Sample records for based anisotropic gle

  1. Representability of GLE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    then the subfunctor P of GLE which consists of automorphisms of E (over base changes) which preserve E is ... f vanishes identically under a base-change T → T if and only if it factors via T0 ↩→ T . Applying this with T .... Modulo I, this specializes to identity, hence this contradicts the above description of the kernel of P (R) ...

  2. Neutron multiplicity recordings during GLE (United States)

    Eduard, Vashenyuk; Leonid, Schur; Balabin, Yuri; Gvozdevsky, Boris

    A neutron multiplicity can give the information on a spectrum of primary solar protons and its variations during ground level enhancements (GLE). Such rare events are detected by ground based neutron monitors. With the help of the multiplicity recorder designed in PGI the variations of multiplicities during the GLE of December 13, 2006 on the neutron monitor in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen) have been studied. The neutron monitor in Barentsburg (18-NM-64) was put into operation on April, 2003. The recently developed data acquisition system is based on a PC equipped with two extension cards. One of them is ADLINK PCI-7233H, which is a high-speed 32-channel digital input card. The other is ADLINK PCI-8554, 12-channel counter/timer card. The specially written collecting program runs continuously. It captures the data registered by the two cards and stores the data to the hard disk. The PCI-7233H card registers pulses from all 18 channels of the neutron monitor and intervals between them. PCI-8554 card counts pulses from atmospheric pressure and temperature sensors. On the basis of this device the multiplicity recorder is realized to register the count rates on multiplicities (2-10). During the GLE on 13 December, 2006 significant increase of the count rates of multiplicities from 2 up to 5 was detected. The multiplicity spectrum changes are compared with the solar proton spectrum dynamics during event. The spectra of relativistic solar protons were derived by modeling technique from the worldwide neutron monitor network.

  3. Real-time prediction of the occurrence of GLE events (United States)

    Núñez, Marlon; Reyes-Santiago, Pedro J.; Malandraki, Olga E.


    A tool for predicting the occurrence of Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events using the UMASEP scheme is presented. This real-time tool, called HESPERIA UMASEP-500, is based on the detection of the magnetic connection, along which protons arrive in the near-Earth environment, by estimating the lag correlation between the time derivatives of 1 min soft X-ray flux (SXR) and 1 min near-Earth proton fluxes observed by the GOES satellites. Unlike current GLE warning systems, this tool can predict GLE events before the detection by any neutron monitor (NM) station. The prediction performance measured for the period from 1986 to 2016 is presented for two consecutive periods, because of their notable difference in performance. For the 2000-2016 period, this prediction tool obtained a probability of detection (POD) of 53.8% (7 of 13 GLE events), a false alarm ratio (FAR) of 30.0%, and average warning times (AWT) of 8 min with respect to the first NM station's alert and 15 min to the GLE Alert Plus's warning. We have tested the model by replacing the GOES proton data with SOHO/EPHIN proton data, and the results are similar in terms of POD, FAR, and AWT for the same period. The paper also presents a comparison with a GLE warning system.

  4. GLE and Sub-GLE Redefinition in the Light of High-Altitude Polar Neutron Monitors (United States)

    Poluianov, S. V.; Usoskin, I. G.; Mishev, A. L.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.


    The conventional definition of ground-level enhancement (GLE) events requires a detection of solar energetic particles (SEP) by at least two differently located neutron monitors. Some places are exceptionally well suitable for ground-based detection of SEP - high-elevation polar regions with negligible geomagnetic and reduced atmospheric energy/rigidity cutoffs. At present, there are two neutron-monitor stations in such locations on the Antarctic plateau: SOPO/SOPB (at Amundsen-Scott station, 2835 m elevation), and DOMC/DOMB (at Concordia station, 3233 m elevation). Since 2015, when the DOMC/DOMB station started continuous operation, a relatively weak SEP event that was not detected by sea-level neutron-monitor stations was registered by both SOPO/SOPB and DOMC/DOMB, and it was accordingly classified as a GLE. This would lead to a distortion of the homogeneity of the historic GLE list and the corresponding statistics. To address this issue, we propose to modify the GLE definition so that it maintains the homogeneity: A GLE event is registered when there are near-time coincident and statistically significant enhancements of the count rates of at least two differently located neutron monitors, including at least one neutron monitor near sea level and a corresponding enhancement in the proton flux measured by a space-borne instrument(s). Relatively weak SEP events registered only by high-altitude polar neutron monitors, but with no response from cosmic-ray stations at sea level, can be classified as sub-GLEs.

  5. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we s...

  6. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann


    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we s...

  7. Equilibrium-Based Nonhomogeneous Anisotropic Beam Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Couturier, Philippe


    The stiffness matrix and the nodal forces associated with distributed loads are obtained for a nonhomogeneous anisotropic elastic beam element by the use of complementary energy. The element flexibility matrix is obtained by integrating the complementary-energy density corresponding to six beam...... equilibrium states, and then inverted and expanded to provide the element-stiffness matrix. Distributed element loads are represented via corresponding internal-force distributions in local equilibrium with the loads. The element formulation does not depend on assumed shape functions and can, in principle......, include any variation of cross-sectional properties and load variation, provided that these are integrated with sufficient accuracy in the process. The ability to represent variable cross-sectional properties, coupling from anisotropic materials, and distributed element loads is illustrated by numerical...

  8. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo


    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  9. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee


    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  10. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhao-xian


    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  11. Highly Sensitive Flexible Magnetic Sensor Based on Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect. (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Xinjun; Li, Menghui; Gao, Yuan; Hu, Zhongqiang; Nan, Tianxiang; Liang, Xianfeng; Chen, Huaihao; Yang, Jia; Cash, Syd; Sun, Nian-Xiang


    A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 μm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The effect of cosmic rays on biological systems - an investigation during GLE events (United States)

    Belisheva, N. K.; Lammer, H.; Biernat, H. K.; Vashenuyk, E. V.


    In this study, first direct and circumstantial evidences of the effects of cosmic rays (CR) on biological systems are presented. A direct evidence of biological effects of CR is demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the neutron count rate detected by ground-based neutron monitor in October 1989. Various phenomena associated with DNA lesion on the cellular level demonstrate coherent dynamics of radiation effects in all cellular lines coincident with the time of arrival of high-energy solar particles to the near-Earth space and with the main peak in GLE. These results were obtained in the course of six separate experiments, with partial overlapping of the time of previous and subsequent experiments, which started and finished in the quiet period of solar activity (SA). A significant difference between the values of multinuclear cells in all cellular lines in the quiet period and during GLE events indicates that the cause of radiation effects in the cell cultures is an exposure of cells to the secondary solar CR near the Earth's surface. The circumstantial evidence was obtained by statistical analysis of cases of congenital malformations (CM) at two sites in the Murmansk region. The number of cases of all classes of CM reveals a significant correlation with the number of GLE events. The number of cases of CM with pronounced chromosomal abnormalities clearly correlates with the GLE events that occurred a year before the birth of a child. We have found a significant correlation between modulations of the water properties and daily background variations of CR intensity. We believe that the effects of CR on biological systems can be also mediated by fluctuations in water properties, considered as one of possible mechanisms controlling the effects of CRs on biological systems.

  13. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Hora, P.


    The anisotropy in damage can be driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic defor-mation state named Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic (shape and/or distribution) second phase particles named Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). Most anisotropic damage models are based

  14. Indicator for hydration balance during haemodialysis based on anisotropic FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiberger, M; Brunner, P; Mayer, M; Scharfetter, H; Surkhi, O I; Riu, P J


    The current paper proposes a new indicator for well-balanced dehydration of patients undergoing a haemodialysis. It is based on an estimator for the extra-cellular volume and the ultrafiltration rate. The extra-cellular fluid was computed from continuous tetrapolar bio-impedance measurements taken on the lower leg in a frequency range of several kilohertz up to 500 kHz. Finite element simulations on different leg models with anisotropic conductivities calculated with Cole models were carried out in order to incorporate the significant anisotropy of human tissue into the estimation process. The indicator was tested on measurement data gathered from 25 persons during 150 haemodialysis sessions. Its performance was determined by computing ROC curves. Results of the data analysis are reported

  15. Genetic algorithm-based design method for multilevel anisotropic diffraction gratings (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Noda, Kohei; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi


    We developed a method for the design of multilevel anisotropic diffraction gratings based on a genetic algorithm. The method is used to design the multilevel anisotropic diffraction gratings based on input data that represent the output from the required grating. The validity of the proposed method was evaluated by designing a multilevel anisotropic diffraction grating using the outputs from an orthogonal circular polarization grating. The design results corresponded to the orthogonal circular polarization grating structures that were used to provide outputs to act as the input data for the process. Comparison with existing design methods shows that the proposed method can reduce the number of human processes that are required to design multilevel anisotropic diffraction gratings. Additionally, the method will be able to design complex structures without any requirement for subsequent examination by a human designer. The method can contribute to the development of optical elements by designing multilevel anisotropic diffraction gratings.

  16. A 3-D elasticity theory based model for acoustic radiation from multilayered anisotropic plates. (United States)

    Shen, C; Xin, F X; Lu, T J


    A theoretical model built upon three-dimensional elasticity theory is developed to investigate the acoustic radiation from multilayered anisotropic plates subjected to a harmonic point force excitation. Fourier transform technique and stationary phase method are combined to predict the far-field radiated sound pressure of one-side water immersed plate. Compared to equivalent single-layer plate models, the present model based on elasticity theory can differentiate radiated sound pressure between dry-side and wet-side excited cases, as well as discrepancies induced by different layer sequences for multilayered anisotropic plates. These results highlight the superiority of the present theoretical model especially for handling multilayered anisotropic structures.

  17. Tungsten based anisotropic metamaterial as an ultra-broadband absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yinyue; Cui, Yanxia; Ding, Fei


    : We show theoretically that an array of tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cones placed on top of a reflective substrate can absorb light at the wavelength range from 0.3 μm to 9 μm with an average absorption efficiency approaching 98%. It is found that the excitation of multiple orders of slow...... of the nano-cones and the interaction between neighboring nano-cones is quite weak. Our proposal has some potential applications in the areas of solar energy harvesting and thermal emitters....

  18. Anisotropic tunneling resistance in a phosphorene-based magnetic barrier (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Hu, Wei; Lu, Junqiang


    We investigate the ballistic tunneling transport properties of a monolayer of black phosphorus under a magnetic barrier. The conductance of the system depends strongly on the orientation of the magnetic barrier, which is suppressed maximally when the magnetic barrier is oriented along the armchair direction. The mechanism relies on the highly anisotropic energy dispersion of phosphorene and the magnetic-barrier-induced suppression of available phase space for transmission. The magnetoresistance is enhanced by the reduction of the band gap under the same effective mass components.

  19. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric modeling in anisotropic media using edge-based finite element method (United States)

    Xiao, Tiaojie; Liu, Yun; Wang, Yun; Fu, Li-Yun


    It is important to understand how magnetotelluric (MT) modeling can most effectively be performed in general anisotropic media. However, previous studies in this area have mainly focused on the use of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) algorithms. Thus, building on earlier work, it is important to study the performance of three-dimensional (3D) modeling in arbitrary conductivity media; therefore, an edge-based finite element (FE) method has been developed for 3D MT modeling in arbitrary conductivity media. This approach is based on the initial derivation of a series of equivalent variational equations that are based on Maxwell equations, generated using the weighted residual method. Specific values were then obtained for coefficient matrixes of this edge-based FE method using hexahedral meshes, and the algorithm was verified by comparing its results with finite difference (FD) solutions generated using a 2D anisotropic model. Finally, the results of a 3D anisotropic model were analyzed detailed for three conditions; another 3D anisotropic model was designed and its results were compared with two isotropic models'.

  20. Le pouvoir de la règle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ihl


    Full Text Available La réforme du mode de scrutin ne manque jamais en France de soulever les plus vives controverses. Quelle que soit son ampleur, elle provoque des réactions passionnées, et déjà chez ceux dont la position dépend des configurations de jeu que cette règle délimite. Quel est au juste le pouvoir de régulation d’un mode de scrutin ? De quelle force bénéficie ce type de disposition électorale ? Si le vote est un procédé par lequel les voix recueillies conditionnent une décision collective, ce que l’o...

  1. Ground level enhancement (GLE) energy spectrum parameters model (United States)

    Qin, G.; Wu, S.


    We study the ground level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23 with the four energy spectra parameters, the normalization parameter C, low-energy power-law slope γ 1, high-energy power-law slope γ 2, and break energy E0, obtained by Mewaldt et al. 2012 who fit the observations to the double power-law equation. we divide the GLEs into two groups, one with strong acceleration by interplanetary (IP) shocks and another one without strong acceleration according to the condition of solar eruptions. We next fit the four parameters with solar event conditions to get models of the parameters for the two groups of GLEs separately. So that we would establish a model of energy spectrum for GLEs for the future space weather prediction.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gle2/Rae1 is involved in septin organization, essential for cell cycle progression. (United States)

    Zander, Gesa; Kramer, Wilfried; Seel, Anika; Krebber, Heike


    Gle2/Rae1 is highly conserved from yeast to humans and has been described as an mRNA export factor. Additionally, it is implicated in the anaphase-promoting complex-mediated cell cycle regulation in higher eukaryotes. Here we identify an involvement for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gle2 in septin organization, which is crucial for cell cycle progression and cell division. Gle2 genetically and physically interacts with components of the septin ring. Importantly, deletion of GLE2 leads to elongated buds, severe defects in septin-assembly and their cellular mislocalization. Septin-ring formation is triggered by the septin-regulating GTPase Cdc42, which establishes and maintains cell polarity. Additionally, activity of the master cell cycle regulator Cdc28 (Cdk1) is needed, which is, besides other functions, also required for G 2 /M-transition, and in yeast particularly responsible for initiating the apical-isotropic switch. We show genetic and physical interactions of Gle2 with both Cdc42 and Cdc28. Most importantly, we find that gle2∆ severely mislocalizes Cdc42, leading to defects in septin-complex formation and cell division. Thus, our findings suggest that Gle2 participates in the efficient organization of the septin assembly network, where it might act as a scaffold protein. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Wideband and High-Efficiency Reflective Polarization Conversion Metasurface Based on Anisotropic Metamaterials (United States)

    Zheng, Qi; Guo, Chenjiang; Yuan, Pengliang; Ren, Yu-Hui; Ding, Jun


    In this paper, we propose a wideband and high-efficiency reflective polarization conversion metasurface (PCM) based on anisotropic metamaterials. The PCM has a period of sub-wavelength and simple design with a double-meander-line-shaped resonator printed on a metallic copper plate backed dielectric substrate. Owing to strong anisotropic properties and multiple plasmon resonances at neighboring frequencies, the PCM has a simulated fractional bandwidth of 82.3% from 8.40 GHz to 20.15 GHz with a polarization conversion ratio over 0.9. Numerical analysis and experimental validation are carried out to study the polarization conversion characteristics of the PCM. In addition, the mechanisms are analyzed in detail on the basis of multiple plasmon resonances and surface magnetic field distributions, respectively. The measured and simulated results obtained are in good agreement, which validates the effectiveness of the simulations and analysis.

  4. 3D constitutive model of anisotropic damage for unidirectional ply based on physical failure mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon


    A 3D anisotropic continuum damage model is developed for the computational analysis of the elastic–brittle behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite. The damage model is based on a set of phenomenological failure criteria for fibre-reinforced composite, which can distinguish the matrix and fibre...... failure under tensile and compressive loading. The homogenized continuum theory is adopted for the anisotropic elastic damage constitutive model. The damage modes occurring in the longitudinal and transverse directions of a ply are represented by a damage vector. The elastic damage model is implemented...... in a computational finite element framework, which is capable of predicting initial failure, subsequent progressive damage up to final collapse. Crack band model and viscous regularization are applied to depress the convergence difficulties associated with strain softening behaviours. To verify the accuracy...

  5. Anisotropic Diffusion based Brain MRI Segmentation and 3D Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arfan Jaffar


    Full Text Available In medical field visualization of the organs is very imperative for accurate diagnosis and treatment of any disease. Brain tumor diagnosis and surgery also required impressive 3D visualization of the brain to the radiologist. Detection and 3D reconstruction of brain tumors from MRI is a computationally time consuming and error-prone task. Proposed system detects and presents a 3D visualization model of the brain and tumor inside which greatly helps the radiologist to effectively diagnose and analyze the brain tumor. We proposed a multi-phase segmentation and visualization technique which overcomes the many problems of 3D volume segmentation methods like lake of fine details. In this system segmentation is done in three different phases which reduces the error chances. The system finds contours for skull, brain and tumor. These contours are stacked over and two novel methods are used to find the 3D visualization models. The results of these techniques, particularly of interpolation based, are impressive. Proposed system is tested against publically available data set [41] and MRI datasets available from MRI aamp; CT center Rawalpindi, Pakistan [42].

  6. 78 FR 29808 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2012 Lita GLE-6 Low-Speed Vehicles... (United States)


    ... Nonconforming 2012 Lita GLE-6 Low-Speed Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... 2012 Lita GLE-6 low-speed vehicles (LSV) that were not originally manufactured to comply with all... vehicle weight rating (GVWR) limit for low speed vehicles (3,000 lbs.) must have a sufficient number of...

  7. A flexible strain gauge exhibiting reversible piezoresistivity based on an anisotropic magnetorheological polymer (United States)

    Mietta, José L.; Jorge, Guillermo; Martín Negri, R.


    A flexible, anisotropic and portable stress sensor (logarithmic reversible response between 40-350 kPa) was fabricated, in which i) the sensing material, ii) the electrical contacts and iii) the encapsulating material, were based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. The sensing material is a slide of an anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), formed by dispersing silver-covered magnetite particles (Fe3O4@Ag) in PDMS and by curing in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Thus, the MRE is a structure of electrically conducting pseudo-chains (needles) aligned in a specific direction, in which electrical conductivity increases when stress is exclusively applied in the direction of the needles. Electrical conductivity appears only between contact points that face each other at both sides of the MRE slide. An array of electrical contacts was implemented based on PDMS-silver paint metallic composites. The array was encapsulated with PDMS. Using Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles also opens up possibilities for a magnetic field sensor, due to the magnetoresistance effects.

  8. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Kai


    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine-scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. Therefore, we have proposed a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite-element methods for simulating elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that was similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite-difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity in which the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.

  9. Meander-line-based inhomogeneous anisotropic artificial material for gain enhancement of UWB Vivaldi antenna (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Singh, Hari Shankar; Meshram, Manoj Kumar


    An inhomogeneous anisotropic (IA) artificial material (AM) is proposed having epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) characteristics and effective refractive index >1, simultaneously, in the same direction. Further, the proposed IA-AM is utilized for the gain enhancement of Vivaldi antenna for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The IA-AM consists of two types of compact meandered line-based anisotropic artificial material with ENZ characteristics in two adjacent narrow bands of 5.5-8.5 and 8-11.5 GHz. However, the non-resonant behavior of the artificial material in other direction appears with high refractive index property in broadband region. The combination of both the unit cells with broadband ENZ and high refractive index property is used to improve the gain of the Vivaldi antenna in broadband. The proposed IA-AM-loaded Vivaldi antenna exhibits a gain enhancement of up to 2 dBi compared to the original antenna in the operating frequency band of 3.1-12 GHz with | S 11| antenna shows nearly stable unidirectional radiation patterns with high directivity and nearly flat group delay.

  10. An Anisotropic Constitutive Equation for the Stress Tensor of Blood Based on Mixture Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi


    Full Text Available Based on ideas proposed by Massoudi and Rajagopal (M-R, we develop a model for blood using the theory of interacting continua, that is, the mixture theory. We first provide a brief review of mixture theory, and then discuss certain issues in constitutive modeling of a two-component mixture. In the present formulation, we ignore the biochemistry of blood and assume that blood is composed of red blood cells (RBCs suspended in plasma, where the plasma behaves as a linearly viscous fluid and the RBCs are modeled as an anisotropic nonlinear density-gradient-type fluid. We obtain a constitutive relation for blood, based on the simplified constitutive relations derived for plasma and RBCs. A simple shear flow is discussed, and an exact solution is obtained for a very special case; for more general cases, it is necessary to solve the nonlinear coupled equations numerically.

  11. Buckling Analysis for Stiffened Anisotropic Circular Cylinders Based on Sanders Nonlinear Shell Theory (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.


    Nonlinear and bifurcation buckling equations for elastic, stiffened, geometrically perfect, right-circular cylindrical, anisotropic shells subjected to combined loads are presented that are based on Sanders' shell theory. Based on these equations, a three-parameter approximate Rayleigh-Ritz solution and a classical solution to the buckling problem are presented for cylinders with simply supported edges. Extensive comparisons of results obtained from these solutions with published results are also presented for a wide range of cylinder constructions. These comparisons include laminated-composite cylinders with a wide variety of shell-wall orthotropies and anisotropies. Numerous results are also given that show the discrepancies between the results obtained by using Donnell's equations and variants of Sanders' equations. For some cases, nondimensional parameters are identified and "master" curves are presented that facilitate the concise representation of results.

  12. FePt/Co core/shell nanoparticle-based anisotropic nanocomposites and their exchange spring behavior. (United States)

    Li, Deyao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Zhenhui; Liu, Xin; Dong, Ying; Liu, Zhiqi; Zhang, Tianli; Jiang, Chengbao


    Anisotropic exchange-coupled nanocomposites provide us a salient candidate for the new generation of permanent magnets owing to their huge predicted maximum energy product. However, previous research basically focused on thin films or bulk materials and the impact of easy-axis alignment on the exchange coupling behavior is not clear. Herein, strongly coupled FePt/Co core/shell nanoparticles with single-phase-like hysteresis loops were synthesized by the seed mediated method. Then, these nanoparticles were successfully aligned by the external magnetic field and fixed in an acrylic binder, so that FePt/Co core/shell nanoparticle-based anisotropic nanocomposites were obtained. The nanocomposites exhibited high degree of orientation as indicated by the increased remanence ratio from 0.62 for isotropic nanoparticles to 0.78 for anisotropic nanocomposites. However, a visible kink in the demagnetization curve was observed around the zero field, implying the exchange spring behavior. This result suggests that the aligned FePt cores impose a stronger overall dipolar field in Co shells and finally, force the Co shells to reverse at a low field before the switch of FePt cores. Our research extends the preparation methods of anisotropic hard/soft-phase nanocomposites and might be helpful for the design of high-performance anisotropic exchange-coupled nanocomposites.

  13. Detection of Human Impacts by an Adaptive Energy-Based Anisotropic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prado-Velasco


    Full Text Available Boosted by health consequences and the cost of falls in the elderly, this work develops and tests a novel algorithm and methodology to detect human impacts that will act as triggers of a two-layer fall monitor. The two main requirements demanded by socio-healthcare providers—unobtrusiveness and reliability—defined the objectives of the research. We have demonstrated that a very agile, adaptive, and energy-based anisotropic algorithm can provide 100% sensitivity and 78% specificity, in the task of detecting impacts under demanding laboratory conditions. The algorithm works together with an unsupervised real-time learning technique that addresses the adaptive capability, and this is also presented. The work demonstrates the robustness and reliability of our new algorithm, which will be the basis of a smart falling monitor. This is shown in this work to underline the relevance of the results.

  14. Transformed model fitting. A straightforward approach to evaluation of anisotropic SANS from nickel-base single-crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunz, P.


    Schematic description of a special evaluation procedure for data treatment of anisotropic Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is presented. The use of the discussed procedure is demonstrated on a data taken from investigation of precipitation in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys. (author)

  15. Edge Probability and Pixel Relativity-Based Speckle Reducing Anisotropic Diffusion. (United States)

    Mishra, Deepak; Chaudhury, Santanu; Sarkar, Mukul; Soin, Arvinder Singh; Sharma, Vivek


    Anisotropic diffusion filters are one of the best choices for speckle reduction in the ultrasound images. These filters control the diffusion flux flow using local image statistics and provide the desired speckle suppression. However, inefficient use of edge characteristics results in either oversmooth image or an image containing misinterpreted spurious edges. As a result, the diagnostic quality of the images becomes a concern. To alleviate such problems, a novel anisotropic diffusion-based speckle reducing filter is proposed in this paper. A probability density function of the edges along with pixel relativity information is used to control the diffusion flux flow. The probability density function helps in removing the spurious edges and the pixel relativity reduces the oversmoothing effects. Furthermore, the filtering is performed in superpixel domain to reduce the execution time, wherein a minimum of 15% of the total number of image pixels can be used. For performance evaluation, 31 frames of three synthetic images and 40 real ultrasound images are used. In most of the experiments, the proposed filter shows a better performance as compared to the state-of-the-art filters in terms of the speckle region's signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. It also shows a comparative performance for figure of merit and structural similarity measure index. Furthermore, in the subjective evaluation, performed by the expert radiologists, the proposed filter's outputs are preferred for the improved contrast and sharpness of the object boundaries. Hence, the proposed filtering framework is suitable to reduce the unwanted speckle and improve the quality of the ultrasound images.

  16. Efficient Modeling and Migration in Anisotropic Media Based on Prestack Exploding Reflector Model and Effective Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hui


    This thesis addresses the efficiency improvement of seismic wave modeling and migration in anisotropic media. This improvement becomes crucial in practice as the process of imaging complex geological structures of the Earth\\'s subsurface requires modeling and migration as building blocks. The challenge comes from two aspects. First, the underlying governing equations for seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media are far more complicated than that in isotropic media which demand higher computational costs to solve. Second, the usage of whole prestack seismic data still remains a burden considering its storage volume and the existing wave equation solvers. In this thesis, I develop two approaches to tackle the challenges. In the first part, I adopt the concept of prestack exploding reflector model to handle the whole prestack data and bridge the data space directly to image space in a single kernel. I formulate the extrapolation operator in a two-way fashion to remove he restriction on directions that waves propagate. I also develop a generic method for phase velocity evaluation within anisotropic media used in this extrapolation kernel. The proposed method provides a tool for generating prestack images without wavefield cross correlations. In the second part of this thesis, I approximate the anisotropic models using effective isotropic models. The wave phenomena in these effective models match that in anisotropic models both kinematically and dynamically. I obtain the effective models through equating eikonal equations and transport equations of anisotropic and isotropic models, thereby in the high frequency asymptotic approximation sense. The wavefields extrapolation costs are thus reduced using isotropic wave equation solvers while the anisotropic effects are maintained through this approach. I benchmark the two proposed methods using synthetic datasets. Tests on anisotropic Marmousi model and anisotropic BP2007 model demonstrate the applicability of my

  17. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien


    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature ‘prototype’ PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27491391

  18. All-optical transistor- and diode-action and logic gates based on anisotropic nonlinear responsive liquid crystal. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Li, Cheng-Chang; Cheng, Chiao-Yu; Wang, Chun-Ta; Leng, Shi-Ee; Khoo, Iam-Choon; Lin, Tsung-Hsien


    In this paper, we show that anisotropic photosensitive nematic liquid crystals (PNLC) made by incorporating anisotropic absorbing dyes are promising candidates for constructing all-optical elements by virtue of the extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity of the nematic host. In particular, we have demonstrated several room-temperature 'prototype' PNLC-based all-optical devices such as optical diode, optical transistor and all primary logic gate operations (OR, AND, NOT) based on such optical transistor. Owing to the anisotropic absorption property and the optical activity of the twist alignment nematic cell, spatially non-reciprocal transmission response can be obtained within a sizeable optical isolation region of ~210 mW. Exploiting the same mechanisms, a tri-terminal configuration as an all-optical analogue of a bipolar junction transistor is fabricated. Its ability to be switched by an optical field enables us to realize an all-optical transistor and demonstrate cascadability, signal fan-out, logic restoration, and various logical gate operations such as OR, AND and NOT. Due to the possibility of synthesizing anisotropic dyes and wide ranging choice of liquid crystals nonlinear optical mechanisms, these all-optical operations can be optimized to have much lower thresholds and faster response speeds. The demonstrated capabilities of these devices have shown great potential in all-optical control system and photonic integrated circuits.

  19. Hepatocyte Aggregate Formation on Chitin-Based Anisotropic Microstructures of Butterfly Wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Elbaz


    Full Text Available Scaffold nanotopography plays the most significant role in the mimicry of the in vivo microenvironment of the hepatocytes. Several attempts have been made to develop methods and substrates suited to growing hepatocytes into aggregates. Functional biomaterials, particularly biodegradable polymers, have been used in several studies aimed to develop improved scaffolds with ordered geometry and nanofibrous architecture for tissue engineering. However, there are still some limitation in their fabrication: it is not cost-efficient, is time-consuming, and exhibits some technological complications. The synthetic scaffolds are usually non-biodegradable and can be non-biocompatible compared to the naturally derived biomaterials. Here, we utilized a simple, cost-effective, and green method with two-step chemical treatment to get more selected hydrophilic butterfly wings from Morpho menelaus, Papilio ulysses telegonus, and Ornithoptera croesus lydius as a chitin-based natural scaffolds to growing hepatocyte aggregates. We established a three-dimensional (3D in vitro model for culture of HepG2 cells and aggregate formation that maintained the hepatocytes function on these natural anisotropic microstructures. Cells cultured on these substrates show higher viability than those cultured on a two-dimensional (2D culture plate. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay results revealed excellent viability of HepG2 cells on P. u. telegonus wings (fibrous area. The results also demonstrated appropriate cell activity, cell retention, and stable and functional expression in terms of albumin secretion and urea synthesis activity compared to the 2D monolayer culture of hepatocytes on the culture dish surface. With a slightly different degree, the other substrates also shown similar results. We anticipate that these natural anisotropic, biodegradable, and biocompatible substrates can maintain long-term hepatic culture as an in vitro 3D model for potential

  20. A limited-angle CT reconstruction method based on anisotropic TV minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiqiang; Jin Xin; Li Liang; Wang Ge


    This paper presents a compressed sensing (CS)-inspired reconstruction method for limited-angle computed tomography (CT). Currently, CS-inspired CT reconstructions are often performed by minimizing the total variation (TV) of a CT image subject to data consistency. A key to obtaining high image quality is to optimize the balance between TV-based smoothing and data fidelity. In the case of the limited-angle CT problem, the strength of data consistency is angularly varying. For example, given a parallel beam of x-rays, information extracted in the Fourier domain is mostly orthogonal to the direction of x-rays, while little is probed otherwise. However, the TV minimization process is isotropic, suggesting that it is unfit for limited-angle CT. Here we introduce an anisotropic TV minimization method to address this challenge. The advantage of our approach is demonstrated in numerical simulation with both phantom and real CT images, relative to the TV-based reconstruction. (paper)

  1. Identification of Anisotropic Criteria for Stratified Soil Based on Triaxial Tests Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankiewicz Matylda


    Full Text Available The paper presents the identification methodology of anisotropic criteria based on triaxial test results. The considered material is varved clay – a sedimentary soil occurring in central Poland which is characterized by the so-called “layered microstructure”. The strength examination outcomes were identified by standard triaxial tests. The results include the estimated peak strength obtained for a wide range of orientations and confining pressures. Two models were chosen as potentially adequate for the description of the tested material, namely Pariseau and its conjunction with the Jaeger weakness plane. Material constants were obtained by fitting the model to the experimental results. The identification procedure is based on the least squares method. The optimal values of parameters are searched for between specified bounds by sequentially decreasing the distance between points and reducing the length of the searched range. For both considered models the optimal parameters have been obtained. The comparison of theoretical and experimental results as well as the assessment of the suitability of selected criteria for the specified range of confining pressures are presented.

  2. Identification of Anisotropic Criteria for Stratified Soil Based on Triaxial Tests Results (United States)

    Tankiewicz, Matylda; Kawa, Marek


    The paper presents the identification methodology of anisotropic criteria based on triaxial test results. The considered material is varved clay - a sedimentary soil occurring in central Poland which is characterized by the so-called "layered microstructure". The strength examination outcomes were identified by standard triaxial tests. The results include the estimated peak strength obtained for a wide range of orientations and confining pressures. Two models were chosen as potentially adequate for the description of the tested material, namely Pariseau and its conjunction with the Jaeger weakness plane. Material constants were obtained by fitting the model to the experimental results. The identification procedure is based on the least squares method. The optimal values of parameters are searched for between specified bounds by sequentially decreasing the distance between points and reducing the length of the searched range. For both considered models the optimal parameters have been obtained. The comparison of theoretical and experimental results as well as the assessment of the suitability of selected criteria for the specified range of confining pressures are presented.

  3. Cell Sheet-Based Tissue Engineering for Organizing Anisotropic Tissue Constructs Produced Using Microfabricated Thermoresponsive Substrates. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hironobu; Okano, Teruo


    In some native tissues, appropriate microstructures, including orientation of the cell/extracellular matrix, provide specific mechanical and biological functions. For example, skeletal muscle is made of oriented myofibers that is responsible for the mechanical function. Native artery and myocardial tissues are organized three-dimensionally by stacking sheet-like tissues of aligned cells. Therefore, to construct any kind of complex tissue, the microstructures of cells such as myotubes, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes also need to be organized three-dimensionally just as in the native tissues of the body. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering allows the production of scaffold-free engineered tissues through a layer-by-layer construction technique. Recently, using microfabricated thermoresponsive substrates, aligned cells are being harvested as single continuous cell sheets. The cell sheets act as anisotropic tissue units to build three-dimensional tissue constructs with the appropriate anisotropy. This cell sheet-based technology is straightforward and has the potential to engineer a wide variety of complex tissues. In addition, due to the scaffold-free cell-dense environment, the physical and biological cell-cell interactions of these cell sheet constructs exhibit unique cell behaviors. These advantages will provide important clues to enable the production of well-organized tissues that closely mimic the structure and function of native tissues, required for the future of tissue engineering. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A Motion Planning Method for Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Based on the Anisotropic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuntao Leng


    Full Text Available A more suitable motion planning method for an omni-directional mobile robot (OMR, an improved APF method (iAPF, is proposed in this paper by introducing the revolving factor into the artificial potential field (APF. Accordingly, the motion direction derived from traditional artificial potential field (tAPF is regulated. The maximum velocity, maximum acceleration and energy consumption of the OMR moving in different directions are analyzed, based on the kinematic and dynamic constraints of an OMR, and the anisotropy of OMR is presented in this paper. Then the novel concept of an Anisotropic-Function is proposed to indicate the quality of motion in different directions, which can make a very favorable trade-off between time-optimality, stability and efficacy-optimality. In order to obtain the optimal motion, the path that the robot can take in order to avoid the obstacle safely and reach the goal in a shorter path is deduced. Finally, simulations and experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the motion resulting from the iAPF is high-speed, highly stable and highly efficient when compared to the tAPF.

  5. Thermally insulating and fire-retardant lightweight anisotropic foams based on nanocellulose and graphene oxide (United States)

    Wicklein, Bernd; Kocjan, Andraž; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Carosio, Federico; Camino, Giovanni; Antonietti, Markus; Bergström, Lennart


    High-performance thermally insulating materials from renewable resources are needed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Traditional fossil-fuel-derived insulation materials such as expanded polystyrene and polyurethane have thermal conductivities that are too high for retrofitting or for building new, surface-efficient passive houses. Tailored materials such as aerogels and vacuum insulating panels are fragile and susceptible to perforation. Here, we show that freeze-casting suspensions of cellulose nanofibres, graphene oxide and sepiolite nanorods produces super-insulating, fire-retardant and strong anisotropic foams that perform better than traditional polymer-based insulating materials. The foams are ultralight, show excellent combustion resistance and exhibit a thermal conductivity of 15 mW m-1 K-1, which is about half that of expanded polystyrene. At 30 °C and 85% relative humidity, the foams retained more than half of their initial strength. Our results show that nanoscale engineering is a promising strategy for producing foams with excellent properties using cellulose and other renewable nanosized fibrous materials.

  6. An iterative, fast-sweeping-based eikonal solver for 3D tilted anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Computation of first-arrival traveltimes for quasi-P waves in the presence of anisotropy is important for high-end near-surface modeling, microseismic-source localization, and fractured-reservoir characterization - and it requires solving an anisotropic eikonal equation. Anisotropy deviating from elliptical anisotropy introduces higher order nonlinearity into the eikonal equation, which makes solving the eikonal equation a challenge. We addressed this challenge by iteratively solving a sequence of simpler tilted elliptically anisotropic eikonal equations. At each iteration, the source function was updated to capture the effects of the higher order nonlinear terms. We used Aitken\\'s extrapolation to speed up convergence rate of the iterative algorithm. The result is an algorithm for computing first-arrival traveltimes in tilted anisotropic media. We evaluated the applicability and usefulness of our method on tilted transversely isotropic media and tilted orthorhombic media. Our numerical tests determined that the proposed method matches the first arrivals obtained by wavefield extrapolation, even for strongly anisotropic and highly complex subsurface structures. Thus, for the cases where two-point ray tracing fails, our method can be a potential substitute for computing traveltimes. The approach presented here can be easily extended to compute first-arrival traveltimes for anisotropic media with lower symmetries, such as monoclinic or even the triclinic media.

  7. An anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Calvin M.; Gordon, Ali P.; Ma, Young Wha; Neu, Richard W.


    When an anisotropic material is subject to creep conditions and a complex state of stress, an anisotropic creep damage behavior is observed. Previous research has focused on the anisotropic creep damage behavior of isotropic materials but few constitutive models have been developed for anisotropic creeping solids. This paper describes the development of a new anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials. An advanced tensorial damage formulation is implemented which includes both material orientation relative to loading and the degree of creep damage anisotropy in the model. A variation of the Norton-power law for secondary creep is implemented which includes the Hill's anisotropic analogy. Experiments are conducted on the directionally-solidified bucket material DS GTD-111. The constitutive model is implemented in a user programmable feature (UPF) in ANSYS FEA software. The ability of the constitutive model to regress to the Kachanov-Rabotnov isotropic tertiary creep damage model is demonstrated through comparison with uniaxial experiments. A parametric study of both material orientation and stress rotation are conducted. Results indicate that creep deformation is modeled accurately; however an improved damage evolution law may be necessary. - Highlights: → The deformation of anisotropic creeping solid is directionally dependent. → Few constitutive models have been developed to deal with anisotropic behavior. → A transversely-isotropic nickel base superalloy, DS GTD-111, is studied. → A vector constitutive model based on the Kachanov-Rabotnov formulation is developed. → The new model accurately models deformation at various orientations.

  8. A zebrafish model of lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 reveals Gle1 function in spinal neural precursor survival and motor axon arborization. (United States)

    Jao, Li-En; Appel, Bruce; Wente, Susan R


    In humans, GLE1 is mutated in lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 (LCCS1) leading to prenatal death of all affected fetuses. Although the molecular roles of Gle1 in nuclear mRNA export and translation have been documented, no animal models for this disease have been reported. To elucidate the function of Gle1 in vertebrate development, we used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system. gle1 mRNA is maternally deposited and widely expressed. Altering Gle1 using an insertional mutant or antisense morpholinos results in multiple defects, including immobility, small eyes, diminished pharyngeal arches, curved body axis, edema, underdeveloped intestine and cell death in the central nervous system. These phenotypes parallel those observed in LCCS1 human fetuses. Gle1 depletion also results in reduction of motoneurons and aberrant arborization of motor axons. Unexpectedly, the motoneuron deficiency results from apoptosis of neural precursors, not of differentiated motoneurons. Mosaic analyses further indicate that Gle1 activity is required extrinsically in the environment for normal motor axon arborization. Importantly, the zebrafish phenotypes caused by Gle1 deficiency are only rescued by expressing wild-type human GLE1 and not by the disease-linked Fin(Major) mutant form of GLE1. Together, our studies provide the first functional characterization of Gle1 in vertebrate development and reveal its essential role in actively dividing cells. We propose that defective GLE1 function in human LCCS1 results in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic defects linked to the apoptosis of proliferative organ precursors.

  9. Anisotropic ray trace (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    anisotropic ray tracing. x. Chapter 4 presents the data reduction of the P matrix of a crystal waveplate. The diattenuation is embedded in the singular values of P. The retardance is divided into two parts: (A) The physical retardance induced by OPLs and surface interactions, and (B) the geometrical transformation induced by geometry of a ray path, which is calculated by the geometrical transform Q matrix. The Q matrix of an anisotropic intercept is derived from the generalization of s- and p-bases at the anisotropic intercept; the p basis is not confined to the plane of incidence due to the anisotropic refraction or reflection. Chapter 5 shows how the multiple P matrices associated with the eigenmodes resulting from propagation through multiple anisotropic surfaces can be combined into one P matrix when the multiple modes interfere in their overlapping regions. The resultant P matrix contains diattenuation induced at each surface interaction as well as the retardance due to ray propagation and total internal reflections. The polarization aberrations of crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers are studied in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. A wavefront simulated by a grid of rays is traced through the anisotropic system and the resultant grid of rays is analyzed. The analysis is complicated by the ray doubling effects and the partially overlapping eigen-wavefronts propagating in various directions. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of each eigenmode can be evaluated from the electric field distributions. The overall polarization at the plane of interest or the image quality at the image plane are affected by each of these eigen-wavefronts. Isotropic materials become anisotropic due to stress, strain, or applied electric or magnetic fields. In Chapter 8, the P matrix for anisotropic materials is extended to ray tracing in stress birefringent materials which are treated as spatially varying anisotropic materials. Such simulations can predict the spatial retardance variation

  10. Type A natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes environments (NRDAM/GLE) and coastal and marine environments (NRDAM/CME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.


    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by ASA to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural Resource Damage Assessment Models for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) will become available. These models will also support NOAA's damage assessment regulations under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The physical and biological models are three-dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs for restoration or replacement of those resources. A coupled geographical information system (GIS) allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The models contain environmental, geographical, chemical, toxicological, biological, restoration and economic databases with the necessary information to estimate damages. Chemical and toxicological data are included for about 470 chemicals and oils. Biological data are unique to 77 coastal and marine plus 11 Great Lakes provinces, and to habitat type. Restoration and economic valuations are also regionally specific

  11. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan


    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  12. An Anisotropic Ocean Surface Emissivity Model Based on WindSat Polarimetric Brightness Observations (United States)

    Smith, D. F.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Sandeep, S.; Weber, B. L.


    The goal of this research has been to develop a standardized fast full-Stokes ocean surface emissivity model with Jacobian for a wind-driven ocean surface applicable at arbitrary microwave frequencies, polarizations, and incidence angles. The model is based on the Ohio State University (OSU) two-scale code for surface emission developed by Johnson (2006, IEEE TGRS, 44, 560) but modified as follows: (1) the Meissner-Wentz dielectric permittivity (2012, IEEE TGRS, 50, 3004) replaces the original permittivity, (2) the Elfouhaily sea surface spectrum (1997, JGR, 102, C7,15781) replaces the Durden-Vesecky spectrum (1985, IEEE TGRS, OE-10, 445), but the Durden-Vesecky angular spreading function is retained, (3) the high-frequency portion of the Elfouhaily spectrum is multiplied by the Pierson-Moskowitz shape spectrum to correct an error in the original paper, (4) the generalized Phillips-Kitaigorodskii equilibrium range parameter for short waves is modeled as a continuous function of the friction velocity at the water surface to eliminate a discontinuous jump in the original paper. A total of five physical tuning parameters were identified, including the spectral strength and the hydrodynamic modulation factor. The short wave part of the spectrum is also allowed to have an arbitrary ratio relative to the long wave part. The foam fraction is multiplied by a variable correction factor, and also modulated to allow an anisotropic foam fraction with more foam on the leeward side of a wave. The model is being tuned against multi-year sequences of WindSat and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI) data as analyzed by Meissner and Wentz (2012, IEEE TGRS, 50, 3004) for up to four Stokes brightnesses and in all angular harmonics up to two in twenty five wind bins from 0.5-25.5 m/s and of 1 m/s width. As a result there are 40 brightnesses per wind bin, for a total of 1000 brightnesses used to constrain the modified model. A chi-squared tuning criterion based on error standard

  13. 3D MRI-based anisotropic FSI models with cyclic bending for human coronary atherosclerotic plaque mechanical analysis. (United States)

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Teng, Zhongzhao; Billiar, Kristen; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N


    Heart attack and stroke are often caused by atherosclerotic plaque rupture, which happens without warning most of the time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based atherosclerotic plaque models with fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. For coronary arteries, cyclic bending associated with heart motion and anisotropy of the vessel walls may have significant influence on flow and stress/strain distributions in the plaque. FSI models with cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties for coronary plaques are lacking in the current literature. In this paper, cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties were added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models so that the models would be more realistic for more accurate computational flow and stress/strain predictions. Six computational models using one ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque specimen data were constructed to assess the effects of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel properties, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. Our results indicate that cyclic bending and anisotropic properties may cause 50-800% increase in maximum principal stress (Stress-P1) values at selected locations. The stress increase varies with location and is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, nonsmooth plaque structure, and resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (9.8% decrease in maximum velocity, 2.5% decrease in flow rate, 15% increase in maximum flow shear stress). Inclusion of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel material properties, accurate plaque structure, and axial stretch in computational FSI models should lead to a considerable improvement of accuracy of computational stress/strain predictions for coronary plaque vulnerability

  14. Graphics processing unit (GPU)-based computation of heat conduction in thermally anisotropic solids (United States)

    Nahas, C. A.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu


    Numerical modeling of anisotropic media is a computationally intensive task since it brings additional complexity to the field problem in such a way that the physical properties are different in different directions. Largely used in the aerospace industry because of their lightweight nature, composite materials are a very good example of thermally anisotropic media. With advancements in video gaming technology, parallel processors are much cheaper today and accessibility to higher-end graphical processing devices has increased dramatically over the past couple of years. Since these massively parallel GPUs are very good in handling floating point arithmetic, they provide a new platform for engineers and scientists to accelerate their numerical models using commodity hardware. In this paper we implement a parallel finite difference model of thermal diffusion through anisotropic media using the NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified device Architecture). We use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 560 Ti as our primary computing device which consists of 384 CUDA cores clocked at 1645 MHz with a standard desktop pc as the host platform. We compare the results from standard CPU implementation for its accuracy and speed and draw implications for simulation using the GPU paradigm.

  15. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  16. 3D controlled-source electromagnetic modeling in anisotropic medium using edge-based finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Xiong, Bin; Han, Muran


    This paper presents a linear edge-based finite element method for numerical modeling of 3D controlled-source electromagnetic data in an anisotropic conductive medium. We use a nonuniform rectangular mesh in order to capture the rapid change of diffusive electromagnetic field within the regions...... of anomalous conductivity and close to the location of the source. In order to avoid the source singularity, we solve Maxwell's equation with respect to anomalous electric field. The nonuniform rectangular mesh can be transformed to hexahedral mesh in order to simulate the bathymetry effect. The sparse system...

  17. Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources (United States)

    Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha


    We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.

  18. One-way acoustic mirror based on anisotropic zero-index media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhong-ming; Liang, Bin, E-mail:, E-mail:; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Jian-chun, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zou, Xin-ye [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Yong [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506, France and Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Yang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    We have designed a one-way acoustic mirror comprising anisotropic zero-index media. For acoustic beam incident at a particular angle, the designed structure behaves like a high-efficient mirror that redirects almost all the incident energy into another direction predicted by the Snell's law, while becoming virtually transparent to beams propagating reversely along this output path. Furthermore, the mirror can be tailored to work at arbitrary incident angle by simply adjusting its geometry. Our design, with undirectional reflection functionality and flexible working angle, may offer possibilities in space isolations and have deep implication in various scenarios like ultrasound imaging or noise control.

  19. Analysis of an aggregation-based algebraic two-grid method for a rotated anisotropic diffusion problem

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Meng-Huo


    Summary: A two-grid convergence analysis based on the paper [Algebraic analysis of aggregation-based multigrid, by A. Napov and Y. Notay, Numer. Lin. Alg. Appl. 18 (2011), pp. 539-564] is derived for various aggregation schemes applied to a finite element discretization of a rotated anisotropic diffusion equation. As expected, it is shown that the best aggregation scheme is one in which aggregates are aligned with the anisotropy. In practice, however, this is not what automatic aggregation procedures do. We suggest approaches for determining appropriate aggregates based on eigenvectors associated with small eigenvalues of a block splitting matrix or based on minimizing a quantity related to the spectral radius of the iteration matrix. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Isotropic and anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB-based magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering and hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.W.; Huang, Y.L.; Huang, H.Y.; Zhong, X.C.; Yu, Y.H.; Zeng, D.C.


    Isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB permanent magnets were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and SPS followed hot deformation (HD), respectively, using melt spun NdFeB ribbons with various compositions as starting materials. It is found that, based on RE-rich composition, SPSed magnets sintered at low temperatures (<700 C) almost maintained the uniform fine grain structure inherited from rapid quenching. At higher temperatures, a distinct two-zone (coarse grain and fine grain zones) structure was formed in the SPSed magnets. The SPS temperature and pressure have important effects on the grain structure, which led to the variations in the magnetic properties. By employing low SPS temperature and high pressure, high-density magnets with negligible coarse grain zone and an excellent combination of magnetic properties can be obtained. For single phase NdFeB alloy, because of the deficiency of Nd-rich phases, it is relatively difficult to consolidate micro-sized melt spun powders into high density bulk magnet, but generally a larger particle size is beneficial to achieve better magnetic properties. Anisotropic magnets with a maximum energy product of approx. equal to 38 MGOe were produced by the SPS+HD process. HD did not lead to obvious grain growth and the two-zone structure still existed in the hot deformed magnets. The results indicated that nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets without significant grain growth and with excellent properties could be obtained by SPS and HD processes. (author)

  1. Fast reversible learning based on neurons functioning as anisotropic multiplex hubs (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Sheinin, Anton; Sardi, Shira; Kanter, Ido


    Neural networks are composed of neurons and synapses, which are responsible for learning in a slow adaptive dynamical process. Here we experimentally show that neurons act like independent anisotropic multiplex hubs, which relay and mute incoming signals following their input directions. Theoretically, the observed information routing enriches the computational capabilities of neurons by allowing, for instance, equalization among different information routes in the network, as well as high-frequency transmission of complex time-dependent signals constructed via several parallel routes. In addition, this kind of hubs adaptively eliminate very noisy neurons from the dynamics of the network, preventing masking of information transmission. The timescales for these features are several seconds at most, as opposed to the imprint of information by the synaptic plasticity, a process which exceeds minutes. Results open the horizon to the understanding of fast and adaptive learning realities in higher cognitive brain's functionalities.

  2. New X-Ray Tomography Method Based on the 3D Radon Transform Compatible with Anisotropic Sources. (United States)

    Vassholz, M; Koberstein-Schwarz, B; Ruhlandt, A; Krenkel, M; Salditt, T


    In this work, we propose a novel computed tomography (CT) approach for three-dimensional (3D) object reconstruction, based on a generalized tomographic geometry with two-dimensional angular sampling (two angular degrees of freedom). The reconstruction is based on the 3D Radon transform and is compatible with anisotropic beam conditions. This allows isotropic 3D imaging with a source, which can be extended along one direction for increased flux, while high resolution is achieved by a small source size only in the orthogonal direction. This novel scheme for analytical CT is demonstrated by numerical simulations and proof-of-concept experiments. In this way high resolution and coherence along a single direction determines the reconstruction quality of the entire 3D data set, opening up, for example, new opportunities to achieve nanoscale resolution and/or phase contrast with low brilliance sources such as laboratory x-ray or neutron sources.

  3. Anisotropic energy gaps of iron-based superconductivity from intraband quasiparticle interference in LiFeAs. (United States)

    Allan, M P; Rost, A W; Mackenzie, A P; Xie, Yang; Davis, J C; Kihou, K; Lee, C H; Iyo, A; Eisaki, H; Chuang, T-M


    If strong electron-electron interactions between neighboring Fe atoms mediate the Cooper pairing in iron-pnictide superconductors, then specific and distinct anisotropic superconducting energy gaps Δ(i)(k) should appear on the different electronic bands i. Here, we introduce intraband Bogoliubov quasiparticle scattering interference (QPI) techniques for determination of Δ(i)(k) in such materials, focusing on lithium iron arsenide (LiFeAs). We identify the three hole-like bands assigned previously as γ, α(2), and α(1), and we determine the anisotropy, magnitude, and relative orientations of their Δ(i)(k). These measurements will advance quantitative theoretical analysis of the mechanism of Cooper pairing in iron-based superconductivity.

  4. Viscoelastic Anisotropic Constitutive Law for Rock Shales based on Laboratory Creep Experiments (United States)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Sone, Hiroki; Dabrowski, Marcin


    In situ stress prediction is critical for successful hydraulic fracturing and later exploitation of an unconventional shale gas/oil reservoir. In order to provide stress models during and after fracturing a reliable stress-strain constitutive law is needed. The most popular models used in the petroleum industry take into account only elastic constitutive laws, which have the assumption of no energy dissipation. As was shown by several authors (e.g. Warpinsky 1986, Gunzburger&Cornet 2007, Sone&Zoback 2013, 2014) viscoelastic creep strain and stress relaxation reach significant amounts in rock shales and should be considered in stress modeling. Viscoelastic functions needed for the constitutive law were obtained during creep experiments on horizontal and vertical shale plugs. We were not in the possesion of samples cut at 45˚ to bedding, and because of that the constitutive relation is limited to the normal strains and stresses. During experiments two creep functions, Ch(t)and Cv(t), and two hereditary Poisson's ratio functions v12(t)and v13(t)were measured. In this paper we present laboratory procedures for creep tests, basic theory of anisotropic (vertical transverse isotropy) viscoelastic constitutive modeling and a simple model of stress relaxation after application of constant strain.

  5. Anisotropic stress rupture properties of the nickel-base single crystal superalloy SRR99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, G.M.; Yu, J.J.; Sun, Y.L.; Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q.


    The influence of orientation on the stress rupture properties of a single crystal superalloy SRR99 was investigated at temperatures of 760 and 1040 deg. C. It is found that the creep anisotropic behaviour is pronounced at the lower temperature of 760 deg. C and the stress rupture life ranks in the order [0 0 1] > [1 1 1] > [0 1 1]. Despite the anisotropy of stress rupture life is evidently reduced at the higher temperature, the [1 1 1] orientation exhibits the longest life. At 760 deg. C, EBSD (electron back scattered diffraction) was adopted to measure the lattice rotation and the deduced results indicate that the dominant slip systems are {1 1 1} during stress rupture test. At 1040 deg. C, the ranking order of the stress rupture life is [1 1 1] > [0 0 1] > [0 1 1] and the single crystal close to [0 1 1] orientation still shows the poorest life. In the [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] samples, regular γ' raft structure is formed compared with [0 1 1] samples. Further observations made by TEM investigations reveal the underlying deformation mechanisms for crystals with orientations near [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] under two test conditions.

  6. gle d'installation détection d'intrusion

    CERN Document Server


    Une installation de détection d’intrusion a pour objectif la surveillance des éléments de valeur par la mise en œuvre de moyens de détection automatiques destinés à détecter et à signaler l’approche, la pénétration et/ou le déplacement d’un intrus dans les zones à surveiller. Pour garantir la mise en œuvre d’un système efficace et adapté aux besoins du client, la règle APSAD R81 définit des exigences techniques minimales et une méthodologie en quatre étapes : une analyse de risque pour préciser le niveau de surveillance et les solutions techniques à mettre en place, puis les phases de conception, de réalisation et de maintenance de l’installation.

  7. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...... correlation to the curing time. The experiments show no correlation between the anisotropy and the curing time and a small strength difference between the two drilling directions. The literature shows variations on which drilling direction that is strongest. Based on a Monto Carlo simulation of the expected...

  8. Estimation of anisotropic permeability in trabecular bone based on microCT imaging and pore-scale fluid dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Daish, C; Blanchard, R; Gulati, K; Losic, D; Findlay, D; Harvie, D J E; Pivonka, P


    In this paper, a comprehensive framework is proposed to estimate the anisotropic permeability matrix in trabecular bone specimens based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) imaging combined with pore-scale fluid dynamics simulations. Two essential steps in the proposed methodology are the selection of (i) a representative volume element (RVE) for calculation of trabecular bone permeability and (ii) a converged mesh for accurate calculation of pore fluid flow properties. Accurate estimates of trabecular bone porosities are obtained using a microCT image resolution of approximately 10 μm. We show that a trabecular bone RVE in the order of 2 × 2 × 2 mm 3 is most suitable. Mesh convergence studies show that accurate fluid flow properties are obtained for a mesh size above 125,000 elements. Volume averaging of the pore-scale fluid flow properties allows calculation of the apparent permeability matrix of trabecular bone specimens. For the four specimens chosen, our numerical results show that the so obtained permeability coefficients are in excellent agreement with previously reported experimental data for both human and bovine trabecular bone samples. We also identified that bone samples taken from long bones generally exhibit a larger permeability in the longitudinal direction. The fact that all coefficients of the permeability matrix were different from zero indicates that bone samples are generally not harvested in the principal flow directions. The full permeability matrix was diagonalized by calculating the eigenvalues, while the eigenvectors showed how strongly the bone sample's orientations deviated from the principal flow directions. Porosity values of the four bone specimens range from 0.83 to 0.86, with a low standard deviation of ± 0.016, principal permeability values range from 0.22 to 1.45 ⋅ 10  -8  m 2 , with a high standard deviation of ± 0.33. Also, the anisotropic ratio ranged from 0.27 to 0.83, with high standard deviation. These

  9. Anisotropic interaction rules in circular motions of pigeon flocks: An empirical study based on sparse Bayesian learning (United States)

    Chen, Duxin; Xu, Bowen; Zhu, Tao; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Hai-Tao


    Coordination shall be deemed to the result of interindividual interaction among natural gregarious animal groups. However, revealing the underlying interaction rules and decision-making strategies governing highly coordinated motion in bird flocks is still a long-standing challenge. Based on analysis of high spatial-temporal resolution GPS data of three pigeon flocks, we extract the hidden interaction principle by using a newly emerging machine learning method, namely the sparse Bayesian learning. It is observed that the interaction probability has an inflection point at pairwise distance of 3-4 m closer than the average maximum interindividual distance, after which it decays strictly with rising pairwise metric distances. Significantly, the density of spatial neighbor distribution is strongly anisotropic, with an evident lack of interactions along individual velocity. Thus, it is found that in small-sized bird flocks, individuals reciprocally cooperate with a variational number of neighbors in metric space and tend to interact with closer time-varying neighbors, rather than interacting with a fixed number of topological ones. Finally, extensive numerical investigation is conducted to verify both the revealed interaction and decision-making principle during circular flights of pigeon flocks.

  10. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof


    in addition to the elastic strain. Hill's classical anisotropic yield criterion is extended to cover the composite such that hydrostatic pressure dependency, Bauschinger stress and size-effects are considered. It is found that depending on the fiber volume fraction, the anisotropic yield surface......Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response...

  11. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq


    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  12. Interaction of H2 with simple metal surfaces - A model based on the anisotropic effective medium theory (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.


    Calculations are presented for the interaction of H2 with surfaces of Cu, Ag, Au and Al. The repulsive part of the potential is evaluated using the results of anisotropic effective medium theory (AEMT) while the attractive part is calculated from anisotropic damped dipole-dipole and damped dipole-quadrupole interactions. The model does not have any fitting parameters and its predictions are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. The anisotropy of H2 is included in the model but our results show that this effect is very small.

  13. Transient finite element magnetic field calculation method in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, M.; Gorican, V.; Trlep, M.; Hamler, A.; Stumberger, B.


    A lot of magnetic materials are anisotropic. In the 3D finite element method calculation, anisotropy of the material is taken into account. Anisotropic magnetic material is described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The 3D transient calculation of the rotational magnetic field in the sample of the round rotational single sheet tester with circular sample considering eddy currents is made and compared with the measurement to verify the correctness of the method and to analyze the magnetic field in the sample

  14. A Variational Approach to Perturbed Discrete Anisotropic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Salari


    Full Text Available We continue the study of discrete anisotropic equations and we will provide new multiplicity results of the solutions for a discrete anisotropic equation. We investigate the existence of infinitely many solutions for a perturbed discrete anisotropic boundary value problem. The approach is based on variational methods and critical point theory.

  15. Highly Anisotropic Conductors. (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Zhi; Kirsch, Dylan; Jia, Chao; Xu, Rui; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhu, Mingwei; Xu, Lisha; Chen, Chaoji; Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Yilin; Hitz, Emily; Lacey, Steven D; Li, Yongfeng; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing


    Composite materials with ordered microstructures often lead to enhanced functionalities that a single material can hardly achieve. Many biomaterials with unusual microstructures can be found in nature; among them, many possess anisotropic and even directional physical and chemical properties. With inspiration from nature, artificial composite materials can be rationally designed to achieve this anisotropic behavior with desired properties. Here, a metallic wood with metal continuously filling the wood vessels is developed, which demonstrates excellent anisotropic electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The well-aligned metal rods are confined and separated by the wood vessels, which deliver directional electron transport parallel to the alignment direction. Thus, the novel metallic wood composite boasts an extraordinary anisotropic electrical conductivity (σ || /σ ⊥ ) in the order of 10 11 , and anisotropic thermal conductivity (κ || /κ ⊥ ) of 18. These values exceed the highest reported values in existing anisotropic composite materials. The anisotropic functionality of the metallic wood enables it to be used for thermal management applications, such as thermal insulation and thermal dissipation. The highly anisotropic metallic wood serves as an example for further anisotropic materials design; other composite materials with different biotemplates/hosts and fillers can achieve even higher anisotropic ratios, allowing them to be implemented in a variety of applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A new wave front shape-based approach for acoustic source localization in an anisotropic plate without knowing its material properties. (United States)

    Sen, Novonil; Kundu, Tribikram


    Estimating the location of an acoustic source in a structure is an important step towards passive structural health monitoring. Techniques for localizing an acoustic source in isotropic structures are well developed in the literature. Development of similar techniques for anisotropic structures, however, has gained attention only in the recent years and has a scope of further improvement. Most of the existing techniques for anisotropic structures either assume a straight line wave propagation path between the source and an ultrasonic sensor or require the material properties to be known. This study considers different shapes of the wave front generated during an acoustic event and develops a methodology to localize the acoustic source in an anisotropic plate from those wave front shapes. An elliptical wave front shape-based technique was developed first, followed by the development of a parametric curve-based technique for non-elliptical wave front shapes. The source coordinates are obtained by minimizing an objective function. The proposed methodology does not assume a straight line wave propagation path and can predict the source location without any knowledge of the elastic properties of the material. A numerical study presented here illustrates how the proposed methodology can accurately estimate the source coordinates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS2 field-effect transistors (United States)

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching-Hwa; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Cao, Zhengyi; Wang, Laiguo; Li, Aidong; Zeng, Junwen; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xinran; Shi, Yi; Yuan, Hongtao; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu


    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS2) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS2 field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (∼107) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconducting materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS2 anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications. PMID:25947630

  18. Prediction of brittleness based on anisotropic rock physics model for kerogen-rich shale (United States)

    Qian, Ke-Ran; He, Zhi-Liang; Chen, Ye-Quan; Liu, Xi-Wu; Li, Xiang-Yang


    The construction of a shale rock physics model and the selection of an appropriate brittleness index ( BI) are two significant steps that can influence the accuracy of brittleness prediction. On one hand, the existing models of kerogen-rich shale are controversial, so a reasonable rock physics model needs to be built. On the other hand, several types of equations already exist for predicting the BI whose feasibility needs to be carefully considered. This study constructed a kerogen-rich rock physics model by performing the selfconsistent approximation and the differential effective medium theory to model intercoupled clay and kerogen mixtures. The feasibility of our model was confirmed by comparison with classical models, showing better accuracy. Templates were constructed based on our model to link physical properties and the BI. Different equations for the BI had different sensitivities, making them suitable for different types of formations. Equations based on Young's Modulus were sensitive to variations in lithology, while those using Lame's Coefficients were sensitive to porosity and pore fluids. Physical information must be considered to improve brittleness prediction.

  19. Programmable and functional electrothermal bimorph actuators based on large-area anisotropic carbon nanotube paper (United States)

    Li, Qingwei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan


    Electro-active polymer (EAP) actuators, such as electronic, ionic and electrothermal (ET) actuators, have become an important branch of next-generation soft actuators in bionic robotics. However, most reported EAP actuators could realize only simple movements, being restricted by the small area of flexible electrodes and simple designs. We prepared large-area flexible electrodes of high anisotropy, made of oriented carbon nanotube (CNT) paper, and carried out artful graphic designs and processing on the electrodes to make functional ET bimorph actuators which can realize large bending deformations (over 220°, curvature > 1.5 cm-1) and bionic movements driven by electricity. The anisotropy of CNT paper benefits electrode designs and multiform actuations for complex actuators. Based on the large-area CNT paper, more interesting and functional actuators can be designed and prepared which will have practical applications in the fields of artificial muscles, complicated actuations, and soft and bionic robotics.

  20. Forward and inverse problems for surface acoustic waves in anisotropic media: A Ritz-Rayleigh method based approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoklasová, Pavla; Sedlák, Petr; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal


    Roč. 56, February 2015 (2015), s. 381-389 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP101/12/P428 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : surface acoustic waves * anisotropic materials * Ritz-Rayleigh method * inverse problem Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.954, year: 2015

  1. Survey on visualization and analysis techniques based on diffusion MRI for in-vivo anisotropic diffusion structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masutani, Yoshitaka; Sato, Tetsuo; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Bihan, D.L.


    In association with development of diffusion MR imaging technologies for anisotropic diffusion measurement in living body, related research is explosively increasing including research fields of applied mathematics and visualization in addition to MR imaging, biomedical image technology, and medical science. One of the reasons is that the diffusion MRI data set is a set of high dimensional image information beyond conventional scalar or vector images, and is attractive for the researchers in the related fields. This survey paper is mainly aimed at introducing state-of-the-art of post processing techniques reported in the literature for diffusion MRI data, such as analysis and visualization. (author)

  2. A 3D finite element-based model order reduction method for parametric resonance and whirling analysis of anisotropic rotor-bearing systems (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; He, Zhengjia


    A generalized and efficient model for rotating anisotropic rotor-bearing systems is presented in this paper with full considerations of the system's anisotropy in stiffness, inertia and damping. Based on the 3D finite element model and the model order reduction method, the effects of anisotropy in shaft and bearings on the forced response and whirling of anisotropic rotor-bearing systems are systematically investigated. First, the coefficients of journal bearings are transformed from the fixed frame to the rotating one. Due to the anisotropy in shaft and bearings, the motion is governed by differential equations with periodically time-variant coefficients. Then, a free-interface complex component mode synthesis (CMS) method is employed to generate efficient reduced-order models (ROM) for the periodically time-variant systems. In order to solve the obtained equations, a variant of Hill's method for systems with multiple harmonic excitations is developed. Four dimensionless parameters are defined to quantify the types and levels of anisotropy of bearings. Finally, the effects of the four types of anisotropy on the forced response and whirl orbits are studied. Numerical results show that the anisotropy of bearings in stiffness splits the sole resonant peak into two isolated ones, but the anisotropy of bearings in damping coefficients mainly affect the response amplitudes. Moreover, the whirl orbits become much more complex when the shaft and bearings are both anisotropic. In addition, the cross-coupling stiffness coefficients of bearings significantly affect the dynamic behaviors of the systems and cannot be neglected, though they are often much smaller than the principle stiffness terms.

  3. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand


    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  4. Anisotropic light diffusion: an oxymoron? (United States)

    Kienle, Alwin


    Light propagation in anisotropic random media is studied in the steady-state and time domains. Solutions of the anisotropic diffusion equation are compared to results obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Contrary to what has been reported so far, we find that even in the "diffusive regime" the anisotropic diffusion equation does not describe correctly the light propagation in anisotropic random media.

  5. Atmospheric Cosmic-Ray Variation and Ambient Dose Equivalent Assessments Considering Ground Level Enhancement Thanks to Coupled Anisotropic Solar Cosmic Ray and Extensive Air Shower Modeling. (United States)

    Hubert, Guillaume; Aubry, Sébastien


    This work investigates the impact of Forbush decrease (FD) and ground-level enhancement (GLE) in the atmosphere, based on solar and galactic cosmic-ray models and the extensive air shower simulations. This approach gives the possibility to investigate both the dynamic behavior of neutron monitors (NM) (using response function) and the flight dose. The ambient dose equivalent during quiet solar activity and solar events (i.e., FDs and GLEs) were investigated for realistic flight plans issued from the Eurocontrol Demand Data Repository. The calculated ambient dose equivalents were compared with flight measurements in quiet solar conditions; comparisons are relevant and demonstrate the ability to estimate the dose level. The GLE model was validated for the GLEs 5 and 69 using the cosmic-ray variation recorded by NMs. The GLE model was applied to flight dose calculations. All of these results show that dose values vary drastically with the route path (latitude, longitude and altitude) and with the delay between the flight departure and the solar event occurrence. Doses induced by extreme GLE events were investigated specifically for London to New York flights, and resulting additional doses are a few hundred or 1,000 μSv, impacting significantly the annual effective dose. This highlights the importance of monitoring extreme solar events and using realistic semi-empirical and particle transport methods for reliable calculation of dose levels.

  6. Mécanisme d'auto-organisation corticale : un modèle basé sur la règle de plasticité synaptique BCM


    Girod, Thomas; Alexandre, Frédéric


    ISBN : 978-2-9532965-0-1; L'auto-organisation est un principe de traitement et de représentation de l'information important dans le cortex cérébral. Kohonen a popularisé ce principe dans son célèbre modèle de carte auto-organisatrice. Cependant la règle d'apprentissage associée à ce modéle et portant sur les connexions corticales montantes souffre d'un certain nombre de faiblesses qui limitent sa plausibilité biologique et son domaine d'utilisation. Nous avons repris la règle d'apprentissage ...

  7. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope. (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M


    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  8. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  9. Multimodal brain-tumor segmentation based on Dirichlet process mixture model with anisotropic diffusion and Markov random field prior. (United States)

    Lu, Yisu; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan


    Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use.

  10. Anisotropic Lyra cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra's geometry. Two types of models, one with constant deceleration parameter and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field.

  11. Hot deformed anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB based magnets prepared from spark plasma sintered melt spun powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y.H.; Huang, Y.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Z.W., E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)


    Highlights: • Microstructure evolution and its influence on the magnetic properties were investigated. • The increase of stray field and weakening of domain-wall pinning effects were the main reasons of the decrease of the coercivity with increasing the compression ratio. • The influences of non-uniform plastic deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. • Magnetic properties and temperature coefficient of coercivity are indeed very promising without heavy rare earth elements. -- Abstract: Anisotropic magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot deformation (HD) using melt-spun powders as the starting material. Good magnetic properties with the remanence J{sub r} > 1.32 T and maximum of energy product (BH){sub max} > 303 kJ/m{sup 3} have been obtained. The microstructure evolution during HD and its influence on the magnetic properties were investigated. The fine grain zone and coarse grain zone formed in the SPS showed different deformation behaviors. The microstructure also had an important effect on the temperature coefficients of coercivity. A strong domain-wall pinning model was valid to interpret the coercivity mechanism of the HDed magnets. The increase of stray field and weakening of domain-wall pinning effects were the main reasons of the decrease of the coercivity with increasing the compression ratio. The influences of non-uniform plastic deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. The polarization characteristics of HDed magnets were demonstrated. It was found out that the HDed magnets had better corrosion resistance than the counterpart sintered magnet.

  12. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon


    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  13. A Morphing framework to couple non-local and local anisotropic continua

    KAUST Repository

    Azdoud, Yan


    In this article, we develop a method to couple anisotropic local continua with anisotropic non-local continua with central long-range forces. First, we describe anisotropic non-local models based on spherical harmonic descriptions. We then derive compatible classic continuum models. Finally, we apply the morphing method to these anisotropic non-local models and present three-dimensional numerical examples to validate the efficiency of the technique. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm


    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  15. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage in DP600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.


    Plasticity induced damage development in metals is anisotropic by nature. The anisotropy in damage is driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic deformation state i.e. Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic microstructure i.e. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). The

  16. Giant voltage manipulation of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions via localized anisotropic strain: A potential pathway to ultra-energy-efficient memory technology (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyang; Jamali, Mahdi; D'Souza, Noel; Zhang, Delin; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Wang, Jian-Ping


    Voltage control of magnetization via strain in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive systems is a promising mechanism to implement energy-efficient straintronic memory devices. Here, we demonstrate giant voltage manipulation of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 piezoelectric substrate with (001) orientation. It is found that the magnetic easy axis, switching field, and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of the MTJ can be efficiently controlled by strain from the underlying piezoelectric layer upon the application of a gate voltage. Repeatable voltage controlled MTJ toggling between high/low-resistance states is demonstrated. More importantly, instead of relying on the intrinsic anisotropy of the piezoelectric substrate to generate the required strain, we utilize anisotropic strain produced using a local gating scheme, which is scalable and amenable to practical memory applications. Additionally, the adoption of crystalline MgO-based MTJ on piezoelectric layer lends itself to high TMR in the strain-mediated MRAM devices.

  17. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance driven by magnetic phase transition. (United States)

    Chen, X Z; Feng, J F; Wang, Z C; Zhang, J; Zhong, X Y; Song, C; Jin, L; Zhang, B; Li, F; Jiang, M; Tan, Y Z; Zhou, X J; Shi, G Y; Zhou, X F; Han, X D; Mao, S C; Chen, Y H; Han, X F; Pan, F


    The independent control of two magnetic electrodes and spin-coherent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions are strictly required for tunneling magnetoresistance, while junctions with only one ferromagnetic electrode exhibit tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance dependent on the anisotropic density of states with no room temperature performance so far. Here, we report an alternative approach to obtaining tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in α'-FeRh-based junctions driven by the magnetic phase transition of α'-FeRh and resultantly large variation of the density of states in the vicinity of MgO tunneling barrier, referred to as phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance. The junctions with only one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode show a magnetoresistance ratio up to 20% at room temperature. Both the polarity and magnitude of the phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance can be modulated by interfacial engineering at the α'-FeRh/MgO interface. Besides the fundamental significance, our finding might add a different dimension to magnetic random access memory and antiferromagnet spintronics.Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance is promising for next generation memory devices but limited by the low efficiency and functioning temperature. Here the authors achieved 20% tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature in magnetic tunnel junctions with one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode.

  18. Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Streck


    Full Text Available Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR change the phase behavior of different lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS produced by emulsion phase inversion. The surfactant mixture composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium oleate (1:7, w/w, hydrophilic lipophilic balance = 16 stabilized medium chain triglyceride in water. Ten formulations with the clear aspect or less turbid dispersions (five with the SOR ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and five with the OWR from 0.06 to 0.4 were selected from the phase behavior diagram to assess structural features and drug-loading capacity. The rise in the SOR induced the formation of distinct lipid-based drug delivery systems (nanoemulsions and liquid crystal lamellar type that were identified using rheological measurements and cross-polarized light microscopy images. Clear dispersions of small and narrow droplet-sized liquid-like nanoemulsions, Newtonian flow-type, were produced at SOR from 0.5 to 1.5 and OWR from 0.12 to 0.4, while clear liquid or gel-like liquid crystals were produced at SOR from 1.5 to 2.5. The BNZ loading was improved according to the composition and type of LBDDS produced, suggesting possible drug location among surfactant layers. The cell viability assays proved the biocompatibility for all of the prepared nanoemulsions at SOR less than 1.5 and liquid crystals at SOR less than 2.5, demonstrating their promising features for the oral or parenteral colloidal delivery systems containing benznidazole for Chagas disease treatment.

  19. Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Daniel [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Patiño, Leonardo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Trancanelli, Diego [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo,05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)


    We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a ‘Minkowski embedding’, in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a ‘black hole embedding’, in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on the black hole temperature, its degree of anisotropy, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.

  20. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Tao Xie


    Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  1. Anisotropic thermal expansion of SnSe from first-principles calculations based on Grüneisen's theory. (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Hui


    Based on Grüneisen's theory, the elastic properties and thermal expansion of bulk SnSe with the Pnma phase are investigated by using first-principles calculations. Our numerical results indicate that the linear thermal expansion coefficient along the a direction is smaller than the one along the b direction, while the one along the c direction shows a significant negative value, even at high temperature. The numerical results are in good accordance with experimental results. In addition, generalized and macroscopic Grüneisen parameters are also presented. It is also found that SnSe possesses negative Possion's ratio. The contributions of different phonon modes to NTE along the c direction are investigated, and it is found that the two modes which make the most important contributions to NTE are transverse vibrations perpendicular to the c direction. Finally, we analyze the relation of elastic constants to negative thermal expansion, and demonstrate that negative thermal expansion can also occur even with all positive macroscopic Grüneisen parameters.

  2. Electrical wave propagation in an anisotropic model of the left ventricle based on analytical description of cardiac architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F Pravdin

    Full Text Available We develop a numerical approach based on our recent analytical model of fiber structure in the left ventricle of the human heart. A special curvilinear coordinate system is proposed to analytically include realistic ventricular shape and myofiber directions. With this anatomical model, electrophysiological simulations can be performed on a rectangular coordinate grid. We apply our method to study the effect of fiber rotation and electrical anisotropy of cardiac tissue (i.e., the ratio of the conductivity coefficients along and across the myocardial fibers on wave propagation using the ten Tusscher-Panfilov (2006 ionic model for human ventricular cells. We show that fiber rotation increases the speed of cardiac activation and attenuates the effects of anisotropy. Our results show that the fiber rotation in the heart is an important factor underlying cardiac excitation. We also study scroll wave dynamics in our model and show the drift of a scroll wave filament whose velocity depends non-monotonically on the fiber rotation angle; the period of scroll wave rotation decreases with an increase of the fiber rotation angle; an increase in anisotropy may cause the breakup of a scroll wave, similar to the mother rotor mechanism of ventricular fibrillation.

  3. Electrical wave propagation in an anisotropic model of the left ventricle based on analytical description of cardiac architecture. (United States)

    Pravdin, Sergey F; Dierckx, Hans; Katsnelson, Leonid B; Solovyova, Olga; Markhasin, Vladimir S; Panfilov, Alexander V


    We develop a numerical approach based on our recent analytical model of fiber structure in the left ventricle of the human heart. A special curvilinear coordinate system is proposed to analytically include realistic ventricular shape and myofiber directions. With this anatomical model, electrophysiological simulations can be performed on a rectangular coordinate grid. We apply our method to study the effect of fiber rotation and electrical anisotropy of cardiac tissue (i.e., the ratio of the conductivity coefficients along and across the myocardial fibers) on wave propagation using the ten Tusscher-Panfilov (2006) ionic model for human ventricular cells. We show that fiber rotation increases the speed of cardiac activation and attenuates the effects of anisotropy. Our results show that the fiber rotation in the heart is an important factor underlying cardiac excitation. We also study scroll wave dynamics in our model and show the drift of a scroll wave filament whose velocity depends non-monotonically on the fiber rotation angle; the period of scroll wave rotation decreases with an increase of the fiber rotation angle; an increase in anisotropy may cause the breakup of a scroll wave, similar to the mother rotor mechanism of ventricular fibrillation.

  4. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif


    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  5. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.


    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  6. Photon states in anisotropic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Quantum aspects of optical polarization are discussed for waves traveling in anisotropic dielectric media with a view to relate the dynamics of polarization with that of photon spin and its manipulation by classical polarizers.

  7. Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators from Anisotropic Porous Polymer Template. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Li; Yu, Meina; Zhao, Dongyu; Song, Ping; Chi, Hun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Huai


    Controlling self-assembly behaviors of liquid crystals is a fundamental issue for designing them as intelligent actuators. Here, anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is utilized as a template to induce homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals. The mechanism of liquid crystal alignment induced by anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is illustrated based on the relationship between the alignment behavior of liquid crystals and surface microstructure of anisotropic polyvinylidene fluoride film. Liquid crystal elastomer actuators with fast responsiveness, large strain change, and reversible actuation behaviors are achieved by the photopolymerization of liquid crystal monomer in liquid crystal cells coated with anisotropic porous films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail:


    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  9. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.


    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  10. Application of the anisotropic phase-field crystal model to investigate the lattice systems of different anisotropic parameters and orientations (United States)

    Kundin, Julia; Ajmal Choudhary, Muhammad


    In this article, we present the recent advances in the development of the anisotropic phase-field crystal (APFC) model. These advances are important in basic researches for multiferroic and thermoelectric materials with anisotropic crystal lattices and in thin-film applications. We start by providing a general description of the model derived in our previous studies based on the crystal symmetry and the microscopic dynamical density functional theory for anisotropic interactions and show that there exist only two possible degrees of freedom for the anisotropic lattices which are described by two independent parameters. New findings concerning the applications of the APFC model for the estimation of the elastic modules of anisotropic systems including sheared and stretched lattices as well as for the investigation of the heterogeneous thin film growth are described. The simulation results demonstrate the strong dependency of the misfit dislocation formation during the film growth on the anisotropy and reveal the asymmetric behavior in the cases of positive and negative misfits. We also present the development of the amplitude representation for the full APFC model of two orientation variants and show the relationship between the wave vectors and the base angles of the anisotropic lattices.

  11. Multi-Physics MRI-Based Two-Layer Fluid-Structure Interaction Anisotropic Models of Human Right and Left Ventricles with Different Patch Materials: Cardiac Function Assessment and Mechanical Stress Analysis. (United States)

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Geva, Tal; Gaudette, Glenn; Del Nido, Pedro J


    Multi-physics right and left ventricle (RV/LV) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models were introduced to perform mechanical stress analysis and evaluate the effect of patch materials on RV function. The FSI models included three different patch materials (Dacron scaffold, treated pericardium, and contracting myocardium), two-layer construction, fiber orientation, and active anisotropic material properties. The models were constructed based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images acquired from a patient with severe RV dilatation and solved by ADINA. Our results indicate that the patch model with contracting myocardium leads to decreased stress level in the patch area, improved RV function and patch area contractility.

  12. Anisotropic behavior of quantum transport in graphene superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan


    We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength of multi...... orders of magnitude, and suggesting the possibility of building graphene electronic circuits based on the unique properties of chiral massless Dirac fermions in graphene.......We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength...

  13. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C


    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  14. Analytical Method and Semianalytical Method for Analysis of Scattering by Anisotropic Sphere: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wan


    Full Text Available The history of methods for the electromagnetic scattering by an anisotropic sphere has been reviewed. Two main methods, angular expansion method and T-matrix method, which are widely used for the anisotropic sphere, are expressed in Cartesian coordinate firstly. The comparison of those and the further exploration on the scattering field are illustrated afterwards. Based on the most general form concluded by variable separation method, the coupled electric field and magnetic field of radial anisotropic sphere can be derived. By simplifying the condition, simpler case of uniaxial anisotropic media is expressed with confirmed coefficients for the internal and external field. Details of significant phenomenon are presented.

  15. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael


    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.

  16. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...

  17. Failure in imperfect anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    The fundamental cause of crack growth, namely nucleation and growth of voids, is investigated numerically for a two phase imperfect anisotropic material. A unit cell approach is adopted from which the overall stress strain is evaluated. Failure is observed as a sudden stress drop and depending...

  18. An approach to anisotropic cosmologies. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.


    In this paper the motivation for the study of anisotropic cosmological models is set out. Then the mathematical basis for the study of such models as well as the description of some of the exact solutions of this genre are given. Killing vectors that spell out spacetime symmetries, are defined and the Bianchi classification of spacetimes based on the structure of the Killing vectors described. After a consideration of the kinematics of matter flow some of the known solutions are presented and their properties described. (author)

  19. Sub-GLE Solar Particle Events and the Implications for Lightly-Shielded Systems Flown During an Era of Low Solar Activity (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney


    Many of the large space missions must be very rigorous in their designs to reduce risk from radiation damage as much as possible. Some ways of reducing this risk have been to build in multiple redundancies, purchase/develop radiation hardened electronics parts, and plan for worst case radiation environment scenarios. These methods work well for these ambitious missions that can afford the costs associated with these meticulous efforts. However, there have been more small spacecraft and CubeSats with smaller duration missions entering the space arena, which can take some additional risks, but cannot afford to implement all of these risk-reducing methods. Therefore, one way to quantify the radiation exposure risk for these smaller spacecraft would be to investigate the radiation environment pertinent to the mission to better understand these radiation exposures, rather than always designing to the infrequent, worst-case environment. In this study, we have investigated 34 historical solar particle events (1974-2010) that occurred during a time period when the sun spot number (SSN) was less than 30. These events contain Ground Level Events (GLE), sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs(sup 1-3). GLEs are extremely energetic solar particle events (SPEs) having proton energies often extending into the several GeV range and producing secondary particles in the atmosphere, mostly neutrons, observed with ground station neutron monitors. Sub-GLE events are less energetic, extending into the several hundred MeV range, but without producing detectable levels of secondary atmospheric particles. Sub-sub GLEs are even less energetic with an observable increase in protons at energies greater than 30 MeV, but no observable proton flux above 300 MeV. The spectra for these events were fitted using a double power law fit in particle rigidity, called the Band fit method. The differential spectra were then input into the NASA Langley Research Center HZETRN 2005, which is a high-energy particle

  20. Anisotropic local modification of crystal field levels in Pr-based pyrochlores: a muon-induced effect modeled using density functional theory. (United States)

    Foronda, F R; Lang, F; Möller, J S; Lancaster, T; Boothroyd, A T; Pratt, F L; Giblin, S R; Prabhakaran, D; Blundell, S J


    Although muon spin relaxation is commonly used to probe local magnetic order, spin freezing, and spin dynamics, we identify an experimental situation in which the measured response is dominated by an effect resulting from the muon-induced local distortion rather than the intrinsic behavior of the host compound. We demonstrate this effect in some quantum spin ice candidate materials Pr(2)B(2)O(7) (B=Sn, Zr, Hf), where we detect a static distribution of magnetic moments that appears to grow on cooling. Using density functional theory we show how this effect can be explained via a hyperfine enhancement arising from a splitting of the non-Kramers doublet ground states on Pr ions close to the muon, which itself causes a highly anisotropic distortion field. We provide a quantitative relationship between this effect and the measured temperature dependence of the muon relaxation and discuss the relevance of these observations to muon experiments in other magnetic materials.

  1. Effective Medium Theory for Anisotropic Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan


    This dissertation includes the study of effective medium theories (EMTs) and their applications in describing wave propagation in anisotropic metamaterials, which can guide the design of metamaterials. An EMT based on field averaging is proposed to describe a peculiar anisotropic dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. This dispersion relation is associated with the topological transition of the iso-frequency contours (IFCs), suggesting interesting wave propagation behaviors from beam shaping to beam splitting. In the framework of coherent potential approximation, an analytical EMT is further developed, with the ability to build a direct connection between the microscopic structure and the macroscopic material properties, which overcomes the requirement of prior knowledge of the field distributions. The derived EMT is valid beyond the long-wavelength limit. Using the EMT, an anisotropic zero-index metamaterial is designed. Moreover, the derived EMT imposes a condition that no scattered wave is generated in the ambient medium, which suggests the input signal cannot detect any object that might exist, making it invisible. Such correspondence between the EMT and the invisibilityinspires us to explore the wave cloaking in the same framework of coherent potential approximation. To further broaden the application realm of EMT, an EMT using the parameter retrieval method is studied in the regimes where the previously-developed EMTs are no longer accurate. Based on this study, in conjunction with the EMT mentioned above, a general scheme to realize coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in anisotropic metamaterials is proposed. As an exciting area in metamaterials, the field of metasurfaces has drawn great attention recently. As an easily attainable device, a grating may be the simplest version of metasurfaces. Here, an analytical EMT for gratings made of cylinders is developed by using the multiple scattering

  2. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi


    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate this ambiguity between the different parameters. We use dynamic ray tracing to efficiently handle the expensive computational cost for 3-D anisotropic models. Ray tracing provides also the ray direction information necessary for conditioning the sensitivity kernels to handle anisotropy. The NMO velocity and η parameter kernels showed a maximum sensitivity for diving waves which results in a relevant choice of those parameters in wave equation tomography. The δ parameter kernel showed zero sensitivity; therefore it can serve as a secondary parameter to fit the amplitude in the acoustic anisotropic inversion. Considering the limited penetration depth of diving waves, migration velocity analysis based kernels are introduced to fix the depth ambiguity with reflections and compute sensitivity maps in the deeper parts of the model.

  3. Anisotropic dark energy and CMB anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battye, Richard; Moss, Adam


    We investigate the breaking of global statistical isotropy caused by a dark energy component with an energy-momentum tensor which has point symmetry, that could represent a cubic or hexagonal crystalline lattice. In such models Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions created during inflation can lead to anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background whose spherical harmonic coefficients are correlated, contrary to the standard assumption. We develop an adaptation of the line of sight integration method that can be applied to models where the background energy-momentum tensor is isotropic, but whose linearized perturbations are anisotropic. We then show how this can be applied to the cases of cubic and hexagonal symmetry. We compute quantities which show that such models are indistinguishable from isotropic models even in the most extreme parameter choices, in stark contrast to models with anisotropic initial conditions based on inflation. The reason for this is that the dark energy based models contribute to the CMB anisotropy via the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, which is only relevant when the dark energy is dominant, that is, on the very largest scales. For inflationary models, however, the anisotropy is present on all scales.

  4. Metafluid with anisotropic dynamic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumen, L.N.; Arriaga, J.; Krokhin, A.A.


    We show that a fluid filling the space between metallic cylinders arranged in a two-dimensional lattice exhibits anisotropic dynamic mass for sound waves propagating through the lattice, if its unit cell is anisotropic. Using the plane-waves expansion method we derive (in the long wavelength limit) a formula for the effective mass tensor of the metafluid. The proposed formula is very general - it is valid for arbitrary Bravais lattices and arbitrary filling fractions of the cylinders. We apply our method to a periodic structure with very high anisotropy, when other known methods fail. In particular, we calculate the effective mass tensor for sound waves in air with embedded lattice of aluminum cylinders having rectangular cross sections, and obtain excellent agreement with experiment. The proposed method of calculation may find numerous applications for tailoring of metafluids with prescribed anisotropy.

  5. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene. (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng


    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  6. Exact anisotropic polytropic cylindrical solutions (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Sadiq, Sobia


    In this paper, we study anisotropic compact stars with static cylindrically symmetric anisotropic matter distribution satisfying polytropic equation of state. We formulate the field equations as well as the corresponding mass function for the particular form of gravitational potential z(x)=(1+bx)^{η } (η =1, 2, 3) and explore exact solutions of the field equations for different values of the polytropic index. The values of arbitrary constants are determined by taking mass and radius of compact star (Her X-1). We find that resulting solutions show viable behavior of physical parameters (density, radial as well as tangential pressure, anisotropy) and satisfy the stability condition. It is concluded that physically acceptable solutions exist only for η =1, 2.

  7. Anisotropic Mg Electrodeposition and Alloying with Ag-based Anodes from Non-Coordinating Mixed-Metal Borohydride Electrolytes for Mg Hybrid Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.


    A highly anisotropic electrodeposition was observed using the hybrid battery electrolyte Mg(BH 4 ) 2 with LiBH 4 in diglyme. At low overpotentials high aspect ratio platelet morphologies are observed with a strong fiber texture composed of a {10-10} and a {11-20} component, the first evidence of behavior of this kind in magnesium battery electrolytes. At high overpotentials the deposit aspect ratio is indistinguishable but the texture is shown to be primarily composed of a {11-20} fiber texture. The kinetic parameters relative to the relevant crystallographic faces are extracted from electron microscopy images and compared with the observed bulk rate extracted from the electrochemical data. The use of polycrystalline Ag foil substrates with little preferred orientation at the surface allowed highly polycrystalline nucleation at lower overpotentials than that of platinum, likely due to Ag alloying with Mg. Characterization using focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sections with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) elemental analysis confirm that the deposits are primarily Mg although Mg‐Ag alloys of various compositions were observed. It is proposed that the orientation at slow rates of growth is due to the underlying kinetics of adatom diffusion on Mg and that higher rates diminish the phenomenon due to decreased time for adatom diffusion and instead are governed by the rates of adatom formation or more specifically the adatom vacancy formation on the different low-index planes of Mg.

  8. Anisotropic Born-Mayer potential in lattice dynamics of Vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuagba, B.N.


    A microscopic theory of the lattice dynamics of the transition metal vanadium is developed based on the Animalu's transition metal model potential (TMMP). The Born-Mayer potential associated with the distribution of the transition metal d-electrons is treated as anisotropic. Good agreement with experimental phonon dispersion curves longitudinal branches in the [111] direction

  9. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approach for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) is presented in this paper. The propagation angle is calcu- lated in the process of migration using the real-value traveltime information of Gaussian beam. Based on the above ...

  10. Estimation and Removing of Anisotropic Scattering for Multiaspect Polarimetric SAR Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang


    Full Text Available Multiaspect Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR can generate high resolution images and target scattering signatures in different azimuth angles from the coherent integration of all subaperture images. However, mixed anisotropic scatters limit the application of traditional imaging theory. Anisotropic scattering may introduce errors in polarimetric parameters by decreasing the reliability of terrain classification and detection of variability. Thus a method is proposed for estimating and removing anisotropic scattering in multiaspect polarimetric SAR images. The proposed algorithm is based on the maximum likelihood and likelihood-ratio tests for the two-class case, while considering the speckle effect, the mechanism of removing the anisotropic scattering, and the monotonicity of the Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR detection function. We compare the polarimetric entropy before and after removing the anisotropic subapertures, and then validate the algorithm's potential in retrieving the target signature using a P-band quad-pol airborne SAR with circular trajectory.

  11. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G


    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  12. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG


    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  13. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)


    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  14. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models (United States)

    Ivanov, B. V.


    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method.

  15. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method. (orig.)

  16. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations....... Quantitative agreement can be obtained by increasing the interaction between different alloy elements, in particular for alloys with very different axial anisotropy, e.g., Tb-Tm. A model system consisting of a singlet-singlet and singlet-doublet alloy is discussed in detail. A simple procedure to include...

  17. Patterning of Structurally Anisotropic Composite Hydrogel Sheets. (United States)

    Prince, Elisabeth; Alizadehgiashi, Moien; Campbell, Melissa; Khuu, Nancy; Albulescu, Alexandra; De France, Kevin; Ratkov, Dimitrije; Li, Yunfeng; Hoare, Todd; Kumacheva, Eugenia


    Compositional and structural patterns play a crucial role in the function of many biological tissues. In the present work, for nanofibrillar hydrogels formed by chemically cross-linked cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and gelatin, we report a microextrusion-based 3D printing method to generate structurally anisotropic hydrogel sheets with CNCs aligned in the direction of extrusion. We prepared hydrogels with a uniform composition, as well as hydrogels with two different types of compositional gradients. In the first type of gradient hydrogel, the composition of the sheet varied parallel to the direction of CNC alignment. In the second hydrogel type, the composition of the sheet changed orthogonally to the direction of CNC alignment. The hydrogels exhibited gradients in structure, mechanical properties, and permeability, all governed by the compositional patterns, as well as cytocompatibility. These hydrogels have promising applications for both fundamental research and for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  18. Anisotropic thermal expansion in flexible materials (United States)

    Romao, Carl P.


    A definition of the Grüneisen parameters for anisotropic materials is derived based on the response of phonon frequencies to uniaxial stress perturbations. This Grüneisen model relates the thermal expansion in a given direction (αi i) to one element of the elastic compliance tensor, which corresponds to the Young's modulus in that direction (Yi i). The model is tested through ab initio prediction of thermal expansion in zinc, graphite, and calcite using density functional perturbation theory, indicating that it could lead to increased accuracy for structurally complex systems. The direct dependence of αi i on Yi i suggests that materials which are flexible along their principal axes but rigid in other directions will generally display both positive and negative thermal expansion.

  19. The Anisotropic Glassy Properties of Decagonal Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş-Victor Anghel


    Full Text Available We use an extended version of the standard tunneling model to explain the anisotropic sound absorption in decagonal quasicrystals. The glassy properties are determined by an ensemble of two level systems (TLSs, arbitrarily oriented. The TLS is characterized by a 3 × 3 symmetric tensor, [T], which couples to the strain field, [S], through a 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 tensor of coupling constants, [R]. The structure of [R] reflects the symmetry of the quasicrystal. We also analyze the probability distributions of the elements of [T] in this particular model for a better understanding of the characteristics of “isotropic” and “anisotropic” distributions of the ensemble of TLSs. We observe that the distribution of the elements is neither simple nor intuitive and therefore it is difficult to guess it a priory, using qualitative arguments based on the symmetry properties.

  20. A FDM anisotropic formulation for EEG simulation. (United States)

    Bruno, P; Hyttinen, J; Inchingolo, P; Magrofuoco, A; Mininel, S; Vatta, F


    Accurate head modeling is required to properly simulate bioelectric phenomena in 3-D as well as to estimate the 3-D bioelectric activity starting from superficial bioelectric measurements and 3-D imaging. Aiming to build an accurate and realistic representation of the volume conductor of the head, also the anisotropy of head tissues should be taken into account. In this paper we describe a new finite-difference method (FDM) formulation which accounts for anisotropy of the various head tissues. Our proposal, being based on FDM, derives the head model directly from patient's specific clinical images. We present here the details of the numerical formulation and the method validation by comparing our numerical proposal and known analytical results using a multi-shell anisotropic head model with skull anisotropy. Furthermore, we analyzed also different numerical grid refinement and EEG source characteristics. The comparison with previously developed FDM methods shows a good performance of the proposed method.

  1. Dynamical anisotropic response of black phosphorus under magnetic field (United States)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chenglong; Lai, Jiawei; Ge, Shaofeng; Sekhar, M. Chandra; Jia, Shuang; Chang, Kai; Sun, Dong


    Black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising material candidate for next generation electronic and optoelectronic devices due to its high mobility, tunable band gap and highly anisotropic properties. In this work, polarization resolved ultrafast mid-infrared transient reflection spectroscopy measurements are performed to study the dynamical anisotropic optical properties of BP under magnetic fields up to 9 T. The relaxation dynamics of photoexcited carrier is found to be insensitive to the applied magnetic field due to the broadening of the Landau levels and large effective mass of carriers. While the anisotropic optical response of BP decreases with increasing magnetic field, its enhancement due to the excitation of hot carriers is similar to that without magnetic field. These experimental results can be well interpreted by the magneto-optical conductivity of the Landau levels of BP thin film, based on an effective k · p Hamiltonian and linear response theory. These findings suggest attractive possibilities of multi-dimensional control of anisotropic response (AR) of BP with light, electric and magnetic field, which further introduces BP to the fantastic magnetic field sensitive applications.

  2. Anisotropic non-Fermi liquids (United States)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik


    We study non-Fermi-liquid states that arise at the quantum critical points associated with the spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the dimensional regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in (3 -ɛ ) -dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise both at the SDW and CDW critical points: the speed of the collective mode along the ordering wave vector is logarithmically renormalized to zero compared to that of Fermi velocity. Below three dimensions, however, the SDW and CDW critical points exhibit drastically different behaviors. At the SDW critical point, a stable anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid state is realized for small ɛ , where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of incoherent spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. At the CDW critical point, on the other hand, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale through a two-loop effect. The difference originates from the fact that the vertex correction antiscreens the coupling at the SDW critical point whereas it screens at the CDW critical point.

  3. Reflection of light from an anisotropic medium


    Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Ignatovich, Vladimir


    We present here a general approach to treat reflection and refraction of light of arbitrary polarization from single axis anisotropic plates. We show that reflection from interface inside the anisotropic medium is accompanied by beam splitting and can create surface waves.

  4. Ion production and ionization effect in the atmosphere during the Bastille day GLE 59 due to high energy SEPs (United States)

    Mishev, A. L.; Velinov, P. I. Y.


    The influence of high energy particles, specifically cosmic rays, on atmospheric physics and chemistry is highly discussed. In most of the proposed models the role of ionization in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays is not negligible. Moreover, effect(s) on minor constituents and aerosols are recently observed, specifically over the polar regions during strong solar particle events. According to the recent findings for such effects it is necessary an essential increase of ion production, specifically during the winter period. The galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere. Occasionally, the atmospheric ionization is significantly enhanced during strong solar energetic particles events, specifically over the polar caps. During the solar cycle 23 several strong ground level enhancements were observed. One of the strongest was the Bastille day event occurred on 14 July 2000. Using a full Monte Carlo 3-D model, we compute the atmospheric ionization, considering explicitly the contribution of cosmic rays with galactic and solar origin, focusing on high energy particles. The model is based on atmospheric cascade simulation with the PLANETOCOSMICS code. The ion production rate is computed as a function of the altitude above the sea level. The ion production rate is computed on a step ranging from 10 to 30 min throughout the event, considering explicitly the spectral and angular characteristics of the high energy part of solar protons as well as their time evolution. The corresponding event averaged ionization effect relative to the average due to galactic cosmic rays is computed in lower stratosphere and upper troposphere at various altitudes, namely 20 km, 15 km, 12 km and 8 km above the sea level in a sub-polar and polar regions. The 24h and the weekly ionization effects are also computed in the troposphere and low stratosphere. Several applications are discussed.

  5. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  6. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.


    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  7. Anisotropic surface chemistry properties and adsorption behavior of silicate mineral crystals. (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Tian, Jia; Wu, Houqin; Fang, Shuai; Lu, Zhongyuan; Ma, Caifeng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua


    Anisotropic surface properties of minerals play an important role in a variety of fields. With a focus on the two most intensively investigated silicate minerals (i.e., phyllosilicate minerals and pegmatite aluminosilicate minerals), this review highlights the research on their anisotropic surface properties based on their crystal structures. Four surface features comprise the anisotropic surface chemistry of minerals: broken bonds, energy, wettability, and charge. Analysis of surface broken bond and energy anisotropy helps to explain the cleavage and growth properties of mineral crystals, and understanding surface wettability and charge anisotropy is critical to the analysis of minerals' solution behavior, such as their flotation performance and rheological properties. In a specific reaction, the anisotropic surface properties of minerals are reflected in the adsorption strengths of reagents on different mineral surfaces. Combined with the knowledge of mineral crushing and grinding, a thorough understanding of the anisotropic surface chemistry properties and the anisotropic adsorption behavior of minerals will lead to the development of effective relational models comprising their crystal structure, surface chemistry properties, and targeted reagent adsorption. Overall, such a comprehensive approach is expected to firmly establish the connection between selective cleavage of mineral crystals for desired surfaces and designing novel reagents selectively adsorbed on the mineral surfaces. As tools to characterize the anisotropic surface chemistry properties of minerals, DLVO theory, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability of anisotropic stellar filaments (United States)

    Bhatti, M. Zaeem-ul-Haq; Yousaf, Z.


    The study of perturbation of self-gravitating celestial cylindrical object have been carried out in this paper. We have designed a framework to construct the collapse equation by formulating the modified field equations with the background of f(R , T) theory as well as dynamical equations from the contracted form of Bianchi identities with anisotropic matter configuration. We have encapsulated the radial perturbations on metric and material variables of the geometry with some known static profile at Newtonian and post-Newtonian regimes. We examined a strong dependence of unstable regions on stiffness parameter which measures the rigidity of the fluid. Also, the static profile and matter variables with f(R , T) dark source terms control the instability of compact cylindrical system.

  9. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia


    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  10. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)


    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  11. Sound localization in an anisotropic plate using electret microphones. (United States)

    Hoseini Sabzevari, S Amir; Moavenian, Majid


    Acoustic source localization without knowing the velocity profile in anisotropic plates is still one of the most challenging areas in this field. The current time-of-flight based approaches for localization in anisotropic media, are based on using six high sampling sensors. The number of sensors and the corresponding large amount of data, would make those methods inefficient in practical applications. Although there are many different non-time-of-flight based approaches such as machine learning, or soft computing based methods that can be used for localization with a less number of sensors, they are not as accurate as time-of-flight based techniques. In this article, a new approach which requires only four low sampling rate sensors to localize acoustic source in an anisotropic plate is proposed. In this technique, four electret low sampling rate sensors in two clusters are installed on the plate surface. The presented method uses attenuation analysis in a suitable frequency band to decrease the number of sensors. The approach is experimentally tested and verified on an airplane composite nose by applying artificially generated acoustic emissions (Hsu-Nielsen source). The results reveal that the accuracy of proposed technique depends on distinction of dominant frequency band. A stethoscope as a physical filter is employed to reduce the sensitivity of the technique and delineation of frequency band. The suggested technique improves the accuracy of localization prediction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)


    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  13. Theoretical Investigation of Anisotropic Damping in Exchange Bias Systems (United States)

    Farrar, Alison; Beik Mohammadi, Jamileh; Mewes, Tim; Mewes, Claudia

    An accurate description of the magnetization dynamics of exchange bias systems is essential for further development of computer read heads and STT-MRAM. There have been several theoretical predictions of an anisotropic Gilbert damping tensor, influenced by the symmetry of the crystal structure, in place of the scalar Gilbert damping parameter in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion. However, experimental confirmation is difficult as the anisotropy of the damping parameter is expected to be small for single crystals. We follow up on our experimental discovery of a strong unidirectional contribution to the relaxation of exchange bias systems by implementing an anisotropic damping tensor in our Matlab-based micromagnetics code M3. We present results for a damping tensor with unidirectional anisotropy with respect to the instantaneous orientation of the magnetization. NSF-CAREER No 1452670 and 0952929, UA Computer-Based Honors Program.

  14. 2D Anisotropic Wavelet Entropy with an Application to Earthquakes in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Nicolis


    Full Text Available We propose a wavelet-based approach to measure the Shannon entropy in the context of spatial point patterns. The method uses the fully anisotropic Morlet wavelet to estimate the energy distribution at different directions and scales. The spatial heterogeneity and complexity of spatial point patterns is then analyzed using the multiscale anisotropic wavelet entropy. The efficacy of the approach is shown through a simulation study. Finally, an application to the catalog of earthquake events in Chile is considered.

  15. Anisotropic shift of the irreversibility line by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerzopf, F.M.; Wiesinger, H.P.; Weber, H.W.; Crabtree, G.W.; Frischherz, M.C.; Kirk, M.A.


    The irreversibility line of high-T c superconductors is shifted considerably by irradiating the material with fast neutrons. The anisotropic and non-monotonous shift is qualitatively explained by a simple model based on an interaction between three pinning mechanisms, the intrinsic pinning by the ab-planes, the weak pinning by the pre-irradiation defect structure, and strong pinning by neutron induced defect cascades. A correlation between the cascade density and the position of the irreversibility line is observed

  16. Rational synthesis and self-assembly of anisotropic plasmonic nanoparticles


    Scarabelli, Leonardo


    This thesis work has been carried out in the framework of the ERC Advanced Grant Plasmaquo (nº 267867), which focused on the development of novel nanostructured plasmonic materials based on crystalline assemblies of anisotropic nanoparticles, to be used as optical enhancers for the surface enhanced Raman scattering detection of bacterial Quorum Sensing signaling molecules. More specifically, the thesis was oriented toward the design of such nanostructures, and on the characterization of their...

  17. Viscous anisotropic hydrodynamics for the Gubser flow (United States)

    Martinez, M.; McNelis, M.; Heinz, U.


    In this work we describe the dynamics of a highly anisotropic system undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal and azimuthally symmetric radial expansion (Gubser flow) for arbitrary shear viscosity to entropy density ratio. We derive the equations of motion of dissipative anisotropic hydrodynamics by applying to this situation the moments method recently derived by Molnár et al. (MNR) [E. Molnar, H. Niemi, and D. H. Rischke, "Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation," Phys. Rev. D93 no. 11, (2016) 114025, arxiv:arXiv:1602.00573 [nucl-th], E. Molnar, H. Niemi, and D. H. Rischke, "Closing the equations of motion of anisotropic fluid dynamics by a judicious choice of a moment of the Boltzmann equation," Phys. Rev. D94 no. 12, (2016) 125003, arxiv:arXiv:1606.09019 [nucl-th

  18. Anisotropic magnetoresistance in a Fermi glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.; Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 84120)


    Insulating thin films of indium oxide exhibit negative, anisotropic magnetoresistance. The systematics of these results imply that the magnetoresistance mechanism may give different weight to the distribution of the localization lengths than that given by the hopping conductivity

  19. Anisotropic growth mechanism of tungsten diselenide domains using chemical vapor deposition method (United States)

    Lee, Yoobeen; Jeong, Heekyung; Park, Yi-Seul; Han, Seulki; Noh, Jaegeun; Lee, Jin Seok


    Anisotropic transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) domains have stimulated a growing interest mainly due to their electronic properties that depend on the size, shape, and edge structures of the domains. In this work, we investigated the anisotropic morphogenesis and edge terminations of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) domains grown on sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using tungsten oxide (WO3) and selenium (Se) powders as precursors. We varied the amount of Se powder and growth temperature during the CVD process, which in turn caused variations in the growth mechanism and kinetic energies of precursors. We succeeded in synthesizing hexagonal, square, circular, and triangular anisotropic WSe2 domains. They were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) analyses, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, we proposed the growth mechanism of anisotropic WSe2 domains with different edge terminations based on experimental observations through scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

  20. Modelling Coulomb Collisions in Anisotropic Plasmas (United States)

    Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P. M.


    Collisional transport in anisotropic plasmas is investigated comparing the theoretical transport coefficients (Hellinger and Travnicek, 2009) for anisotropic particles with the results of the corresponding Langevin equation, obtained as a generalization of Manheimer et al. (1997). References: Hellinger, P., and P. M. Travnicek (2009), On Coulomb collisions in bi-Maxwellian plasmas, Phys. Plasmas, 16, 054501. Manheimer, W. M., M. Lampe and G. Joyce (1997), Langevin representation of Coulomb collisions in PIC simulations, J. Comput. Phys., 138, 563-584.

  1. Penetration effect in uniaxial anisotropic metamaterials (United States)

    Vytovtov, K.; Barabanova, E.; Zouhdi, S.


    Plane harmonic wave propagation along an interface between vacuum and a semi-infinite anisotropic metamaterial is considered. Possibility of penetration effect in the considered case is studied. It is shown that there is a bulk wave within the anisotropic metamaterial with an arbitrary orientation of the anisotropy axis. It is also proved that a reflected wave must propagate perpendicularly to the interface in the case of the extraordinary wave. Moreover, no wave is reflected in the case of ordinary wave propagation.

  2. Anisotropic plasmons, excitons, and electron energy loss spectroscopy of phosphorene (United States)

    Ghosh, Barun; Kumar, Piyush; Thakur, Anmol; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh; Bhowmick, Somnath; Agarwal, Amit


    In this article, we explore the anisotropic electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) in monolayer phosphorene based on ab initio time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations. Similarly to black phosphorus, the EELS of undoped monolayer phosphorene is characterized by anisotropic excitonic peaks for energies in the vicinity of the band gap and by interband plasmon peaks for higher energies. On doping, an additional intraband plasmon peak also appears for energies within the band gap. Similarly to other two-dimensional systems, the intraband plasmon peak disperses as ωpl∝√{q } in both the zigzag and armchair directions in the long-wavelength limit and deviates for larger wave vectors. The anisotropy of the long-wavelength plasmon intraband dispersion is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the ratio of the effective masses: ωpl(q y ̂) /ωpl(q x ̂) =√{mx/my } .

  3. Driven Anisotropic Diffusion at Boundaries: Noise Rectification and Particle Sorting (United States)

    Bo, Stefano; Eichhorn, Ralf


    We study the diffusive dynamics of a Brownian particle in the proximity of a flat surface under nonequilibrium conditions, which are created by an anisotropic thermal environment with different temperatures being active along distinct spatial directions. By presenting the exact time-dependent solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for this problem, we demonstrate that the interplay between anisotropic diffusion and hard-core interaction with the plain wall rectifies the thermal fluctuations and induces directed particle transport parallel to the surface, without any deterministic forces being applied in that direction. Based on current micromanipulation technologies, we suggest a concrete experimental setup to observe this novel noise-induced transport mechanism. We furthermore show that it is sensitive to particle characteristics, such that this setup can be used for sorting particles of different sizes.

  4. Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.M.; Horvathy, P.A.; Andrzejewski, K.; Gonera, J.; Kosiński, P.


    Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ► Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ► The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ► The NH symmetry is decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition

  5. An anisotropic elastoplasticity model implemented in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Miles Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Many metals, including Tantalum and Zirconium, exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior at the single crystal level, and if components are manufactured from these metals through forming processes the polycrystal (component) may also exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior. This is because the forming can induce a preferential orientation of the crystals in the polycrystal. One example is a rolled plate of Uranium where the sti /strong orientation of the crystal (c-axis) tends to align itself perpendicular to the rolling direction. If loads are applied to this plate in di erent orientations the sti ness as well as the ow strength of the material will be greater in the through thickness direction than in other directions. To better accommodate simulations of such materials, an anisotropic elastoplasticity model has been implemented in FLAG. The model includes an anisotropic elastic stress model as well as an anisotropic plasticity model. The model could represent single crystals of any symmetry, though it should not be confused with a high- delity crystal plasticity model with multiple slip planes and evolutions. The model is most appropriate for homogenized polycrystalline materials. Elastic rotation of the material due to deformation is captured, so the anisotropic models are appropriate for arbitrary large rotations, but currently they do not account for signi cant change in material texture beyond the elastic rotation of the entire polycrystal.

  6. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks. (United States)

    Zhang, T; Schwarz, J M; Das, Moumita


    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, p(x) and p(y), for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of p(x) and p(y). We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  7. Rotational discontinuities in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidi, N.


    The kinetic structure of rotational discontinuities (RDs) in anisotropic plasmas with T perpendicular /T parallel > 1 is investigated by using a one-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. To form the RD, a new approach is used where the plasma is injected from one boundary and reflected from the other, resulting in the generation of a traveling fast shock and an RD. Unlike the previously used methods, no a priori assumptions are made regarding the initial structure (i.e. width or sense of rotation) of the rotational discontinuity. The results show that across the RD both the magnetic field strength and direction, as well as the plasma density change. Given that such a change can also be associated with an intermediate shock, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are used to confirm that the observed structures are indeed RDs. It is found that the thickness of RDs is a few ion inertial lengths and is independent of the rotation angle. Also, the preferred sense of rotation is in the electron sense; however, RDs with a rotation angle larger than 180 degree are found to be unstable, changing their rotation to a stable ion sense

  8. Quantitative multi-waves migration in elastic anisotropic media; Migration quantitative multi-ondes en milieu elastique anisotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgne, H.


    modelling of waves propagation in anisotropic media. With the approximations of ray theory, 1 develop an expression of the geometrical spreading, the amplitude, and their reciprocity relations. I set up imaging formulas in order to reconstruct the reflection coefficients of the subsurface in elastic anisotropic media. In a first time, 1 salve the direct problem, by expressing the integral relation between the scattered wave field recorded by the receivers and the subsurface reflection coefficients. In a second time, 1 apply an elastic anisotropic quantitative migration method, based on the properties of the inverse Radon transforms (Beylkin's approach), in order to express the reflection coefficient in 2D, 2.5D and 3D media. 1 implemented these formulas in a new preserved amplitude migration algorithm, where the images are sorted by angle classes. At last, 1 apply these theoretical results to synthetic and real datasets. 1 show that migration is able to reconstruct the correct A V A behavior of anisotropic reflection coefficients if hath. modifications are achieved. Then, 1 degrade the process, by keeping an anisotropic ray tracing but using the classical isotropic imaging formula. F'or this commonly used configuration, 1 evaluate the error that can be expected in the A V A response of the migrated reflection coefficient. Methodological applications show the sensibility of the migration results to the velocity model smoothing and to an error on the anisotropic axis. (author)

  9. Modification of anisotropic plasma diffusion via auxiliary electrons emitted by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. (United States)

    Malferrari, L; Odorici, F; Veronese, G P; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Castro, G; Miracoli, R; Serafino, T


    The diffusion mechanism in magnetized plasmas is a largely debated issue. A short circuit model was proposed by Simon, assuming fluxes of lost particles along the axial (electrons) and radial (ions) directions which can be compensated, to preserve the quasi-neutrality, by currents flowing throughout the conducting plasma chamber walls. We hereby propose a new method to modify Simon's currents via electrons injected by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun. We found this improves the source performances, increasing the output current for several charge states. The method is especially sensitive to the pumping frequency. Output currents for given charge states, at different auxiliary electron currents, will be reported in the paper and the influence of the frequency tuning on the compensation mechanism will be discussed.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis on an anisotropically superhydrophobic surface with a hierarchical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Su, Zhengliang; Yan, Shaoze


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model the superhydrophobic surface with anisotropic and hierarchical structure. • Anisotropic wetting only shows in noncomposite state (not in composite state). • Transition from noncomposite to composite state on dual-scale structure is hard. • Droplets tend to roll in the particular direction. • Droplets tend to stably remain in one preferred thermodynamic state. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces, which refer to the surfaces with contact angle higher than 150° and hysteresis less than 10°, have been reported in various studies. However, studies on the superhydrophobicity of anisotropic, hierarchical surfaces are limited and the corresponding thermodynamic mechanisms could not be explained thoroughly. Here we propose a simplified surface model of anisotropic patterned surface with dual scale roughness. Based on the thermodynamic method, we calculate the equilibrium contact angle (ECA) and the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on the given surface. We show here that the hierarchical structure has much better anisotropic wetting properties than the single-scale one, and the results shed light on the potential application in controllable micro-/nano-fluidic systems. Our studies can be potentially applied for the fabrication of anisotropically superhydrophobic surfaces.

  11. A methodology for developing anisotropic AAA phantoms via additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, Raúl; Cazón, Aitor; Finol, Ender A


    An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of biomechanical factors for rupture risk assessment. AAA phantoms could be used for experimental validation of the numerical studies and for pre-intervention testing of endovascular grafts. We have applied multi-material 3D printing technology to manufacture idealized AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Different composites were fabricated and the phantom specimens were characterized by biaxial tensile tests while using a constitutive model to fit the experimental data. One composite was chosen to manufacture the phantom based on having the same mechanical properties as those reported in the literature for human AAA tissue; the strain energy and anisotropic index were compared to make this choice. The materials for the matrix and fibers of the selected composite are, respectively, the digital materials FLX9940 and FLX9960 developed by Stratasys. The fiber proportion for the composite is equal to 0.15. The differences between the composite behavior and the AAA tissue are small, with a small difference in the strain energy (0.4%) and a maximum difference of 12.4% in the peak Green strain ratio. This work represents a step forward in the application of 3D printing technology for the manufacturing of AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.


    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  13. Anisotropic behaviour of human gallbladder walls. (United States)

    Li, W G; Hill, N A; Ogden, R W; Smythe, A; Majeed, A W; Bird, N; Luo, X Y


    Inverse estimation of biomechanical parameters of soft tissues from non-invasive measurements has clinical significance in patient-specific modelling and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a fully nonlinear approach to estimate the mechanical properties of the human gallbladder wall muscles from in vivo ultrasound images. The iteration method consists of a forward approach, in which the constitutive equation is based on a modified Hozapfel-Gasser-Ogden law initially developed for arteries. Five constitutive parameters describing the two orthogonal families of fibres and the matrix material are determined by comparing the computed displacements with medical images. The optimisation process is carried out using the MATLAB toolbox, a Python code, and the ABAQUS solver. The proposed method is validated with published artery data and subsequently applied to ten human gallbladder samples. Results show that the human gallbladder wall is anisotropic during the passive refilling phase, and that the peak stress is 1.6 times greater than that calculated using linear mechanics. This discrepancy arises because the wall thickness reduces by 1.6 times during the deformation, which is not predicted by conventional linear elasticity. If the change of wall thickness is accounted for, then the linear model can used to predict the gallbladder stress and its correlation with pain. This work provides further understanding of the nonlinear characteristics of human gallbladder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions (United States)

    Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; Samal, Akshaya K.; Pradeep, Thalappil


    Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications. PMID:22110867

  15. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan


    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.

  16. Ray-Based 2d Anisotropic Pre-Stack Depth Migration on Synthetic and Real Data Migration profondeur avant sommation anisotrope en 2D basée sur le tracé des rayons. Etude sur des données synthétiques et réelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthet P.


    Full Text Available Pre-stack depth migration (PSDM, while costly, is a powerful tool for imaging and velocity analysis. Seismic velocity anisotropy is now thought to be widespread in sedimentary rocks, particularly shales. We have written a 2D pre-stack depth migration code for use in transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (TIV. We use it to investigate the effects of anisotropy on isotropic pre-stack migration by means of a simple synthetic example. Results suggest that it is difficult to find plausible isotropic models which give good images of reflectors at all dips. We further apply our PSDM code to a 2D line of real data from offshore West Africa, where there is a thick shale sequence, using isotropic and anisotropic velocity models. A dipping fault plane is imaged more clearly with the anisotropic model, but some of the near horizontal reflectors are less well imaged suggesting that this model could be improved and confirming the sensitivity of pre-stack depth migration to all aspects of the velocity model. La migration profondeur avant sommation (PSDM, bien que coûteuse, est un outil puissant d'imagerie et d'analyse de vitesse. On pense maintenant que l'anisotropie de la vitesse sismique est largement répandue dans les roches sédimentaires, et plus particulièrement dans les argiles. Nous avons écrit un code de migration profondeur avant sommation en 2D à des fins d'utilisation dans les milieux à isotropie plane avec un axe de symétrie vertical (TIV. Nous l'utilisons afin d'étudier les effets de l'anisotropie sur la migration isotrope avant sommation au moyen d'un exemple synthétique simple. Les résultats suggèrent qu'il est difficile de trouver des modèles isotropes plausibles qui donnent des images correctes des réflecteurs sur tous les pendages. Nous appliquons en plus notre code PSDM à un profil en 2D de données réelles provenant d'un champ offshore d'Afrique occidentale, où il y a une épaisse série argileuse, en

  17. Head-wave coefficients in anisotropic media (United States)

    Chapman, Chris


    Reflections and transmissions from interfaces can generate head waves. Although the kinematic properties of head waves are modelled simply using ray concepts, the dynamic properties require an extension of ray theory or the use of wave theory. Head waves are important in exploration and crustal seismology as they indicate the existence of an interface and the velocity of the generating wave. Head waves have been described in the literature for isotropic media but the extension to anisotropic media seems to be lacking. The expressions for the head-wave coefficients using ray concepts or wave theory differ, and their equality is not obvious. This paper extends the theory for head-wave coefficients to anisotropic media using both ray theory and wave theory, and generalizes the proof of equality of the two methods. Simple numerical examples confirm this equality and indicate how the head-wave results can be calculated in anisotropic media and included in a ray-tracing algorithm.

  18. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng


    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton


    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  20. Template-Based Sampling of Anisotropic BRDFs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír


    Roč. 33, č. 7 (2014), s. 91-99 ISSN 0167-7055. [Pacific Graphics 2014. Soul, 08.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BRDF database * material appearnce * sampling * measurement Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2014

  1. Anisotropic superconducting state parameters of Tl-2212 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskalam, Amit K.; Singh, R.K.; Varshney, Dinesh


    We have estimated the superconducting state parameters and their anisotropy in thallium based superconductors (Tl-2212), in the frame work of Fermi liquid approach. Determination of the effective mass of the charge carriers from the Fermi velocity and estimated anisotropic superconducting state parameters, particularly, the magnetic penetration depth along and perpendicular to the conducting plane. The coherence length along and perpendicular to the ab plane is evaluated and appears to be higher. The temperature dependence of penetration depth, their anisotropy and Ginsburg Landau parameter for optimised doped Tl based cuprates shows the power law. The technique permits a consistency with the reported data. (author)

  2. Anisotropic nanomaterials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan


    In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosi

  3. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...

  4. Textile-templated electrospun anisotropic scaffolds for regenerative cardiac tissue engineering. (United States)

    Şenel Ayaz, H Gözde; Perets, Anat; Ayaz, Hasan; Gilroy, Kyle D; Govindaraj, Muthu; Brookstein, David; Lelkes, Peter I


    For patients with end-stage heart disease, the access to heart transplantation is limited due to the shortage of donor organs and to the potential for rejection of the donated organ. Therefore, current studies focus on bioengineering approaches for creating biomimetic cardiac patches that will assist in restoring cardiac function, by repairing and/or regenerating the intrinsically anisotropic myocardium. In this paper we present a simplified, straightforward approach for creating bioactive anisotropic cardiac patches, based on a combination of bioengineering and textile-manufacturing techniques in concert with nano-biotechnology based tissue-engineering stratagems. Using knitted conventional textiles, made of cotton or polyester yarns as template targets, we successfully electrospun anisotropic three-dimensional scaffolds from poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), and thermoplastic polycarbonate-urethane (PCU, Bionate(®)). The surface topography and mechanical properties of textile-templated anisotropic scaffolds significantly differed from those of scaffolds electrospun from the same materials onto conventional 2-D flat-target electrospun scaffolds. Anisotropic textile-templated scaffolds electrospun from both PLGA and PCU, supported the adhesion and proliferation of H9C2 cardiac myoblasts cell line, and guided the cardiac tissue-like anisotropic organization of these cells in vitro. All cell-seeded PCU scaffolds exhibited mechanical properties comparable to those of a human heart, but only the cells on the polyester-templated scaffolds exhibited prolonged spontaneous synchronous contractility on the entire engineered construct for 10 days in vitro at a near physiologic frequency of ∼120 bpm. Taken together, the methods described here take advantage of straightforward established textile manufacturing strategies as an efficient and cost-effective approach to engineering 3D anisotropic, elastomeric PCU scaffolds that can serve as a cardiac patch. Copyright

  5. Vortices and magnetic structures of the target type in two-dimensional ferromagnetics with the anisotropic exchange interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, A B; Mikushina, N A; Moskvin, A S


    One investigated into structure of vortices and of other topological defects in two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet. Paper contains basic data derived from microscopic theory of spin anisotropy in 3d- and 4f-element base systems. One studied effect of parameters of anisotropic exchange and single-ionic anisotropy on vortex structure. One studied magnetization vortices in freely plane ferromagnetic with anisotropic exchange and local anisotropy. One predicted and analyzed structure of a new class of static leading centre (target) type vortex configurations in anisotropic ferromagnet

  6. The Effect of Anisotropic Scatter on Atmospheric Neutron Transport (United States)



  7. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 5, 2016 ... DOI 10.1007/s12043-016-1317-4. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. M K VERMA1, S CHANDEL2 and SHRI RAM2,∗. 1Department of Mathematics, Baba Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology & Management,.

  8. Anisotropic Hanle line shape via magnetothermoelectric phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kumar; Dejene, Fasil; van Wees, Bart; Vera Marun, Ivan


    We observe anisotropic Hanle line shape with unequal in-plane and out-of-plane nonlocal signals for spin precession measurements carried out on lateral metallic spin valves with transparent interfaces. The conventional interpretation for this anisotropy corresponds to unequal spin relaxation times

  9. Adaptive slices for acquisition of anisotropic BRDF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří

    (2018) ISSN 2096-0433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-18407S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : anisotropic BRDF * slice * sampling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  10. Theory of anisotropic diamagnetism, local moment magnetization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory of anisotropic diamagnetism, local moment magnetization and carrier spin-polarization in Pb1-EuTe ... Gopalpur 761 002, India; Department of Physics, Jagannath Institute for Technology and Management, Parlakhemundi 761 211, India; Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India ...

  11. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study deals with hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained by applying a special law of variation of Hubble's parameter that yields a constant negative value of the deceleration parameter.

  12. Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar ...

  13. Algebraic solution of an anisotropic nonquadratic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi Filho, H.; Vaidya, A.N.


    We show that an anisotropic nonquadratic potential, for which a path integral treatment had been recently discussed in the literature, possesses the (SO(2,1)xSO(2,1))ΛSO(2,1) dynamical symmetry and constructs its Green function algebraically. A particular case which generates new eigenvalues and eigenfunctions is also discussed. (author). 11 refs

  14. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  15. A new algorithm for anisotropic solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We establish a new algorithm that generates a new solution to the Einstein field equations, with an anisotropic matter distribution, from a seed isotropic solution. The new solution is expressed in terms of integrals of an isotropic gravitational potential; and the integration can be completed exactly for particular isotropic seed ...

  16. Acoustic reflection from the boundary of anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertical slownesses of waves at a boundary of an anisotropic thermoviscoelastic medium are calculated as roots of a polynomial equation of degree eight. Out of the corresponding eight waves, the four, which travel towards the boundary are identified as upgoing waves. Remaining four waves travel away from the boundary ...

  17. Ray tracing in anisotropic media with singularities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav


    Roč. 145, č. 1 (2001), s. 265-276 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/1350 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : anisotropic media * ray tracing * singularities Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2001

  18. Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 3, 2017 ... a phantom field [24,25], quintom [26,27], k-essence. [28], tachyon [29] and so forth. It is well known that the evolution of the Uni- verse admits a scenario of anisotropic expansion and gains a lot of interest, under the light of the recently announced Planck Probe results [7]. The Bianchi models, which describe ...

  19. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation ...

  20. The method of images for anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosilevskii, Ya.A.


    The method of images is suggested to construct a scalar macroscopic field (dynamic or static) of a point source in an anisotropic half-space or flat slab. The field is found for an arbitrary orientation of the boundaries with respect to the crystallographic axes. (Auth.)

  1. Nonaxisymmetric radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cylindrical media with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissa, H.; Askri, F.; Ben Salah, M.; Ben Nasrallah, S.


    In this paper, the control volume finite element method (CVFEM) is applied for the first time to solve nonaxisymmetric radiative transfer in inhomogeneous, emitting, absorbing and anisotropic scattering cylindrical media. Mathematical formulations as well as numerical implementation are given and the final discretized equations are based on similar meshes used for convective and conductive heat transfer in computational fluid dynamic analysis. In order to test the efficiency of the developed method, four nonaxisymmetric problems have been examined. Also, the grid dependence and the false scattering of the CVFEM are investigated and compared with the finite volume method and the discrete ordinates interpolation method

  2. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan


    We consider the problem of interpolating a surface based on sparse data such as individual points or level lines. We derive interpolators satisfying a list of desirable properties with an emphasis on preserving the geometry and characteristic features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE and higher-order total variation methods qualitatively and quantitatively on real-world digital elevation data. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Scheme for achieving coherent perfect absorption by anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan


    We propose a unified scheme to achieve coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves by anisotropic metamaterials. The scheme describes the condition on perfect absorption and offers an inverse design route based on effective medium theory in conjunction with retrieval method to determine practical metamaterial absorbers. The scheme is scalable to frequencies and applicable to various incident angles. Numerical simulations show that perfect absorption is achieved in the designed absorbers over a wide range of incident angles, verifying the scheme. By integrating these absorbers, we further propose an absorber to absorb energy from two coherent point sources.

  4. Quantum walks with an anisotropic coin I: spectral theory (United States)

    Richard, S.; Suzuki, A.; Tiedra de Aldecoa, R.


    We perform the spectral analysis of the evolution operator U of quantum walks with an anisotropic coin, which include one-defect models, two-phase quantum walks, and topological phase quantum walks as special cases. In particular, we determine the essential spectrum of U, we show the existence of locally U-smooth operators, we prove the discreteness of the eigenvalues of U outside the thresholds, and we prove the absence of singular continuous spectrum for U. Our analysis is based on new commutator methods for unitary operators in a two-Hilbert spaces setting, which are of independent interest.

  5. Modeling and experimental investigations of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapuis, Bastien [Departement Materiaux et Structures Composites, ONERA, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Terrien, Nicolas [CETIM, 74 route de la Joneliere, 44326 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Royer, Daniel, E-mail: [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI, Universite Paris 7, CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    The phenomenon of Lamb waves focusing in anisotropic plates is theoretically and experimentally investigated. An analysis based on a far field approximation of the Green's function shows that Lamb waves focusing is analog to the phonon focusing effect. In highly anisotropic structures like composite plates the focusing of A{sub 0} and S{sub 0} mode is strong; the energy propagates preferentially in the fibre directions, which are minima of the slowness. This has to be taken into account when developing, for example, a transducer array for structural health monitoring systems based on Lamb waves in order to avoid dead zones.

  6. Anisotropic power-law k-inflation (United States)

    Ohashi, Junko; Soda, Jiro; Tsujikawa, Shinji


    It is known that power-law k-inflation can be realized for the Lagrangian P=Xg(Y), where X=-(∂ϕ)2/2 is the kinetic energy of a scalar field ϕ and g is an arbitrary function in terms of Y=Xeλϕ/Mpl (λ is a constant and Mpl is the reduced Planck mass). In the presence of a vector field coupled to the inflaton with an exponential coupling f(ϕ)∝eμϕ/Mpl, we show that the models with the Lagrangian P=Xg(Y) generally give rise to anisotropic inflationary solutions with Σ/H=constant, where Σ is an anisotropic shear and H is an isotropic expansion rate. Provided these anisotropic solutions exist in the regime where the ratio Σ/H is much smaller than 1, they are stable attractors irrespective of the forms of g(Y). We apply our results to concrete models of k-inflation such as the generalized dilatonic ghost condensate and the Dirac-Born-Infeld model and we numerically show that the solutions with different initial conditions converge to the anisotropic power-law inflationary attractors. Even in the de Sitter limit (λ→0) such solutions can exist, but in this case the null energy condition is generally violated. The latter property is consistent with the Wald’s cosmic conjecture stating that the anisotropic hair does not survive on the de Sitter background in the presence of matter respecting the dominant/strong energy conditions.

  7. Multimesh anisotropic adaptivity for the Boltzmann transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.M.J.; Buchan, A.G.; Pain, C.C.; Farrell, P.E.; Eaton, M.D.; Warner, P.


    Highlights: ► We solve the Boltzmann transport equation using anisotropically adaptive finite element meshes. ► The finite element mesh is resolved with minimal user input. ► Anisotropic adaptivity uses less elements than adaptive mesh refinement for the same finite element error. ► This paper also demonstrates the use of separate meshes for each energy group within the multigroup discretisation. ► The methods are applied to a range of fixed source and eigenvalue problems. - Abstract: This article presents a new adaptive finite element based method for the solution of the spatial dimensions of the Boltzmann transport equation. The method applies a curvature based error metric to locate the under and over resolved regions of a solution and this, in turn, is used to guide the refinement and coarsening of the spatial mesh. The error metrics and re-meshing procedures are designed such that they enable anisotropic resolution to form in the mesh should it be appropriate to do so. The adaptive mesh enables the appropriate resolution to be applied throughout the whole domain of a problem and so increase the efficiency of the solution procedure. Another new approach is also described that allows independent adaptive meshes to form for each of the energy group fluxes. The use of independent meshes can significantly improve computational efficiency when solving problems where the different group fluxes require high resolution over different regions. The mesh to mesh interpolation is made possible through the use of a ‘supermeshing’ procedure that ensures the conservation of particles when calculating the group to group scattering sources. Finally it is shown how these methods can be incorporated within a solver to resolve both fixed source and eigenvalue problems. A selection of both fixed source and eigenvalue problems are solved in order to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods

  8. Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.

  9. Microstructure and anisotropic mechanical behavior of friction stir welded AA2024 alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhihan; Li, Wenya; Li, Jinglong; Chao, Y.J.; Vairis, A.


    The anisotropic mechanical properties of friction stir welded (FSW) AA2024-T3 alloy joints were investigated based on the uniaxial tensile tests. The joint microstructure was examined by using electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Results show that the evident anisotropic failure and yielding are present in the FSW joints. With the increase of loading angle from 0° to 90° the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the specimens consistently decrease, or at first decrease and then increase, depending on the FSW process parameters. The specimen cut from the weld direction, i.e. a loading angle of 0°, exhibits the highest strength and elongation. - Highlights: • Microstructure and anisotropy of friction stir welded joints were studied. • The evident anisotropic failure and yielding are present in joints. • The lowest yield stress and UTS are at 45° and 60° loadings, respectively. • Rotation speed heavily impact on the anisotropy of joints

  10. 2.5D inversion of CSEM data in a vertically anisotropic earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramananjaona, Christophe; MacGregor, Lucy


    The marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) method is a low frequency (diffusive) electromagnetic subsurface imaging technique aimed at mapping the electric resistivity of the earth by measuring the response to a source dipole emitting an electromagnetic field in a marine environment. Although assuming isotropy for the inversion is the most straightforward approach, in many situations horizontal layering of the earth strata and grain alignment within earth materials creates electric anisotropy. Ignoring this during interpretation may create artifacts in the inversion results. Accounting for this effect therefore requires adequate forward modelling and inversion procedures. We present here an inversion algorithm for vertically anisotropic media based on finite element modelling, the use of Frechet derivatives, and different types of regularisation. Comparisons between isotropic and anisotropic inversion results are given for the characterisation of an anisotropic earth from data measured in line with the source dipole for both synthetic and real data examples.

  11. Forward modeling and inversion of tensor CSAMT in 3D anisotropic media (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Kun-Peng; Tan, Han-Dong


    Tensor controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT) can yield information about electric and magnetic fields owing to its multi-transmitter configuration compared with the common scalar CSAMT. The most current theories, numerical simulations, and inversion of tensor CSAMT are based on far-field measurements and the assumption that underground media have isotropic resistivity. We adopt a three-dimensional (3D) staggered-grid finite difference numerical simulation method to analyze the resistivity in axial anisotropic and isotropic media. We further adopt the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (LBFGS) method to perform 3D tensor CSAMT axial anisotropic inversion. The inversion results suggest that when the underground structure is anisotropic, the isotropic inversion will introduce errors to the interpretation.

  12. Polarization state of an inhomogenously refracted compressional-wave induced at interface between two anisotropic rocks. (United States)

    Fa, Lin; Li, Wenya; Zhao, Jie; Han, Yonglan; Liang, Meng; Ding, Pengfei; Zhao, Meishan


    This paper is concerned with the polarization states of an inhomogenously refracted P-wave induced from the interface of two anisotropic rocks. Two realistic physical models have been studied: Model-1 is an interface between anisotropic shale and Taylor sandstone; Model-2 is an interface between anisotropic shale and oil shale. For each model, an analytical expression of the polarization states was derived and its elliptical-polarization trajectory was examined. It is shown that an anomalous incident-angle leads not only to a sudden elliptical-polarization directional variation but also to an abrupt change in size and shape of its elliptical-polarization trajectory. The calculated results and analyses provide a theoretical base for the understandings of an anomalous incident-angle recently reported in the literature [e.g., Fa, Fa, Zhang, Ding, Gong, Li, Li, Tang, and Zhao (2015). Sci. Rep. 5, 12700].

  13. Artifact reduction of compressed images and video combining adaptive fuzzy filtering and directional anisotropic diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari


    and ringing artifacts, we have applied directional anisotropic diffusion. Besides that, the selection of the adaptive threshold parameter for the diffusion coefficient has also improved the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results on JPEG compressed images as well as MJPEG and H.264 compressed......Fuzzy filtering is one of the recently developed methods for reducing distortion in compressed images and video. In this paper, we combine the powerful anisotropic diffusion equations with fuzzy filtering in order to reduce the impact of artifacts. Based on the directional nature of the blocking...

  14. Grad-Shafranov reconstruction of Earth's magnetopause with anisotropic pressure (United States)

    Chen, G. W.; Hau, L. N.


    Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction is a technique to analyze the two-dimensional (2-D) coherent field structures of thin current sheets and by using this method one can construct the 2-D predicted values in an optimal co-moving frame from the data measured by a single spacecraft (Hau and Sonnerup, 1999). In this study we have developed and benchmarked a new GS solver based on the modified, extended Grad-Shafranov equations for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model with anisotropic plasma pressure (Hau and Sonnerup, 1993; Hau, 2002; Sonnerup et al., 2006), and applied it to the magnetopause crossing events observed by THEMIS spacecraft. The new GS solver can give rise to the 2-D spatial information of perpendicular and parallel plasma pressures for various thermodynamic conditions described by a set of double polytropic energy laws. We also compare the results based on isotropic and anisotropic GS solvers to examine the effects of pressure anisotropy on the reconstructed 2-D magnetopause structure.

  15. Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in elastically anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Victoria Cristina Cheade; Jospin, Reinaldo Jacques; Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz


    The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components may encounter considerable difficulties to interpret some inspections results mainly in anisotropic crystalline structures. A numerical method for the simulation of elastic wave propagation in homogeneous elastically anisotropic media, based on the general finite element approach, is used to help this interpretation. The successful modeling of elastic field associated with NDE is based on the generation of a realistic pulsed ultrasonic wave, which is launched from a piezoelectric transducer into the material under inspection. The values of elastic constants are great interest information that provide the application of equations analytical models, until small and medium complexity problems through programs of numerical analysis as finite elements and/or boundary elements. The aim of this work is the comparison between the results of numerical solution of an ultrasonic wave, which is obtained from transient excitation pulse that can be specified by either force or displacement variation across the aperture of the transducer, and the results obtained from a experiment that was realized in an aluminum block in the IEN Ultrasonic Laboratory. The wave propagation can be simulated using all the characteristics of the material used in the experiment valuation associated to boundary conditions and from these results, the comparison can be made. (author)

  16. Anisotropic magnetotelluric inversion using a mutual information constraint (United States)

    Mandolesi, E.; Jones, A. G.


    In recent years, several authors pointed that the electrical conductivity of many subsurface structures cannot be described properly by a scalar field. With the development of field devices and techniques, data quality improved to the point that the anisotropy in conductivity of rocks (microscopic anisotropy) and tectonic structures (macroscopic anisotropy) cannot be neglected. Therefore a correct use of high quality data has to include electrical anisotropy and a correct interpretation of anisotropic data characterizes directly a non-negligible part of the subsurface. In this work we test an inversion routine that takes advantage of the classic Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to invert magnetotelluric (MT) data generated from a bi-dimensional (2D) anisotropic domain. The LM method is routinely used in inverse problems due its performance and robustness. In non-linear inverse problems -such the MT problem- the LM method provides a spectacular compromise betwee quick and secure convergence at the price of the explicit computation and storage of the sensitivity matrix. Regularization in inverse MT problems has been used extensively, due to the necessity to constrain model space and to reduce the ill-posedness of the anisotropic MT problem, which makes MT inversions extremely challenging. In order to reduce non-uniqueness of the MT problem and to reach a model compatible with other different tomographic results from the same target region, we used a mutual information (MI) based constraint. MI is a basic quantity in information theory that can be used to define a metric between images, and it is routinely used in fields as computer vision, image registration and medical tomography, to cite some applications. We -thus- inverted for the model that best fits the anisotropic data and that is the closest -in a MI sense- to a tomographic model of the target area. The advantage of this technique is that the tomographic model of the studied region may be produced by any

  17. Anisotropic structure beneath central Java from local earthquake tomography (United States)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Luehr, Birger G.


    In this study we present the new tomographic code ANITA which provides 3-D anisotropic P and isotropic S velocity distribution based on P and S traveltimes from local seismicity. For the P anisotropic model, we determine four parameters for each parameterization cell. This represents an orthorhombic anisotropy with one predefined direction oriented vertically. Three of the parameters describe slowness variations along three horizontal orientations with azimuths of 0°, 60°, and 120°, and one is a perturbation along the vertical axis. The nonlinear iterative inversion procedure is similar to that used in the LOTOS code. We have implemented this algorithm for the updated data set of central Java, part of which was previously used for the isotropic inversion. It was obtained that the crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure beneath central Java is strongly anisotropic with 7-10% of maximal difference between slow and fast velocity in different directions. In the forearc (area between southern coast and volcanoes), the structure of both isotropic and anisotropic structure is strongly heterogeneous. Variety of anisotropy orientations and highly contrasted velocity patterns can be explained by a complex block structure of the crust. Beneath volcanoes we observe faster velocities in vertical direction, which is probably an indicator for vertically oriented structures (channels, dykes). In the crust beneath the middle part of central Java, north to Merapi and Lawu volcanoes, we observe a large and very intense anomaly with a velocity decrease of up to 30% and 35% for P and S models, respectively. Inside this anomaly E-W orientation of fast velocity takes place, probably caused by regional extension stress regime. In a vertical section we observe faster horizontal velocities inside this anomaly that might be explained by layering of sediments and/or penetration of quasi-horizontal lenses with molten magma. In the mantle, trench parallel anisotropy is observed

  18. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisker Skjoldan, P.


    Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies, damping, and periodic mode shapes of a rotating wind turbine by describing the rotor degrees of freedom in the inertial frame. This approach is valid only for an isotropic system. Anisotropic systems, e.g., with an unbalanced rotor or operating in wind shear, are treated with the general approaches of Floquet analysis or Hill's method which do not provide a unique reference frame for observing the modal frequency, to which any multiple of the rotor speed can be added. This indeterminacy is resolved by requiring that the periodic mode shape be as constant as possible in the inertial frame. The modal frequency is thus identified as the dominant frequency in the response of a pure excitation of the mode observed in the inertial frame. A modal analysis tool based directly on the complex aeroelastic wind turbine code BHawC is presented. It uses the Coleman approach in isotropic conditions and the computationally efficient implicit Floquet analysis in anisotropic conditions. The tool is validated against system identifications with the partial Floquet method on the nonlinear BHawC model of a 2.3 MW wind turbine. System identification results show that nonlinear effects on the 2.3 MW turbine in most cases are small, but indicate that the controller creates nonlinear damping. In isotropic conditions the periodic mode shape contains up to three harmonic components, but in anisotropic conditions it can contain an infinite number of harmonic components with frequencies that are multiples of the rotor speed. These harmonics appear in calculated frequency responses of the turbine. Extreme wind shear changes the modal damping when the flow is separated due to an interaction between

  19. Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Thiago S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina – PR (Brazil); Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Carneiro, Saulo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador – BA (Brazil)


    If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.

  20. Polar Functions for Anisotropic Gaussian Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Chen


    Full Text Available Let X be an (N, d-anisotropic Gaussian random field. Under some general conditions on X, we establish a relationship between a class of continuous functions satisfying the Lipschitz condition and a class of polar functions of X. We prove upper and lower bounds for the intersection probability for a nonpolar function and X in terms of Hausdorff measure and capacity, respectively. We also determine the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of the times set for a nonpolar function intersecting X. The class of Gaussian random fields that satisfy our conditions includes not only fractional Brownian motion and the Brownian sheet, but also such anisotropic fields as fractional Brownian sheets, solutions to stochastic heat equation driven by space-time white noise, and the operator-scaling Gaussian random field with stationary increments.

  1. Dynamics of anisotropic particles under waves (United States)

    Dibenedetto, Michelle; Ouellette, Nicholas; Koseff, Jeffrey


    We present results on anisotropic particles in wavy flows in order to gain insight into the transport and mixing of microplastic particles in the near-shore environment. From theory and numerical simulations, we find that the rate of alignment of the particles is not constant and depends strongly on their initial orientation; thus, variations in initial particle orientation result in dispersion of anisotropic-particle plumes. We find that this dispersion is a function of the particle's eccentricity and the ratio of the settling and wave time scales. Experiments in which non-spherical particles of various shapes are released under surface gravity waves were also performed. Our main goal is to explore the effects of particle shape under various wave scenarios. We vary the aspect ratio of the particle in our experiments while holding other variables constant. Our results demonstrate that particle shape can be important when predicting transport.

  2. The shear viscosity in anisotropic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Sachin [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)


    We construct anisotropic black brane solutions and analyse the behaviour of some of their metric perturbations. These solutions correspond to field theory duals in which rotational symmetry is broken due an externally applied, spatially constant, force. We find, in several examples, that when the anisotropy is sufficiently big compared to the temperature, some components of the viscosity tensor can become very small in units of the entropy density, parametrically violating the KSS bound. We obtain an expression relating these components of the viscosity, in units of the entropy density, to a ratio of metric components at the horizon of the black brane. This relation is generally valid, as long as the forcing function is translationally invariant, and it directly connects the parametric violation of the bound to the anisotropy in the metric at the horizon. Our results suggest the possibility that such small components of the viscosity tensor might also arise in anisotropic strongly coupled fluids found in nature.

  3. Anisotropic instability of a stretching film (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Li, Minhao; Deng, Daosheng


    Instability of a thin liquid film, such as dewetting arising from Van der Waals force, has been well studied, and is typically characterized by formation of many droplets. Interestingly, a thin liquid film subjected to an applied stretching during a process of thermal drawing is evolved into an array of filaments, i.e., continuity is preserved along the direction of stretching while breakup occurs exclusively in the plane of cross section. Here, to understand this anisotropic instability, we build a physical model by considering both Van der Waals force and the effect of stretching. By using the linear instability analysis method and then performing a numerical calculation, we find that the growth rate of perturbations at the cross section is larger than that along the direction of stretching, resulting in the anisotropic instability of the stretching film. These results may provide theoretical guidance to achieve more diverse structures for nanotechnology.

  4. Anisotropic magnetocapacitance in ferromagnetic-plate capacitors (United States)

    Haigh, J. A.; Ciccarelli, C.; Betz, A. C.; Irvine, A.; Novák, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.


    The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor can depend on the applied magnetic field. Previous studies have identified capacitance changes induced via classical Lorentz force or spin-dependent Zeeman effects. Here we measure a magnetization direction-dependent capacitance in parallel-plate capacitors where one plate is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, gallium manganese arsenide. This anisotropic magnetocapacitance is due to the anisotropy in the density of states dependent on the magnetization through the strong spin-orbit interaction.

  5. Symmetry analysis for anisotropic field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David


    The purpose of this paper is to study with the help of Noether's theorem the symmetries of anisotropic actions for arbitrary fields which generally depend on higher order spatial derivatives, and to find the corresponding current densities and the Noether charges. We study in particular scale invariance and consider the cases of higher derivative extensions of the scalar field, electrodynamics and Chern-Simons theory.

  6. Anisotropic diffusion tensor applied to temporal mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, Sami; Sporring, Jon


    changes related to  specific  effects  like  Hormonal  Replacement  Therapy  (HRT) and aging. Given effect-grouped patient data, we demonstrated how  anisotropic  diffusion  tensor  and  its  coherence  features computed in an anatomically oriented breast coordinate system followed by statistical learning...

  7. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard


    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  8. Electromagnetic field representation in inhomogeneous anisotropic media (United States)

    Mohsen, A.


    Some of the basic developments in the theory of electromagnetic field representation in terms of Hertz vectors are reviewed. A solution for the field in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium is given in terms of the two Hertz vectors. Conditions for presentation of the field in terms of uncoupled transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes, in a general orthogonal coordinate system, are derived when the permeability and permittivity tensors have only diagonal components. These conditions are compared with some known special cases.

  9. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  10. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji


    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v 2 || φ 2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w DE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w DE (iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  11. Bryan's effect and anisotropic nonlinear damping (United States)

    Joubert, Stephan V.; Shatalov, Michael Y.; Fay, Temple H.; Manzhirov, Alexander V.


    In 1890, G. H. Bryan discovered the following: "The vibration pattern of a revolving cylinder or bell revolves at a rate proportional to the inertial rotation rate of the cylinder or bell." We call this phenomenon Bryan's law or Bryan's effect. It is well known that any imperfections in a vibratory gyroscope (VG) affect Bryan's law and this affects the accuracy of the VG. Consequently, in this paper, we assume that all such imperfections are either minimised or eliminated by some known control method and that only damping is present within the VG. If the damping is isotropic (linear or nonlinear), then it has been recently demonstrated in this journal, using symbolic analysis, that Bryan's law remains invariant. However, it is known that linear anisotropic damping does affect Bryan's law. In this paper, we generalise Rayleigh's dissipation function so that anisotropic nonlinear damping may be introduced into the equations of motion. Using a mixture of numeric and symbolic analysis on the ODEs of motion of the VG, for anisotropic light nonlinear damping, we demonstrate (up to an approximate average), that Bryan's law is affected by any form of such damping, causing pattern drift, compromising the accuracy of the VG.

  12. ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator (United States)

    Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.


    While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomaryov Andrey Budimirovicn


    Full Text Available In the paper, the results of deformability study of agrillite claystones are used for determination of the Jointed rock model parameters. The number of stamp, pressuremeter and compressive tests allowed to research anisotropic deformability of argillite claystone in vertical and horizontal direction. The following problems were solved during the study: 1 the in-place and laboratory experiments to calculate the anisotropy coefficient were done for anisotropic agrillite claystones with both natural moisture and total water saturation; 2 the deformation parameters were determined and the numerical simulation of the stress-strain state of claystone in field tests was carried out with the use of Plaxis 2D software application; 3 the comparative analysis was done for calculated claystone deformation and the values obtained during the in-place tests. The authors proved that agrillite claystones shows two times less deformation under loading in the horizontal direction than vertically. The ratio is obtained to determine the parameters for numerical simulation of the Jointed Rock model used as a practical tool for analysis of stress-strain behavior of anisotropic soils. The authors provided a recommended practice for consideration of specific properties of argillite claystones when carrying out foundation works.

  14. Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.

  15. A plane stress yield function for anisotropic sheet material by interpolation of biaxial stress states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, H.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.


    An anisotropic plane stress yield function based on interpolation by second order Bézier curves is proposed. The parameters for the model are readily derived by four mechanical tests: a uniaxial, an equi-biaxial and a plane strain tensile test and a shear test. In case of planar anisotropy, this set

  16. Modeling the Anisotropic Reflectance of a Surface with Microstructure Engineered to Obtain Visible Contrast after Rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luongo, Andrea; Falster, Viggo; Doest, Mads Emil Brix


    rotating it 90 degrees around its normal axis. We build an analytic anisotropic reflectance model based on the microstructure engineered to obtain such contrast. Using our model to render synthetic images, we predict the above mentioned contrasts and compare our predictions with the measurements reported...

  17. Quenching the Anisotropic Heisenberg Chain: Exact Solution and Generalized Gibbs Ensemble Predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, B.; De Nardis, J.; Brockmann, M.; Fioretto, D.; Rigol, M.; Caux, J.-S.


    We study quenches in integrable spin-1/2 chains in which we evolve the ground state of the antiferromagnetic Ising model with the anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian. For this nontrivially interacting situation, an application of the first-principles-based quench-action method allows us to give an

  18. Understanding conoscopic interference patterns in anisotropic crystals (United States)

    Olorunsola, Oluwatobi Gabriel

    The interference patterns observed in conoscopy are important in studying the optical and geometrical properties of anisotropic materials. They have also been used to identify minerals and to explore the structure of biological tissues. In a conoscopic interferometer, an optically anisotropic specimen is placed between two crossed linear polarizers and illuminated by a convergent light beam. The interference patterns are produced because in an anisotropic material an incident light is split into two eigenwaves, namely the ordinary and the extraordinary waves. We report our work on the theoretical simulation and experimental observation of the conoscopic interference patterns in anisotropic crystals. In our simulation, the interference patterns are decomposed into fringes of isogyres and isochromates. For each light propagation direction inside the crystal there exist two eigenwaves that have their own characteristic velocities and vibration directions. The isogyres are obtained by computing the angle between the polarization of the incident light and the vibration directions of the two eigenwaves. The isochromates are obtained by computing the phase retardance between the two eigenwaves inside the crystal. The interference patterns are experimentally observed in several crystals, with their optic axes either parallel or perpendicular to their surfaces. An external electric field is applied to deform the crystals from uniaxial to biaxial. The results of our experimental observation agree well with our computer simulation. In conventional interferometers the isochromatic interference fringes are observed by using a circular polarizer and a circular analyzer, both constructed by a linear polarizer and a quarter wave plate. However, due to the dispersion of the quarter wave plates, the phase-retardance between the two light waves inside the quarter wave plates is wavelength-dependent, which results in different conoscopic interference patterns for different colors of

  19. Level Set Approach to Anisotropic Wet Etching of Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radjenović


    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for the three dimensional (3D modeling and simulation of the profile evolution during anisotropic wet etching of silicon based on the level set method is presented. Etching rate anisotropy in silicon is modeled taking into account full silicon symmetry properties, by means of the interpolation technique using experimentally obtained values for the etching rates along thirteen principal and high index directions in KOH solutions. The resulting level set equations are solved using an open source implementation of the sparse field method (ITK library, developed in medical image processing community, extended for the case of non-convex Hamiltonians. Simulation results for some interesting initial 3D shapes, as well as some more practical examples illustrating anisotropic etching simulation in the presence of masks (simple square aperture mask, convex corner undercutting and convex corner compensation, formation of suspended structures are shown also. The obtained results show that level set method can be used as an effective tool for wet etching process modeling, and that is a viable alternative to the Cellular Automata method which now prevails in the simulations of the wet etching process.

  20. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  1. An anisotropic hydrogel with electrostatic repulsion between cofacially aligned nanosheets (United States)

    Liu, Mingjie; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Aida, Takuzo


    Machine technology frequently puts magnetic or electrostatic repulsive forces to practical use, as in maglev trains, vehicle suspensions or non-contact bearings. In contrast, materials design overwhelmingly focuses on attractive interactions, such as in the many advanced polymer-based composites, where inorganic fillers interact with a polymer matrix to improve mechanical properties. However, articular cartilage strikingly illustrates how electrostatic repulsion can be harnessed to achieve unparalleled functional efficiency: it permits virtually frictionless mechanical motion within joints, even under high compression. Here we describe a composite hydrogel with anisotropic mechanical properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged unilamellar titanate nanosheets embedded within it. Crucial to the behaviour of this hydrogel is the serendipitous discovery of cofacial nanosheet alignment in aqueous colloidal dispersions subjected to a strong magnetic field, which maximizes electrostatic repulsion and thereby induces a quasi-crystalline structural ordering over macroscopic length scales and with uniformly large face-to-face nanosheet separation. We fix this transiently induced structural order by transforming the dispersion into a hydrogel using light-triggered in situ vinyl polymerization. The resultant hydrogel, containing charged inorganic structures that align cofacially in a magnetic flux, deforms easily under shear forces applied parallel to the embedded nanosheets yet resists compressive forces applied orthogonally. We anticipate that the concept of embedding anisotropic repulsive electrostatics within a composite material, inspired by articular cartilage, will open up new possibilities for developing soft materials with unusual functions.

  2. Introduction to the anisotropic geometrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Siparov, Sergey


    The aim of the book is to provide a new and fruitful approach to the challenging problems of modern physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The well-known observations of the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and of the gravitational lensing effect greatly exceeding the expectations based on the classical GRT can be explained without bringing in the notion of dark matter. The Tully-Fisher law and the unusual features of globular clusters' motion become clear. It also turns out that new features appear in the cosmological picture that involves the Universe expansion and the acceleration of

  3. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.


    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically C.

  4. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)


    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  5. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  6. Giant anisotropic interactions in frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6 (United States)

    Plumb, Kemp


    I will discuss a series of comprehensive inelastic neutron scattering measurements which uncover the full magnetic excitation spectrum in the valence bond ordered compound BiCu2PO6. Owing to its frustrated geometry and potential to realize unique quantum phase transitions in high magnetic fields, BiCu2PO6 has received significant attention in recent literature. However, the true nature of the magnetic Hamiltonian responsible for the high field phenomena has not been known until now. I will present measurements of the spin excitation spectrum in BiCu2PO6 from which the magnetic Hamiltonian is elucidated. The spectrum is unique to the frustrated two-leg ladder geometry in BiCu2PO6 and we have been able to correctly describe the lowest energy excitations within the framework of a bond-operator theory, incorporating anisotropic magnetic exchange interactions which are comparable to the Heisenberg exchange terms. The anisotropic exchange interactions originate from spin orbit coupling and are of an unexpectedly large magnitude for a Cu based magnetic compound, potentially indicating the relevance of Bismuth in the superexchange pathway. BiCu2PO6 is a complex and unique quantum magnet combining frustration and anisotropic exchange; the discovery of such large anisotropic interactions in BiCu2PO6 hints at new routes for incorporating spin anisotropies in 3d transition metal based magnets.

  7. Anisotropic resonant scattering from polymer photonic crystals. (United States)

    Haines, Andrew I; Finlayson, Chris E; Snoswell, David R E; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, G Peter; Baumberg, Jeremy J


    Hyperspectral goniometry reveals anisotropic scattering which dominates the visual appearance of self-assembled polymer opals. The technique allows reconstruction of the reciprocal-space of nanostructures, and indicates that chain defects formed during shear-ordering are responsible for the anisotropy in these samples. Enhanced scattering with improving order is shown to arise from increased effective refractive index contrast, while broadband background scatter is suppressed by absorptive dopants. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Anisotropic Density Estimation in Global Illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars


    and bias in estimates. Good results are obtained by the use of anisotropic filtering. Two methods handles the most common cases; filtering illumination reflected from object surfaces. One methods extends filtering to the temporal domain and one performs filtering on illumination from participating media......Density estimation employed in multi-pass global illumination algorithms gives cause to a trade-off problem between bias and noise. The problem is seen most evident as blurring of strong illumination features. This thesis addresses the problem, presenting four methods that reduce both noise...

  9. Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.


    An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations

  10. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)


    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  12. Analysis of anisotropic shells containing flowing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakis, A.A.


    A general theory for the dynamic analysis of anisotropic thin cylindrical shells containing flowing fluid is presented. The shell may be uniform or non-uniform, provided it is geometrically axially symmetric. This is a finite- element theory, using cylindrical finite elements, but the displacement functions are determined by using classical shell theory. A new solution of the wave equation of the liquid finite element leads to an expression of the fluid pressure, p, as a function of the nodal displacements of the element and three operative forces (inertia, centrifugal and Coriolis) of the moving fluid. (Author) [pt

  13. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan image in acoustically homogeneous and layered anisotropic materials using three dimensional ray tracing method. (United States)

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Hoehne, Christian; Prager, Jens; Rethmeier, Michael; Kreutzbruck, Marc


    Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan images in homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials is of general importance for understanding the influence of anisotropy on wave fields during ultrasonic non-destructive testing and evaluation of these materials. In this contribution, a three dimensional ray tracing method is presented for evaluating ultrasonic C-scan images quantitatively in general homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials. The directivity of the ultrasonic ray source in general homogeneous columnar grained anisotropic austenitic steel material (including layback orientation) is obtained in three dimensions based on Lamb's reciprocity theorem. As a prerequisite for ray tracing model, the problem of ultrasonic ray energy reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between (a) isotropic base material and anisotropic austenitic weld material (including layback orientation), (b) two adjacent anisotropic weld metals and (c) anisotropic weld metal and isotropic base material is solved in three dimensions. The influence of columnar grain orientation and layback orientation on ultrasonic C-scan image is quantitatively analyzed in the context of ultrasonic testing of homogeneous and layered austenitic steel materials. The presented quantitative results provide valuable information during ultrasonic characterization of homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic steel materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiphoton microscope measurement-based biphasic multiscale analyses of knee joint articular cartilage and chondrocyte by using visco-anisotropic hyperelastic finite element method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. (United States)

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Noma, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Kaito; Tomita, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yusuke


    The articular cartilage of a knee joint has a variety of functions including dispersing stress and absorbing shock in the tissue and lubricating the surface region of cartilage. The metabolic activity of chondrocytes under the cyclic mechanical stimulations regenerates the morphology and function of tissues. Hence, the stress evaluation of the chondrocyte is a vital subject to assess the regeneration cycle in the normal walking condition and predict the injury occurrence in the accidents. Further, the threshold determination of stress for the chondrocytes activation is valuable for development of regenerative bioreactor of articular cartilage. In this study, in both macroscale and microscale analyses, the dynamic explicit finite element (FE) method was used for the solid phase and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method was used for the fluid phase. In the homogenization procedure, the representative volume element for the microscale finite element model was derived by using the multiphoton microscope measured 3D structure comprising 3 different layers: surface, middle, and deep layers. The layers had different anisotropic structural and rigidity characteristics because of the collagen fiber orientation. In both macroscale and microscale FE analyses, the visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive law was used. Material properties were identified by experimentally determined stress-strain relationships of 3 layers. With respect to the macroscale and microscale SPH models for non-Newtonian viscous fluid, the previous observation results of interstitial fluid and proteoglycan were used to perform parameter identifications. Biphasic multiscale FE and SPH analyses were conducted under normal walking conditions. Therefore, the hydrostatic and shear stresses occurring in the chondrocytes caused by the compressive load and shear viscous flow were evaluated. These stresses will be used to design an ex-vivo bioreactor to regenerate the damaged articular cartilage

  15. Effect of orbital symmetry on the anisotropic superexchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom Hyun; Min, B I


    Employing the microscopic superexchange model incorporating the effect of spin-orbit interaction, we have investigated the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction in perovskite transition-metal (TM) oxides and explored the interplay between the DM interaction and the TM-3d orbital symmetry. For d 3 and d 5 systems with isotropic orbital symmetry, the DM vectors are well described by a simple symmetry analysis considering only the bond geometry. In contrast, the DM interaction for d 4 systems with anisotropic orbital symmetry shows slightly different behavior, which does not obey simple symmetry analysis. The direction as well as the strength of the DM vector varies depending on the occupied orbital shape. We have understood this behavior based on the orbital symmetry induced by local crystal field variation.

  16. Speckle suppressing anisotropic diffusion filter for medical ultrasound images. (United States)

    Ovireddy, Saraniya; Muthusamy, Ezhilarasi


    Ultrasonography is often preferred over the other medical imaging modalities due to its noninvasive nature, cost-effectiveness, and portability. However, the resolution of the ultrasound image greatly depends upon the presence of speckle noise. Speckle noise generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic resolution of this imaging modality. In this paper, we propose a speckle suppressing anisotropic diffusion (SSAD) filter, to remove the speckle noise from B-Mode Ultrasound images. The performance of the SSAD filter is compared with the existing diffusion filters. The evaluation is based on their application to images simulated by Field II (developed by Jensen et al.). The algorithms were also tested for clinical ultrasound images of polycystic ovaries obtained from HDI 5000 Ultrasound Scanner. Performance evaluation was done by both numerical and functional parameters. The proposed filter yields better results in terms of greatest structural similarity index map (SSIM) of 0.95 and accuracy of 99.5.

  17. Single atom anisotropic magnetoresistance on a topological insulator surface

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Awadhesh


    © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. We demonstrate single atom anisotropic magnetoresistance on the surface of a topological insulator, arising from the interplay between the helical spin-momentum-locked surface electronic structure and the hybridization of the magnetic adatom states. Our first-principles quantum transport calculations based on density functional theory for Mn on Bi2Se3 elucidate the underlying mechanism. We complement our findings with a two dimensional model valid for both single adatoms and magnetic clusters, which leads to a proposed device setup for experimental realization. Our results provide an explanation for the conflicting scattering experiments on magnetic adatoms on topological insulator surfaces, and reveal the real space spin texture around the magnetic impurity.

  18. Finite frequency traveltime sensitivity kernels for acoustic anisotropic media: Angle dependent bananas

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi


    Anisotropy is an inherent character of the Earth subsurface. It should be considered for modeling and inversion. The acoustic VTI wave equation approximates the wave behavior in anisotropic media, and especially it\\'s kinematic characteristics. To analyze which parts of the model would affect the traveltime for anisotropic traveltime inversion methods, especially for wave equation tomography (WET), we drive the sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media using the VTI acoustic wave equation. A Born scattering approximation is first derived using the Fourier domain acoustic wave equation as a function of perturbations in three anisotropy parameters. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which unwraps the phase, we compute the kernels. These kernels resemble those for isotropic media, with the η kernel directionally dependent. They also have a maximum sensitivity along the geometrical ray, which is more realistic compared to the cross-correlation based kernels. Focusing on diving waves, which is used more often, especially recently in waveform inversion, we show sensitivity kernels in anisotropic media for this case.

  19. Influence of anisotropic turbulence on the long-range imaging system by the MTF model (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang


    Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this paper, new analytic expressions for the anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence modulation transfer function (MTF) based on Rytov approximation theory have been derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. Compared with the previously published results where the turbulence inner and outer scales were set separately to zero and infinite for calculation convenience, the concept of anisotropy at different turbulence cell scales and finite turbulence inner and outer scales are introduced to study the MTF models. Also, deviations from the classic 11/3 spectral power law behavior for Kolmogorov turbulence are allowed by assuming spectral power law value variations between 3 and 4. To reduce the complexity and calculation time of the analytic results, the asymptotic-fit expressions are also derived and they fit well with the closed-form ones. Calculations are performed to analyze the anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence's influence on the long-range imaging system.

  20. Scattering and propagation of a Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beam by uniaxial anisotropic bispheres (United States)

    Qu, Tan; Wu, Zhensen; Shang, Qingchao; Li, Zhengjun; Wu, Jiaji; Li, Haiying


    Within the framework of the generalized multi-particle Mie (GMM) theory, analytical solution to electromagnetic scattering of two interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres by a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) vortex beam is investigated. The particles with different size and dielectric parameter tensor elements are arbitrarily configured. Based on the continuous boundary conditions at each sphere surface, the interactive scattering coefficients are derived. The internal and near-surface field is investigated to describe the propagation of LG vortex beam through the NaCl crystal. In addition, the far fields of some typical anisotropic medium such as LiNbO3, TiO2 bispheres illuminated by an LG vortex beam are numerically presented in detail to analyze the influence of the anisotropic parameters, sphere positions, separation distance and topological charge etc. The results show that LG vortex beam has a better recovery after interacting with a spherical particle compared with Gaussian beam. The study in the paper are useful for the further research on the scattering and propagation characteristics of arbitrary vortex beam in anisotropic chains and periodic structure.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of anisotropic solute diffusivity and binding reaction rates in biological tissues by FRAP. (United States)

    Travascio, Francesco; Gu, Wei Yong


    Several solutes (e.g., growth factors, cationic solutes, etc.) can reversibly bind to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of biological tissues. Binding interactions have significant implications on transport of such solutes through the ECM. In order to fully delineate transport phenomena in biological tissues, knowledge of binding kinetics is crucial. In this study, a new method for the simultaneous determination of solute anisotropic diffusivity and binding reaction rates was presented. The new technique was solely based on Fourier analysis of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) images. Computer-simulated FRAP tests were used to assess the sensitivity and the robustness of the method to experimental parameters, such as anisotropic solute diffusivity and rates of binding reaction. The new method was applied to the determination of diffusivity and binding rates of 5-dodecanoylaminofluorescein (DAF) in bovine coccygeal annulus fibrosus (AF). Our findings indicate that DAF reversibly binds to the ECM of AF. In addition, it was found that DAF diffusion in AF is anisotropic. The results were in agreement with those reported in previous studies. This study provides a new tool for the simultaneous determination of solute anisotropic diffusion tensor and rates of binding reaction that can be used to investigate diffusive-reactive transport in biological tissues and tissue engineered constructs.

  2. Anisotropic elliptic PDEs for feature classification. (United States)

    Wang, Shengfa; Hou, Tingbo; Li, Shuai; Su, Zhixun; Qin, Hong


    The extraction and classification of multitype (point, curve, patch) features on manifolds are extremely challenging, due to the lack of rigorous definition for diverse feature forms. This paper seeks a novel solution of multitype features in a mathematically rigorous way and proposes an efficient method for feature classification on manifolds. We tackle this challenge by exploring a quasi-harmonic field (QHF) generated by elliptic PDEs, which is the stable state of heat diffusion governed by anisotropic diffusion tensor. Diffusion tensor locally encodes shape geometry and controls velocity and direction of the diffusion process. The global QHF weaves points into smooth regions separated by ridges and has superior performance in combating noise/holes. Our method's originality is highlighted by the integration of locally defined diffusion tensor and globally defined elliptic PDEs in an anisotropic manner. At the computational front, the heat diffusion PDE becomes a linear system with Dirichlet condition at heat sources (called seeds). Our new algorithms afford automatic seed selection, enhanced by a fast update procedure in a high-dimensional space. By employing diffusion probability, our method can handle both manufactured parts and organic objects. Various experiments demonstrate the flexibility and high performance of our method.

  3. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials. (United States)

    Dierking, Ingo; Al-Zangana, Shakhawan


    Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i) addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii) novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii) the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  4. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O


    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  5. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)


    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  6. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking


    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  8. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials (United States)

    Dierking, Ingo


    Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i) addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii) novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii) the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide. PMID:28974025

  9. Elastic Modes of an Anisotropic Ridge Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Galinde


    Full Text Available A semi-analytical method for finding the elastic modes propagating along the edge of an anisotropic semi-infinite plate is presented. Solutions are constructed as linear combinations of a finite number of the corresponding infinite plate modes with the constraint that they decay in the direction perpendicular to the edge and collectively satisfy the free boundary condition over the edge surface. Such modes that are confined to the edge can be used to approximate solutions of acoustic ridge waveguides whose supporting structures are sufficiently far away from the free edge. The semi-infinite plate or ridge is allowed to be oriented arbitrarily in the anisotropic crystal. Modifications to the theory to find symmetric and antisymmetric solutions for special crystal orientations are also presented. Accuracy of the solutions can be improved by including more plate modes in the series. Numerical techniques to find modal dispersion relations and orientation dependent modal behavior, are discussed. Results for ridges etched in single crystal Silicon are found to be in good agreement with Finite Element simulations. It is found that variations in modal phase velocity with respect to crystal orientation are not significant, suggesting that anisotropy may not be a critical issue while designing ridge waveguides in Silicon.

  10. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You


    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  11. Relativistic model for anisotropic strange stars (United States)

    Deb, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Sourav Roy; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B. K.


    In this article, we attempt to find a singularity free solution of Einstein's field equations for compact stellar objects, precisely strange (quark) stars, considering Schwarzschild metric as the exterior spacetime. To this end, we consider that the stellar object is spherically symmetric, static and anisotropic in nature and follows the density profile given by Mak and Harko (2002) , which satisfies all the physical conditions. To investigate different properties of the ultra-dense strange stars we have employed the MIT bag model for the quark matter. Our investigation displays an interesting feature that the anisotropy of compact stars increases with the radial coordinate and attains its maximum value at the surface which seems an inherent property for the singularity free anisotropic compact stellar objects. In this connection we also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are reasonably acceptable within certain range. Further, we find that the model is consistent with the energy conditions and the compact stellar structure is stable with the validity of the TOV equation and Herrera cracking concept. For the masses below the maximum mass point in mass vs radius curve the typical behavior achieved within the framework of general relativity. We have calculated the maximum mass and radius of the strange stars for the three finite values of bag constant Bg.

  12. Building an Anisotropic Meniscus with Zonal Variations (United States)

    Higashioka, Michael M.; Chen, Justin A.; Hu, Jerry C.


    Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus. PMID:23931258

  13. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 669–673. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory. SUBENOY CHAKRABORTY1,*, BATUL CHANDRA SANTRA2 and ... Anisotropic cosmological models; general scalar tensor theory; inflation. PACS Nos 98.80.Hw; 04.50.+h; 98.80.Cq. 1. Introduction. Brans–Dicke theory [1] (BD ...

  14. Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Einstein field equations for static anisotropic spheres are solved and exact interior solutions obtained. This paper extends earlier treatments to include anisotropic models which accommodate a wider variety of physically viable energy densities. Two classes of solutions are possible. The first class contains the limiting case ...

  15. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium. M D Sharma ... Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a ... Department of Mathematics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India. UIET ...

  16. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 4. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium: Biot's theories and homogenisation theory. M D Sharma. Volume 116 Issue 4 August ... Keywords. Anisotropic poroelastic (APE) solid; Biot's theory; homogenisation theory; phase velocity.

  17. Modeling and Measurements of CMUTs with Square Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Dahl-Petersen, Christian


    The conventional method of modeling CMUTs use the isotropic plate equation to calculate the deflection, leading to deviations from FEM simulations including anisotropic effects of around 10% in center deflection. In this paper, the deflection is found for square plates using the full anisotropic ...

  18. Anisotropic Flow Measurements in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilandzic, A.


    Anisotropic flow is one of the observables which is sensitive to the properties of the created hot and dense system in heavy-ion collisions. In noncentral heavy-ion collisions the initial volume of the interacting system is anisotropic in coordinate space. Due to multiple interactions this anisotropy

  19. Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium, three types of quasi-waves propagate along an arbi- trary direction. In general, none of the waves is truly longitudinal. The present study finds the specific directions in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium along which longitudinal waves may propagate. This paper ...

  20. On the origins of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of extruded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents some experimental investigations about the origins of the anisotropic behaviour in cyclic loadings of ... In the second step, microstructural investigations were performed in order to understand the origins of the anisotropic ..... [20] Djebli A, Aid A, Bendouba M, Amrouche A, Benguediab M and Benseddiq ...

  1. Anisotropic Thermoelectric Devices Made from Single-Crystal Semimetal Microwires in Glass Coating (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Huber, T. E.


    Thermoelectric heat conversion based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects generated at the junction between two materials of type-n and type-p is well known. Here, we present a demonstration of an unconventional thermoelectric energy conversion that is based on a single element made of an anisotropic material. In such materials, a heat flow generates a transverse thermoelectric electric field lying across the heat flow. Potentially, in applications involving miniature devices, the anisotropic thermoelectric (AT) effect has the advantage over traditional thermoelectrics that it simplifies the thermoelectric generator architecture. This is because the generator can be made of a single thermoelectric material without the complexity of a series of contacts forming a pile. A feature of anisotropic thermoelectrics is that the thermoelectric voltage is proportional to the element length and inversely proportional to the effective thickness. The AT effect has been demonstrated with artificial anisotropic thin film consisting of layers of alternating thermoelectric type, but there has been no demonstration of this effect in a long single-crystal. Electronic transport measurements have shown that the semimetal bismuth is highly anisotropic. We have prepared an experimental sample consisting of a 10-m-long glass-insulated single-crystal tin-doped bismuth microwire (d = 4 μm). Crucial for this experiment is the ability to grow the microwire as a single-crystal using a technique of recrystallization with laser heating and under a strong electric field. The sample was wound as a spiral, bonded to a copper disk, and used in various experiments. The sensitivity of the sample to heat flow is as high as 10-2 V/W with a time constant τ of about 0.5 s.

  2. À propos du lexique juridique en ancien français avant le 13e siècle : la Règle de saint Benoît et le Perceval de Chrétien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauwecker Yela


    Full Text Available La plus ancienne traduction de la {em Règle} de saint Benoît en franc{c}ais, rédigée en dialecte picard-wallon, date de la première moitié ou du milieu du {sc xii}$^{m e}$~siècle. On veut montrer que son auteur, pour qui le changement de langue, n'est pas le premier objectif s'efforce de transférer le texte de son milieu originel de l'Antiquité tardive dans le monde chevaleresque-féodal du {sc xii}$^{m e}$~siècle. Même sans nécessité apparente, quand il a eu à sa disposition l'équivalent du mot employé dans la {em Regula}, il substitue aux mots latins des termes juridiques et féodaux franc{c}ais. par Son texte, en tant que document de droit pour les moines, devient ainsi une source de vocabulaire juridique franc{c}ais avant le {sc xiii}$^{m e}$~siècle, c'est-à-dire dans un temps où les documents juridiques en langue vulgaire sont extrêmement rares. Cela est dû au fait que la justice, dans le Nord, fondée sur des coutumes, utilisait la langue vernaculaire à l'oral. La terminologie juridique franc{c}aise est bien enracinée dans la langue courante de l'époque~: leur insertion dans les Lais et les Chansons de geste en fait preuve. Mais cette terminologie est souvent méconnue par la lexicographie traditionnelle de l'ancien franc{c}ais, en raison des contextes littéraires et figurés. par

  3. Critical frontier of anisotropic planar Potts ferromagnets : a new conjucture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.


    The critical frontier of the nearest-neighbour q-state Potts ferromagnet in the fully anisotropic 3-12 lattice is conjectured through a star-triangle transformation. It recovers all the available exact results concerning particular cases, namely: (i) anisotropic square lattice for all q; (ii) anisotropic triangular and honeycomb lattices for all q; (iii) anisotropic Kagome and diced lattices for q=2; (iv) isotropic 3-12 and Asanoha lattices for q=2. It provides proposals for several other planar lattices, in particular for the anisotropic Kagome (and diced) one for q different 2, where it slightly differs from the Wu 1979 conjecture (Which also satisfies the cases (i) and (iii)). The bond percolation critical probabilities on the 3-12 and Kagome lattices are determined to be respectively p sub(c) = 0.739830... and p sub(c) = 0.522372.... (Author) [pt

  4. Solar cosmic ray effects in atmospheric chemistry evidenced from ground- based measurements (United States)

    Shumilov, O.; Kasatkina, E.; Turyansky, V.

    Solar protons with a relatively soft energy spectrum (E450 MeV) of Ground Level Event (GLE) type can penetrate below 30 km and cause neutron flow enhancement detected by ground-based neutron monitors. Atmospheric effects of such high-energy particles seem to be more pronounced and appeared variations of total content of some atmospheric parameters that can be detected by ground-based devices. It was shown earlier that some GLEs cause considerable ozone total content decreases (up to 25%), or so-called ozone "miniholes" at high latitudes. This work presents ground-based measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) total content made at Murmansk, Kola Peninsula (corrected geomagnetic latitude: 64.8) during and after GLE of 2 May 1998. Nitrogen dioxide was measured by zenith viewing spectrophotometer in wavelength region between 435-450 nm. An increase (about of 20%) in total column of NO2 has been recorded after 2 May 1998 GLE by this facility. Model calculations based on gas phase photochemical theory quantitatively agree with observations. In addition to satellite measurements the information obtained by ground-based devices will be helpful to study atmospheric effects of cosmic ray events. This work was supported by the RFBR grants 01-05-64850 and 01-05-26226).

  5. Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, Hansjoerg


    In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the

  6. Squeeze-film flow between a flat impermeable bearing and an anisotropic porous bed (United States)

    Karmakar, Timir; Raja Sekhar, G. P.


    We consider a theoretical model of the squeeze film in the presence of a porous bed. The gap between the porous bed and the bearing is assumed to be filled with a Newtonian fluid. We use the Navier-Stokes equation in the fluid region and the Darcy equation in the fluid filled porous region. Lubrication approximation is used to derive the corresponding evolution equation for the film thickness. We use G. S. Beavers and D. D. Joseph ["Boundary conditions at a naturally permeable wall," J. Fluid. Mech. 30, 197-207 (1967)] and M. Le Bars and M. G. Worster ["Interfacial conditions between a pure fluid and a porous medium: Implications for binary alloy solidification," J. Fluid. Mech. 550, 149-173 (2006)] condition at the liquid porous interface and present a detailed analysis on the corresponding impact. We assume that the porous bed is anisotropic in nature with permeabilities K2 and K1 along the principal axes. Accordingly, the anisotropic angle ϕ is taken as the angle between the horizontal direction and principal axis with permeability K2. We show that the anisotropic permeability ratio and the anisotropic angle make a significant influence on the contact time, flux, velocity, etc. Contact time to meet the porous bed when a bearing approaches under a constant prescribed load is estimated. We present some important findings (relevant to the knee joint) based on the anisotropic properties of the human cartilage. For a prescribed constant load, we have estimated the time duration, during which a healthy human knee remains fluid lubricated.

  7. Analysis of angle of arrival fluctuations for optical waves' propagation through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan


    Analytical expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations based on the Rytov approximation theory are derived for plane and spherical waves' propagation through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence atmosphere. The anisotropic spectrum model based on the assumption of circular symmetry in the orthogonal plane throughout the path is adopted and it includes the same degree of anisotropy along the direction of propagation for all the turbulence cells size in the inertial sub-range. The derived expressions consider a single anisotropic coefficient describing the turbulence anisotropic property and a general spectral power law value in the range 3 to 4. They reduce correctly to the previously published analytic expressions for the cases of plane and spherical waves' propagation through weak isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence for the special case of anisotropic factor equaling one. To reduce the complexity of the analytical results, the asymptotic-fit expressions are also derived and they fit well with the close-form ones. These results are useful for understanding the potential impact of deviations from the standard isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence atmosphere.

  8. Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez Jacome, Wilson


    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the

  9. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.


    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  10. Anisotropic plasmas from axion and dilaton deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham (United Kingdom); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,Prince Consort Rd., London (United Kingdom); Sosa-Rodriguez, Omar [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham (United Kingdom)


    We construct black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity that are holographically dual to anisotropic plasmas arising from deformations of an infinite class of four-dimensional CFTs. The CFTs are dual to AdS{sub 5}×X{sub 5}, where X{sub 5} is an Einstein manifold, and the deformations involve the type IIB axion and dilaton, with non-trivial periodic dependence on one of the spatial directions of the CFT. At low temperatures the solutions approach smooth domain wall solutions with the same AdS{sub 5}×X{sub 5} solution appearing in the far IR. For sufficiently large deformations an intermediate scaling regime appears which is governed by a Lifshitz-like scaling solution. We calculate the DC thermal conductivity and some components of the shear viscosity tensor.

  11. Fluid flow through anisotropic porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telles, A.S.; Massarani, G.


    Darcy's equation represents a simplified form of the equation of motion for the fluid flowing through a porous medium. The simplifications concern the elimination of the acceleration, the divergence of the extra stress terms, and the assumption of existence of a linear form in the velocity for the resistive force the fluid exerts upon the solid. This hypothesis may not be valid for all anisotropic media. In some instances, measurements of directional resistivity suggest existence of the resistivity tensor, leaving entirely open the question of symmetry. In connection with this important question, an experimental scheme for the determination of the antisymmetric part of this tensor is suggested. The conclusion is that material symmetries is the only macroscopic concept that imposes restrictions on the form of the resistivity and extra stress tensors [pt

  12. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi


    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  13. Silicon as an anisotropic mechanical material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Reck, Kasper; Skands, Gustav Erik


    While silicon is an anisotropic material it is often in literature treated as an isotropic material when it comes to plate calculations. This leads to considerable errors in the calculated deflection. To overcome this problem, we present an in-depth analysis of the bending behavior of thin...... both exact analytical expressions and approximate expressions calculated by the Galerkin method. The results are applied to plates made on silicon (0 0 1), (0 1 1) and (1 1 1) substrates, respectively, and analytical equations for the deflection, strain energy and resonance frequency of such plates...... analytical models involving crystalline plates, such as those often found in the field of micro electro mechanical systems. The effect of elastic boundary conditions is taken into account by using an effective radius of the plate....

  14. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying


    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD (United States)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C.; Amato, A.; Evans, W.; Giudice, P.; Harris, T.; Kelly, A.; Kim, S. Y.; Lombardo, M. P.; Praki, K.; Ryan, S. M.; Skullerud, J.-I.


    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.

  16. Derivation of the optical constants of anisotropic (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.; Strong, P. F.


    This report concerns the development of methods for obtaining the optical constants of anisotropic crystals of the triclinic and monoclinic systems. The principal method used, classical dispersion theory, is adapted to these crystal systems by extending the Lorentz line parameters to include the angles characterizing the individual resonances, and by replacing the dielectric constant by a dielectric tensor. The sample crystals are gypsium, orthoclase and chalcanthite. The derived optical constants are shown to be suitable for modeling the optical properties of particulate media in the infrared spectral region. For those materials where suitable size single crystals are not available, an extension of a previously used method is applied to alabaster, a polycrystalline material of the monoclinic crystal system.

  17. Final fate of charged anisotropic fluid collapse (United States)

    Khan, Suhail; Shah, Hassan; Ahmad, Zahid; Ramzan, Muhammad


    This paper studies the effects of charge on spherically symmetric collapse of anisotropic fluid with a positive cosmological constant. It is observed that electromagnetic field places restriction on the bounds of cosmological constant, which acts as repulsive force against the contraction of matter content and hence the rate of destruction is faster in the presence of electromagnetic field. We have also noted that the presence of charge affects the time interval between the formation of cosmological horizon (CH) and black hole horizon (BHH). When the electric field strength E(t, r) vanishes, our investigations are in full agreement with the results obtained by Ahmad and Malik [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 600 (2016)].

  18. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, Mariusz [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Moiseyev, Nimrod [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Physics, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  19. Effective stress law for anisotropic elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.M.


    An effective stress law is derived analytically to describe the effect of pore fluid pressure on the linearly elastic response of saturated porous rocks which exhibit anisotropy. For general anisotropy the difference between the effective stress and the applied stress is not hydrostatic. The effective stress law involves two constants for transversely isotropic response and three constants for orthotropic response; these constants can be expressed in terms of the moduli of the porous material and of the solid material. These expressions simplify considerably when the anisotropy is structural rather than intrinsic, i.e., in the case of an isotropic solid material with an anisotropic pore structure. In this case the effective stress law involves the solid or grain bulk modulus and two or three moduli of the porous material, for transverse isotropy and orthotropy, respectively. The law reduces, in the case of isotropic response, to that suggested by Geertsma (1957) and by Skempton (1961) and derived analytically by Nur and Byerlee

  20. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.


    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric


    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test

  2. A single-electron picture based on the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method: application to the anisotropic ionization and subsequent high-harmonic generation of the CO molecule (United States)

    Ohmura, S.; Kato, T.; Oyamada, T.; Koseki, S.; Ohmura, H.; Kono, H.


    The mechanisms of anisotropic near-IR tunnel ionization and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a CO molecule are theoretically investigated by using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method developed for the simulation of multielectron dynamics of molecules. The multielectron dynamics obtained by numerically solving the equations of motion (EOMs) in the MCTDHF method is converted to a single orbital picture in the natural orbital representation where the first-order reduced density matrix is diagonalized. The ionization through each natural orbital is examined and the process of HHG is classified into different optical paths designated by a combinations of initial, intermediate and final natural orbitals. The EOMs for natural spin-orbitals are also derived within the framework of the MCTDHF, which maintains the first-order reduced density matrix to be a diagonal one throughout the time propagation of a many-electron wave function. The orbital dependent, time-dependent effective potentials that govern the dynamics of respective time-dependent natural orbitals are deduced from the derived EOMs, of which the temporal variation can be used to interpret the motion of the electron density associated with each natural spin-orbital. The roles of the orbital shape, multiorbital ionization, linear Stark effect and multielectron interaction in the ionization and HHG of a CO molecule are revealed by the effective potentials obtained. When the laser electric field points to the nucleus O from C, tunnel ionization from the C atom side is enhanced; a hump structure originating from multielectron interaction is then formed on the top of the field-induced distorted barrier of the HOMO effective potential. This hump formation, responsible for the directional anisotropy of tunnel ionization, restrains the influence of the linear Stark effect on the energy shifts of bound states.

  3. Predictions from an anisotropic inflationary era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Pereira, Thiago S


    This paper investigates the predictions of an inflationary phase starting from a homogeneous and anisotropic universe of the Bianchi I type. After discussing the evolution of the background spacetime, focusing on the number of e-folds and the isotropization, we solve the perturbation equations and predict the power spectra of the curvature perturbations and gravity waves at the end of inflation. The main features of the early anisotropic phase is (1) a dependence of the spectra on the direction of the modes, (2) a coupling between curvature perturbations and gravity waves and (3) the fact that the two gravity wave polarizations do not share the same spectrum on large scales. All these effects are significant only on large scales and die out on small scales where isotropy is recovered. They depend on a characteristic scale that can, but a priori must not, be tuned to some observable scale. To fix the initial conditions, we propose a procedure that generalizes the one standardly used in inflation but that takes into account the fact that the WKB regime is violated at early times when the shear dominates. We stress that there exist modes that do not satisfy the WKB condition during the shear-dominated regime and for which the amplitude at the end of inflation depends on unknown initial conditions. On such scales, inflation loses its predictability. This study paves the way for the determination of the cosmological signature of a primordial shear, whatever the Bianchi I spacetime. It thus stresses the importance of the WKB regime to draw inflationary predictions and demonstrates that, when the number of e-folds is large enough, the predictions converge toward those of inflation in a Friedmann–Lemaître spacetime but that they are less robust in the case of an inflationary era with a small number of e-folds

  4. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi


    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  5. Detection of the mandibular canal in orthopantomography using a Gabor-filtered anisotropic generalized Hough transform. (United States)

    Onchis-Moaca, Darian; Zappalá, Simone; Goţia, Smaranda Laura; Real, Pedro; Pricop, Marius


    In this paper, we explore the possibility of applying the anisotropic generalized Hough transform (AGHT) enhanced with a Gabor based time-frequency filtering (GTF) for the determination of the mandibular canal in digital dental panoramic radiographs. The proposed method is based on template matching using the fact that the shape of the mandibular canal is usually the same, followed by a filtering of the accumulator space in the Gabor domain for a precise detection of the position. The proposed procedure consists of a detailed description of the shape of the canal in its canonical form and on preserving Gabor filtering information for sorting the hierarchy of location candidates after applying anisotropically the extraction algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed procedure is robust to recognition under occlusion and under the presence of additional structures e.g. teeth, projection errors.

  6. A Simple FDTD Algorithm for Simulating EM-Wave Propagation in General Dispersive Anisotropic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali


    In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Evaluation of three-dimensional anisotropic head model for mapping realistic electromagnetic fields of brain tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Chul Jeong


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields provide fundamental data for the imaging of electrical tissue properties, such as conductivity and permittivity, in recent magnetic resonance (MR-based tissue property mapping. The induced voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density caused by externally injected current are critical factors for determining the image quality of electrical tissue conductivity. As a useful tool to identify bio-electromagnetic phenomena, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subject to an injected currents. In this study, we provide the numerical simulation results of electromagnetic field mapping of brain tissues using a MR-based conductivity imaging method. First, we implemented a realistic three-dimensional human anisotropic head model using high-resolution anatomical and diffusion tensor MR images. The voltage, current density, and magnetic flux density of brain tissues were imaged by injecting 1 mA of current through pairs of electrodes on the surface of our head model. The current density map of anisotropic brain tissues was calculated from the measured magnetic flux density based on the linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. Comparing the current density to the previous isotropic model, the anisotropic model clearly showed the differences between the brain tissues. This originates from the enhanced signals by the inherent conductivity contrast as well as the actual tissue condition resulting from the injected currents.

  8. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde


    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  9. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems. (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui


    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.

  10. Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids. (United States)

    Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G; Sengupta, Anupam


    Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.

  11. Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1989). Chou (1976) and Ting (1995) discussed antiplane strain deformation of an anisotropic medium. Garg et al (1996) obtained representations of seismic sources causing antiplane strain deformations of orthotropic media. The corresponding ...

  12. Change of energy of photons passing through rotating anisotropic elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bagini, V; Santarsiero, M; Frezza, F; Schettini, G; Schirripa-Spagnolo, G


    We discuss simple experiments where the concept of angular momentum of a photon can be put to use in order to explain the photon energy changes that are produced by the passage of light beams through rotating anisotropic elements. (author)

  13. Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers (United States)

    Jerri, Huda A.

    The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally

  14. Spin and orbital angular momentum propagation in anisotropic media: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picón, Antonio; Benseny, Albert; Mompart, Jordi; Calvo, Gabriel F


    This paper is devoted to a study of the propagation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum in optically anisotropic media. We first review some properties of homogeneous anisotropic media, and describe how the paraxial formalism is modified in order to proceed with a new approach dealing with the general setting of paraxial propagation along uniaxial inhomogeneous media. This approach is suitable for describing space-variant optical-axis phase plates

  15. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang


    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  16. An anisotropic damage model for concrete structures under cyclic loading-uniaxial modeling (United States)

    Long, Yuchuan; He, Yuming


    An anisotropic damage model is developed based on conventional rotating crack approach. It uses nonlinear unloading/linear reloading branches to model the hysteretic behavior of concrete. Two damage variables, determined by the ratio of accumulated dissipating energy to fracture energy, are introduced to represent the stiffness degradation in tension and compression. Three cyclic tests are simulated by this model and sensitivity analyses are conducted as well. The numerical responses calculated by the damage model are consistent with those obtained from the experiments. The numerical results reflect the nonlinear behavior observed in those tests, such as the damage-induced stiffness degradation, accumulation of residual deformation, energy dissipation caused by hysteretic behavior and stiffness recovery effect due to crack closure. Sensitivity analyses show that the damage exponents have significant influence on the computational accuracy. It is concluded that the anisotropic damage model is applicable to the nonlinear analyses of concrete structures subjected to cyclic loading.

  17. Dynamic transformation of self-assembled structures using anisotropic magnetized hydrogel microparticles (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Takinoue, Masahiro; Iwase, Eiji; Onoe, Hiroaki


    This paper describes a system through which the self-assembly of anisotropic hydrogel microparticles is achieved, which also enables dynamic transformation of the assembled structures. Using a centrifuge-based microfluidic device, anisotropic hydrogel microparticles encapsulating superparamagnetic materials on one side are fabricated, which respond to a magnetic field. We successfully achieve dynamic assembly using these hydrogel microparticles and realize three different self-assembled structures (single and double pearl chain structures, and close-packed structures), which can be transformed to other structures dynamically via tuning of the precessional magnetic field. We believe that the developed system has potential application as an effective platform for a dynamic cell manipulation and cultivation system, in biomimetic autonomous microrobot organization, and that it can facilitate further understanding of the self-organization and complex systems observed in nature.

  18. An FDTD algorithm for simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, A. A.


    Simulating light propagation in anisotropic dynamic gain media such as semiconductors and solid-state lasers using the finite difference time-domain FDTD technique is a tedious process, as many variables need to be evaluated in the same instant of time. The algorithm has to take care of the laser dynamic gain, rate equations, anisotropy and dispersion. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first algorithm that solves this problem. The algorithm is based on separating calculations into independent layers and hence solving each problem in a layer of calculations. The anisotropic gain medium is presented and tested using a one-dimensional set-up. The algorithm is then used for the analysis of a two-dimensional problem.

  19. Analysis of Electric Field Propagation in Anisotropically Absorbing and Reflecting Waveplates (United States)

    Carnio, B. N.; Elezzabi, A. Y.


    Analytical expressions are derived for half-wave plates (HWPs) and quarter-wave plates (QWPs) based on uniaxial crystals. This general analysis describes the behavior of anisotropically absorbing and reflecting waveplates across the electromagnetic spectrum, which allows for correction to the commonly used equations determined assuming isotropic absorptions and reflections. This analysis is crucial to the design and implementation of HWPs and QWPs in the terahertz regime, where uniaxial crystals used for waveplates are highly birefringent and anisotropically absorbing. The derived HWP equations describe the rotation of linearly polarized light by an arbitrary angle, whereas the QWP analysis focuses on manipulating a linearly polarized electric field to obtain any ellipticity. The HWP and QWP losses are characterized by determining equations for the total electric field magnitude transmitted through these phase-retarding elements.

  20. Efficient CAD Model to Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Circular Microstrip Antenna on Anisotropic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bedra


    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetic approach based on cavity model in conjunction with electromagnetic knowledge was developed. The cavity model combined with London’s equations and the Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model has been improved to investigate the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in the case where the patch is printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate materials.  Merits of our extended model include low computational cost and mathematical simplify. The numerical simulation of this modeling shows excellent agreement with experimental results available in the literature. Finally, numerical results for the dielectric anisotropic substrates effects on the operating frequencies for the case of superconducting circular patch are also presented.

  1. Speckle reduction in echocardiography by temporal compounding and anisotropic diffusion filtering (United States)

    Giraldo-Guzmán, Jader; Porto-Solano, Oscar; Cadena-Bonfanti, Alberto; Contreras-Ortiz, Sonia H.


    Echocardiography is a medical imaging technique based on ultrasound signals that is used to evaluate heart anatomy and physiology. Echocardiographic images are affected by speckle, a type of multiplicative noise that obscures details of the structures, and reduces the overall image quality. This paper shows an approach to enhance echocardiography using two processing techniques: temporal compounding and anisotropic diffusion filtering. We used twenty echocardiographic videos that include one or three cardiac cycles to test the algorithms. Two images from each cycle were aligned in space and averaged to obtain the compound images. These images were then processed using anisotropic diffusion filters to further improve their quality. Resultant images were evaluated using quality metrics and visual assessment by two medical doctors. The average total improvement on signal-to-noise ratio was up to 100.29% for videos with three cycles, and up to 32.57% for videos with one cycle.

  2. Extension of an anisotropic creep model to general high temperature deformation of a single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.M.; Ghosh, R.N.; McLean, M.


    A physics based model has been developed that accounts for the principal features of anisotropic creep deformation of single crystal superalloys. The present paper extends this model to simulate other types of high temperature deformation under strain controlled test conditions, such as stress relaxation and tension tests at constant strain rate in single crystals subject to axial loading along an arbitrary crystal direction. The approach is applied to the SRR99 single crystal superalloy where a model parameter database is available, determined via analysis of a database of constant stress creep curves. A software package has been generated to simulate the deformation behaviour under complex stress-strain conditions taking into account anisotropic elasticity. (orig.)

  3. Stress propagation in isotropic packs with anisotropic boundaries (United States)

    Krapf, Nathan; Witten, Thomas


    Stresses in marginally jammed, anisotropic packs built up from a solid floor propagate along oblique rays toward the floor footnotetext D. A. Head, A. V. Tkachenko, and T. A. Witten. Eur. Phys. J. E 6, 99-105 (2001)). This clear anisotropic propagation must result from anisotropic packing and/or anisotropic boundary conditions. Here we numerically isolate the effect of anisotropic boundaries by using an explicitly isotropic periodic pack in a marginally jammed, isostatic state. We then remove the periodicity in one direction and anchor the beads along one edge to a substrate. This preserves the isostatic condition while rendering the boundary anisotropic. However, we find hyperstatic modes along one edge of the pack and hypostatic modes at the other. We show that these extra modes decay rapidly away from the boundaries. Remarkably the hypostatic modes cause the pack to be unstable under any force applied to a single bead. This instability can be remedied by applying a suitable cluster of forces to adjacent beads, allowing a clear measurement of the bulk response. We discuss the resulting stress response.

  4. A unified theoretical and experimental study of anisotropic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, J.P.; Raclin, J.


    The purpose of this work is to develop a consistent formulation of the constitutive relations regarding anisotropic hardening materials. Attention is focused on the appearance and the evolution of mechanical anisotropies during irreversible processes, such as plastic forming and inelastic deformation of structures. The representation theorems for anisotropic tensor functions constitute a theoretical basis, allowing to reduce arbitrariness and to obtain a unified formulation of anisotropic hardening. In this approach, a general three-dimensional constitutive law is developed for prestrained initially orthotropic materials. Introduction of the plastic behavior results in the general forms of both the flow-law and the yield criterion. The developed theory is then specialized for the case of plane stress and different modes of anisotropic hardening are analyzed. A new generalization of the Von Mises criterion is proposed, in considering a homogeneous form of order two in stress and employing the simplest combinations of the basic invariants entering the general form of the yield condition. The proposed criterion involves specific terms accounting for the initial anisotropy, the deformation induced anisotropy and correlative terms between initial and induced anisotropy. The effects of prestrainings result in both isotropic and anisotropic hardening. An adequate experimental program, consisting of uniaxial tensile tests on oriented specimens of prestrained sheet-metal, was performed, in order to determine the specific form and the evolution of the anisotropic failure criterion for soft-steel subjected to different irreversible prestrainings. (orig.)

  5. Coefficient adaptive triangulation for strongly anisotropic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.


    Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly triangulated, and the resulting triangulation mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our triangulation has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.

  6. Anisotropic Charged Fluid Sphere in Isotropic Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Pant


    Full Text Available We have presented a class of charged superdense star models, starting with a static spherically symmetric metric in isotropic coordinates for anisotropic fluid by considering Hajj-Boutros-(1986 type metric potential and a specific choice of electrical intensity E and anisotropy factor Δ which involve charge parameter K and anisotropy parameter α. The solution is well behaved for all the values of Schwarzschild compactness parameter u lying in the range 0

  7. Numerical calculation of spatially variant anisotropic metamaterials (United States)

    Gulib, Asad Ullah Hil

    3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is rapidly evolving into a mainstream manufacturing technology that is creating new opportunities for electromagnetics and circuits. 3D printing permits circuits to fully utilize the third dimension allowing more functions in the same amount of space and allows the devices to have arbitrary form factors. 3D printing is letting us discover new physics that is not possible in standard 2D circuits and devices. However, evolving electromagnetics and circuits into three dimensions introduces some serious problems like thermal management, interference, and mutual coupling between the components which degrades performance and hurts signal integrity. Metamaterials are engineered composites that exhibit extreme electromagnetic properties and allow extraordinary control over electromagnetic fields. The EM Lab is developing spatially-variant anisotropic metamaterials (SVAMs) as a solution to mitigate mutual coupling between components. The concept of SVAMs is to electrically stretch the space between components to reduce mutual coupling. To do this, alternating layers of different dielectric must bisect adjacent components. However, the overall dielectric fill must also conform around dozens of electrical components and be smooth, continuous, and defect free. The research described here is the first prototype of an algorithm which generates a SVAM infill between all of the electrical components of a circuit in order to reduce the mutual coupling.

  8. P wave anisotropic tomography of the Alps (United States)

    Hua, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Yixian


    The first tomographic images of P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropies in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Alps are determined by joint inversions of arrival time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results show the south dipping European plate with a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly beneath the western central Alps and the north dipping Adriatic plate with a high-V anomaly beneath the Eastern Alps, indicating that the subduction polarity changes along the strike of the Alps. The P wave azimuthal anisotropy is characterized by mountain chain-parallel fast-velocity directions (FVDs) in the western central Alps and NE-SW FVDs in the Eastern Alps, which may be caused by mantle flow induced by the slab subductions. Our results reveal a negative radial anisotropy (i.e., Vph Vph > Vpv) in the low-velocity mantle wedge, which may reflect the subvertical plate subduction and its induced mantle flow. The results of anisotropic tomography provide important new information on the complex mantle structure and dynamics of the Alps and adjacent regions.

  9. Anisotropic reflectance characteristics of natural Earth surfaces. (United States)

    Brennan, B; Bandeen, W R


    The patterns of reflection of solar radiation from cloud, water, and land surfaces were measured with an aircraft-borne medium resolution radiometer. Reflectances in the 0.2-4.0-micro and 0.55-0.85-micro portions of the electromagnetic spectrum were investigated. Results indicate that the reflectance characteristics of most of the surface types measured are anisotropic. The anisotropy is dependent on the type of surface and the angles of incidence and reflection. In general, the anisotropy increases with increasing solar zenith angle. Clouds and forests show similar reflectance patterns, with forward and backward scattering peaks. Ocean surfaces yield a pattern similar to those of the clouds and forests but with an additional peak which is associated with sun glitter. Reflectances measured in the 0.2-4.0-micro band are generally lower than those in the 0.55-0.85-micro band under cloudy conditions. Anisotropy and spectral bandwidth should be accounted for when computing the albedo of the earth from narrow field-of-view measurements from satellites; otherwise, large errors may be expected to occur.

  10. CT reconstruction from few-views with anisotropic edge-guided total variance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Junyan; Liu, Wenlei; Gao, Peng; Liao, Qimei; Jiao, Chun; Ma, Jianhua; Lu, Hongbing


    To overcome the oversmoothing drawback in the edge areas when reconstructing few-view CT with total variation (TV) minimization, in this paper, we propose an anisotropic edge-guided TV minimization framework for few-view CT reconstruction. In the framework, anisotropic TV is summed with pre-weighted image gradient and then used as the object function for minimizing. It includes edge-guided TV minimization (EGTV) and edge-guided adaptive-weighted TV minimization (EGAwTV) algorithms. For EGTV algorithm, the weights of the TV discretization term are updated by anisotropic edge information detected from the image, whereas the weights for EGAwTV are determined based on edge information and local image-intensity gradients. To solve the minimization problem of the proposed algorithm, a similar TV-based minimization implementation is developed to address the raw data fidelity and other constraints. The evaluation results using both computer simulations with the Shepp-Logan phantom and experimental data from a physical phantom demonstrate that the proposed algorithms exhibit noticeable gains in the merits of spatial resolution compared with the conventional TV and other modified TV algorithms.

  11. Investigation of anisotropic thermal transport in cross-linked polymers (United States)

    Simavilla, David Nieto

    Thermal transport in lightly cross-linked polyisoprene and polybutadine subjected to uniaxial elongation is investigated experimentally. We employ two experimental techniques to assess the effect that deformation has on this class of materials. The first technique, which is based on Forced Rayleigh Scattering (FRS), allows us to measure the two independent components of the thermal diffusivity tensor as a function of deformation. These measurements along with independent measurements of the tensile stress and birefringence are used to evaluate the stress-thermal and stress-optic rules. The stress-thermal rule is found to be valid for the entire range of elongations applied. In contrast, the stress-optic rule fails for moderate to large stretch ratios. This suggests that the degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity depends on both orientation and tension in polymer chain segments. The second technique, which is based on infrared thermography (IRT), allows us to measure anisotropy in thermal conductivity and strain induced changes in heat capacity. We validate this method measurements of anisotropic thermal conductivity by comparing them with those obtained using FRS. We find excellent agreement between the two techniques. Uncertainty in the infrared thermography method measurements is estimated to be about 2-5 %. The accuracy of the method and its potential application to non-transparent materials makes it a good alternative to extend current research on anisotropic thermal transport in polymeric materials. A second IRT application allows us to investigate the dependence of heat capacity on deformation. We find that heat capacity increases with stretch ratio in polyisoprene specimens under uniaxial extension. The deviation from the equilibrium value of heat capacity is consistent with an independent set of experiments comparing anisotropy in thermal diffusivity and conductivity employing FRS and IRT techniques. We identify finite extensibility and strain

  12. Anisotropic Negative Differential Resistance in Monolayer Black Phosphorus (United States)

    Zhang, Wanting; Kang, Peng; Chen, Huahui


    The tremendous potential application in emerging two-dimensional layered materials such as black phosphorus (BP) has attracted great attention as nanoscale devices. In this paper, the effect of anisotropic negative differential resistance (NDR) in monolayer black phosphorus field-effect transistors (FETs) is reported by the first-principles computational study based on the non-equilibrium Green’s function approach combined with density functional theory. The transport properties including current-voltage (I-V) relation and transmission spectrum of monolayer BP are investigated at different gate voltages (Vg). Further studies indicate that NDR occurs at a specific gate voltage in the armchair direction rather than in the zigzag direction. The decrease of current in I-V characteristics can be understood from the generation of non-conducting states region moving towards the Fermi level resulting in a reduction of the integration within corresponding energy range in the transmission spectrum. Our results offer useful guidance for designing FETs and other potential applications in nanoelectronic devices based on BP.

  13. Vortex dynamics in supraconductors in the presence of anisotropic pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, O.K.


    Vortex dynamics in two different classes of superconductors with anisotropic unidirected pinning sites was experimentally investigated by magnetoresistivity measurements: YBCO-films with unidirected twins and Nb-films deposited on faceted Al 2 O 3 substrate surfaces. For the interpretation of the experimental results a theoretical model based on the Fokker-Planck equation was used. It was proved by X-ray measurements that YBCO films prepared on (001) NdGaO 3 substrates exhibit only one twin orientation in contrast to YBCO films grown on (100) SrTiO 3 substrates. The magnetoresistivity measurements of the YBCO films with unidirected twin boundaries revealed the existence of two new magnetoresistivity components, which is a characteristic feature of a guided vortex motion: an odd longitudinal component with respect to the magnetic field sign reversal and an even transversal component. However, due to the small coherence length in YBCO and the higher density of point-like defects comparing to high-quality YBCO single crystals, the strength of the isotropic point pinning was comparable with the strength of the pinning produced by twins. This smeared out all e ects caused by the pinning anisotropy. The behaviour of the odd longitudinal component was found to be independent of the transport current direction with respect to the twin planes. The magnetoresistivity measurements of faceted Nb films demonstrated the appearance of an odd longitudinal and even transversal component of the magnetoresistivity. The temperature and magnetic field dependences of all relevant magnetoresistivity components were measured. The angles between the average vortex velocity vector and the transport current direction calculated from the experimental data for the different transport current orientations with respect to the facet ridges showed that the vortices moved indeed along the facet ridges. An anomalous Hall effect, i.e. a sign change of the odd transversal magnetoresistivity, has been

  14. Orientation-dependent interfacial mobility governs the anisotropic swelling in lithiated silicon nanowires. (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Shan; Huang, Xu; Fan, Feifei; Liang, Wentao; Liu, Xiao Hua; Chen, Long-Qing; Huang, Jian Yu; Li, Ju; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Sulin


    Recent independent experiments demonstrated that the lithiation-induced volume expansion in silicon nanowires, nanopillars, and microslabs is highly anisotropic, with predominant expansion along the direction but negligibly small expansion along the direction. The origin of such anisotropic behavior remains elusive. Here, we develop a chemomechanical model to study the phase evolution and morphological changes in lithiated silicon nanowires. The model couples the diffusive reaction of lithium with the lithiation-induced elasto-plastic deformation. We show that the apparent anisotropic swelling is critically controlled by the orientation-dependent mobility of the core-shell interface, i.e., the lithiation reaction rate at the atomically sharp phase boundary between the crystalline core and the amorphous shell. Our results also underscore the importance of structural relaxation by plastic flow behind the moving phase boundary, which is essential to quantitative prediction of the experimentally observed morphologies of lithiated silicon nanowires. The study sheds light on the lithiation-mediated failure in nanowire-based electrodes, and the modeling framework provides a basis for simulating the morphological evolution, stress generation, and fracture in high-capacity electrodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Anisotropic power spectrum of refractive-index fluctuation in hypersonic turbulence. (United States)

    Li, Jiangting; Yang, Shaofei; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian


    An anisotropic power spectrum of the refractive-index fluctuation in hypersonic turbulence was obtained by processing the experimental image of the hypersonic plasma sheath and transforming the generalized anisotropic von Kármán spectrum. The power spectrum suggested here can provide as good a fit to measured spectrum data for hypersonic turbulence as that recorded from the nano-planar laser scattering image. Based on the newfound anisotropic hypersonic turbulence power spectrum, Rytov approximation was employed to establish the wave structure function and the spatial coherence radius model of electromagnetic beam propagation in hypersonic turbulence. Enhancing the anisotropy characteristics of the hypersonic turbulence led to a significant improvement in the propagation performance of electromagnetic beams in hypersonic plasma sheath. The influence of hypersonic turbulence on electromagnetic beams increases with the increase of variance of the refractive-index fluctuation and the decrease of turbulence outer scale and anisotropy parameters. The spatial coherence radius was much smaller than that in atmospheric turbulence. These results are fundamental to understanding electromagnetic wave propagation in hypersonic turbulence.

  16. Anisotropic conductivity tensor imaging in MREIT using directional diffusion rate of water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Oh In; Jeong, Woo Chul; Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je


    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is an emerging method to visualize electrical conductivity and/or current density images at low frequencies (below 1 KHz). Injecting currents into an imaging object, one component of the induced magnetic flux density is acquired using an MRI scanner for isotropic conductivity image reconstructions. Diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) measures the intrinsic three-dimensional diffusion property of water molecules within a tissue. It characterizes the anisotropic water transport by the effective diffusion tensor. Combining the DT-MRI and MREIT techniques, we propose a novel direct method for absolute conductivity tensor image reconstructions based on a linear relationship between the water diffusion tensor and the electrical conductivity tensor. We first recover the projected current density, which is the best approximation of the internal current density one can obtain from the measured single component of the induced magnetic flux density. This enables us to estimate a scale factor between the diffusion tensor and the conductivity tensor. Combining these values at all pixels with the acquired diffusion tensor map, we can quantitatively recover the anisotropic conductivity tensor map. From numerical simulations and experimental verifications using a biological tissue phantom, we found that the new method overcomes the limitations of each method and successfully reconstructs both the direction and magnitude of the conductivity tensor for both the anisotropic and isotropic regions. (paper)

  17. On the Schrodinger equations with isotropic and anisotropic fourth-order dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder J. Villamizar-Roa


    Full Text Available This article concerns the Cauchy problem associated with the nonlinear fourth-order Schrodinger equation with isotropic and anisotropic mixed dispersion. This model is given by the equation $$ i\\partial_tu+\\epsilon \\Delta u+\\delta A u+\\lambda|u|^\\alpha u=0,\\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^{n},\\; t\\in \\mathbb{R}, $$ where A is either the operator $\\Delta^2$ (isotropic dispersion or $\\sum_{i=1}^d\\partial_{x_ix_ix_ix_i}$, $1\\leq danisotropic dispersion, and $\\alpha, \\epsilon, \\lambda$ are real parameters. We obtain local and global well-posedness results in spaces of initial data with low regularity, based on weak-$L^p$ spaces. Our analysis also includes the biharmonic and anisotropic biharmonic equation $(\\epsilon=0$; in this case, we obtain the existence of self-similar solutions because of their scaling invariance property. In a second part, we analyze the convergence of solutions for the nonlinear fourth-order Schrodinger equation $$ i\\partial_tu+\\epsilon \\Delta u+\\delta \\Delta^2 u+\\lambda|u|^\\alpha u=0, \\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^{n},\\; t\\in \\mathbb{R}, $$ as $\\epsilon$ approaches zero, in the $H^2$-norm, to the solutions of the corresponding biharmonic equation $i\\partial_tu+\\delta \\Delta^2 u+\\lambda|u|^\\alpha u=0$.

  18. Anisotropic adsorption of oleate on diaspore and kaolinite crystals: Implications for their flotation separation (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Hu, Yuehua; Dong, Faqin; Gao, Zhiyong; Wu, Houqin; Wang, Zhen


    Comparative studies of flotation of oleate on diaspore and kaolinite in different particle size fractions (0.075-0.038 mm, 0.038-0.01 mm, 0-0.01 mm) are presented to investigate the influences of particle size. The flotation results show that the kaolinite recovery increases with a decrease in particle size, while the case of diaspore is the opposite. Chemisorptions of anionic oleate collector on the surface Al sites of the negatively charged diaspore and kaolinite are confirmed by zeta potential and FTIR measurements. Anisotropic surface broken bond densities are calculated based on surface crystal chemistry to characterize anisotropic wettability of mineral crystals. The increasing order of broken bond densities (Db) and hydrophobicity for different crystal planes of diaspore and kaolinite correlate well with increasing the number of broken Alsbnd O bonds. The anisotropic adsorption of oleate on different crystal planes of diaspore and kaolinite are studied in terms of interaction energies computed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The oleate is adsorbed more readily on (0 1 0) than (0 0 1) for diaspore. As for kaolinite, the oleate adsorption is considerably less on (0 0 1) as compared to (1 10). The conclusions drawn from purely theoretical computations are in good agreement with our experimental contact angle results.

  19. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Dar Li


    Full Text Available To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  20. Application of distributed point source method (DPSM) to wave propagation in anisotropic media (United States)

    Fooladi, Samaneh; Kundu, Tribikram


    Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) was developed by Placko and Kundu1, as a technique for modeling electromagnetic and elastic wave propagation problems. DPSM has been used for modeling ultrasonic, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields scattered by defects and anomalies in a structure. The modeling of such scattered field helps to extract valuable information about the location and type of defects. Therefore, DPSM can be used as an effective tool for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). Anisotropy adds to the complexity of the problem, both mathematically and computationally. Computation of the Green's function which is used as the fundamental solution in DPSM is considerably more challenging for anisotropic media, and it cannot be reduced to a closed-form solution as is done for isotropic materials. The purpose of this study is to investigate and implement DPSM for an anisotropic medium. While the mathematical formulation and the numerical algorithm will be considered for general anisotropic media, more emphasis will be placed on transversely isotropic materials in the numerical example presented in this paper. The unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites which are widely used in today's industry are good examples of transversely isotropic materials. Development of an effective and accurate NDT method based on these modeling results can be of paramount importance for in-service monitoring of damage in composite structures.

  1. Quantum correlation dynamics subjected to critical spin environment with short-range anisotropic interaction. (United States)

    Guo, J L; Zhang, X Z


    Short-range interaction among the spins can not only results in the rich phase diagram but also brings about fascinating phenomenon both in the contexts of quantum computing and information. In this paper, we investigate the quantum correlation of the system coupled to a surrounding environment with short-range anisotropic interaction. It is shown that the decay of quantum correlation of the central spins measured by pairwise entanglement and quantum discord can serve as a signature of quantum phase transition. In addition, we study the decoherence factor of the system when the environment is in the vicinity of the phase transition point. In the strong coupling regime, the decay of the decoherence factor exhibits Gaussian envelop in the time domain. However, in weak coupling limit, the quantum correlation of the system is robust against the disturbance of the magnetic field through optimal control of the anisotropic short-range interaction strength. Based on this, the effects of the short-range anisotropic interaction on the sudden transition from classical to quantum decoherence are also presented.

  2. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching (United States)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Miao, Jin-Ru


    To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  3. Anisotropic carrier mobility in single- and bi-layer C3N sheets (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Li, Qingfang; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Yan; Hou, Juan; Shao, Jianxin


    Based on the density functional theory combined with the Boltzmann transport equation with relaxation time approximation, we investigate the electronic structure and predict the carrier mobility of single- and bi-layer newly fabricated 2D carbon nitrides C3N. Although C3N sheets possess graphene-like planar hexagonal structure, the calculated carrier mobility is remarkably anisotropic, which is found mainly induced by the anisotropic effective masses and deformation potential constants. Importantly, we find that both the electron and hole mobilities are considerable high, for example, the hole mobility along the armchair direction of single-layer C3N sheets can arrive as high as 1.08 ×104 cm2 V-1 s-1, greatly larger than that of C2N-h2D and many other typical 2D materials. Owing to the high and anisotropic carrier mobility and appropriate band gap, single- and bi-layer semiconducting C3N sheets may have great potential applications in high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Highly anisotropic black phosphorous-graphene hybrid architecture for ultrassensitive plasmonic biosensing: Theoretical insight (United States)

    Yuan, Yufeng; Yu, Xiantong; Ouyang, Qingling; Shao, Yonghong; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; Yong, Ken-Tye


    This study proposed a novel highly anisotropic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor employing emerging 2D black phosphorus (BP) and graphene atomic layers. Light absorption and energy loss were well balanced by optimizing gold film thickness and number of BP layers to generate the strongest SPR excitation. The proposed SPR biosensor was designed by the phase-modulation approach and is more sensitive to biomolecule bindings, providing 3 orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than the red-shift in SPR angle. Our results show the optimized configuration was 48 nm Au film coated with 4-layer BP crystal to produce the sharpest phase variation (up to 89.8975°), and lowest minimum reflectivity (1.9119  ×  10-7). Detection sensitivity up to 7.4914  ×  104 degree/refractive index unit is almost 4.5 times enhanced compared to monolayer graphene-based SPR sensors with 48 nm Au film. The anisotropic BP layers act as a polarizer, so the proposed SPR biosensor would exhibit optically tunable detection sensitivity, making it a promising candidate for exploring highly anisotropic platforms in biosensing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Chebykin


    Full Text Available The paper deals with theoretical demonstration of Purcell effect in extremely anisotropic metamaterials with elliptical isofrequency surface. This effect is free from association with divergence in density of states unlike the case of hyperbolic metamaterials. It is shown that a large Purcell factor can be observed without excitation of modes with large wave vectors in one direction, and the component of the wave vector normal to the layers is less than k0. For these materials the possibility is given for increasing of the power radiated in the medium, as well as the power radiated from material into free space across the medium border situated transversely to the layers. We have investigated isofrequency contours and the dependence of Purcell factor from the frequency for infinite layered metamaterial structure. In the visible light range strong spatial dispersion gives no possibility to obtain enhancement of spontaneous emission in metamaterial with unit cell which consists of two layers. This effect can be achieved in periodic metal-dielectric layered nanostructures with a unit cell containing two different metallic layers and two dielectric ones. Analysis of the dependences for Purcell factor from the frequency shows that the spontaneous emission is enhanced by a factor of ten or more only for dipole orientation along metamaterial layers, but in the case of the transverse orientation radiation can be enhanced only 2-3 times at most. The results can be used to create a new type of metamaterials with elliptical isofrequency contours, providing a more efficient light emission in the far field.

  6. Black hole in closed spacetime with an anisotropic fluid (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan


    We study spherically symmetric geometries made of anisotropic perfect fluid based on general relativity. The purpose of this work is to find and classify black hole solutions in closed spacetime. In a general setting, we find that a static and closed space exists only when the radial pressure is negative but its size is smaller than the density. The Einstein equation is eventually cast into a first-order autonomous equation on a two-dimensional plane of scale-invariant variables, which are equivalent to the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation in general relativity. Then, we display various solution curves numerically. An exact solution describing a black hole solution in a closed spacetime was known in [I. Cho and H. C. Kim, Phys. Rev. D 95, 084052 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.084052], which bears a naked singularity and negative-energy era. We find that these two deficits can be remedied when ρ +3 p1>0 and ρ +p1+2 p2<0 , where the second violates the strong energy condition.

  7. Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K


    We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [1-bar 10] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications. (paper)

  8. Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Microtoroids

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Rehili, Safa’a


    Toroidal structures based on self-assembly of predesigned building blocks are well-established in the literature, but spontaneous self-organization to prepare such structures has not been reported to date. Here, organic–inorganic hybrid microtoroids synthesized by simultaneous coordination-driven assembly of amphiphilic molecules and hydrophilic polymers are reported. Mixing amphiphilic molecules with iron(III) chloride and hydrophilic polymers in water leads, within minutes, to the formation of starlike nanostructures. A spontaneous self-organization of these nanostructures is then triggered to form stable hybrid microtoroids. Interestingly, the toroids exhibit anisotropic hierarchical growth, giving rise to a layered toroidal framework. These microstructures are mechanically robust and can act as templates to host metallic nanoparticles such as gold and silver. Understanding the nature of spontaneous assembly driven by coordination multiple non-covalent interactions can help explain the well-ordered complexity of many biological organisms in addition to expanding the available tools to mimic such structures at a molecular level.

  9. Contact instabilities of anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft elastic films (United States)

    Tomar, Gaurav; Sharma, Ashutosh


    Anisotropy plays important roles in various biological phenomena such as adhesion of geckos and grasshoppers enabled by the attachment pods having hierarchical structures like thin longitudinal setae connected with threads mimicked by anisotropic films. We study the contact instability of a transversely isotropic thin elastic film when it comes in contact proximity of another surface. In the present study we investigate the contact stability of a thin incompressible transversely isotropic film by performing linear stability analysis. Based on the linear stability analysis, we show that an approaching contactor renders the film unstable. The critical wavelength of the instability is a function of the total film thickness and the ratio of the Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction and the shear modulus in the plane containing the longitudinal axis. We also analyze the stability of a thin gradient film that is elastically inhomogeneous across its thickness. Compared to a homogeneous elastic film, it becomes unstable with a longer wavelength when the film becomes softer in going from the surface to the substrate.

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of anisotropic spatially reinforced structures (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.


    The material-adaptive three-dimensional analysis of inhomogeneous structures based on the meso-volume concept and application of deficient spline functions for displacement approximations is proposed. The general methodology is demonstrated on the example of a brick-type mosaic parallelepiped arbitrarily composed of anisotropic meso-volumes. A partition of each meso-volume into sub-elements, application of deficient spline functions for a local approximation of displacements and, finally, the use of the variational principle allows one to obtain displacements, strains, and stresses at anypoint within the structural part. All of the necessary external and internal boundary conditions (including the conditions of continuity of transverse stresses at interfaces between adjacent meso-volumes) can be satisfied with requisite accuracy by increasing the density of the sub-element mesh. The application of the methodology to textile composite materials is described. Several numerical examples for woven and braided rectangular composite plates and stiffened panels under transverse bending are considered. Some typical effects of stress concentrations due to the material inhomogeneities are demonstrated.

  11. An anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic damage model for bone tissue. (United States)

    Schwiedrzik, J J; Zysset, P K


    A new anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic damage constitutive model for bone is proposed using an eccentric elliptical yield criterion and nonlinear isotropic hardening. A micromechanics-based multiscale homogenization scheme proposed by Reisinger et al. is used to obtain the effective elastic properties of lamellar bone. The dissipative process in bone is modeled as viscoplastic deformation coupled to damage. The model is based on an orthotropic ecuntric elliptical criterion in stress space. In order to simplify material identification, an eccentric elliptical isotropic yield surface was defined in strain space, which is transformed to a stress-based criterion by means of the damaged compliance tensor. Viscoplasticity is implemented by means of the continuous Perzyna formulation. Damage is modeled by a scalar function of the accumulated plastic strain [Formula: see text] , reducing all element s of the stiffness matrix. A polynomial flow rule is proposed in order to capture the rate-dependent post-yield behavior of lamellar bone. A numerical algorithm to perform the back projection on the rate-dependent yield surface has been developed and implemented in the commercial finite element solver Abaqus/Standard as a user subroutine UMAT. A consistent tangent operator has been derived and implemented in order to ensure quadratic convergence. Correct implementation of the algorithm, convergence, and accuracy of the tangent operator was tested by means of strain- and stress-based single element tests. A finite element simulation of nano- indentation in lamellar bone was finally performed in order to show the abilities of the newly developed constitutive model.

  12. 2D seismic reflection tomography in strongly anisotropic media (United States)

    Huang, Guangnan; Zhou, Bing; Li, Hongxi; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zelin


    Seismic traveltime tomography is an effective method to reconstruct underground anisotropic parameters. Currently, most anisotropic tomographic methods were developed under the assumption of weak anisotropy. The tomographic method proposed here can be implemented for imaging subsurface targets in strongly anisotropic media with a known tilted symmetry axis, since the adopted ray tracing method is suitable for anisotropic media with arbitrary degree. There are three kinds of reflection waves (qP, qSV and qSH waves) that were separately used to invert the blocky abnormal body model. The reflection traveltime tomographiy is developed here because a surface observation system is the most economical and practical way compared with crosswell and VSP. The numerical examples show that the traveltimes of qP reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}13},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully. Traveltimes of qSV reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully, with the exception of the {{c}13}, since it is less sensitive than other parameters. Traveltimes of qSH reflection wave also have inverted parameters {{c}44} \\text{and} {{c}66} successfully. In addition, we find that the velocity sensitivity functions (derivatives of phase velocity with respect to elastic moduli parameters) and raypath illuminating angles have a great influence on the qualities of tomograms according to the inversion of theoretical models. Finally, the numerical examples confirm that the reflection traveltime tomography can be applied to invert strongly anisotropic models.

  13. Formulation of cross-anisotropic failure criterion for soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-fei Sun


    Full Text Available Inherently anisotropic soil fabric has a considerable influence on soil strength. To model this kind of inherent anisotropy, a three-dimensional anisotropic failure criterion was proposed, employing a scalar-valued anisotropic variable and a modified general threedimensional isotropic failure criterion. The scalar-valued anisotropic variable in all sectors of the deviatoric plane was defined by correlating a normalized stress tensor with a normalized fabric tensor. Detailed comparison between the available experimental data and the corresponding model predictions in the deviatoric plane was conducted. The proposed failure criterion was shown to well predict the failure behavior in all sectors, especially in sector II with the Lode angle ranging between 60° and 120°, where the prediction was almost in accordance with test data. However, it was also observed that the proposed criterion overestimated the strength of dense Santa Monica Beach sand in sector III where the intermediate principal stress ratio b varied from approximately 0.2 to 0.8, and slightly underestimated the strength when b was between approximately 0.8 and 1. The difference between the model predictions and experimental data was due to the occurrence of shear bending, which might reduce the measured strength. Therefore, the proposed anisotropic failure criterion has a strong ability to characterize the failure behavior of various soils and potentially allows a better description of the influence of the loading direction with respect to the soil fabric.

  14. Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite. (United States)

    Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X Z; Matsui, Y; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E Ward; Zhang, Jiandi


    The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La(0.69)Ca(0.31)MnO(3), leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a "colossal" AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings.

  15. Electromagnetic waves in uniaxial anisotropic chiral waveguides in magnetized plasma (United States)

    Ghaffar, A.; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.


    The characteristics of guided modes in circular waveguides of a uniaxial anisotropic chiral core and a cladding filled with anisotropic plasma are presented. The cladding region is assumed to be infinitely extended with an external applied magnetic field oriented along the direction of propagation in the waveguide. The characteristics equation for the modes in this waveguide are obtained. The variations of the propagation properties with the plasma parameters, chiral parameters, and the cyclotron frequency of plasma have been investigated. Particularly, the effects of the chirality and the cyclotron frequency of plasma on the magnitude and orientation of the energy flux of the guided modes for three kinds of uniaxial anisotropic chiral media have been numerically investigated. Comparisons of the computed results of the presented formulations with published results for some special cases confirm the accuracy of the presented analyses.

  16. Detection of the default mode network by an anisotropic analysis (United States)

    Forero, Aura; Romero, Eduardo


    This document presents a proposal devoted to improve the detection of the default mode network (DMN) in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in noisy conditions caused by head movement. The proposed approach is inspired by the hierarchical treatment of information, in particular at the level of the brain basal ganglia. Essentially, the fact that information must be selected and reduced suggests propagation of information in the Central Nervous System (CNS) is anisotropic. Under this hypothesis, the reconstruction of information of activation should follow an anisotropic pattern. In this work, an anisotropic filter is used to recover the DMN that is perturbed by simulated motion artifacts. Results obtained show this approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by 5.93% PSNR.

  17. Anisotropic spreading of liquid metal on a rough intermetallic surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen


    Full Text Available An anisotropic wicking of molten Sn-Pb solder over an intermetallic rough surface has been studied. The phenomenon features preferential spreading and forming of an elliptical spread domain. A theoretically formulated model was established to predict the ratio of the wicking distance along the long axis (rx to that along the short axis (ry of the final wicking pattern. The phenomenon was simultaneously experimentally observed and recorded with a hotstage microscopy technique. The anisotropic wicking is established to be caused by a non-uniform topography of surface micro structures as opposed to an isotropic wicking on an intermetallic surface with uniformly distributed surface micro features. The relative deviation between the theoretically predicted rx/ry ratio and the corresponding average experimental value is 5%. Hence, the small margin of error confirms the validity of the proposed theoretical model of anisotropic wicking.

  18. Investigation of anisotropic scattering for optical tomography in biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercimek, M.; Yildirim, H.; Geckinli, M.; Aydin, M.; Aydin, E. D.


    Photons with wavelengths in near infrared region are used in optical tomography. Radiation transport theory should be preferred instead of diffusion theory for numerical modelling of photon migration in biological tissues, where diffusion theory is invalid. For example, diffusion theory is not sufficient in the regions of close to boundaries, sources or sinks and highly absorbing or void-like media. Also anisotropic scattering must be considered in the numerical models since scattering is generally highly anisotropic in biological tissues. In addition to the absorption and scattering coefficients, a suitable phase function must be known in anisotropic scattering study. Here we have compared scattering phase functions for anisotropy. Then we have calculated Legendre moments which are necessary for the implementation of anisotropy factors into the transport code, PARTISN. Discrete ordinates method (SN) has been used in the transport calculations. We have obtained solutions first a homogeneous and then heterogeneous medium.

  19. Thermodynamics and instabilities of a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma (United States)

    Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego


    We extend our analysis of a IIB supergravity solution dual to a spatially anisotropic finite-temperature mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma. The solution is static, possesses an anisotropic horizon, and is completely regular. The full geometry can be viewed as a renormalization group flow from an AdS geometry in the ultraviolet to a Lifshitz-like geometry in the infrared. The anisotropy can be equivalently understood as resulting from a position-dependent θ-term or from a non-zero number density of dissolved D7-branes. The holographic stress tensor is conserved and anisotropic. The presence of a conformal anomaly plays an important role in the thermodynamics. The phase diagram exhibits homogeneous and inhomogeneous (i.e. mixed) phases. In some regions the homogeneous phase displays instabilities reminiscent of those of weakly coupled plasmas. We comment on similarities with QCD at finite baryon density and with the phenomenon of cavitation.

  20. Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite (United States)

    Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X. Z.; Matsui, Y.; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E. Ward; Zhang, Jiandi


    The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La0.69Ca0.31MnO3, leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a “colossal” AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings. PMID:19706504

  1. Nonlinear, anisotropic, and giant photoconductivity in intrinsic and doped graphene (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Saikat; Agarwal, Amit


    We present a framework to calculate the anisotropic and nonlinear photoconductivity for two band systems with application to graphene. In contrast to the usual perturbative (second order in the optical field strength) techniques, we calculate photoconductivity to all orders in the optical field strength. In particular, for graphene, we find the photoresponse to be giant (at large optical field strengths) and anisotropic. The anisotropic photoresponse in graphene is correlated with polarization of the incident field, with the response being similar to that of a half-wave plate. We predict that the anisotropy in the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal (σx x) and transverse (σy x) photoconductivity, with four probes, offers a unique experimental signature of the photovoltaic response, distinguishing it from the thermal-Seebeck and bolometric effects in photoresponse.

  2. Modeling of charged anisotropic compact stars in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayanandan, Baiju; Maurya, S.K.; T, Smitha T. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman)


    A charged compact star model has been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein-Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star model by using the radial pressure, the metric function e{sup λ} and the electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via the adiabatic index, TOV equations and the Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star model is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. Moreover, we also presented the EOS ρ = f(p) for the present charged compact star model. (orig.)

  3. Self-force on dislocation segments in anisotropic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, S P; Aubry, S


    A dislocation segment in a crystal experiences a 'self-force', by virtue of the orientation dependence of its elastic energy. If the crystal is elastically isotropic, this force is manifested as a couple acting to rotate the segment toward the lower energy of the pure screw orientation (i.e. acting to align the dislocation line with its Burgers vector). If the crystal is anisotropic, there are additional contributions to the couple, arising from the more complex energy landscape of the lattice itself. These effects can strongly influence the dynamic evolution of dislocation networks, and via their governing role in dislocation multiplication phenomena, control plastic flow in metals. In this paper we develop a model for dislocation self-forces in a general anisotropic crystal, and briefly consider the technologically important example of α-iron, which becomes increasingly anisotropic as the temperature approaches that of the α-γ phase transition at 912 0 C.

  4. Slope stability of bioreactor landfills during leachate injection: effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic municipal solid waste conditions. (United States)

    Giri, Rajiv K; Reddy, Krishna R


    In bioreactor landfills, leachate recirculation can significantly affect the stability of landfill slope due to generation and distribution of excessive pore fluid pressures near side slope. The current design and operation of leachate recirculation systems do not consider the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the increased pore gas pressures in landfilled waste caused due to leachate recirculation on the physical stability of landfill slope. In this study, a numerical two-phase flow model (landfill leachate and gas as immiscible phases) was used to investigate the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of MSW on moisture distribution and pore-water and capillary pressures and their resulting impacts on the stability of a simplified bioreactor landfill during leachate recirculation using horizontal trench system. The unsaturated hydraulic properties of MSW were considered based on the van Genuchten model. The strength reduction technique was used for slope stability analyses as it takes into account of the transient and spatially varying pore-water and gas pressures. It was concluded that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW with varied unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly influenced the moisture distribution and generation and distribution of pore fluid pressures in landfill and considerably reduced the stability of bioreactor landfill slope. It is recommended that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW must be considered as it provides a more reliable approach for the design and leachate operations in bioreactor landfills.

  5. Research on the forward modeling of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotellurics in three-dimensional axial anisotropic media (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Tan, Handong


    Controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT) has developed rapidly in recent years and are widely used in the area of mineral and oil resource exploration as well as other fields. The current theory, numerical simulation, and inversion research are based on the assumption that the underground media have resistivity isotropy. However a large number of rock and mineral physical property tests show the resistivity of underground media is generally anisotropic. With the increasing application of CSAMT, the demand for probe accuracy of practical exploration to complex targets continues to increase. The question of how to evaluate the influence of anisotropic resistivity to CSAMT response is becoming important. To meet the demand for CSAMT response research of resistivity anisotropic media, this paper examines the CSAMT electric equations, derives and realizes a three-dimensional (3D) staggered-grid finite difference numerical simulation method of CSAMT resistivity axial anisotropy. Through building a two-dimensional (2D) resistivity anisotropy geoelectric model, we validate the 3D computation result by comparing it to the result of controlled-source electromagnetic method (CSEM) resistivity anisotropy 2D finite element program. Through simulating a 3D resistivity axial anisotropy geoelectric model, we compare and analyze the responses of equatorial configuration, axial configuration, two oblique sources and tensor source. The research shows that the tensor source is suitable for CSAMT to recognize the anisotropic effect of underground structure.

  6. Lower critical field of an anisotropic type-II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, R.A.; Clem, J.R.


    We consider the Ginzburg-Landau free energy of the anisotropic mass form in the presence of a magnetic field of arbitrary fixed direction. It is shown that the free energy may be transformed into the isotropic Ginsburg-Landau form with a kappa that depends upon the direction of the magnetic induction B relative to the crystal lattice. The lower critical field H/sub c/1 is then found for arbitrary direction of B. For highly anisotropic crystals the angular dependence of H/sub c/1 can exhibit a discontinuity or a cusp. The special case of a crystal with uniaxial symmetry is considered in detail

  7. Anisotropic extension of Finch and Skea stellar model (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Das, Shyam; Thirukkanesh, S.


    In this paper, the spacetime geometry of Finch and Skea [Class. Quantum Gravity 6:467, 1989] has been utilized to obtain closed-form solutions for a spherically symmetric anisotropic matter distribution. By examining its physical admissibility, we have shown that the class of solutions can be used as viable models for observed pulsars. In particular, a specific class of solutions can be used as an `anisotropic switch' to examine the impact of anisotropy on the gross physical properties of a stellar configuration. Accordingly, the mass-radius relationship has been analyzed.

  8. Anisotropic Liquid Microcapsules from Biomimetic Self-Folding Polymer Films. (United States)

    Zakharchenko, Svetlana; Ionov, Leonid


    We demonstrated a novel approach for the fabrication of anisotropic capsules with liquid content using biomimetic self-folding thermoresponsive polymer films. The behavior of self-folding films is very similar to actuation in plants, where nonhomogenous swelling results in complex movements such as twisting, bending, or folding. This approach allows the design of anisotropic liquid capsules with rodlike and dumbbell-like morphologies. We found that these capsules are able to assemble into different complex structures, such as nematic-like one and 3D network depending on their morphology.

  9. Remarks on anisotropy of inertia in an anisotropic cosmos (United States)

    Treder, Hans-Juergen


    The astronomical and physical meaning of the anisotropy of inertia is analyzed with respect to the relativity of inertia and anisotropic distributions of gravitating matter in the universe. Attention is given to the theoretical compatibility of the anisotropy of inertial masses with Mach's principle of the relativity of inertia and the Mach-Einstein doctrine of general relativity. Mach's principle does not imply anisotropy of inertial masses in an anisotropic universe, and the isotropy of cosmological mass is supported by the Mach-Einstein theories.

  10. All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)


    In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distributions. Considering a new source function ν(r) we find a set of solutions which is physically well behaved and represents compact stellar models. A detailed study specifically shows that the models actually correspond to strange stars in terms of their mass and radius. In this connection we investigate several physical properties like energy conditions, stability, mass-radius ratio, electric charge content, anisotropic nature and surface redshift through graphical plots and mathematical calculations. All the features from these studies are in excellent agreement with the already available evidence in theory as well as observations. (orig.)

  11. Correlation theory of crystal field and anisotropic exchange effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds. The the......A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds...... on the susceptibility, the first and second moment frequencies and the line shape are calculated self-consistently....

  12. Integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures in Cartesian coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan


    Roč. 25, - (2015), s. 109-155 ISSN 2336-3827 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams * inhomogeneous anisotropic media * S waves in weakly anisotropic media Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  13. Reviews Book: Enjoyable Physics Equipment: SEP Colorimeter Box Book: Pursuing Power and Light Equipment: SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher Equipment: Sciencescope GLE Datalogger Equipment: EDU Logger Book: Physics of Sailing Book: The Lightness of Being Software: Logotron Insight iLog Studio iPhone Apps Lecture: 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture Web Watch (United States)


    WE RECOMMEND Enjoyable Physics Mechanics book makes learning more fun SEP Colorimeter Box A useful and inexpensive colorimeter for the classroom Pursuing Power and Light Account of the development of science in the 19th centuary SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher An excellent resource for teaching about projectiles GLE Datalogger GPS software is combined with a datalogger EDU Logger Remote datalogger has greater sensing abilities Logotron Insight iLog Studio Software enables datlogging, data analysis and modelling iPhone Apps Mobile phone games aid study of gravity WORTH A LOOK Physics of Sailing Book journeys through the importance of physics in sailing The Lightness of Being Study of what the world is made from LECTURE The 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture presents the physics of fusion WEB WATCH Planet Scicast pushes boundaries of pupil creativity

  14. Observation of the anisotropic Dirac cone in the band dispersion of 112-structured iron-based superconductor Ca{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}FeAs{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z. T.; Li, M. Y.; Fan, C. C.; Yang, H. F.; Liu, J. S.; Wang, Z. [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xing, X. Z.; Zhou, W.; Sun, Y.; Shi, Z. X. [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of MEMS of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Yao, Q. [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Department of Physics, and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, W. [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Department of Physics, and Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); CAS-Shanghai Science Research Center, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shen, D. W., E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); CAS-Shanghai Science Research Center, Shanghai 201203 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Superconducting Electronics (CENSE), Shanghai 200050 (China)


    CaFeAs{sub 2} is a parent compound of recently discovered 112-type iron-based superconductors. It is predicted to be a staggered intercalation compound that naturally integrates both quantum spin Hall insulating and superconducting layers and an ideal system for the realization of Majorana modes. We performed a systematical angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculation study of the slightly electron-doped CaFeAs{sub 2}. We found that the zigzag As chain of 112-type iron-based superconductors play a considerable role in the low-energy electronic structure, resulting in the characteristic Dirac-cone like band dispersion as the prediction. Our experimental results further confirm that these Dirac cones only exist around the X but not Y points in the Brillouin zone, breaking the S{sub 4} symmetry at iron sites. Our findings present the compelling support to the theoretical prediction that the 112-type iron-based superconductors might host the topological nontrivial edge states. The slightly electron doped CaFeAs{sub 2} would provide us a unique opportunity to realize and explore Majorana fermion physics.

  15. High-order dynamic lattice method for seismic simulation in anisotropic media (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Jia, Xiaofeng


    The discrete particle-based dynamic lattice method (DLM) offers an approach to simulate elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media by calculating the anisotropic micromechanical interactions between these particles based on the directions of the bonds that connect them in the lattice. To build such a lattice, the media are discretized into particles. This discretization inevitably leads to numerical dispersion. The basic lattice unit used in the original DLM only includes interactions between the central particle and its nearest neighbours; therefore, it represents the first-order form of a particle lattice. The first-order lattice suffers from numerical dispersion compared with other numerical methods, such as high-order finite-difference methods, in terms of seismic wave simulation. Due to its unique way of discretizing the media, the particle-based DLM no longer solves elastic wave equations; this means that one cannot build a high-order DLM by simply creating a high-order discrete operator to better approximate a partial derivative operator. To build a high-order DLM, we carry out a thorough dispersion analysis of the method and discover that by adding more neighbouring particles into the lattice unit, the DLM will yield different spatial accuracy. According to the dispersion analysis, the high-order DLM presented here can adapt the requirement of spatial accuracy for seismic wave simulations. For any given spatial accuracy, we can design a corresponding high-order lattice unit to satisfy the accuracy requirement. Numerical tests show that the high-order DLM improves the accuracy of elastic wave simulation in anisotropic media.

  16. Anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe cores integrated into microinductors for high-frequency dc–dc power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jooncheol; Kim, Minsoo; Herrault, Florian; Kim, Jung-Kwun; Allen, Mark G


    This paper presents a rectangular, anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core that possesses a magnetically hard axis in the long geometric axis direction. Previously, we have developed nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300–1000 nm thick metallic alloys (i.e. Ni 80 Fe 20 or Co 44 Ni 37 Fe 19 ) based on sequential electrodeposition, demonstrating suppressed eddy-current losses at MHz frequencies. In this work, magnetic anisotropy was induced to the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores by applying an external magnetic field (50–100 mT) during CoNiFe film electrodeposition. The fabricated cores comprised tens to hundreds of layers of 500–1000 nm thick CoNiFe laminations that have the hard-axis magnetic property. Packaged in a 22-turn solenoid test inductor, the anisotropic core showed 10% increased effective permeability and 25% reduced core power losses at MHz operation frequency, compared to an isotropic core of the identical geometry. Operating the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core in a step-down dc–dc converter (15 V input to 5 V output) demonstrated 81% converter efficiency at a switching frequency of 1.1 MHz and output power of 6.5 W. A solenoid microinductor with microfabricated windings integrated with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core was fabricated, demonstrating a constant inductance of 600 nH up to 10 MHz and peak quality factor exceeding 20 at 4 MHz. The performance of the microinductor with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core is compared with other previously reported microinductors. (fast track communication)

  17. Covariance estimation for dInSAR surface deformation measurements in the presence of anisotropic atmospheric noise

    KAUST Repository

    Knospe, Steffen H G


    We study anisotropic spatial autocorrelation in differential synthetic aperture radar interferometric (dInSAR) measurements and its impact on geophysical parameter estimations. The dInSAR phase acquired by the satellite sensor is a superposition of different contributions, and when studying geophysical processes, we are usually only interested in the surface deformation part of the signal. Therefore, to obtain high-quality results, we would like to characterize and/or remove other phase components. A stochastic model has been found to be appropriate to describe atmospheric phase delay in dInSAR images. However, these phase delays are usually modeled as being isotropic, which is a simplification, because InSAR images often show directional atmospheric anomalies. Here, we analyze anisotropic structures and show validation results using both real and simulated data. We calculate experimental semivariograms of the dInSAR phase in several European Remote Sensing satellite-1/2 tandem interferograms. Based on the theory of random functions (RFs), we then fit anisotropic variogram models in the spatial domain, employing Matérn-and Bessel-family correlation functions in nested models to represent complex dInSAR covariance structures. The presented covariance function types, in the statistical framework of stationary RFs, are consistent with tropospheric delay models. We find that by using anisotropic data covariance information to weight dInSAR measurements, we can significantly improve both the precision and accuracy of geophysical parameter estimations. Furthermore, the improvement is dependent on how similar the deformation pattern is to the dominant structure of the anisotropic atmospheric signals. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. Ray-optics analysis of inhomogeneous optically anisotropic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.


    When the optical behavior of light in a medium depends on the direction in which light is traveling, the medium is called optically anisotropic. Light is an electromagnetic wave and in this thesis, we discuss the electromagnetic theory on optical anisotropy. We do this with the assumption that the

  19. On the origins of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of extruded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mater. Sci., Vol. 40, No. 2, April 2017, pp. 395–406. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12034-017-1383-3. On the origins of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of extruded. AA2017 aluminium alloy. A MAY. Laboratoire Génie des Matériaux, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, BP 17, Bordj El Bahri 16046, Algeria.

  20. Negative index of refraction in anisotropic nonmagnetic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Vladimír; Kužel, Petr


    Roč. 338, - (2006), s. 195-203 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET300100401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : anisotropic dielectric * negative refractive index * surface modes * guided modes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2006

  1. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Ekanem


    Apr 5, 2018 ... fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs to complement the use of other seismic attributes. Despite the con- certed effort in research and development related to seismic characterization of fractured reservoirs using anisotropic wave scattering, pragmatic uti- lization of this attribute in geophysical exploration.

  2. Autofocus imaging : Experimental results in an anisotropic austenitic weld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B.W.; Wilcox, P.D.; Hunter, A.J.


    The quality of an ultrasonic array image, especially for anisotropic material, depends on accurate information about acoustic properties. Inaccuracy of acoustic properties causes image degradation, e.g., blurring, errors in locating of reflectors and introduction of artifacts. In this paper, for an

  3. On the interpretation of time-resolved anisotropic diffraction patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm


    In this paper, we review existing systematic treatments for the interpretation of anisotropic diffraction patterns from partially aligned symmetric top molecules. Such patterns arise in the context of time-resolved diffraction experiments. We calculate diffraction patterns for ground-state Na...

  4. On the origins of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of extruded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents some experimental investigations about the origins of the anisotropic behaviour in cyclic loadings of AA2017 aluminium alloy. In the first step, fatigue damage evolutions were quantified for controlled proportional cyclic loadings in axial and shear directions. In this stage, the aim was to confirm the ...

  5. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–. Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous fluid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been stud- ied and some assumptions ...

  6. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous fluid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been studied and some assumptions among the ...

  7. Propagation of waves in a gravitating and rotating anisotropic heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (1956) equations neglecting the heat flux vector. Gravitational instability on propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in astrophysical plasma is investigated by Alemayehu and Tessema (2013a) by considering the effect of gravitational instability and viscosity with anisotropic pressure tensor and heat conducting.

  8. Three anisotropic benchmark problems for adaptive finite element methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolín, Pavel; Čertík, O.; Korous, L.


    Roč. 219, č. 13 (2013), s. 7286-7295 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : benchmark problem * anisotropic solution * boundary layer Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.600, year: 2013

  9. Metastability thresholds for anisotropic bootstrap percolation in three dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Enter, A.C.D.; Fey, A.


    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  10. Metastability Thresholds for Anisotropic Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Enter, A.C.D.; Fey, A.


    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  11. Finite-size effects for anisotropic bootstrap percolation : Logarithmic corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enter, Aernout C. D.; Hulshof, Tim

    In this note we analyse an anisotropic, two-dimensional bootstrap percolation model introduced by Gravner and Griffeath. We present upper and lower bounds on the finite-size effects. We discuss the similarities with the semi-oriented model introduced by Duarte.

  12. Metastability Thresholds for Anisotropic Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Aernout C.D. van; Fey, Anne

    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  13. Some dynamical properties of anisotropic collisionless stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, G.; Pegoraro, F.


    The linear stability analysis of collisionless anisotropic spherical stellar systems presents many unresolved issues. Planning to study the stability of a simple and astrophysically interesting equilibrium seuence ∞ for such stellar systems, we describe here some analytical characterizations of the ∞-distribution functions, formulate the linearized equations for stability, and discuss the relevant boundary conditions. (author). 19 refs.; 1 tab

  14. New exact models for anisotropic matter with electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jefta M Sunzu


    Sep 5, 2017 ... In our models, we consider the stellar object that is anisotropic and charged with linear equation of state consistent with quark stars. ... Einstein–Maxwell equations; anisotropy; charged matter; equation of state. PACS Nos 04.20. .... Sunzu et al [3] which was a general cubic polynomial. However, our choice ...

  15. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equations (Auriault et al 1985) in terms of solid displacement and fluid pressure, whereas Biot's equations were in terms of displacements of both the solid and fluid phases. Homogenisation has proven that .... (8) to (10) imply that, in homogenisation approach, the anisotropic inertial coupling is hiding in the tensor {ˆρij}.

  16. Exact anisotropic sphere with polytropic equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study static spherically symmetric spacetime to describe compact objects with anisotropic matter distribution. We express the system of Einstein field equations as a new system of differential equations using a coordinate transformation, and then write the system in another form with polytropic equation of state ...

  17. Anisotropic strain and phonon deformation potentials in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darakchieva, V.; Arwin, H.; Paskov, P. P.; Monemar, B.; Paskova, T.; Hommel, D.; Schubert, M.; Heuken, M.; Off, J.; Scholz, F.; Haskell, B. A.; Fini, P. T.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.


    We report optical phonon frequency studies in anisotropically strained c-plane- and a-plane-oriented GaN films by generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The anisotropic strain in the films is obtained from high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements. Experimental evidence for splitting of the GaN E 1 (TO), E 1 (LO), and E 2 phonons under anisotropic strain in the basal plane is presented, and their phonon deformation potentials c E 1 (TO) , c E 1 (LO) , and c E 2 are determined. A distinct correlation between anisotropic strain and the A 1 (TO) and E 1 (LO) frequencies of a-plane GaN films reveals the a A 1 (TO) , b A 1 (TO) , a E 1 (LO) , and b E 1 (LO) phonon deformation potentials. The a A 1 (TO) and b A 1 (TO) are found to be in very good agreement with previous results from Raman experiments [V. Yu. Davydov et al., J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5097 (1997)]. Our a A 1 (TO) and a E 1 (LO) phonon deformation potentials agree well with recently reported theoretical estimations [J.-M. Wagner and F. Bechstedt, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115202 (2002)], while b A 1 (TO) and b E 1 (LO) are found to be significantly larger than the theoretical values. A discussion of the observed differences is presented

  18. Double anisotropic electrically conductive flexible Janus-typed membranes. (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Qianli; Tian, Jiao; Xi, Xue; Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Xinlu; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia


    Novel type III anisotropic conductive films (ACFs), namely flexible Janus-typed membranes, were proposed, designed and fabricated for the first time. Flexible Janus-typed membranes composed of ordered Janus nanobelts were constructed by electrospinning, which simultaneously possess fluorescence and double electrically conductive anisotropy. For the fabrication of the Janus-typed membrane, Janus nanobelts comprising a conductive side and an insulative-fluorescent side were primarily fabricated, and then the Janus nanobelts are arranged into parallel arrays using an aluminum rotary drum as the collector to obtain a single anisotropically conductive film. Subsequently, a secondary electrospinning process was applied to the as-prepared single anisotropically conductive films to acquire the final Janus-typed membrane. For this Janus-typed membrane, namely its left-to-right structure, anisotropic electrical conduction synchronously exists on both sides, and furthermore, the two electrically conductive directions are perpendicular. By modulating the amount of Eu(BA) 3 phen complex and conducting polyaniline (PANI), the characteristics and intensity of the fluorescence-electricity dual-function in the membrane can be tuned. The high integration of this peculiar Janus-typed membrane with simultaneous double electrically conductive anisotropy-fluorescent dual-functionality is successfully realized in this study. This design philosophy and preparative technique will provide support for the design and construction of new types of special nanostructures with multi-functionality.

  19. Anisotropic cosmological models in f (R, T) theory of gravitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi spaces are useful tools for constructing spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models in general relativity and scalar–tensor theories of gravitation. Adhav [14] obtained exact solutions of the field equations for LRS. Bianchi type-I space-time with perfect fluid in the framework of f (R, T) theory of grav-.

  20. Anisotropic Bianchi-I universe with phantom field and cosmological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study an anisotropic Bianchi-I universe in the presence of a phantom field and a cosmological constant. Cosmological solutions are obtained when the kinetic energy of the phantom field is of the order of anisotropy and dominates over the potential energy of the field. The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the ...

  1. Gmax for Sand by Bender Elements at Anisotropic Stress States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, L.


    elements for two types of sand and with void ratios varying from minimum to maximum. The tests performed are carried out in the Danish Triaxial Cell, and Gmax are determined at different isotropic and anisotropic stress states. The main result of the test program is that Gmax is primarily influenced...

  2. Charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... is the central pressure. At the boundary of the star r = R, pr must vanish, which gives r = R as the radius of the star. This form of radial pressure is prescribed by Sharma and Ratanpal [18] to describe anisotropic stellar model admitting a quadratic equation of state on paraboloidal space-time. Equations (8) and (4) give ν =.

  3. New exact models for anisotropic matter with electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 5, 2017 ... We can also obtain particular anisotropic models obtained by Maharaj, Sunzu, and Ray. The exact solutions corresponding to our models are found explicitly in terms of elementary functions. The graphical plots generated for the matter variables and the electric field are well behaved. We also generate ...

  4. Anisotropic colloids: bulk phase behavior and equilibrium sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marechal, M.A.T.


    This thesis focuses on the phase behavior of anisotropically shaped (i.e. non-spherical) colloids using computer simulations. Only hard-core interactions between the colloids are taken into account to investigate the effects of shape alone. The bulk phase behavior of three different shapes of

  5. Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Though the decoupling of displacement potentials in case of fibre- reinfoced anisotropic elastic media is not possible in the general case, an attempt has been made to decouple the equation as a particular case. The assumptions made in this paper satisfy both set of equations formed by the displacement ...

  6. Fracture of anisotropic materials with plastic strain-gradient effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    A unit cell is adopted to numerically analyze the effect of plastic anisotropy on frac-ture evolution in a micro-reinforced fiber-composite. The matrix material exhibit size-effects and an anisotropic strain-gradient plasticity model accounting for such size-effects through a mate-rial length scale...

  7. Anisotropic Bianchi-I universe with phantom field and cosmological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW universe accommodating the present acceleration. A class of new cosmological solutions is obtained for an anisotropic universe in case an initial anisotropy exists which is bigger than the value determined by the parameter of the ...

  8. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12040-016-0783-x. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic ..... are not flat. The test results demonstrate that anisotropy has a great influence on GB-PSDM in. VTI media, and ignoring anisotropy in migration may lead to obvious ...

  9. Exact anisotropic sphere with polytropic equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    self-gravitating, static, isotropic fluid spheres when pressure explicitly depends on matter density, which invariably leads to non-integrable equations [32]. However, our treatment of anisotropic fluids with polytropic equation of state gets some flexibility in solving the. Einstein field equations with uncharged matter in static ...

  10. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.


    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  11. Minimal Sampling for Effective Acquisition of Anisotropic BRDFs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří


    Roč. 35, č. 7 (2016), s. 299-309 ISSN 0167-7055 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BRDF * anisotropic * measurement Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2016

  12. Viscoelastic materials with anisotropic rigid particles: stress-deformation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.


    In this paper we have derived constitutive equations for the stress tensor of a viscoelastic material with anisotropic rigid particles. We have assumed that the material has fading memory. The expressions are valid for slow and small deformations from equilibrium, and for systems that are nearly

  13. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation define the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...

  14. Propagation of waves in a gravitating and rotating anisotropic heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inviscid, unbounded, collisionless, gravitating, rotating and heat conducting anisotropic plasma medium which is drifting is considered. The medium is assumed to be embedded in a strong magnetic field. A general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis and its various limiting cases are discussed, ...

  15. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    attribute in geophysical exploration is still restricted perhaps as a result of the ambiguity in its. 51 quantification and difficulty in its interpretation in terms of rock properties (Jeng et al., 1999,. 52. MacBeth, 1999; Rongrong et al., 2006). Thus, the task of using anisotropic wave scattering for fracture. 53 prediction in the Earth's ...

  16. Fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leszczynski


    Full Text Available In this article we consider the fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary value problem with both advance and retardation. We apply the direct method of the calculus of variations and the mountain pass technique to prove the existence of at least one and at least two solutions. Non-existence of non-trivial solutions is also undertaken.

  17. Prestack exploding reflector modelling and migration for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    The double-square-root equation is commonly used to image data by downward continuation using one-way depth extrapolation methods. A two-way time extrapolation of the double-square-root-derived phase operator allows for up and downgoing wavefields but suffers from an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity is also associated with an anisotropic version of the double-square-root extrapolator. Perturbation theory allows us to separate the isotropic contribution, as well as the singularity, from the anisotropic contribution to the operator. As a result, the anisotropic residual operator is free from such singularities and can be applied as a stand alone operator to correct for anisotropy. We can apply the residual anisotropy operator even if the original prestack wavefield was obtained using, for example, reverse-time migration. The residual correction is also useful for anisotropic parameter estimation. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach. It also proves useful in approximately imaging the Vertical Transverse Isotropic Marmousi model.

  18. Anisotropic properties of aligned SWNT modified poly (methyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical and mechanical properties of PMMA/SWNT composite were studied as a function of SWNT orientation and concentration. The aligned SWNT modified PMMA/SWNT composite presented highly anisotropic properties. The experimental results showed that the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of ...

  19. Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 1 March 2002. Abstract. In the paper under discussion, the problem of surface waves in fibre- reinforced anisotropic elastic media has been studied. The authors express the plane strain displacement components in terms of two scalar potentials to decouple the plane motion into P and SV waves. In the present ...

  20. Crystal structure of vanadite: Refinement of anisotropic displacement parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laufek, F.; Skála, Roman; Haloda, J.; Císařová, I.


    Roč. 51, 3-4 (2006), s. 271-275 ISSN 1210-8197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : anisotropic displacement parameter * crystal structure * single-crystal X-ray refinement * vanadinite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  1. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    cells containing equivalent anisotropic medium by the use of the linear slip equivalent model. Our. 16 results show ...... frequency regression predicted by equation (21) can be distorted by the effects of multiple scattering. 337 ..... other seismic attributes, at least for the relatively simple geometries of subsurface structure. 449.

  2. Tailoring complex optical fields via anisotropic microstructures (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Wei; Cui, Guo-Xin


    In recent years, complex optical fields with spatially inhomogeneous phases, polarizations and optical singularities have drawn many research interests. Many novel effects have been predicted and demonstrated for light beams with these unconventional states in both linear and nonlinear optics regimes. Although local optical phase could be controlled directly or through hologram structures in isotropic materials such as glasses, optical anisotropy is still required for manipulating polarization states and wavelengths. The anisotropy could be either intrinsic such as in crystals/liquid crystals (LCs) or the induced birefringence from dielectric or metallic structures. In this talk, we will briefly review some of our attempts in tailoring complex optical fields via anisotropic microstructures. We developed a micro-photo-patterning system that could generate complex micro-images then further guides the arbitrary local LC directors. Due to the electro-optically (EO) tunable anisotropy of LC, various reconfigurable complex optical fields such as optical vortices (OVs), multiplexed OVs, OV array, Airy beams and vector beams are obtained. Different LC modes such as homogeneous alignment nematic, hybrid alignment nematic and even blue phase LCs are adopted to optimize the static and dynamic beam characteristics depending on application circumstances. We are also trying to extend our approaches to new wavelength bands, such as mid-infrared and even THz ranges. Some preliminary results are obtained. In addition, based on our recently developed local poling techniques for ferroelectric crystals, we will also discuss and demonstrate the nonlinear complex optical field conversion in Lithium Niobate wafers with patterned ferroelectric domain structures.

  3. Anisotropic solid-liquid interface kinetics in silicon: an atomistically informed phase-field model (United States)

    Bergmann, S.; Albe, K.; Flegel, E.; Barragan-Yani, D. A.; Wagner, B.


    We present an atomistically informed parametrization of a phase-field model for describing the anisotropic mobility of liquid-solid interfaces in silicon. The model is derived from a consistent set of atomistic data and thus allows to directly link molecular dynamics and phase field simulations. Expressions for the free energy density, the interfacial energy and the temperature and orientation dependent interface mobility are systematically fitted to data from molecular dynamics simulations based on the Stillinger-Weber interatomic potential. The temperature-dependent interface velocity follows a Vogel-Fulcher type behavior and allows to properly account for the dynamics in the undercooled melt.

  4. A method to determine site-specific, anisotropic fracture toughness in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Özcoban, Hüseyin; Yilmaz, Ezgi D.; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Lilleodden, Erica T.; Huber, Norbert; Schreyer, Andreas; Swain, Michael V.; Schneider, Gerold A.


    Many biological materials are hierarchically structured, with highly anisotropic structures and properties on several length scales. To characterize the mechanical properties of such materials, detailed testing methods are required that allow precise and site-specific measurements on several length scales. We propose a fracture toughness measurement technique based on notched focused ion beam prepared cantilevers of lower and medium micron size scales. Using this approach, site-specific fracture toughness values in dental enamel were determined. The usefulness and challenges of the method are discussed.

  5. An elementary singularity-free Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm for anisotropic particles. (United States)

    Ilie, Ioana M; Briels, Wim J; den Otter, Wouter K


    Brownian Dynamics is the designated technique to simulate the collective dynamics of colloidal particles suspended in a solution, e.g., the self-assembly of patchy particles. Simulating the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles by a first-order Langevin equation, however, gives rise to a number of complications, ranging from singularities when using a set of three rotational coordinates to subtle metric and drift corrections. Here, we derive and numerically validate a quaternion-based Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm that handles these complications in a simple and elegant way. The extension to hydrodynamic interactions is also discussed.

  6. On Young’s modulus profile across anisotropic nonhomogeneous polymeric fibre using automatic transverse interferometric method (United States)

    Sokkar, T. Z. N.; Shams El-Din, M. A.; El-Tawargy, A. S.


    This paper provides the Young's modulus profile across anisotropic nonhomogeneous polymeric fibre using an accurate transverse interferometric method. A mathematical model based on optical and tensile concepts is presented to calculate the mechanical parameter profiles of fibres. The proposed model with the aid of Mach-Zehnder interferometer combined with an automated drawing device are used to determine the Young's modulus profiles for three drawn polypropylene (PP) fibres (virgin, recycled and virgin recycled 50/50). The obtained microinterferograms are analyzed automatically using fringe processor programme to determine the phase distribution.

  7. Brazilian Tensile Strength of Anisotropic Rocks: Review and New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshou Ma


    Full Text Available Strength anisotropy is one of the most distinct features of anisotropic rocks, and it also normally reveals strong anisotropy in Brazilian test Strength (“BtS”. Theoretical research on the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks is seldom performed, and in particular some significant factors, such as the anisotropic tensile strength of anisotropic rocks, the initial Brazilian disc fracture points, and the stress distribution on the Brazilian disc, are often ignored. The aim of the present paper is to review the state of the art in the experimental studies on the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks since the pioneering work was introduced in 1964, and to propose a novel theoretical method to underpin the failure mechanisms and predict the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks under Brazilian test conditions. The experimental data of Longmaxi Shale-I and Jixi Coal were utilized to verify the proposed method. The results show the predicted “BtS” results show strong agreement with experimental data, the maximum error is only ~6.55% for Longmaxi Shale-I and ~7.50% for Jixi Coal, and the simulated failure patterns of the Longmaxi Shale-I are also consistent with the test results. For the Longmaxi Shale-I, the Brazilian disc experiences tensile failure of the intact rock when 0° ≤ βw ≤ 24°, shear failure along the weakness planes when 24° ≤ βw ≤ 76°, and tensile failure along the weakness planes when 76° ≤ βw ≤ 90°. For the Jixi Coal, the Brazilian disc experiences tensile failure when 0° ≤ βw ≤ 23° or 76° ≤ βw ≤ 90°, shear failure along the butt cleats when 23° ≤ βw ≤ 32°, and shear failure along the face cleats when 32° ≤ βw ≤ 76°. The proposed method can not only be used to predict the “BtS” and underpin the failure mechanisms of anisotropic rocks containing a single group of weakness planes, but can also be generalized for fractured rocks containing multi-groups of weakness planes.

  8. Micromechanics model for predicting anisotropic electrical conductivity of carbon fiber composite materials (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Faisal; Haider, Md. Mushfique; Yasmeen, Farzana


    Heterogeneous materials, such as composites consist of clearly distinguishable constituents (or phases) that show different electrical properties. Multifunctional composites have anisotropic electrical properties that can be tailored for a particular application. The effective anisotropic electrical conductivity of composites is strongly affected by many parameters including volume fractions, distributions, and orientations of constituents. Given the electrical properties of the constituents, one important goal of micromechanics of materials consists of predicting electrical response of the heterogeneous material on the basis of the geometries and properties of the individual phases, a task known as homogenization. The benefit of homogenization is that the behavior of a heterogeneous material can be determined without resorting or testing it. Furthermore, continuum micromechanics can predict the full multi-axial properties and responses of inhomogeneous materials, which are anisotropic in nature. Effective electrical conductivity estimation is performed by using classical micromechanics techniques (composite cylinder assemblage method) that investigates the effect of the fiber/matrix electrical properties and their volume fractions on the micro scale composite response. The composite cylinder assemblage method (CCM) is an analytical theory that is based on the assumption that composites are in a state of periodic structure. The CCM was developed to extend capabilities variable fiber shape/array availability with same volume fraction, interphase analysis, etc. The CCM is a continuum-based micromechanics model that provides closed form expressions for upper level length scales such as macro-scale composite responses in terms of the properties, shapes, orientations and constituent distributions at lower length levels such as the micro-scale.

  9. A signature of anisotropic cosmic-ray transport in the gamma-ray sky (United States)

    Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Gaggero, Daniele; Vittino, Andrea; Evoli, Carmelo; Grasso, Dario


    A crucial process in Galactic cosmic-ray (CR) transport is the spatial diffusion due to the interaction with the interstellar turbulent magnetic field. Usually, CR diffusion is assumed to be uniform and isotropic all across the Galaxy. However, this picture is clearly inaccurate: several data-driven and theoretical arguments, as well as dedicated numerical simulations, show that diffusion exhibits highly anisotropic properties with respect to the direction of a background (ordered) magnetic field (i.e., parallel or perpendicular to it). In this paper we focus on a recently discovered anomaly in the hadronic CR spectrum inferred by the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data at different positions in the Galaxy, i.e. the progressive hardening of the proton slope at low Galactocentric radii. We propose the idea that this feature can be interpreted as a signature of anisotropic diffusion in the complex Galactic magnetic field: in particular, the harder slope in the inner Galaxy is due, in our scenario, to the parallel diffusive escape along the poloidal component of the large-scale, regular, magnetic field. We implement this idea in a numerical framework, based on the DRAGON code, and perform detailed numerical tests on the accuracy of our setup. We discuss how the effect proposed depends on the relevant free parameters involved. Based on low-energy extrapolation of the few focused numerical simulations aimed at determining the scalings of the anisotropic diffusion coefficients, we finally present a set of plausible models that reproduce the behavior of the CR proton slopes inferred by gamma-ray data.

  10. Template-free and filamentary growth of silver nanowires: application to anisotropic conductive transparent flexible electrodes (United States)

    Park, Sun Hwa; Shin, Ho Sun; Kim, Young Heon; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Jae Yong


    Silver nanowires (NWs) are currently fabricated via template-free or template-assisted methods. The former is based on a medium-mediated anisotropic synthesis, which enables precursor atoms to be selectively adsorbed onto specific crystallographic planes, and the latter is performed via directional growth guided by preformed templates. These methods are costly and complicated. We outline a facile and low-cost approach for the electrochemical synthesis of silver NWs in a manner that is template- and surfactant-free and that provides control over the NW diameter in the range of 80 to 800 nm by the repetition of nucleation and dissolution. The nanowires vertically grow with the help of the interface anisotropy driven by a field enhancement at the tips of the islands nucleated on the substrate in ultra-dilute electrolytes (ca. 10-5 M), which is similar to a lightning-rod effect. The silver nanowires of vertical configuration are utilized for fabrication of anisotropic conducting, transparent, and flexible films.Silver nanowires (NWs) are currently fabricated via template-free or template-assisted methods. The former is based on a medium-mediated anisotropic synthesis, which enables precursor atoms to be selectively adsorbed onto specific crystallographic planes, and the latter is performed via directional growth guided by preformed templates. These methods are costly and complicated. We outline a facile and low-cost approach for the electrochemical synthesis of silver NWs in a manner that is template- and surfactant-free and that provides control over the NW diameter in the range of 80 to 800 nm by the repetition of nucleation and dissolution. The nanowires vertically grow with the help of the interface anisotropy driven by a field enhancement at the tips of the islands nucleated on the substrate in ultra-dilute electrolytes (ca. 10-5 M), which is similar to a lightning-rod effect. The silver nanowires of vertical configuration are utilized for fabrication of

  11. Fabrication and characterization of anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds for advanced drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalani G


    Full Text Available Ghulam Jalani,* Chan Woo Jung,* Jae Sang Lee, Dong Woo Lim Department of Bionano Engineering, College of Engineering Sciences, Hanyang University, Education Research Industry Cluster at Ansan Campus, Ansan, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Stimuli-responsive, polymer-based nanostructures with anisotropic compartments are of great interest as advanced materials because they are capable of switching their shape via environmentally-triggered conformational changes, while maintaining discrete compartments. In this study, a new class of stimuli-responsive, anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds with physically and chemically distinct compartments was prepared via electrohydrodynamic cojetting with side-by-side needle geometry. These nanofibers have a thermally responsive, physically-crosslinked compartment, and a chemically-crosslinked compartment at the nanoscale. The thermally responsive compartment is composed of physically crosslinkable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide poly(NIPAM copolymers, and poly(NIPAM-co-stearyl acrylate poly(NIPAM-co-SA, while the thermally-unresponsive compartment is composed of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylates. The two distinct compartments were physically crosslinked by the hydrophobic interaction of the stearyl chains of poly(NIPAM-co-SA or chemically stabilized via ultraviolet irradiation, and were swollen in physiologically relevant buffers due to their hydrophilic polymer networks. Bicompartmental nanofibers with the physically-crosslinked network of the poly(NIPAM-co-SA compartment showed a thermally-triggered shape change due to thermally-induced aggregation of poly(NIPAM-co-SA. Furthermore, when bovine serum albumin and dexamethasone phosphate were separately loaded into each compartment, the bicompartmental nanofibers with anisotropic actuation exhibited decoupled, controlled release profiles of both drugs in response to a temperature. A new class of multicompartmental nanofibers could be

  12. Molecular Location Sensing Approach by Anisotropic Magnetism of an Endohedral Metallofullerene. (United States)

    Takano, Yuta; Tashita, Ryo; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Nagase, Shigeru; Imahori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Takeshi


    Location recognition at the molecular scale provides valuable information about the nature of functional molecular materials. This study presents a novel location sensing approach based on an endohedral metallofullerene, Ce@C82, using its anisotropic magnetic properties, which lead to temperature-dependent paramagnetic shifts in (1)H NMR spectra. Five site-isomers of Ce@C82CH2-3,5-C6H3Me2 were synthesized to demonstrate the spatial sensing ability of Ce@C82. Single-crystal structures, absorption spectra, and density functional theory calculations were used to select the plausible addition positions in the radical coupling reaction, which preferentially happens on the carbon atoms with high electron density of the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) and positive charge. Temperature-dependent NMR measurements demonstrated unique paramagnetic shifts of the (1)H peaks, which were derived from the anisotropic magnetism of the f-electron in the Ce atom of the isomers. It was found that the magnetic anisotropy axes can be easily predicted by theoretical calculations using the Gaussian 09 package. Further analysis revealed that the temperature-dependent trend in the shifts is clearly predictable from the distance and relative position of the proton from the Ce atom. Hence, the Ce-encapsulated metallofullerene Ce@C82 can provide spatial location information about nearby atoms through the temperature-dependent paramagnetic shifts of its NMR signals. It can act as a molecular probe for location sensing by utilizing the anisotropic magnetism of the encapsulated Ce atom. The potentially low toxicity and stability of the endohedral fullerene would make Ce@C82 suitable for applications in biology and material science.

  13. Two-point paraxial traveltime formula for inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: Tests of accuracy

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S\\' and R\\' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.

  14. Neutron scattering measurements of spatially anisotropic magnetic exchange interactions in semiconducting K0.85 Fe1.54Se2 (TN = 280 K. (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Shen, Yao; Birgeneau, R J; Gao, Miao; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Lee, D-H; Lu, X Z; Xiang, H J; Abernathy, D L; Zhao, Y


    We use neutron scattering to study the spin excitations associated with the stripe antiferromagnetic order in semiconducting K(0.85)Fe(1.54)Se(2) (T(N) = 280 K). We show that the spin-wave spectra can be accurately described by an effective Heisenberg Hamiltonian with highly anisotropic inplane couplings at T = 5 K. At high temperature (T = 300 K) above T(N), short-range magnetic correlation with anisotropic correlation lengths are observed. Our results suggest that, despite the dramatic difference in the Fermi surface topology, the inplane anisotropic magnetic couplings are a fundamental property of the iron-based compounds; this implies that their antiferromagnetism may originate from local strong correlation effects rather than weak coupling Fermi surface nesting.

  15. Anisotropic viscoelastic shell modeling technique of copper patterns/photoimageable solder resist composite for warpage simulation of multi-layer printed circuit boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Joo, Sung-Jun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kwak, Dong-Ok


    In this study, the warpage simulation of a multi-layer printed circuit board (PCB) was performed as a function of various copper (Cu) patterns/photoimageable solder resist (PSR) composite patterns and their anisotropic viscoelastic properties. The thermo-mechanical properties of Cu/PSR patterns were obtained from finite element analysis (virtual test) and homogenized with anisotropic composite shell models that considered the viscoelastic properties. The multi-layer PCB model was simplified based on the unit Cu/PSR patterns and the warpage simulation during the reflow process was performed by using ABAQUS combined with a user-defined subroutine. From these results, it was demonstrated that the proposed anisotropic viscoelastic composite shell simulation technique can be successfully used to predict warpage of multi-layer PCBs during the reflow process. (paper)

  16. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in C60-based organic spintronic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kai; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Bolhuis, Thijs; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; de Jong, Machiel Pieter


    C 60 fullerenes are interesting molecular semiconductors for spintronics since they exhibit weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, which is a prerequisite for long spin lifetimes. We report spin-polarized transport in spin-valve-like structures containing ultrathin (<10 nm) C 60 layers,

  17. Anisotropic Diffusion based Brain MRI Segmentation and 3D Reconstruction


    M. Arfan Jaffar; Sultan Zia; Ghaznafar Latif; AnwarM. Mirza; Irfan Mehmood; Naveed Ejaz; Sung Wook Baik


    In medical field visualization of the organs is very imperative for accurate diagnosis and treatment of any disease. Brain tumor diagnosis and surgery also required impressive 3D visualization of the brain to the radiologist. Detection and 3D reconstruction of brain tumors from MRI is a computationally time consuming and error-prone task. Proposed system detects and presents a 3D visualization model of the brain and tumor inside which greatly helps the radiologist to effectively diagnose and ...

  18. Highly anisotropic electric conductivity in PAN-based carbon nanofibers (United States)

    Aprojanz, J.; Dreyer, B.; Wehr, M.; Wiegand, J.; Baringhaus, J.; Koch, J.; Renz, F.; Sindelar, R.; Tegenkamp, C.


    In addition to the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures their successful utilization for applications is strongly triggered by economic aspects. Electrospinning of nanowires from solution followed by subsequent annealing steps is a comparably cheap technique to fabricate conductive carbon nanofibers (CNF) made from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) molecules in large quantities. In this work, we investigated the microscopic properties of the CNFs with diameters of 100-300 nm by means of Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and correlated these results with transport measurements done with a 4-tip STM. In particular, we investigated the effect of fiber alignment and knot densities, which can be controlled by applying constant creep due to stress during the stabilization process. The comparison of the conductivity obtained from single CNFs revealed further that the fiber crossings within the ensemble structure act as scattering centers and proofs that the transport is along the surfaces of the CNFs.

  19. Optics of anisotropic metamaterial based structurally chiral photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A H; Rafayelyan, M S


    Light transmission through and reflection from a medium layer with dielectric and magnetic helicities are discussed. The axes of the dielectric permittivity tensor, ε-hat , and the magnetic permeability tensor, μ-hat , as well as the medium helix axis are all parallel to each other and they are perpendicular to the boundary surfaces. The possibilities of formation of some new types of photonic bandgaps (PBGs) are presented for large anisotropies of the medium—namely, direct and indirect nonselective PBGs (with respect to the incident light polarization, in contrast to the usual direct PBGs, which are selective with respect to the polarization of the incident light). It is shown that a transmission region can arise among the three types of PBGs, in certain conditions, of course. In this paper we generalize the concept of nihility for structurally chiral media, such as cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) and we identify two types of CLC nihilities. It is shown that, for certain characteristic parameters of the medium, superluminal light propagation is possible in the transmission band. The influence of the anisotropy of the medium on the reflection spectra is considered and it is shown that one can tune the width, number and frequency range of PBGs of this layer, at essentially large limits, tuning the parameters of the layer. The case of oblique light incidence on the CLC layer is also discussed. (paper)

  20. An optimal FFT-based anisotropic power spectrum estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Li, Yin; Slepian, Zachary, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    Measurements of line-of-sight dependent clustering via the galaxy power spectrum's multipole moments constitute a powerful tool for testing theoretical models in large-scale structure. Recent work shows that this measurement, including a moving line-of-sight, can be accelerated using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) by decomposing the Legendre polynomials into products of Cartesian vectors. Here, we present a faster, optimal means of using FFTs for this measurement. We avoid redundancy present in the Cartesian decomposition by using a spherical harmonic decomposition of the Legendre polynomials. With this method, a given multipole of order ℓ requires only 2ℓ+1 FFTs rather than the (ℓ+1)(ℓ+2)/2 FFTs of the Cartesian approach. For the hexadecapole (ℓ = 4), this translates to 40% fewer FFTs, with increased savings for higher ℓ. The reduction in wall-clock time enables the calculation of finely-binned wedges in P ( k ,μ), obtained by computing multipoles up to a large ℓ{sub max} and combining them. This transformation has a number of advantages. We demonstrate that by using non-uniform bins in μ, we can isolate plane-of-sky (angular) systematics to a narrow bin at 0μ ≅ while eliminating the contamination from all other bins. We also show that the covariance matrix of clustering wedges binned uniformly in μ becomes ill-conditioned when combining multipoles up to large values of ℓ{sub max}, but that the problem can be avoided with non-uniform binning. As an example, we present results using ℓ{sub max}=16, for which our procedure requires a factor of 3.4 fewer FFTs than the Cartesian method, while removing the first μ bin leads only to a 7% increase in statistical error on f σ{sub 8}, as compared to a 54% increase with ℓ{sub max}=4.

  1. Anisotropically functionalized carbon nanotube array based hygroscopic scaffolds. (United States)

    Ozden, Sehmus; Ge, Liehui; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Hart, Amelia H C; Yang, Hyunseung; Sridhar, Srividya; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M


    Creating ordered microstructures with hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties that enable the collection and storage of small water droplets from the atmosphere, mimicking structures that exist in insects, such as the Stenocara beetle, which live in environments with limited amounts of water. Inspired by this approach, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube forests (NTFs) are asymmetrically end-functionalized to create hygroscopic scaffolds for water harvesting and storage from atmospheric air. One side of the NTF is made hydrophilic, which captures water from the atmosphere, and the other side is made superhydrophobic, which prevents water from escaping and the forest from collapsing. To understand how water penetrates into the NTF, the fundamentals of water/NTF surface interaction are discussed.

  2. Joint eigenvector estimation from mutually anisotropic tensors improves susceptibility tensor imaging of the brain, kidney, and heart. (United States)

    Dibb, Russell; Liu, Chunlei


    To develop a susceptibility-based MRI technique for probing microstructure and fiber architecture of magnetically anisotropic tissues-such as central nervous system white matter, renal tubules, and myocardial fibers-in three dimensions using susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) tools. STI can probe tissue microstructure, but is limited by reconstruction artifacts because of absent phase information outside the tissue and noise. STI accuracy may be improved by estimating a joint eigenvector from mutually anisotropic susceptibility and relaxation tensors. Gradient-recalled echo image data were simulated using a numerical phantom and acquired from the ex vivo mouse brain, kidney, and heart. Susceptibility tensor data were reconstructed using STI, regularized STI, and the proposed algorithm of mutually anisotropic and joint eigenvector STI (MAJESTI). Fiber map and tractography results from each technique were compared with diffusion tensor data. MAJESTI reduced the estimated susceptibility tensor orientation error by 30% in the phantom, 36% in brain white matter, 40% in the inner medulla of the kidney, and 45% in myocardium. This improved the continuity and consistency of susceptibility-based fiber tractography in each tissue. MAJESTI estimation of the susceptibility tensors yields lower orientation errors for susceptibility-based fiber mapping and tractography in the intact brain, kidney, and heart. Magn Reson Med 77:2331-2346, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Pseudo-spectral method using rotated staggered grid for elastic wave propagation in 3D arbitrary anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Peng


    Staggering grid is a very effective way to reduce the Nyquist errors and to suppress the non-causal ringing artefacts in the pseudo-spectral solution of first-order elastic wave equations. However, the straightforward use of a staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method is problematic for simulating wave propagation when the anisotropy level is greater than orthorhombic or when the anisotropic symmetries are not aligned with the computational grids. Inspired by the idea of rotated staggered-grid finite-difference method, we propose a modified pseudo-spectral method for wave propagation in arbitrary anisotropic media. Compared with an existing remedy of staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method based on stiffness matrix decomposition and a possible alternative using the Lebedev grids, the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method possesses the best balance between the mitigation of artefacts and efficiency. A 2D example on a transversely isotropic model with tilted symmetry axis verifies its effectiveness to suppress the ringing artefacts. Two 3D examples of increasing anisotropy levels demonstrate that the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method can successfully simulate complex wavefields in such anisotropic formations.

  4. Anisotropic mesh adaptation for marine ice-sheet modelling (United States)

    Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Tavard, Laure; Merino, Nacho; Peyaud, Vincent; Brondex, Julien; Durand, Gael; Gagliardini, Olivier


    Improving forecasts of ice-sheets contribution to sea-level rise requires, amongst others, to correctly model the dynamics of the grounding line (GL), i.e. the line where the ice detaches from its underlying bed and goes afloat on the ocean. Many numerical studies, including the intercomparison exercises MISMIP and MISMIP3D, have shown that grid refinement in the GL vicinity is a key component to obtain reliable results. Improving model accuracy while maintaining the computational cost affordable has then been an important target for the development of marine icesheet models. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a method where the accuracy of the solution is controlled by spatially adapting the mesh size. It has become popular in models using the finite element method as they naturally deal with unstructured meshes, but block-structured AMR has also been successfully applied to model GL dynamics. The main difficulty with AMR is to find efficient and reliable estimators of the numerical error to control the mesh size. Here, we use the estimator proposed by Frey and Alauzet (2015). Based on the interpolation error, it has been found effective in practice to control the numerical error, and has some flexibility, such as its ability to combine metrics for different variables, that makes it attractive. Routines to compute the anisotropic metric defining the mesh size have been implemented in the finite element ice flow model Elmer/Ice (Gagliardini et al., 2013). The mesh adaptation is performed using the freely available library MMG (Dapogny et al., 2014) called from Elmer/Ice. Using a setup based on the inter-comparison exercise MISMIP+ (Asay-Davis et al., 2016), we study the accuracy of the solution when the mesh is adapted using various variables (ice thickness, velocity, basal drag, …). We show that combining these variables allows to reduce the number of mesh nodes by more than one order of magnitude, for the same numerical accuracy, when compared to uniform mesh

  5. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties and Surface Forces of Fluorite Crystals. (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Cui, Xin; Hu, Yuehua; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Hongbo


    Fluorite is the most important mineral source for producing fluorine-based chemicals and materials in a wide range of engineering and technological applications. In this work, atomic force microscopy was employed, for the first time, to probe the surface interactions and adhesion energy of model oleic acid (a commonly used surface modification organics for fluorite) molecules on fluorite surfaces with different orientations in both air and aqueous solutions at different pH conditions. Fitted with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, the force results during surface approaching demonstrate the anisotropy in the surface charge of different orientations, with the {111} surface exhibiting a higher magnitude of surface charge, which could be attributed to the difference in the atomic composition. The adhesion measured during surface retraction shows that model oleic acid molecules have a stronger adhesion with the {100} surface than with the {111} surface in both air and aqueous solutions. The anisotropic adhesion energy was analyzed in relation to the surface atom (especially calcium) activity, which was supported by the surface free energy results calculated based on a three-probe-liquid method. Each calcium atom on the {100} surface with four dangling bonds is more active than the calcium atom on the {111} surface with only one dangling bond, supported by a larger value of the Lewis acid component for the {100} surface. The model oleic acid molecules present in the ionic form at pH 9 exhibit a higher adhesion energy with fluorite surfaces as compared to their molecular form at pH 6, which was related to the surface activity of different forms. The adhesion energy measured in solution is much lower than that in air, indicating that the solvent exerts an important influence on the interactions of organic molecules with mineral surfaces. The results provide useful information on the fundamental understanding of surface interactions and adhesion energy of organic

  6. Intracellular Delivery by Shape Anisotropic Magnetic Particle-Induced Cell Membrane Cuts. (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yu; Wu, Yi-Chien; Lee, Ji-Ann; Tung, Kuan-Wen; Zhou, Jessica; Teitell, Michael A; Yeh, J Andrew; Chiou, Pei Yu


    Introducing functional macromolecules into a variety of living cells is challenging but important for biology research and cell-based therapies. We report a novel cell delivery platform based on rotating shape anisotropic magnetic particles (SAMPs), which make very small cuts on cell membranes for macromolecule delivery with high efficiency and high survivability. SAMP delivery is performed by placing commercially available nickel powder onto cells grown in standard cell culture dishes. Application of a uniform magnetic field causes the magnetic particles to rotate because of mechanical torques induced by shape anisotropic magnetization. Cells touching these rotating particles are nicked, which generates transient membrane pores that enable the delivery of macromolecules into the cytosol of cells. Calcein dye, 3 and 40 kDa dextran polymers, a green fluorescence protein (GFP) plasmid, siRNA, and an enzyme (β-lactamase) were successfully delivered into HeLa cells, primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs), and mouse cortical neurons that can be difficult to transfect. The SAMP approach offers several advantages, including easy implementation, low cost, high throughput, and efficient delivery of a broad range of macromolecules. Collectively, SAMP delivery has great potential for a broad range of academic and industrial applications. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  7. Anisotropic surface acoustic waves in tungsten/lithium niobate phononic crystals (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Hong; Yu, Yuan-Hai


    Phononic crystals (PnC) were known for acoustic band gaps for different acoustic waves. PnCs were already applied in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as reflective gratings based on the band gaps. In this paper, another important property of PnCs, the anisotropic propagation, was studied. PnCs made of circular tungsten films on a lithium niobate substrate were analyzed by finite element method. Dispersion curves and equal frequency contours of surface acoustic waves in PnCs of various dimensions were calculated to study the anisotropy. The non-circular equal frequency contours and negative refraction of group velocity were observed. Then PnC was applied as an acoustic lens based on the anisotropic propagation. Trajectory of SAW passing PnC lens was calculated and transmission of SAW was optimized by selecting proper layers of lens and applying tapered PnC. The result showed that PnC lens can suppress diffraction of surface waves effectively and improve the performance of SAW devices.

  8. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)


    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup

  9. Nanoscale Rheology and Anisotropic Diffusion Using Single Gold Nanorod Probes (United States)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Atefi, Ehsan; Crocker, John C.


    The complex rotational and translational Brownian motion of anisotropic particles depends on their shape and the viscoelasticity of their surroundings. Because of their strong optical scattering and chemical versatility, gold nanorods would seem to provide the ultimate probes of rheology at the nanoscale, but the suitably accurate orientational tracking required to compute rheology has not been demonstrated. Here we image single gold nanorods with a laser-illuminated dark-field microscope and use optical polarization to determine their three-dimensional orientation to better than one degree. We convert the rotational diffusion of single nanorods in viscoelastic polyethylene glycol solutions to rheology and obtain excellent agreement with bulk measurements. Extensions of earlier models of anisotropic translational diffusion to three dimensions and viscoelastic fluids give excellent agreement with the observed motion of single nanorods. We find that nanorod tracking provides a uniquely capable approach to microrheology and provides a powerful tool for probing nanoscale dynamics and structure in a range of soft materials.

  10. Optical characterization of isotropic and anisotropic layered media

    CERN Document Server

    Jakopic, G


    This work deals with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the UV/IR region with layered media and the inversion of photometric and ellipsometric spectra. A method is presented how to calculate the dielectric function of an ensemble of different anisotropic oscillators. A way is proposed how to extract both components of the dielectric tensor of uniaxial oligomers out of spectroscopic measurements at normal incidence, if it is possible to make two different structural modifications of the oligomer. Then, effective medium theories with an expansion on anisotropic media are treated and the result is used to model the optical properties of the rough surface of an organic thin film. Further, a new unified analytical inversion of reflectometric and ellipsometric data of strongly absorbing media is presented. A method is shown how to calculate simultaneously the thickness and the optical constants of weakly absorbing films out of one spectroscopic reflection or transmission measurement. The last topic are...

  11. A resistor interpretation of general anisotropic cardiac tissue. (United States)

    Shao, Hai; Sampson, Kevin J; Pormann, John B; Rose, Donald J; Henriquez, Craig S


    This paper describes a spatial discretization scheme for partial differential equation systems that contain anisotropic diffusion. The discretization method uses unstructured finite volumes, or the boxes, that are formed as a secondary geometric structure from an underlying triangular mesh. We show how the discretization can be interpreted as a resistive circuit network, where each resistor is assigned at each edge of the triangular element. The resistor is computed as an anisotropy dependent geometric quantity of the local mesh structure. Finally, we show that under certain conditions, the discretization gives rise to negative resistors that can produce non-physical hyperpolarizations near depolarizing stimuli. We discuss how the proper choice of triangulation (anisotropic Delaunay triangulation) can ensure monotonicity (i.e. all resistors are positive).

  12. Anisotropic hypersonic phonon propagation in films of aligned ellipsoids. (United States)

    Beltramo, Peter J; Schneider, Dirk; Fytas, George; Furst, Eric M


    A material with anisotropic elastic mechanical properties and a direction-dependent hypersonic band gap is fabricated using ac electric field-directed convective self-assembly of colloidal ellipsoids. The frequency of the gap, which is detected in the direction perpendicular to particle alignment and entirely absent parallel to alignment, and the effective sound velocities can be tuned by the particle aspect ratio. We hypothesize that the band gap originates from the primary eigenmode peak, the m-splitted (s,1,2) mode, of the particle resonating with the effective medium. These results reveal the potential for powerful control of the hypersonic phononic band diagram by combining anisotropic particles and self-assembly.

  13. Coupled polaritonic band gaps in the anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Zheng-Sheng; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Chun-Zhi; Lei, Da-Jun; Huang, Jian-Quan; Qiu, Feng; Yao, Min; Huang, Xiao-Yi


    Anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices (APSs) with the periodic arrangement of polarized anisotropic piezoelectric domains in a certain direction are presented, in which the coupled polaritonic band gaps (CPBGs) can be obtained in the whole Brillouin Zone and the maximum relative bandwidth (band-gap sizes divided by their midgap frequencies) of 5.1% can be achieved. The general characteristics of the APSs are similar to those of the phononic crystals composed of two types of materials, with the main difference being the formation mechanism of the CPBGs, which originate from the couplings between lattice vibrations along two different directions and electromagnetic waves rather than from the periodical modulation of density and elastic constants. In addition, there are no lattice mismatches because the APSs are made of the same material. Thus, the APSs can also be extended to the construction of novel acousto-optic devices.

  14. Anisotropic mechanical properties of graphene sheets from molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Zhonghua; Bu Hao; Zou Min; Yi Hong; Bi Kedong; Chen Yunfei


    Anisotropic mechanical properties are observed for a sheet of graphene along different load directions. The anisotropic mechanical properties are attributed to the hexagonal structure of the unit cells of the graphene. Under the same tensile loads, the edge bonds bear larger load in the longitudinal mode (LM) than in the transverse mode (TM), which causes fracture sooner in LM than in TM. The Young's modulus and the third order elastic modulus for the LM are slightly larger than that for the TM. Simulation also demonstrates that, for both LM and TM, the loading and unloading stress-strain response curves overlap as long as the graphene is unloaded before the fracture point. This confirms that graphene sustains complete elastic and reversible deformation in the elongation process.

  15. Local deposition of anisotropic nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). (United States)

    Fedorov, Roman G; Mandler, Daniel


    We demonstrate localized electrodeposition of anisotropic metal nanoobjects, namely Au nanorods (GNR), on indium tin oxide (ITO) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). A gold microelectrode was the source of the gold ions whereby double pulse chronoamperometry was employed to generate initially Au seeds which were further grown under controlled conditions. The distance between the microelectrode and the ITO surface as well as the different experimental parameters (electrodeposition regime, solution composition and temperature) were optimized to produce faceted gold seeds with the required characteristics (size and distribution). Colloidal chemical synthesis was successfully exploited for better understanding the role of the surfactant and different additives in breaking the crystallographic symmetry and anisotropic growth of GNR. Experiments performed in a conventional three-electrode cell revealed the most appropriate electrochemical conditions allowing high yield synthesis of nanorods with well-defined shape as well as nanocubes and bipyramids.

  16. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs. (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P


    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Interactions, strings and isotopies in higher order anisotropic superspaces

    CERN Document Server

    Vacaru, Sergiu Ion


    The monograph summarizes the author's results on the geometry of anholonomic and locally anisotropic interactions, published in J. Math. Phys., Nucl. Phys. B, Ann. Phys. (NY), JHEP, Rep. Math. Phys., Int. J. Theor. Phys. and in some former Soviet Union and Romanian scientific journals. The main subjects are in the theory of field interactions, strings and diffusion processes on spaces, superspaces and isospaces with higher order anisotropy and inhomogeneity. The approach proceeds by developing the concept of higher order anisotropic (super)space which unifies the logical and manthematical aspects of modern Kaluza--Klein theories and generalized Lagrange and Finsler geometry and leads to modeling of physical processes on higher order fiber (super)bundles provided with nonlinear and distinguished connections and metric structures. This book can be also considered as a pedagogical survey on the mentioned subjects.

  18. Timoshenko beam element with anisotropic cross-sectional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig


    Beam models are used for the aeroelastic time and frequency domain analysis of wind turbines due to their computational efficiency. Many current aeroelastic tools for the analysis of wind turbines rely on Timoshenko beam elements with classical crosssectional properties (EA, EI, etc.). Those cross......-sectional properties do not reflect the various couplings arising from the anisotropic behaviour of the blade material. A twonoded, three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element was therefore extended to allow for anisotropic cross-sectional properties. For an uncoupled beam, the resulting shape functions are identical...... to the original formulation. The new element was implemented into a co-rotational formulation and validated against natural frequencies and several static load cases of previous works....

  19. Anisotropic Friction of Wrinkled Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition. (United States)

    Long, Fei; Yasaei, Poya; Yao, Wentao; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza


    Wrinkle structures are commonly seen on graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method due to the different thermal expansion coefficient between graphene and its substrate. Despite the intensive investigations focusing on the electrical properties, the nanotribological properties of wrinkles and the influence of wrinkle structures on the wrinkle-free graphene remain less understood. Here, we report the observation of anisotropic nanoscale frictional characteristics depending on the orientation of wrinkles in CVD-grown graphene. Using friction force microscopy, we found that the coefficient of friction perpendicular to the wrinkle direction was ∼194% compare to that of the parallel direction. Our systematic investigation shows that the ripples and "puckering" mechanism, which dominates the friction of exfoliated graphene, plays even a more significant role in the friction of wrinkled graphene grown by CVD. The anisotropic friction of wrinkled graphene suggests a new way to tune the graphene friction property by nano/microstructure engineering such as introducing wrinkles.

  20. Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f( R) cosmology (United States)

    Shamir, M. F.


    Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f( R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f( R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f( R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f( R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f( R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  1. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals. (United States)

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen


    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  2. Ultraviolet laser-induced voltage in anisotropic shale (United States)

    Miao, Xinyang; Zhu, Jing; Li, Yizhang; Zhao, Kun; Zhan, Honglei; Yue, Wenzheng


    The anisotropy of shales plays a significant role in oil and gas exploration and engineering. Owing to various problems and limitations, anisotropic properties were seldom investigated by direct current resistivity methods. Here in this work, a 248 nm ultraviolet laser was employed to assess the anisotropic electrical response of a dielectric shale. Angular dependence of laser-induced voltages (V p) were obtained, with a data symmetry at the location of 180° and a ~62.2% V p anisotropy of the sample. The double-exponential functions have provided an explanation for the electrical field controlled carrier transportation process in horizontal and vertical directions. The results demonstrate that the combination of optics and electrical logging analysis (Opti-electrical Logging) is a promising technology for the investigation of unconventional reservoirs.

  3. Static anisotropic solutions in f(T) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daouda, M.H.; Rodrigues, Manuel E. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Fernando Ferrari s/n, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP29075-910, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Houndjo, M.J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)


    In previous work, we undertook to study static and anisotropic content in f(T) theory and obtained new spherically symmetric solutions considering a constant torsion and some particular conditions for the pressure. In this paper, still in the framework of f(T) theory, new spherically symmetric solutions are obtained, first considering the general case of an isotropic fluid and later the anisotropic content case in which the generalized conditions for the matter content are considered such that the energy density, the radial and tangential pressures depend on the algebraic f(T) and its derivative f{sub T} (T). Moreover, we obtain the algebraic function f(T) through the reconstruction method for two cases and also study a polytropic model for the stellar structure. (orig.)

  4. An anisotropic diffusion approximation to thermal radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Seth R.; Larsen, Edward W., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    This paper describes an anisotropic diffusion (AD) method that uses transport-calculated AD coefficients to efficiently and accurately solve the thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations. By assuming weak gradients and angular moments in the radiation intensity, we derive an expression for the radiation energy density that depends on a non-local function of the opacity. This nonlocal function is the solution of a transport equation that can be solved with a single steady-state transport sweep once per time step, and the function's second angular moment is the anisotropic diffusion tensor. To demonstrate the AD method's efficacy, we model radiation flow down a channel in 'flatland' geometry. (author)

  5. The boundary sources method with arbitrary order anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gert Van den, Eynde; Beauwens, R.; Mund, E.


    The Boundary Sources Method (BSM) is an integral method for solving the one-speed neutron transport equation that makes capital out of the exact knowledge of a transport kernel for the classical geometries: planar, spherical and cylindrical. We have developed a slab (multi-region) BSM code that allows for arbitrary order anisotropic scattering. The basic ingredient of our method is the calculation of (angular moments of) infinite medium Green's functions. We have used the singular Eigen-expansion (SEE) method developed for anisotropic scattering by Mika and Case and have developed a robust and accurate method to calculate its two parts: the discrete and continuum spectrum. We use several one-dimensional neutron transport benchmarks to show its high accuracy. We have treated 3 types of problems: 2-cell (U-H 2 O) disadvantage factors, the Reed problem and an extreme scattering problem

  6. Statistical ensembles and molecular dynamics studies of anisotropic solids. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.R.; Rahman, A.


    We have recently discussed how the Parrinello--Rahman theory can be brought into accord with the theory of the elastic and thermodynamic behavior of anisotropic media. This involves the isoenthalpic--isotension ensemble of statistical mechanics. Nose has developed a canonical ensemble form of molecular dynamics. We combine Nose's ideas with the Parrinello--Rahman theory to obtain a canonical form of molecular dynamics appropriate to the study of anisotropic media subjected to arbitrary external stress. We employ this isothermal--isotension ensemble in a study of a fcc→ close-packed structural phase transformation in a Lennard-Jones solid subjected to uniaxial compression. Our interpretation of the Nose theory does not involve a scaling of the time variable. This latter fact leads to simplifications when studying the time dependence of quantities

  7. Anisotropic models are unitary: A rejuvenation of standard quantum cosmology (United States)

    Pal, Sridip; Banerjee, Narayan


    The present work proves that the folklore of the pathology of non-conservation of probability in quantum anisotropic models is wrong. It is shown in full generality that all operator ordering can lead to a Hamiltonian with a self-adjoint extension as long as it is constructed as a symmetric operator. It is indicated that the self-adjoint extension, however, is not unique and this non-uniqueness is suspected not to be a feature of anisotropic models only, in the sense that there exists operator orderings such that Hamiltonian for an isotropic homogeneous cosmological model does not have unique self-adjoint extension. For isotropic model, there is a special unique extension associated with quadratic form of Hamiltonian, i.e., a Friedrich's extension. Details of calculations are carried out for a Bianchi III model as an example.

  8. Anisotropic charged physical models with generalized polytropic equation of state (United States)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M.


    In this paper, we found the exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with generalized polytropic equation of state (GPEoS). For this, we consider spherically symmetric object with charged anisotropic matter distribution. We rewrite the field equations into simple form through transformation introduced by Durgapal (Phys Rev D 27:328, 1983) and solve these equations analytically. For the physically acceptability of these solutions, we plot physical quantities like energy density, anisotropy, speed of sound, tangential and radial pressure. We found that all solutions fulfill the required physical conditions. It is concluded that all our results are reduced to the case of anisotropic charged matter distribution with linear, quadratic as well as polytropic equation of state.

  9. Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Single-Atom Contacts. (United States)

    Schöneberg, J; Otte, F; Néel, N; Weismann, A; Mokrousov, Y; Kröger, J; Berndt, R; Heinze, S


    Anisotropic magnetoresistance, that is, the sensitivity of the electrical resistance of magnetic materials on the magnetization direction, is expected to be strongly enhanced in ballistic transport through nanoscale junctions. However, unambiguous experimental evidence of this effect is difficult to achieve. We utilize single-atom junctions to measure this ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Single Co and Ir atoms are deposited on domains and domain walls of ferromagnetic Fe layers on W(110) to control their magnetization directions. They are contacted with nonmagnetic tips in a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope to measure the junction conductances. Large changes of the magnetoresistance occur from the tunneling to the ballistic regime due to the competition of localized and delocalized d-orbitals, which are differently affected by spin-orbit coupling. This work shows that engineering the AMR at the single atom level is feasible.

  10. Anisotropic to Isotropic Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaib M. A.


    Full Text Available We attempt to develop a minimal formalism to describe an anisotropic to isotropic tran- sition in the early Universe. Assuming an underlying theory that violates Lorentz in- variance, we start with a Dirac like equation, involving four massless fields, and which does not exhibit Lorentz invariance. We then perform transformations that restore it to its covariant form along with a mass term for the fermion field. It is proposed that these transformations can be visualized as waves traveling in an anisotropic media. The trans- formation it = ℏ ! is then utilized to transit to a statistical thermodynamics system and the partition function then gives a better insight into the character of this transition. The statistical system hence realized is a two level system with each state doubly degenerate. We propose that modeling the transition this way can help explain the matter antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  11. Holographic Fermions in Anisotropic Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qing Fang


    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the holographic Fermionic system dual to an anisotropic charged black brane bulk in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion gravity theory. We consider the minimal coupling between the Dirac field and the gauge field in the bulk gravity theory and mainly explore the dispersion relation exponents of the Green functions of the dual Fermionic operators in the dual field theory. We find that along both the anisotropic and the isotropic directions the Fermi momentum will be effected by the anisotropy of the bulk theory. However, the anisotropy has influence on the dispersion relation which is almost linear for massless Fermions with charge q=2. The universal properties that the mass and the charge of the Fermi possibly correspond to nonlinear dispersion relation are also investigated.

  12. Life prediction and constitutive models for anisotropic materials (United States)

    Bill, R. C.


    The intent of this program is to develop a basic understanding of cyclic creep-fatigue deformation mechanisms and damage accumulation, a capability for reliable life prediction, and the ability to model the constitutive behavior of anisotropic single crystal (SC) and directionally solidified or recrystallized (DSR) comprise the program, and the work breakdown for each option reflects a distinct concern for two classes of anisotropic materials, SC and DSR materials, at temperatures encountered in the primary gas path (airfoil temperatures), and at temperatures typical of the blade root attachment and shank area. Work directed toward the higher temperature area of concern in the primary gas path includes effects of coatings on the behavior and properties of the materials of interest. The blade root attachment work areas will address the effects of stress concentrations associated with attachment features.

  13. Theory for propulsion and transport in an anisotropic fluid (United States)

    Powers, Thomas; Krieger, Madison; Spagnolie, Saverio


    Swimming microorganisms are typically found in complex fluids, which are full of polymers. When these polymers align, the fluid becomes anisotropic. We seek to understand how anisotropy affects swimming when the stroke is prescribed. We model the anisotropic fluid with a nematic liquid crystal. The swimmer is a two-dimensional sheet deforming via propagating transverse or longitudinal waves. We find that the nature of anchoring conditions for the nematic degrees of freedom plays a critical role in determining the swimming speed. Furthermore, we study the fluid transport induced by the swimmers motion by calculating the flux of fluid in the laboratory frame. Finally, we elucidate the various limits of the nematic theory, such as the six-fold symmetric hexatic case and Ericksen's transversely isotropic fluid.

  14. Pseudorapidity Dependence of Anisotropic Azimuthal Flow with the ALICE Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Colliander

    In ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions a new state of matter known as the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) is produced. A key observable in the study of the sQGP is anisotropic azimuthal ow. The anisotropies are described by ow harmonics, vn. In this thesis, bias arising from no...... Detector and Silicon Pixel Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are compared to other LHC experiments andprevious experiments at lower collision energies....

  15. Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, AH


    Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.

  16. The second critical density and anisotropic generalised condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beau


    Full Text Available In this letter we discuss the relevance of the 3D Perfect Bose gas (PBG condensation in extremely elongated vessels for the study of anisotropic condensate coherence and the "quasi-condensate". To this end we analyze the case of exponentially anisotropic (van den Berg boxes, when there are two critical densities ρc<ρm for a generalised Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC. Here ρc is the standard critical density for the PBG. We consider three examples of anisotropic geometry: slabs, squared beams and "cigars" to demonstrate that the "quasi-condensate" which exists in domain ρc<ρ<ρm is in fact the van den Berg-Lewis-Pulé generalised condensation (vdBLP-GC of the type III with no macroscopic occupation of any mode. We show that for the slab geometry the second critical density ρm is a threshold between quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D condensate and the three dimensional (3D regime when there is a coexistence of the "quasi-condensate" with the standard one-mode BEC. On the other hand, in the case of squared beams and "cigars" geometries, critical density ρm separates quasi-1D and 3D regimes. We calculate the value of the difference between ρc, ρm (and between corresponding critical temperatures Tm, Tc to show that the observed space anisotropy of the condensate coherence can be described by a critical exponent γ(T related to the anisotropic ODLRO. We compare our calculations with physical results for extremely elongated traps that manifest "quasi-condensate".

  17. Theoretical assessment of sound absorption coefficient for anisotropic nonwovens


    Klara Kalinova


    The anisotropy factor as a function of fiber arrangement, fiber fineness and sample thickness has been derived from the theories of soundwave transformation due to phase changing. The sound absorption coefficient of the anisotropic fibrous material is then theoretically calculated. The fibrous materials were prepared so that the fibers are arranged parallel (perpendicularly laid fiber web called STRUTO technology) in the direction of soundwave propagation or perpendicularly (longitudinally la...

  18. Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the absence of pre-stresses, i.e., taking. S11 = S22 = S33 = 0, all the expressions, derived in this section, will reduce to the results which are same as in Ting (2006). 4. Triclinic materials. A triclinic material is the most general anisotropic medium, and the elastic compliance b11(N) in this medium is as defined by equation ...

  19. Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    x2µ(x)dx which is the mass function. The radial pressure pr = p + 2S/. √. 3 and the tangential pressure p⊥ = p − S/. √. 3 are not equal for anisotropic matter. The magnitude S provides a measure of anisotropy. The field equations (1)–(3) were integrated by Chaisi and Maharaj [12] for the energy density. µ = j r2. + k + lr2,. (4).

  20. Charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dr2 − r2 ( dθ2 + sin2 θdφ2). ,. (1) with the energy–momentum tensor for anisotropic charged fluid,. Tij = diag. ( ρ + E2, pr − E2, pt + E2, pt + E2). ,. (2) where ρ is the energy density, pr is the radial pressure, pt is the tangential pressure and. E is the electric field intensity. These quantities are measured relative to the comoving.

  1. Efficient light propagation for multiple anisotropic volume scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)


    Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the ``ray effect`` problem in the traditional ``discrete ordinates`` method. For a volume of n{sup 3} elements, it takes O(M n{sup 3} log n + M{sup 2} n{sup 3}) time and O(M n{sup 3}) space.

  2. Circumferential gap propagation in an anisotropic elastic bacterial sacculus


    Taneja, Swadhin; Levitan, Benjamin A.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.


    We have modelled stress concentration around small gaps in anisotropic elastic sheets, corresponding to the peptidoglycan sacculus of bacterial cells, under loading corresponding to the effects of turgor pressure in rod-shaped bacteria. We find that under normal conditions the stress concentration is insufficient to mechanically rupture bacteria, even for gaps up to a micron in length. We then explored the effects of stress-dependent smart-autolysins, as hypothesised by Arthur L Koch [Advance...

  3. Model and calculation of in situ stresses in anisotropic formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuezhi, W.; Zijun, L.; Lixin, H. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, (China)


    In situ stresses in transversely isotropic material in relation to wellbore stability have been investigated. Equations for three horizontal in- situ stresses and a new formation fracture pressure model were described, and the methodology for determining the elastic parameters of anisotropic rocks in the laboratory was outlined. Results indicate significantly smaller differences between theoretically calculated pressures and actual formation pressures than results obtained by using the isotropic method. Implications for improvements in drilling efficiency were reviewed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Anisotropic square lattice Potts ferromagnet: renormalization group treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.C. de; Tsallis, C.


    The choice of a convenient self-dual cell within a real space renormalization group framework enables a satisfactory treatment of the anisotropic square lattice q-state Potts ferromagnet criticality. The exact critical frontier and dimensionality crossover exponent PHI as well as the expected universality behaviour (renormalization flow sense) are recovered for any linear scaling factor b and all values of q(q - [pt

  5. Anisotropic magnetoresistance of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Petr; Svoboda, Pavel; Novák, Vít; Cukr, Miroslav; Výborný, Karel; Jurka, Vlastimil; Stuchlík, Jiří; Orlita, Milan; Maude, D. K.


    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2010), 1161-1163 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk MEB020928 Grant - others:EU EuroMagNET II(XE) Egide 19535NF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : GaMnAs * anisotropic magnetoresistance * hydrogenation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2010


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Svishch


    Full Text Available The entrainment of the light flux by a uniaxial anisotropic medium and its influence on the measurement of stellar aberration are analyzed. The influence of the entrainment of the light flux by an isotropic medium on the measurement of stellar aberration was considered by Fresnel early. The absence of such influence was confirmed by Erie's experience when filling the telescope tube with water. The formula itself was perfectly confirmed by Fizeau's experiments with moving water and the repetition of this experiment with an increase in the accuracy of measurements by Michelson, Zeeman, and others. G.A. Lorentz already on the basis of the electromagnetic theory specified the formula with allowance for the frequency dispersion of the light flux. A. Einstein made an analysis of the schemes of experiments for determining the drag coefficient, covering all possible variants of similar experiments. As a result, he obtained Fresnel and Lorentz formulas, taking into account the frequency dispersion of light, starting from the theory of relativity. The entrainment of light and its influence on the measurement of stellar aberration by a uniaxial anisotropic medium have not been considered anywhere. An analysis of such influence is carried out. The results of the analysis indicate the possibility of measuring the current value of stellar aberration using a uniaxial anisotropic medium. The concept of active light aberration is introduced. The proposed schemes of experiments of using the entrainment of a light flux by an anisotropic substance for measuring the current value of stellar aberration are investigated. It is concluded that it is possible to study the determination of the current velocity of an inertial system relative to the light flux.

  7. Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples. (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Millet, Larry J; Gillette, Martha U; Popescu, Gabriel


    We developed an interferometric microscopy technique, referred to as Jones phase microscopy, capable of extracting the spatially resolved Jones polarization matrix associated with transparent and anisotropic samples. This is a generalization of quantitative phase imaging, which is recovered from one diagonal element of the measured matrix. The principle of the technique is demonstrated with measurements of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator and the potential for live cell imaging with experiments on live neurons in culture.

  8. Pseudorapidity Dependence of Anisotropic Azimuthal Flow with the ALICE Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Colliander

    In ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions a new state of matter known as the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) is produced. A key observable in the study of the sQGP is anisotropic azimuthal ow. The anisotropies are described by ow harmonics, vn. In this thesis, bias arising from non...... Detector and Silicon Pixel Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are compared to other LHC experiments andprevious experiments at lower collision energies....

  9. Anisotropic expansion of a thermal dipolar Bose gas


    Tang, Yijun; Sykes, Andrew G.; Burdick, Nathaniel Q.; DiSciacca, Jack M.; Petrov, Dmitry S.; Lev, Benjamin L.


    We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the post-expansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipol...

  10. Topological defects and electro-convective flows in anisotropic fluids: A microfluidic platform for nano-objects tunable structuring (United States)

    Provenzano, C.; Mazzulla, A.; Chiaravalloti, F.; Audia, B.; Cipparrone, G.


    Anisotropic fluids are a class of soft materials that offer wide possibilities for engineering a small scale laboratory; their physical properties can be manipulated on short length scale by appropriate confining conditions and external stimuli leading the systems across fascinating phenomena. In this work, two of these phenomena are combined to create a microfluidic platform for reconfigurable nanoparticles (NPs) patterning: the formation of topological defects and the electrically controlled convective flows. Here, the nanoscopic environments created by defects within liquid crystals have been used as linear nano-reservoirs of NPs. Afterwards, virtual channel flows that connect the linear reservoirs have been created by exploiting electro-convective rolls. The reported results reveal a strategy for managing nanometric objects based on anisotropic fluids and connected phenomena, proposing an unconventional microfluidic device characterized by switchable and contactless micro-channels.

  11. Modeling Anisotropic Elastic Wave Propagation in Jointed Rock Masses (United States)

    Hurley, R.; Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.


    We present a numerical approach for determining the anisotropic stiffness of materials with nonlinearly-compliant joints capable of sliding. The proposed method extends existing ones for upscaling the behavior of a medium with open cracks and inclusions to cases relevant to natural fractured and jointed rocks, where nonlinearly-compliant joints can undergo plastic slip. The method deviates from existing techniques by incorporating the friction and closure states of the joints, and recovers an anisotropic elastic form in the small-strain limit when joints are not sliding. We present the mathematical formulation of our method and use Representative Volume Element (RVE) simulations to evaluate its accuracy for joint sets with varying complexity. We then apply the formulation to determine anisotropic elastic constants of jointed granite found at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) where the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), a campaign of underground chemical explosions, are performed. Finally, we discuss the implementation of our numerical approach in a massively parallel Lagrangian code Geodyn-L and its use for studying wave propagation from underground explosions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Investigation of Anisotropic Bonded Magnets in Permanent Magnet Machine Applications (United States)

    Khazdozian, H. A.; McCall, S. K.; Kramer, M. J.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.

    Rare earth elements (REE) provide the high energy product necessary for permanent magnets, such as sintered Nd2Fe14B, in many applications like wind energy generators. However, REEs are considered critical materials due to risk in their supply. To reduce the use of critical materials in permanent magnet machines, the performance of anisotropic bonded NdFeB magnets, aligned under varying magnetic field strength, was simulated using 3D finite element analysis in a 3MW direct-drive permanent magnet generator (DDPMG), with sintered N42 magnets used as a baseline for comparison. For direct substitution of the anisotropic bonded magnets, approximately 85% of the efficiency of the baseline model was achieved, irrespective of the alignment field. The torque and power generation of the DDPMG was not found to vary significantly with increase in the alignment field. Finally, design changes were studied to allow for the achievement of rated torque and power with the use of anisotropic bonded magnets, demonstrating the potential for reduction of critical materials in permanent magnets for renewable energy applications. This work was supported by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office.

  13. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Stochastic self-propagating star formation with anisotropic probability distribution (United States)

    Jungwiert, B.; Palous, J.


    We present a 2D computer code for stochastic self-propagating star formation (SSPSF) in differentially rotating galaxies. The isotropic probability distribution, used in previous models of Seiden, Gerola and Schulman (Seiden & Schulman, 1990, and references therein), is replaced by an anisotropic one. The motivation is provided by models of expanding large-scale supernova remnants (SNR) in disks with shear (Palous et al. 1990): the distortion of the SNR leads to uneven density distribution along its periphery and, consequently, to uneven distribution of new star forming sites. To model anisotropic SSPSF, we process in two steps: first, we eliminate artificial anisotropies inherent to the technique used by Seiden, Gerola and Schulman and, second, we define the probability ellipse on each star forming site. The anisotropy is characterized by its axes ratio and inclination with respect to the galactic center. We show that anisotropic SSPSF is able to produce highly organized spiral structures. Depending on the character of the probability ellipse, we can obtain continous spiral arms of different length, thickness and pitch angle. The relation of the probability ellipse to rotation curves interstellar medium (ISM) density and metallicity is discussed as well as its variation along the Hubble sequence and van den Bergh's luminosity classification of galaxies. To demonstrate applications, we compare our results with two different classes of galaxies: M 101-type grand-design spirals with open and robust arms and NGC 2841-type flocculent galaxies with thin and tightly wound arms.

  15. Anisotropic fluid spheres of embedding class one using Karmarkar condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Maharaj, S.D. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, Private Bag X54001, Durban (South Africa)


    We obtain a new anisotropic solution for spherically symmetric spacetimes by analyzing the Karmarkar embedding condition. For this purpose we construct a suitable form of one of the gravitational potentials to obtain a closed form solution. This form of the remaining gravitational potential allows us to solve the embedding equation and integrate the field equations. The resulting new anisotropic solution is well behaved, which can be utilized to construct realistic static fluid spheres. Also we estimated the masses and radii of fluid spheres for LMC X-4, EXO 1785-248, PSR J1903+327 and 4U 1820-30 by using observational data set values. The masses and radii obtained show that our anisotropic solution can represent fluid spheres to a very good degree of accuracy. The physical validity of the solution depends on the parameter values of a, b and c. The solution is well behaved for the wide range of parameters values 0.00393 ≤ a ≤ 0.0055, 0.0002 ≤ b ≤ 0.0025 and 0.0107 ≤ c ≤ 0.0155. The range of corresponding physical parameters for the different compact stars are 0.3266 ≤ v{sub r0} ≤ 0.3708, 0.1583 ≤ v{sub t0} ≤ 0.2558, 0.3256 ≤ z{sub s} ≤ 0.4450 and 4.3587 ≤ Γ{sub 0} ≤ 5.6462. (orig.)

  16. Pattern formation of a nonlocal, anisotropic interaction model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    We consider a class of interacting particle models with anisotropic, repulsive–attractive interaction forces whose orientations depend on an underlying tensor field. An example of this class of models is the so-called Kücken–Champod model describing the formation of fingerprint patterns. This class of models can be regarded as a generalization of a gradient flow of a nonlocal interaction potential which has a local repulsion and a long-range attraction structure. In contrast to isotropic interaction models the anisotropic forces in our class of models cannot be derived from a potential. The underlying tensor field introduces an anisotropy leading to complex patterns which do not occur in isotropic models. This anisotropy is characterized by one parameter in the model. We study the variation of this parameter, describing the transition between the isotropic and the anisotropic model, analytically and numerically. We analyze the equilibria of the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation and investigate pattern formation numerically in two dimensions by studying the dependence of the parameters in the model on the resulting patterns.

  17. Tuning particle geometry of chemically anisotropic dumbbell-shaped colloids. (United States)

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Kegel, Willem K


    Chemically anisotropic dumbbell-shaped colloids are prepared starting from cross-linked polymer seed particles coated with a chlorinated outer layer. These chlorinated seeds are swollen with monomer. Subsequently, a liquid protrusion is formed on the surface of the seed particle by phase separation between the monomer and the swollen polymer network. Solidification of these liquid lobes by polymerization leads to the desired dumbbell-shaped colloids. The chlorine groups remain confined on the seed lobe of the particles, ensuring chemical anisotropy of the resulting particles. Exploiting the asymmetric distribution of the chemically reactive surface chlorine groups allows for site-specific surface modifications. Here we show that the geometry of the resulting chemically anisotropic dumbbells can be systematically tuned by a number of experimental parameters including the volume of styrene by which the seeds are swollen, the cross-link density of the chlorinated seeds and chemical composition/thickness of the chlorinated coating deposited on the seed particles. Being able to control the particle geometry, and therefore the Janus balance of these chemically anisotropic particles, provides a promising starting point for the synthesis of sophisticated building blocks for future (self-assembly) studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds from unidirectional freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuncion, Maria Christine Tankeh, E-mail: [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Goh, James Cho-Hong [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Singapore); Toh, Siew-Lok [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore)


    Recent studies have underlined the importance of matching scaffold properties to the biological milieu. Tissue, and thus scaffold, anisotropy is one such property that is important yet sometimes overlooked. Methods that have been used to achieve anisotropic scaffolds present challenges such as complicated fabrication steps, harsh processing conditions and toxic chemicals involved. In this study, unidirectional freezing was employed to fabricate anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds in a simple and mild manner. Morphological, mechanical, chemical and cellular compatibility properties were investigated, as well as the effect of the addition of gelatin to certain properties of the scaffold. It was shown that scaffold properties were suitable for cell proliferation and that mesenchymal stem cells were able to align themselves along the directed fibers. The fabricated scaffolds present a platform that can be used for anisotropic tissue engineering applications such as cardiac patches. - Highlights: • Silk/gelatin scaffolds with unidirectional alignment were fabricated using a simple and scalable process • Presence of gelatin in silk resulted to lesser shrinkage, better water retention and improved cell proliferation. • Mesenchymal stem cells were shown to align themselves according to the fiber alignment.

  19. Nanoparticle-Structured Highly Sensitive and Anisotropic Gauge Sensors. (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Luo, Jin; Shan, Shiyao; Lombardi, Jack P; Xu, Yvonne; Cartwright, Kelly; Lu, Susan; Poliks, Mark; Zhong, Chuan-Jian


    The ability to tune gauge factors in terms of magnitude and orientation is important for wearable and conformal electronics. Herein, a sensor device is described which is fabricated by assembling and printing molecularly linked thin films of gold nanoparticles on flexible microelectrodes with unusually high and anisotropic gauge factors. A sharp difference in gauge factors up to two to three orders of magnitude between bending perpendicular (B(⊥)) and parallel (B(||)) to the current flow directions is observed. The origin of the unusual high and anisotropic gauge factors is analyzed in terms of nanoparticle size, interparticle spacing, interparticle structure, and other parameters, and by considering the theoretical aspects of electron conduction mechanism and percolation pathway. A critical range of resistivity where a very small change in strain and the strain orientation is identified to impact the percolation pathway in a significant way, leading to the high and anisotropic gauge factors. The gauge anisotropy stems from molecular and nanoscale fine tuning of interparticle properties of molecularly linked nanoparticle assembly on flexible microelectrodes, which has important implication for the design of gauge sensors for highly sensitive detection of deformation in complex sensing environment or on complex curved surfaces such as wearable electronics and skin sensors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials (United States)

    Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.


    Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.