirect adaptive neural controller has been designed for a quadrotor robot in search of a moving target. The results of the simulation for different paths show that the quadrotor has efficiently tracked the moving target. PMID:26521725

  20. Information fusion based on addition of unascertained rational numbers for recognization of spatial point targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张池平; 宋向勃; 崔祜涛

    2003-01-01

    A new uncertain information model, i.e. unascertainment, which is different from randomness,fuzziness and grayness, has been introduced into information fusion to give a reasoning method,which is basedon addition of unascertained rational number and can be used to recognize spatial point targets. The validity ofthe method proposed is verified through an example.

  1. Enabling automated magnetic resonance imaging-based targeting assessment during dipole field navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Maxime; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Dupont, Pierre E.; Martel, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic navigation of drugs in the vascular network promises to increase the efficacy and reduce the secondary toxicity of cancer treatments by targeting tumors directly. Recently, dipole field navigation (DFN) was proposed as the first method achieving both high field and high navigation gradient strengths for whole-body interventions in deep tissues. This is achieved by introducing large ferromagnetic cores around the patient inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. However, doing so distorts the static field inside the scanner, which prevents imaging during the intervention. This limitation constrains DFN to open-loop navigation, thus exposing the risk of a harmful toxicity in case of a navigation failure. Here, we are interested in periodically assessing drug targeting efficiency using MRI even in the presence of a core. We demonstrate, using a clinical scanner, that it is in fact possible to acquire, in specific regions around a core, images of sufficient quality to perform this task. We show that the core can be moved inside the scanner to a position minimizing the distortion effect in the region of interest for imaging. Moving the core can be done automatically using the gradient coils of the scanner, which then also enables the core to be repositioned to perform navigation to additional targets. The feasibility and potential of the approach are validated in an in vitro experiment demonstrating navigation and assessment at two targets.

  2. A simple yeast-based strategy to identify host cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bosis

    Full Text Available Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins.

  3. Risk determination method for accidental water basin contamination based on risk source coupling with sensitive targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongfeng; Zeng, Bo; Zhou, Tinggang; Li, Guowei; Zhu, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Accidental water basin pollution seriously threatens human health and ecological security, but rapid, effective methods for evaluating this threat are lacking. This paper aims to develop a risk evaluation method for basin accidents by coupling the risk source with sensitive targets to evaluate the zone accident risk levels of basins and prevent the accidental environmental pollution of water. This method incorporates the interplay between risk sources and sensitive targets by evaluating the zone risk levels of water environments from different sources, effectiveness of the risk source control mechanisms, vulnerability of sensitive targets and spatial and temporal relationships between these sources and targets. Using the Three Gorges Reservoir region as an example, a risk system for water basin pollution incidents consisting of a risk indicator quantification system, a risk zoning method and a verification method for the zoning results is developed and implemented. The results were verified in a field investigation, which showed that the risk zoning model provides rapid, effective and reliable zoning results. This research method could serve as a theoretical reference and technological support for evaluating water basin accident risks. Furthermore, the results are useful for evaluating and protecting the aquatic environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir region. PMID:26207430

  4. Miniature Quad-rotor Dynamics Modeling & Guidance for Vision-based Target Tracking Control Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos Cruz, Antonio; Colorado Montaño, Julián

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamics modeling and the control & guidance architecture for specific target tracking indoors tasks using a miniature quad-rotor. Our objective is to develop a testbed using Matlab for experimentation and simulation of dynamics, control and guidance methods within a strong interplay between the hardware on board and software provisioned.

  5. Evaluating gaze-based interface tools to facilitate point-and-select tasks with small targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Henrik; Mateo, Julio C.; Hansen, John Paulin

    2011-01-01

    when using zoom, but total pointing times were shorter using zoom. Furthermore, participants perceived magnification as more fatiguing than zoom. The higher accuracy of magnification makes it preferable when interacting with small targets. Our findings may guide the development of interface tools to...

  6. Targeting Proteases in Cardiovascular Diseases by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Klingler, Diana; Hardt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze peptide bonds, thereby controlling the function of proteins and peptides on the posttranslational level. In the cardiovascular system, proteases play pivotal roles in the regulation of blood pressure, coagulation and other essential physiological processes. Accordingly, proteases are prime targets for therapeutic interventions and diagnostics. Proteases are part of complex proteolytic networks comprised of enzymes, inhibitors, activators, substrates and cleavage products. ...

  7. Multi-source feature extraction and target recognition in wireless sensor networks based on adaptive distributed wavelet compression algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    Proposed distributed wavelet-based algorithms are a means to compress sensor data received at the nodes forming a wireless sensor network (WSN) by exchanging information between neighboring sensor nodes. Local collaboration among nodes compacts the measurements, yielding a reduced fused set with equivalent information at far fewer nodes. Nodes may be equipped with multiple sensor types, each capable of sensing distinct phenomena: thermal, humidity, chemical, voltage, or image signals with low or no frequency content as well as audio, seismic or video signals within defined frequency ranges. Compression of the multi-source data through wavelet-based methods, distributed at active nodes, reduces downstream processing and storage requirements along the paths to sink nodes; it also enables noise suppression and more energy-efficient query routing within the WSN. Targets are first detected by the multiple sensors; then wavelet compression and data fusion are applied to the target returns, followed by feature extraction from the reduced data; feature data are input to target recognition/classification routines; targets are tracked during their sojourns through the area monitored by the WSN. Algorithms to perform these tasks are implemented in a distributed manner, based on a partition of the WSN into clusters of nodes. In this work, a scheme of collaborative processing is applied for hierarchical data aggregation and decorrelation, based on the sensor data itself and any redundant information, enabled by a distributed, in-cluster wavelet transform with lifting that allows multiple levels of resolution. The wavelet-based compression algorithm significantly decreases RF bandwidth and other resource use in target processing tasks. Following wavelet compression, features are extracted. The objective of feature extraction is to maximize the probabilities of correct target classification based on multi-source sensor measurements, while minimizing the resource expenditures at

  8. Minimax distance transform correlation filter-based target detection in FLIR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J. F.; Alam, M. S.; Adhami, R. R.; Bhuiyan, S. M. A.

    2005-08-01

    This paper proposes a method to detect objects of arbitrary poses and sizes from a complex forward looking infrared (FLIR) image scene exploiting image correlation technique along with the preprocessing of the scene using a class of morphological operators. This presented automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm consists of two steps. In the first step, the image is preprocessed, by employing morphological reconstruction operators, to remove the background as well as clutter and to intensify the presence of both low or high contrast targets. This step also involves in finding the possible candidate target regions or region of interests (ROIs) and passing those ROIs to the second step for classification. The second step exploits template-matching technique such as minimax distance transform correlation filter (MDTCF) to identify the true target from the false alarms in the pre-selected ROIs after classification. The MDTCF minimizes the average squared distance from the filtered true-class training images to a filtered reference image while maximizing the mean squared distance of the filtered false-class training images to this filtered reference image. This approach increases the separation between the false-class correlation outputs and the true-class correlation outputs. Classification is performed using the squared distance of a filtered test image to the chosen filtered reference image. The proposed technique has been tested with real life FLIR image sequences supplied by the Army Missile Command (AMCOM). Experimental results, obtained with these real FLIR image sequences, illustrating a wide variety of target and clutter variability, demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  9. [MicroRNA Target Prediction Based on Support Vector Machine Ensemble Classification Algorithm of Under-sampling Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiru; Hong, Wenxue

    2016-02-01

    Considering the low accuracy of prediction in the positive samples and poor overall classification effects caused by unbalanced sample data of MicroRNA (miRNA) target, we proposes a support vector machine (SVM)-integration of under-sampling and weight (IUSM) algorithm in this paper, an under-sampling based on the ensemble learning algorithm. The algorithm adopts SVM as learning algorithm and AdaBoost as integration framework, and embeds clustering-based under-sampling into the iterative process, aiming at reducing the degree of unbalanced distribution of positive and negative samples. Meanwhile, in the process of adaptive weight adjustment of the samples, the SVM-IUSM algorithm eliminates the abnormal ones in negative samples with robust sample weights smoothing mechanism so as to avoid over-learning. Finally, the prediction of miRNA target integrated classifier is achieved with the combination of multiple weak classifiers through the voting mechanism. The experiment revealed that the SVM-IUSW, compared with other algorithms on unbalanced dataset collection, could not only improve the accuracy of positive targets and the overall effect of classification, but also enhance the generalization ability of miRNA target classifier. PMID:27382743

  10. Rectilinear-motion space inversion-based detection approach for infrared dim air targets with variable velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianlei; Shi, Zelin; Yin, Jian; Liu, Yunpeng; Xu, Baoshu; Zhang, Chengshuo

    2016-03-01

    Dim targets are extremely difficult to detect using methods based on single-frame detection. Radiation accumulation is one of the effective methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A detection approach based on radiation accumulation is proposed. First, a location space and a motion space are established. Radiation accumulation operation, controlled by vectors from the motion space, is applied to the original image space. Then, a new image space is acquired where some images have an improved SNR. Second, quasitargets in the new image space are obtained by constant false-alarm ratio judging, and location vectors and motion vectors of quasitargets are also acquired simultaneously. Third, the location vectors and motion vectors are mapped into the two spaces, respectively. Volume density function is defined in the motion space. Location extremum of the location space and volume density extremum of motion space will confirm the true target. Finally, actual location of the true target in the original image space is obtained by space inversion. The approach is also applicable to detect multiple dim targets. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate the approach is superior to compared approaches on detection probability and false alarm probability.

  11. A role for fragment-based drug design in developing novel lead compounds for central nervous system targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wasko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacologic screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening, which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of virtual screening is fragment-based drug design, an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for growing the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual fragment-based drug design within central nervous system (CNS targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies.

  12. Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory%Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Gang

    2011-01-01

    Among all the emission reduction measures, carbon tax is recognized as the most effective way to protect our climate. That is why the Chinese government has recently taken it as a tax reform direction, In the current economic analysis, the design of carbon tax is mostly based on the target to maximize the efficiency However, based on the theory of tax system optimization, we should also consider other policy objectives, such as equity, revenue and cost, and then balance different objectives to achieve the suboptimum reform of carbon tax system in China.

  13. Multiple target implementation for a doubly fed induction generator based on direct power control under unbalanced and distorted grid voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng NIAN; Yi-peng SONG

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multiple target implementation technique for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) under unbalanced and distorted grid voltage based on direct power control (DPC). Based on the mathematical model of DFIG under unbalanced and distorted voltage, the proportional and integral (PI) regulator is adopted to regulate the DFIG average active and reactive powers, while the vector PI (VPI) resonant regulator is used to achieve three alternative control targets: (1) balanced and sinusoidal stator current; (2) smooth instantaneous stator active and reactive powers; (3) smooth electromagnetic torque and instantaneous stator reactive power. The major advantage of the proposed control strategy over the conventional method is that neither negative and harmonic sequence decomposition of grid voltage nor complicated control reference calculation is required. The insensitivity of the proposed control strategy to DFIG parameter deviation is analyzed. Finally, the DFIG experimental system is developed to validate the availability of the proposed DPC strategy under unbalanced and distorted grid voltage.

  14. Molecular Targets of β-Lactam-Based Antimicrobials: Beyond the Usual Suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika I. Konaklieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The common practice in antibacterial drug development has been to rapidly make an attempt to find ever-more stable and broad-spectrum variants for a particular antibiotic, once a drug resistance for that antibiotic is detected. We are now facing bacterial resistance toward our clinically relevant antibiotics of such a magnitude that the conversation for antimicrobial drug development ought to include effective new antibiotics with alternative mechanisms of action. The electrophilic β-lactam ring is amenable for the inhibition of different enzyme classes by a suitable decoration of the core scaffold. Monocyclic β-lactams lacking an ionizable group at the lactam nitrogen exhibit target preferences toward bacterial enzymes important for resistance and virulence. The present review intends to draw attention to the versatility of the β-lactams as antimicrobials with “unusual” molecular targets.

  15. TARGET ANALYSIS OF SUZHOU CREEK REHABILITATION PROJECT STAGE II:BASED ON WATER QUALITY MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhen-liang; XU Zu-xin

    2004-01-01

    The Suzhou Creek is a seriously polluted tidal river in Shanghai. The Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project was launched in 1998, and the total investment will surpass 10 billion yuan RMB. It is important to assess the effectiveness of the project and ascertain its targets. In this study, by analyzing the achievements of Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project (Stage I) and its remaining problems, the main tasks of the Project Stage II are proposed. These works are wastewater interception, sediment dredging, bidirectional water diversion, and reconstruction of municipal pump stations. The water quality model established with USEPA's WASP is employed to analyze the quantitative targets of the Project Stage II. In the Project Stage II, the water quality of mainstream and tributaries will be improved continuously, the valus of CODCr, BOD5, DO in the mainstream will steadily attain Class IV according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard, and the ecological environment of Suzhou Creek with continuously recover.

  16. Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Youxiong Que; Yongbao Pan; Yunhai Lu; Cui Yang; Yuting Yang; Ning Huang; Liping Xu

    2014-01-01

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information conten...

  17. Development of aptamer-based radiopharmaceuticals for targeted cancer imaging and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gijs, Marlies; Aerts, An; Impens, Nathalie; Baatout, Sarah; Luxen, André

    2013-01-01

    This SELEX experiment, for the selection of HER2 targeting aptamers, resulted in 26 selected RNA aptamers for further individual evaluation. Up till now, we were able to identify two aptamers that show binding to HER2 overexpressing SK-OV-3 cancer cells. In addition, we were able to generate silenced SK-OV-3 cells with minimal remaining HER2 levels, which will be used to obtain more information regarding the binding specificity of the selected aptamers.

  18. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife

  19. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Guy; Chase, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to an improved standard of living. Globally, 91% of households used improved drinking water sources in 2015, while for improved sanitation it is 68%. Wealth disparities are stark, with rural populations, slum dwellers and marginalized groups lagging significantly behind. Service coverage is significantly lower when considering the new water and sanitation targets under the sustainable development goals (SDGs) which aspire to ...

  20. A QFD-Based Mathematical Model for New Product Development Considering the Target Market Segment

    OpenAIRE

    Liang-Hsuan Chen; Cheng-Nien Chen

    2014-01-01

    Responding to customer needs is important for business success. Quality function deployment provides systematic procedures for converting customer needs into technical requirements to ensure maximum customer satisfaction. The existing literature mainly focuses on the achievement of maximum customer satisfaction under a budgetary limit via mathematical models. The market goal of the new product for the target market segment is usually ignored. In this study, the proposed approach thus consider...

  1. Target-Oriented Routing Algorithm Based on Sequential Coordinates for Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Amir M. Jafari; Adam Sklorz; Walter Lang

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensors implementation in process automation applications is a forwarding step for wireless sensor network. Autonomous network structure is considered as an option for such implementation. Autonomous wireless sensor/actuator networks require a target-oriented routing algorithm. In the first section the perception of autonomous network with an example is explained. It is clarified which features from the routing algorithm are expected. In the second section, Sequential Coordinate Rout...

  2. Laser-Based Directed Release of Array Elements for Efficient Collection into Targeted Microwells

    OpenAIRE

    Dobes, Nicholas C.; Dhopeshwarkar, Rahul; Henley, W. Hampton; Ramsey, J. Michael; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    A cell separation strategy capable of the systematic isolation and collection of moderate to large numbers (25–400) of single cells into a targeted microwell is demonstrated. An array of microfabricated, releasable, transparent micron-scale pedestals termed pallets and an array of microwells in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were mated to enable selective release and retrieval of individual cells. Cells cultured on a pallet array mounted on a custom designed stage permitted the array to be pos...

  3. Pseudo-Zernike Based Multi-Pass Automatic Target Recognition From Multi-Channel SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Carmine CLEMENTE; Pallotta, Luca; Proudler, Ian; De Maio, Antonio; John J. Soraghan; Farina, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The capability to exploit multiple sources of information is of fundamental importance in a battlefield scenario. Information obtained from different sources, and separated in space and time, provide the opportunity to exploit diversities in order to mitigate uncertainty. For the specific challenge of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) from radar platforms, both channel (e.g. polarization) and spatial diversity can provide useful information for such a specific and critical task. In this pape...

  4. Suppression of Repeat-Intensive False Targets Based on Temporal Pulse Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Lu; Yongqiang Chen; Yu Lei; Guan Gui

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of suppressing the repeat-intensive false targets produced by a deception electronic attack (EA) system equipped with a Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) device. Different from a conventional repeat jammer, this type of jamming intensively retransmits the intercepted signal stored in a DRFM to the victim radar in a very short time-delay interval relative to a radar pulse wide. A multipeak matched-filtering output is then produced other than the merely expe...

  5. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel [Center for Radiotherapy Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada); Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.guillot@usherbrooke.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4, Canada and Center for Radiotherapy Research, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 3001 12th Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  6. Is China’s carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The reasonability of Chinese government’s CO2 emissions reduction allocation plan is examined. • The stochastic convergence and β-convergence are tested using the provincial panel data. • Both fixed effects and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimators are utilized. • The provinces with high carbon intensity tend to experience faster reduction in carbon intensity, and vise versa. - Abstract: To curb CO2 emissions, the Chinese government has announced ambitious goals to reduce the CO2 intensity of GDP, and the total target has been allocated to all Chinese provinces during the twelfth “Five-year Plan” period (2011–2015). Although setting the target allocation plan is an efficient way to achieve this goal, some key questions, including how the plan is designed, remained unanswered. From an economic perspective, this requires us to test for the existence of convergence in the CO2 intensity of GDP because the convergence is one of the most important intrinsic economic characteristics that policy makers should take into account: if the convergence exists, the provinces with a higher CO2 intensity of GDP tend to experience a more rapid reduction in the intensity and therefore could share a heavier burden of the intensity reduction. The existence of stochastic convergence and β-convergence is verified by employing different estimation methods and using various estimation specifications. As a result, the direct policy implication is that provinces with high CO2 intensity should be assigned tougher reduction targets to cut CO2 intensity at higher speeds, while the provinces with low carbon intensity should be allowed to reduce the CO2 intensity at a relatively lower speed. Because some social and economic indicators such as GDP per capita, industrial structure and population density may influence CO2 intensity, the policy makers should take all these factors into consideration to design reasonable reduction target allocation plan

  7. Polarization Characteristics Simulation of Airborne Weather Radar Rainfall Target Based on Numerical Weather Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xia; Han Yanfei; Li Hai; Lu Xiaoguang; Wu Renbiao

    2016-01-01

    Meteorological target simulation using polarization information is the foundation of the theoretical research and design application of dual-polarization Doppler weather radar. Currently, the theoretical research of airborne dual-polarization weather radar is in the development stage. To provide high-fidelity simulation data required for airborne dual-polarization weather radar detection technology, in this study, a simulation method of the polarization characteristics of rainfall determined ...

  8. Improving detection of low SNR targets using moment-based detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shannon R.; Steward, Bryan J.; Hawks, Michael; Gross, Kevin C.

    2016-05-01

    Increases in the number of cameras deployed, frame rate, and detector array sizes have led to a dramatic increase in the volume of motion imagery data that is collected. Without a corresponding increase in analytical manpower, much of the data is not analyzed to full potential. This creates a need for fast, automated, and robust methods for detecting signals of interest. Current approaches fall into two categories: detect-before-track (DBT), which are fast but often poor at detecting dim targets, and track-before-detect (TBD) methods which can offer better performance but are typically much slower. This research seeks to contribute to the near real time detection of low SNR, unresolved moving targets through an extension of earlier work on higher order moments anomaly detection, a method that exploits both spatial and temporal information but is still computationally efficient and massively parallelizable. It was found that intelligent selection of parameters can improve probability of detection by as much as 25% compared to earlier work with higherorder moments. The present method can reduce detection thresholds by 40% compared to the Reed-Xiaoli anomaly detector for low SNR targets (for a given probability of detection and false alarm).

  9. Generalized Grey Target Decision Method for Mixed Attributes Based on Connection Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshan Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey target decision model for mixed attributes including real numbers, interval numbers, triangular fuzzy numbers, and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers is complex for its data processing in different ways and information distortion in handling fuzzy numbers. To solve these problems, the binary connection number proposed in set pair analysis is applied to unify different types of index values with their parameters’ average values and standard deviations as determinacy-uncertainty vectors. Then the target center index vectors are determined by the modules of index vectors of all alternatives under different attributes. So the similarity of each index vector and its target center index vector called nearness degree can be calculated. Following, all the nearness degrees are normalized in linear method in order to be compared with each other. Finally, the optimal alternative can be determined by the minimum of all integrated nearness degrees. Case study demonstrated that this approach can not only unify different types of numbers, and simplify the calculation but also reduce the information distortion in operating fuzzy numbers.

  10. Targeting translesion synthesis to facilitate the eradication of ovarian cancer stem cells by platinum-based therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Wang, Qi-En

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells (CSCs) survive chemotherapy is essential for the development of new therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that ovarian CSCs survive cisplatin treatment through enhanced expression of DNA polymerase η (Pol η). Identification of micro RNA-93 (miR-93) as the regulator of Pol η provides a novel target to improve the outcome of platinum-based therapy.

  11. Targeting translesion synthesis to facilitate the eradication of ovarian cancer stem cells by platinum-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Wang, Qi-En

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells (CSCs) survive chemotherapy is essential for the development of new therapies. Recently, we demonstrated that ovarian CSCs survive cisplatin treatment through enhanced expression of DNA polymerase η (Pol η). Identification of micro RNA-93 (miR-93) as the regulator of Pol η provides a novel target to improve the outcome of platinum-based therapy. PMID:27308560

  12. Expanding the binding envelope of CYP51 inhibitors targeting Trypanosoma cruzi with 4-aminopyridyl-based sulfonamide derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Debora F.; Choi, Jun Yong; Roush, William R.; Larissa M. Podust

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, manifested in progressive cardiomyopathy and/or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Therapeutic options to prevent or treat Chagas disease are limited. CYP51, the enzyme key to the biosynthesis of eukaryotic membrane sterols, is a validated drug target in both fungi and T. cruzi. Sulfonamide derivatives of 4-aminopyridyl-based inhibitors of T. cruzi CYP51 (TcCYP51), including the sub-nanomolar compound 3, have...

  13. Integration of screening and identifying ligand(s) from medicinal plant extracts based on target recognition by using NMR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Yalin Tang, Qian Shang, Junfeng Xiang, Qianfan Yang, Qiuju Zhou, Lin Li, Hong Zhang, Qian Li, Hongxia Sun, Aijiao Guan, Wei Jiang & Wei Gai ### Abstract This protocol presents the screening of ligand(s) from medicinal plant extracts based on target recognition by using NMR spectroscopy. A detailed description of sample preparation and analysis process is provided. NMR spectroscopies described here are 1H NMR, diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), relaxation-edited NMR, ...

  14. Comparison of planning target volumes based on three-dimensional and four-dimensional CT imaging of thoracic esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; LI, JIANBIN; Zhang, Yingjie; SHAO, QIAN; Xu, Min; Fan, Tingyong; Wang, Jinzhi

    2016-01-01

    Wei Wang, Jianbin Li, Yingjie Zhang, Qian Shao, Min Xu, Tingyong Fan, Jinzhi Wang Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background and purpose: To investigate the definition of planning target volumes (PTVs) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) compared with conventional PTV definition and PTV definition using asymmetrical margins for t...

  15. Niobium-based sputtered thin films for Corrosion Protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for [18F] production

    OpenAIRE

    Skliarova, H.; Azzolini, O.; Dousset, O.; Johnson, R.R.; V. Palmieri

    2013-01-01

    Chemically inert Coatings on Havar entrance foils of the targets for [18F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar. In order to find the most effective protective coatings, the Nb-based coating microstructure and barrier properties have been correlated with deposition parameters as: substrate temperature, applied bias, deposition rate and sputtering gas pressure. Aluminated quartz...

  16. Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the large dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has been proved effective for targeted observations in numerical weather predication, is implemented into the chemical transport model EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. Since the considered cases are restricted in terms of considered chemical compounds and selected areas, they allow for a retracing of the results and a confirmation of their correctness. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determine the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimisation with growing

  17. PACE4-Based Molecular Targeting of Prostate Cancer Using an Engineered 64Cu-Radiolabeled Peptide Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Couture

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential of PACE4 as a pharmacological target in prostate cancer has been demonstrated as this proprotein convertase is strongly overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues and its inhibition, using molecular or pharmacological approaches, results in reduced cell proliferation and tumor progression in mouse tumor xenograft models. We developed a PACE4 high-affinity peptide inhibitor, namely, the multi-leucine (ML, and sought to determine whether this peptide could be exploited for the targeting of prostate cancer for diagnostic or molecular imaging purposes. We conjugated a bifunctional chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid (NOTA to the ML peptide for copper-64 (64Cu labeling and positron emission tomography (PET– based prostate cancer detection. Enzyme kinetic assays against recombinant PACE4 showed that the NOTA-modified ML peptide displays identical inhibitory properties compared to the unmodified peptide. In vivo biodistribution of the 64Cu/NOTA-ML peptide evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of two human prostate carcinoma cell lines showed a rapid and high uptake in PACE4-expressing LNCaP tumor at an early time point and in PACE4-rich organs. Co-injection of unlabeled peptide confirmed that tumor uptake was target-specific. PACE4-negative tumors displayed no tracer uptake 15 minutes after injection, while the kidneys, demonstrated high uptake due to rapid renal clearance of the peptide. The present study supports the feasibility of using a 64Cu/NOTA-ML peptide for PACE4-targeted prostate cancer detection and PACE4 status determination by PET imaging but also provides evidence that ML inhibitor–based drugs would readily reach tumor sites under in vivo conditions for pharmacological intervention or targeted radiation therapy.

  18. Performance of an atlas-based autosegmentation software for delineation of target volumes for radiotherapy of breast and anorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To validate atlas-based autosegmentation for contouring breast/anorectal targets. Methods and materials: ABAS uses atlases with defined CTVs as template cases to automatically delineate target volumes in other patient CT-datasets. Results are compared with manually contoured CTVs of breast/anorectal cancer according to RTOG-guidelines. The impact of using specific atlases matched to individual patient geometry was evaluated. Results were quantified by analyzing Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), logit(DSC) and Percent Overlap (PO). DSC >0.700 and logit(DSC) >0.847 are acceptable. In addition a new algorithm (STAPLE) was evaluated. Results: ABAS produced good results for the CTV of breast/anorectal cancer targets. Delineation of inguinal lymphatic drainage, however, was insufficient. Results for breast CTV were (DSC: 0.86–0.91 ([0, 1]), logit(DSC): 1.82–2.36 ([−∞, ∞]), PO: 75.5–82.89%) and for anorectal CTVA (DSC: 0.79–0.85, logit(DSC): 1.40–1.77, PO: 68–73.67%). Conclusions: ABAS produced satisfactory results for these clinical target volumes that are defined by more complex tissue interface geometry, thus streamlining and facilitating the radiotherapy workflow which is essential to face increasing demand and limited resources. STAPLE improved contouring outcome. Small target volumes not clearly defined are still to be delineated manually. Based on these results, ABAS has been clinically introduced for precontouring of CTVs/OARs.

  19. Colon specific CODES based Piroxicam tablet for colon targeting: statistical optimization, in vivo roentgenography and stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-03-01

    This study was aimed to statistically optimize CODES™ based Piroxicam (PXM) tablet for colon targeting. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for preparation of core tablet that was subsequently coated to get CODES™ based tablet. The experimental design of core tablets comprised of two independent variables: amount of lactulose and PEG 6000, each at three different levels and the dependent variable was %CDR at 12 h. The core tablets were evaluated for pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial test and coated with optimized levels of Eudragit E100 followed by HPMC K15 and finally with Eudragit S100. The in vitro drug release study of F1-F9 was carried out by change over media method (0.1 N HCl buffer, pH 1.2, phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 and phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 with enzyme β-galactosidase 120 IU) to select optimized formulation F9 that was subjected to in vivo roentgenography. Roentgenography study corroborated the in vitro performance, thus providing the proof of concept. The experimental design was validated by extra check point formulation and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy revealed absence of any interaction between drug and formulation excipients. The shelf life of F9 was deduced as 12 months. Conclusively, colon targeted CODES™ technology based PXM tablets were successfully optimized and its potential of colon targeting was validated by roentgenography. PMID:24266719

  20. Cone-Beam CT-Based Delineation of Stereotactic Lung Targets: The Influence of Image Modality and Target Size on Interobserver Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It is generally agreed that the safe implementation of stereotactic body radiotherapy requires image guidance. The aim of this work was to assess interobserver variability in the delineation of lung lesions on cone-beam CT (CBCT) images compared with CT-based contouring for adaptive stereotactic body radiotherapy. The influence of target size was also evaluated. Methods and Materials: Eight radiation oncologists delineated gross tumor volumes in 12 patient cases (non–small cell lung cancer I–II or solitary metastasis) on planning CTs and on CBCTs. Cases were divided into two groups with tumor diameters of less than (Group A) or more than 2 cm (Group B). Comparison of mean volumes delineated by all observers and range and coefficient of variation were reported for each case and image modality. Interobserver variability was assessed by means of standard error of measurement, conformity index (CI), and its generalized observer-independent approach. The variance between single observers on CT and CBCT images was measured via interobserver reliability coefficient. Results: Interobserver variability on CT images was 17% with 0.79 reliability, compared with 21% variability on CBCT and 0.76 reliability. On both image modalities, values of the intraobserver reliability coefficient (0.99 for CT and 0.97 for CBCT) indicated high reproducibility of results. In general, lower interobserver agreement was observed for small lesions (CIgenA = 0.62 ± 0.06 vs. CIgenB = 0.70 ± 0.03, p < 0.05). The analysis of single patient cases revealed that presence of spicules, diffuse infiltrations, proximity of the tumors to the vessels and thoracic wall, and respiration motion artifacts presented the main sources of the variability. Conclusion: Interobserver variability for Stage I–II non–small cell lung cancer and lung metastasis was slightly higher on CBCT compared with CT. Absence of significant differences in interobserver variability suggests that CBCT imaging provides

  1. The Simultaneous Interpolation of Target Radar Cross Section in Both the Spatial and Frequency Domains by Means of Legendre Wavelets Model-Based Parameter Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqiang Yang; Yunpeng Ma; Lifeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the target radar cross section (RCS) is significant for target identification and for radar designing and optimization. In this paper, a numerical algorithm for calculating target RCS is presented which is based on Legendre wavelet model-based parameter estimation (LW-MBPE). The Padé rational function fitting model applied for MBPE in the frequency domain is enhanced to include spatial dependence on the numerator and denominator coefficients. This allows the function to i...

  2. [CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing systems and the analysis of targeted genome mutations in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingliang, Ma; Yaoguang, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genomic editing technologies use programmable DNA nucleases to cleave genomic target sites, thus inducing targeted mutations in the genomes. The newly prevailed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system that consists of the Cas9 nuclease and single guide RNA (sgRNA) has the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency as compared to other programmable DNA nuclease systems such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs). Currently, a number of cases have been reported on the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 genomic editing technology in plants. In this review, we summarize the strategies for preparing the Cas9 and sgRNA expression constructs, the transformation method for obtaining targeted mutations, the efficiency and features of the resulting mutations and the methods for detecting or genotyping of the mutation sites. We also discuss the existing problems and perspectives of CRISPR/Cas9-based genomic editing in plants. PMID:26907775

  3. Novel antibody-based therapeutic agents targeting CD70: a potential approach for treating Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Che-Leung; McEarchern, Julie A; Grewal, Iqbal S

    2009-03-01

    Targeting leukocyte differentiation antigens is a validated approach to develop therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer, autoimmunity, and inflammatory diseases. A subset of activation antigens transiently induced on leukocytes is particularly interesting because many of them are absent from normal tissues, including those of most vital organs, and therapeutic agents' targeting of such antigens is expected to impart limited toxicity. One such antigen, CD70, has recently emerged as an attractive potential drug target for the treatment of cancers. Whereas CD70 is only transiently expressed on activation T and B cells and mature dendritic cells, it is found to be aberrantly expressed on a variety of tumor cells, including Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. In this report, we discuss potential antibody-based therapeutic approaches targeting CD70 for tumor elimination where various mechanisms such as antibody effector functions, immune enhancement, blockade of paracrine growth loop, and delivery of cytotoxic payloads can be exploited to achieve efficacy. Indeed, early clinical trials with therapeutic anti-CD70 antibodies are currently in progress, and those for anti-CD70 drug conjugates will soon follow. PMID:19362984

  4. False-Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2 % and protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  5. Signal-on electrochemical detection of antibiotics at zeptomole level based on target-aptamer binding triggered multiple recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yu; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Guo, Yuna; Xu, Ying; Huang, Jiadong

    2016-06-15

    In the work, a signal-on electrochemical DNA sensor based on multiple amplification for ultrasensitive detection of antibiotics has been reported. In the presence of target, the ingeniously designed hairpin probe (HP1) is opened and the polymerase-assisted target recycling amplification is triggered, resulting in autonomous generation of secondary target. It is worth noting that the produced secondary target could not only hybridize with other HP1, but also displace the Helper from the electrode. Consequently, methylene blue labeled HP2 forms a "close" probe structure, and the increase of signal is monitored. The increasing current provides an ultrasensitive electrochemical detection for antibiotics down to 1.3fM. To our best knowledge, such work is the first report about multiple recycling amplification combing with signal-on sensing strategy, which has been utilized for quantitative determination of antibiotics. It would be further used as a general strategy associated with more analytical techniques toward the detection of a wide spectrum of analytes. Thus, it holds great potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensing platform for the applications in bioanalysis, disease diagnostics, and clinical biomedicine. PMID:26878484

  6. Rational development of 4-aminopyridyl-based inhibitors targeting Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51 as anti-Chagas agents

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jun Yong; Calvet, Claudia M.; Gunatilleke, Shamila S.; Ruiz, Claudia; Cameron, Michael D.; McKerrow, James H.; Larissa M. Podust; Roush, William R.

    2013-01-01

    A new series of 4-aminopyridyl-based lead inhibitors targeting Trypanosoma cruzi CYP51 (TcCYP51) has been developed using structure-based drug design as well as structure-property relationship (SPR) analyses. The screening hit starting point, LP10 (KD ≤ 42 nM; EC50 of 0.65 µM), has been optimized to give the potential leads 14t, 27i, 27q, 27r, and 27t, that have low nanomolar binding affinity to TcCYP51 and significant activity against T. cruzi amastigotes cultured in human myoblasts (EC50 = ...

  7. Tritium permeation evaluation through vertical target of divertor based on recent tritium transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re-evaluation of tritium permeation through vertical target of divertor under the ITER operation condition was carried out using tritium properties in the candidate materials such as the diffusion coefficient and the trapping factors in tungsten for armor, and the surface recombination coefficient on copper for the heat sink obtained by authours' recent investigation (authors' data), which simulated the plasma-facing conditions of ITER. Evaluation with the data set of previous evaluation was also carried out for comparison (previous data). The permeation analysis was carried out individually by classifying into the armor region (Carbon Fiber Composites and tungsten) and the slit region without armor (3% of armor surface area) assuming the incident flux and temperature for each region. As the results of the permeation analysis, estimated permeation amount with the authors' data was one order less than that with the previous data at the end of lifetime of the divertor due to authors' small diffusion coefficient of tritium in tungsten. It also indicated the possibility that permeation through the slit region of the armor tiles could dominate total permeation through the vertical target, since tritium permeation amount through tungsten armor with the authors' data was estimated to be reduced drastically smaller than that with the previous evaluation data. The result of a little tritium permeation amount through the vertical target with the authors' data ensured the conservatism of the current evaluation of tritium concentration in the primary cooling water in ITER divertor, as it indicated the possibility of direct drainage of the divertor primary cooling water. (author)

  8. Identifying co-targets to fight drug resistance based on a random walk model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liang-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance has now posed more severe and emergent threats to human health and infectious disease treatment. However, wet-lab approaches alone to counter drug resistance have so far still achieved limited success due to less knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance. Our approach apply a heuristic search algorithm in order to extract active network under drug treatment and use a random walk model to identify potential co-targets for effective antibacterial drugs. Results We use interactome network of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and gene expression data which are treated with two kinds of antibiotic, Isoniazid and Ethionamide as our test data. Our analysis shows that the active drug-treated networks are associated with the trigger of fatty acid metabolism and synthesis and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH-related processes and those results are consistent with the recent experimental findings. Efflux pumps processes appear to be the major mechanisms of resistance but SOS response is significantly up-regulation under Isoniazid treatment. We also successfully identify the potential co-targets with literature confirmed evidences which are related to the glycine-rich membrane, adenosine triphosphate energy and cell wall processes. Conclusions With gene expression and interactome data supported, our study points out possible pathways leading to the emergence of drug resistance under drug treatment. We develop a computational workflow for giving new insights to bacterial drug resistance which can be gained by a systematic and global analysis of the bacterial regulation network. Our study also discovers the potential co-targets with good properties in biological and graph theory aspects to overcome the problem of drug resistance.

  9. Study of A New Method for Vision Based Robot Target-Tracking Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Focused on several problems during robot target tracking, and proposed a new kind of scheme and algorithm for it. The hybrid systematic structure reduces the control complexity and guarantees the tracking effectiveness as well as the control stability. The convergence and the feasibility of the algorithm are analyzed and proofed thoroughly. An on-line updating method for navigation coefficient is presented. Finally, the control scheme and proposed algorithm is applied to the real robotic system. The simulation and experimental results show its effectiveness.

  10. Surface Complexation-Based Biocompatible Magnetofluorescent Nanoprobe for Targeted Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Satyapriya; Khandelia, Rumi; Pan, Uday Narayan; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2015-08-19

    We report the synthesis of a magnetofluorescent biocompatible nanoprobe-following room temperature complexation reaction between Fe3O4-ZnS nanocomposite and 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ). The composite nanoprobe exhibited high luminescence quantum yield, low rate of photobleaching, reasonable excited-state lifetime, luminescence stability especially in human blood serum, superparamagnetism and no apparent cytotoxicity. Moreover, the nanoprobe could be used for spatio-controlled cell labeling in the presence of an external magnetic field. The ease of synthesis and cell labeling in vitro make it a suitable candidate for targeted bioimaging applications. PMID:26226317

  11. Advancing the sensitivity of selected reaction monitoring-based targeted quantitative proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Tujin; Su, Dian; Liu, Tao; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)—also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)—has emerged as a promising high-throughput targeted protein quantification technology for candidate biomarker verification and systems biology applications. A major bottleneck for current SRM technology, however, is insufficient sensitivity for e.g., detecting low-abundance biomarkers likely present at the low ng/mL to pg/mL range in human blood plasma or serum, or extremely low-abundance signaling proteins in...

  12. Economic gains from targeting measures based on detailed nitrate reduction maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Anne Lausten

    2015-01-01

    is the highest. The purpose of the NiCA project has been to estimate the nitrate reduction potential in greater detail than before using a plot size of 1-25 ha. This article builds on these findings and presents the possible economic gains to the farmer when using this information. Targeted measures...... are especially relevant where the N reduction at the field level varies largely within the same farm. In this paper, the knowledge of spatial variation in N-reduction potential is used to plan where to place measures such as catch crops or set a side in order to gain the largest effect. The detailed N...

  13. Biosafety research for non-target organism risk assessment of RNAi-based GE plants

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Andrew F.; DEVOS Yann; Lemgo, Godwin N. Y.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) with complementarity to sequences in genes targeted for silencing. The use of the RNAi mechanism to develop new traits in plan...

  14. Target Tracking for Visual Servoing Systems Based on an Adaptive Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Liu; Xinhan Huang; Min Wang

    2012-01-01

    Visual servoing has been around for decades, but time delay is still one of the most troublesome problems to achieve target tracking. To circumvent the problem, in this paper, the Kalman filter is employed to estimate the future position of the object. In order to introduce the Kalman filter, accurate time delays, which include the processing lag and the motion lag, need to be obtained. Thus, the delays of the visual control servoing systems are discussed and a generic timing model for the sy...

  15. Forward vaccinology: CTL targeting based upon physical detection of HLA-bound peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis L Reinherz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine-elicited cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL recognizing conserved fragments of a pathogen's proteome could greatly impact infectious diseases and cancers. Enabling this potential are recent advances in mass spectrometry that identify specific target peptides among the myriad HLA-bound peptides on altered cells. Ultrasensitivity of these physical detection methods allows for the direct assessment of peptide presentation on small numbers of tissue-derived cells. In addition, concurrent advances in immunobiology suggest ways to induce CTLs with requisite functional avidity and tissue deployment. Elicitation of high avidity resident memory T cells through vaccination may shift the vaccinology paradigm both for preventive and therapeutic approaches to human disease control.

  16. A New MCMC Sampling Based Segment Model for Radar Target Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hadavi; Radmard, M.; Nayebi, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main tools in radar target recognition is high resolution range profile (HRRP)‎. ‎However‎, ‎it is very sensitive to the aspect angle‎. ‎One solution to this problem is to assume the consecutive samples of HRRP identically independently distributed (IID) in small frames of aspect angles‎, ‎an assumption which is not true in reality‎. ‎However, b‎‎ased on this assumption‎, ‎some models have been developed to characterize the sequential information contained in the multi-aspect radar...

  17. Validation of a personalized dosimetric evaluation tool (Oedipe) for targeted radiotherapy based on the Monte Carlo MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetric studies are necessary for all patients treated with targeted radiotherapy. In order to attain the precision required, we have developed Oedipe, a dosimetric tool based on the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The anatomy of each patient is considered in the form of a voxel-based geometry created using computed tomography (CT) images or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Oedipe enables dosimetry studies to be carried out at the voxel scale. Validation of the results obtained by comparison with existing methods is complex because there are multiple sources of variation: calculation methods (different Monte Carlo codes, point kernel), patient representations (model or specific) and geometry definitions (mathematical or voxel-based). In this paper, we validate Oedipe by taking each of these parameters into account independently. Monte Carlo methodology requires long calculation times, particularly in the case of voxel-based geometries, and this is one of the limits of personalized dosimetric methods. However, our results show that the use of voxel-based geometry as opposed to a mathematically defined geometry decreases the calculation time two-fold, due to an optimization of the MCNPX2.5e code. It is therefore possible to envisage the use of Oedipe for personalized dosimetry in the clinical context of targeted radiotherapy

  18. Preconceptual design of liquid metal targets with diaphragm for accelerator-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preconceptual design of liquid lead-bismuth targets has been carried out for proton beam power 1-25 MW. The experience gained by SSCRF-IPPE and RDB 'Gidropress' in design, fabrication and exploitation of NNP with lead-bismuth was used in this design. The design of heat exchange equipment was developed in the form of integrated units including primary pumps, heat exchangers with Fild tubes, volume compensator. The comparative design was carried out with lead instead of lead-bismuth. This cause the diaphragm temperature 150 deg C higher than the one for lead-bismuth. The use of lead will require a lot of additional investigations of corrosion, mass transfer and coolant technology. Some results of thermohydraulic calculations are presented for velocity and temperature fields in the diaphragm area. These data were obtained using the SIMAX code, newly developed. The main technical parameters of liquid metal target for power 10 and 20 MW are presented. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Increasing the Target Prediction Accuracy of MicroRNA Based on Combination of Prediction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Q. Shatnawi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA is an oligonucleotide that plays a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases (mentioning Cancer. It is a non-coding RNA that is involved in the control of gene expression through the binding and inhibition of mRNA. In this study, three algorithms were implemented in WEKA software using two testing modes to analyze five datasets of miRNA families. The data mining techniques are used to compare the interactions of miRNA-mRNA that it either belongs to the same gene-family or to different families, and to establish a biological scheme that explains how the biological parameters are involved or less involved in miRNA-mRNA prediction. The factors that were involved in the prediction process includs match, mismatch, bulge, loop, and score to represent the binding characteristics, while the position, 3’UTR length, and chromosomal location and chromosomal categorizations represent the characteristics of the target mRNA. These attributes can provide an empirical guidance for study of specific miRNA family to scan the whole human genome for novel targets. This research provides promising results that can be utilized for current and future research in this field.

  20. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.