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Sample records for based audio steganography

  1. AUDIO CRYPTANALYSIS- AN APPLICATION OF SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY AND AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY

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    Smita Paira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent trend of network and technology, “Cryptography” and “Steganography” have emerged out as the essential elements of providing network security. Although Cryptography plays a major role in the fabrication and modification of the secret message into an encrypted version yet it has certain drawbacks. Steganography is the art that meets one of the basic limitations of Cryptography. In this paper, a new algorithm has been proposed based on both Symmetric Key Cryptography and Audio Steganography. The combination of a randomly generated Symmetric Key along with LSB technique of Audio Steganography sends a secret message unrecognizable through an insecure medium. The Stego File generated is almost lossless giving a 100 percent recovery of the original message. This paper also presents a detailed experimental analysis of the algorithm with a brief comparison with other existing algorithms and a future scope. The experimental verification and security issues are promising.

  2. Implementation and Analysis Audio Steganography Used Parity Coding for Symmetric Cryptography Key Delivery

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    Afany Zeinata Firdaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's era of communication, online data transactions is increasing. Various information even more accessible, both upload and download. Because it takes a capable security system. Blowfish cryptographic equipped with Audio Steganography is one way to secure the data so that the data can not be accessed by unauthorized parties. In this study Audio Steganography technique is implemented using parity coding method that is used to send the key cryptography blowfish in e-commerce applications based on Android. The results obtained for the average computation time on stage insertion (embedding the secret message is shorter than the average computation time making phase (extracting the secret message. From the test results can also be seen that the more the number of characters pasted the greater the noise received, where the highest SNR is obtained when a character is inserted as many as 506 characters is equal to 11.9905 dB, while the lowest SNR obtained when a character is inserted as many as 2006 characters at 5,6897 dB . Keywords: audio steganograph, parity coding, embedding, extractin, cryptography blowfih.

  3. An Efficient Method for Image and Audio Steganography using Least Significant Bit (LSB) Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Ankit; Satam, Neha; Sood, Rakshak; Bade, Dattatray

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve the data hiding in all types of multimedia data formats such as image and audio and to make hidden message imperceptible, a novel method for steganography is introduced in this paper. It is based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) manipulation and inclusion of redundant noise as secret key in the message. This method is applied to data hiding in images. For data hiding in audio, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) both are used. All the results displayed prove to be time-efficient and effective. Also the algorithm is tested for various numbers of bits. For those values of bits, Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) are calculated and plotted. Experimental results show that the stego-image is visually indistinguishable from the original cover-image when nsteganography process does not reveal presence of any hidden message, thus qualifying the criteria of imperceptible message.

  4. PIXEL PATTERN BASED STEGANOGRAPHY ON IMAGES

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    R. Rejani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the drawback of most of the existing steganography methods is that it alters the bits used for storing color information. Some of the examples include LSB or MSB based steganography. There are also various existing methods like Dynamic RGB Intensity Based Steganography Scheme, Secure RGB Image Steganography from Pixel Indicator to Triple Algorithm etc that can be used to find out the steganography method used and break it. Another drawback of the existing methods is that it adds noise to the image which makes the image look dull or grainy making it suspicious for a person about existence of a hidden message within the image. To overcome these shortcomings we have come up with a pixel pattern based steganography which involved hiding the message within in image by using the existing RGB values whenever possible at pixel level or with minimum changes. Along with the image a key will also be used to decrypt the message stored at pixel levels. For further protection, both the message stored as well as the key file will be in encrypted format which can have same or different keys or decryption. Hence we call it as a RGB pixel pattern based steganography.

  5. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography

  6. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp

    2015-06-05

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.

  7. LSB Based Quantum Image Steganography Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Zhao, Na; Wang, Luo

    2016-01-01

    Quantum steganography is the technique which hides a secret message into quantum covers such as quantum images. In this paper, two blind LSB steganography algorithms in the form of quantum circuits are proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR) for quantum images. One algorithm is plain LSB which uses the message bits to substitute for the pixels' LSB directly. The other is block LSB which embeds a message bit into a number of pixels that belong to one image block. The extracting circuits can regain the secret message only according to the stego cover. Analysis and simulation-based experimental results demonstrate that the invisibility is good, and the balance between the capacity and the robustness can be adjusted according to the needs of applications.

  8. Progressive Exponential Clustering-Based Steganography

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    Li Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cluster indexing-based steganography is an important branch of data-hiding techniques. Such schemes normally achieve good balance between high embedding capacity and low embedding distortion. However, most cluster indexing-based steganographic schemes utilise less efficient clustering algorithms for embedding data, which causes redundancy and leaves room for increasing the embedding capacity further. In this paper, a new clustering algorithm, called progressive exponential clustering (PEC, is applied to increase the embedding capacity by avoiding redundancy. Meanwhile, a cluster expansion algorithm is also developed in order to further increase the capacity without sacrificing imperceptibility.

  9. Secure Image Steganography Algorithm Based on DCT with OTP Encryption

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    De Rosal Ignatius Moses Setiadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of Internet makes transactions message even easier and faster. The main problem in the transactions message is security, especially if the message is private and secret. To secure these messages is usually done with steganography or cryptography. Steganography is a way to hide messages into other digital content such as images, video or audio so it does not seem nondescript from the outside. While cryptography is a technique to encrypt messages so that messages can not be read directly. In this paper have proposed combination of steganography using discrete cosine transform (DCT and cryptography using the one-time pad or vernam cipher implemented on a digital image. The measurement method used to determine the quality of stego image is the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and ormalize cross Correlation (NCC to measure the quality of the extraction of the decrypted message. Of steganography and encryption methods proposed obtained satisfactory results with PSNR and NCC high and resistant to JPEG compression and median filter. Keywords—Image Steganography, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT, One Time Pad, Vernam, Chiper, Image Cryptography

  10. New LSB-based colour image steganography method to enhance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mustafa Cem kasapbaşi

    2018-04-27

    Apr 27, 2018 ... evaluate the proposed method, comparative performance tests are carried out against different spatial image ... image steganography applications based on LSB are ..... worst case scenario could occur when having highest.

  11. A novel quantum LSB-based steganography method using the Gray code for colored quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shahrokh; Farzadnia, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    As one of the prevalent data-hiding techniques, steganography is defined as the act of concealing secret information in a cover multimedia encompassing text, image, video and audio, imperceptibly, in order to perform interaction between the sender and the receiver in which nobody except the receiver can figure out the secret data. In this approach a quantum LSB-based steganography method utilizing the Gray code for quantum RGB images is investigated. This method uses the Gray code to accommodate two secret qubits in 3 LSBs of each pixel simultaneously according to reference tables. Experimental consequences which are analyzed in MATLAB environment, exhibit that the present schema shows good performance and also it is more secure and applicable than the previous one currently found in the literature.

  12. Steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition

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    Abdulla, Alan Anwar; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition. A number of existing schemes such as binary, Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, Lucas, and Catalan-Fibonacci (CF) are evaluated in terms of payload capacity and stego quality. A new technique based on a specific representation is proposed to decompose pixel intensity values into 16 (virtual) bit-planes suitable for embedding purposes. The proposed decomposition has a desirable property whereby the sum of all bit-planes does not exceed the maximum pixel intensity value, i.e. 255. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique offers an effective compromise between payload capacity and stego quality of existing embedding techniques based on pixel intensity value decomposition. Its capacity is equal to that of binary and Lucas, while it offers a higher capacity than Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, and CF when the secret bits are embedded in 1st Least Significant Bit (LSB). When the secret bits are embedded in higher bit-planes, i.e., 2nd LSB to 8th Most Significant Bit (MSB), the proposed scheme has more capacity than Natural numbers based embedding. However, from the 6th bit-plane onwards, the proposed scheme offers better stego quality. In general, the proposed decomposition scheme has less effect in terms of quality on pixel value when compared to most existing pixel intensity value decomposition techniques when embedding messages in higher bit-planes.

  13. Online Voting System Based on Image Steganography and Visual Cryptography

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    Biju Issac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the implementation of an online voting system based on image steganography and visual cryptography. The system was implemented in Java EE on a web-based interface, with MySQL database server and Glassfish application server as the backend. After considering the requirements of an online voting system, current technologies on electronic voting schemes in published literature were examined. Next, the cryptographic and steganography techniques best suited for the requirements of the voting system were chosen, and the software was implemented. We have incorporated in our system techniques like the password hashed based scheme, visual cryptography, F5 image steganography and threshold decryption cryptosystem. The analysis, design and implementation phase of the software development of the voting system is discussed in detail. We have also used a questionnaire survey and did the user acceptance testing of the system.

  14. Improved Adaptive LSB Steganography Based on Chaos and Genetic Algorithm

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    Yu, Lifang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Li, Ting

    2010-12-01

    We propose a novel steganographic method in JPEG images with high performance. Firstly, we propose improved adaptive LSB steganography, which can achieve high capacity while preserving the first-order statistics. Secondly, in order to minimize visual degradation of the stego image, we shuffle bits-order of the message based on chaos whose parameters are selected by the genetic algorithm. Shuffling message's bits-order provides us with a new way to improve the performance of steganography. Experimental results show that our method outperforms classical steganographic methods in image quality, while preserving characteristics of histogram and providing high capacity.

  15. Improved Adaptive LSB Steganography Based on Chaos and Genetic Algorithm

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    Yu Lifang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel steganographic method in JPEG images with high performance. Firstly, we propose improved adaptive LSB steganography, which can achieve high capacity while preserving the first-order statistics. Secondly, in order to minimize visual degradation of the stego image, we shuffle bits-order of the message based on chaos whose parameters are selected by the genetic algorithm. Shuffling message's bits-order provides us with a new way to improve the performance of steganography. Experimental results show that our method outperforms classical steganographic methods in image quality, while preserving characteristics of histogram and providing high capacity.

  16. Improved chaos-based video steganography using DNA alphabets

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    Nirmalya Kar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA based steganography plays a vital role in the field of privacy and secure communication. Here, we propose a DNA properties-based mechanism to send data hidden inside a video file. Initially, the video file is converted into image frames. Random frames are then selected and data is hidden in these at random locations by using the Least Significant Bit substitution method. We analyze the proposed architecture in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio as well as mean squared error measured between the original and steganographic files averaged over all video frames. The results show minimal degradation of the steganographic video file. Keywords: Chaotic map, DNA, Linear congruential generator, Video steganography, Least significant bit

  17. Combination Base64 Algorithm and EOF Technique for Steganography

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    Rahim, Robbi; Nurdiyanto, Heri; Hidayat, Rahmat; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Siregar, Dodi; Putera Utama Siahaan, Andysah; Faisal, Ilham; Rahman, Sayuti; Suita, Diana; Zamsuri, Ahmad; Abdullah, Dahlan; Napitupulu, Darmawan; Ikhsan Setiawan, Muhammad; Sriadhi, S.

    2018-04-01

    The steganography process combines mathematics and computer science. Steganography consists of a set of methods and techniques to embed the data into another media so that the contents are unreadable to anyone who does not have the authority to read these data. The main objective of the use of base64 method is to convert any file in order to achieve privacy. This paper discusses a steganography and encoding method using base64, which is a set of encoding schemes that convert the same binary data to the form of a series of ASCII code. Also, the EoF technique is used to embed encoding text performed by Base64. As an example, for the mechanisms a file is used to represent the texts, and by using the two methods together will increase the security level for protecting the data, this research aims to secure many types of files in a particular media with a good security and not to damage the stored files and coverage media that used.

  18. Video steganography based on bit-plane decomposition of wavelet-transformed video

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    Noda, Hideki; Furuta, Tomofumi; Niimi, Michiharu; Kawaguchi, Eiji

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents a steganography method using lossy compressed video which provides a natural way to send a large amount of secret data. The proposed method is based on wavelet compression for video data and bit-plane complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. BPCS steganography makes use of bit-plane decomposition and the characteristics of the human vision system, where noise-like regions in bit-planes of a dummy image are replaced with secret data without deteriorating image quality. In wavelet-based video compression methods such as 3-D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and Motion-JPEG2000, wavelet coefficients in discrete wavelet transformed video are quantized into a bit-plane structure and therefore BPCS steganography can be applied in the wavelet domain. 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography and Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS steganography are presented and tested, which are the integration of 3-D SPIHT video coding and BPCS steganography, and that of Motion-JPEG2000 and BPCS, respectively. Experimental results show that 3-D SPIHT-BPCS is superior to Motion-JPEG2000-BPCS with regard to embedding performance. In 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography, embedding rates of around 28% of the compressed video size are achieved for twelve bit representation of wavelet coefficients with no noticeable degradation in video quality.

  19. Implementation of IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY Based on Random LSB

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish kumari; Shyama Sharma; Navdeep Bohra

    2012-01-01

    Steganography is the technique of hiding a private message within a file in such a manner that third party cannot know the existence of matter or the hidden information. The purpose of Steganography is to create secrete communication between the sender and the receiver byreplacing the least significant bits (LSB)of the cover image with the data bits. And in this paper we have shown that how image steganography (random and sequential LSB) works and practical understanding of what image Stegano...

  20. A Learning-Based Steganalytic Method against LSB Matching Steganography

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    Z. Xia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the detection of spatial domain least significant bit (LSB matching steganography in gray images. Natural images hold some inherent properties, such as histogram, dependence between neighboring pixels, and dependence among pixels that are not adjacent to each other. These properties are likely to be disturbed by LSB matching. Firstly, histogram will become smoother after LSB matching. Secondly, the two kinds of dependence will be weakened by the message embedding. Accordingly, three features, which are respectively based on image histogram, neighborhood degree histogram and run-length histogram, are extracted at first. Then, support vector machine is utilized to learn and discriminate the difference of features between cover and stego images. Experimental results prove that the proposed method possesses reliable detection ability and outperforms the two previous state-of-the-art methods. Further more, the conclusions are drawn by analyzing the individual performance of three features and their fused feature.

  1. A Novel Quantum Image Steganography Scheme Based on LSB

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    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Luo, Jia; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen

    2018-06-01

    Based on the NEQR representation of quantum images and least significant bit (LSB) scheme, a novel quantum image steganography scheme is proposed. The sizes of the cover image and the original information image are assumed to be 4 n × 4 n and n × n, respectively. Firstly, the bit-plane scrambling method is used to scramble the original information image. Then the scrambled information image is expanded to the same size of the cover image by using the key only known to the operator. The expanded image is scrambled to be a meaningless image with the Arnold scrambling. The embedding procedure and extracting procedure are carried out by K 1 and K 2 which are under control of the operator. For validation of the presented scheme, the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), the capacity, the security of the images and the circuit complexity are analyzed.

  2. Wavelet-based audio embedding and audio/video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael J.; Claypoole, Roger L., Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Watermarking, traditionally used for copyright protection, is used in a new and exciting way. An efficient wavelet-based watermarking technique embeds audio information into a video signal. Several effective compression techniques are applied to compress the resulting audio/video signal in an embedded fashion. This wavelet-based compression algorithm incorporates bit-plane coding, index coding, and Huffman coding. To demonstrate the potential of this audio embedding and audio/video compression algorithm, we embed an audio signal into a video signal and then compress. Results show that overall compression rates of 15:1 can be achieved. The video signal is reconstructed with a median PSNR of nearly 33 dB. Finally, the audio signal is extracted from the compressed audio/video signal without error.

  3. A Survey on different techniques of steganography

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    Kaur Harpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is important due to the exponential development and secret communication of potential computer users over the internet. Steganography is the art of invisible communication to keep secret information inside other information. Steganalysis is the technology that attempts to ruin the Steganography by detecting the hidden information and extracting.Steganography is the process of Data embedding in the images, text/documented, audio and video files. The paper also highlights the security improved by applying various techniques of video steganography.

  4. LSB-Based Steganography Using Reflected Gray Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Chu; Chang, Chin-Chen

    Steganography aims to hide secret data into an innocuous cover-medium for transmission and to make the attacker cannot recognize the presence of secret data easily. Even the stego-medium is captured by the eavesdropper, the slight distortion is hard to be detected. The LSB-based data hiding is one of the steganographic methods, used to embed the secret data into the least significant bits of the pixel values in a cover image. In this paper, we propose an LSB-based scheme using reflected-Gray code, which can be applied to determine the embedded bit from secret information. Following the transforming rule, the LSBs of stego-image are not always equal to the secret bits and the experiment shows that the differences are up to almost 50%. According to the mathematical deduction and experimental results, the proposed scheme has the same image quality and payload as the simple LSB substitution scheme. In fact, our proposed data hiding scheme in the case of G1 (one bit Gray code) system is equivalent to the simple LSB substitution scheme.

  5. A NEW TECHNIQUE BASED ON CHAOTIC STEGANOGRAPHY AND ENCRYPTION TEXT IN DCT DOMAIN FOR COLOR IMAGE

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    MELAD J. SAEED

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Image steganography is the art of hiding information into a cover image. This paper presents a new technique based on chaotic steganography and encryption text in DCT domain for color image, where DCT is used to transform original image (cover image from spatial domain to frequency domain. This technique used chaotic function in two phases; firstly; for encryption secret message, second; for embedding in DCT cover image. With this new technique, good results are obtained through satisfying the important properties of steganography such as: imperceptibility; improved by having mean square error (MSE, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and normalized correlation (NC, to phase and capacity; improved by encoding the secret message characters with variable length codes and embedding the secret message in one level of color image only.

  6. Secured Data Transmission Using Wavelet Based Steganography and cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ravindra Reddy; Ms Shaik Taj Mahaboob

    2014-01-01

    Steganography and cryptographic methods are used together with wavelets to increase the security of the data while transmitting through networks. Another technology, the digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital (image) signal. Before embedding the plain text into the image, the plain text is encrypted by using Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm. The encrypted text is embedded into the LL sub band of the wavelet decomposed image using Le...

  7. LSB-based Steganography Using Reflected Gray Code for Color Quantum Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panchi; Lu, Aiping

    2018-02-01

    At present, the classical least-significant-bit (LSB) based image steganography has been extended to quantum image processing. For the existing LSB-based quantum image steganography schemes, the embedding capacity is no more than 3 bits per pixel. Therefore, it is meaningful to study how to improve the embedding capacity of quantum image steganography. This work presents a novel LSB-based steganography using reflected Gray code for colored quantum images, and the embedding capacity of this scheme is up to 4 bits per pixel. In proposed scheme, the secret qubit sequence is considered as a sequence of 4-bit segments. For the four bits in each segment, the first bit is embedded in the second LSB of B channel of the cover image, and and the remaining three bits are embedded in LSB of RGB channels of each color pixel simultaneously using reflected-Gray code to determine the embedded bit from secret information. Following the transforming rule, the LSB of stego-image are not always same as the secret bits and the differences are up to almost 50%. Experimental results confirm that the proposed scheme shows good performance and outperforms the previous ones currently found in the literature in terms of embedding capacity.

  8. A Novel AMR-WB Speech Steganography Based on Diameter-Neighbor Codebook Partition

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    Junhui He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a means of covert communication without revealing the occurrence and the real purpose of communication. The adaptive multirate wideband (AMR-WB is a widely adapted format in mobile handsets and is also the recommended speech codec for VoLTE. In this paper, a novel AMR-WB speech steganography is proposed based on diameter-neighbor codebook partition algorithm. Different embedding capacity may be achieved by adjusting the iterative parameters during codebook division. The experimental results prove that the presented AMR-WB steganography may provide higher and flexible embedding capacity without inducing perceptible distortion compared with the state-of-the-art methods. With 48 iterations of cluster merging, twice the embedding capacity of complementary-neighbor-vertices-based embedding method may be obtained with a decrease of only around 2% in speech quality and much the same undetectability. Moreover, both the quality of stego speech and the security regarding statistical steganalysis are better than the recent speech steganography based on neighbor-index-division codebook partition.

  9. A Novel Approach for Arabic Text Steganography Based on the “BloodGroup” Text Hiding Method

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    S. Malalla,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science of hiding certain messages (data in groups of irrelevant data possibly of other form. The purpose of steganography is covert communication to hide the existence of a message from an intermediary. Text Steganography is the process of embedding secret message (text in another text (cover text so that the existence of secret message cannot be detected by a third party. This paper presents a novel approach for text steganography using the Blood Group (BG method based on the behavior of blood group. Experimentally it is found that the proposed method got good results in capacity, hiding capacity, time complexity, robustness, visibility, and similarity which shows its superiority as compared to most several existing methods.

  10. Wireless steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Akopian, David; D'Souza, Sunil

    2006-02-01

    Modern mobile devices are some of the most technologically advanced devices that people use on a daily basis and the current trends in mobile phone technology indicate that tasks achievable by mobile devices will soon exceed our imagination. This paper undertakes a case study of the development and implementation of one of the first known steganography (data hiding) applications on a mobile device. Steganography is traditionally accomplished using the high processing speeds of desktop or notebook computers. With the introduction of mobile platform operating systems, there arises an opportunity for the users to develop and embed their own applications. We take advantage of this opportunity with the introduction of wireless steganographic algorithms. Thus we demonstrates that custom applications, popular with security establishments, can be developed also on mobile systems independent of both the mobile device manufacturer and mobile service provider. For example, this might be a very important feature if the communication is to be controlled exclusively by authorized personnel. The paper begins by reviewing the technological capabilities of modern mobile devices. Then we address a suitable development platform which is based on Symbian TM/Series60 TM architecture. Finally, two data hiding applications developed for Symbian TM/Series60 TM mobile phones are presented.

  11. Digital watermarking and steganography fundamentals and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Frank Y

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Digital Watermarking Digital Steganography Differences between Watermarking and Steganography A Brief History Appendix: Selected List of Books on Watermarking and Steganography Classification in Digital Watermarking Classification Based on Characteristics Classification Based on Applications Mathematical Preliminaries  Least-Significant-Bit Substitution Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) Discrete Cosine Transform Discrete Wavelet Transform Random Sequence Generation  The Chaotic M

  12. Adaptive steganography

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    Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Li, Grace; Memon, Nasir D.

    2002-04-01

    Steganalysis techniques attempt to differentiate between stego-objects and cover-objects. In recent work we developed an explicit analytic upper bound for the steganographic capacity of LSB based steganographic techniques for a given false probability of detection. In this paper we look at adaptive steganographic techniques. Adaptive steganographic techniques take explicit steps to escape detection. We explore different techniques that can be used to adapt message embedding to the image content or to a known steganalysis technique. We investigate the advantages of adaptive steganography within an analytical framework. We also give experimental results with a state-of-the-art steganalysis technique demonstrating that adaptive embedding results in a significant number of bits embedded without detection.

  13. Detection of LSB+/-1 steganography based on co-occurrence matrix and bit plane clipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Mojtaba; Aghaeinia, Hassan; Faez, Karim; Mehrabi, Mohammad Ali

    2010-01-01

    Spatial LSB+/-1 steganography changes smooth characteristics between adjoining pixels of the raw image. We present a novel steganalysis method for LSB+/-1 steganography based on feature vectors derived from the co-occurrence matrix in the spatial domain. We investigate how LSB+/-1 steganography affects the bit planes of an image and show that it changes more least significant bit (LSB) planes of it. The co-occurrence matrix is derived from an image in which some of its most significant bit planes are clipped. By this preprocessing, in addition to reducing the dimensions of the feature vector, the effects of embedding were also preserved. We compute the co-occurrence matrix in different directions and with different dependency and use the elements of the resulting co-occurrence matrix as features. This method is sensitive to the data embedding process. We use a Fisher linear discrimination (FLD) classifier and test our algorithm on different databases and embedding rates. We compare our scheme with the current LSB+/-1 steganalysis methods. It is shown that the proposed scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in detecting the LSB+/-1 steganographic method for grayscale images.

  14. Quantum color image watermarking based on Arnold transformation and LSB steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Hu, Wenwen; Fan, Ping; Luo, Gaofeng

    In this paper, a quantum color image watermarking scheme is proposed through twice-scrambling of Arnold transformations and steganography of least significant bit (LSB). Both carrier image and watermark images are represented by the novel quantum representation of color digital images model (NCQI). The image sizes for carrier and watermark are assumed to be 2n×2n and 2n‑1×2n‑1, respectively. At first, the watermark is scrambled into a disordered form through image preprocessing technique of exchanging the image pixel position and altering the color information based on Arnold transforms, simultaneously. Then, the scrambled watermark with 2n‑1×2n‑1 image size and 24-qubit grayscale is further expanded to an image with size 2n×2n and 6-qubit grayscale using the nearest-neighbor interpolation method. Finally, the scrambled and expanded watermark is embedded into the carrier by steganography of LSB scheme, and a key image with 2n×2n size and 3-qubit information is generated at the meantime, which only can use the key image to retrieve the original watermark. The extraction of watermark is the reverse process of embedding, which is achieved by applying a sequence of operations in the reverse order. Simulation-based experimental results involving different carrier and watermark images (i.e. conventional or non-quantum) are simulated based on the classical computer’s MATLAB 2014b software, which illustrates that the present method has a good performance in terms of three items: visual quality, robustness and steganography capacity.

  15. Quantum Image Steganography and Steganalysis Based On LSQu-Blocks Image Information Concealing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. AL-Salhi, Yahya E.; Lu, Songfeng

    2016-08-01

    Quantum steganography can solve some problems that are considered inefficient in image information concealing. It researches on Quantum image information concealing to have been widely exploited in recent years. Quantum image information concealing can be categorized into quantum image digital blocking, quantum image stereography, anonymity and other branches. Least significant bit (LSB) information concealing plays vital roles in the classical world because many image information concealing algorithms are designed based on it. Firstly, based on the novel enhanced quantum representation (NEQR), image uniform blocks clustering around the concrete the least significant Qu-block (LSQB) information concealing algorithm for quantum image steganography is presented. Secondly, a clustering algorithm is proposed to optimize the concealment of important data. Finally, we used Con-Steg algorithm to conceal the clustered image blocks. Information concealing located on the Fourier domain of an image can achieve the security of image information, thus we further discuss the Fourier domain LSQu-block information concealing algorithm for quantum image based on Quantum Fourier Transforms. In our algorithms, the corresponding unitary Transformations are designed to realize the aim of concealing the secret information to the least significant Qu-block representing color of the quantum cover image. Finally, the procedures of extracting the secret information are illustrated. Quantum image LSQu-block image information concealing algorithm can be applied in many fields according to different needs.

  16. Bit Plane Coding based Steganography Technique for JPEG2000 Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kasana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Bit Plane Coding (BPC based steganography technique for JPEG2000 images and Motion JPEG2000 video is proposed. Embedding in this technique is performed in the lowest significant bit planes of the wavelet coefficients of a cover image. In JPEG2000 standard, the number of bit planes of wavelet coefficients to be used in encoding is dependent on the compression rate and are used in Tier-2 process of JPEG2000. In the proposed technique, Tier-1 and Tier-2 processes of JPEG2000 and Motion JPEG2000 are executed twice on the encoder side to collect the information about the lowest bit planes of all code blocks of a cover image, which is utilized in embedding and transmitted to the decoder. After embedding secret data, Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP is applied on stego images to enhance its visual quality. Experimental results show that proposed technique provides large embedding capacity and better visual quality of stego images than existing steganography techniques for JPEG2000 compressed images and videos. Extracted secret image is similar to the original secret image.

  17. A Novel Quantum Video Steganography Protocol with Large Payload Based on MCQI Quantum Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhiguo; Chen, Siyi; Ji, Sai

    2017-11-01

    As one of important multimedia forms in quantum network, quantum video attracts more and more attention of experts and scholars in the world. A secure quantum video steganography protocol with large payload based on the video strip encoding method called as MCQI (Multi-Channel Quantum Images) is proposed in this paper. The new protocol randomly embeds the secret information with the form of quantum video into quantum carrier video on the basis of unique features of video frames. It exploits to embed quantum video as secret information for covert communication. As a result, its capacity are greatly expanded compared with the previous quantum steganography achievements. Meanwhile, the new protocol also achieves good security and imperceptibility by virtue of the randomization of embedding positions and efficient use of redundant frames. Furthermore, the receiver enables to extract secret information from stego video without retaining the original carrier video, and restore the original quantum video as a follow. The simulation and experiment results prove that the algorithm not only has good imperceptibility, high security, but also has large payload.

  18. A high capacity text steganography scheme based on LZW compression and color coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Malik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, capacity and security issues of text steganography have been considered by employing LZW compression technique and color coding based approach. The proposed technique uses the forward mail platform to hide the secret data. This algorithm first compresses secret data and then hides the compressed secret data into the email addresses and also in the cover message of the email. The secret data bits are embedded in the message (or cover text by making it colored using a color coding table. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only produces a high embedding capacity but also reduces computational complexity. Moreover, the security of the proposed method is significantly improved by employing stego keys. The superiority of the proposed method has been experimentally verified by comparing with recently developed existing techniques.

  19. Forensic analysis of video steganography tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sloan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art and science of concealing information in such a way that only the sender and intended recipient of a message should be aware of its presence. Digital steganography has been used in the past on a variety of media including executable files, audio, text, games and, notably, images. Additionally, there is increasing research interest towards the use of video as a media for steganography, due to its pervasive nature and diverse embedding capabilities. In this work, we examine the embedding algorithms and other security characteristics of several video steganography tools. We show how all feature basic and severe security weaknesses. This is potentially a very serious threat to the security, privacy and anonymity of their users. It is important to highlight that most steganography users have perfectly legal and ethical reasons to employ it. Some common scenarios would include citizens in oppressive regimes whose freedom of speech is compromised, people trying to avoid massive surveillance or censorship, political activists, whistle blowers, journalists, etc. As a result of our findings, we strongly recommend ceasing any use of these tools, and to remove any contents that may have been hidden, and any carriers stored, exchanged and/or uploaded online. For many of these tools, carrier files will be trivial to detect, potentially compromising any hidden data and the parties involved in the communication. We finish this work by presenting our steganalytic results, that highlight a very poor current state of the art in practical video steganography tools. There is unfortunately a complete lack of secure and publicly available tools, and even commercial tools offer very poor security. We therefore encourage the steganography community to work towards the development of more secure and accessible video steganography tools, and make them available for the general public. The results presented in this work can also be seen as a useful

  20. Quantum steganography with a large payload based on dense coding and entanglement swapping of Greenberger—Horne—Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Tian-Yu; Jiang Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    A quantum steganography protocol with a large payload is proposed based on the dense coding and the entanglement swapping of the Greenberger—Horne—Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Its super quantum channel is formed by building up a hidden channel within the original quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme. Based on the original QSDC, secret messages are transmitted by integrating the dense coding and the entanglement swapping of the GHZ states. The capacity of the super quantum channel achieves six bits per round covert communication, much higher than the previous quantum steganography protocols. Its imperceptibility is good, since the information and the secret messages can be regarded to be random or pseudo-random. Moreover, its security is proved to be reliable. (general)

  1. Steganography: LSB Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    of LSB steganography in grayscale and color images . In J. Dittmann, K. Nahrstedt, and P. Wohlmacher, editors, Proceedings of the ACM, Special...Fridrich, M. Gojan and R. Du paper titled “Reliable detection of LSB steganography in grayscale and color images ”. From a general perspective Figure 2...REPORT Steganography : LSB Methodology (Progress Report) 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In computer science, steganography is the science

  2. A novel JPEG steganography method based on modulus function with histogram analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Banoci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel steganographic method for embedding of secret data in still grayscale JPEG image. In order to provide large capacity of the proposed method while maintaining good visual quality of stego-image, the embedding process is performed in quantized transform coefficients of Discrete Cosine transform (DCT by modifying coefficients according to modulo function, what gives to the steganography system blind extraction predisposition. After-embedding histogram of proposed Modulo Histogram Fitting (MHF method is analyzed to secure steganography system against steganalysis attacks. In addition, AES ciphering was implemented to increase security and improve histogram after-embedding characteristics of proposed steganography system as experimental results show.

  3. A novel hash based least significant bit (2-3-3) image steganography in spatial domain

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula, G. R.; Danti, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 2-3-3 LSB insertion method. The image steganography takes the advantage of human eye limitation. It uses color image as cover media for embedding secret message.The important quality of a steganographic system is to be less distortive while increasing the size of the secret message. In this paper a method is proposed to embed a color secret image into a color cover image. A 2-3-3 LSB insertion method has been used for image steganography. Experimental results show ...

  4. A novel fuzzy logic-based image steganography method to ensure medical data security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakış, R; Güler, I; Çapraz, I; Bilir, E

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to secure medical data by combining them into one file format using steganographic methods. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is selected as hidden data, and magnetic resonance (MR) images are also used as the cover image. In addition to the EEG, the message is composed of the doctor׳s comments and patient information in the file header of images. Two new image steganography methods that are based on fuzzy-logic and similarity are proposed to select the non-sequential least significant bits (LSB) of image pixels. The similarity values of the gray levels in the pixels are used to hide the message. The message is secured to prevent attacks by using lossless compression and symmetric encryption algorithms. The performance of stego image quality is measured by mean square of error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity measure (SSIM), universal quality index (UQI), and correlation coefficient (R). According to the obtained result, the proposed method ensures the confidentiality of the patient information, and increases data repository and transmission capacity of both MR images and EEG signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards Statistically Undetectable Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    payload size. Middle, payload proportional to y/N. Right, proportional to N. LSB replacement steganography in never-compressed cover images , detected... Images for Applications in Steganography ," IEEE Trans, on Info. Forensics and Security, vol. 3(2), pp. 247-258, 2008. Conference papers. (1) T. Filler...SPLE, Electronic Imaging , Security, Forensics, Steganography , and Watermarking of Mul- timedia Contents X, San Jose, CA, January 26-31, pp. 11-1-11-13

  6. An Analysis of Perturbed Quantization Steganography in the Spatial Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Transform Domain While LSB steganography hides data in the least significant areas of image pixels, this data is not robust against lossy digital...introduced a technique for detecting least significant bit ( LSB ) steganography in digital images called RS Steganalysis. RS Steganalysis produces a...the function has the effect of additive noise similar to that introduced by pixel based LSB steganography . In clean cover images , the flipping

  7. Extreme learning machine based optimal embedding location finder for image steganography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Abdulzahra Atee

    Full Text Available In image steganography, determining the optimum location for embedding the secret message precisely with minimum distortion of the host medium remains a challenging issue. Yet, an effective approach for the selection of the best embedding location with least deformation is far from being achieved. To attain this goal, we propose a novel approach for image steganography with high-performance, where extreme learning machine (ELM algorithm is modified to create a supervised mathematical model. This ELM is first trained on a part of an image or any host medium before being tested in the regression mode. This allowed us to choose the optimal location for embedding the message with best values of the predicted evaluation metrics. Contrast, homogeneity, and other texture features are used for training on a new metric. Furthermore, the developed ELM is exploited for counter over-fitting while training. The performance of the proposed steganography approach is evaluated by computing the correlation, structural similarity (SSIM index, fusion matrices, and mean square error (MSE. The modified ELM is found to outperform the existing approaches in terms of imperceptibility. Excellent features of the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed steganographic approach is greatly proficient for preserving the visual information of an image. An improvement in the imperceptibility as much as 28% is achieved compared to the existing state of the art methods.

  8. Researcher’s Perspective of Substitution Method on Text Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir Mansor, Fawwaz; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor

    2017-08-01

    The linguistic steganography studies are still in the stage of development and empowerment practices. This paper will present several text steganography on substitution methods based on the researcher’s perspective, all scholar paper will analyse and compared. The objective of this paper is to give basic information in the substitution method of text domain steganography that has been applied by previous researchers. The typical ways of this method also will be identified in this paper to reveal the most effective method in text domain steganography. Finally, the advantage of the characteristic and drawback on these techniques in generally also presented in this paper.

  9. STEGANOGRAPHY USAGE TO CONTROL MULTIMEDIA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koziel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a proposal of new application for steganography is presented. It is possible to use steganographic techniques to control multimedia stream playback. Special control markers can be included in the sound signal and the player can detect markers and modify the playback parameters according to the hidden instructions. This solution allows for remembering user preferences within the audio track as well as allowing for preparation of various versions of the same content at the production level.

  10. Investigator's guide to steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The Investigator's Guide to Steganography provides a comprehensive look at this unique form of hidden communication from its earliest beginnings to its most modern uses. The book begins by exploring the past, providing valuable insight into how this method of communication began and evolved from ancient times to the present day. It continues with an in-depth look at the workings of digital steganography and watermarking methods, available tools on the Internet, and a review of companies who are providing cutting edge steganography and watermarking services. The third section builds on the first two by outlining and discussing real world uses of steganography from the business and entertainment to national security and terrorism. The book concludes by reviewing steganography detection methods and what can be expected in the future

  11. The Use of Audio and Animation in Computer Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a computer-based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via test or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a…

  12. Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EDGE BASED LSB MATCHING STEGANOGRAPHY FOR COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Umbarkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a very pivotal technique mainly used for covert transfer of information over a covert communication channel. This paper proposes a significant comparative study of the spatial LSB domain technique that focuses on sharper edges of the color as well as gray scale images for the purpose of data hiding and hides secret message first in sharper edge regions and then in smooth regions of the image. Message embedding depends on content of the image and message size. The experimental results illustrate that, for low embedding rate the method hides the message in sharp edges of cover image to get better stego image visualization quality. For high embedding rate, smooth regions and edges of the cover image are used for the purpose of data hiding. In this steganography method, color image and textured kind of image preserves better visual quality of stego image. The novelty of the comparative study is that, it helps to analyze the efficiency and performance of the method as it gives better results because it directly works on color images instead of converting to gray scale image.

  14. A review on "A Novel Technique for Image Steganography Based on Block-DCT and Huffman Encoding"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rig; Tuithung, Themrichon

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews the embedding and extraction algorithm proposed by "A. Nag, S. Biswas, D. Sarkar and P. P. Sarkar" on "A Novel Technique for Image Steganography based on Block-DCT and Huffman Encoding" in "International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Volume 2, Number 3, June 2010" [3] and shows that the Extraction of Secret Image is Not Possible for the algorithm proposed in [3]. 8 bit Cover Image of size is divided into non joint blocks and a two dimensional Discrete Cosine Transformation (2-D DCT) is performed on each of the blocks. Huffman Encoding is performed on an 8 bit Secret Image of size and each bit of the Huffman Encoded Bit Stream is embedded in the frequency domain by altering the LSB of the DCT coefficients of Cover Image blocks. The Huffman Encoded Bit Stream and Huffman Table

  15. Website-based PNG image steganography using the modified Vigenere Cipher, least significant bit, and dictionary based compression methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojali, Salman, Afan Galih; George

    2017-08-01

    Along with the development of information technology in meeting the needs, various adverse actions and difficult to avoid are emerging. One of such action is data theft. Therefore, this study will discuss about cryptography and steganography that aims to overcome these problems. This study will use the Modification Vigenere Cipher, Least Significant Bit and Dictionary Based Compression methods. To determine the performance of study, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) method is used to measure objectively and Mean Opinion Score (MOS) method is used to measure subjectively, also, the performance of this study will be compared to other method such as Spread Spectrum and Pixel Value differencing. After comparing, it can be concluded that this study can provide better performance when compared to other methods (Spread Spectrum and Pixel Value Differencing) and has a range of MSE values (0.0191622-0.05275) and PSNR (60.909 to 65.306) with a hidden file size of 18 kb and has a MOS value range (4.214 to 4.722) or image quality that is approaching very good.

  16. Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1–50 mM), flow rate (2–120 µL min −1 ) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ∼10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems. (technical note)

  17. A Blind High-Capacity Wavelet-Based Steganography Technique for Hiding Images into other Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMAD, S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flourishing field of Steganography is providing effective techniques to hide data into different types of digital media. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to hide large amounts of image data into true colored images. The proposed method employs wavelet transforms to decompose images in a way similar to the Human Visual System (HVS for more secure and effective data hiding. The designed model can blindly extract the embedded message without the need to refer to the original cover image. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed all of the existing techniques not only imperceptibility but also in terms of capacity. In fact, the proposed technique showed an outstanding performance on hiding a secret image whose size equals 100% of the cover image while maintaining excellent visual quality of the resultant stego-images.

  18. Steganography Detection Using Entropy Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    latter leads to the level of compression of the image . 3.3. Least Significant Bit ( LSB ) The object of steganography is to prevent suspicion upon the...6 2.3. Different kinds of steganography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 II. Steganography 8 3. Images and Significance of...9 3.3. Least Significant Bit ( LSB ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4. Significant Bit Image Depiction

  19. Steganography and Hiding Data with Indicators-based LSB Using a Secret Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Saqer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the field of science concerned with hiding secret data inside other innocent-looking data, called the container, carrier or cover, in a way that no one apart from the meant parties can suspect the existence of the secret data. There are many algorithms and techniques of concealing data. Each of which has its own way of hiding and its own advantages and limitations. In our research we introduce a new algorithm of hiding data. The algorithm uses the same technique used by the Least Significant Bit (LSB algorithm which is embedding secret data in the least significant bit(s of the bytes of the carrier. It differs from the LSB algorithm in that it does not embed the bytes of the cover data sequentially but it embeds into one bit or two bits at once. Actually it depends on indicators to determine where and how many bits to embed at a time. These indicators are two bits of each cover byte after the least two significant bits. The advantage of this algorithm over the LSB algorithm is the randomness used to confuse intruders as it does not use fixed sequential bytes and it does not always embed one bit at a time. This aims to increase the security of the technique. Also, the amount of cover data consumed is less because it sometimes embeds two bits at once.

  20. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  1. Random linear codes in steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome coding using linear codes is a technique that allows improvement in the steganographic algorithms parameters. The use of random linear codes gives a great flexibility in choosing the parameters of the linear code. In parallel, it offers easy generation of parity check matrix. In this paper, the modification of LSB algorithm is presented. A random linear code [8, 2] was used as a base for algorithm modification. The implementation of the proposed algorithm, along with practical evaluation of algorithms’ parameters based on the test images was made.[b]Keywords:[/b] steganography, random linear codes, RLC, LSB

  2. Design of a WAV audio player based on K20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designed player uses the Freescale Company’s MK20DX128VLH7 as the core control ship, and its hardware platform is equipped with VS1003 audio decoder, OLED display interface, USB interface and SD card slot. The player uses the open source embedded real-time operating system μC/OS-II, Freescale USB Stack V4.1.1 and FATFS, and a graphical user interface is developed to improve the user experience based on CGUI. In general, the designed WAV audio player has a strong applicability and a good practical value.

  3. Steganography and Steganalysis in Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    REPORT Steganography and Steganalysis in Digital Images 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Steganography (from the Greek for "covered writing...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Least Significant Bit ( LSB ), steganography , steganalysis, stegogramme. Dr. Jeff Duffany...Z39.18 - Steganography and Steganalysis in Digital Images Report Title ABSTRACT Steganography (from the Greek for "covered writing") is the secret

  4. Audio-Visual Speaker Diarization Based on Spatiotemporal Bayesian Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Israel D; Ba, Sileye; Li, Xiaofei; Horaud, Radu

    2018-05-01

    Speaker diarization consists of assigning speech signals to people engaged in a dialogue. An audio-visual spatiotemporal diarization model is proposed. The model is well suited for challenging scenarios that consist of several participants engaged in multi-party interaction while they move around and turn their heads towards the other participants rather than facing the cameras and the microphones. Multiple-person visual tracking is combined with multiple speech-source localization in order to tackle the speech-to-person association problem. The latter is solved within a novel audio-visual fusion method on the following grounds: binaural spectral features are first extracted from a microphone pair, then a supervised audio-visual alignment technique maps these features onto an image, and finally a semi-supervised clustering method assigns binaural spectral features to visible persons. The main advantage of this method over previous work is that it processes in a principled way speech signals uttered simultaneously by multiple persons. The diarization itself is cast into a latent-variable temporal graphical model that infers speaker identities and speech turns, based on the output of an audio-visual association process, executed at each time slice, and on the dynamics of the diarization variable itself. The proposed formulation yields an efficient exact inference procedure. A novel dataset, that contains audio-visual training data as well as a number of scenarios involving several participants engaged in formal and informal dialogue, is introduced. The proposed method is thoroughly tested and benchmarked with respect to several state-of-the art diarization algorithms.

  5. Quantum red-green-blue image steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shahrokh; Pourarian, Mohammad Rasoul; Gheibi, Reza; Naseri, Mosayeb; Houshmand, Monireh

    One of the most considering matters in the field of quantum information processing is quantum data hiding including quantum steganography and quantum watermarking. This field is an efficient tool for protecting any kind of digital data. In this paper, three quantum color images steganography algorithms are investigated based on Least Significant Bit (LSB). The first algorithm employs only one of the image’s channels to cover secret data. The second procedure is based on LSB XORing technique, and the last algorithm utilizes two channels to cover the color image for hiding secret quantum data. The performances of the proposed schemes are analyzed by using software simulations in MATLAB environment. The analysis of PSNR, BER and Histogram graphs indicate that the presented schemes exhibit acceptable performances and also theoretical analysis demonstrates that the networks complexity of the approaches scales squarely.

  6. Noiseless Steganography The Key to Covert Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Desoky, Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    Among the features that make Noiseless Steganography: The Key to Covert Communications a first of its kind: The first to comprehensively cover Linguistic Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Graph Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Game Steganography Although the goal of steganography is to prevent adversaries from suspecting the existence of covert communications, most books on the subject present outdated steganography approaches that are detectable by human and/or machine examinations. These approaches often fail because they camouflage data as a detectable noise b

  7. AudioPairBank: Towards A Large-Scale Tag-Pair-Based Audio Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Sebastian; Elizalde, Benjamin; Borth, Damian; Schulze, Christian; Raj, Bhiksha; Lane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Recently, sound recognition has been used to identify sounds, such as car and river. However, sounds have nuances that may be better described by adjective-noun pairs such as slow car, and verb-noun pairs such as flying insects, which are under explored. Therefore, in this work we investigate the relation between audio content and both adjective-noun pairs and verb-noun pairs. Due to the lack of datasets with these kinds of annotations, we collected and processed the AudioPairBank corpus cons...

  8. Detection of Steganography-Producing Software Artifacts on Crime-Related Seized Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asawaree Kulkarni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art and science of hiding information within information so that an observer does not know that communication is taking place. Bad actors passing information using steganography are of concern to the national security establishment and law enforcement. An attempt was made to determine if steganography was being used by criminals to communicate information. Web crawling technology was used and images were downloaded from Web sites that were considered as likely candidates for containing information hidden using steganographic techniques. A detection tool was used to analyze these images. The research failed to demonstrate that steganography was prevalent on the public Internet. The probable reasons included the growth and availability of large number of steganography-producing tools and the limited capacity of the detection tools to cope with them. Thus, a redirection was introduced in the methodology and the detection focus was shifted from the analysis of the ‘product’ of the steganography-producing software; viz. the images, to the 'artifacts’ left by the steganography-producing software while it is being used to generate steganographic images. This approach was based on the concept of ‘Stego-Usage Timeline’. As a proof of concept, a sample set of criminal computers was scanned for the remnants of steganography-producing software. The results demonstrated that the problem of ‘the detection of the usage of steganography’ could be addressed by the approach adopted after the research redirection and that certain steganographic software was popular among the criminals. Thus, the contribution of the research was in demonstrating that the limitations of the tools based on the signature detection of steganographically altered images can be overcome by focusing the detection effort on detecting the artifacts of the steganography-producing tools.

  9. COMPARISON OF DIGITAL IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a method of hiding information in other information of different format (container. There are many steganography techniques with various types of container. In the Internet, digital images are the most popular and frequently used containers. We consider main image steganography techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. We also identify the requirements of a good steganography algorithm and compare various such algorithms.

  10. Theory and Application of Audio-Based Assessment of Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a common symptom of many respiratory diseases. Many medical literatures underline that a system for the automatic, objective, and reliable detection of cough events is important and very promising to detect pathology severity in chronic cough disease. In order to track the development status of an audio-based cough monitoring system, we briefly described the history of objective cough detection and then illustrated the cough sound generating principle. The probable endpoints of cough clinical studies, including cough frequency, intensity of coughing, and acoustic properties of cough sound, were analyzed in this paper. Finally, we introduce some successful cough monitoring equipment and their recognition algorithm in detail. It can be obtained that, firstly, acoustic variability of cough sounds within and between individuals makes it difficult to assess the intensity of coughing. Furthermore, now great progress in audio-based cough detection is being made. Moreover, accurate portable objective monitoring systems will be available and widely used in home care and clinical trials in the near future.

  11. Hybrid Approach To Steganography System Based On Quantum Encryption And Chaos Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAID A. ABOD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid scheme for secretly embedding image into a dithered multilevel image is presented. This work inputs both a cover image and secret image, which are scrambling and divided into groups to embedded together based on multiple chaos algorithms (Lorenz map, Henon map and Logistic map respectively. Finally, encrypt the embedded images by using one of the quantum cryptography mechanisms, which is quantum one time pad. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid system successfully embedded images and combine with the quantum cryptography algorithms and gives high efficiency for secure communication.

  12. Perceived Audio Quality Analysis in Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus System Based on PEAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ulovec

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasters need to decide on bitrates of the services in the multiplex transmitted via Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus system. The bitrate should be set as low as possible for maximal number of services, but with high quality, not lower than in conventional analog systems. In this paper, the objective method Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality is used to analyze the perceived audio quality for appropriate codecs --- MP2 and AAC offering three profiles. The main aim is to determine dependencies on the type of signal --- music and speech, the number of channels --- stereo and mono, and the bitrate. Results indicate that only MP2 codec and AAC Low Complexity profile reach imperceptible quality loss. The MP2 codec needs higher bitrate than AAC Low Complexity profile for the same quality. For the both versions of AAC High-Efficiency profiles, the limit bitrates are determined above which less complex profiles outperform the more complex ones and higher bitrates above these limits are not worth using. It is shown that stereo music has worse quality than stereo speech generally, whereas for mono, the dependencies vary upon the codec/profile. Furthermore, numbers of services satisfying various quality criteria are presented.

  13. Human visual system-based color image steganography using the contourlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, W.; Carré, P.; Gaborit, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a steganographic scheme based on the contourlet transform which uses the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) to control the force of insertion of the hidden information in a perceptually uniform color space. The CIELAB color space is used as it is well suited for steganographic applications because any change in the CIELAB color space has a corresponding effect on the human visual system as is very important for steganographic schemes to be undetectable by the human visual system (HVS). The perceptual decomposition of the contourlet transform gives it a natural advantage over other decompositions as it can be molded with respect to the human perception of different frequencies in an image. The evaluation of the imperceptibility of the steganographic scheme with respect to the color perception of the HVS is done using standard methods such as the structural similarity (SSIM) and CIEDE2000. The robustness of the inserted watermark is tested against JPEG compression.

  14. A Novel Technique for Steganography Method Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm Optimization in Spatial Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleimanpour-moghadam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper devotes itself to the study of secret message delivery using cover image and introduces a novel steganographic technique based on genetic algorithm to find a near-optimum structure for the pair-wise least-significant-bit (LSB matching scheme. A survey of the related literatures shows that the LSB matching method developed by Mielikainen, employs a binary function to reduce the number of changes of LSB values. This method verifiably reduces the probability of detection and also improves the visual quality of stego images. So, our proposal draws on the Mielikainen's technique to present an enhanced dual-state scoring model, structured upon genetic algorithm which assesses the performance of different orders for LSB matching and searches for a near-optimum solution among all the permutation orders. Experimental results confirm superiority of the new approach compared to the Mielikainen’s pair-wise LSB matching scheme.

  15. Audio Arduino - an ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) audio driver for FTDI-based Arduinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    be considered to be a system, that encompasses design decisions on both hardware and software levels - that also demand a certain understanding of the architecture of the target PC operating system. This project outlines how an Arduino Duemillanove board (containing a USB interface chip, manufactured by Future...... Technology Devices International Ltd [FTDI] company) can be demonstrated to behave as a full-duplex, mono, 8-bit 44.1 kHz soundcard, through an implementation of: a PC audio driver for ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture); a matching program for the Arduino's ATmega microcontroller - and nothing more...

  16. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  17. Paper-Based Textbooks with Audio Support for Print-Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Akio; Ohsawa, Akiko; Takaira, Takuya; Tani, Yoshiaki; Fujiyoshi, Mamoru; Ota, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing invisible 2-dimensional codes and digital audio players with a 2-dimensional code scanner, we developed paper-based textbooks with audio support for students with print disabilities, called "multimodal textbooks." Multimodal textbooks can be read with the combination of the two modes: "reading printed text" and "listening to the speech of the text from a digital audio player with a 2-dimensional code scanner." Since multimodal textbooks look the same as regular textbooks and the price of a digital audio player is reasonable (about 30 euro), we think multimodal textbooks are suitable for students with print disabilities in ordinary classrooms.

  18. Advances in audio watermarking based on singular value decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces audio watermarking methods for copyright protection, which has drawn extensive attention for securing digital data from unauthorized copying. The book is divided into two parts. First, an audio watermarking method in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) domains using singular value decomposition (SVD) and quantization is introduced. This method is robust against various attacks and provides good imperceptible watermarked sounds. Then, an audio watermarking method in fast Fourier transform (FFT) domain using SVD and Cartesian-polar transformation (CPT) is presented. This method has high imperceptibility and high data payload and it provides good robustness against various attacks. These techniques allow media owners to protect copyright and to show authenticity and ownership of their material in a variety of applications.   ·         Features new methods of audio watermarking for copyright protection and ownership protection ·         Outl...

  19. An FPGA Implementation of Secured Steganography Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Fadhil Mahmood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     Steganography is the idea of hiding secret message in multimedia cover which will be transmitted through the Internet. The cover carriers can be image, video, sound or text data. This paper presents an implementation of color image steganographic system on Field Programmable Gate Array and the information hiding/extracting techniques in various images. The proposed algorithm is based on merge between the idea from the random pixel manipulation methods and the Least Significant Bit (LSB matching of Steganography embedding and extracting method.        In a proposed steganography hardware approach, Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR method has been used in stego architecture to hide the information in the image. The LFSRs are utilized in this approach as address generators. Different LFSR arrangements using different connection unit have been implemented at the hardware level for hiding/extracting the secret data. Multilayer embedding is implemented in parallel manner with a three-stage pipeline on FPGA.      This work showed attractive results especially in the high throughputs, better stego-image quality, requires little calculation and less utilization of FPGA area. The imperceptibility of the technique combined with high payload, robustness of embedded data and accurate data retrieval renders the proposed Steganography system is suitable for covert communication and secures data transmission applications

  20. An FPGA Implementation of Secured Steganography Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Mahmood

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the idea of hiding secret message in multimedia cover which will be transmitted through the Internet. The cover carriers can be image, video, sound or text data. This paper presents an implementation of color image steganographic system on Field Programmable Gate Array and the information hiding/extracting techniques in various images. The proposed algorithm is based on merge between the idea from the random pixel manipulation methods and the Least Significant Bit (LSB matching of Steganography embedding and extracting method.  In a proposed steganography hardware approach, Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR method has been used in stego architecture to hide the information in the image. The LFSRs are utilized in this approach as address generators. Different LFSR arrangements using different connection unit have been implemented at the hardware level for hiding/extracting the secret data. Multilayer embedding is implemented in parallel manner with a three-stage pipeline on FPGA.  This work showed attractive results especially in the high throughputs, better stego-image quality, requires little calculation and less utilization of FPGA area. The imperceptibility of the technique combined with high payload, robustness of embedded data and accurate data retrieval renders the proposed Steganography system is suitable for covert communication and secure data transmission applications

  1. A Psychoacoustic-Based Multiple Audio Object Coding Approach via Intra-Object Sparsity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoshen Jia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendering spatial sound scenes via audio objects has become popular in recent years, since it can provide more flexibility for different auditory scenarios, such as 3D movies, spatial audio communication and virtual classrooms. To facilitate high-quality bitrate-efficient distribution for spatial audio objects, an encoding scheme based on intra-object sparsity (approximate k-sparsity of the audio object itself is proposed in this paper. The statistical analysis is presented to validate the notion that the audio object has a stronger sparseness in the Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT domain than in the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT domain. By exploiting intra-object sparsity in the MDCT domain, multiple simultaneously occurring audio objects are compressed into a mono downmix signal with side information. To ensure a balanced perception quality of audio objects, a Psychoacoustic-based time-frequency instants sorting algorithm and an energy equalized Number of Preserved Time-Frequency Bins (NPTF allocation strategy are proposed, which are employed in the underlying compression framework. The downmix signal can be further encoded via Scalar Quantized Vector Huffman Coding (SQVH technique at a desirable bitrate, and the side information is transmitted in a lossless manner. Both objective and subjective evaluations show that the proposed encoding scheme outperforms the Sparsity Analysis (SPA approach and Spatial Audio Object Coding (SAOC in cases where eight objects were jointly encoded.

  2. Secure steganography designed for mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Cherukuri, Ravindranath; Sifuentes, Ronnie R.

    2006-05-01

    Adaptive steganography, an intelligent approach to message hiding, integrated with matrix encoding and pn-sequences serves as a promising resolution to recent security assurance concerns. Incorporating the above data hiding concepts with established cryptographic protocols in wireless communication would greatly increase the security and privacy of transmitting sensitive information. We present an algorithm which will address the following problems: 1) low embedding capacity in mobile devices due to fixed image dimensions and memory constraints, 2) compatibility between mobile and land based desktop computers, and 3) detection of stego images by widely available steganalysis software [1-3]. Consistent with the smaller available memory, processor capabilities, and limited resolution associated with mobile devices, we propose a more magnified approach to steganography by focusing adaptive efforts at the pixel level. This deeper method, in comparison to the block processing techniques commonly found in existing adaptive methods, allows an increase in capacity while still offering a desired level of security. Based on computer simulations using high resolution, natural imagery and mobile device captured images, comparisons show that the proposed method securely allows an increased amount of embedding capacity but still avoids detection by varying steganalysis techniques.

  3. TECHNICAL NOTE: Portable audio electronics for impedance-based measurements in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul; Sinton, David

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of audio electronics-based signals to perform on-chip electrochemical measurements. Cell phones and portable music players are examples of consumer electronics that are easily operated and are ubiquitous worldwide. Audio output (play) and input (record) signals are voltage based and contain frequency and amplitude information. A cell phone, laptop soundcard and two compact audio players are compared with respect to frequency response; the laptop soundcard provides the most uniform frequency response, while the cell phone performance is found to be insufficient. The audio signals in the common portable music players and laptop soundcard operate in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz and are found to be applicable, as voltage input and output signals, to impedance-based electrochemical measurements in microfluidic systems. Validated impedance-based measurements of concentration (0.1-50 mM), flow rate (2-120 µL min-1) and particle detection (32 µm diameter) are demonstrated. The prevailing, lossless, wave audio file format is found to be suitable for data transmission to and from external sources, such as a centralized lab, and the cost of all hardware (in addition to audio devices) is ~10 USD. The utility demonstrated here, in combination with the ubiquitous nature of portable audio electronics, presents new opportunities for impedance-based measurements in portable microfluidic systems.

  4. New quantization matrices for JPEG steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2007-04-01

    Modern steganography is a secure communication of information by embedding a secret-message within a "cover" digital multimedia without any perceptual distortion to the cover media, so the presence of the hidden message is indiscernible. Recently, the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format attracted the attention of researchers as the main steganographic format due to the following reasons: It is the most common format for storing images, JPEG images are very abundant on the Internet bulletin boards and public Internet sites, and they are almost solely used for storing natural images. Well-known JPEG steganographic algorithms such as F5 and Model-based Steganography provide high message capacity with reasonable security. In this paper, we present a method to increase security using JPEG images as the cover medium. The key element of the method is using a new parametric key-dependent quantization matrix. This new quantization table has practically the same performance as the JPEG table as far as compression ratio and image statistics. The resulting image is indiscernible from an image that was created using the JPEG compression algorithm. This paper presents the key-dependent quantization table algorithm and then analyzes the new table performance.

  5. Feature Fusion Based Audio-Visual Speaker Identification Using Hidden Markov Model under Different Lighting Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a feature fusion based Audio-Visual Speaker Identification (AVSI system with varied conditions of illumination environments. Among the different fusion strategies, feature level fusion has been used for the proposed AVSI system where Hidden Markov Model (HMM is used for learning and classification. Since the feature set contains richer information about the raw biometric data than any other levels, integration at feature level is expected to provide better authentication results. In this paper, both Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs and Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients (LPCCs are combined to get the audio feature vectors and Active Shape Model (ASM based appearance and shape facial features are concatenated to take the visual feature vectors. These combined audio and visual features are used for the feature-fusion. To reduce the dimension of the audio and visual feature vectors, Principal Component Analysis (PCA method is used. The VALID audio-visual database is used to measure the performance of the proposed system where four different illumination levels of lighting conditions are considered. Experimental results focus on the significance of the proposed audio-visual speaker identification system with various combinations of audio and visual features.

  6. Design of batch audio/video conversion platform based on JavaEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yansong; Jiang, Lianpin

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of digital publishing industry, the direction of audio / video publishing shows the diversity of coding standards for audio and video files, massive data and other significant features. Faced with massive and diverse data, how to quickly and efficiently convert to a unified code format has brought great difficulties to the digital publishing organization. In view of this demand and present situation in this paper, basing on the development architecture of Sptring+SpringMVC+Mybatis, and combined with the open source FFMPEG format conversion tool, a distributed online audio and video format conversion platform with a B/S structure is proposed. Based on the Java language, the key technologies and strategies designed in the design of platform architecture are analyzed emphatically in this paper, designing and developing a efficient audio and video format conversion system, which is composed of “Front display system”, "core scheduling server " and " conversion server ". The test results show that, compared with the ordinary audio and video conversion scheme, the use of batch audio and video format conversion platform can effectively improve the conversion efficiency of audio and video files, and reduce the complexity of the work. Practice has proved that the key technology discussed in this paper can be applied in the field of large batch file processing, and has certain practical application value.

  7. Objective Audio Quality Assessment Based on Spectro-Temporal Modulation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ziyuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective audio quality assessment is an interdisciplinary research area that incorporates audiology and machine learning. Although much work has been made on the machine learning aspect, the audiology aspect also deserves investigation. This thesis proposes a non-intrusive audio quality assessment algorithm, which is based on an auditory model that simulates human auditory system. The auditory model is based on spectro-temporal modulation analysis of spectrogram, which has been proven to be ...

  8. Conflicting audio-haptic feedback in physically based simulation of walking sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania; Dimitrov, Smilen

    2010-01-01

    We describe an audio-haptic experiment conducted using a system which simulates in real-time the auditory and haptic sensation of walking on different surfaces. The system is based on physical models, that drive both the haptic and audio synthesizers, and a pair of shoes enhanced with sensors...... and actuators. Such experiment was run to examine the ability of subjects to recognize the different surfaces with both coherent and incoherent audio-haptic stimuli. Results show that in this kind of tasks the auditory modality is dominant on the haptic one....

  9. BAT: An open-source, web-based audio events annotation tool

    OpenAIRE

    Blai Meléndez-Catalan, Emilio Molina, Emilia Gómez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present BAT (BMAT Annotation Tool), an open-source, web-based tool for the manual annotation of events in audio recordings developed at BMAT (Barcelona Music and Audio Technologies). The main feature of the tool is that it provides an easy way to annotate the salience of simultaneous sound sources. Additionally, it allows to define multiple ontologies to adapt to multiple tasks and offers the possibility to cross-annotate audio data. Moreover, it is easy to install and deploy...

  10. Analytical Features: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Audio Feature Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachet François

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a feature generation system designed to create audio features for supervised classification tasks. The main contribution to feature generation studies is the notion of analytical features (AFs, a construct designed to support the representation of knowledge about audio signal processing. We describe the most important aspects of AFs, in particular their dimensional type system, on which are based pattern-based random generators, heuristics, and rewriting rules. We show how AFs generalize or improve previous approaches used in feature generation. We report on several projects using AFs for difficult audio classification tasks, demonstrating their advantage over standard audio features. More generally, we propose analytical features as a paradigm to bring raw signals into the world of symbolic computation.

  11. StirMark Benchmark: audio watermarking attacks based on lossy compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Martin; Lang, Andreas; Dittmann, Jana

    2002-04-01

    StirMark Benchmark is a well-known evaluation tool for watermarking robustness. Additional attacks are added to it continuously. To enable application based evaluation, in our paper we address attacks against audio watermarks based on lossy audio compression algorithms to be included in the test environment. We discuss the effect of different lossy compression algorithms like MPEG-2 audio Layer 3, Ogg or VQF on a selection of audio test data. Our focus is on changes regarding the basic characteristics of the audio data like spectrum or average power and on removal of embedded watermarks. Furthermore we compare results of different watermarking algorithms and show that lossy compression is still a challenge for most of them. There are two strategies for adding evaluation of robustness against lossy compression to StirMark Benchmark: (a) use of existing free compression algorithms (b) implementation of a generic lossy compression simulation. We discuss how such a model can be implemented based on the results of our tests. This method is less complex, as no real psycho acoustic model has to be applied. Our model can be used for audio watermarking evaluation of numerous application fields. As an example, we describe its importance for e-commerce applications with watermarking security.

  12. Estimation of inhalation flow profile using audio-based methods to assess inhaler medication adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacalle Muls, Helena; Costello, Richard W.; Reilly, Richard B.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are required to inhale forcefully and deeply to receive medication when using a dry powder inhaler (DPI). There is a clinical need to objectively monitor the inhalation flow profile of DPIs in order to remotely monitor patient inhalation technique. Audio-based methods have been previously employed to accurately estimate flow parameters such as the peak inspiratory flow rate of inhalations, however, these methods required multiple calibration inhalation audio recordings. In this study, an audio-based method is presented that accurately estimates inhalation flow profile using only one calibration inhalation audio recording. Twenty healthy participants were asked to perform 15 inhalations through a placebo Ellipta™ DPI at a range of inspiratory flow rates. Inhalation flow signals were recorded using a pneumotachograph spirometer while inhalation audio signals were recorded simultaneously using the Inhaler Compliance Assessment device attached to the inhaler. The acoustic (amplitude) envelope was estimated from each inhalation audio signal. Using only one recording, linear and power law regression models were employed to determine which model best described the relationship between the inhalation acoustic envelope and flow signal. Each model was then employed to estimate the flow signals of the remaining 14 inhalation audio recordings. This process repeated until each of the 15 recordings were employed to calibrate single models while testing on the remaining 14 recordings. It was observed that power law models generated the highest average flow estimation accuracy across all participants (90.89±0.9% for power law models and 76.63±2.38% for linear models). The method also generated sufficient accuracy in estimating inhalation parameters such as peak inspiratory flow rate and inspiratory capacity within the presence of noise. Estimating inhaler inhalation flow profiles using audio based methods may be

  13. Emotion-based Music Rretrieval on a Well-reduced Audio Feature Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Chua, Bee Yong; Nanopoulos, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    -emotion. However, the real-time systems that retrieve music over large music databases, can achieve order of magnitude performance increase, if applying multidimensional indexing over a dimensionally reduced audio feature space. To meet this performance achievement, in this paper, extensive studies are conducted......Music expresses emotion. A number of audio extracted features have influence on the perceived emotional expression of music. These audio features generate a high-dimensional space, on which music similarity retrieval can be performed effectively, with respect to human perception of the music...... on a number of dimensionality reduction algorithms, including both classic and novel approaches. The paper clearly envisages which dimensionality reduction techniques on the considered audio feature space, can preserve in average the accuracy of the emotion-based music retrieval....

  14. Comparison of Video Steganography Methods for Watermark Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griberman David

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the comparison of video steganography methods for the purpose of digital watermarking in the context of copyright protection. Four embedding methods that use Discrete Cosine and Discrete Wavelet Transforms have been researched and compared based on their embedding efficiency and fidelity. A video steganography program has been developed in the Java programming language with all of the researched methods implemented for experiments. The experiments used 3 video containers with different amounts of movement. The impact of the movement has been addressed in the paper as well as the ways of potential improvement of embedding efficiency using adaptive embedding based on the movement amount. Results of the research have been verified using a survey with 17 participants.

  15. Quantum watermarking scheme through Arnold scrambling and LSB steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Hu, Wenwen; Fan, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Based on the NEQR of quantum images, a new quantum gray-scale image watermarking scheme is proposed through Arnold scrambling and least significant bit (LSB) steganography. The sizes of the carrier image and the watermark image are assumed to be 2n× 2n and n× n, respectively. Firstly, a classical n× n sized watermark image with 8-bit gray scale is expanded to a 2n× 2n sized image with 2-bit gray scale. Secondly, through the module of PA-MOD N, the expanded watermark image is scrambled to a meaningless image by the Arnold transform. Then, the expanded scrambled image is embedded into the carrier image by the steganography method of LSB. Finally, the time complexity analysis is given. The simulation experiment results show that our quantum circuit has lower time complexity, and the proposed watermarking scheme is superior to others.

  16. Hierarchical structure for audio-video based semantic classification of sports video sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, M. H.; Sengupta, S.

    2005-07-01

    A hierarchical structure for sports event classification based on audio and video content analysis is proposed in this paper. Compared to the event classifications in other games, those of cricket are very challenging and yet unexplored. We have successfully solved cricket video classification problem using a six level hierarchical structure. The first level performs event detection based on audio energy and Zero Crossing Rate (ZCR) of short-time audio signal. In the subsequent levels, we classify the events based on video features using a Hidden Markov Model implemented through Dynamic Programming (HMM-DP) using color or motion as a likelihood function. For some of the game-specific decisions, a rule-based classification is also performed. Our proposed hierarchical structure can easily be applied to any other sports. Our results are very promising and we have moved a step forward towards addressing semantic classification problems in general.

  17. EFFICIENT ADAPTIVE STEGANOGRAPHY FOR COLOR IMAGESBASED ON LSBMR ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sharmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art of hiding the fact that communication is taking place, by hiding information in other medium. Many different carrier file formats can be used, but digital images are the most popular because of their frequent use on the Internet. For hiding secret information in images, there exists a large variety of steganographic techniques. The Least Significant Bit (LSB based approach is a simplest type of steganographic algorithm. In all the existing approaches, the decision of choosing the region within a cover image is performed without considering the relationship between image content and the size of secret message. Thus, the plain regions in the cover will be ruin after data hiding even at a low data rate. Hence choosing the edge region for data hiding will be a solution. Many algorithms are deal with edges in images for data hiding. The Paper 'Edge adaptive image steganography based on LSBMR algorithm' is a LSB steganography presented the results of algorithms on gray-scale images only. This paper presents the results of analyzing the performance of edge adaptive steganography for colored images (JPEG. The algorithms have been slightly modified for colored image implementation and are compared on the basis of evaluation parameters like peak signal noise ratio (PSNR and mean square error (MSE. This method can select the edge region depending on the length of secret message and difference between two consecutive bits in the cover image. For length of message is short, only small edge regions are utilized while on leaving other region as such. When the data rate increases, more regions can be used adaptively for data hiding by adjusting the parameters. Besides this, the message is encrypted using efficient cryptographic algorithm which further increases the security.

  18. Reduction in time-to-sleep through EEG based brain state detection and audio stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo Zhang; Cuntai Guan; Ti Eu Chan; Juanhong Yu; Aung Aung Phyo Wai; Chuanchu Wang; Haihong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    We developed an EEG- and audio-based sleep sensing and enhancing system, called iSleep (interactive Sleep enhancement apparatus). The system adopts a closed-loop approach which optimizes the audio recording selection based on user's sleep status detected through our online EEG computing algorithm. The iSleep prototype comprises two major parts: 1) a sleeping mask integrated with a single channel EEG electrode and amplifier, a pair of stereo earphones and a microcontroller with wireless circuit for control and data streaming; 2) a mobile app to receive EEG signals for online sleep monitoring and audio playback control. In this study we attempt to validate our hypothesis that appropriate audio stimulation in relation to brain state can induce faster onset of sleep and improve the quality of a nap. We conduct experiments on 28 healthy subjects, each undergoing two nap sessions - one with a quiet background and one with our audio-stimulation. We compare the time-to-sleep in both sessions between two groups of subjects, e.g., fast and slow sleep onset groups. The p-value obtained from Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test is 1.22e-04 for slow onset group, which demonstrates that iSleep can significantly reduce the time-to-sleep for people with difficulty in falling sleep.

  19. DIGITAL DATA PROTECTION USING STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rejani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s digital world applications from a computer or a mobile device consistently used to get every kind of work done for professional as well as entertainment purpose. However, one of the major issue that a software publisher will face is the issue of piracy. Throughout the last couple of decades, almost all-major or minor software has been pirated and freely circulated across the internet. The impact of the rampant software piracy has been huge and runs into billions of dollars every year. For an independent developer or a programmer, the impact of piracy will be huge. Huge companies that make specialized software often employ complex hardware methods such as usage of dongles to avoid software piracy. However, this is not possible to do for a normal independent programmer of a small company. As part of the research, a new method of software protection that does not need proprietary hardware and other complex methods are proposed in this paper. This method uses a combination of inbuilt hardware features as well as steganography and encryption to protect the software against piracy. The properties or methods used include uniqueness of hardware, steganography, strong encryption like AES and geographic location. To avoid hacking the proposed framework also makes use of self-checks in a random manner. The process is quite simple to implement for any developer and is usable on both traditional PCs as well as mobile environments.

  20. Multimedia security watermarking, steganography, and forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Frank Y

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia Security: Watermarking, Steganography, and Forensics outlines essential principles, technical information, and expert insights on multimedia security technology used to prove that content is authentic and has not been altered. Illustrating the need for improved content security as the Internet and digital multimedia applications rapidly evolve, this book presents a wealth of everyday protection application examples in fields including multimedia mining and classification, digital watermarking, steganography, and digital forensics. Giving readers an in-depth overview of different asp

  1. Analisys of Current-Bidirectional Buck-Boost Based Automotive Switch-Mode Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolten Maizonave, Gert; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Kjærgaard, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The following study was carried out in order to assess quantitatively the performance of the buck-boost converter when used as switch-mode audio amplifier. It comprises of, to begin with, the delimitation of design criteria based on the state-ofthe- art solution, which is based in a differential ...

  2. Information hiding techniques for steganography and digital watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    Steganography, a means by which two or more parties may communicate using ""invisible"" or ""subliminal"" communication, and watermarking, a means of hiding copyright data in images, are becoming necessary components of commercial multimedia applications that are subject to illegal use. This new book is the first comprehensive survey of steganography and watermarking and their application to modern communications and multimedia.Handbook of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking helps you understand steganography, the history of this previously neglected element of cryptography, the

  3. Convolution-based classification of audio and symbolic representations of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Cancino Chacón, Carlos; Meredith, David

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel convolution-based method for classification of audio and symbolic representations of music, which we apply to classification of music by style. Pieces of music are first sampled to pitch–time representations (piano-rolls or spectrograms) and then convolved with a Gaussian filter......-class composer identification, methods specialised for classifying symbolic representations of music are more effective. We also performed experiments on symbolic representations, synthetic audio and two different recordings of The Well-Tempered Clavier by J. S. Bach to study the method’s capacity to distinguish...

  4. Audio Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    With this special issue of Seismograf we are happy to present a new format of articles: Audio Papers. Audio papers resemble the regular essay or the academic text in that they deal with a certain topic of interest, but presented in the form of an audio production. The audio paper is an extension...

  5. Application of Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization techniques for improved image steganography systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Hemanth Duraisamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Image steganography is one of the ever growing computational approaches which has found its application in many fields. The frequency domain techniques are highly preferred for image steganography applications. However, there are significant drawbacks associated with these techniques. In transform based approaches, the secret data is embedded in random manner in the transform coefficients of the cover image. These transform coefficients may not be optimal in terms of the stego image quality and embedding capacity. In this work, the application of Genetic Algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO have been explored in the context of determining the optimal coefficients in these transforms. Frequency domain transforms such as Bandelet Transform (BT and Finite Ridgelet Transform (FRIT are used in combination with GA and PSO to improve the efficiency of the image steganography system.

  6. CRYPTO-STEG: A Hybrid Cryptology - Steganography Approach for Improved Data Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Bin Mansoor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a widely used medium for transfer of information due to its reach and ease of availability. However, internet is an insecure medium and any information might be easily intercepted and viewed during its transfer. Different mechanisms like cryptology and steganography are adopted to secure the data communication over an inherently insecure medium like internet. Cryptology scrambles the information in a manner that an unintended recipient cannot easily extract the information, while steganography hides the information in a cover object so that it is transferred unnoticed in the cover. Encrypted data may not be extracted easily but causes a direct suspicion to any observer, while data hidden using steganographic techniques go inconspicuous. Cryptanalysis is the process of attacking the encrypted text to extract the information, while steganalysis is the process of detecting the disguised messages. In literature, both cryptology and steganography are treated separately. In this paper, we present our research on an improved data security paradigm, where data is first encrypted using AES (Advanced Encryption Standard and DES (Data Encryption Standard cryptology algorithms. Both plain and encrypted data is hidden in the images using Model Based and F5 steganographic techniques. Features are extracted in DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform and DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform domains using higher order statistics for steganalysis, and subsequently used to train a FLD (Fisher Linear Discriminant classifier which is employed to categorize a separate set of images as clean or stego (containing hidden messages. Experimental results demonstrate improved data security using proposed CRYPTO-STEG approach compared to plain text steganography. Results also demonstrate that the Model Based steganography is more secure than the F5 steganography.

  7. An Integrated Approach Using Chaotic Map & Sample Value Difference Method for Electrocardiogram Steganography and OFDM Based Secured Patient Information Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anukul; Saini, Barjinder Singh; Singh, Butta; Sood, Neetu

    2017-10-18

    This paper presents a patient's confidential data hiding scheme in electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and its subsequent wireless transmission. Patient's confidential data is embedded in ECG (called stego-ECG) using chaotic map and the sample value difference approach. The sample value difference approach effectually hides the patient's confidential data in ECG sample pairs at the predefined locations. The chaotic map generates these predefined locations through the use of selective control parameters. Subsequently, the wireless transmission of the stego-ECG is analyzed using the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system in a Rayleigh fading scenario for telemedicine applications. Evaluation of proposed method on all 48 records of MIT-BIH arrhythmia ECG database demonstrates that the embedding does not alter the diagnostic features of cover ECG. The secret data imperceptibility in stego-ECG is evident through the statistical and clinical performance measures. Statistical measures comprise of Percentage Root-mean-square Difference (PRD), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), and Kulback-Leibler Divergence (KL-Div), etc. while clinical metrics includes wavelet Energy Based Diagnostic Distortion (WEDD) and Wavelet based Weighted PRD (WWPRD). The various channel Signal-to-Noise Ratio scenarios are simulated for wireless communication of stego-ECG in OFDM system. The proposed method over all the 48 records of MIT-BIH arrhythmia database resulted in average, PRD = 0.26, PSNR = 55.49, KL-Div = 3.34 × 10 -6 , WEDD = 0.02, and WWPRD = 0.10 with secret data size of 21Kb. Further, a comparative analysis of proposed method and recent existing works was also performed. The results clearly, demonstrated the superiority of proposed method.

  8. The use of ambient audio to increase safety and immersion in location-based games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczak, John Jason

    The purpose of this thesis is to propose an alternative type of interface for mobile software being used while walking or running. Our work addresses the problem of visual user interfaces for mobile software be- ing potentially unsafe for pedestrians, and not being very immersive when used for location-based games. In addition, location-based games and applications can be dif- ficult to develop when directly interfacing with the sensors used to track the user's location. These problems need to be addressed because portable computing devices are be- coming a popular tool for navigation, playing games, and accessing the internet while walking. This poses a safety problem for mobile users, who may be paying too much attention to their device to notice and react to hazards in their environment. The difficulty of developing location-based games and other location-aware applications may significantly hinder the prevalence of applications that explore new interaction techniques for ubiquitous computing. We created the TREC toolkit to address the issues with tracking sensors while developing location-based games and applications. We have developed functional location-based applications with TREC to demonstrate the amount of work that can be saved by using this toolkit. In order to have a safer and more immersive alternative to visual interfaces, we have developed ambient audio interfaces for use with mobile applications. Ambient audio uses continuous streams of sound over headphones to present information to mobile users without distracting them from walking safely. In order to test the effectiveness of ambient audio, we ran a study to compare ambient audio with handheld visual interfaces in a location-based game. We compared players' ability to safely navigate the environment, their sense of immersion in the game, and their performance at the in-game tasks. We found that ambient audio was able to significantly increase players' safety and sense of immersion compared to a

  9. Independent Interactive Inquiry-Based Learning Modules Using Audio-Visual Instruction In Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Scott N.; Green, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Simulations can make complex ideas easier for students to visualize and understand. It has been shown that guidance in the use of these simulations enhances students’ learning. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the Independent Interactive Inquiry-based (I3) Learning Modules, which use existing open-source Java applets, combined with audio-visual instruction. Students are guided to discover and visualize important concepts in post-calculus and algebra-based courses in p...

  10. Genre-adaptive Semantic Computing and Audio-based Modelling for Music Mood Annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saari, Pasi; Fazekas, György; Eerola, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether taking genre into account is beneficial for automatic music mood annotation in terms of core affects valence, arousal, and tension, as well as several other mood scales. Novel techniques employing genre-adaptive semantic computing and audio-based modelling are prop......This study investigates whether taking genre into account is beneficial for automatic music mood annotation in terms of core affects valence, arousal, and tension, as well as several other mood scales. Novel techniques employing genre-adaptive semantic computing and audio-based modelling...... related to a set of 600 popular music tracks spanning multiple genres. The results show that ACTwg outperforms a semantic computing technique that does not exploit genre information, and ACTwg-SLPwg outperforms conventional techniques and other genre-adaptive alternatives. In particular, improvements......-based genre representation for genre-adaptive music mood analysis....

  11. DOA and Pitch Estimation of Audio Sources using IAA-based Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it has been investigated how to separately solve the problems of both direction-of-arrival (DOA) and pitch estimation. Recently, it was found that estimating these parameters jointly from multichannel recordings of audio can be extremely beneficial. Many joint estimators are based...... on knowledge of the inverse sample covariance matrix. Typically, this covariance is estimated using the sample covariance matrix, but for this estimate to be full rank, many temporal samples are needed. In cases with non-stationary signals, this is a serious limitation. We therefore investigate how a recent...... joint DOA and pitch filtering-based estimator can be combined with the iterative adaptive approach to circumvent this limitation in joint DOA and pitch estimation of audio sources. Simulations show a clear improvement compared to when using the sample covariance matrix and the considered approach also...

  12. A New Paradigm Hidden in Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    the n least signi cant bits ( LSB ) of each pixel in the cov- erimage, with the n most signi cant bits (MSB) from the corresponding pixel of the image to...e.g., 2 LSB are (0,0) ) to 3 (e.g., 2 LSB are (1,1) ), it is visually impossible for Eve to detect the steganography . Of course, if Eve has knowl...cryptographic security when the steganography has failed. Simply encrypt the embedded bits so that the 2 LSB in the stegoimage appear as white noise

  13. LAMI: A gesturally controlled three-dimensional stage Leap (Motion-based) Audio Mixing Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Jonathan P.; Dewey, Christopher; Gale, William

    2017-01-01

    Interface designers are increasingly exploring alternative approaches to user input/control. LAMI is a Leap (Motion-based) AMI which takes user’s hand gestures and maps these to a three-dimensional stage displayed on a computer monitor. Audio channels are visualised as spheres whose Y coordinate is spectral centroid and X and Z coordinates are controlled by hand position and represent pan and level respectively. Auxiliary send levels are controlled via wrist rotation and vertical hand positio...

  14. Music preferences based on audio features, and its relation to personality

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have summarized reported music preferences by genre into four broadly defined categories, which relate to various personality characteristics. Other research has indicated that genre classification is ambiguous and inconsistent. This ambiguity suggests that research relating personality to music preferences based on genre could benefit from a more objective definition of music. This problem is addressed by investigating how music preferences linked to objective audio features r...

  15. The implementation of Project-Based Learning in courses Audio Video to Improve Employability Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyo, Edy; Kustono, Djoko; Purnomo; Sutaji, Eddy

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a project-based learning (PjBL) in subjects with Audio Video the Study Programme Electro Engineering Universitas Negeri Surabaya which consists of two ways namely the design of the prototype audio-video and assessment activities project-based learning tailored to the skills of the 21st century in the form of employability skills. The purpose of learning innovation is applying the lab work obtained in the theory classes. The PjBL aims to motivate students, centering on the problems of teaching in accordance with the world of work. Measures of learning include; determine the fundamental questions, designs, develop a schedule, monitor the learners and progress, test the results, evaluate the experience, project assessment, and product assessment. The results of research conducted showed the level of mastery of the ability to design tasks (of 78.6%), technical planning (39,3%), creativity (42,9%), innovative (46,4%), problem solving skills (the 57.1%), skill to communicate (75%), oral expression (75%), searching and understanding information (to 64.3%), collaborative work skills (71,4%), and classroom conduct (of 78.6%). In conclusion, instructors have to do the reflection and make improvements in some of the aspects that have a level of mastery of the skills less than 60% both on the application of project-based learning courses, audio video.

  16. Audio-based Age and Gender Identification to Enhance the Recommendation of TV Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    Recommending TV content to groups of viewers is best carried out when relevant information such as the demographics of the group is available. However, it can be difficult and time consuming to extract information for every user in the group. This paper shows how an audio analysis of the age...... and gender of a group of users watching the TV can be used for recommending a sequence of N short TV content items for the group. First, a state of the art audio-based classifier determines the age and gender of each user in an M-user group and creates a group profile. A genetic recommender algorithm...... profile, thus ensuring that items are proportionally allocated to users with respect to their demographic categorization. The proposed system is compared to an ideal system where the group demographics are provided explicitly. Results using real speaker utterances show that, in spite of the inaccuracies...

  17. Extraction Of Audio Features For Emotion Recognition System Based On Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Moe Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Music is the combination of melody linguistic information and the vocalists emotion. Since music is a work of art analyzing emotion in music by computer is a difficult task. Many approaches have been developed to detect the emotions included in music but the results are not satisfactory because emotion is very complex. In this paper the evaluations of audio features from the music files are presented. The extracted features are used to classify the different emotion classes of the vocalists. Musical features extraction is done by using Music Information Retrieval MIR tool box in this paper. The database of 100 music clips are used to classify the emotions perceived in music clips. Music may contain many emotions according to the vocalists mood such as happy sad nervous bored peace etc. In this paper the audio features related to the emotions of the vocalists are extracted to use in emotion recognition system based on music.

  18. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound......This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...

  19. On LSB Spatial Domain Steganography and Channel Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-21

    reveal the hidden information should not be taken as proof that the image is now clean. The survivability of LSB type spatial domain steganography ...the mindset that JPEG compressing an image is sufficient to destroy the steganography for spatial domain LSB type stego. We agree that JPEGing...modeling of 2 bit LSB steganography shows that theoretically there is non-zero stego payload possible even though the image has been JPEGed. We wish to

  20. Novel Designs for the Audio Mixing Interface Based on Data Visualisation First Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Christopher; Wakefield, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Given the shortcomings of current audio mixing interfaces (AMIs) this study focuses on the development of alternative AMIs based on data visualisation first principles. The elementary perceptual tasks defined by Cleveland informed the design process. Two design ideas were considered for pan: using the elementary perceptual tasks ‘scale’ to display pan on either a single or multiple horizontal lines. Four design ideas were considered for level:\\ud using ‘length’, ‘area’, ‘saturation’ or ‘scala...

  1. Audio Twister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Moreno Garcia, Rodrigo; Monastiridis, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015....

  2. DWT Steganography with Usage of Scrambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Oravec

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes image steganography technique, which uses Discrete Wavelet Transform and Standard map for storage of secret data in form of binary image. Modifications, which are done on cover image depend on its scrambled and decomposed version. To avoid unnecessary amount of changes, proposed approach marks location of altered DWT coefficients. The paper ends with illustration of yielded results and presents some possible topics for future work.

  3. Multi-Class Classification for Identifying JPEG Steganography Embedding Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    digital pictures on Web sites or sending them through email (Astrowsky, 2000). Steganography may also be used to allow communication between affiliates...B.H. (2000). STEGANOGRAPHY: Hidden Images, A New Challenge in the Fight Against Child Porn . UPDATE, Volume 13, Number 2, pp. 1-4, Retrieved June 3

  4. Steganography and Cryptography Inspired Enhancement of Introductory Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Kempner, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the art and science of concealing communication. The goal of steganography is to hide the very existence of information exchange by embedding messages into unsuspicious digital media covers. Cryptography, or secret writing, is the study of the methods of encryption, decryption and their use in communications protocols.…

  5. A Novel Chewing Detection System Based on PPG, Audio, and Accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Vasileios; Diou, Christos; Zhou, Lingchuan; van den Boer, Janet; Mars, Monica; Delopoulos, Anastasios

    2017-05-01

    In the context of dietary management, accurate monitoring of eating habits is receiving increased attention. Wearable sensors, combined with the connectivity and processing of modern smartphones, can be used to robustly extract objective and real-time measurements of human behavior. In particular, for the task of chewing detection, several approaches based on an in-ear microphone can be found in the literature, while other types of sensors have also been reported, such as strain sensors. In this paper, performed in the context of the SPLENDID project, we propose to combine an in-ear microphone with a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor placed in the ear concha, in a new high accuracy and low sampling rate prototype chewing detection system. We propose a pipeline that initially processes each sensor signal separately, and then fuses both to perform the final detection. Features are extracted from each modality, and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used separately to perform snacking detection. Finally, we combine the SVM scores from both signals in a late-fusion scheme, which leads to increased eating detection accuracy. We evaluate the proposed eating monitoring system on a challenging, semifree living dataset of 14 subjects, which includes more than 60 h of audio and PPG signal recordings. Results show that fusing the audio and PPG signals significantly improves the effectiveness of eating event detection, achieving accuracy up to 0.938 and class-weighted accuracy up to 0.892.

  6. Survey of the Use of Steganography over the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela DINCA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressesthe use of Steganography over the Internet by terrorists. There were ru-mors in the newspapers that Steganography is being used to covert communication between terrorists, without presenting any scientific proof. Niels Provos and Peter Honeyman conducted an extensive Internet search where they analyzed over 2 million images and didn’t find a single hidden image. After this study the scientific community was divided: some believed that Niels Provos and Peter Honeyman was conclusive enough other did not. This paper describes what Steganography is and what can be used for, various Steganography techniques and also presents the studies made regarding the use of Steganography on the Internet.

  7. Audio Source Separation in Reverberant Environments Using β-Divergence-Based Nonnegative Factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhry, Mahmoud; Svaizer, Piergiorgio; Omologo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    -maximization algorithm and used to separate the signals by means of multichannel Wiener filtering. We propose to estimate these parameters by applying nonnegative factorization based on prior information on source variances. In the nonnegative factorization, spectral basis matrices can be defined as the prior...... information. The matrices can be either extracted or indirectly made available through a redundant library that is trained in advance. In a separate step, applying nonnegative tensor factorization, two algorithms are proposed in order to either extract or detect the basis matrices that best represent......In Gaussian model-based multichannel audio source separation, the likelihood of observed mixtures of source signals is parametrized by source spectral variances and by associated spatial covariance matrices. These parameters are estimated by maximizing the likelihood through an expectation...

  8. Ambiguity Function Analysis and Processing for Passive Radar Based on CDR Digital Audio Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China Digital Radio (CDR broadcasting is a new standard of digital audio broadcasting of FM frequency (87–108 MHz based on our research and development efforts. It is compatible with the frequency spectrum in analog FM radio and satisfies the requirements for smooth transition from analog to digital signal in FM broadcasting in China. This paper focuses on the signal characteristics and processing methods of radio-based passive radar. The signal characteristics and ambiguity function of a passive radar illumination source are analyzed. The adverse effects on the target detection of the side peaks owing to cyclic prefix, the Doppler ambiguity strips because of signal synchronization, and the range of side peaks resulting from the signal discontinuous spectrum are then studied. Finally, methods for suppressing these side peaks are proposed and their effectiveness is verified by simulations.

  9. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Par, S.; Kohlrausch, A.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Holdt Jensen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of

  10. A perceptual model for sinusoidal audio coding based on spectral integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Par, S.; Kohlrauch, A.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of

  11. Analysis of current-bidirectional buck-boost based switch-mode audio amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolten Maizonave, Gert; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Kjærgaard, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The following studdy was carried out in order to assses quantitatively the performannce of the buck--boost converter whhen used as swiitch-mode audio amplifier. It comprises of, to beggin with, the de limitation of design criteria bassed on the state of-the-art solution, which is based...... in a differential mode buckbased amplifier with a boost converter as power supply. The averaged switch modelling of the differential mode current bidirectional topology is also used, in order to analyze the steady state and frequency-wise behaviour of this converter and parameterize it to meet the design criteria....... Next, several piecewise-linear siimulation resultss are shown with detail enough to emphasize the features of the converter. A simple prototype is implemented to verify the main predicted features. Presently no previous publicat ion could be found containing a thorough analysis of this topology...

  12. An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

    The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of audio-based seizure detection in patients with severe epilepsy and an intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Johan B.; van Dorp, Jasper; van Hoek, Dennis; Kramer, Niels; van Mierlo, Petra; van der Vorst, Derek; Tan, Francis I.Y.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of audio-based detection of major seizures (tonic–clonic and long generalized tonic) in adult patients with intellectual disability living in an institute for residential care. Methods First, we checked in a random sample (n = 17, 102 major seizures) how many patients

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on area consortium research and development business. Area consortium for venture business development by building base for small business (abuse double protected next generation card system based on steganography); 1998 nendo venture kigyo ikuseigata chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu (chusho kigyo sozo kibangata). Steganography gijutsu wo riyoshita jisedaigata fusei shiyo taju boshi guard system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A card system is developed using BPCS (Business Planning and Control System) steganography, with electronic data imbedded in the card. Under the system, the visual recognition of the user and the mechanical verification of the card are carried out simultaneously, with the card rejecting any abuse. In fiscal 1998, a system was built by way of trial, constituted of technologies of encoding, decoding, and packaging data into an IC (integrated circuit) card. A photograph of the user's face is attached to the card, the card carries an 8KB IC memory device, and the device stores data of the photograph of the user's face etc. A password has to be inputted before any data may be taken out. A customized key is required to display the imbedded personal data and, for the restoration of the key data, the personal key known only to the owner and the company key that is kept by the card managing company need to be collated with each other. Multiple checking is available for the prevention of abuse, which include the collation of face photographs, collation with display by inputting the password, and request for the customized key to confirm the presence of authority to read the imbedded personal data. (NEDO)

  15. Steganography and Prospects of Its Application in Protection of Printing Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Zhmakin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the principle of steganography reveals. Three modern directions of concealment of the information are presented. Application classical steganography in printing prints is described.

  16. The Effects of Musical Experience and Hearing Loss on Solving an Audio-Based Gaming Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Falkenberg Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an experiment using a purposefully designed audio-based game called the Music Puzzle with Japanese university students with different levels of hearing acuity and experience with music in order to determine the effects of these factors on solving such games. A group of hearing-impaired students (n = 12 was compared with two hearing control groups with the additional characteristic of having high (n = 12 or low (n = 12 engagement in musical activities. The game was played with three sound sets or modes; speech, music, and a mix of the two. The results showed that people with hearing loss had longer processing times for sounds when playing the game. Solving the game task in the speech mode was found particularly difficult for the group with hearing loss, and while they found the game difficult in general, they expressed a fondness for the game and a preference for music. Participants with less musical experience showed difficulties in playing the game with musical material. We were able to explain the impacts of hearing acuity and musical experience; furthermore, we can promote this kind of tool as a viable way to train hearing by focused listening to sound, particularly with music.

  17. Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Anarım

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.

  18. Multimodal Authentication - Biometric Password And Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Security is a major concern for everyone be it individuals or organizations. As the nature of information systems is becoming distributed securing them is becoming difficult as well. New applications are developed by researchers and developers to counter security issues but as soon as the application is released new attacks are formed to bypass the application. Kerberos is an authentication protocol which helps in to verify and validate a user to a server. As it is a widely used protocol minimizing or preventing the password attack is important. In this research we have analyzed the Kerberos protocol and suggested some ideas which can be considered while updating Kerberos to prevent the password attack. In the proposed solution we are suggesting to use password and biometric technique while registering on the network to enjoy the services and a combination of cryptography and steganography technique while communicating back to the user.

  19. Teacher’s Voice on Metacognitive Strategy Based Instruction Using Audio Visual Aids for Listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salasiah Salasiah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper primarily stresses on exploring the teacher’s voice toward the application of metacognitive strategy with audio-visual aid in improving listening comprehension. The metacognitive strategy model applied in the study was inspired from Vandergrift and Tafaghodtari (2010 instructional model. Thus it is modified in the procedure and applied with audio-visual aids for improving listening comprehension. The study’s setting was at SMA Negeri 2 Parepare, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The population of the research was the teacher of English at tenth grade at SMAN 2. The sample was taken by using random sampling technique. The data was collected by using in depth interview during the research, recorded, and analyzed using qualitative analysis. This study explored the teacher’s response toward the modified model of metacognitive strategy with audio visual aids in class of listening which covers positive and negative response toward the strategy applied during the teaching of listening. The result of data showed that this strategy helped the teacher a lot in teaching listening comprehension as the procedure has systematic steps toward students’ listening comprehension. Also, it eases the teacher to teach listening by empowering audio visual aids such as video taken from youtube.

  20. Interactive Football-Training Based on Rebounders with Hit Position Sensing and Audio-Visual Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj; Thomassen, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    . However, most of these tools are created with a single goal, either to measure or train, and are often used and tested in very controlled settings. In this paper, we present an interactive football-training platform, called Football Lab, featuring sensor- mounted rebounders as well as audio-visual...

  1. Distortion Estimation in Compressed Music Using Only Audio Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact yet very robust representation of the perceptually relevant parts of an audio signal. It can be used for content-based audio identification, even when the audio is severely distorted. Audio compression changes the fingerprint slightly. We show that these small

  2. Detection and characterization of lightning-based sources using continuous wavelet transform: application to audio-magnetotellurics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnier, H.; Sailhac, P.; Chambodut, A.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric electromagnetic waves created by global lightning activity contain information about electrical processes of the inner and the outer Earth. Large signal-to-noise ratio events are particularly interesting because they convey information about electromagnetic properties along their path. We introduce a new methodology to automatically detect and characterize lightning-based waves using a time-frequency decomposition obtained through the application of continuous wavelet transform. We focus specifically on three types of sources, namely, atmospherics, slow tails and whistlers, that cover the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 kHz. Each wave has distinguishable characteristics in the time-frequency domain due to source shape and dispersion processes. Our methodology allows automatic detection of each type of event in the time-frequency decomposition thanks to their specific signature. Horizontal polarization attributes are also recovered in the time-frequency domain. This procedure is first applied to synthetic extremely low frequency time-series with different signal-to-noise ratios to test for robustness. We then apply it on real data: three stations of audio-magnetotelluric data acquired in Guadeloupe, oversea French territories. Most of analysed atmospherics and slow tails display linear polarization, whereas analysed whistlers are elliptically polarized. The diversity of lightning activity is finally analysed in an audio-magnetotelluric data processing framework, as used in subsurface prospecting, through estimation of the impedance response functions. We show that audio-magnetotelluric processing results depend mainly on the frequency content of electromagnetic waves observed in processed time-series, with an emphasis on the difference between morning and afternoon acquisition. Our new methodology based on the time-frequency signature of lightning-induced electromagnetic waves allows automatic detection and characterization of events in audio

  3. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  4. Audio interfaces should be designed based on data visualisation first principles

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Christopher; Wakefield, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Audio mixing interfaces (AMIs) commonly conform to a small number of paradigms. These paradigms have\\ud significant shortcomings. Data visualisation first principles should be employed to consider alternatives. Existing AMI\\ud paradigms are discussed and concepts of image theory and elementary perceptual elements outlined. AMIs should be evaluated by usability experiments however performing these properly is time-consuming. There are many data visualisation options and combinations. Collabora...

  5. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Søren Holdt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of audio signals. In this paper, we present a new perceptual model that predicts masked thresholds for sinusoidal distortions. The model relies on signal detection theory and incorporates more recent insights about spectral and temporal integration in auditory masking. As a consequence, the model is able to predict the distortion detectability. In fact, the distortion detectability defines a (perceptually relevant norm on the underlying signal space which is beneficial for optimisation algorithms such as rate-distortion optimisation or linear predictive coding. We evaluate the merits of the model by combining it with a sinusoidal extraction method and compare the results with those obtained with the ISO MPEG-1 Layer I-II recommended model. Listening tests show a clear preference for the new model. More specifically, the model presented here leads to a reduction of more than 20% in terms of number of sinusoids needed to represent signals at a given quality level.

  6. Audio Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    The first reproducible recording of human voice was made in 1877 on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph devised by Thomas A. Edison. Since then, much effort has been expended to find better ways to record and reproduce sounds. By the mid-1920s, the first electrical recordings appeared and gradually took over purely acoustic recordings. The development of electronic computers, in conjunction with the ability to record data onto magnetic or optical media, culminated in the standardization of compact disc format in 1980. Nowadays, digital technology is applied to several audio applications, not only to improve the quality of modern and old recording/reproduction techniques, but also to trade off sound quality for less storage space and less taxing transmission capacity requirements.

  7. Minimizing embedding impact in steganography using trellis-coded quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Tomáš; Judas, Jan; Fridrich, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a practical approach to minimizing embedding impact in steganography based on syndrome coding and trellis-coded quantization and contrast its performance with bounds derived from appropriate rate-distortion bounds. We assume that each cover element can be assigned a positive scalar expressing the impact of making an embedding change at that element (single-letter distortion). The problem is to embed a given payload with minimal possible average embedding impact. This task, which can be viewed as a generalization of matrix embedding or writing on wet paper, has been approached using heuristic and suboptimal tools in the past. Here, we propose a fast and very versatile solution to this problem that can theoretically achieve performance arbitrarily close to the bound. It is based on syndrome coding using linear convolutional codes with the optimal binary quantizer implemented using the Viterbi algorithm run in the dual domain. The complexity and memory requirements of the embedding algorithm are linear w.r.t. the number of cover elements. For practitioners, we include detailed algorithms for finding good codes and their implementation. Finally, we report extensive experimental results for a large set of relative payloads and for different distortion profiles, including the wet paper channel.

  8. A novel quantum steganography scheme for color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panchi; Liu, Xiande

    In quantum image steganography, embedding capacity and security are two important issues. This paper presents a novel quantum steganography scheme using color images as cover images. First, the secret information is divided into 3-bit segments, and then each 3-bit segment is embedded into the LSB of one color pixel in the cover image according to its own value and using Gray code mapping rules. Extraction is the inverse of embedding. We designed the quantum circuits that implement the embedding and extracting process. The simulation results on a classical computer show that the proposed scheme outperforms several other existing schemes in terms of embedding capacity and security.

  9. An interactive audio-visual installation using ubiquitous hardware and web-based software deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Tavares

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive audio-visual musical installation, namely MOTUS, that aims at being deployed using low-cost hardware and software. This was achieved by writing the software as a web application and using only hardware pieces that are built-in most modern personal computers. This scenario implies in specific technical restrictions, which leads to solutions combining both technical and artistic aspects of the installation. The resulting system is versatile and can be freely used from any computer with Internet access. Spontaneous feedback from the audience has shown that the provided experience is interesting and engaging, regardless of the use of minimal hardware.

  10. Quantum steganography with noisy quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Bilal A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Steganography is the technique of hiding secret information by embedding it in a seemingly ''innocent'' message. We present protocols for hiding quantum information by disguising it as noise in a codeword of a quantum error-correcting code. The sender (Alice) swaps quantum information into the codeword and applies a random choice of unitary operation, drawing on a secret random key she shares with the receiver (Bob). Using the key, Bob can retrieve the information, but an eavesdropper (Eve) with the power to monitor the channel, but without the secret key, cannot distinguish the message from channel noise. We consider two types of protocols: one in which the hidden quantum information is stored locally in the codeword, and another in which it is embedded in the space of error syndromes. We analyze how difficult it is for Eve to detect the presence of secret messages, and estimate rates of steganographic communication and secret key consumption for specific protocols and examples of error channels. We consider both the case where there is no actual noise in the channel (so that all errors in the codeword result from the deliberate actions of Alice), and the case where the channel is noisy and not controlled by Alice and Bob.

  11. SCOPES: steganography with compression using permutation search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorboor, Sahar; Zolfaghari, Behrouz; Mozafari, Saadat Pour

    2011-10-01

    LSB (Least Significant Bit) is a widely used method for image steganography, which hides the secret message as a bit stream in LSBs of pixel bytes in the cover image. This paper proposes a variant of LSB named SCOPES that encodes and compresses the secret message while being hidden through storing addresses instead of message bytes. Reducing the length of the stored message improves the storage capacity and makes the stego image visually less suspicious to the third party. The main idea behind the SCOPES approach is dividing the message into 3-character segments, seeking each segment in the cover image and storing the address of the position containing the segment instead of the segment itself. In this approach, every permutation of the 3 bytes (if found) can be stored along with some extra bits indicating the permutation. In some rare cases the segment may not be found in the image and this can cause the message to be expanded by some overhead bits2 instead of being compressed. But experimental results show that SCOPES performs overlay better than traditional LSB even in the worst cases.

  12. A Secure and Robust Compressed Domain Video Steganography for Intra- and Inter-Frames Using Embedding-Based Byte Differencing (EBBD) Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idbeaa, Tarik; Abdul Samad, Salina; Husain, Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel secure and robust steganographic technique in the compressed video domain namely embedding-based byte differencing (EBBD). Unlike most of the current video steganographic techniques which take into account only the intra frames for data embedding, the proposed EBBD technique aims to hide information in both intra and inter frames. The information is embedded into a compressed video by simultaneously manipulating the quantized AC coefficients (AC-QTCs) of luminance components of the frames during MPEG-2 encoding process. Later, during the decoding process, the embedded information can be detected and extracted completely. Furthermore, the EBBD basically deals with two security concepts: data encryption and data concealing. Hence, during the embedding process, secret data is encrypted using the simplified data encryption standard (S-DES) algorithm to provide better security to the implemented system. The security of the method lies in selecting candidate AC-QTCs within each non-overlapping 8 × 8 sub-block using a pseudo random key. Basic performance of this steganographic technique verified through experiments on various existing MPEG-2 encoded videos over a wide range of embedded payload rates. Overall, the experimental results verify the excellent performance of the proposed EBBD with a better trade-off in terms of imperceptibility and payload, as compared with previous techniques while at the same time ensuring minimal bitrate increase and negligible degradation of PSNR values.

  13. A Secure and Robust Compressed Domain Video Steganography for Intra- and Inter-Frames Using Embedding-Based Byte Differencing (EBBD Scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Idbeaa

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel secure and robust steganographic technique in the compressed video domain namely embedding-based byte differencing (EBBD. Unlike most of the current video steganographic techniques which take into account only the intra frames for data embedding, the proposed EBBD technique aims to hide information in both intra and inter frames. The information is embedded into a compressed video by simultaneously manipulating the quantized AC coefficients (AC-QTCs of luminance components of the frames during MPEG-2 encoding process. Later, during the decoding process, the embedded information can be detected and extracted completely. Furthermore, the EBBD basically deals with two security concepts: data encryption and data concealing. Hence, during the embedding process, secret data is encrypted using the simplified data encryption standard (S-DES algorithm to provide better security to the implemented system. The security of the method lies in selecting candidate AC-QTCs within each non-overlapping 8 × 8 sub-block using a pseudo random key. Basic performance of this steganographic technique verified through experiments on various existing MPEG-2 encoded videos over a wide range of embedded payload rates. Overall, the experimental results verify the excellent performance of the proposed EBBD with a better trade-off in terms of imperceptibility and payload, as compared with previous techniques while at the same time ensuring minimal bitrate increase and negligible degradation of PSNR values.

  14. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library.

  15. New methods to improve the pixel domain steganography, steganalysis, and simplify the assessment of steganalysis tools

    OpenAIRE

    Khalind, Omed Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Unlike other security methods, steganography hides the very existence of secret messages rather than their content only. Both steganography and steganalysis are strongly related to each other, the new steganographic methods should be evaluated with current steganalysis methods and vice-versa. Since steganography is considered broken when the stego object is recognised, undetectability would be the most important property of any steganographic system. Digital image files are excellent media fo...

  16. Audio localization for mobile robots

    OpenAIRE

    de Guillebon, Thibaut; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Bolea Monte, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    The department of the University for which I worked is developing a project based on the interaction with robots in the environment. My work was to define an audio system for the robot. This audio system that I have to realize consists on a mobile head which is able to follow the sound in its environment. This subject was treated as a research problem, with the liberty to find and develop different solutions and make them evolve in the chosen way.

  17. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  18. WLAN Technologies for Audio Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas-Alexander Tatlas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio delivery and reproduction for home or professional applications may greatly benefit from the adoption of digital wireless local area network (WLAN technologies. The most challenging aspect of such integration relates the synchronized and robust real-time streaming of multiple audio channels to multipoint receivers, for example, wireless active speakers. Here, it is shown that current WLAN solutions are susceptible to transmission errors. A detailed study of the IEEE802.11e protocol (currently under ratification is also presented and all relevant distortions are assessed via an analytical and experimental methodology. A novel synchronization scheme is also introduced, allowing optimized playback for multiple receivers. The perceptual audio performance is assessed for both stereo and 5-channel applications based on either PCM or compressed audio signals.

  19. Embedded FPGA Design for Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process of Image Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Wei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a prototype of field programmable gate array (FPGA implementation for optimal pixel adjustment process (OPAP algorithm of image steganography. In the proposed scheme, the cover image and the secret message are transmitted from a personal computer (PC to an FPGA board using RS232 interface for hardware processing. We firstly embed k-bit secret message into each pixel of the cover image by the last-significant-bit (LSB substitution method, followed by executing associated OPAP calculations to construct a stego pixel. After all pixels of the cover image have been embedded, a stego image is created and transmitted from FPGA back to the PC and stored in the PC. Moreover, we have extended the basic pixel-wise structure to a parallel structure which can fully use the hardware devices to speed up the embedding process and embed several bits of secret message at the same time. Through parallel mechanism of the hardware based design, the data hiding process can be completed in few clock cycles to produce steganography outcome. Experimental results show the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed scheme.

  20. CLSM: COUPLE LAYERED SECURITY MODEL A HIGH-CAPACITY DATA HIDING SCHEME USING WITH STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Kocak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography and steganography are the two significant techniques used in secrecy of communications and in safe message transfer. In this study CLSM – Couple Layered Security Model is suggested which has a hybrid structure enhancing information security using features of cryptography and steganography. In CLSM system; the information which has been initially cryptographically encrypted is steganographically embedded in an image at the next step. The information is encrypted by means of a Text Keyword consisting of maximum 16 digits determined by the user in cryptography method. Similarly, the encrypted information is processed, during the embedding stage, using a 16 digit pin (I-PIN which is determined again by the user. The carrier images utilized in the study have been determined as 24 bit/pixel colour. Utilization of images in .jpeg, .tiff, .pnp format has also been provided. The performance of the CLSM method has been evaluated according to the objective quality measurement criteria of PSNR-dB (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and SSIM (Structural Similarity Index. In the study, 12 different sized information between 1000 and 609,129 bits were embedded into images. Between 34.14 and 65.8 dB PSNR values and between 0.989 and 0.999 SSIM values were obtained. CLSM showed better results compared to Pixel Value Differencing (PVD method, Simulated Annealing (SA Algorithm and Mix column transform based on irreducible polynomial mathematics methods.

  1. A Method to Detect AAC Audio Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Audio Coding (AAC, a standardized lossy compression scheme for digital audio, which was designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bit rates. While AAC is also the default or standard audio format for many devices and AAC audio files may be presented as important digital evidences, the authentication of the audio files is highly needed but relatively missing. In this paper, we propose a scheme to expose tampered AAC audio streams that are encoded at the same encoding bit-rate. Specifically, we design a shift-recompression based method to retrieve the differential features between the re-encoded audio stream at each shifting and original audio stream, learning classifier is employed to recognize different patterns of differential features of the doctored forgery files and original (untouched audio files. Experimental results show that our approach is very promising and effective to detect the forgery of the same encoding bit-rate on AAC audio streams. Our study also shows that shift recompression-based differential analysis is very effective for detection of the MP3 forgery at the same bit rate.

  2. Audio Conferencing Enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    VESTERINEN, LEENA

    2006-01-01

    Audio conferencing allows multiple people in distant locations to interact in a single voice call. Whilst it can be very useful service it also has several key disadvantages. This thesis study investigated the options for improving the user experience of the mobile teleconferencing applications. In particular, the use of 3D, spatial audio and visualinteractive functionality was investigated as the means of improving the intelligibility and audio perception during the audio...

  3. Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Allati, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Medeni, M.B. Ould

    2012-01-01

    A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ 4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ 4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed. (general)

  4. Two-dimensional block-based reception for differentially encoded OFDM systems : a study on improved reception techniques for digital audio broadcasting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital audio broadcast (DAB), DAB+ and Terrestrial-Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB) systems use multi-carrier modulation (MCM). The principle of MCM in the DAB-family is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), for which every subcarrier is modulated by p 4 differentially

  5. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  6. Steganography on multiple MP3 files using spread spectrum and Shamir's secret sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoeseph, N. M.; Purnomo, F. A.; Riasti, B. K.; Safiie, M. A.; Hidayat, T. N.

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of steganography is how to hide data into another media. In order to increase security of data, steganography technique is often combined with cryptography. The weakness of this combination technique is the data was centralized. Therefore, a steganography technique is develop by using combination of spread spectrum and secret sharing technique. In steganography with secret sharing, shares of data is created and hidden in several medium. Medium used to concealed shares were MP3 files. Hiding technique used was Spread Spectrum. Secret sharing scheme used was Shamir's Secret Sharing. The result showed that steganography with spread spectrum combined with Shamir's Secret Share using MP3 files as medium produce a technique that could hid data into several cover. To extract and reconstruct the data hidden in stego object, it is needed the amount of stego object which more or equal to its threshold. Furthermore, stego objects were imperceptible and robust.

  7. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  8. Audio-Visual Tibetan Speech Recognition Based on a Deep Dynamic Bayesian Network for Natural Human Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Audio-visual speech recognition is a natural and robust approach to improving human-robot interaction in noisy environments. Although multi-stream Dynamic Bayesian Network and coupled HMM are widely used for audio-visual speech recognition, they fail to learn the shared features between modalities and ignore the dependency of features among the frames within each discrete state. In this paper, we propose a Deep Dynamic Bayesian Network (DDBN to perform unsupervised extraction of spatial-temporal multimodal features from Tibetan audio-visual speech data and build an accurate audio-visual speech recognition model under a no frame-independency assumption. The experiment results on Tibetan speech data from some real-world environments showed the proposed DDBN outperforms the state-of-art methods in word recognition accuracy.

  9. Smartphone audio port data collection cookbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Forinash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The audio port of a smartphone is designed to send and receive audio but can be harnessed for portable, economical, and accurate data collection from a variety of sources. While smartphones have internal sensors to measure a number of physical phenomena such as acceleration, magnetism and illumination levels, measurement of other phenomena such as voltage, external temperature, or accurate timing of moving objects are excluded. The audio port cannot be only employed to sense external phenomena. It has the additional advantage of timing precision; because audio is recorded or played at a controlled rate separated from other smartphone activities, timings based on audio can be highly accurate. The following outlines unpublished details of the audio port technical elements for data collection, a general data collection recipe and an example timing application for Android devices.

  10. Learning Algorithms for Audio and Video Processing: Independent Component Analysis and Support Vector Machine Based Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qi, Yuan

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, we propose two new machine learning schemes, a subband-based Independent Component Analysis scheme and a hybrid Independent Component Analysis/Support Vector Machine scheme, and apply...

  11. A Novel Image Steganography Technique for Secured Online Transaction Using DWT and Visual Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha Devi, M. D.; ShivaKumar, K. B.

    2017-08-01

    Online payment eco system is the main target especially for cyber frauds. Therefore end to end encryption is very much needed in order to maintain the integrity of secret information related to transactions carried online. With access to payment related sensitive information, which enables lot of money transactions every day, the payment infrastructure is a major target for hackers. The proposed system highlights, an ideal approach for secure online transaction for fund transfer with a unique combination of visual cryptography and Haar based discrete wavelet transform steganography technique. This combination of data hiding technique reduces the amount of information shared between consumer and online merchant needed for successful online transaction along with providing enhanced security to customer’s account details and thereby increasing customer’s confidence preventing “Identity theft” and “Phishing”. To evaluate the effectiveness of proposed algorithm Root mean square error, Peak signal to noise ratio have been used as evaluation parameters

  12. Study on Strengthening Plan of Safety Network CCTV Monitoring by Steganography and User Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-oh Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as the utilization of CCTV (closed circuit television is emerging as an issue, the studies on CCTV are receiving much attention. Accordingly, due to the development of CCTV, CCTV has IP addresses and is connected to network; it is exposed to many threats on the existing web environment. In this paper, steganography is utilized to confirm the Data Masquerading and Data Modification and, in addition, to strengthen the security; the user information is protected based on PKI (public key infrastructure, SN (serial number, and R value (random number attributed at the time of login and the user authentication protocol to block nonauthorized access of malicious user in network CCTV environment was proposed. This paper should be appropriate for utilization of user infringement-related CCTV where user information protection-related technology is not applied for CCTV in the future.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Audio Enhancement Based on IAA Noise Covariance Matrix Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    A method for estimating the noise covariance matrix in a mul- tichannel setup is proposed. The method is based on the iter- ative adaptive approach (IAA), which only needs short seg- ments of data to estimate the covariance matrix. Therefore, the method can be used for fast varying signals....... The method is based on an assumption of the desired signal being harmonic, which is used for estimating the noise covariance matrix from the covariance matrix of the observed signal. The noise co- variance estimate is used in the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) filter and compared...

  14. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  15. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio.......This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...

  16. Audio-haptic physically-based simulation of walking on different grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    We describe a system which simulates in realtime the auditory and haptic sensations of walking on different surfaces. The system is based on a pair of sandals enhanced with pressure sensors and actuators. The pressure sensors detect the interaction force during walking, and control several...

  17. Multi-Pitch Estimation of Audio Recordings Using a Codebook-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    ), and a codebook consisting of realistic amplitude vectors. A nonlinear least squares (NLS) cost function is formed based on the observed signal and a parametric model of the signal, for a set of fundamental frequency candidates. For each of these, amplitude estimates are computed. The magnitudes...... of these estimates are quantized according to a codebook, and an updated cost function is used to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the sources. The performance of the proposed estimator is evaluated using synthetic and real mixtures, and the results show that the proposed method is able to estimate multiple...

  18. Audio-based detection and evaluation of eating behavior using the smartwatch platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, Haik; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, smartwatches have emerged as a viable platform for a variety of medical and health-related applications. In addition to the benefits of a stable hardware platform, these devices have a significant advantage over other wrist-worn devices, in that user acceptance of watches is higher than other custom hardware solutions. In this paper, we describe signal-processing techniques for identification of chews and swallows using a smartwatch device׳s built-in microphone. Moreover, we conduct a survey to evaluate the potential of the smartwatch as a platform for monitoring nutrition. The focus of this paper is to analyze the overall applicability of a smartwatch-based system for food-intake monitoring. Evaluation results confirm the efficacy of our technique; classification was performed between apple and potato chip bites, water swallows, talking, and ambient noise, with an F-measure of 94.5% based on 250 collected samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions.

  20. Robust Steganography Using LSB-XOR and Image Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Adak, Chandranath

    2013-01-01

    Hiding and securing the secret digital information and data that are transmitted over the internet is of widespread and most challenging interest. This paper presents a new idea of robust steganography using bitwise-XOR operation between stego-key-image-pixel LSB (Least Significant Bit) value and secret message-character ASCII-binary value (or, secret image-pixel value). The stego-key-image is shared in dual-layer using odd-even position of each pixel to make the system robust. Due to image s...

  1. LSB steganography with improved embedding efficiency and undetectability

    OpenAIRE

    Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin Yowell Yousif

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of non-adapt ive LSB steganography in still images to improve the embedding efficiency from 2 to 8/3 rand om bits per one embedding change even for the embedding rate of 1 bit per pixel. The method t akes 2-bits of the secret message at a time and compares them to the LSBs of the two chosen pix el values for embedding, it always assumes a single mismatch between the two and uses the seco nd LSB o...

  2. Single-mismatch 2LSB embedding method of steganography

    OpenAIRE

    Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of 2LSB embedding steganography in still images. The proposed method considers a single mismatch in each 2LSB embedding between the 2LSB of the pixel value and the 2-bits of the secret message, while the 2LSB replacement overwrites the 2LSB of the image’s pixel value with 2-bits of the secret message. The number of bit-changes needed for the proposed method is 0.375 bits from the 2LSBs of the cover image, and is much less than the 2LSB replacement which is 0.5...

  3. Roundtable Audio Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bigum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available RoundTable on Technology, Teaching and Tools. This is a roundtable audio interview conducted by James Farmer, founder of Edublogs, with Anne Bartlett-Bragg (University of Technology Sydney and Chris Bigum (Deakin University. Skype was used to make and record the audio conference and the resulting sound file was edited by Andrew McLauchlan.

  4. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  5. Fusion of audio and visual cues for laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    Past research on automatic laughter detection has focused mainly on audio-based detection. Here we present an audio- visual approach to distinguishing laughter from speech and we show that integrating the information from audio and video channels leads to improved performance over single-modal

  6. Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange through Steganographied Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Khaldi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – In a private key system, the major problem is the exchange of the key between the two parties. Diffie and Hellman have set up a way to share the key. However, this technique is not protected against a man-in-the-middle attack as the settings are not authenticated. The Diffie-Hellman key exchange requires the use of digital signature or creating a secure channel for data exchanging to avoid the man-in-the-middle attack. Methodology/approach/design – We present a Diffie-Hellman key exchange implementation using steganographied images. Using steganography made invisible the data exchange to a potential attacker. So, we will not need a digital signature or creating a secure channel to do our key exchange since only the two concerned parts are aware of this exchange. Findings – We generate a symmetric 128-bit key between two users without use of digital signature or secure channel. However, it works only on bitmap images, heavy images and sensitive to compression.

  7. Throughput increase of the covert communication channel organized by the stable steganography algorithm using spatial domain of the image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Kostyrka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At the organization of a covert communication channel a number of requirements are imposed on used steganography algorithms among which one of the main are: resistance to attacks against the built-in message, reliability of perception of formed steganography message, significant throughput of a steganography communication channel. Aim: The aim of this research is to modify the steganography method, developed by the author earlier, which will allow to increase the throughput of the corresponding covert communication channel when saving resistance to attacks against the built-in message and perception reliability of the created steganography message, inherent to developed method. Materials and Methods: Modifications of a steganography method that is steady against attacks against the built-in message which is carrying out the inclusion and decoding of the sent (additional information in spatial domain of the image allowing to increase the throughput of the organized communication channel are offered. Use of spatial domain of the image allows to avoid accumulation of an additional computational error during the inclusion/decoding of additional information due to “transitions” from spatial domain of the image to the area of conversion and back that positively affects the efficiency of decoding. Such methods are considered as attacks against the built-in message: imposing of different noise on a steganography message, filtering, lossy compression of a ste-ganography message where the JPEG and JPEG2000 formats with different quality coefficients for saving of a steganography message are used. Results: It is shown that algorithmic implementations of the offered methods modifications remain steady against the perturbing influences, including considerable, provide reliability of perception of the created steganography message, increase the throughput of the created steganography communication channel in comparison with the algorithm implementing

  8. An Improvement on LSB Matching and LSB Matching Revisited Steganography Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Qazanfari, Kazem; Safabakhsh, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the steganography methods is to communicate securely in a completely undetectable manner. LSB Matching and LSB Matching Revisited steganography methods are two general and esiest methods to achieve this aim. Being secured against first order steganalysis methods is the most important feature of these methods. On the other hand, these methods don't consider inter pixel dependency. Therefore, recently, several steganalysis methods are proposed that by using co-occurrence matrix detec...

  9. Effect of audio in-vehicle red light-running warning message on driving behavior based on a driving simulator experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Yang; Xu, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    Drivers' incorrect decisions of crossing signalized intersections at the onset of the yellow change may lead to red light running (RLR), and RLR crashes result in substantial numbers of severe injuries and property damage. In recent years, some Intelligent Transport System (ITS) concepts have focused on reducing RLR by alerting drivers that they are about to violate the signal. The objective of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the effectiveness of the red light violation warning system using a voice message. In this study, the prototype concept of the RLR audio warning system was modeled and tested in a high-fidelity driving simulator. According to the concept, when a vehicle is approaching an intersection at the onset of yellow and the time to the intersection is longer than the yellow interval, the in-vehicle warning system can activate the following audio message "The red light is impending. Please decelerate!" The intent of the warning design is to encourage drivers who cannot clear an intersection during the yellow change interval to stop at the intersection. The experimental results showed that the warning message could decrease red light running violations by 84.3 percent. Based on the logistic regression analyses, drivers without a warning were about 86 times more likely to make go decisions at the onset of yellow and about 15 times more likely to run red lights than those with a warning. Additionally, it was found that the audio warning message could significantly reduce RLR severity because the RLR drivers' red-entry times without a warning were longer than those with a warning. This driving simulator study showed a promising effect of the audio in-vehicle warning message on reducing RLR violations and crashes. It is worthwhile to further develop the proposed technology in field applications.

  10. Structure Learning in Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch

    By having information about the setting a user is in, a computer is able to make decisions proactively to facilitate tasks for the user. Two approaches are taken in this thesis to achieve more information about an audio environment. One approach is that of classifying audio, and a new approach...... investigated. A fast and computationally simple approach that compares recordings and classifies if they are from the same audio environment have been developed, and shows very high accuracy and the ability to synchronize recordings in the case of recording devices which are not connected. A more general model...

  11. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows’ Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C.; Turner, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today. PMID:22081743

  12. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...... and understanding of audio-based mobile systems are evolving to offer new perspectives on interaction and design and support such systems to be applied in areas, such as the humanities....

  13. A high PSRR Class-D audio amplifier IC based on a self-adjusting voltage reference

    OpenAIRE

    Huffenus , Alexandre; Pillonnet , Gaël; Abouchi , Nacer; Goutti , Frédéric; Rabary , Vincent; Cittadini , Robert

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In a wide range of applications, audio amplifiers require a large Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) that the current Class-D architecture cannot reach. This paper proposes a self-adjusting internal voltage reference scheme that sets the bias voltages of the amplifier without losing on output dynamics. This solution relaxes the constraints on gain and feedback resistors matching that were previously the limiting factor for the PSRR. Theory of operation, design and IC ...

  14. Increasing Security for Cloud Computing By Steganography in Image Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hadi Saleh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of data storage in “cloud” is big challenge because the data keep within resources that may be accessed by particular machines. The managing of these data and services may not be high reliable. Therefore, the security of data is highly challenging. To increase the security of data in data center of cloud, we have introduced good method to ensure data security in “cloud computing” by methods of data hiding using color images which is called steganography. The fundamental objective of this paper is to prevent "Data Access” by unauthorized or opponent users. This scheme stores data at data centers within edges of color images and retrieves data from it when it is wanted.

  15. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Multimedia

    Sierra Moral, R

    2009-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  16. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra Moral, R

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  17. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living Based on Environmental Analyses Using Audio Fingerprinting Techniques: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miguel Pires

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the accuracy of identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL is very important for different goals of Enhanced Living Environments and for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL tasks. This increase may be achieved through identification of the surrounding environment. Although this is usually used to identify the location, ADL recognition can be improved with the identification of the sound in that particular environment. This paper reviews audio fingerprinting techniques that can be used with the acoustic data acquired from mobile devices. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in order to identify relevant English language works aimed at the identification of the environment of ADLs using data acquired with mobile devices, published between 2002 and 2017. In total, 40 studies were analyzed and selected from 115 citations. The results highlight several audio fingerprinting techniques, including Modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT, Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCC, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Gaussian mixture models (GMM, likelihood estimation, logarithmic moduled complex lapped transform (LMCLT, support vector machine (SVM, constant Q transform (CQT, symmetric pairwise boosting (SPB, Philips robust hash (PRH, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and discrete cosine transform (DCT.

  18. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements.

  19. Design of an audio advertisement dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yutao; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Qi; Geng, Yuting

    2015-12-01

    Since more and more advertisements swarm into radios, it is necessary to establish an audio advertising dataset which could be used to analyze and classify the advertisement. A method of how to establish a complete audio advertising dataset is presented in this paper. The dataset is divided into four different kinds of advertisements. Each advertisement's sample is given in *.wav file format, and annotated with a txt file which contains its file name, sampling frequency, channel number, broadcasting time and its class. The classifying rationality of the advertisements in this dataset is proved by clustering the different advertisements based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The experimental results show that this audio advertisement dataset offers a reliable set of samples for correlative audio advertisement experimental studies.

  20. Augmenting Environmental Interaction in Audio Feedback Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Audio feedback is defined as a positive feedback of acoustic signals where an audio input and output form a loop, and may be utilized artistically. This article presents new context-based controls over audio feedback, leading to the generation of desired sonic behaviors by enriching the influence of existing acoustic information such as room response and ambient noise. This ecological approach to audio feedback emphasizes mutual sonic interaction between signal processing and the acoustic environment. Mappings from analyses of the received signal to signal-processing parameters are designed to emphasize this specificity as an aesthetic goal. Our feedback system presents four types of mappings: approximate analyses of room reverberation to tempo-scale characteristics, ambient noise to amplitude and two different approximations of resonances to timbre. These mappings are validated computationally and evaluated experimentally in different acoustic conditions.

  1. EVALUASI KEPUASAN PENGGUNA TERHADAP APLIKASI AUDIO BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Maulana Anuraga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeno is the first application audio books in Indonesia so that the users can get the book in audio form like listen to music, Listeno have problems in a feature request Listeno offline mode that have not been released, a security problem mp3 files that must be considered, and the target Listeno not yet reached 100,000 active users. This research has the objective to evaluate user satisfaction to Audio Books with research method approach, Nielsen. The analysis in this study using Importance Performance Analysis (IPA is combined with the index of User Satisfaction (IKP based on the indicators used are: Benefit (Usefulness, Utility (Utility, Usability (Usability, easy to understand (Learnability, Efficient (efficiency , Easy to remember (Memorability, Error (Error, and satisfaction (satisfaction. The results showed Applications User Satisfaction Audio books are quite satisfied with the results of the calculation IKP 69.58%..

  2. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  3. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  4. EFEKTIVITAS MODEL PROBLEM BASED LEARNING BERBANTUAN MEDIA AUDIO VISUAL DITINJAU DARI HASIL BELAJAR IPA SISWA KELAS 5 SDN 1 GADU SAMBONG - BLORA SEMESTER 2 TAHUN 2014/2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhini Virgiana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan tingkat hasil belajar antara model problem based learning berbantuan media audio visual dengan model pembelajaran think pair share berbantuan media visual pada pembelajaran IPA siswa kelas 5 SDN 1 Gadu Sambong Kabupaten Blora semester 2 tahun pelajaran 2014/2015. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian quasi experiment dengan nonequivalent control group design. Subjek penelitian dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas 5 SDN 1 Gadu dan siswa kelas 5 SDN 2 Gagakan. Teknik  pengumpulan data dalam penelitian adalah tes dan observasi. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah statistik deskriptif, statistik parametrik, dan uji t dengan  independent sample t-tes pada taraf signifikansi 5% (α = 0,05. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dan pembahasan, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan tingkat efektivitas antara model problem based learning berbantu media audio visual dengan model pembelajaran think pair share berbantu media visual terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas 5 SDN 1 Gadu Kecamatan Sambong Kabupaten Blora semester 2 tahun 2014/2015. Terbukti hal ini ditunjukkan oleh hasil uji t-test sebesar 3,603 > 1,999 dan signifikansi sebesar 0,001 rata-rata kelas kontrol yaitu 87,0588 > 80,2000.

  5. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Ogawa

    Full Text Available The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion. Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround, 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono, 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG. The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life

  6. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli.

  7. Portable Audio Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2014-01-01

    attention to the specific genre; a grasping of the complex relationship between site and time, the actual and the virtual; and getting aquatint with the specific site’s soundscape by approaching it both intuitively and systematically. These steps will finally lead to an audio production that not only...

  8. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  9. Editing Audio with Audacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Walsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For those interested in audio, basic sound editing skills go a long way. Being able to handle and manipulate the materials can help you take control of your object of study: you can zoom in and extract particular moments to analyze, process the audio, and upload the materials to a server to compliment a blog post on the topic. On a more practical level, these skills could also allow you to record and package recordings of yourself or others for distribution. That guest lecture taking place in your department? Record it and edit it yourself! Doing so is a lightweight way to distribute resources among various institutions, and it also helps make the materials more accessible for readers and listeners with a wide variety of learning needs. In this lesson you will learn how to use Audacity to load, record, edit, mix, and export audio files. Sound editing platforms are often expensive and offer extensive capabilities that can be overwhelming to the first-time user, but Audacity is a free and open source alternative that offers powerful capabilities for sound editing with a low barrier for entry. For this lesson we will work with two audio files: a recording of Bach’s Goldberg Variations available from MusOpen and another recording of your own voice that will be made in the course of the lesson. This tutorial uses Audacity 2.1.2, released January 2016.

  10. Use of Effective Audio in E-learning Courseware

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Kisor

    2015-01-01

    E-Learning uses electronic media, information & communication technologies to provide education to the masses. E-learning deliver hypertext, text, audio, images, animation and videos using desktop standalone computer, local area network based intranet and internet based contents. While producing an e-learning content or course-ware, a major decision making factor is whether to use audio for the benefit of the end users. Generally, three types of audio can be used in e-learning: narration, mus...

  11. The audio expert everything you need to know about audio

    CERN Document Server

    Winer, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    The Audio Expert is a comprehensive reference that covers all aspects of audio, with many practical, as well as theoretical, explanations. Providing in-depth descriptions of how audio really works, using common sense plain-English explanations and mechanical analogies with minimal math, the book is written for people who want to understand audio at the deepest, most technical level, without needing an engineering degree. It's presented in an easy-to-read, conversational tone, and includes more than 400 figures and photos augmenting the text.The Audio Expert takes th

  12. Predicting the Overall Spatial Quality of Automotive Audio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Daisuke

    The spatial quality of automotive audio systems is often compromised due to their unideal listening environments. Automotive audio systems need to be developed quickly due to industry demands. A suitable perceptual model could evaluate the spatial quality of automotive audio systems with similar reliability to formal listening tests but take less time. Such a model is developed in this research project by adapting an existing model of spatial quality for automotive audio use. The requirements for the adaptation were investigated in a literature review. A perceptual model called QESTRAL was reviewed, which predicts the overall spatial quality of domestic multichannel audio systems. It was determined that automotive audio systems are likely to be impaired in terms of the spatial attributes that were not considered in developing the QESTRAL model, but metrics are available that might predict these attributes. To establish whether the QESTRAL model in its current form can accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems, MUSHRA listening tests using headphone auralisation with head tracking were conducted to collect results to be compared against predictions by the model. Based on guideline criteria, the model in its current form could not accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems. To improve prediction performance, the QESTRAL model was recalibrated and modified using existing metrics of the model, those that were proposed from the literature review, and newly developed metrics. The most important metrics for predicting the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems included those that were interaural cross-correlation (IACC) based, relate to localisation of the frontal audio scene, and account for the perceived scene width in front of the listener. Modifying the model for automotive audio systems did not invalidate its use for domestic audio systems. The resulting model predicts the overall spatial

  13. A secure approach for encrypting and compressing biometric information employing orthogonal code and steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad F.; Islam, Mohammed N.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a novel approach for encryption and compression of biometric information utilizing orthogonal coding and steganography techniques. Multiple biometric signatures are encrypted individually using orthogonal codes and then multiplexed together to form a single image, which is then embedded in a cover image using the proposed steganography technique. The proposed technique employs three least significant bits for this purpose and a secret key is developed to choose one from among these bits to be replaced by the corresponding bit of the biometric image. The proposed technique offers secure transmission of multiple biometric signatures in an identification document which will be protected from unauthorized steganalysis attempt.

  14. Image Steganography of Multiple File Types with Encryption and Compression Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Andreigh C. Centina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to develop a system intended for securing files through the technique of image steganography integrated with cryptography by utilizing ZLIB Algorithm for compressing and decompressing secret files, DES Algorithm for encryption and decryption, and Least Significant Bit Algorithm for file embedding and extraction to avoid compromise on highly confidential files from exploits of unauthorized persons. Ensuing to this, the system is in acc ordance with ISO 9126 international quality standards. Every quality criteria of the system was evaluated by 10 Information Technology professionals, and the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey were computed. The result exhibits that m ost of them strongly agreed that the system is excellently effective based on Functionality, Reliability, Usability, Efficiency, Maintainability and Portability conformance to ISO 9126 standards. The system was found to be a useful tool for both governmen t agencies and private institutions for it could keep not only the message secret but also the existence of that particular message or file et maintaining the privacy of highly confidential and sensitive files from unauthorized access.

  15. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  16. Effective ASCII-HEX steganography for secure cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afghan, S.

    2015-01-01

    There are many reasons of cloud computing popularity some of the most important are; backup and rescue, cost effective, nearly limitless storage, automatic software amalgamation, easy access to information and many more. Pay-as-you-go model is followed to provide everything as a service. Data is secured by using standard security policies available at cloud end. In spite of its many benefits, as mentioned above, cloud computing has also some security issues. Provider as well as customer has to provide and collect data in a secure manner. Both of these issues plus efficient transmitting of data over cloud are very critical issues and needed to be resolved. There is need of security during the travel time of sensitive data over the network that can be processed or stored by the customer. Security to the customer's data at the provider end can be provided by using current security algorithms, which are not known by the customer. There is reliability problem due to existence of multiple boundaries in the cloud resource access. ASCII and HEX security with steganography is used to propose an algorithm that stores the encrypted data/cipher text in an image file which will be then sent to the cloud end. This is done by using CDM (Common Deployment Model). In future, an algorithm should be proposed and implemented for the security of virtual images in the cloud computing. (author)

  17. The Impact of Hard Disk Firmware Steganography on Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Sutherland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The hard disk drive is probably the predominant form of storage media and is a primary data source in a forensic investigation. The majority of available software tools and literature relating to the investigation of the structure and content contained within a hard disk drive concerns the extraction and analysis of evidence from the various file systems which can reside in the user accessible area of the disk. It is known that there are other areas of the hard disk drive which could be used to conceal information, such as the Host Protected Area and the Device Configuration Overlay. There are recommended methods for the detection and forensic analysis of these areas using appropriate tools and techniques. However, there are additional areas of a disk that have currently been overlooked.  The Service Area or Platter Resident Firmware Area is used to store code and control structures responsible for the functionality of the drive and for logging failing or failed sectors.This paper provides an introduction into initial research into the investigation and identification of issues relating to the analysis of the Platter Resident Firmware Area. In particular, the possibility that the Platter Resident Firmware Area could be manipulated and exploited to facilitate a form of steganography, enabling information to be concealed by a user and potentially from a digital forensic investigator.

  18. Audio stream classification for multimedia database search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, M.; Bianco, S.; Gagliardi, I.; Gasparini, F.

    2013-03-01

    Search and retrieval of huge archives of Multimedia data is a challenging task. A classification step is often used to reduce the number of entries on which to perform the subsequent search. In particular, when new entries of the database are continuously added, a fast classification based on simple threshold evaluation is desirable. In this work we present a CART-based (Classification And Regression Tree [1]) classification framework for audio streams belonging to multimedia databases. The database considered is the Archive of Ethnography and Social History (AESS) [2], which is mainly composed of popular songs and other audio records describing the popular traditions handed down generation by generation, such as traditional fairs, and customs. The peculiarities of this database are that it is continuously updated; the audio recordings are acquired in unconstrained environment; and for the non-expert human user is difficult to create the ground truth labels. In our experiments, half of all the available audio files have been randomly extracted and used as training set. The remaining ones have been used as test set. The classifier has been trained to distinguish among three different classes: speech, music, and song. All the audio files in the dataset have been previously manually labeled into the three classes above defined by domain experts.

  19. Klasifikasi Bit-Plane Noise untuk Penyisipan Pesan pada Teknik Steganography BPCS Menggunakan Fuzzy Inference Sistem Mamdani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Hidayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bit-Plane Complexity Segmentation (BPCS is a fairly new steganography technique. The most important process in BPCS is the calculation of complexity value of a bit-plane. The bit-plane complexity is calculated by looking at the amount of bit changes contained in a bit-plane. If a bit-plane has a high complexity, the bi-plane is categorized as a noise bit-plane that does not contain valuable information on the image. Classification of the bit-plane using the set cripst set (noise/not is not fair, where a little difference of the value will significantly change the status of the bit-plane. The purpose of this study is to apply the principles of fuzzy sets to classify the bit-plane into three sets that are informative, partly informative, and the noise region. Classification of the bit-plane into a fuzzy set is expected to classify the bit-plane in a more objective approach and ultimately message capacity of the images can be improved by using the Mamdani fuzzy inference to take decisions which bit-plane will be replaced with a message based on the classification of bit-plane and the size of the message that will be inserted. This research is able to increase the capability of BPCS steganography techniques to insert a message in bit-pane with more precise so that the container image quality would be better. It can be seen that the PSNR value of original image and stego-image is only slightly different.

  20. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user.

  1. Android-Stego: A Novel Service Provider Imperceptible MMS Steganography Technique Robust to Message Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Srinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information hiding techniques, especially steganography, have been extensively researched for over two decades. Nonetheless, steganography on smartphones over cellular carrier networks is yet to be fully explored. Today, smartphones, which are at the epitome of ubiquitous and pervasive computing, make steganography an easily accessible covert communication channel. In this paper, we propose Android-Stego - a framework for steganography employing smart-phones. Android-Stego has been evaluated and confirmed to achieve covert communication over real world cellular service providers' communication networks such as Verizon and Sprint. A key contribution of our research presented in this paper is the benchmark results we have provided by analyzing real world cellular carriers network restrictions on MMS message size. We have also analyzed the actions the carriers take - such as compression and/or format conversion - on MMS messages that fall outside the established MMS communication norm, which varies for each service provider. Finally, We have used these benchmark results in implementing Android-Stego such that it is sensitive to carrier restrictions and robust to message loss.

  2. Small signal audio design

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Learn to use inexpensive and readily available parts to obtain state-of-the-art performance in all the vital parameters of noise, distortion, crosstalk and so on. With ample coverage of preamplifiers and mixers and a new chapter on headphone amplifiers, this practical handbook provides an extensive repertoire of circuits that can be put together to make almost any type of audio system.A resource packed full of valuable information, with virtually every page revealing nuggets of specialized knowledge not found elsewhere. Essential points of theory that bear on practical performance are lucidly

  3. Near-field Localization of Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    Localization of audio sources using microphone arrays has been an important research problem for more than two decades. Many traditional methods for solving the problem are based on a two-stage procedure: first, information about the audio source, such as time differences-of-arrival (TDOAs......) and gain ratios-of-arrival (GROAs) between microphones is estimated, and, second, this knowledge is used to localize the audio source. These methods often have a low computational complexity, but this comes at the cost of a limited estimation accuracy. Therefore, we propose a new localization approach......, where the desired signal is modeled using TDOAs and GROAs, which are determined by the source location. This facilitates the derivation of one-stage, maximum likelihood methods under a white Gaussian noise assumption that is applicable in both near- and far-field scenarios. Simulations show...

  4. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

  5. Voice activity detection using audio-visual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using Hidden Markov Models; their outcomes are fused using a post...

  6. Nonspeech audio in user interfaces for TV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van de Richard; Eggen, J.H.; Rypkema, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the end-user benefits of using nonspeech audio in television user interfaces. A prototype of an Electronic Programme Guide (EPG) served as a carrier for the research. One of the features of this EPG is the possibility to search for TV programmes in a category-based way. The EPG

  7. Effect of using different cover image quality to obtain robust selective embedding in steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Karwan Asaad; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Abdulla, Alan Anwer

    2014-05-01

    One of the common types of steganography is to conceal an image as a secret message in another image which normally called a cover image; the resulting image is called a stego image. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of using different cover image quality, and also analyse the use of different bit-plane in term of robustness against well-known active attacks such as gamma, statistical filters, and linear spatial filters. The secret messages are embedded in higher bit-plane, i.e. in other than Least Significant Bit (LSB), in order to resist active attacks. The embedding process is performed in three major steps: First, the embedding algorithm is selectively identifying useful areas (blocks) for embedding based on its lighting condition. Second, is to nominate the most useful blocks for embedding based on their entropy and average. Third, is to select the right bit-plane for embedding. This kind of block selection made the embedding process scatters the secret message(s) randomly around the cover image. Different tests have been performed for selecting a proper block size and this is related to the nature of the used cover image. Our proposed method suggests a suitable embedding bit-plane as well as the right blocks for the embedding. Experimental results demonstrate that different image quality used for the cover images will have an effect when the stego image is attacked by different active attacks. Although the secret messages are embedded in higher bit-plane, but they cannot be recognised visually within the stegos image.

  8. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  9. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo, E-mail: Rodrigo.Sierra@cern.c [CERN, IT Department 1211 Geneva-23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  10. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo

    2010-04-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  11. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...

  12. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  13. Spatial and Transform Domain based Steganography Using Chaotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... further improve security chaotic maps are used for scrambling the ... I. INTRODUCTION. With the rapid growth of internet network and computer ..... techniques, then we will have two layers of protection. In this scheme, the ...

  14. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  15. Species-specific audio detection: a comparison of three template-based detection algorithms using random forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Corrada Bravo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a web-based cloud-hosted system that allow users to archive, listen, visualize, and annotate recordings. The system also provides tools to convert these annotations into datasets that can be used to train a computer to detect the presence or absence of a species. The algorithm used by the system was selected after comparing the accuracy and efficiency of three variants of a template-based detection. The algorithm computes a similarity vector by comparing a template of a species call with time increments across the spectrogram. Statistical features are extracted from this vector and used as input for a Random Forest classifier that predicts presence or absence of the species in the recording. The fastest algorithm variant had the highest average accuracy and specificity; therefore, it was implemented in the ARBIMON web-based system.

  16. Audio-based, unsupervised machine learning reveals cyclic changes in earthquake mechanisms in the Geysers geothermal field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, B. K.; Paté, A.; Paisley, J.; Waldhauser, F.; Repetto, D.; Boschi, L.

    2017-12-01

    The earthquake process reflects complex interactions of stress, fracture and frictional properties. New machine learning methods reveal patterns in time-dependent spectral properties of seismic signals and enable identification of changes in faulting processes. Our methods are based closely on those developed for music information retrieval and voice recognition, using the spectrogram instead of the waveform directly. Unsupervised learning involves identification of patterns based on differences among signals without any additional information provided to the algorithm. Clustering of 46,000 earthquakes of $0.3

  17. StegNet: Mega Image Steganography Capacity with Deep Convolutional Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional image steganography often leans interests towards safely embedding hidden information into cover images with payload capacity almost neglected. This paper combines recent deep convolutional neural network methods with image-into-image steganography. It successfully hides the same size images with a decoding rate of 98.2% or bpp (bits per pixel of 23.57 by changing only 0.76% of the cover image on average. Our method directly learns end-to-end mappings between the cover image and the embedded image and between the hidden image and the decoded image. We further show that our embedded image, while with mega payload capacity, is still robust to statistical analysis.

  18. Confidentiality Enhancement of Highly Sensitive Nuclear Data Using Steganography with Chaotic Encryption over OFDM Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S.; Ayad, N.; Elsayed, F.; Elbendary, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Due to the widespread usage of the internet and other wired and wireless communication methods, the security of the transmitted data has become a major requirement. Nuclear knowledge is mainly built upon the exchange of nuclear information which is considered highly sensitive information, so its security has to be enhanced by using high level security mechanisms. Data confidentiality is concerned with the achievement of higher protection for confidential information from unauthorized disclosure or access. Cryptography and steganography are famous and widely used techniques that process information in order to achieve its confidentiality, but sometimes, when used individually, they don’t satisfy a required level of security for highly sensitive data. In this paper, cryptography is accompanied with steganography for constituting a multilayer security techniques that can strengthen the level of security of highly confidential nuclear data that are archived or transmitted through different channel types and noise conditions. (author)

  19. Improved diagonal queue medical image steganography using Chaos theory, LFSR, and Rabin cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mamta; Kumar, Anil; Choudhary, Rishabh Charan

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we have proposed an improved diagonal queue medical image steganography for patient secret medical data transmission using chaotic standard map, linear feedback shift register, and Rabin cryptosystem, for improvement of previous technique (Jain and Lenka in Springer Brain Inform 3:39-51, 2016). The proposed algorithm comprises four stages, generation of pseudo-random sequences (pseudo-random sequences are generated by linear feedback shift register and standard chaotic map), permutation and XORing using pseudo-random sequences, encryption using Rabin cryptosystem, and steganography using the improved diagonal queues. Security analysis has been carried out. Performance analysis is observed using MSE, PSNR, maximum embedding capacity, as well as by histogram analysis between various Brain disease stego and cover images.

  20. Using Closed-Set Speaker Identification Score Confidence to Enhance Audio-Based Collaborative Filtering for Multiple Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize a closed-set speaker-identification approach to convey the ratings needed for collaborative filtering-based recommendation. Instead of explicitly providing a rating for a given program, users use a speech interface to dictate the desired rating after watching a movie. Due...... to the inaccuracies that may be imposed by a state-of-the-art speaker identification system, it is possible to mistake a user for another user in the household, especially when the users exhibit similar or identical age and gender demographics. This leads to the undesirable effect of injecting unwanted ratings...... into the collaborative rating matrix, and when the users have different tastes, can result in the recommendation of undesirable items. We therefore propose a simple confidence-based heuristic that utilizes the log-likelihood scores from the speaker identification front-end. The algorithm limits the degree to which...

  1. A Comparison of Phase-Shift Self- Oscillating and Carrier-based PWM Modulation for Embedded Audio Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Huffenus , Alexandre; Pillonnet , Gaël; Abouchi , Nacer; Goutti , Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper compares two modulation schemes for Class-D amplifiers: Phase-Shift Self-Oscillating (PSSO) and Carrier-Based Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). Theoretical analysis (modulation, frequency of oscillation, bandwidth…), design procedure, and IC silicon evaluation will be shown for mono and stereo operation (on the same silicon die) on both structures. The design of both architectures will use as many identical building blocks as possible, to provide a fair, "all el...

  2. Steganalysis of LSB Image Steganography using Multiple Regression and Auto Regressive (AR) Model

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Bhattacharyya; Gautam Sanyal

    2011-01-01

    The staggering growth in communication technologyand usage of public domain channels (i.e. Internet) has greatly facilitated transfer of data. However, such open communication channelshave greater vulnerability to security threats causing unauthorizedin- formation access. Traditionally, encryption is used to realizethen communication security. However, important information is notprotected once decoded. Steganography is the art and science of communicating in a way which hides the existence o...

  3. A Novel Steganography Technique for SDTV-H.264/AVC Encoded Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Di Laura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, eavesdropping is becoming a common issue in the rapidly growing digital network and has foreseen the need for secret communication channels embedded in digital media. In this paper, a novel steganography technique designed for Standard Definition Digital Television (SDTV H.264/AVC encoded video sequences is presented. The algorithm introduced here makes use of the compression properties of the Context Adaptive Variable Length Coding (CAVLC entropy encoder to achieve a low complexity and real-time inserting method. The chosen scheme hides the private message directly in the H.264/AVC bit stream by modifying the AC frequency quantized residual luminance coefficients of intrapredicted I-frames. In order to avoid error propagation in adjacent blocks, an interlaced embedding strategy is applied. Likewise, the steganography technique proposed allows self-detection of the hidden message at the target destination. The code source was implemented by mixing MATLAB 2010 b and Java development environments. Finally, experimental results have been assessed through objective and subjective quality measures and reveal that less visible artifacts are produced with the technique proposed by reaching PSNR values above 40.0 dB and an embedding bit rate average per secret communication channel of 425 bits/sec. This exemplifies that steganography is affordable in digital television.

  4. Effectiveness of respiratory-gated radiotherapy with audio-visual biofeedback for synchrotron-based scanned heavy-ion beam delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengbo; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Ting; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying; Ma, Yuanyuan

    2016-12-01

    A synchrotron-based heavy-ion accelerator operates in pulse mode at a low repetition rate that is comparable to a patient’s breathing rate. To overcome inefficiencies and interplay effects between the residual motion of the target and the scanned heavy-ion beam delivery process for conventional free breathing (FB)-based gating therapy, a novel respiratory guidance method was developed to help patients synchronize their breathing patterns with the synchrotron excitation patterns by performing short breath holds with the aid of personalized audio-visual biofeedback (BFB) system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment precision, efficiency and reproducibility of the respiratory guidance method in scanned heavy-ion beam delivery mode. Using 96 breathing traces from eight healthy volunteers who were asked to breathe freely and guided to perform short breath holds with the aid of BFB, a series of dedicated four-dimensional dose calculations (4DDC) were performed on a geometric model which was developed assuming a linear relationship between external surrogate and internal tumor motions. The outcome of the 4DDCs was quantified in terms of the treatment time, dose-volume histograms (DVH) and dose homogeneity index. Our results show that with the respiratory guidance method the treatment efficiency increased by a factor of 2.23-3.94 compared with FB gating, depending on the duty cycle settings. The magnitude of dose inhomogeneity for the respiratory guidance methods was 7.5 times less than that of the non-gated irradiation, and good reproducibility of breathing guidance among different fractions was achieved. Thus, our study indicates that the respiratory guidance method not only improved the overall treatment efficiency of respiratory-gated scanned heavy-ion beam delivery, but also had the advantages of lower dose uncertainty and better reproducibility among fractions.

  5. A randomized controlled pilot study feasibility of a tablet-based guided audio-visual relaxation intervention for reducing stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Yao, Yingwei; Engeland, Christopher G; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Suarez, Marie L; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To test feasibility of a guided audio-visual relaxation intervention protocol for reducing stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease. Sickle cell pain is inadequately controlled using opioids, necessitating further intervention such as guided relaxation to reduce stress and pain. Attention-control, randomized clinical feasibility pilot study with repeated measures. Randomized to guided relaxation or control groups, all patients recruited between 2013-2014 during clinical visits, completed stress and pain measures via a Galaxy Internet-enabled Android tablet at the Baseline visit (pre/post intervention), 2-week posttest visit and also daily at home between the two visits. Experimental group patients were asked to use a guided relaxation intervention at the Baseline visit and at least once daily for 2 weeks. Control group patients engaged in a recorded sickle cell discussion at the Baseline visit. Data were analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. At baseline, 27/28 of consented patients completed the study protocol. Group comparison showed that guided relaxation significantly reduced current stress and pain. At the 2-week posttest, 24/27 of patients completed the study, all of whom reported liking the study. Patients completed tablet-based measures on 71% of study days (69% in control group, 72% in experiment group). At the 2-week posttest, the experimental group had significantly lower composite pain index scores, but the two groups did not differ significantly on stress intensity. This study protocol appears feasible. The tablet-based guided relaxation intervention shows promise for reducing sickle cell pain and warrants a larger efficacy trial. The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is: NCT02501447. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  7. Instrumental Landing Using Audio Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, E. A.; Nabatchikov, A. M.; Korsun, O. N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an audio indication method for presenting to a pilot the information regarding the relative positions of an aircraft in the tasks of precision piloting. The implementation of the method is presented, the use of such parameters of audio signal as loudness, frequency and modulation are discussed. To confirm the operability of the audio indication channel the experiments using modern aircraft simulation facility were carried out. The simulated performed the instrument landing using the proposed audio method to indicate the aircraft deviations in relation to the slide path. The results proved compatible with the simulated instrumental landings using the traditional glidescope pointers. It inspires to develop the method in order to solve other precision piloting tasks.

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  9. Audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy: Impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback on respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Rohini; Chung, Theodore D.; Vedam, Sastry S.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Mohan, Radhe; Weiss, Elisabeth; Keall, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is a commercially available technology for reducing the deleterious effects of motion during imaging and treatment. The efficacy of gating is dependent on the reproducibility within and between respiratory cycles during imaging and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether audio-visual biofeedback can improve respiratory reproducibility by decreasing residual motion and therefore increasing the accuracy of gated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 331 respiratory traces were collected from 24 lung cancer patients. The protocol consisted of five breathing training sessions spaced about a week apart. Within each session the patients initially breathed without any instruction (free breathing), with audio instructions and with audio-visual biofeedback. Residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the respiratory signal within the gating window. Results: Audio-visual biofeedback significantly reduced residual motion compared with free breathing and audio instruction. Displacement-based gating has lower residual motion than phase-based gating. Little reduction in residual motion was found for duty cycles less than 30%; for duty cycles above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. Conclusions: The efficiency and reproducibility of gating can be improved by: incorporating audio-visual biofeedback, using a 30-50% duty cycle, gating during exhalation, and using displacement-based gating

  10. Music Genre Classification Using MIDI and Audio Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataltepe, Zehra; Yaslan, Yusuf; Sonmez, Abdullah

    2007-12-01

    We report our findings on using MIDI files and audio features from MIDI, separately and combined together, for MIDI music genre classification. We use McKay and Fujinaga's 3-root and 9-leaf genre data set. In order to compute distances between MIDI pieces, we use normalized compression distance (NCD). NCD uses the compressed length of a string as an approximation to its Kolmogorov complexity and has previously been used for music genre and composer clustering. We convert the MIDI pieces to audio and then use the audio features to train different classifiers. MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers alone achieve much smaller accuracies than those reported by McKay and Fujinaga who used not NCD but a number of domain-based MIDI features for their classification. Combining MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers improves accuracy and gets closer to, but still worse, accuracies than McKay and Fujinaga's. The best root genre accuracies achieved using MIDI, audio, and combination of them are 0.75, 0.86, and 0.93, respectively, compared to 0.98 of McKay and Fujinaga. Successful classifier combination requires diversity of the base classifiers. We achieve diversity through using certain number of seconds of the MIDI file, different sample rates and sizes for the audio file, and different classification algorithms.

  11. Music Genre Classification Using MIDI and Audio Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Sonmez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our findings on using MIDI files and audio features from MIDI, separately and combined together, for MIDI music genre classification. We use McKay and Fujinaga's 3-root and 9-leaf genre data set. In order to compute distances between MIDI pieces, we use normalized compression distance (NCD. NCD uses the compressed length of a string as an approximation to its Kolmogorov complexity and has previously been used for music genre and composer clustering. We convert the MIDI pieces to audio and then use the audio features to train different classifiers. MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers alone achieve much smaller accuracies than those reported by McKay and Fujinaga who used not NCD but a number of domain-based MIDI features for their classification. Combining MIDI and audio from MIDI classifiers improves accuracy and gets closer to, but still worse, accuracies than McKay and Fujinaga's. The best root genre accuracies achieved using MIDI, audio, and combination of them are 0.75, 0.86, and 0.93, respectively, compared to 0.98 of McKay and Fujinaga. Successful classifier combination requires diversity of the base classifiers. We achieve diversity through using certain number of seconds of the MIDI file, different sample rates and sizes for the audio file, and different classification algorithms.

  12. Realtime Audio with Garbage Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Matheussen, Kjetil Svalastog

    2010-01-01

    Two non-moving concurrent garbage collectors tailored for realtime audio processing are described. Both collectors work on copies of the heap to avoid cache misses and audio-disruptive synchronizations. Both collectors are targeted at multiprocessor personal computers. The first garbage collector works in uncooperative environments, and can replace Hans Boehm's conservative garbage collector for C and C++. The collector does not access the virtual memory system. Neither doe...

  13. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  14. Class D audio amplifier with 4th order output filter and self-oscillating full-state hysteresis based feedback driving capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    A practical solution is presented for the design of a non-isolated high voltage DC/AC power converter. The converter is intended to be used as a class D audio amplifier for a Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) transducer. A simple and effective hysteretic control scheme for the converter...

  15. Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries (HLL) Technology for Audio Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, A.; Lomuscio, A.; Nunzio, L. Di

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we apply hardware acceleration to embedded systems running audio applications. We present a new framework, Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries or HLL, to dynamically load hardware libraries on reconfigurable platforms (FPGAs). Provided a library of application-specific processors......, we load on-the-fly the specific processor in the FPGA, and we transfer the execution from the CPU to the FPGA-based accelerator. The proposed architecture provides excellent flexibility with respect to the different audio applications implemented, high quality audio, and an energy efficient solution....

  16. Modeling Audio Fingerprints : Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted,

  17. Respiratory motion management using audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy of synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion beam delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Pengbo; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qiyan; Yan, Yuanlin; Li, Qiang; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying; Zhao, Ting; Fu, Tingyan; Shen, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently deliver respiratory-gated radiation during synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion radiotherapy, a novel respiratory guidance method combining a personalized audio-visual biofeedback (BFB) system, breath hold (BH), and synchrotron-based gating was designed to help patients synchronize their respiratory patterns with synchrotron pulses and to overcome typical limitations such as low efficiency, residual motion, and discomfort. Methods: In-house software was developed to acquire body surface marker positions and display BFB, gating signals, and real-time beam profiles on a LED screen. Patients were prompted to perform short BHs or short deep breath holds (SDBH) with the aid of BFB following a personalized standard BH/SDBH (stBH/stSDBH) guiding curve or their own representative BH/SDBH (reBH/reSDBH) guiding curve. A practical simulation was performed for a group of 15 volunteers to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Effective dose rates (EDRs), mean absolute errors between the guiding curves and the measured curves, and mean absolute deviations of the measured curves were obtained within 10%–50% duty cycles (DCs) that were synchronized with the synchrotron’s flat-top phase. Results: All maneuvers for an individual volunteer took approximately half an hour, and no one experienced discomfort during the maneuvers. Using the respiratory guidance methods, the magnitude of residual motion was almost ten times less than during nongated irradiation, and increases in the average effective dose rate by factors of 2.39–4.65, 2.39–4.59, 1.73–3.50, and 1.73–3.55 for the stBH, reBH, stSDBH, and reSDBH guiding maneuvers, respectively, were observed in contrast with conventional free breathing-based gated irradiation, depending on the respiratory-gated duty cycle settings. Conclusions: The proposed respiratory guidance method with personalized BFB was confirmed to be feasible in a group of volunteers. Increased effective dose

  18. Text messaging as a strategy to address the limits of audio-based communication during mass-gathering events with high ambient noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Wong, Daniel; Lewis, Kerrie; Turris, Sheila A; Vaisler, Sean; Gutman, Samuel

    2013-02-01

    The provision of medical care in environments with high levels of ambient noise (HLAN), such as concerts or sporting events, presents unique communication challenges. Audio transmissions can be incomprehensible to the receivers. Text-based communications may be a valuable primary and/or secondary means of communication in this type of setting. To evaluate the usability of text-based communications in parallel with standard two-way radio communications during mass-gathering (MG) events in the context of HLAN. This Canadian study used outcome survey methods to evaluate the performance of communication devices during MG events. Ten standard commercially available handheld smart phones loaded with basic voice and data plans were assigned to health care providers (HCPs) for use as an adjunct to the medical team's typical radio-based communication. Common text messaging and chat platforms were trialed. Both efficacy and provider satisfaction were evaluated. During a 23-month period, the smart phones were deployed at 17 events with HLAN for a total of 40 event days or approximately 460 hours of active use. Survey responses from health care providers (177) and dispatchers (26) were analyzed. The response rate was unknown due to the method of recruitment. Of the 155 HCP responses to the question measuring difficulty of communication in environments with HLAN, 68.4% agreed that they "occasionally" or "frequently" found it difficult to clearly understand voice communications via two-way radio. Similarly, of the 23 dispatcher responses to the same item, 65.2% of the responses indicated that "occasionally" or "frequently" HLAN negatively affected the ability to communicate clearly with team members. Of the 168 HCP responses to the item assessing whether text-based communication improved the ability to understand and respond to calls when compared to radio alone, 86.3% "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that this was the case. The dispatcher responses (n = 21) to the same item also

  19. Respiratory motion management using audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy of synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion beam delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Pengbo; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qiyan; Yan, Yuanlin [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Qiang, E-mail: liqiang@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying; Zhao, Ting; Fu, Tingyan; Shen, Guosheng [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To efficiently deliver respiratory-gated radiation during synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion radiotherapy, a novel respiratory guidance method combining a personalized audio-visual biofeedback (BFB) system, breath hold (BH), and synchrotron-based gating was designed to help patients synchronize their respiratory patterns with synchrotron pulses and to overcome typical limitations such as low efficiency, residual motion, and discomfort. Methods: In-house software was developed to acquire body surface marker positions and display BFB, gating signals, and real-time beam profiles on a LED screen. Patients were prompted to perform short BHs or short deep breath holds (SDBH) with the aid of BFB following a personalized standard BH/SDBH (stBH/stSDBH) guiding curve or their own representative BH/SDBH (reBH/reSDBH) guiding curve. A practical simulation was performed for a group of 15 volunteers to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Effective dose rates (EDRs), mean absolute errors between the guiding curves and the measured curves, and mean absolute deviations of the measured curves were obtained within 10%–50% duty cycles (DCs) that were synchronized with the synchrotron’s flat-top phase. Results: All maneuvers for an individual volunteer took approximately half an hour, and no one experienced discomfort during the maneuvers. Using the respiratory guidance methods, the magnitude of residual motion was almost ten times less than during nongated irradiation, and increases in the average effective dose rate by factors of 2.39–4.65, 2.39–4.59, 1.73–3.50, and 1.73–3.55 for the stBH, reBH, stSDBH, and reSDBH guiding maneuvers, respectively, were observed in contrast with conventional free breathing-based gated irradiation, depending on the respiratory-gated duty cycle settings. Conclusions: The proposed respiratory guidance method with personalized BFB was confirmed to be feasible in a group of volunteers. Increased effective dose

  20. Introduction to audio analysis a MATLAB approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Audio Analysis serves as a standalone introduction to audio analysis, providing theoretical background to many state-of-the-art techniques. It covers the essential theory necessary to develop audio engineering applications, but also uses programming techniques, notably MATLAB®, to take a more applied approach to the topic. Basic theory and reproducible experiments are combined to demonstrate theoretical concepts from a practical point of view and provide a solid foundation in the field of audio analysis. Audio feature extraction, audio classification, audio segmentation, au

  1. Optimized Audio Classification and Segmentation Algorithm by Using Ensemble Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio segmentation is a basis for multimedia content analysis which is the most important and widely used application nowadays. An optimized audio classification and segmentation algorithm is presented in this paper that segments a superimposed audio stream on the basis of its content into four main audio types: pure-speech, music, environment sound, and silence. An algorithm is proposed that preserves important audio content and reduces the misclassification rate without using large amount of training data, which handles noise and is suitable for use for real-time applications. Noise in an audio stream is segmented out as environment sound. A hybrid classification approach is used, bagged support vector machines (SVMs with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Audio stream is classified, firstly, into speech and nonspeech segment by using bagged support vector machines; nonspeech segment is further classified into music and environment sound by using artificial neural networks and lastly, speech segment is classified into silence and pure-speech segments on the basis of rule-based classifier. Minimum data is used for training classifier; ensemble methods are used for minimizing misclassification rate and approximately 98% accurate segments are obtained. A fast and efficient algorithm is designed that can be used with real-time multimedia applications.

  2. Location audio simplified capturing your audio and your audience

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Dean

    2014-01-01

    From the basics of using camera, handheld, lavalier, and shotgun microphones to camera calibration and mixer set-ups, Location Audio Simplified unlocks the secrets to clean and clear broadcast quality audio no matter what challenges you face. Author Dean Miles applies his twenty-plus years of experience as a professional location operator to teach the skills, techniques, tips, and secrets needed to produce high-quality production sound on location. Humorous and thoroughly practical, the book covers a wide array of topics, such as:* location selection* field mixing* boo

  3. A Joint Audio-Visual Approach to Audio Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    Localization of audio sources is an important research problem, e.g., to facilitate noise reduction. In the recent years, the problem has been tackled using distributed microphone arrays (DMA). A common approach is to apply direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation on each array (denoted as nodes), a...... time-of-flight cameras. Moreover, we propose an optimal method for weighting such DOA and range information for audio localization. Our experiments on both synthetic and real data show that there is a clear, potential advantage of using the joint audiovisual localization framework....

  4. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  5. The Safeguard of Audio Collections: A Computer Science Based Approach to Quality Control—The Case of the Sound Archive of the Arena di Verona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bressan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of multimedia, very little attention is given to the activities involved in the preservation of audio documents. At the same time, more and more archives storing audio and video documents face the problem of obsolescing and degrading media, which could largely benefit from the instruments and the methodologies of research in multimedia. This paper presents the methodology and the results of the Italian project REVIVAL, aimed at the development of a hardware/software platform to support the active preservation of the audio collection of the Fondazione Arena di Verona, one of the finest in Europe for the operatic genre, with a special attention on protocols and tools for quality control. On the scientific side, the most significant objectives achieved by the project are (i the setup of a working environment inside the archive, (ii the knowledge transfer to the archival personnel, (iii the realization of chemical analyses on magnetic tapes in collaboration with experts in the fields of materials science and chemistry, and (iv the development of original open-source software tools. On the cultural side, the recovery, the safeguard, and the access to unique copies of unpublished live recordings of artists the calibre of Domingo and Pavarotti are of great musicological and economical value.

  6. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  7. Class D audio amplifiers for high voltage capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis

    of high volume, weight, and cost. High efficient class D amplifiers are now widely available offering power densities, that their linear counterparts can not match. Unlike the technology of audio amplifiers, the loudspeaker is still based on the traditional electrodynamic transducer invented by C.W. Rice......Audio reproduction systems contains two key components, the amplifier and the loudspeaker. In the last 20 – 30 years the technology of audio amplifiers have performed a fundamental shift of paradigm. Class D audio amplifiers have replaced the linear amplifiers, suffering from the well-known issues...... with the low level of acoustical output power and complex amplifier requirements, have limited the commercial success of the technology. Horn or compression drivers are typically favoured, when high acoustic output power is required, this is however at the expense of significant distortion combined...

  8. Perancangan Sistem Audio Mobil Berbasiskan Sistem Pakar dan Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djunaidi Santoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing car audio that fits user’s needs is a fun activity. However, the design often consumes more time and costly since it should be consulted to the experts several times. For easy access to information in designing a car audio system as well as error prevention, an car audio system based on expert system and web is designed for those who do not have sufficient time and expense to consult directly to experts. This system consists of tutorial modules designed using the HyperText Preprocessor (PHP and MySQL as database. This car audio system design is evaluated uses black box testing method which focuses on the functional needs of the application. Tests are performed by providing inputs and produce outputs corresponding to the function of each module. The test results prove the correspondence between input and output, which means that the program meet the initial goals of the design. 

  9. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  10. Advances in audio source seperation and multisource audio content retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Audio source separation aims to extract the signals of individual sound sources from a given recording. In this paper, we review three recent advances which improve the robustness of source separation in real-world challenging scenarios and enable its use for multisource content retrieval tasks, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or acoustic event detection (AED) in noisy environments. We present a Flexible Audio Source Separation Toolkit (FASST) and discuss its advantages compared to earlier approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) and sparse component analysis (SCA). We explain how cues as diverse as harmonicity, spectral envelope, temporal fine structure or spatial location can be jointly exploited by this toolkit. We subsequently present the uncertainty decoding (UD) framework for the integration of audio source separation and audio content retrieval. We show how the uncertainty about the separated source signals can be accurately estimated and propagated to the features. Finally, we explain how this uncertainty can be efficiently exploited by a classifier, both at the training and the decoding stage. We illustrate the resulting performance improvements in terms of speech separation quality and speaker recognition accuracy.

  11. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  12. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2010 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2010. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are or...

  13. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  14. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  15. Class D audio amplifier with 4th order output filter and self-oscillating full-state hysteresis based feedback driving capacitive transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    A practical solution is presented for the design of a non-isolated high voltage DC/AC power converter. The converter is intended to be used as a class D audio amplifier for a Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) transducer. A simple and effective hysteretic control scheme for the converter (buck with fourth- order output filter) is developed and analyzed. The proposed design is verified experimentally by a 125 VAR prototype amplifier, capable of delivering a peak output voltage of 240 V w...

  16. Building a Steganography Program Including How to Load, Process, and Save JPEG and PNG Files in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Mary F.; Stix, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Instructors teaching beginning programming classes are often interested in exercises that involve processing photographs (i.e., files stored as .jpeg). They may wish to offer activities such as color inversion, the color manipulation effects archived with pixel thresholding, or steganography, all of which Stevenson et al. [4] assert are sought by…

  17. Bit rates in audio source coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is to introduce and solve the audio coding optimization problem. Psychoacoustic results such as masking and excitation pattern models are combined with results from rate distortion theory to formulate the audio coding optimization problem. The solution of the audio optimization problem is a

  18. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  19. Steganalysis and improvement of a quantum steganography protocol via a GHZ4 state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Jiang; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Quantum steganography that utilizes the quantum mechanical effect to achieve the purpose of information hiding is a popular topic of quantum information. Recently, El Allati et al. proposed a new quantum steganography using the GHZ 4 state. Since all of the 8 groups of unitary transformations used in the secret message encoding rule change the GHZ 4 state into 6 instead of 8 different quantum states when the global phase is not considered, we point out that a 2-bit instead of a 3-bit secret message can be encoded by one group of the given unitary transformations. To encode a 3-bit secret message by performing a group of unitary transformations on the GHZ 4 state, we give another 8 groups of unitary transformations that can change the GHZ 4 state into 8 different quantum states. Due to the symmetry of the GHZ 4 state, all the possible 16 groups of unitary transformations change the GHZ 4 state into 8 different quantum states, so the improved protocol achieves a high efficiency

  20. WebGL and web audio software lightweight components for multimedia education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Yuksel, Kivanc; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the results of our recent work on development of contemporary computing platform DC2 for multimedia education usingWebGL andWeb Audio { the W3C standards. Using literate programming paradigm the WEBSA educational tools were developed. It offers for a user (student), the access to expandable collection of WEBGL Shaders and web Audio scripts. The unique feature of DC2 is the option of literate programming, offered for both, the author and the reader in order to improve interactivity to lightweightWebGL andWeb Audio components. For instance users can define: source audio nodes including synthetic sources, destination audio nodes, and nodes for audio processing such as: sound wave shaping, spectral band filtering, convolution based modification, etc. In case of WebGL beside of classic graphics effects based on mesh and fractal definitions, the novel image processing analysis by shaders is offered like nonlinear filtering, histogram of gradients, and Bayesian classifiers.

  1. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Sampson, David D.

    2009-05-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  2. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adie, Steven G; Kennedy, Brendan F; Armstrong, Julian J; Alexandrov, Sergey A; Sampson, David D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  3. Efficiency Optimization in Class-D Audio Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new power efficiency optimization routine for designing Class-D audio amplifiers. The proposed optimization procedure finds design parameters for the power stage and the output filter, and the optimum switching frequency such that the weighted power losses are minimized under...... the given constraints. The optimization routine is applied to minimize the power losses in a 130 W class-D audio amplifier based on consumer behavior investigations, where the amplifier operates at idle and low power levels most of the time. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization method can...... lead to around 30 % of efficiency improvement at 1.3 W output power without significant effects on both audio performance and the efficiency at high power levels....

  4. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shingchern D.; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chen, Woei-Kae

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query) audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system's database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control. PMID:23533359

  5. Music Identification System Using MPEG-7 Audio Signature Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingchern D. You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multiresolution system based on MPEG-7 audio signature descriptors for music identification. Such an identification system may be used to detect illegally copied music circulated over the Internet. In the proposed system, low-resolution descriptors are used to search likely candidates, and then full-resolution descriptors are used to identify the unknown (query audio. With this arrangement, the proposed system achieves both high speed and high accuracy. To deal with the problem that a piece of query audio may not be inside the system’s database, we suggest two different methods to find the decision threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed method II can achieve an accuracy of 99.4% for query inputs both inside and outside the database. Overall, it is highly possible to use the proposed system for copyright control.

  6. Technical Evaluation Report 31: Internet Audio Products (3/ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Rudolph

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting additions to the online audio market are reviewed: iVocalize, a browser-based audio-conferencing software, and Skype, a PC-to-PC Internet telephone tool. These products are selected for review on the basis of their success in gaining rapid popular attention and usage during 2003-04. The iVocalize review emphasizes the product’s role in the development of a series of successful online audio communities – notably several serving visually impaired users. The Skype review stresses the ease with which the product may be used for simultaneous PC-to-PC communication among up to five users. Editor’s Note: This paper serves as an introduction to reports about online community building, and reviews of online products for disabled persons, in the next ten reports in this series. JPB, Series Ed.

  7. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  8. Presence and the utility of audio spatialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    The primary concern of this paper is whether the utility of audio spatialization, as opposed to the fidelity of audio spatialization, impacts presence. An experiment is reported that investigates the presence-performance relationship by decoupling spatial audio fidelity (realism) from task...... performance by varying the spatial fidelity of the audio independently of its relevance to performance on the search task that subjects were to perform. This was achieved by having conditions in which subjects searched for a music-playing radio (an active sound source) and having conditions in which...... supplied only nonattenuated audio was detrimental to performance. Even so, this group of subjects consistently had the largest increase in presence scores over the baseline experiment. Further, the Witmer and Singer (1998) presence questionnaire was more sensitive to whether the audio source was active...

  9. Modified BTC Algorithm for Audio Signal Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMIC, S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modification of a well-known image coding algorithm, named Block Truncation Coding (BTC and its application in audio signal coding. BTC algorithm was originally designed for black and white image coding. Since black and white images and audio signals have different statistical characteristics, the application of this image coding algorithm to audio signal presents a novelty and a challenge. Several implementation modifications are described in this paper, while the original idea of the algorithm is preserved. The main modifications are performed in the area of signal quantization, by designing more adequate quantizers for audio signal processing. The result is a novel audio coding algorithm, whose performance is presented and analyzed in this research. The performance analysis indicates that this novel algorithm can be successfully applied in audio signal coding.

  10. Digital audio watermarking fundamentals, techniques and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage on the most important aspects of audio watermarking, from classic techniques to the latest advances, from commonly investigated topics to emerging research subdomains, and from the research and development achievements to date, to current limitations, challenges, and future directions. It also addresses key topics such as reversible audio watermarking, audio watermarking with encryption, and imperceptibility control methods. The book sets itself apart from the existing literature in three main ways. Firstly, it not only reviews classical categories of audio watermarking techniques, but also provides detailed descriptions, analysis and experimental results of the latest work in each category. Secondly, it highlights the emerging research topic of reversible audio watermarking, including recent research trends, unique features, and the potentials of this subdomain. Lastly, the joint consideration of audio watermarking and encryption is also reviewed. With the help of this...

  11. On Max-Plus Algebra and Its Application on Image Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiswara Agung Santoso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new steganography method to hide an image into another image using matrix multiplication operations on max-plus algebra. This is especially interesting because the matrix used in encoding or information disguises generally has an inverse, whereas matrix multiplication operations in max-plus algebra do not have an inverse. The advantages of this method are the size of the image that can be hidden into the cover image, larger than the previous method. The proposed method has been tested on many secret images, and the results are satisfactory which have a high level of strength and a high level of security and can be used in various operating systems.

  12. Steganography System with Application to Crypto-Currency Cold Storage and Secure Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pelosi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and describe a novel approach to adaptive image steganography which is combined with One-Time Pad encryption and demonstrate the software which implements this methodology. Testing using the state-of-the-art steganalysis software tool StegExpose concludes the image hiding is reliably secure and undetectable using reasonably-sized message payloads (≤25% message bits per image pixel; bpp. Payload image file format outputs from the software include PNG, BMP, JP2, JXR, J2K, TIFF, and WEBP. A variety of file output formats is empirically important as most steganalysis programs will only accept PNG, BMP, and possibly JPG, as the file inputs. In this extended reprint, we introduce additional application and discussion regarding cold storage of crypto-currency account and password information, as well as applications for secure transfer in hostile or insecure network circumstances.

  13. A major trauma course based on posters, audio-guides and simulation improves the management skills of medical students: Evaluation via medical simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisinier, Adrien; Schilte, Clotilde; Declety, Philippe; Picard, Julien; Berger, Karine; Bouzat, Pierre; Falcon, Dominique; Bosson, Jean Luc; Payen, Jean-François; Albaladejo, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Medical competence requires the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and technical skills. Severe trauma management teaching is poorly developed during internship. Nevertheless, the basics of major trauma management should be acquired by every future physician. For this reason, the major trauma course (MTC), an educational course in major traumatology, has been developed for medical students. Our objective was to evaluate, via a high fidelity medical simulator, the impact of the MTC on medical student skills concerning major trauma management. The MTC contains 3 teaching modalities: posters with associated audio-guides, a procedural workshop on airway management and a teaching session using a medical simulator. Skills evaluation was performed 1 month before (step 1) and 1 month after (step 3) the MTC (step 2). Nineteen students were individually evaluated on 2 different major trauma scenarios. The primary endpoint was the difference between steps 1 and 3, in a combined score evaluating: admission, equipment, monitoring and safety (skill set 1) and systematic clinical examinations (skill set 2). After the course, the combined primary outcome score improved by 47% (P<0.01). Scenario choice or the order of use had no significant influence on the skill set evaluations. This study shows improvement in student skills for major trauma management, which we attribute mainly to the major trauma course developed in our institution. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Making the Switch to Digital Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gwin Mitchell

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors describe the process of converting from analog to digital audio data. They address the step-by-step decisions that they made in selecting hardware and software for recording and converting digital audio, issues of system integration, and cost considerations. The authors present a brief description of how digital audio is being used in their current research project and how it has enhanced the “quality” of their qualitative research.

  15. Toward Personal and Emotional Connectivity in Mobile Higher Education through Asynchronous Formative Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasi, Päivi; Vuojärvi, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to develop asynchronous formative audio feedback practices for mobile learning in higher education settings. The development was conducted in keeping with the principles of design-based research. The research activities focused on an inter-university online course, within which the use of instructor audio feedback was tested,…

  16. An Exploratory Evaluation of User Interfaces for 3D Audio Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an exploratory evaluation comparing different versions of a mid-air gesture based interface for mixing 3D audio exploring: (1) how such an interface generally compares to a more traditional physical interface, (2) methods for grabbing/releasing audio channels in mid-air and (3...

  17. An Analog I/O Interface Board for Audio Arduino Open Sound Card System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    AudioArduino [1] is a system consisting of an ALSA (Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) audio driver and corresponding microcontroller code; that can demonstrate full-duplex, mono, 8-bit, 44.1 kHz soundcard behavior on an FTDI based Arduino. While the basic operation as a soundcard can...

  18. Animation, audio, and spatial ability: Optimizing multimedia for scientific explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol May

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively

  19. Steganography on quantum pixel images using Shannon entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel, Carlos Ortega; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a steganographical algorithm based on least significant bit (LSB) from the most significant bit information (MSBI) and the equivalence of a bit pixel image to a quantum pixel image, which permits to make the information communicate secretly onto quantum pixel images for its secure transmission through insecure channels. This algorithm offers higher security since it exploits the Shannon entropy for an image.

  20. Audio Recording of Children with Dyslalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe Pentiuc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our researches regarding automat parsing of audio recordings. These recordings are obtained from children with dyslalia and are necessary for an accurate identification of speech problems. We develop a software application that helps parsing audio, real time, recordings.

  1. Audio Recording of Children with Dyslalia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Gheorghe Pentiuc; Maria D. Schipor; Ovidiu A. Schipor

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present our researches regarding automat parsing of audio recordings. These recordings are obtained from children with dyslalia and are necessary for an accurate identification of speech problems. We develop a software application that helps parsing audio, real time, recordings.

  2. Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, and can express a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is performed

  3. Audio-Visual Classification of Sports Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a method for classification of sports types from combined audio and visual features ex- tracted from thermal video. From audio Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are extracted, and PCA are applied to reduce the feature space to 10 dimensions. From the visual modali...

  4. Visualising the environmental appearance of audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilma, M. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Stevels, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]|[Philips Consumer Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Christiaans, H.; Kandachar, P. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Can environmental friendliness be communicated by the design style and appearance of products? (such as form, colour, style or material)? Consumers are interested in buying environmental products and design styles might be used as communicative tools. However, current 'green' products show something else. Environmental aspects are chiefly promoted by marketing programs based on technical items like the use of materials, hazardous substances, energy consumption, etc. By a qualitative and exploratory research the environmental design styles according to consumers' opinions were analysed with larger audio products as case study. Visible distinctive differences can be identified between the most and the least environmental rated products. A 'Green flagship', which claims to be environmentally orientated, wasn't recognised as such by consumers. And women and men perceive environmental friendliness in another way. From this research can be concluded that more attention is needed to visualise the good technical environmental performance of products. (orig.)

  5. Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohamed F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel algorithm for high-quality data embedding in audio. The algorithm is based on changing the relative length of the middle segment between two successive maximum and minimum peaks to embed data. Spline interpolation is used to change the lengths. To ensure smooth monotonic behavior between peaks, a hybrid orthogonal and nonorthogonal wavelet decomposition is used prior to data embedding. The possible data embedding rates are between 20 and 30 bps. However, for practical purposes, we use repetition codes, and the effective embedding data rate is around 5 bps. The algorithm is invariant after time-scale modification, time shift, and time cropping. It gives high-quality output and is robust to mp3 compression.

  6. Linguistic steganography on Twitter: hierarchical language modeling with manual interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex; Blunsom, Phil; Ker, Andrew D.

    2014-02-01

    This work proposes a natural language stegosystem for Twitter, modifying tweets as they are written to hide 4 bits of payload per tweet, which is a greater payload than previous systems have achieved. The system, CoverTweet, includes novel components, as well as some already developed in the literature. We believe that the task of transforming covers during embedding is equivalent to unilingual machine translation (paraphrasing), and we use this equivalence to de ne a distortion measure based on statistical machine translation methods. The system incorporates this measure of distortion to rank possible tweet paraphrases, using a hierarchical language model; we use human interaction as a second distortion measure to pick the best. The hierarchical language model is designed to model the speci c language of the covers, which in this setting is the language of the Twitter user who is embedding. This is a change from previous work, where general-purpose language models have been used. We evaluate our system by testing the output against human judges, and show that humans are unable to distinguish stego tweets from cover tweets any better than random guessing.

  7. Improved LSB matching steganography with histogram characters reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihong; Liu, Wenyao

    2008-03-01

    This letter bases on the researches of LSB (least significant bit, i.e. the last bit of a binary pixel value) matching steganographic method and the steganalytic method which aims at histograms of cover images, and proposes a modification to LSB matching. In the LSB matching, if the LSB of the next cover pixel matches the next bit of secret data, do nothing; otherwise, choose to add or subtract one from the cover pixel value at random. In our improved method, a steganographic information table is defined and records the changes which embedded secrete bits introduce in. Through the table, the next LSB which has the same pixel value will be judged to add or subtract one dynamically in order to ensure the histogram's change of cover image is minimized. Therefore, the modified method allows embedding the same payload as the LSB matching but with improved steganographic security and less vulnerability to attacks compared with LSB matching. The experimental results of the new method show that the histograms maintain their attributes, such as peak values and alternative trends, in an acceptable degree and have better performance than LSB matching in the respects of histogram distortion and resistance against existing steganalysis.

  8. Detecting double compression of audio signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

  9. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Turkish Music Genre Classification using Audio and Lyrics Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder ÇOBAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Music Information Retrieval (MIR has become a popular research area in recent years. In this context, researchers have developed music information systems to find solutions for such major problems as automatic playlist creation, hit song detection, and music genre or mood classification. Meta-data information, lyrics, or melodic content of music are used as feature resource in previous works. However, lyrics do not often used in MIR systems and the number of works in this field is not enough especially for Turkish. In this paper, firstly, we have extended our previously created Turkish MIR (TMIR dataset, which comprises of Turkish lyrics, by including the audio file of each song. Secondly, we have investigated the effect of using audio and textual features together or separately on automatic Music Genre Classification (MGC. We have extracted textual features from lyrics using different feature extraction models such as word2vec and traditional Bag of Words. We have conducted our experiments on Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm and analysed the impact of feature selection and different feature groups on MGC. We have considered lyrics based MGC as a text classification task and also investigated the effect of term weighting method. Experimental results show that textual features can also be effective as well as audio features for Turkish MGC, especially when a supervised term weighting method is employed. We have achieved the highest success rate as 99,12\\% by using both audio and textual features together.

  11. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  12. Musical Audio Synthesis Using Autoencoding Neural Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Sarroff, Andy; Casey, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    With an optimal network topology and tuning of hyperpa-\\ud rameters, artificial neural networks (ANNs) may be trained\\ud to learn a mapping from low level audio features to one\\ud or more higher-level representations. Such artificial neu-\\ud ral networks are commonly used in classification and re-\\ud gression settings to perform arbitrary tasks. In this work\\ud we suggest repurposing autoencoding neural networks as\\ud musical audio synthesizers. We offer an interactive musi-\\ud cal audio synt...

  13. Method for Reading Sensors and Controlling Actuators Using Audio Interfaces of Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Rafael V.; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F.; Gonçalves, Luiz M. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks. PMID:22438726

  14. Method for reading sensors and controlling actuators using audio interfaces of mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Rafael V; Burlamaqui, Aquiles F; Gonçalves, Luiz M G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel closed loop control architecture based on audio channels of several types of computing devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, but not restricted to them. The communication is based on an audio interface that relies on the exchange of audio tones, allowing sensors to be read and actuators to be controlled. As an application example, the presented technique is used to build a low cost mobile robot, but the system can also be used in a variety of mechatronics applications and sensor networks, where smartphones are the basic building blocks.

  15. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  16. Parametric time-frequency domain spatial audio

    CERN Document Server

    Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Politis, Archontis

    2018-01-01

    This book provides readers with the principles and best practices in spatial audio signal processing. It describes how sound fields and their perceptual attributes are captured and analyzed within the time-frequency domain, how essential representation parameters are coded, and how such signals are efficiently reproduced for practical applications. The book is split into four parts starting with an overview of the fundamentals. It then goes on to explain the reproduction of spatial sound before offering an examination of signal-dependent spatial filtering. The book finishes with coverage of both current and future applications and the direction that spatial audio research is heading in. Parametric Time-frequency Domain Spatial Audio focuses on applications in entertainment audio, including music, home cinema, and gaming--covering the capturing and reproduction of spatial sound as well as its generation, transduction, representation, transmission, and perception. This book will teach readers the tools needed...

  17. Virtual Microphones for Multichannel Audio Resynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Mouchtaris

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel audio offers significant advantages for music reproduction, including the ability to provide better localization and envelopment, as well as reduced imaging distortion. On the other hand, multichannel audio is a demanding media type in terms of transmission requirements. Often, bandwidth limitations prohibit transmission of multiple audio channels. In such cases, an alternative is to transmit only one or two reference channels and recreate the rest of the channels at the receiving end. Here, we propose a system capable of synthesizing the required signals from a smaller set of signals recorded in a particular venue. These synthesized “virtual” microphone signals can be used to produce multichannel recordings that accurately capture the acoustics of that venue. Applications of the proposed system include transmission of multichannel audio over the current Internet infrastructure and, as an extension of the methods proposed here, remastering existing monophonic and stereophonic recordings for multichannel rendering.

  18. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  19. Audio production principles practical studio applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elmosnino, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    A new and fully practical guide to all of the key topics in audio production, this book covers the entire workflow from pre-production, to recording all kinds of instruments, to mixing theories and tools, and finally to mastering.

  20. Using High-Dimensional Image Models to Perform Highly Undetectable Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevný, Tomáš; Filler, Tomáš; Bas, Patrick

    This paper presents a complete methodology for designing practical and highly-undetectable stegosystems for real digital media. The main design principle is to minimize a suitably-defined distortion by means of efficient coding algorithm. The distortion is defined as a weighted difference of extended state-of-the-art feature vectors already used in steganalysis. This allows us to "preserve" the model used by steganalyst and thus be undetectable even for large payloads. This framework can be efficiently implemented even when the dimensionality of the feature set used by the embedder is larger than 107. The high dimensional model is necessary to avoid known security weaknesses. Although high-dimensional models might be problem in steganalysis, we explain, why they are acceptable in steganography. As an example, we introduce HUGO, a new embedding algorithm for spatial-domain digital images and we contrast its performance with LSB matching. On the BOWS2 image database and in contrast with LSB matching, HUGO allows the embedder to hide 7× longer message with the same level of security level.

  1. Adaptive DCTNet for Audio Signal Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to h...

  2. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  3. Tensorial dynamic time warping with articulation index representation for efficient audio-template learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long N; Jones, Douglas L

    2018-03-01

    Audio classification techniques often depend on the availability of a large labeled training dataset for successful performance. However, in many application domains of audio classification (e.g., wildlife monitoring), obtaining labeled data is still a costly and laborious process. Motivated by this observation, a technique is proposed to efficiently learn a clean template from a few labeled, but likely corrupted (by noise and interferences), data samples. This learning can be done efficiently via tensorial dynamic time warping on the articulation index-based time-frequency representations of audio data. The learned template can then be used in audio classification following the standard template-based approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms both (1) the recurrent neural network approach and (2) the state-of-the-art in the template-based approach on a wildlife detection application with few training samples.

  4. Local Control of Audio Environment: A Review of Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Kuutti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a local audio environment is to have sound playback locally restricted such that, ideally, adjacent regions of an indoor or outdoor space could exhibit their own individual audio content without interfering with each other. This would enable people to listen to their content of choice without disturbing others next to them, yet, without any headphones to block conversation. In practice, perfect sound containment in free air cannot be attained, but a local audio environment can still be satisfactorily approximated using directional speakers. Directional speakers may be based on regular audible frequencies or they may employ modulated ultrasound. Planar, parabolic, and array form factors are commonly used. The directivity of a speaker improves as its surface area and sound frequency increases, making these the main design factors for directional audio systems. Even directional speakers radiate some sound outside the main beam, and sound can also reflect from objects. Therefore, directional speaker systems perform best when there is enough ambient noise to mask the leaking sound. Possible areas of application for local audio include information and advertisement audio feed in commercial facilities, guiding and narration in museums and exhibitions, office space personalization, control room messaging, rehabilitation environments, and entertainment audio systems.

  5. Comparison of Linear Prediction Models for Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available While linear prediction (LP has become immensely popular in speech modeling, it does not seem to provide a good approach for modeling audio signals. This is somewhat surprising, since a tonal signal consisting of a number of sinusoids can be perfectly predicted based on an (all-pole LP model with a model order that is twice the number of sinusoids. We provide an explanation why this result cannot simply be extrapolated to LP of audio signals. If noise is taken into account in the tonal signal model, a low-order all-pole model appears to be only appropriate when the tonal components are uniformly distributed in the Nyquist interval. Based on this observation, different alternatives to the conventional LP model can be suggested. Either the model should be changed to a pole-zero, a high-order all-pole, or a pitch prediction model, or the conventional LP model should be preceded by an appropriate frequency transform, such as a frequency warping or downsampling. By comparing these alternative LP models to the conventional LP model in terms of frequency estimation accuracy, residual spectral flatness, and perceptual frequency resolution, we obtain several new and promising approaches to LP-based audio modeling.

  6. Physics Based Modeling in Design and Development for U.S. Defense Held in Denver, Colorado on November 14-17, 2011. Volume 2: Audio and Movie Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    Mr. Frank Salvatore, High Performance Technologies FIXED AND ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT 13274 - “CREATE-AV DaVinci : Model-Based Engineering for Systems... Tools for Reliability Improvement and Addressing Modularity Issues in Evaluation and Physical Testing”, Dr. Richard Heine, Army Materiel Systems

  7. Could Audio-Described Films Benefit from Audio Introductions? An Audience Response Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Fresco, Pablo; Fryer, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Time constraints limit the quantity and type of information conveyed in audio description (AD) for films, in particular the cinematic aspects. Inspired by introductory notes for theatre AD, this study developed audio introductions (AIs) for "Slumdog Millionaire" and "Man on Wire." Each AI comprised 10 minutes of…

  8. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldjalil Aïssa-El-Bey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  9. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïssa-El-Bey Abdeldjalil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source using vector clustering. For the signal analysis, two existing algorithms are considered and compared: namely the EMD (empirical mode decomposition algorithm and a parametric estimation algorithm using ESPRIT technique. A major advantage of the proposed method resides in its validity for both instantaneous and convolutive mixtures and its ability to separate more sources than sensors. Simulation results are given to compare and assess the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  10. “Wrapping” X3DOM around Web Audio API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stamoulias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sound has a conceptual role in the Web3D environments, due to highly realism scenes that can provide. Lately the efforts are concentrated on the extension of the X3D/ X3DOM through spatial sound attributes. This paper presents a novel method for the introduction of spatial sound components in the X3DOM framework, based on X3D specification and Web Audio API. The proposed method incorporates the introduction of enhanced sound nodes for X3DOM which are derived by the implementation of the X3D standard components, enriched with accessional features of Web Audio API. Moreover, several examples-scenarios developed for the evaluation of our approach. The implemented examples established the achievability of new registered nodes in X3DOM, for spatial sound characteristics in Web3D virtual worlds.

  11. Audio teleconferencing: creative use of a forgotten innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Marlow, Annette

    2012-06-01

    As part of a regional School of Nursing and Midwifery's commitment to addressing recruitment and retention issues, approximately 90% of second year undergraduate student nurses undertake clinical placements at: multipurpose centres; regional or district hospitals; aged care; or community centres based in rural and remote regions within the State. The remaining 10% undertake professional experience placement in urban areas only. This placement of a large cohort of students, in low numbers in a variety of clinical settings, initiated the need to provide consistent support to both students and staff at these facilities. Subsequently the development of an audio teleconferencing model of clinical facilitation to guide student teaching and learning and to provide support to registered nurse preceptors in clinical practice was developed. This paper draws on Weimer's 'Personal Accounts of Change' approach to describe, discuss and evaluate the modifications that have occurred since the inception of this audio teleconferencing model (Weimer, 2006).

  12. Audio Visual Media Components in Educational Game for Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilani Hartono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to review and implement interactive audio visual media used in an educational game to improve elementary students’ interest in learning mathematics. The game was developed for desktop platform. The art of the game was set as 2D cartoon art with animation and audio in order to make students more interest. There were four mini games developed based on the researches on mathematics study. Development method used was Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC that consists of requirement, design, development, testing, and implementation phase. Data collection methods used are questionnaire, literature study, and interview. The conclusion is elementary students interest with educational game that has fun and active (moving objects, with fast tempo of music, and carefree color like blue. This educational game is hoped to be an alternative teaching tool combined with conventional teaching method.

  13. An effective framework for finding similar cases of dengue from audio and text data using domain thesaurus and case base reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rajinder; Kaur, Jaspreet; Thapar, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Dengue, also known as break-bone fever, is a tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. If the similarity between dengue infected users can be identified, it can help government's health agencies to manage the outbreak more effectively. To find similarity between cases affected by Dengue, user's personal and health information are the two fundamental requirements. Identification of similar symptoms, causes, effects, predictions and treatment procedures, is important. In this paper, an effective framework is proposed which finds similar patients suffering from dengue using keyword aware domain thesaurus and case base reasoning method. This paper focuses on the use of ontology dependent domain thesaurus technique to extract relevant keywords and then build cases with the help of case base reasoning method. Similar cases can be shared with users, nearby hospitals and health organizations to manage the problem more adequately. Two million case bases were generated to test the proposed similarity method. Experimental evaluations of proposed framework resulted in high accuracy and low error rate for finding similar cases of dengue as compared to UPCC and IPCC algorithms. The framework developed in this paper is for dengue but can easily be extended to other domains also.

  14. Automatic summarization of soccer highlights using audio-visual descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raventós, A; Quijada, R; Torres, Luis; Tarrés, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Automatic summarization generation of sports video content has been object of great interest for many years. Although semantic descriptions techniques have been proposed, many of the approaches still rely on low-level video descriptors that render quite limited results due to the complexity of the problem and to the low capability of the descriptors to represent semantic content. In this paper, a new approach for automatic highlights summarization generation of soccer videos using audio-visual descriptors is presented. The approach is based on the segmentation of the video sequence into shots that will be further analyzed to determine its relevance and interest. Of special interest in the approach is the use of the audio information that provides additional robustness to the overall performance of the summarization system. For every video shot a set of low and mid level audio-visual descriptors are computed and lately adequately combined in order to obtain different relevance measures based on empirical knowledge rules. The final summary is generated by selecting those shots with highest interest according to the specifications of the user and the results of relevance measures. A variety of results are presented with real soccer video sequences that prove the validity of the approach.

  15. Big Data Analytics: Challenges And Applications For Text, Audio, Video, And Social Media Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jai Prakash Verma; Smita Agrawal; Bankim Patel; Atul Patel

    2016-01-01

    All types of machine automated systems are generating large amount of data in different forms like statistical, text, audio, video, sensor, and bio-metric data that emerges the term Big Data. In this paper we are discussing issues, challenges, and application of these types of Big Data with the consideration of big data dimensions. Here we are discussing social media data analytics, content based analytics, text data analytics, audio, and video data analytics their issues and expected applica...

  16. Rate-distortion analysis of steganography for conveying stereovision disparity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toshiyuki; Batolomeu, Ana B. D. T.; Francob, Filipe A. L.; Delannay, Damien; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2004-06-01

    3-D images transmission in a way which is compliant with traditional 2-D representations can be done through the embedding of disparity maps within the 2-D signal. This approach enables the transmission of stereoscopic video sequences or images on traditional analogue TV channels (PAL or NTSC) or printed photographic images. The aim of this work is to study the achievable performances of such a technique. The embedding of disparity maps has to be seen as a global rate-distortion problem. The embedding capacity through steganography is determined by the transmission channel noise and by the bearable distortion on the watermarked image. The distortion of the 3-D image displayed as two stereo views depends on the rate allocated to the complementary information required to build those two views from one reference 2-D image. Results from the works on the scalar Costa scheme are used to optimize the embedding of the disparity map compressed bit stream into the reference image. A method for computing the optimal trade off between the disparity map distortion and embedding distortion as a function of the channel impairments is proposed. The goal is to get a similar distortion on the left (the reference image) and the right (the disparity compensated image) images. We show that in typical situations the embedding of 2 bits/pixels in the left image, while the disparity map is compressed at 1 bit per pixel leads to a good trade-off. The disparity map is encoded with a strong error correcting code, including synchronisation bits.

  17. Modified DCTNet for audio signals classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to human audio perception than features such as Mel-frequency spectral coefficients (MFSC). We use features extracted by the A-DCTNet as input for classifiers. Experimental results show that the A-DCTNet and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) achieve state-of-the-art performance in bird song classification rate, and improve artist identification accuracy in music data. They demonstrate A-DCTNet's applicability to signal processing problems.

  18. Audio Description as a Pedagogical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Kleege

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio description is the process of translating visual information into words for people who are blind or have low vision. Typically such description has focused on films, museum exhibitions, images and video on the internet, and live theater. Because it allows people with visual impairments to experience a variety of cultural and educational texts that would otherwise be inaccessible, audio description is a mandated aspect of disability inclusion, although it remains markedly underdeveloped and underutilized in our classrooms and in society in general. Along with increasing awareness of disability, audio description pushes students to practice close reading of visual material, deepen their analysis, and engage in critical discussions around the methodology, standards and values, language, and role of interpretation in a variety of academic disciplines. We outline a few pedagogical interventions that can be customized to different contexts to develop students' writing and critical thinking skills through guided description of visual material.

  19. Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Using Lip Information Extracted from Side-Face Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an audio-visual speech recognition method using lip information extracted from side-face images as an attempt to increase noise robustness in mobile environments. Our proposed method assumes that lip images can be captured using a small camera installed in a handset. Two different kinds of lip features, lip-contour geometric features and lip-motion velocity features, are used individually or jointly, in combination with audio features. Phoneme HMMs modeling the audio and visual features are built based on the multistream HMM technique. Experiments conducted using Japanese connected digit speech contaminated with white noise in various SNR conditions show effectiveness of the proposed method. Recognition accuracy is improved by using the visual information in all SNR conditions. These visual features were confirmed to be effective even when the audio HMM was adapted to noise by the MLLR method.

  20. Real-Time Audio Processing on the T-CREST Multicore Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ausin, Daniel Sanz; Pezzarossa, Luca; Schoeberl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    of the audio signal. This paper presents a real-time multicore audio processing system based on the T-CREST platform. T-CREST is a time-predictable multicore processor for real-time embedded systems. Multiple audio effect tasks have been implemented, which can be connected together in different configurations...... forming sequential and parallel effect chains, and using a network-onchip for intercommunication between processors. The evaluation of the system shows that real-time processing of multiple effect configurations is possible, and that the estimation and control of latency ensures real-time behavior.......Multicore platforms are nowadays widely used for audio processing applications, due to the improvement of computational power that they provide. However, some of these systems are not optimized for temporally constrained environments, which often leads to an undesired increase in the latency...

  1. News video story segmentation method using fusion of audio-visual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jun; Wu, Ling-da; Zeng, Pu; Luan, Xi-dao; Xie, Yu-xiang

    2007-11-01

    News story segmentation is an important aspect for news video analysis. This paper presents a method for news video story segmentation. Different form prior works, which base on visual features transform, the proposed technique uses audio features as baseline and fuses visual features with it to refine the results. At first, it selects silence clips as audio features candidate points, and selects shot boundaries and anchor shots as two kinds of visual features candidate points. Then this paper selects audio feature candidates as cues and develops different fusion method, which effectively using diverse type visual candidates to refine audio candidates, to get story boundaries. Experiment results show that this method has high efficiency and adaptability to different kinds of news video.

  2. FPGA-based implementation for steganalysis: a JPEG-compatibility algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Fernandez, E.; Portela-García, M.; Lopez-Ongil, C.; Garcia-Valderas, M.

    2013-05-01

    Steganalysis is a process to detect hidden data in cover documents, like digital images, videos, audio files, etc. This is the inverse process of steganography, which is the used method to hide secret messages. The widely use of computers and network technologies make digital files very easy-to-use means for storing secret data or transmitting secret messages through the Internet. Depending on the cover medium used to embed the data, there are different steganalysis methods. In case of images, many of the steganalysis and steganographic methods are focused on JPEG image formats, since JPEG is one of the most common formats. One of the main important handicaps of steganalysis methods is the processing speed, since it is usually necessary to process huge amount of data or it can be necessary to process the on-going internet traffic in real-time. In this paper, a JPEG steganalysis system is implemented in an FPGA in order to speed-up the detection process with respect to software-based implementations and to increase the throughput. In particular, the implemented method is the JPEG-compatibility detection algorithm that is based on the fact that when a JPEG image is modified, the resulting image is incompatible with the JPEG compression process.

  3. Frequency Hopping Method for Audio Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anastasijević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degradation of audio content for a perceptible removable watermark. Two different approaches to embedding the watermark in the spectral domain were investigated. The frequencies for watermark embedding are chosen according to a pseudorandom sequence making the methods robust. Consequentially, the lower quality audio can be used for promotional purposes. For a fee, the watermark can be removed with a secret watermarking key. Objective and subjective testing was conducted in order to measure degradation level for the watermarked music samples and to examine residual distortion for different parameters of the watermarking algorithm and different music genres.

  4. Audio Networking in the Music Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebs Kuzmics

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the rôle of computer networking technologies in the music industry. A comparison of their relevant technologies, their defining advantages and disadvantages; analyses and discussion of the situation in the market of network enabled audio products followed by a discussion of different devices are presented. The idea of replacing a proprietary solution with open-source and freeware software programs has been chosen as the fundamental concept of this research. The technologies covered include: native IEEE AVnu Alliance Audio Video Bridging (AVB, CobraNet®, Audinate Dante™ and Harman BLU Link.

  5. Personalized Audio Systems - a Bayesian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Toke Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Modern audio systems are typically equipped with several user-adjustable parameters unfamiliar to most users listening to the system. To obtain the best possible setting, the user is forced into multi-parameter optimization with respect to the users's own objective and preference. To address this......, the present paper presents a general inter-active framework for personalization of such audio systems. The framework builds on Bayesian Gaussian process regression in which a model of the users's objective function is updated sequentially. The parameter setting to be evaluated in a given trial is selected...

  6. Mobile video-to-audio transducer and motion detection for sensory substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eAmbard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-auditory sensory substitution systems are augmented reality devices that translate a video stream into an audio stream in order to help the blind in daily tasks requiring visuo-spatial information. In this work, we present both a new mobile device and a transcoding method specifically designed to sonify moving objects. Frame differencing is used to extract spatial features from the video stream and two-dimensional spatial information is converted into audio cues using pitch, interaural time difference and interaural level difference. Using numerical methods, we attempt to reconstruct visuo-spatial information based on audio signals generated from various video stimuli. We show that despite a contrasted visual background and a highly lossy encoding method, the information in the audio signal is sufficient to allow object localization, object trajectory evaluation, object approach detection, and spatial separation of multiple objects. We also show that this type of audio signal can be interpreted by human users by asking ten subjects to discriminate trajectories based on generated audio signals.

  7. Procedural Audio in Computer Games Using Motion Controllers: An Evaluation on the Effect and Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Böttcher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted into whether the use of procedural audio affects players in computer games using motion controllers. It was investigated whether or not (1 players perceive a difference between detailed and interactive procedural audio and prerecorded audio, (2 the use of procedural audio affects their motor-behavior, and (3 procedural audio affects their perception of control. Three experimental surveys were devised, two consisting of game sessions and the third consisting of watching videos of gameplay. A skiing game controlled by a Nintendo Wii balance board and a sword-fighting game controlled by a Wii remote were implemented with two versions of sound, one sample based and the other procedural based. The procedural models were designed using a perceptual approach and by alternative combinations of well-known synthesis techniques. The experimental results showed that, when being actively involved in playing or purely observing a video recording of a game, the majority of participants did not notice any difference in sound. Additionally, it was not possible to show that the use of procedural audio caused any consistent change in the motor behavior. In the skiing experiment, a portion of players perceived the control of the procedural version as being more sensitive.

  8. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  9. Audio-based deep music emotion recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Han, Li; Ma, Liangkai; Guo, Dongwei

    2018-05-01

    As the rapid development of multimedia networking, more and more songs are issued through the Internet and stored in large digital music libraries. However, music information retrieval on these libraries can be really hard, and the recognition of musical emotion is especially challenging. In this paper, we report a strategy to recognize the emotion contained in songs by classifying their spectrograms, which contain both the time and frequency information, with a convolutional neural network (CNN). The experiments conducted on the l000-song dataset indicate that the proposed model outperforms traditional machine learning method.

  10. Audio Journal in an ELT Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Aysin Siyli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that one of the most serious problems students of English as a foreign language face is their deprivation of practicing the language outside the classroom. Generally, the classroom is the sole environment where they can practice English, which by its nature does not provide rich setting to help students develop their competence by putting the language into practice. Motivated by this need, this descriptive study investigated the impact of audio dialog journals on students’ speaking skills. It also aimed to gain insights into students’ and teacher’s opinions on keeping audio dialog journals outside the class. The data of the study developed from student and teacher audio dialog journals, student written feedbacks, interviews held with the students, and teacher observations. The descriptive analysis of the data revealed that audio dialog journals served a number of functions ranging from cognitive to linguistic, from pedagogical to psychological, and social. The findings and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

  11. Spatial audio quality perception (part 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.

    2015-01-01

    location, envelopment, coverage angle, ensemble width, and spaciousness. They can also impact timbre, and changes to timbre can then influence spatial perception. Previously obtained data was used to build a regression model of perceived spatial audio quality in terms of spatial and timbral metrics...

  12. Study of audio speakers containing ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R E [34 Gloucester Road, Summit, NJ 07901 (United States); Hirota, Y; Tsuda, S [Ferrotec, 1-4-14 Kyobashi, chuo-Ku, Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan); Raj, K [Ferrotec, 33 Constitution Drive, Bedford, NH 03110 (United States)

    2008-05-21

    This work validates a method for increasing the radial restoring force on the voice coil in audio speakers containing ferrofluid. In addition, a study is made of factors influencing splash loss of the ferrofluid due to shock. Ferrohydrodynamic analysis is employed throughout to model behavior, and predictions are compared to experimental data.

  13. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  14. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  15. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  16. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357030-11$15.00/0.

  17. Using Audio-Derived Affective Offset to Enhance TV Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    . First a user's mood profile is determined using 12-class audio-based emotion classifications . An initial TV content item is then displayed to the user based on the extracted mood profile. The user has the option to either accept the recommendation, or to critique the item once or several times......, by navigating the emotion space to request an alternative match. The final match is then compared to the initial match, in terms of the difference in the items' affective parameterization . This offset is then utilized in future recommendation sessions. The system was evaluated by eliciting three different...

  18. Extracting meaning from audio signals - a machine learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression...

  19. Consequence of audio visual collection in school libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Kuri, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The collection of Audio-Visual in library plays important role in teaching and learning. The importance of audio visual (AV) technology in education should not be underestimated. If audio-visual collection in library is carefully planned and designed, it can provide a rich learning environment. In this article, an author discussed the consequences of Audio-Visual collection in libraries especially for students of school library

  20. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that...

  1. Debugging of Class-D Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Lasse; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2012-01-01

    Determining and optimizing the performance of a Class-D audio power amplier can be very dicult without knowledge of the use of audio performance measuring equipment and of how the various noise and distortion sources in uence the audio performance. This paper gives an introduction on how to measure...

  2. Training of audio descriptors: the cinematographic aesthetics as basis for the learning of the audio description aesthetics – materials, methods and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Ferreira Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Audio description (AD, a resource used to make theater, cinema, TV, and visual works of art accessible to people with visual impairments, is slowly being implemented in Brazil and demanding qualified professionals. Based on this statement, this article reports the results of a research developed during post-doctoral studies. The study is dedicated to the confrontation of film aesthetics with audio description techniques to check how the knowledge of the former can contribute to audiodescritor training. Through action research, a short film adapted from a Mario de Andrade’s, a Brazilian writer, short story called O Peru de Natal (Christmas Turkey was produced. The film as well as its audio description were carried out involving students and teachers from the discipline Intersemiotic Translation at the State University of Ceará. Thus, we intended to suggest pedagogical procedures generated by the students experiences by evaluating their choices and their implications.

  3. Comparative evaluation of audio and audio - tactile methods to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired school children

    OpenAIRE

    R Krishnakumar; Swarna Swathi Silla; Sugumaran K Durai; Mohan Govindarajan; Syed Shaheed Ahamed; Logeshwari Mathivanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visually impaired children are unable to maintain good oral hygiene, as their tactile abilities are often underdeveloped owing to their visual disturbances. Conventional brushing techniques are often poorly comprehended by these children and hence, it was decided to evaluate the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving the oral hygiene of these children. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving oral h...

  4. Audre's daughter: Black lesbian steganography in Dee Rees' Pariah and Audre Lorde's Zami: A New Spelling of My Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that African-American director Dee Rees' critically acclaimed debut Pariah (2011) is a rewriting of lesbian poet-activist Audre Lorde's iconic "bio-mythography" Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982). The article examines how Rees' work creatively and subtly re-envisions Lorde's Zami by way of deeply rooted and often cleverly camouflaged patterns, resonances, and contrasts. Shared topics include naming, mother-daughter bonds, the role of clothing in identity formation, domestic abuse, queer time, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender legacy discourse construction. What emerges between the visual and written texts is a hidden language of connection--what may be termed Black lesbian steganography--which proves thought-provoking to viewers and readers alike.

  5. A listening test system for automotive audio - listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Hegarty, Patrick; Christensen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in order to validate an experimental procedure to perform listening tests on car audio systems in a simulation of the car environment in a laboratory, using binaural synthesis with head-tracking. Seven experts and 40 non-expert listeners rated a range...... of stimuli for 15 sound-quality attributes developed by the experts. This paper presents a comparison between the attribute ratings from the two groups of participants. Overall preference of the non-experts was also measured using direct ratings as well as indirect scaling based on paired comparisons...

  6. Audio-haptic interaction in simulated walking experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    and interchangeable use of the haptic and auditory modality in floor interfaces, and for the synergy of perception and action in capturing and guiding human walking. We describe the technology developed in the context of this project, together with some experiments performed to evaluate the role of auditory......In this paper an overview of the work conducted on audio-haptic physically based simulation and evaluation of walking is provided. This work has been performed in the context of the Natural Interactive Walking (NIW) project, whose goal is to investigate possibilities for the integrated...... and haptic feedback in walking tasks....

  7. Audio segmentation using Flattened Local Trimmed Range for ecological acoustic space analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany Vega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic space in a given environment is filled with footprints arising from three processes: biophony, geophony and anthrophony. Bioacoustic research using passive acoustic sensors can result in thousands of recordings. An important component of processing these recordings is to automate signal detection. In this paper, we describe a new spectrogram-based approach for extracting individual audio events. Spectrogram-based audio event detection (AED relies on separating the spectrogram into background (i.e., noise and foreground (i.e., signal classes using a threshold such as a global threshold, a per-band threshold, or one given by a classifier. These methods are either too sensitive to noise, designed for an individual species, or require prior training data. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is not sensitive to noise, does not need any prior training data and works with any type of audio event. To do this, we propose: (1 a spectrogram filtering method, the Flattened Local Trimmed Range (FLTR method, which models the spectrogram as a mixture of stationary and non-stationary energy processes and mitigates the effect of the stationary processes, and (2 an unsupervised algorithm that uses the filter to detect audio events. We measured the performance of the algorithm using a set of six thoroughly validated audio recordings and obtained a sensitivity of 94% and a positive predictive value of 89%. These sensitivity and positive predictive values are very high, given that the validated recordings are diverse and obtained from field conditions. The algorithm was then used to extract audio events in three datasets. Features of these audio events were plotted and showed the unique aspects of the three acoustic communities.

  8. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  9. New musical organology : the audio-games

    OpenAIRE

    Zénouda , Hervé

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This article aims to shed light on a new and emerging creative field: " Audio Games, " a crossroad between video games and computer music. Today, a plethora of tiny applications, which propose entertaining audiovisual experiences with a preponderant sound dimension, are available for game consoles, computers, and mobile phones. These experiences represent a new universe where the gameplay of video games is applied to musical composition, hence creating new links betwee...

  10. Audio Networking in the Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Glebs Kuzmics; Maaruf Ali

    2018-01-01

    This paper surveys the rôle of computer networking technologies in the music industry. A comparison of their relevant technologies, their defining advantages and disadvantages; analyses and discussion of the situation in the market of network enabled audio products followed by a discussion of different devices are presented. The idea of replacing a proprietary solution with open-source and freeware software programs has been chosen as the fundamental concept of this research. The technologies...

  11. Digitisation of the CERN Audio Archives

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Since the creation of CERN in 1954 until mid 1980s, the audiovisual service has recorded hundreds of hours of moments of life at CERN on audio tapes. These moments range from inaugurations of new facilities to VIP speeches and general interest cultural seminars The preservation process started in June 2005 On these pictures, we see Waltraud Hug working on an open-reel tape.

  12. Securing Digital Audio using Complex Quadratic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi, MT; Satria Gunawan, Tjandra; Satria, Yudi

    2018-03-01

    In This digital era, exchanging data are common and easy to do, therefore it is vulnerable to be attacked and manipulated from unauthorized parties. One data type that is vulnerable to attack is digital audio. So, we need data securing method that is not vulnerable and fast. One of the methods that match all of those criteria is securing the data using chaos function. Chaos function that is used in this research is complex quadratic map (CQM). There are some parameter value that causing the key stream that is generated by CQM function to pass all 15 NIST test, this means that the key stream that is generated using this CQM is proven to be random. In addition, samples of encrypted digital sound when tested using goodness of fit test are proven to be uniform, so securing digital audio using this method is not vulnerable to frequency analysis attack. The key space is very huge about 8.1×l031 possible keys and the key sensitivity is very small about 10-10, therefore this method is also not vulnerable against brute-force attack. And finally, the processing speed for both encryption and decryption process on average about 450 times faster that its digital audio duration.

  13. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  14. A Perceptually Reweighted Mixed-Norm Method for Sparse Approximation of Audio Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Sturm, Bob L.

    2011-01-01

    using standard software. A prominent feature of the new method is that it solves a problem that is closely related to the objective of coding, namely rate-distortion optimization. In computer simulations, we demonstrate the properties of the algorithm and its application to real audio signals.......In this paper, we consider the problem of finding sparse representations of audio signals for coding purposes. In doing so, it is of utmost importance that when only a subset of the present components of an audio signal are extracted, it is the perceptually most important ones. To this end, we...... propose a new iterative algorithm based on two principles: 1) a reweighted l1-norm based measure of sparsity; and 2) a reweighted l2-norm based measure of perceptual distortion. Using these measures, the considered problem is posed as a constrained convex optimization problem that can be solved optimally...

  15. A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhangming; Liu Lianxi; Yang Yintang [Institute of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Lei Han, E-mail: zmyh@263.ne [Xi' an Power-Rail Micro Co., Ltd, Xi' an 710075 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 mum CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 muA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 x 1.52 mm{sup 2}. With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.

  16. A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhangming; Liu Lianxi; Yang Yintang; Lei Han

    2009-01-01

    Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 μA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 x 1.52 mm 2 . With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.

  17. A high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangming, Zhu; Lianxi, Liu; Yintang, Yang; Han, Lei

    2009-02-01

    Based on the difference close-loop feedback technique and the difference pre-amp, a high efficiency PWM CMOS class-D audio power amplifier is proposed. A rail-to-rail PWM comparator with window function has been embedded in the class-D audio power amplifier. Design results based on the CSMC 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the max efficiency is 90%, the PSRR is -75 dB, the power supply voltage range is 2.5-5.5 V, the THD+N in 1 kHz input frequency is less than 0.20%, the quiescent current in no load is 2.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.5 μA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is about 1.47 × 1.52 mm2. With the good performance, the class-D audio power amplifier can be applied to several audio power systems.

  18. The Sweet-Home project: audio processing and decision making in smart home to improve well-being and reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Michel; Chahuara, Pedro; Lecouteux, Benjamin; Istrate, Dan; Portet, Francois; Joubert, Thierry; Sehili, Mohamed; Meillon, Brigitte; Bonnefond, Nicolas; Fabre, Sébastien; Roux, Camille; Caffiau, Sybille

    2013-01-01

    The Sweet-Home project aims at providing audio-based interaction technology that lets the user have full control over their home environment, at detecting distress situations and at easing the social inclusion of the elderly and frail population. This paper presents an overview of the project focusing on the implemented techniques for speech and sound recognition as context-aware decision making with uncertainty. A user experiment in a smart home demonstrates the interest of this audio-based technology.

  19. GaN Power Stage for Switch-mode Audio Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Knott, Arnold; Poulsen, Søren Bang

    2015-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) based power transistors are gaining more and more attention since the introduction of the enhancement mode eGaN Field Effect Transistor (FET) which makes an adaptation from Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOSFET) to eGaN based technology less complex than by using depletion mode Ga......N FETs. This project seeks to investigate the possibilities of using eGaN FETs as the power switching device in a full bridge power stage intended for switch mode audio amplification. A 50 W 1 MHz power stage was built and provided promising audio performance. Future work includes optimization of dead...

  20. Car audio using DSP for active sound control. DSP ni yoru active seigyo wo mochiita audio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Asano, S.; Furukawa, N. (Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    In the automobile cabin, there are some unique problems which spoil the quality of sound reproduction from audio equipment, such as the narrow space and/or the background noise. The audio signal processing by using DSP (digital signal processor) makes enable a solution to these problems. A car audio with a high amenity has been successfully made by the active sound control using DSP. The DSP consists of an adder, coefficient multiplier, delay unit, and connections. For the actual processing by DSP, are used functions, such as sound field correction, response and processing of noises during driving, surround reproduction, graphic equalizer processing, etc. High effectiveness of the method was confirmed through the actual driving evaluation test. The present paper describes the actual method of sound control technology using DSP. Especially, the dynamic processing of the noise during driving is discussed in detail. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, M [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: Michal.Kwiatek@cem.ch

    2008-07-15

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment. An infrastructure, based on standard CERN services, has been implemented, whereby master files, stored in the CERN Distributed File System (DFS), are discovered and scheduled for encoding into lightweight web formats based on predefined profiles. Changes in master files, conversion profiles or in the metadata database (read from CDS, the CERN Document Server) are automatically detected and the media re-encoded whenever necessary. The encoding processes are run on virtual servers provided on-demand by the CERN Server Self Service Centre, so that new servers can be easily configured to adapt to higher load. Finally, the generated files are made available from the CERN standard web servers with streaming implemented using Windows Media Services.

  2. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, M

    2008-01-01

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment. An infrastructure, based on standard CERN services, has been implemented, whereby master files, stored in the CERN Distributed File System (DFS), are discovered and scheduled for encoding into lightweight web formats based on predefined profiles. Changes in master files, conversion profiles or in the metadata database (read from CDS, the CERN Document Server) are automatically detected and the media re-encoded whenever necessary. The encoding processes are run on virtual servers provided on-demand by the CERN Server Self Service Centre, so that new servers can be easily configured to adapt to higher load. Finally, the generated files are made available from the CERN standard web servers with streaming implemented using Windows Media Services

  3. Image steganography based on 2k correction and coherent bit length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuliang; Guo, Yongning

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the edge of cover image is detected with Canny operator and secret data is embedded in edge pixels. Sorting method is used to randomize the edge pixels in order to enhance security. Coherent bit length L is determined by relevant edge pixels. Finally, the method of 2k correction is applied to achieve better imperceptibility in stego image. The experiment shows that the proposed method is better than LSB-3 and Jae-Gil Yu's in PSNR and capacity.

  4. Design and Implementation of a Video-Zoom Driven Digital Audio-Zoom System for Portable Digital Imaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Seon Man; Kim, Hong Kook; Kim, Ji Woon; Kim, Myeong Bo; Yun, Su Won

    In this paper, we propose a video-zoom driven audio-zoom algorithm in order to provide audio zooming effects in accordance with the degree of video-zoom. The proposed algorithm is designed based on a super-directive beamformer operating with a 4-channel microphone system, in conjunction with a soft masking process that considers the phase differences between microphones. Thus, the audio-zoom processed signal is obtained by multiplying an audio gain derived from a video-zoom level by the masked signal. After all, a real-time audio-zoom system is implemented on an ARM-CORETEX-A8 having a clock speed of 600 MHz after different levels of optimization are performed such as algorithmic level, C-code, and memory optimizations. To evaluate the complexity of the proposed real-time audio-zoom system, test data whose length is 21.3 seconds long is sampled at 48 kHz. As a result, it is shown from the experiments that the processing time for the proposed audio-zoom system occupies 14.6% or less of the ARM clock cycles. It is also shown from the experimental results performed in a semi-anechoic chamber that the signal with the front direction can be amplified by approximately 10 dB compared to the other directions.

  5. Measuring 3D Audio Localization Performance and Speech Quality of Conferencing Calls for a Multiparty Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Hyder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication systems which support 3D (Three Dimensional audio offer a couple of advantages to the users/customers. Firstly, within the virtual acoustic environments all participants could easily be recognized through their placement/sitting positions. Secondly, all participants can turn their focus on any particular talker when multiple participants start talking at the same time by taking advantage of the natural listening tendency which is called the Cocktail Party Effect. On the other hand, 3D audio is known as a decreasing factor for overall speech quality because of the commencement of reverberations and echoes within the listening environment. In this article, we study the tradeoff between speech quality and human natural ability of localizing audio events/or talkers within our three dimensional audio supported telephony and teleconferencing solution. Further, we performed subjective user studies by incorporating two different HRTFs (Head Related Transfer Functions, different placements of the teleconferencing participants and different layouts of the virtual environments. Moreover, subjective user studies results for audio event localization and subjective speech quality are presented in this article. This subjective user study would help the research community to optimize the existing 3D audio systems and to design new 3D audio supported teleconferencing solutions based on the quality of experience requirements of the users/customers for agriculture personal in particular and for all potential users in general.

  6. Measuring 3D Audio Localization Performance and Speech Quality of Conferencing Calls for a Multiparty Communication System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.; Menghwar, G.D.; Qureshi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Communication systems which support 3D (Three Dimensional) audio offer a couple of advantages to the users/customers. Firstly, within the virtual acoustic environments all participants could easily be recognized through their placement/sitting positions. Secondly, all participants can turn their focus on any particular talker when multiple participants start talking at the same time by taking advantage of the natural listening tendency which is called the Cocktail Party Effect. On the other hand, 3D audio is known as a decreasing factor for overall speech quality because of the commencement of reverberations and echoes within the listening environment. In this article, we study the tradeoff between speech quality and human natural ability of localizing audio events/or talkers within our three dimensional audio supported telephony and teleconferencing solution. Further, we performed subjective user studies by incorporating two different HRTFs (Head Related Transfer Functions), different placements of the teleconferencing participants and different layouts of the virtual environments. Moreover, subjective user studies results for audio event localization and subjective speech quality are presented in this article. This subjective user study would help the research community to optimize the existing 3D audio systems and to design new 3D audio supported teleconferencing solutions based on the quality of experience requirements of the users/customers for agriculture personal in particular and for all potential users in general. (author)

  7. Elicitation of attributes for the evaluation of audio-on audio-interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, Jon; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.

    2014-01-01

    procedure was used to reduce these phrases into a comprehensive set of attributes. Groups of experienced and inexperienced listeners determined nine and eight attributes, respectively. These attribute sets were combined by the listeners to produce a final set of 12 attributes: masking, calming, distraction......An experiment to determine the perceptual attributes of the experience of listening to a target audio program in the presence of an audio interferer was performed. The first stage was a free elicitation task in which a total of 572 phrases were produced. In the second stage, a consensus vocabulary...

  8. [Intermodal timing cues for audio-visual speech recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masahiro; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the limitations of lip-reading advantages for Japanese young adults by desynchronizing visual and auditory information in speech. In the experiment, audio-visual speech stimuli were presented under the six test conditions: audio-alone, and audio-visually with either 0, 60, 120, 240 or 480 ms of audio delay. The stimuli were the video recordings of a face of a female Japanese speaking long and short Japanese sentences. The intelligibility of the audio-visual stimuli was measured as a function of audio delays in sixteen untrained young subjects. Speech intelligibility under the audio-delay condition of less than 120 ms was significantly better than that under the audio-alone condition. On the other hand, the delay of 120 ms corresponded to the mean mora duration measured for the audio stimuli. The results implied that audio delays of up to 120 ms would not disrupt lip-reading advantage, because visual and auditory information in speech seemed to be integrated on a syllabic time scale. Potential applications of this research include noisy workplace in which a worker must extract relevant speech from all the other competing noises.

  9. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...... using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  10. Mixing audio concepts, practices and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Izhaki, Roey

    2013-01-01

    Your mix can make or break a record, and mixing is an essential catalyst for a record deal. Professional engineers with exceptional mixing skills can earn vast amounts of money and find that they are in demand by the biggest acts. To develop such skills, you need to master both the art and science of mixing. The new edition of this bestselling book offers all you need to know and put into practice in order to improve your mixes. Covering the entire process --from fundamental concepts to advanced techniques -- and offering a multitude of audio samples, tips and tricks, this boo

  11. Calibration of an audio frequency noise generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1966-01-01

    a noise bandwidth Bn = π/2 × (3dB bandwidth). To apply this method to low audio frequencies, the noise bandwidth of the low Q parallel resonant circuit has been found, including the effects of both series and parallel damping. The method has been used to calibrate a General Radio 1390-B noise generator...... it is used for measurement purposes. The spectral density of a noise source may be found by measuring its rms output over a known noise bandwidth. Such a bandwidth may be provided by a passive filter using accurately known elements. For example, the parallel resonant circuit with purely parallel damping has...

  12. Non Audio-Video gesture recognition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2016-01-01

    Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Current research focus includes on the emotion...... recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition. Gesture recognition enables humans to communicate with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. This paper investigates the possibility to use non-audio/video sensors in order to design a low-cost gesture recognition device...

  13. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Juan Garcia-Hernandez

    Full Text Available Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  14. Multilevel tracking power supply for switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Lazarevic, Vladan; Vasic, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    to the power supply in order to improve efficiency. A 100 W prototype system was designed. Measured results show that systems employing envelope tracking can improve system efficiency from 2% to 12%, i.e. a factor of 6. The temperature rise is strongly reduced, especially for the switching power MOSFETs where......Switch-mode technology is the common choice for high efficiency audio power amplifiers. The dynamic nature of real audio reduces efficiency as less continuous output power can be achieved. Based on methods used for RF amplifiers this paper proposes to employ envelope tracking techniques...

  15. Audio Haptic Videogaming for Developing Wayfinding Skills in Learners Who are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; de Borba Campos, Marcia; Espinoza, Matías; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-01-01

    Interactive digital technologies are currently being developed as a novel tool for education and skill development. Audiopolis is an audio and haptic based videogame designed for developing orientation and mobility (O&M) skills in people who are blind. We have evaluated the cognitive impact of videogame play on O&M skills by assessing performance on a series of behavioral tasks carried out in both indoor and outdoor virtual spaces. Our results demonstrate that the use of Audiopolis had a positive impact on the development and use of O&M skills in school-aged learners who are blind. The impact of audio and haptic information on learning is also discussed.

  16. “Cycles upon cycles, stories upon stories” :\\ud contemporary audio media and podcast horror’s\\ud new frights

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, D; McMurtry, LG

    2017-01-01

    During the last ten years the ever-fertile horror and Gothic genres have birthed a new type of fright-fiction: podcast horror. Podcast horror is a narrative horror form based in\\ud audio media and the properties of sound. Despite association with oral ghost tales, radio drama, and movie and TV soundscapes, podcast horror remains academically overlooked. Podcasts offer fertile ground for the revitalization and evolution of such extant audio-horror\\ud traditions, yet they offer innovation too. ...

  17. The sweet-home project: audio technology in smart homes to improve well-being and reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Michel; Istrate, Dan; Portet, François; Joubert, Thierry; Chevalier, Thierry; Smidtas, Serge; Meillon, Brigitte; Lecouteux, Benjamin; Sehili, Mohamed; Chahuara, Pedro; Méniard, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    The Sweet-Home project aims at providing audio-based interaction technology that lets the user have full control over their home environment, at detecting distress situations and at easing the social inclusion of the elderly and frail population. This paper presents an overview of the project focusing on the multimodal sound corpus acquisition and labelling and on the investigated techniques for speech and sound recognition. The user study and the recognition performances show the interest of this audio technology.

  18. Cortical Integration of Audio-Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Ramsay, Gordon J.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Jones, Warren; Lin, David; Klin, Ami; Lee, Su Mei; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of audio-visual processing in speech and non-speech stimuli. Physically identical auditory stimuli (speech and sinusoidal tones) and visual stimuli (animated circles and ellipses) were used in this fMRI experiment. Relative to unimodal stimuli, each of the multimodal conjunctions showed increased activation in largely non-overlapping areas. The conjunction of Ellipse and Speech, which most resembles naturalistic audiovisual speech, showed higher activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyri, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Tone, an arbitrary audio-visual pairing with no speech association, activated middle temporal gyri and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Speech showed activation in lateral occipital cortex, and the conjunction of Ellipse and Tone did not show increased activation relative to unimodal stimuli. Further analysis revealed that middle temporal regions, although identified as multimodal only in the Circle-Tone condition, were more strongly active to Ellipse-Speech or Circle-Speech, but regions that were identified as multimodal for Ellipse-Speech were always strongest for Ellipse-Speech. Our results suggest that combinations of auditory and visual stimuli may together be processed by different cortical networks, depending on the extent to which speech or non-speech percepts are evoked. PMID:20709442

  19. Semantic Labeling of Nonspeech Audio Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human communication about entities and events is primarily linguistic in nature. While visual representations of information are shown to be highly effective as well, relatively little is known about the communicative power of auditory nonlinguistic representations. We created a collection of short nonlinguistic auditory clips encoding familiar human activities, objects, animals, natural phenomena, machinery, and social scenes. We presented these sounds to a broad spectrum of anonymous human workers using Amazon Mechanical Turk and collected verbal sound labels. We analyzed the human labels in terms of their lexical and semantic properties to ascertain that the audio clips do evoke the information suggested by their pre-defined captions. We then measured the agreement with the semantically compatible labels for each sound clip. Finally, we examined which kinds of entities and events, when captured by nonlinguistic acoustic clips, appear to be well-suited to elicit information for communication, and which ones are less discriminable. Our work is set against the broader goal of creating resources that facilitate communication for people with some types of language loss. Furthermore, our data should prove useful for future research in machine analysis/synthesis of audio, such as computational auditory scene analysis, and annotating/querying large collections of sound effects.

  20. Newnes audio and Hi-Fi engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Audio and Hi-Fi Engineer's Pocket Book, Second Edition provides concise discussion of several audio topics. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that cover different audio equipment. The coverage of the text includes microphones, gramophones, compact discs, and tape recorders. The book also covers high-quality radio, amplifiers, and loudspeakers. The book then reviews the concepts of sound and acoustics, and presents some facts and formulas relevant to audio. The text will be useful to sound engineers and other professionals whose work involves sound systems.

  1. Feature Selection for Audio Surveillance in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIKTOVA Eva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the work leading to the acoustic event detection system, which is designed to recognize two types of acoustic events (shot and breaking glass in urban environment. For this purpose, a huge front-end processing was performed for the effective parametric representation of an input sound. MFCC features and features computed during their extraction (MELSPEC and FBANK, then MPEG-7 audio descriptors and other temporal and spectral characteristics were extracted. High dimensional feature sets were created and in the next phase reduced by the mutual information based selection algorithms. Hidden Markov Model based classifier was applied and evaluated by the Viterbi decoding algorithm. Thus very effective feature sets were identified and also the less important features were found.

  2. Joint evaluation of communication quality and user experience in an audio-visual virtual reality meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Carrozzino, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-the-art speech intelligibility tests are created with the purpose of evaluating acoustic communication devices and not for evaluating audio-visual virtual reality systems. This paper present a novel method to evaluate a communication situation based on both the speech intelligibility...

  3. Designing between Pedagogies and Cultures: Audio-Visual Chinese Language Resources for Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yifeng; Shen, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    This design-based study examines the creation and development of audio-visual Chinese language teaching and learning materials for Australian schools by incorporating users' feedback and content writers' input that emerged in the designing process. Data were collected from workshop feedback of two groups of Chinese-language teachers from primary…

  4. Exploring Meaning Negotiation Patterns in Synchronous Audio and Video Conferencing English Classes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Wu, Ligao; Li, Chen; Tang, Jinlan

    2017-01-01

    This work-in-progress doctoral research project aims to identify meaning negotiation patterns in synchronous audio and video Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environments based on the model of CMC text chat proposed by Smith (2003). The study was conducted in the Institute of Online Education at Beijing Foreign Studies University. Four dyads…

  5. Creating Accessible Science Museums with User-Activated Environmental Audio Beacons (Ping!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Steven; Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Giusti, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, Touch Graphics Company carried out research on a new invention that promises to improve accessibility to science museums for visitors who are visually impaired. The system, nicknamed Ping!, allows users to navigate an exhibit area, listen to audio descriptions, and interact with exhibits using a cell phone-based interface. The system…

  6. Design and Implementation of a linear-phase equalizer in digital audio signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slump, Cornelis H.; van Asma, C.G.M.; Barels, J.K.P.; Barels, J.K.P.; Brunink, W.J.A; Drenth, F.B.; Pol, J.V.; Schouten, D.S.; Samsom, M.M.; Samsom, M.M.; Herrmann, O.E.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution presents the four phases of a project aiming at the realization in VLSI of a digital audio equalizer with a linear phase characteristic. The first step includes the identification of the system requirements, based on experience and (psycho-acoustical) literature. Secondly, the

  7. Focus on Hinduism: Audio-Visual Resources for Teaching Religion. Occasional Publication No. 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, David; And Others

    The guide presents annotated lists of audio and visual materials about the Hindu religion. The authors point out that Hinduism cannot be comprehended totally by reading books; thus the resources identified in this guide will enhance understanding based on reading. The guide is intended for use by high school and college students, teachers,…

  8. Audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in Chiari malformation type i. Case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Jiménez, Gloria; Mazón Gutiérrez, Ángel; Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Valle San Román, Natalia; Martín Laez, Rubén; Morales Angulo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Chiari malformation is an alteration of the base of the skull with herniation through the foramen magnum of the brain stem and cerebellum. Although the most common presentation is occipital headache, the association of audio-vestibular symptoms is not rare. The aim of our study was to describe audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in Chiari malformation type i (CM-I). We performed a retrospective observational study of patients referred to our unit during the last 5 years. We also carried out a literature review of audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in this disease. There were 9 patients (2 males and 7 females), with an average age of 42.8 years. Five patients presented a Ménière-like syndrome; 2 cases, a recurrent vertigo with peripheral features; one patient showed a sudden hearing loss; and one case suffered a sensorineural hearing loss with early childhood onset. The most common audio-vestibular symptom indicated in the literature in patients with CM-I is unsteadiness (49%), followed by dizziness (18%), nystagmus (15%) and hearing loss (15%). Nystagmus is frequently horizontal (74%) or down-beating (18%). Other audio-vestibular signs and symptoms are tinnitus (11%), aural fullness (10%) and hyperacusis (1%). Occipital headache that increases with Valsalva manoeuvres and hand paresthesias are very suggestive symptoms. The appearance of audio-vestibular manifestations in CM-I makes it common to refer these patients to neurotologists. Unsteadiness, vertiginous syndromes and sensorineural hearing loss are frequent. Nystagmus, especially horizontal and down-beating, is not rare. It is important for neurotologists to familiarise themselves with CM-I symptoms to be able to consider it in differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  9. Audio visual information materials for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Ohuchi, Naomi

    2005-07-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Tokai Works set up the Risk Communication Study Team in January, 2001 to promote mutual understanding between the local residents and JNC. The Team has studied risk communication from various viewpoints and developed new methods of public relations which are useful for the local residents' risk perception toward nuclear issues. We aim to develop more effective risk communication which promotes a better mutual understanding of the local residents, by providing the risk information of the nuclear fuel facilities such a Reprocessing Plant and other research and development facilities. We explain the development process of audio visual information materials which describe our actual activities and devices for the risk management in nuclear fuel facilities, and our discussion through the effectiveness measurement. (author)

  10. Improving audio chord transcription by exploiting harmonic and metric knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Rodrigues Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new system for chord transcription from polyphonic musical audio that uses domain-specific knowledge about tonal harmony and metrical position to improve chord transcription performance. Low-level pulse and spectral features are extracted from an audio source using the Vamp plugin

  11. On the Use of Memory Models in Audio Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Audio feature estimation is potentially improved by including higher- level models. One such model is the Short Term Memory (STM) model. A new paradigm of audio feature estimation is obtained by adding the influence of notes in the STM. These notes are identified when the perceptual spectral flux...

  12. Tune in the Net with RealAudio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to connect to the RealAudio Web site to download a player that provides sound from Web pages to the computer through streaming technology. Explains hardware and software requirements and provides addresses for other RealAudio Web sites are provided, including weather information and current news. (LRW)

  13. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  14. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better efficiency, higher level of integration and lower component count.

  15. Unsupervised topic modelling on South African parliament audio data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a speech recognition system to convert spoken audio to text can enable the structuring of large collections of spoken audio data. A convenient means to summarise or cluster spoken data is to identify the topic under discussion. There are many...

  16. The Effect of Audio and Animation in Multimedia Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a multimedia computer program for high school biology. Participants completed a multimedia program that presented content by way of text or audio with lean text. In addition, several instructional sequences were presented either with static illustrations or animations.…

  17. Multi Carrier Modulation Audio Power Amplifier with Programmable Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Theis; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Knott, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment. To lower the EMI of switch-mode (class D) audio power a...

  18. Let Their Voices Be Heard! Building a Multicultural Audio Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Judith Cook

    1992-01-01

    Discusses building a multicultural audio collection for a library. Gives some guidelines about selecting materials that really represent different cultures. Audio materials that are considered fall roughly into the categories of children's stories, didactic materials, oral histories, poetry and folktales, and music. The goal is an authentic…

  19. Efficiency in audio processing : filter banks and transcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jun Wei

    2007-01-01

    Audio transcoding is the conversion of digital audio from one compressed form A to another compressed form B, where A and B have different compression properties, such as a different bit-rate, sampling frequency or compression method. This is typically achieved by decoding A to an intermediate

  20. Decision-level fusion for audio-visual laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, M.; Truong, K.; Poppe, R.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is

  1. Decision-Level Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, Mannes; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Pantic, Maja; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laugh- ter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio- visual laughter detection is

  2. Classifying laughter and speech using audio-visual feature prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Asghar, Ali; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a system that discriminates laughter from speech by modelling the relationship between audio and visual features is presented. The underlying assumption is that this relationship is different between speech and laughter. Neural networks are trained which learn the audio-to-visual and

  3. Haptic and Audio-visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a

  4. Automated Speech and Audio Analysis for Semantic Access to Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.M.G. de; Ordelman, R.; Huijbregts, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  5. Automated speech and audio analysis for semantic access to multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Avrithis, Y.; Kompatsiaris, Y.; Staab, S.; O' Connor, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  6. Audio Teleconferencing: Low Cost Technology for External Studies Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the benefits of audio teleconferencing for distance education programs and for business and government applications focuses on the recent experience of Canadian educational users. Four successful operating models and their costs are reviewed, and it is concluded that audio teleconferencing is cost efficient and educationally…

  7. Content Discovery from Composite Audio : An unsupervised approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we developed and assessed a novel robust and unsupervised framework for semantic inference from composite audio signals. We focused on the problem of detecting audio scenes and grouping them into meaningful clusters. Our approach addressed all major steps in a general process of

  8. Removable Watermarking Sebagai Pengendalian Terhadap Cyber Crime Pada Audio Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhani Lian Putri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi yang pesat menuntut penggunanya untuk lebih berhati-hati seiring semakin meningkatnya cyber crime.Banyak pihak telah mengembangkan berbagai teknik perlindungan data digital, salah satunya adalah watermarking. Teknologi watermarking berfungsi untuk memberikan identitas, melindungi, atau menandai data digital, baik audio, citra, ataupun video, yang mereka miliki. Akan tetapi, teknik tersebut masih dapat diretas oleh oknum-oknum yang tidak bertanggung jawab.Pada penelitian ini, proses watermarking diterapkan pada audio digital dengan menyisipkan watermark yang terdengar jelas oleh indera pendengaran manusia (perceptible pada audio host.Hal ini bertujuan agar data audio dapat terlindungi dan apabila ada pihak lain yang ingin mendapatkan data audio tersebut harus memiliki “kunci” untuk menghilangkan watermark. Proses removable watermarking ini dilakukan pada data watermark yang sudah diketahui metode penyisipannya, agar watermark dapat dihilangkan sehingga kualitas audio menjadi lebih baik. Dengan menggunakan metode ini diperoleh kinerja audio watermarking pada nilai distorsi tertinggi dengan rata-rata nilai SNR sebesar7,834 dB dan rata-rata nilai ODG sebesar -3,77.Kualitas audio meningkat setelah watermark dihilangkan, di mana rata-rata SNR menjadi sebesar 24,986 dB dan rata-rata ODG menjadi sebesar -1,064 serta nilai MOS sebesar 4,40.

  9. Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William L.

    Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

  10. A Novel Audio Cryptosystem Using Chaotic Maps and DNA Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Sheela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic maps have good potential in security applications due to their inherent characteristics relevant to cryptography. This paper introduces a new audio cryptosystem based on chaotic maps, hybrid chaotic shift transform (HCST, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA encoding rules. The scheme uses chaotic maps such as two-dimensional modified Henon map (2D-MHM and standard map. The 2D-MHM which has sophisticated chaotic behavior for an extensive range of control parameters is used to perform HCST. DNA encoding technology is used as an auxiliary tool which enhances the security of the cryptosystem. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated for various speech signals using different encryption/decryption quality metrics. The simulation and comparison results show that the algorithm can achieve good encryption results and is able to resist several cryptographic attacks. The various types of analysis revealed that the algorithm is suitable for narrow band radio communication and real-time speech encryption applications.

  11. Real Time Recognition Of Speakers From Internet Audio Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weychan Radoslaw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an automatic speaker recognition technique with the use of the Internet radio lossy (encoded speech signal streams. We show an influence of the audio encoder (e.g., bitrate on the speaker model quality. The model of each speaker was calculated with the use of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM approach. Both the speaker recognition and the further analysis were realized with the use of short utterances to facilitate real time processing. The neighborhoods of the speaker models were analyzed with the use of the ISOMAP algorithm. The experiments were based on four 1-hour public debates with 7–8 speakers (including the moderator, acquired from the Polish radio Internet services. The presented software was developed with the MATLAB environment.

  12. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  13. High-Order Sparse Linear Predictors for Audio Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2010-01-01

    Linear prediction has generally failed to make a breakthrough in audio processing, as it has done in speech processing. This is mostly due to its poor modeling performance, since an audio signal is usually an ensemble of different sources. Nevertheless, linear prediction comes with a whole set...... of interesting features that make the idea of using it in audio processing not far fetched, e.g., the strong ability of modeling the spectral peaks that play a dominant role in perception. In this paper, we provide some preliminary conjectures and experiments on the use of high-order sparse linear predictors...... in audio processing. These predictors, successfully implemented in modeling the short-term and long-term redundancies present in speech signals, will be used to model tonal audio signals, both monophonic and polyphonic. We will show how the sparse predictors are able to model efficiently the different...

  14. Audio Mining with emphasis on Music Genre Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Audio is an important part of our daily life, basically it increases our impression of the world around us whether this is communication, music, danger detection etc. Currently the field of Audio Mining, which here includes areas of music genre, music recognition / retrieval, playlist generation...... the world the problem of detecting environments from the input audio is researched as to increase the life quality of hearing-impaired. Basically there is a lot of work within the field of audio mining. The presentation will mainly focus on music genre classification where we have a fixed amount of genres...... to choose from. Basically every audio mining system is more or less consisting of the same stages as for the music genre setting. My research so far has mainly focussed on finding relevant features for music genre classification living at different timescales using early and late information fusion. It has...

  15. Robust audio-visual speech recognition under noisy audio-video conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Darryl; Seymour, Rowan; Pass, Adrian; Ming, Ji

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the maximum weighted stream posterior (MWSP) model as a robust and efficient stream integration method for audio-visual speech recognition in environments, where the audio or video streams may be subjected to unknown and time-varying corruption. A significant advantage of MWSP is that it does not require any specific measurements of the signal in either stream to calculate appropriate stream weights during recognition, and as such it is modality-independent. This also means that MWSP complements and can be used alongside many of the other approaches that have been proposed in the literature for this problem. For evaluation we used the large XM2VTS database for speaker-independent audio-visual speech recognition. The extensive tests include both clean and corrupted utterances with corruption added in either/both the video and audio streams using a variety of types (e.g., MPEG-4 video compression) and levels of noise. The experiments show that this approach gives excellent performance in comparison to another well-known dynamic stream weighting approach and also compared to any fixed-weighted integration approach in both clean conditions or when noise is added to either stream. Furthermore, our experiments show that the MWSP approach dynamically selects suitable integration weights on a frame-by-frame basis according to the level of noise in the streams and also according to the naturally fluctuating relative reliability of the modalities even in clean conditions. The MWSP approach is shown to maintain robust recognition performance in all tested conditions, while requiring no prior knowledge about the type or level of noise.

  16. Adaptive Steganalysis Based on Selection Region and Combined Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital image steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of information hiding in carrier images. When detecting recently developed adaptive image steganography methods, state-of-art steganalysis methods cannot achieve satisfactory detection accuracy, because the adaptive steganography methods can adaptively embed information into regions with rich textures via the guidance of distortion function and thus make the effective steganalysis features hard to be extracted. Inspired by the promising success which convolutional neural network (CNN has achieved in the fields of digital image analysis, increasing researchers are devoted to designing CNN based steganalysis methods. But as for detecting adaptive steganography methods, the results achieved by CNN based methods are still far from expected. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach by designing a region selection method and a new CNN framework. In order to make the CNN focus on the regions with complex textures, we design a region selection method by finding a region with the maximal sum of the embedding probabilities. To evolve more diverse and effective steganalysis features, we design a new CNN framework consisting of three separate subnets with independent structure and configuration parameters and then merge and split the three subnets repeatedly. Experimental results indicate that our approach can lead to performance improvement in detecting adaptive steganography.

  17. PENGEMBANGAN MULTIMEDIA PEMBELAJARAN FISIKA BERBASIS AUDIO-VIDEO EKSPERIMEN LISTRIK DINAMIS DI SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rante

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengembangan ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk melihat profil pengembangan multimedia pembelajaran fisika berbasis audio-video eksperimen listrik dinamis yang dapat menjadi solusi ketidakterlaksanaan praktikum di sekolah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa propil multimedia berbasis audio-video eksperimen dari segi tampilan menarik, fasilitas runtut, sistematis dan praktis digunakan serta menjadi solusi ketidakterlaksanaan praktikum di sekolah. Produk akhir adalah sebuah paket CD autorun multimedia pembelajaran interaktif sebagai media pembelajaran mandiri dan sebagai media presentase yang dilengkapi perangkat pembelajaran untuk guru. This research aims to see the profile of multimedia learning development on physics based audio-video on the topic dynamic electricity experiment that may become a solution of practicum that not mastered well in the school. The result shows that the profile of develop multimedia based audio-video experiment has interesting display, harmonious facilities, systematic and practical in used as well as become a solution of the practicum that not mastered yet. The final product produced an auto run CD package of interactive learning multimedia as a self learning media and as a representation of media that equipped with teaching and learning media for teacher.

  18. Horatio Audio-Describes Shakespeare's "Hamlet": Blind and Low-Vision Theatre-Goers Evaluate an Unconventional Audio Description Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Acevedo, B.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Audio description (AD) has been introduced as one solution for providing people who are blind or have low vision with access to live theatre, film and television content. However, there is little research to inform the process, user preferences and presentation style. We present a study of a single live audio-described performance of Hart House…

  19. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Perceived Audio Quality of Current Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Web-Casting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of different audio codecs typically deployed in current digital audio broadcasting (DAB) systems and web-casting applications, which represent a main source of quality impairment in these systems and applications, on the quality perceived by the end user. Both

  20. Stego Keys Performance on Feature Based Coding Method in Text Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Roshidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A main critical factor on embedding process in any text steganography method is a key used known as stego key. This factor will be influenced the success of the embedding process of text steganography method to hide a message from third party or any adversary. One of the important aspects on embedding process in text steganography method is the fitness performance of the stego key. Three parameters of the fitness performance of the stego key have been identified such as capacity ratio, embedded fitness ratio and saving space ratio. It is because a better as capacity ratio, embedded fitness ratio and saving space ratio offers of any stego key; a more message can be hidden. Therefore, main objective of this paper is to analyze three features coding based namely CALP, VERT and QUAD of stego keys in text steganography on their capacity ratio, embedded fitness ratio and saving space ratio. It is found that CALP method give a good effort performance compared to VERT and QUAD methods.

  1. A scheme for racquet sports video analysis with the combination of audio-visual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liyuan; Ye, Qixiang; Zhang, Weigang; Huang, Qingming; Yu, Hua

    2005-07-01

    As a very important category in sports video, racquet sports video, e.g. table tennis, tennis and badminton, has been paid little attention in the past years. Considering the characteristics of this kind of sports video, we propose a new scheme for structure indexing and highlight generating based on the combination of audio and visual information. Firstly, a supervised classification method is employed to detect important audio symbols including impact (ball hit), audience cheers, commentator speech, etc. Meanwhile an unsupervised algorithm is proposed to group video shots into various clusters. Then, by taking advantage of temporal relationship between audio and visual signals, we can specify the scene clusters with semantic labels including rally scenes and break scenes. Thirdly, a refinement procedure is developed to reduce false rally scenes by further audio analysis. Finally, an exciting model is proposed to rank the detected rally scenes from which many exciting video clips such as game (match) points can be correctly retrieved. Experiments on two types of representative racquet sports video, table tennis video and tennis video, demonstrate encouraging results.

  2. Automatic Detection and Classification of Audio Events for Road Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Almaadeed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the problem of detecting hazardous events on roads by designing an audio surveillance system that automatically detects perilous situations such as car crashes and tire skidding. In recent years, research has shown several visual surveillance systems that have been proposed for road monitoring to detect accidents with an aim to improve safety procedures in emergency cases. However, the visual information alone cannot detect certain events such as car crashes and tire skidding, especially under adverse and visually cluttered weather conditions such as snowfall, rain, and fog. Consequently, the incorporation of microphones and audio event detectors based on audio processing can significantly enhance the detection accuracy of such surveillance systems. This paper proposes to combine time-domain, frequency-domain, and joint time-frequency features extracted from a class of quadratic time-frequency distributions (QTFDs to detect events on roads through audio analysis and processing. Experiments were carried out using a publicly available dataset. The experimental results conform the effectiveness of the proposed approach for detecting hazardous events on roads as demonstrated by 7% improvement of accuracy rate when compared against methods that use individual temporal and spectral features.

  3. ANALYSIS OF MULTIMODAL FUSION TECHNIQUES FOR AUDIO-VISUAL SPEECH RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ivanko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analytical review, covering the latest achievements in the field of audio-visual (AV fusion (integration of multimodal information. We discuss the main challenges and report on approaches to address them. One of the most important tasks of the AV integration is to understand how the modalities interact and influence each other. The paper addresses this problem in the context of AV speech processing and speech recognition. In the first part of the review we set out the basic principles of AV speech recognition and give the classification of audio and visual features of speech. Special attention is paid to the systematization of the existing techniques and the AV data fusion methods. In the second part we provide a consolidated list of tasks and applications that use the AV fusion based on carried out analysis of research area. We also indicate used methods, techniques, audio and video features. We propose classification of the AV integration, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. We draw conclusions and offer our assessment of the future in the field of AV fusion. In the further research we plan to implement a system of audio-visual Russian continuous speech recognition using advanced methods of multimodal fusion.

  4. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umapathy Karthikeyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  5. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Umapathy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  6. Current-Driven Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Buhl, Niels Christian; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of electrical energy into sound waves by electromechanical transducers is proportional to the current through the coil of the transducer. However virtually all audio power amplifiers provide a controlled voltage through the interface to the transducer. This paper is presenting...... a switch-mode audio power amplifier not only providing controlled current but also being supplied by current. This results in an output filter size reduction by a factor of 6. The implemented prototype shows decent audio performance with THD + N below 0.1 %....

  7. DOA Estimation of Audio Sources in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Heusdens, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Reverberation is well-known to have a detrimental impact on many localization methods for audio sources. We address this problem by imposing a model for the early reflections as well as a model for the audio source itself. Using these models, we propose two iterative localization methods...... that estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of both the direct path of the audio source and the early reflections. In these methods, the contribution of the early reflections is essentially subtracted from the signal observations before localization of the direct path component, which may reduce the estimation...

  8. Can audio recording improve patients' recall of outpatient consultations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette

    Introduction In order to give patients possibility to listen to their consultation again, we have designed a system which gives the patients access to digital audio recordings of their consultations. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables the audio recording and gives the patients access...... and those who have not (control).The audio recordings and the interviews are coded according to six themes: Test results, Treatment, Risks, Future tests, Advice and Plan. Afterwards the extent of patients recall is assessed by comparing the accuracy of the patient’s statements (interview...

  9. A review of lossless audio compression standards and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muin, Fathiah Abdul; Gunawan, Teddy Surya; Kartiwi, Mira; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Over the years, lossless audio compression has gained popularity as researchers and businesses has become more aware of the need for better quality and higher storage demand. This paper will analyse various lossless audio coding algorithm and standards that are used and available in the market focusing on Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) specifically due to its popularity and robustness in audio compression, nevertheless other prediction methods are compared to verify this. Advanced representation of LPC such as LSP decomposition techniques are also discussed within this paper.

  10. Robustness evaluation of transactional audio watermarking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Christian; Steinebach, Martin; Siebenhaar, Frank; Pickel, Joerg

    2003-06-01

    Distribution via Internet is of increasing importance. Easy access, transmission and consumption of digitally represented music is very attractive to the consumer but led also directly to an increasing problem of illegal copying. To cope with this problem watermarking is a promising concept since it provides a useful mechanism to track illicit copies by persistently attaching property rights information to the material. Especially for online music distribution the use of so-called transaction watermarking, also denoted with the term bitstream watermarking, is beneficial since it offers the opportunity to embed watermarks directly into perceptually encoded material without the need of full decompression/compression. Besides the concept of bitstream watermarking, former publications presented the complexity, the audio quality and the detection performance. These results are now extended by an assessment of the robustness of such schemes. The detection performance before and after applying selected attacks is presented for MPEG-1/2 Layer 3 (MP3) and MPEG-2/4 AAC bitstream watermarking, contrasted to the performance of PCM spread spectrum watermarking.

  11. Analysis of musical expression in audio signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Simon

    2003-01-01

    In western art music, composers communicate their work to performers via a standard notation which specificies the musical pitches and relative timings of notes. This notation may also include some higher level information such as variations in the dynamics, tempo and timing. Famous performers are characterised by their expressive interpretation, the ability to convey structural and emotive information within the given framework. The majority of work on audio content analysis focusses on retrieving score-level information; this paper reports on the extraction of parameters describing the performance, a task which requires a much higher degree of accuracy. Two systems are presented: BeatRoot, an off-line beat tracking system which finds the times of musical beats and tracks changes in tempo throughout a performance, and the Performance Worm, a system which provides a real-time visualisation of the two most important expressive dimensions, tempo and dynamics. Both of these systems are being used to process data for a large-scale study of musical expression in classical and romantic piano performance, which uses artificial intelligence (machine learning) techniques to discover fundamental patterns or principles governing expressive performance.

  12. Readings on American Society. The Audio-Lingual Literary Series II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Shigeo; Ney, James W.

    This text contains 11 lessons based on an adaptation of the 1964 essay "Automation: Road to Lifetime Jobs" by A.H. Raskin and 14 lessons based on an adaptation of John Fischer's 1948 essay "Unwritten Rules of American Politics." The format of the book and the lessons is the same as that of the other volumes of "The Audio-Lingual Literary Series."…

  13. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobile Message Services Using Text, Audio or Video for Improving the Learning Infrastructure in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Olof Hedin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how media files sent to mobile phones can be used to improve education at universities, and describes a prototype implement of such a system using standard components. To accomplish this, university students were equipped with mobile phones and software that allowed teachers to send text-based, audio-based and video-based messages to the students. Data was collected using questionnaires, focus groups and log files. The conclusions were that students preferred to have information and learning content sent as text, rather than audio or video. Text messages sent to phones should be no longer than 2000 characters. The most appreciated services were notifications of changes in course schedules, short lecture introductions and reminders. The prototype showed that this functionality is easy to implement using standard components.

  15. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations.......Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...

  16. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations.......Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...

  17. Proper Use of Audio-Visual Aids: Essential for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejardin, Conrad

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes educators as the worst users of audio-visual aids and among the worst public speakers. Offers guidelines for the proper use of an overhead projector and the development of transparencies. (DMM)

  18. Ferrite bead effect on Class-D amplifier audio quality

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad , Kevin El; Mrad , Roberto; Morel , Florent; Pillonnet , Gael; Vollaire , Christian; Nagari , Angelo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the effect of ferrite beads on the audio quality of Class-D audio amplifiers. This latter is a switch-ing circuit which creates high frequency harmonics. Generally, a filter is used at the amplifier output for the sake of electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC). So often, in integrated solutions, this filter contains ferrite beads which are magnetic components and present nonlinear behavior. Time domain measurements and their equivalence in frequency do...

  19. Precision Scaling of Neural Networks for Efficient Audio Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Jong Hwan; Fromm, Josh; Philipose, Matthai; Tashev, Ivan; Zarar, Shuayb

    2017-01-01

    While deep neural networks have shown powerful performance in many audio applications, their large computation and memory demand has been a challenge for real-time processing. In this paper, we study the impact of scaling the precision of neural networks on the performance of two common audio processing tasks, namely, voice-activity detection and single-channel speech enhancement. We determine the optimal pair of weight/neuron bit precision by exploring its impact on both the performance and ...

  20. Design guidelines for audio presentation of graphs and tables

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, L.M.; Brewster, S.A.; Ramloll, S.A.; Burton, R.; Riedel, B.

    2003-01-01

    Audio can be used to make visualisations accessible to blind and visually impaired people. The MultiVis Project has carried out research into suitable methods for presenting graphs and tables to blind people through the use of both speech and non-speech audio. This paper presents guidelines extracted from this research. These guidelines will enable designers to implement visualisation systems for blind and visually impaired users, and will provide a framework for researchers wishing to invest...

  1. El Digital Audio Tape Recorder. Contra autores y creadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La llamada "DAT" (abreviatura por "digital audio tape recorder" / grabadora digital de audio ha recibido cobertura durante mucho tiempo en los medios masivos de Japón y otros países, como un producto acústico electrónico nuevo y controversial de la industria japonesa de artefactos electrónicos. ¿Qué ha pasado con el objeto de esta controversia?

  2. IELTS speaking instruction through audio/voice conferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ghaemi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The currentstudyaimsatinvestigatingtheimpactofAudio/Voiceconferencing,asanewapproachtoteaching speaking, on the speakingperformanceand/orspeakingband score ofIELTScandidates.Experimentalgroupsubjectsparticipated in an audio conferencing classwhile those of the control group enjoyed attending in a traditional IELTS Speakingclass. At the endofthestudy,allsubjectsparticipatedinanIELTSExaminationheldonNovemberfourthin Tehran,Iran.To compare thegroupmeansforthestudy,anindependentt-testanalysiswasemployed.Thedifferencebetween experimental and control groupwasconsideredtobestatisticallysignificant(P<0.01.Thatisthecandidates in experimental group have outperformed the ones in control group in IELTS Speaking test scores.

  3. Digital signal processing methods and algorithms for audio conferencing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Fredric

    2007-01-01

    Today, we are interconnected almost all over the planet. Large multinational companies operate worldwide, but also an increasing number of small and medium sized companies do business overseas. As people travel to meet and do businesses, the already exposed earth is subject to even more strain. Audio conferencing is an attractive alternative to travel, which is becoming more and more appreciated. Audio conferences can of course not replace all types of meetings, but can help companies to cut ...

  4. Video equipment of tele dosimetry and audio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda R, M.A.; Padilla C, I.

    2007-01-01

    To develop a work in an area with high radiation, it requires of a detailed knowledge of the surroundings work, a communication and effective vision, a near dosimetric control. In a work where the spaces variables and reduced accesses exist, noise that hinders the communication, defendant operative condition, radiation field and taking of decision, it is necessary to have tools that allow a total control of the environment to make opportune and effective decisions, there where the task is developed. Under this elementary concept, it was developed in the Laguna Verde Central a project that it allowed a mechanism, interactive of control in spaces complex; to see, to hear, to speak, to measure. This concept takes to the creation of an equipped system with closed circuit of television, wireless communication systems, tele dosimetry wireless systems, VHS and DVD recording equipment, uninterrupted energy units. The system requires of an electric power socket, and the installation of two cables by CCTV camera. The system is mobilized by a person. He puts on in operation in 5 minutes using a verification list. The concept was developed in the project denominated VETA-1, (Video Equipment of Tele dosimetry and Audio). It is objective of this work to present before the society the development of the VETA-1 tool that conclude in their first prototype in May of the present year. The VETA-1 project arises by a necessity of optimizing dose, it is an ALARA tool, with a countless applications, like it was proven in the 12 recharge stop of the Unit 1. The VETA-1 project integrate a recording system, with the primary end of analyzing in the place where the task is developed the details for an effective and opportune decision, but the resulting information is of utility for the personnel's training and the planning of future works. The VETA-1 system is an ALARA tool of quick response control. (Author)

  5. Automated processing of massive audio/video content using FFmpeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Siang Hock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio and video content forms an integral, important and expanding part of the digital collections in libraries and archives world-wide. While these memory institutions are familiar and well-versed in the management of more conventional materials such as books, periodicals, ephemera and images, the handling of audio (e.g., oral history recordings and video content (e.g., audio-visual recordings, broadcast content requires additional toolkits. In particular, a robust and comprehensive tool that provides a programmable interface is indispensable when dealing with tens of thousands of hours of audio and video content. FFmpeg is comprehensive and well-established open source software that is capable of the full-range of audio/video processing tasks (such as encode, decode, transcode, mux, demux, stream and filter. It is also capable of handling a wide-range of audio and video formats, a unique challenge in memory institutions. It comes with a command line interface, as well as a set of developer libraries that can be incorporated into applications.

  6. The effect of points and audio on concentration, engagement, enjoyment, learning, motivation, and classroom dynamics using Kahoot!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Alf Inge; Lieberoth, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There are many examples on the use of game-based learning in and outside the classroom, along with evaluation of their effect in terms of engagement, learning, classroom dynamics, concentration, motivation and enjoyment. Most of the research in this area focuses on evaluations of the use of game...... that produce a positive effect on engagement, motivation, enjoyment, concentration, classroom dynamics and learning. In this paper, we present an experiment where we investigated how the use of points and audio affect the learning environment. Specifically, the paper presents results from an experiment where...... points and audio. The results from the experiment reveal that there are some significant differences whether audio and points are used in game-based learning in the areas of concentration, engagement, enjoyment, and motivation. The most surprising finding was how the classroom dynamics was positively...

  7. Combining Video, Audio and Lexical Indicators of Affect in Spontaneous Conversation via Particle Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Arman; Cao, Houwei; Shah, Miraj; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2012-01-01

    We present experiments on fusing facial video, audio and lexical indicators for affect estimation during dyadic conversations. We use temporal statistics of texture descriptors extracted from facial video, a combination of various acoustic features, and lexical features to create regression based affect estimators for each modality. The single modality regressors are then combined using particle filtering, by treating these independent regression outputs as measurements of the affect states in a Bayesian filtering framework, where previous observations provide prediction about the current state by means of learned affect dynamics. Tested on the Audio-visual Emotion Recognition Challenge dataset, our single modality estimators achieve substantially higher scores than the official baseline method for every dimension of affect. Our filtering-based multi-modality fusion achieves correlation performance of 0.344 (baseline: 0.136) and 0.280 (baseline: 0.096) for the fully continuous and word level sub challenges, respectively.

  8. Hierarchical vs non-hierarchical audio indexation and classification for video genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Nouha; BenAyed, Yassine

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used for segmenting and indexing video genres based on only audio features extracted at block level, which has a prominent asset by capturing local temporal information. The main contribution of our study is to show the wide effect on the classification accuracies while using an hierarchical categorization structure based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) audio descriptor. In fact, the classification consists in three common video genres: sports videos, music clips and news scenes. The sub-classification may divide each genre into several multi-speaker and multi-dialect sub-genres. The validation of this approach was carried out on over 360 minutes of video span yielding a classification accuracy of over 99%.

  9. Neuromorphic Audio-Visual Sensor Fusion on a Sound-Localising Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Yue-Sek Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first robotic system featuring audio-visual sensor fusion with neuromorphic sensors. We combine a pair of silicon cochleae and a silicon retina on a robotic platform to allow the robot to learn sound localisation through self-motion and visual feedback, using an adaptive ITD-based sound localisation algorithm. After training, the robot can localise sound sources (white or pink noise in a reverberant environment with an RMS error of 4 to 5 degrees in azimuth. In the second part of the paper, we investigate the source binding problem. An experiment is conducted to test the effectiveness of matching an audio event with a corresponding visual event based on their onset time. The results show that this technique can be quite effective, despite its simplicity.

  10. MEL-IRIS: An Online Tool for Audio Analysis and Music Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Margounakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chroma is an important attribute of music and sound, although it has not yet been adequately defined in literature. As such, it can be used for further analysis of sound, resulting in interesting colorful representations that can be used in many tasks: indexing, classification, and retrieval. Especially in Music Information Retrieval (MIR, the visualization of the chromatic analysis can be used for comparison, pattern recognition, melodic sequence prediction, and color-based searching. MEL-IRIS is the tool which has been developed in order to analyze audio files and characterize music based on chroma. The tool implements specially designed algorithms and a unique way of visualization of the results. The tool is network-oriented and can be installed in audio servers, in order to manipulate large music collections. Several samples from world music have been tested and processed, in order to demonstrate the possible uses of such an analysis.

  11. A first demonstration of audio-frequency optical coherence elastography of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Sampson, David D.

    2008-12-01

    Optical elastography is aimed at using the visco-elastic properties of soft tissue as a contrast mechanism, and could be particularly suitable for high-resolution differentiation of tumour from surrounding normal tissue. We present a new approach to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the kilohertz frequency range that is based on optical coherence tomography. We describe the approach and present the first in vivo optical coherence elastography measurements in human skin at audio excitation frequencies.

  12. Theoretical perspectives and new practices in audio-graphic conferencing for language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hampel, Regine

    2003-01-01

    This article will start with the situation at the Open University, where languages are taught at a distance. Online tuition using an audio-graphic Internet-based conferencing system called Lyceum is one of the ways used to develop students' communicative skills.\\ud Following Garrett's call for an integration of research and practice at EUROCALL 1997 (Garrett, 1998) – a call which is still valid today – the present article proposes a conceptual framework which can support the use of conferenci...

  13. Using online handwriting and audio streams for mathematical expressions recognition: a bimodal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkoune, Sofiane; Mouchère, Harold; Petitrenaud, Simon; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The work reported in this paper concerns the problem of mathematical expressions recognition. This task is known to be a very hard one. We propose to alleviate the difficulties by taking into account two complementary modalities. The modalities referred to are handwriting and audio ones. To combine the signals coming from both modalities, various fusion methods are explored. Performances evaluated on the HAMEX dataset show a significant improvement compared to a single modality (handwriting) based system.

  14. Digital video steganalysis using motion vector recovery-based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu; Wu, Yunjie; Zhou, Linna

    2012-07-10

    As a novel digital video steganography, the motion vector (MV)-based steganographic algorithm leverages the MVs as the information carriers to hide the secret messages. The existing steganalyzers based on the statistical characteristics of the spatial/frequency coefficients of the video frames cannot attack the MV-based steganography. In order to detect the presence of information hidden in the MVs of video streams, we design a novel MV recovery algorithm and propose the calibration distance histogram-based statistical features for steganalysis. The support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the proposed features and used as the steganalyzer. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed steganalyzer can effectively detect the presence of hidden messages and outperform others by the significant improvements in detection accuracy even with low embedding rates.

  15. AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION OF BROADCAST AUDIO SIGNALS USING AUTO ASSOCIATIVE NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dhanalakshmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe automatic segmentation methods for audio broadcast data. Today, digital audio applications are part of our everyday lives. Since there are more and more digital audio databases in place these days, the importance of effective management for audio databases have become prominent. Broadcast audio data is recorded from the Television which comprises of various categories of audio signals. Efficient algorithms for segmenting the audio broadcast data into predefined categories are proposed. Audio features namely Linear prediction coefficients (LPC, Linear prediction cepstral coefficients, and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC are extracted to characterize the audio data. Auto Associative Neural Networks are used to segment the audio data into predefined categories using the extracted features. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithms can produce satisfactory results.

  16. An Analysis of Audio Features to Develop a Human Activity Recognition Model Using Genetic Algorithms, Random Forests, and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Galván-Tejada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a human activity recognition (HAR model based on audio features. The use of sound as an information source for HAR models represents a challenge because sound wave analyses generate very large amounts of data. However, feature selection techniques may reduce the amount of data required to represent an audio signal sample. Some of the audio features that were analyzed include Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC. Although MFCC are commonly used in voice and instrument recognition, their utility within HAR models is yet to be confirmed, and this work validates their usefulness. Additionally, statistical features were extracted from the audio samples to generate the proposed HAR model. The size of the information is necessary to conform a HAR model impact directly on the accuracy of the model. This problem also was tackled in the present work; our results indicate that we are capable of recognizing a human activity with an accuracy of 85% using the HAR model proposed. This means that minimum computational costs are needed, thus allowing portable devices to identify human activities using audio as an information source.

  17. Audio Query by Example Using Similarity Measures between Probability Density Functions of Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Helén

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a query by example system for generic audio. We estimate the similarity of the example signal and the samples in the queried database by calculating the distance between the probability density functions (pdfs of their frame-wise acoustic features. Since the features are continuous valued, we propose to model them using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs or hidden Markov models (HMMs. The models parametrize each sample efficiently and retain sufficient information for similarity measurement. To measure the distance between the models, we apply a novel Euclidean distance, approximations of Kullback-Leibler divergence, and a cross-likelihood ratio test. The performance of the measures was tested in simulations where audio samples are automatically retrieved from a general audio database, based on the estimated similarity to a user-provided example. The simulations show that the distance between probability density functions is an accurate measure for similarity. Measures based on GMMs or HMMs are shown to produce better results than that of the existing methods based on simpler statistics or histograms of the features. A good performance with low computational cost is obtained with the proposed Euclidean distance.

  18. A Content-Adaptive Analysis and Representation Framework for Audio Event Discovery from "Unscripted" Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Divakaran, Ajay; Xiong, Ziyou; Otsuka, Isao

    2006-12-01

    We propose a content-adaptive analysis and representation framework to discover events using audio features from "unscripted" multimedia such as sports and surveillance for summarization. The proposed analysis framework performs an inlier/outlier-based temporal segmentation of the content. It is motivated by the observation that "interesting" events in unscripted multimedia occur sparsely in a background of usual or "uninteresting" events. We treat the sequence of low/mid-level features extracted from the audio as a time series and identify subsequences that are outliers. The outlier detection is based on eigenvector analysis of the affinity matrix constructed from statistical models estimated from the subsequences of the time series. We define the confidence measure on each of the detected outliers as the probability that it is an outlier. Then, we establish a relationship between the parameters of the proposed framework and the confidence measure. Furthermore, we use the confidence measure to rank the detected outliers in terms of their departures from the background process. Our experimental results with sequences of low- and mid-level audio features extracted from sports video show that "highlight" events can be extracted effectively as outliers from a background process using the proposed framework. We proceed to show the effectiveness of the proposed framework in bringing out suspicious events from surveillance videos without any a priori knowledge. We show that such temporal segmentation into background and outliers, along with the ranking based on the departure from the background, can be used to generate content summaries of any desired length. Finally, we also show that the proposed framework can be used to systematically select "key audio classes" that are indicative of events of interest in the chosen domain.

  19. Semantic Indexing of Multimedia Content Using Visual, Audio, and Text Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Adams

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a learning-based approach to the semantic indexing of multimedia content using cues derived from audio, visual, and text features. We approach the problem by developing a set of statistical models for a predefined lexicon. Novel concepts are then mapped in terms of the concepts in the lexicon. To achieve robust detection of concepts, we exploit features from multiple modalities, namely, audio, video, and text. Concept representations are modeled using Gaussian mixture models (GMM, hidden Markov models (HMM, and support vector machines (SVM. Models such as Bayesian networks and SVMs are used in a late-fusion approach to model concepts that are not explicitly modeled in terms of features. Our experiments indicate promise in the proposed classification and fusion methodologies: our proposed fusion scheme achieves more than 10% relative improvement over the best unimodal concept detector.

  20. Efficiently Synchronized Spread-Spectrum Audio Watermarking with Improved Psychoacoustic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audio watermarking scheme which is based on an efficiently synchronized spread-spectrum technique and a new psychoacoustic model computed using the discrete wavelet packet transform. The psychoacoustic model takes advantage of the multiresolution analysis of a wavelet transform, which closely approximates the standard critical band partition. The goal of this model is to include an accurate time-frequency analysis and to calculate both the frequency and temporal masking thresholds directly in the wavelet domain. Experimental results show that this watermarking scheme can successfully embed watermarks into digital audio without introducing audible distortion. Several common watermark attacks were applied and the results indicate that the method is very robust to those attacks.

  1. Integration of top-down and bottom-up information for audio organization and retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    The increasing availability of digital audio and music calls for methods and systems to analyse and organize these digital objects. This thesis investigates three elements related to such systems focusing on the ability to represent and elicit the user's view on the multimedia object and the system...... output. The aim is to provide organization and processing, which aligns with the understanding and needs of the users. Audio and music is often characterized by the large amount of heterogenous information. The rst aspect investigated is the integration of such multi-variate and multi-modal information...... (indirect scaling). Inference is performed by analytical and simulation based methods, including the Laplace approximation and expectation propagation. In order to minimize the cost of the often expensive and lengthly experimentation, sequential experiment design or active learning is supported. The setup...

  2. Interactive video audio system: communication server for INDECT portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, Martin; Voznak, Miroslav; Safarik, Jakub; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Mehic, Miralem

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with presentation of the IVAS system within the 7FP EU INDECT project. The INDECT project aims at developing the tools for enhancing the security of citizens and protecting the confidentiality of recorded and stored information. It is a part of the Seventh Framework Programme of European Union. We participate in INDECT portal and the Interactive Video Audio System (IVAS). This IVAS system provides a communication gateway between police officers working in dispatching centre and police officers in terrain. The officers in dispatching centre have capabilities to obtain information about all online police officers in terrain, they can command officers in terrain via text messages, voice or video calls and they are able to manage multimedia files from CCTV cameras or other sources, which can be interesting for officers in terrain. The police officers in terrain are equipped by smartphones or tablets. Besides common communication, they can reach pictures or videos sent by commander in office and they can respond to the command via text or multimedia messages taken by their devices. Our IVAS system is unique because we are developing it according to the special requirements from the Police of the Czech Republic. The IVAS communication system is designed to use modern Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services. The whole solution is based on open source software including linux and android operating systems. The technical details of our solution are presented in the paper.

  3. Economic and legal aspects of introducing novel ICT instruments: integrating sound into social media marketing - from audio branding to soundscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daj, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pervasive expansion and implementation of ICT based marketing instruments imposes a new economic investigation of business models and regulatory solutions. Moreover, the current status of Social Media research indicates that the use of social networking and collaboration technologies is deeply changing the way people communicate, consume and cooperate with each other. Against the backdrop of widespread availability of digital audio-video content and the growing number of “smart” mobile devices, business professionals have developed new strategies for achieving customer involvement and retention through digitally linking audio stimuli to the powerful networking environment of Social Media.

  4. The Fungible Audio-Visual Mapping and its Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws a perceptual approach to audio-visual mapping. Clearly perceivable cause and effect relationships can be problematic if one desires the audience to experience the music. Indeed perception would bias those sonic qualities that fit previous concepts of causation, subordinating other sonic qualities, which may form the relations between the sounds themselves. The question is, how can an audio-visual mapping produce a sense of causation, and simultaneously confound the actual cause-effect relationships. We call this a fungible audio-visual mapping. Our aim here is to glean its constitution and aspect. We will report a study, which draws upon methods from experimental psychology to inform audio-visual instrument design and composition. The participants are shown several audio-visual mapping prototypes, after which we pose quantitative and qualitative questions regarding their sense of causation, and their sense of understanding the cause-effect relationships. The study shows that a fungible mapping requires both synchronized and seemingly non-related components – sufficient complexity to be confusing. As the specific cause-effect concepts remain inconclusive, the sense of causation embraces the whole. 

  5. Imagination and Modern Audio Visual Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Đurković

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Through three episodes Archetype of modern fairy tales, the mysterious world of fantasy and reality,tell as a serious story about archetypes, symbols, knowledge of good and evil. Rts editor: Natasa Neskovic Written and directed by: Suncica Jergovic Editing: Ana Djurkovic How to illuminate concept of phantasy and affective factors in our imagination a priori something so imaginary, by their genetic provenance, such as a movie scene, or digital picture and sound. You can not always avoid the association to a valid phrase of arnhajm’s truth: mass age -massage: the medium is the message. In elementary and tersely definition of „the shot“ from Plaževsky film language there is term for „le cadre“, however these are selected bits of reality, immanent frame that contains the individual act of images divided of the continent’s view of reality, handling the specific code of semantic value, when its’s imaginative, of course, by aesthetic categories and evaluations. In this type of positive simulacrum, it can not be better segment for the current thinking about the limits of imagination and truth in contemporary media, and contemporary global environment, than the original audio-visual forms through whose prism we search throught a fairy tale in a same time myth and imagination as well as exploring its overall impact on the personality. Everything can be a fairy tale, even false, amoral platitudes politicized by political lobbies in a contemporary existing power sistems, but this is no fairy tale authenticity in it, or creative act, nor humanity and artificial and historical entity of a man that is always present in the ethical effort of a true artist. So, we are investigating the conditions of creative images, modalities of audiovisual media in film language,and it is the archetype of the fairy tale, which, with its psychodynamics still exists and which is removed when the modern man is tired of lies and simulations during his global

  6. One Message, Many Voices: Mobile Audio Counselling in Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Mbvundula, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Health workers' use of counselling information on their mobile phones for health education is a central but little understood phenomenon in numerous mobile health (mHealth) projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing on empirical data from an interpretive case study in the setting of the Millennium Villages Project in rural Malawi, this research investigates the ways in which community health workers (CHWs) perceive that audio-counselling messages support their health education practice. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: phone-aided audio counselling (1) legitimises the CHWs' use of mobile phones during household visits; (2) helps CHWs to deliver a comprehensive counselling message; (3) supports CHWs in persuading communities to change their health practices. The findings show the complexity and interplay of the multi-faceted, sociocultural, political, and socioemotional meanings associated with audio-counselling use. Practical implications and the demand for further research are discussed.

  7. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant yback converter for use in direct audio power amplication. When compared to the standard Class-D switching-mode audio power amplier with separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple and compact solution with high efciency, higher level of integration, lower component count, less board space and eventually lower cost. Both peak and average current-mode control for use with 4Q flyback power converters are described and compared. Integrated magnetics is presented which simplies the construction of the auxiliary power supplies for control biasing and isolated gate drives. The feasibility of the approach is proven on audio power amplier prototype for subwoofer applications. (au)

  8. Sistema de adquisición y procesamiento de audio

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Segurado, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es el diseño y la implementación de una plataforma para un sistema de procesamiento de audio. El sistema recibirá una señal de audio analógica desde una fuente de audio, permitirá realizar un tratamiento digital de dicha señal y generará una señal procesada que se enviará a unos altavoces externos. Para la realización del sistema de procesamiento se empleará: - Un dispositivo FPGA de Lattice, modelo MachX02-7000-HE, en la cual estarán todas la...

  9. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mourjopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed “jither” and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., ×4 resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  10. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourjopoulos John

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed "jither" and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  11. Audio watermarking robust against D/A and A/D conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital audio watermarking robust against digital-to-analog (D/A and analog-to-digital (A/D conversions is an important issue. In a number of watermark application scenarios, D/A and A/D conversions are involved. In this article, we first investigate the degradation due to DA/AD conversions via sound cards, which can be decomposed into volume change, additional noise, and time-scale modification (TSM. Then, we propose a solution for DA/AD conversions by considering the effect of the volume change, additional noise and TSM. For the volume change, we introduce relation-based watermarking method by modifying groups of the energy relation of three adjacent DWT coefficient sections. For the additional noise, we pick up the lowest-frequency coefficients for watermarking. For the TSM, the synchronization technique (with synchronization codes and an interpolation processing operation is exploited. Simulation tests show the proposed audio watermarking algorithm provides a satisfactory performance to DA/AD conversions and those common audio processing manipulations.

  12. PERANCANGAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS AUDIO VISUAL UNTUK MATA KULIAH TIPOGRAFI PADA PROGRAM STUDI DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL UNIVERSITAS DIAN NUSWANTORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Sulistiyawati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tipografi merupakan salah satu mata kuliah pada bidang desain komunikasi visual yang mengutamakan aspek visual. Namun berdasarkan hasil observasi diketahui bahwa media pembelajaran yang selama ini digunakan kurang efektif karena kurangnya pemanfaatan teknologi informasi, sehingga mahasiswa kurang maksimal dalam memahami materi kuliah yang disampaikan oleh pengajar. Perkembangan teknologi informasi saat ini banyak memberikan dampak positif bagi kemajuan bidang pendidikan diantaranya dapat digunakan untuk mendukung media dalam proses pembelajaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang media pembelajaran untuk mata kuliah tipografi dengan memanfaatkan teknologi informasi yaitu media audio visual. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Research and Development dengan pendekatan model ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation. Dengan diciptakannya media pembelajaran audio visual ini diharapkan proses pembelajaran mata kuliah Tipografi dapat lebih efektif dan materi kuliah lebih mudah dipahami oleh mahasiswa. Kata Kunci : audio visual, media pembelajaran, tipografi Abstract Typography is one of the subjects in the field of visual communication design that prioritizes the visual aspect. However, based on the observation note that the media has been used less effective because the lack of use information technology, so students can't understand the course material that explained by lecturers. Today, the development of information technology is being positive impact for the advancement of education which can be used to support the media in the learning process. The purpose of this research is to design learning media for the course of typography by utilizing information technology, called audio-visual media.  The method that used in this research is Research and Development with ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation. With the creation of audio-visual learning media is expected

  13. Class-D audio amplifiers with negative feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Stephen M.; Candy, B. H.

    2006-01-01

    There are many different designs for audio amplifiers. Class-D, or switching, amplifiers generate their output signal in the form of a high-frequency square wave of variable duty cycle (ratio of on time to off time). The square-wave nature of the output allows a particularly efficient output stage, with minimal losses. The output is ultimately filtered to remove components of the spectrum above the audio range. Mathematical models are derived here for a variety of related class-D amplifier de...

  14. A second-order class-D audio amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Stephen M.; Tan, M.T.; Yu, J.

    2011-01-01

    Class-D audio amplifiers are particularly efficient, and this efficiency has led to their ubiquity in a wide range of modern electronic appliances. Their output takes the form of a high-frequency square wave whose duty cycle (ratio of on-time to off-time) is modulated at low frequency according to the audio signal. A mathematical model is developed here for a second-order class-D amplifier design (i.e., containing one second-order integrator) with negative feedback. We derive exact expression...

  15. Cambridge English First 2 audio CDs : authentic examination papers

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Four authentic Cambridge English Language Assessment examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam. These examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam provide the most authentic exam preparation available, allowing candidates to familiarise themselves with the content and format of the exam and to practise useful exam techniques. The Audio CDs contain the recorded material to allow thorough preparation for the Listening paper and are designed to be used with the Student's Book. A Student's Book with or without answers and a Student's Book with answers and downloadable Audio are available separately. These tests are also available as Cambridge English: First Tests 5-8 on Testbank.org.uk

  16. Audio engineering 101 a beginner's guide to music production

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmar, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Audio Engineering 101 is a real world guide for starting out in the recording industry. If you have the dream, the ideas, the music and the creativity but don't know where to start, then this book is for you!Filled with practical advice on how to navigate the recording world, from an author with first-hand, real-life experience, Audio Engineering 101 will help you succeed in the exciting, but tough and confusing, music industry. Covering all you need to know about the recording process, from the characteristics of sound to a guide to microphones to analog versus digital

  17. Minimizing Crosstalk in Self Oscillating Switch Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard

    2012-01-01

    a method to minimize this phenomenon by improving the integrity of the various power distribution systems of the amplifier. The method is then applied to an amplifier built for this investigation. The results show that the crosstalk is suppressed with 30 dB, but is not entirely eliminated......The varying switching frequencies of self oscillating switch mode audio amplifiers have been known to cause interchannel intermodulation disturbances in multi channel configurations. This crosstalk phenomenon has a negative impact on the audio performance. The goal of this paper is to present...

  18. Can audio recording of outpatient consultations improve patient outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette

    different departments: Orthopedics, Urology, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics. A total of 5,460 patients will be included from the outpatient clinics. All patients randomized to an intervention group are offered audio recording of their consultation. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables an audio....... The intervention will be evaluated using a questionnaire measuring different aspect of patients recall and understanding of the information given, patients need for additional information subsequent to the consultation and their overall satisfaction with the consultation. Results The study will be conducted from...

  19. AKTIVITAS SEKUNDER AUDIO UNTUK MENJAGA KEWASPADAAN PENGEMUDI MOBIL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikar Zahedi Sutalaksana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tingkat kecelakaan lalu lintas yang melibatkan mobil di Indonesia semakin mengkhawatirkan. Tingginya peran faktor manusia sebagai penyebab utama kejadian kecelakaan patut diperhatikan. Penurunan kewaspadaan saat mengemudi akibat kantuk atau kelelahan merupakan salah satu kondisi yang mendorong terjadinya kecelakaan. Tulisan ini memaparkan aplikasi audio response test sebagai aktivitas sekunder dalam mengemudikan mobil. Response test yang dimaksud merupakan seperangkat aplikasi pada dashboard mobil yang menuntut respon pengemudi setiap stimulus suara bekerja. Audio response test ini diusulkan sebagai pemantau tingkat kewaspadaan pengemudi selama berkendara. Kewaspadaan pengemudi merupakan kondisi selama berkendara yang terjaga, awas, dan mampu memproses semua stimulus dengan baik. Hasil studi ini menghasilkan suatu bentuk audio response test yang terintegrasi dengan sistem berkendara di dalam mobil. Sumber bunyi diperdengarkan dengan intensitas konstan antara 80-85 dB. Bunyi akan berhenti jika pengemudi memberikan respon atas stimulus suara tersebut. Response test ini dirancang untuk mampu memantau tingkat kewaspadaan pengemudi selama berkendara. Penerapannya diharapkan mampu membantu menekan tingkat kecelakaan lalu lintas di Indonesia. Kata kunci: mengemudi, aktivitas sekunder, audio, kewaspadaan, response test   Abstract   The level of traffic accidents involving cars in Indonesia increasingly alarming. The high role of the human factor as the main cause of accident noteworthy. Decreased alertness while driving due to sleepiness or fatigue is one of the conditions that led to the accident. This paper describes an audio application response test as a secondary activity of driving a car. Response test is a set of applications on the dashboard of a car that demands a response driver each stimulus voice work. Audio response was proposed as test monitors the driver's level of alertness while driving. Vigilance driver was driving conditions during

  20. A conceptual framework for audio-visual museum media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkedahl Lysholm Nielsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    In today's history museums, the past is communicated through many other means than original artefacts. This interdisciplinary and theoretical article suggests a new approach to studying the use of audio-visual media, such as film, video and related media types, in a museum context. The centre...... and museum studies, existing case studies, and real life observations, the suggested framework instead stress particular characteristics of contextual use of audio-visual media in history museums, such as authenticity, virtuality, interativity, social context and spatial attributes of the communication...