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Sample records for based amorphous alloys

  1. Iron - based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structure characterization, thermal and soft magnetic properties analysis of Fe-based bulk amorphous materials in as-cast state and after crystallization process. In addition, the paper gives some brief review about achieving, formation and structure of bulk metallic glasses as a special group of amorphous materials.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe72B20Si4Nb4 metallic glass in form of ribbons and rods. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. The thermal properties of the glassy samples were measured using differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The magnetic properties contained initial and maximum magnetic permeability, coercive force and magnetic after-effects measurements were determined by the Maxwell-Wien bridge and VSM methods.Findings: The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the studied as-cast bulk metallic glasses in form of ribbons and rods were amorphous. Two stage crystallization process was observed for studied bulk amorphous alloy. The differences of crystallization temperature between ribbons and rods with chosen thickness are probably caused by different amorphous structures as a result of the different cooling rates in casting process. The SEM images showed that studied fractures could be classified as mixed fractures with indicated two zones contained “river” and “smooth” areas. The changing of chosen soft magnetic properties (μr, Bs, Hc obtained for samples with different thickness is a result of the non-homogenous amorphous structure of tested metallic glasses. The annealing process in temperature range from 373 to 773 K causes structural relaxation of tested amorphous materials, which leads to changes in their physical properties. The qualitative

  2. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  3. Ductile Fe-based amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Kwang-Bok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Chul, E-mail: jclee001@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe-based amorphous alloy with a strength and fracture strain of 4.7 GPa and 8.0% was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of a minute amount of V promoted the phase separation of the constituent elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase separation lowered alloys' packing density and alleviated the degree of strain localization. - Abstract: Experiments demonstrated that the addition of a minute amount of V to Fe{sub 52}Co{sub (20-x)}B{sub 20}Si{sub 4}Nb{sub 4}V{sub x} amorphous alloy induces atomic-scale phase separation, which dramatically enhances the plasticity. Especially, Fe{sub 52}Co{sub 17.5}B{sub 20}Si{sub 4}Nb{sub 4}V{sub 2.5} amorphous alloy exhibited a strength of 4.7 GPa and a fracture strain of 8.0%, which is the largest strain reported for Fe-based amorphous alloys. In this study, the structural origin of the enhanced plasticity is explored by examining the role played by the phase separating element on the packing density and strain localization.

  4. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

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    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  5. Corrosion resistant amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of publication data on corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys and the methods of amorphization of surface layers of massive materials (laser treatment, iron implantation, detonation-gas spraying, cathode and ion sputtering, electrodeposition) was made. A study was made on corrosion properties of Fe66Cr11B10Si4 alloy in cast state and after laser irradiation, rendering the surface amorphous as well as the samples of Arenco iron and steel 20 with ion-plasma coatings of Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti alloy. It was established that amorphous coatings posses much higher corrosion resistance as compared to crystalline alloys on the same base

  6. Structure and magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous alloys

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    K. Błoch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents studies relating to the structure, magnetic properties and thermal stability of the following bulk amorphous alloys: Fe61Co10Ti3-xY6+xB20 (where x = 0 or 1 Design/methodology/approach: The investigated samples were prepared in the form of rods by using the suction-casting method. The material structures were investigated using X-ray diffractometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The thermal stability was determined on the basis of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC plots The magnetic properties were studied using a completely automated set up for measuring susceptibility and its disaccommodation. Findings: It was found that both alloys were amorphous in the as-cast state. The DSC curve obtained for Fe61Co10Ti2Y7B20 alloy exhibited one exothermic peak, while for the Fe61Co10Ti3Y6B20 sample, two peaks were distinguishable, corresponding to the crystallization of the sample. The bifurcation of the maximum on the DSC curve for the Fe61Co10Ti3Y6B20 sample may also testify to the presence of the primary crystallizing phase (FeCo23B6 [1,2]. Data obtained from the analysis of the magnetic susceptibility disaccommodation curves clearly show that in the Fe61Co10Ti3Y6B20 alloy there is less free volumes than in the second of the investigated alloys, this results in a lesser range of relaxation time. Moreover, Fe61Co10Ti3Y6B20 alloy exhibits the better time and thermal stability of magnetic properties In both of the studied alloys, at low frequencies, the total losses were comparable with those observed in classical silicon-iron alloys. Practical implications: A Ferrometer was used for the determination of core losses. Originality/value: The paper presents some researches of the Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys obtained by the suction-casting method.

  7. Formation and Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Ti Base Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Naka, M.; Okada, T.; T. Matsui

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion resistant amorphous Ti-B and Ti-Si alloys were prepared on various substrates by RF sputtering. The alloying of B content of 8 at% or more stabilizes the amorphous structure. The corrosion properties of Ti alloys were evaluated by measuring the polarization curves in 1N HCl. Although the addition of B to crystalline bulky Ti shifts the corrosion potentials of Ti to the less nobles of -0.5 V(SCE) or less, that of B to amorphous sputtered Ti moves the corrosion potentials to the noble...

  8. Crystallization kinetics of Fe based amorphous alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.

    2015-02-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry(DSC) experimental data under non-isothermal conditions for Fe based Metglas 2605SA1 (wt% Fe=85-95, Si=5-10, B=1-5) metallic glass ribbons are reported and discussed. The DSC Scans performed at different heating rates showed two step crystallization processes and are interpreted in terms of different models like Kissinger, Ozawa, Boswell, Augis & Bennett and Gao & Wang. From the heating rate dependence of the onset temperature (To) and the crystallization peak temperature (Tp), the kinetic triplet, activation energy of crystallization (E), Avrami exponent (n) and the frequency factor (A) are determined. The determined E for peak I is 354.5 ± 2.5 kJ/mol and for the peak II is 348.2 ± 2.2 kJ/mol, respectively. The frequency factor for peak I is 1.1 × 1023sec-1 and for peak II is 6.1 × 1020sec-1.

  9. Deployable aerospace PV array based on amorphous silicon alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Walter, Lee; Dobias, David; Flaisher, Harvey

    1989-01-01

    The development of the first commercial, ultralight, flexible, deployable, PV array for aerospace applications is discussed. It is based on thin-film, amorphous silicon alloy, multijunction, solar cells deposited on a thin metal or polymer by a proprietary, roll-to-roll process. The array generates over 200 W at AM0 and is made of 20 giant cells, each 54 cm x 29 cm (1566 sq cm in area). Each cell is protected with bypass diodes. Fully encapsulated array blanket and the deployment mechanism weigh about 800 and 500 g, respectively. These data yield power per area ratio of over 60 W/sq m specific power of over 250 W/kg (4 kg/kW) for the blanket and 154 W/kg (6.5 kg/kW) for the power system. When stowed, the array is rolled up to a diameter of 7 cm and a length of 1.11 m. It is deployed quickly to its full area of 2.92 m x 1.11 m, for instant power. Potential applications include power for lightweight space vehicles, high altitude balloons, remotely piloted and tethered vehicles. These developments signal the dawning of a new age of lightweight, deployable, low-cost space arrays in the range from tens to tens of thousands of watts for near-term applications and the feasibility of multi-100 kW to MW arrays for future needs.

  10. Welding of cobalt-based amorphous alloys with Nd: YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results concerning the investigation of the welding of cobalt-based amorphous alloys with Nd:YAG laser. Five alloys with different chemical structure and dimensions in shape of amorphous metal foils were welded. The quality of the welded joints were tested by using a microstructure analysis with an optical microscope and SEM, when the metal graphic structure, the chemical structure and the microhardness of the welded joints were tested as well. (Author)

  11. Ion bombardment of Fe-based amorphous metallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Slovak University of Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology (Slovakia); Lancok, Adriana [AS CR, v. v. i., Institute of Physics (Czech Republic); Pavlovic, Marius [Slovak University of Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology (Slovakia)

    2009-02-15

    Fe{sub 74}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 16}B{sub 6} amorphous metallic alloy is investigated after ion irradiation by 110 keV N{sup +} and 593 MeV Au ions. The depth-profiles of the radiation damage were calculated by the SRIM2008 code. Applicability of transmission and conversion electron Moessbauer effect measurements to distinguish between the bulk and surface radiation damage is demonstrated by using different irradiation conditions. The investigated alloy is characterized by ferromagnetic interactions. The implantation does not depict appreciable changes of the samples' surfaces. Changes in chemical short-range order (SRO) are revealed in N{sup +} irradiated alloys. Heavy Au ions caused pronounced effects in the position of the net magnetization though no impact on SRO was observed. After annealing, structural relaxation and annealing-out of the irradiation-induced stresses caused the rotation of the net magnetization back to its original position.

  12. Correlation Between Superheated Liquid Fragility And Onset Temperature Of Crystallization For Al-Based Amorphous Alloys

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    Guo J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous alloys or metallic glasses have attracted significant interest in the materials science and engineering communities due to their unique physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The viscous flow of amorphous alloys exhibiting high strain rate sensitivity and homogeneous deformation is considered to be an important characteristic in thermoplastic forming processes performed within the supercooled liquid region because it allows superplastic-like deformation behavior. Here, the correlation between the superheated liquid fragility, and the onset temperature of crystallization for Al-based alloys, is investigated. The activation energy for viscous flow of the liquid is also investigated. There is a negative correlation between the parameter of superheated liquid fragility and the onset temperature of crystallization in the same Al-based alloy system. The activation energy decreases as the onset temperature of crystallization increases. This indicates that the stability of a superheated liquid can affect the thermal stability of the amorphous alloy. It also means that a liquid with a large superheated liquid fragility, when rapidly solidified, forms an amorphous alloy with a low thermal stability.

  13. Annealing temperature effect on microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of Fe-based amorphous alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe74Ni3Si13Cr6W4 amorphous alloy powders were annealed at different temperature (T) for 1.5 h to fabricate the corresponding amorphous and nanocrystalline powders. The influences of T on the crystalline structure, morphology, magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of the resultant samples were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer. The results show that the powder samples obtained at T of 650 °C or more are composed of lots of ultra-fine α-Fe(Si) grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. When T increases from 350 to 750 °C, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of the as-annealed powder samples both increase monotonously whereas the relative real permittivity shows a minimal value and the relative real permeability shows a maximal value at T of 650 °C. Thus the powder samples annealed at 650 °C show optimal reflection loss under −10 dB in the whole C-band. These results here suggest that the annealing heat treatment of Fe-based amorphous alloy is an effective approach to fabricate high performance microwave absorber with reasonable permittivity and large permeability simultaneously via adjusting T. - Highlights: ► The annealing temperature effect of Fe-based amorphous alloy was studied. ► Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy has a good absorbing property in C-band. ► There exists a correspondence between microwave properties and microstructure.

  14. Annealing temperature effect on microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of Fe-based amorphous alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jinghua; Wang Wei; Wang Aimin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Guan Jianguo, E-mail: guanjg@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Fe{sub 74}Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 13}Cr{sub 6}W{sub 4} amorphous alloy powders were annealed at different temperature (T) for 1.5 h to fabricate the corresponding amorphous and nanocrystalline powders. The influences of T on the crystalline structure, morphology, magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of the resultant samples were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer. The results show that the powder samples obtained at T of 650 Degree-Sign C or more are composed of lots of ultra-fine {alpha}-Fe(Si) grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. When T increases from 350 to 750 Degree-Sign C, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of the as-annealed powder samples both increase monotonously whereas the relative real permittivity shows a minimal value and the relative real permeability shows a maximal value at T of 650 Degree-Sign C. Thus the powder samples annealed at 650 Degree-Sign C show optimal reflection loss under -10 dB in the whole C-band. These results here suggest that the annealing heat treatment of Fe-based amorphous alloy is an effective approach to fabricate high performance microwave absorber with reasonable permittivity and large permeability simultaneously via adjusting T. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annealing temperature effect of Fe-based amorphous alloy was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy has a good absorbing property in C-band. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists a correspondence between microwave properties and microstructure.

  15. Formation and crystallization kinetics of Nd-Fe-B-based bulk amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Ge, Hongliang; Zhang, Pengyue; Li, Dongyun; Wang, Zisheng [China Jiliang University, Magnetism Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    In order to improve the glass-forming ability (GFA) of Nd-Fe-B ternary alloys to obtain fully amorphous bulk Nd-Fe-B-based alloy, the effects of Mo and Y doping on GFA of the alloys were investigated. It was found that the substitution of Mo for Fe and Y for Nd enhanced the GFA of the Nd-Y-Fe-Mo-B alloys. It was also revealed that the GFA of the samples was optimized by 4 at.% Mo doping and increased with theYcontent. The fully amorphous structures were all formed in the Nd{sub 6-x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} (x =1-5) alloy rods with 1.5 mm-diameter. After subsequent crystallization, the devitrified Nd{sub 3}Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} alloy rod exhibited a uniform distribution of grains with a coercivity of 364.1 kA/m. The crystallization behavior of Nd{sub 3}Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 68}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 22} BMG was investigated in isothermal situation. The Avrami exponent n determined by JAM plot is lower than 2.5, implying that the crystallization is mainly governed by a growth of particles with decreasing nucleation rate. (orig.)

  16. Oxygen Behavior in Bulk Amorphous Zr-base Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bulk Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 metallic glass plates with a dimension of 85 mm×35mm×4 mm and a complicated plate werefabricated by injecting casting method using spongy zirconium and industrial purity aluminum, nickel and copper asraw materials. It was shown that the holding time of liquid metals at elevated temperatures had a great influence onthe oxygen content of the plates due to the contamination resulting from the atmosphere. Increasing holding timeresulted in the increase of oxygen content in the injected alloy. The glass transition temperatures of the bulk metallicglass plates are higher than that reported in the literature and crystallization temperature is lower for the one withhigher oxygen content at the same heating rate. The extension of the undercooled liquid region △Tx reaching about87 K is 3 K higher than that previously reported and 26 K higher than that with oxygen content of 0.076 wt pct forthe one with oxygen content as high as 0.065 wt pct. Therefore the oxygen content of the alloy has a significantinfluence on the glass forming ability and thermal stability of bulk metal glass. It is suggested that direct correlationbetween high glass forming ability and large △Tx is only valid for a well-defined Iow oxygen concentration or has tobe reconsidered by incorporating oxygen as an additional alloying element.

  17. Survey of BGFA Criteria for the Cu-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys

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    D. Janovszky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the effect of composition on the bulk glass forming ability (BGFA of Cu-based alloys, properties have been collected from the literature (~100 papers, more than 200 alloys. Surveying the BGFA criteria published so far, it has been found that the atomic mismatch condition of Egami-Waseda is fulfilled for all the Cu-based BGFAs, the value being above 0,3. The Zhang Bangwei criterion could be applied for the binary Cu-based alloys. The Miracle and Senkov criteria do not necessarily apply for Cu based bulk amorphous alloys. The critical thickness versus =/(+ plot of Lu and Liu extrapolates to =0.36, somewhat higher than the 0.33 value found in other BGFA alloys. The Park and Kim parameter correlates rather poorly with the critical thickness for Cu based alloys. The Cheney and Vecchino parameter is a good indicator to find the best glass former if it is possible to calculate the exact liquids projection. In 2009 Xiu-lin and Pan defined a new parameter which correlates a bit better with the critical thickness. Based on this survey it is still very difficult to find one parameter in order to characterize the real GFA without an unrealized mechanism of crystallization.

  18. Skeletal Amorphous Nickel Based Alloy Catalysts and Magnetically Stabilized Bed Hydrogenation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Enze

    2004-01-01

    Looking toward 21 century, smaller, cleaner and more energy-efficient technology will be an important trend in the development of chemical industry. In light of the new process requirements,a number of technology breakthroughs have occurred. One of these discoveries, the magnetically stabilized bed (MSB), has been proven a powerful process for intensification. Since its initial research in the late 1980's at Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP), the MSB technology and related catalytic material have matured rapidly through an intensive research and engineering program, primarily focused on its scaling-up.In this paper, we report the discovery of a novel skeletal amorphous nickel-based alloy and its use in magnetically stabilized bed (MSB). Amorphous alloys are new kinds of catalytic materials with short-range order but long-range disorder structure. In comparison with Raney Ni, the skeletal amorphous nickel-based alloy has an increasingly higher activity in the hydrogenation of reactive groups and compounds including nitro, nitrile, olefin, acetylene, aromatics, etc. Up to now, the amorphous nickel based alloy catalysts, SRNA series catalyst, one with high Ni ratio have been commercially manufactured more than four year. The new SRNA catalyst has been successfully implemented for hydrogenation applications in slurry reactor at Balin Petrochemical, SINOPEC.SRNA catalyst with further improvement in catalytic activity and stability raise its relative stability to 2~4 times of that of conventional catalyst. In the course of the long-cycle operation of SRNA-4 the excellent catalyst activity and stability can bring about such advantage as low reaction temperature, good selectivity and low catalyst resumption.Magnetically stabilized bed (MSB), a fluidized bed of magnetizable particles by applying a spatially uniform and time-invariant magnetic field oriented axially relative to the fluidizing fluid flow, had many advantages such as the low pressure drop and

  19. Spectroscopic and mechanical studies on the Fe-based amorphous alloy 2605SA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A.; Garcia S, I. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Contreras V, J. A.; Garcia S, F. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias, El Cerrillo Piedras Blancas, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Nava, N., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The Vickers micro-hardness of this alloy was unusually dependent on the heat treatment from 300 to 634 K, inferring important micro-structural changes and the presence of amorphous grains before its phase transition. Once the alloy is crystallized, the micro-hardness is characteristic of a brittle alloy, the main problem of these alloys. Within the amorphous state, other properties like free-volume, magnetic states and Fe-Fe distances were followed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively, to analyze those micro-structural changes, thermally induced, which are of paramount interest to understand their brittleness problem. (Author)

  20. Processing and characterization of amorphous magnesium based alloy for application in biomedical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanco Matias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based bulk metallic glasses are attractive due to their single-phase, chemically homogeneous alloy system and the absence of second-phase, which could impair the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, one of the unsolved problems for the manufacturability and the applications of bulk metallic glasses is that their glass-forming ability is very sensitive to the preparation techniques and impurity of components since oxygen in the environment would markedly deteriorate the glass-forming ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish proper processing conditions to obtain a magnesium-based amorphous ternary alloy and its characterization. The final composition was prepared using two binary master alloys by melting in an induction furnace. Carbon steel crucible was used in argon atmosphere with and without addition of SF6 gas in order to minimize the oxygen contamination. The microstructure, amorphous nature, thermal properties and chemical analysis of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, respectively. The oxygen content of the as-cast samples was chemically analyzed by using carrier gas hot extraction (O/N Analyzer TC-436/LECO and was kept bellow 25 ppm (without SF6 and 10 ppm (with SF6. Bulk samples were produced by rapid cooling in a cooper mold until 1.5 mm thickness, with amorphous structures being observed up to 2.5 mm.

  1. Sample-Size Effects on the Compression Behavior of a Ni-BASED Amorphous Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weizhong; Zhao, Guogang; Wu, Linzhi; Yu, Hongjun; Li, Ming; Zhang, Lin

    Ni42Cu5Ti20Zr21.5Al8Si3.5 bulk metallic glasses rods with diameters of 1 mm and 3 mm, were prepared by arc melting of composing elements in a Ti-gettered argon atmosphere. The compressive deformation and fracture behavior of the amorphous alloy samples with different size were investigated by testing machine and scanning electron microscope. The compressive stress-strain curves of 1 mm and 3 mm samples exhibited 4.5% and 0% plastic strain, while the compressive fracture strength for 1 mm and 3 mm rod is 4691 MPa and 2631 MPa, respectively. The compressive fracture surface of different size sample consisted of shear zone and non-shear one. Typical vein patterns with some melting drops can be seen on the shear region of 1 mm rod, while fish-bone shape patterns can be observed on 3 mm specimen surface. Some interesting different spacing periodic ripples existed on the non-shear zone of 1 and 3 mm rods. On the side surface of 1 mm sample, high density of shear bands was observed. The skip of shear bands can be seen on 1 mm sample surface. The mechanisms of the effect of sample size on fracture strength and plasticity of the Ni-based amorphous alloy are discussed.

  2. Kinetics of crystallization of a Fe-based multicomponent amorphous alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Pratap; T Lilly Shanker Rao; Kinnary Patel; Mukesh Chawda

    2009-10-01

    The Fe-based multicomponent amorphous alloys (also referred to as metallic glasses) are known to exhibit soft magnetic properties and, it makes them important for many technological applications. However, metallic glasses are in a thermodynamically metastable state and in case of high temperature operating conditions, the thermally activated crystallization would be detrimental to their magnetic properties. The study of crystallization kinetics of metallic glasses gives useful insight about its thermal stability. In the present work, crystallization study of Fe67Co18B14Si1 (2605CO) metallic glass has been carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. Mössbauer study has also been undertaken to know the phases formed during the crystallization process. The alloy shows two-stage crystallization. The activation energy has been derived using the Kissinger method. It is found to be equal to 220 kJ/mol and 349 kJ/mol for the first and second crystallization peaks, respectively. The Mössbauer study indicates the formation of -(Fe, Co) and (Fe, Co)3B phases in the alloy.

  3. Ferromagnetic Fe-based Amorphous Alloy with High Glass-forming Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A ferromagnetic amorphous Fe73Al4Ge2Nb1P10C6B4 alloy with highglass-forming ability was synthesized by melt spinning. The supercooled liquid region before crystallization reaches about 65.7 K. The crystallized structure consists of α-Fe, Fe3B, FeB, Fe3P and Fe3C phases. The Febased amorphous alloy exhibits good magnetic properties with a high saturation magnetization and a low saturated magnetostriction. The crystallization leads to an obvious decrease in the soft magnetic properties.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Mg-based amorphous alloys and their use for decolorization of Azo dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mg-based alloys are light weight and have wide range of applications in the automotive industry. These alloys are widely used because of their very attractive physical and mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The properties and applications can be further improved by changing the nature of materials from crystalline to amorphous. In this study, melt spun ribbons (MSRs) of Mg70Zn25Ca5 Mg68Zn27Ca5 alloys were prepared by melt spinning technique by using 3-4N pure metals. Characterization of the samples was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and energy dispersive x-ray analyzer (EDAX). Microstructural investigations were conducted by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as optical and stereo scan microscopy techniques. DSC results showed multistage crystallization. Activation energy was found to be 225 kJ/mol by Kissinger method indicating good thermal stability against crystallization. XRD, DSC, SEM and EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) results are agreed very well. In order to study decolorization, the MSRs of Mg70Zn25Ca5 Mg68Zn27Ca5 alloys were treated repeatedly with various azo dyes at room temperature. In order to compare the results, MSRs of amorphous Zr- and Ni-based metallic glasses were also treated. Reaction of MSRs with azo dyes results in their decolorization in a few hours. Decolorization of azo dyes takes place by introducing amorphous MSRs which results in breaking the -N=N- bonds that exist in dye contents. It is concluded that Mg-based alloys are useful for paint and dye industries and will be beneficial to control water pollution. Comparison of results showed that Mg-based alloys are more efficient than Zr- and Ni-based amorphous alloys for decolorization of azo dyes

  5. Glass-forming ability analysis of selected Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper mainly aims to present the structure and thermal stability of selected Fe-based bulk metallic glasses: Fe72B20Si4Nb4 and Fe43Co14Ni14B20Si5Nb4.Design/methodology/approach: The investigated samples were cast in form of the rods by the pressure die casting method. The structure analysis of the studied materials in as-cast state was carried out using XRD and TEM methods. The thermal stability associated with glass transition temperature (Tg, onset (Tx and peak (Tp crystallization temperature was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Several parameters have been used to determine the glass-forming ability of studied alloys. The parameters of GFA included reduced glass transition temperature (Trg, supercooled liquid region (ΔTx, the stability (S and (Kgl parameter.Findings: The XRD and TEM investigations revealed that the studied as-cast metallic glasses were fully amorphous. Changes of the onset and peak crystallization temperature and the glass transition temperature as a function of glassy samples thickness were stated. The good glass-forming ability (GFA enabled casting of the Fe72B20Si4Nb4 and Fe43Co14Ni14B20Si5Nb4 glassy rods.Practical implications: The obtained examination results confirm the utility of applied investigation methods in the thermal stability analysis of examined bulk amorphous alloys. It is evident that parameters Trg, ΔTx, Kgl, S could be used to determine glass-forming ability of studied bulk metallic glasses.Originality/value: The success of fabrication of studied Fe-based bulk metallic glasses in form of rods with diameter up to 3 mm is important for the future progress in research of this group of materials.

  6. Amorphous Nickel Based Alloy Catalysts and Magnetically Stabilized Bed Hydrogenation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous nickel based alloy catalysts (denoted as the SRNA series catalysts) were prepared viarapid quenching method followed by alkali leaching and other activation procedures. The physicochemicalcharacterizations show that nickel, the active component in these catalysts, exists in the amorphous state, andthe catalyst particles possess many nanosized voids leading to large surface area (the highest is 145m2/g). Theevaluation results in some model reactions show that the SRNA series catalysts have 2 to 4 times higheractivity and selectivity than conventional Raney Ni catalyst for the hydrogenation of compounds with unsatur-ated functional groups. At present, the SRNA series catalysts have been successfully used in hydrogenation ofglucose, hydrogenation of pharmaceutical intermediates and purification of caprolactam. In order to use thesecatalysts efficiently, a magnetically stabilized bed (MSB) technology has been developed by combining theferromagnetic property of the catalyst with the good mass transfer characteristics of MSB. The demonstrationunit of MSB hydrogenation technology has been set up and has kept running for 2800 hours. The results showthat, after running 2800 hours, the catalyst still retained good activity; meanwhile, the hydrogenation effi-ciency had been improved 10 times in comparison with the traditional CSTR process.

  7. Amorphous Nickel Based Alloy Catalysts and Magnetically Stabilized Bed Hydrogenation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MuXuhong; ZongBaoning; 等

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous nickel based alloy catalysts(denoted as the SRNA series catalysts)were prepared via rapid quenching method followed by alkali leaching and other activation procedures.The physicochemical characterizations show that nickel,the active component in these catalysts,exists in the amorphous state,and the catalyst particles possess many nanosized voids leading to large surface area(the highest is 145m2/g).The evaluation results in some model reactions show that the SRNA series catalysts have 2 to 4 times higher activity and selectivity than conventional Raney Ni catalyst for the hydrogenation of compounds with unsatur-ated functional groups.At present,the SRNA series catalysts have been successfully used in hydrogenation of glucose,hydrogenation of pharmaceutical intermediates and purification of caprolactam.In order to use these catalysts efficiently,a magnetically stabilized bed(MSB) technology has been developed by combining the ferromagnetic property of the catalyst with the good mass transfer characteristics of MSB.The demonstration unit of MSB hydrogenation technology has been set up and has kept running for 2800 hours.The results show that,after running 2800 hours,the catalyst still retained good activity; meanwhile,the hydrogenation effi-ciency had been improved 10 times in comparison with the traditional CSTR process.

  8. Amorphous Nickel Based Alloy Catalysts and Magnetically Stabilized Bed Hydrogenation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xuhong; Zong Baoning; Meng Xiangkun; Min Enze

    2002-01-01

    Amorphous nickel based alloy catalysts (denoted as the SRNAseries catalysts) were prepared viarapid quenching method followed by alkali leaching and other activation procedures. The physicochemicalcharacterizations show that nickel, the active component in these catalysts, exists in the amorphous state, andthe catalyst particles possess many nanosized voids leading to large surface area (the highest is 145m2/g). Theevaluation results in some model reactions show that the SRNA series catalysts have 2 to 4 times higheractivity and selectivity than conventional Raney Ni catalyst for the hydrogenation of compounds with unsatur-ated functional groups. At present, the SRNA series catalysts have been successfully used in hydrogenation ofglucose, hydrogenation of pharmaceutical intermediates and purification of caprolactam. In order to use thesecatalysts efficiently, a magnetically stabilized bed (MSB) technology has been developed by combining theferromagnetic property of the catalyst with the good mass transfer characteristics of MSB. The demonstrationunit of MSB hydrogenation technology has been set up and has kept running for 2800 hours. The results showthat, after running 2800 hours, the catalyst still retained good activity; meanwhile, the hydrogenation effi-ciency had been improved 10 times in comparison with the traditional CSTR process.

  9. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remarkable advances have been made since rapid solidification was first introduced to the field of materials science and technology. New types of materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructure materials have been developed as a result of rapid solidification techniques. While these advances are, in many respects, ground breaking, much remains to be discerned concerning the fundamental relationships that exist between a liquid and a rapidly solidified solid. The scope of the current dissertation involves an extensive set of experimental, analytical, and computational studies designed to increase the overall understanding of morphological selection, phase competition, and structural hierarchy that occurs under far-from equilibrium conditions. High pressure gas atomization and Cu-block melt-spinning are the two different rapid solidification techniques applied in this study. The research is mainly focused on Al-Si and Al-Sm alloy systems. Silicon and samarium produce different, yet favorable, systems for exploration when alloyed with aluminum under far-from equilibrium conditions. One of the main differences comes from the positions of their respective T0 curves, which makes Al-Si a good candidate for solubility extension while the plunging T0 line in Al-Sm promotes glass formation. The rapidly solidified gas-atomized Al-Si powders within a composition range of 15 to 50 wt% Si are examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The non-equilibrium partitioning and morphological selection observed by examining powders at different size classes are described via a microstructure map. The interface velocities and the amount of undercooling present in the powders are estimated from measured eutectic spacings based on Jackson-Hunt (JH) and Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz (TMK) models, which permit a direct comparison of theoretical predictions. For an average particle size of 10 (micro)m with a Peclet number of ∼0.2, JH and TMK deviate from each other. This

  10. Amorphous and nanocrystalline phase formation in highly-driven Al-based binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalay, Yunus Eren [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made since rapid solidification was first introduced to the field of materials science and technology. New types of materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructure materials have been developed as a result of rapid solidification techniques. While these advances are, in many respects, ground breaking, much remains to be discerned concerning the fundamental relationships that exist between a liquid and a rapidly solidified solid. The scope of the current dissertation involves an extensive set of experimental, analytical, and computational studies designed to increase the overall understanding of morphological selection, phase competition, and structural hierarchy that occurs under far-from equilibrium conditions. High pressure gas atomization and Cu-block melt-spinning are the two different rapid solidification techniques applied in this study. The research is mainly focused on Al-Si and Al-Sm alloy systems. Silicon and samarium produce different, yet favorable, systems for exploration when alloyed with aluminum under far-from equilibrium conditions. One of the main differences comes from the positions of their respective T0 curves, which makes Al-Si a good candidate for solubility extension while the plunging T0 line in Al-Sm promotes glass formation. The rapidly solidified gas-atomized Al-Si powders within a composition range of 15 to 50 wt% Si are examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The non-equilibrium partitioning and morphological selection observed by examining powders at different size classes are described via a microstructure map. The interface velocities and the amount of undercooling present in the powders are estimated from measured eutectic spacings based on Jackson-Hunt (JH) and Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz (TMK) models, which permit a direct comparison of theoretical predictions. For an average particle size of 10 {micro}m with a Peclet number of ~0.2, JH and TMK deviate from

  11. Effect of replacing RE and TM on magnetic properties and thermal stability of some Al–Ni-based amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uporov, S.A., E-mail: segga@bk.ru [Institute of Metallurgy UB RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Uporova, N.S. [Ural State Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bykov, V.A.; Kulikova, T.V.; Pryanichnikov, S.V. [Institute of Metallurgy UB RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction analysis of the quenched Al–Ni-based alloys revealed a clear prepeak. ► The amorphous alloys demonstrate the superparamagnetic behavior. ► The variation of the RE and TM caused the radical changes of thermal properties. -- Abstract: Amorphous ribbons Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}Ho{sub 6}, Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 8}Gd{sub 6} and Al{sub 86}Ni{sub 6}Co{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}Y{sub 2} were prepared by quenching from 1580–1600 K using spinning technique at a wheel speed of 32 m/s. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the quenched alloys revealed a clear prepeak located below the main amorphous peak. The specimens crystallize in three stages but glass transition temperature was not found. The crystalinity was calculated by both XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods for all samples. Magnetic properties of ribbons were investigated in wide ranges of temperature (T = 4–900 K) and magnetic field (up to 30 kOe) by Faraday method and vibration sample magnetometry (VSM). The amorphous alloys investigated have no magnetic ordering at low temperatures down to T = 4 K but demonstrate the superparamagnetic behavior. The magnetic properties are discussed in the frames of conception of existence the superparamagnetic clusters with ferrimagnetic ordering.

  12. Soft magnetic and microstructural investigation in Fe-based amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Samples were obtained using the injection-casting method. • The samples were manufactured in the shape of plates of the thickness 0.5 mm. • The amorphous and nanocrystalline structure was confirmed using XRD, SEM, TEM, CT. • Magnetic properties were analysed in terms of contents of the spin waves stiffness parameter b. - Abstract: In this paper, the results of investigations concerning Fe61Co10Y8W1B20 alloy are presented. The alloy samples were produced, using an injection-casting method, in the form of plates of approximate thickness 0.5 mm. Analysis of the results facilitates the description of structural transformations which occurred within the amorphous material as a result of isothermal annealing, the latter having been carried out under specified conditions. This thermal treatment led to the creation within the amorphous matrix of evenly distributed nanometric sized crystalline grains. The structure and microstructure of the samples in the as-quenched and nanocrystalline states were analysed by means of: X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and computer tomography (CT). The influence of the structural changes on the magnetic properties was studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Detailed analysis of the microstructure was performed on the ferromagnetic alloy samples with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure; this, in connection with the magnetic studies, facilitated full description of the influence of changes in the microstructure, and imperfections created during the production process, on the magnetic properties

  13. Composition Range of Amorphous Mg-Ni-Y Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅; 钟夏平; 欧阳义芳

    2003-01-01

    Based on the thermodynamic point of view, a method for predication of the composition range of amorphous ternary alloys was proposed. The composition range of amorphous ternary alloys is determined by the comparison of the excess free energy of the amorphous alloy and the free energy of competing crystalline states. The free energy is extrapolated from the data of three binary alloys by using Toop′s model. The method was applied to predict the composition range of amorphous Mg-Ni-Y alloys. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the available experimental results. It indicates that the present method can be used to predict the composition range for amorphous ternary alloys.

  14. Tensile and compression properties of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xu; LOU; Decheng; GAO; Zhanjun; LIU; Lei; LIANG; Hong

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk amorphous alloy at different temperatures were investigated. The compression test was carried out on a Gleebe-3200 machine at 345 and 375℃, respectively, in the supercooled liquid region. It is shown that decreasing the compressive rate and increasing temperature have a similar influence trend on the compressive behavior of the bulk amorphous alloy. Room and low temperature tensile strengths were tested on the Instron materials testing system. At low temperature, the tensile strength decreased with decreasing of the testing temperature.Hardness measurement indicated that below the glass transition temperature, the hardness decreased with increasing of the annealing temperature and duration time. It,however, increased when the annealing treatment was performed above the glass transition temperature.

  15. Influence of pulsing current on the glass transition and crystallizing kinetics of a Zr base bulk amorphous alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wenfei; YAO Kefu; ZHAO Zhankui

    2004-01-01

    Based on the thermal analysis, the influence of pulsing current on the glass transition and crystallizing kinetics of Zr41.3Ti14.2Cu12.8Ni10.3Be21.4 bulk amorphous alloy has been studied. The obtained results show that after the Zr41.3Ti14.2Cu12.8Ni10.3Be21.4 bulk amorphous alloy was pretreated by high-density pulsing current at low temperature, its glass transition temperature Tg, the initial crystallizing temperature Tx and the corresponding exothermic peak of crystallization Tpi were reduced. But the temperature range of supercooled liquid ΔT=Tx-Tg is almost the same. The calculated results with Kissinger equation show that the activation energy of glass transition of the alloy pretreated is reduced significantly, while the activation energy of crystallization is basically unchanged. The influence of pulsing current on the glass transition and crystallization of the Zr41.3Ti14.2Cu12.8Ni10.3Be21.4 bulk amorphous alloy is believed to be related with the structure relaxation of the glass caused by the current.

  16. Comparison of Crevice Corrosion of Fe-Based Amorphous Metal and Crystalline Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, X; Ha, H; Payer, J H

    2008-07-24

    The crevice corrosion behaviors of an Fe-based bulk metallic glass alloy (SAM1651) and a Ni-Cr-Mo crystalline alloy (C-22) were studied in 4M NaCl at 100 C with cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and constant potential tests. The corrosion damage morphologies, corrosion products and the compositions of corroded surfaces of these two alloys were studied with optical 3D reconstruction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). It was found that the Fe-based bulk metallic glass (amorphous alloy) SAM1651 had a more positive breakdown potential and repassivation potential than crystalline alloy C-22 in cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests and required a more positive oxidizing potential to initiate crevice corrosion in constant potential test. Once crevice corrosion initiated, the corrosion propagation of C-22 was more localized near the crevice border compared to SAM1651, and SAM1651 repassivated more readily than C-22. The EDS results indicated that the corrosion products of both alloys contained high amount of O and were enriched in Mo and Cr. The AES results indicated that a Cr-rich oxide passive film was formed on the surfaces of both alloys, and both alloys were corroded congruently.

  17. The corrosion resistance and neutron-absorbing properties of coatings based on amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevryukov, O. N.; Polyansky, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The object of the present study was the corrosion-resistant amorphizing alloys with an increased content of boron for cladding the surface of metals, rapidly quenched alloys without boron for protective coatings on a high-boron cladding layer, as well as steel samples with a protective coating with a high content of boron and without boron. The aim of the work is to investigate the corrosion resistance of a coating in water at the temperature of 40 °C in conditions of an open access of oxygen for 1000 h, as well as the features of the microstructure of clad samples before and after the corrosion tests. New data on the corrosion resistance of Cr18Ni10Ti steel samples with a protective layer from a rapidly quenched alloy Ni-19Cr-10Si (in wt.%) on a high-boron coating have been obtained.

  18. Influence of Kinetic and Thermodynamic Factors on the Glass-Forming Ability of Zirconium-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, S.; Schroers, J.; Johnson, W. L.; Rhim, W. K.

    2005-01-01

    The time-temperature-transformation curves for three zirconium-based bulk amorphous alloys are measured to identify the primary factors influencing their glass-forming ability. The melt viscosity is found to have the most pronounced influence on the glass-forming ability compared to other thermodynamic factors. Surprisingly, it is found that the better glass former has a lower crystal-melt interfacial tension. This contradictory finding is explained by the icosahedral short-range order of the...

  19. Soft magnetic and microstructural investigation in Fe-based amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabiałek, Marcin, E-mail: nmarcell@wp.pl

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Samples were obtained using the injection-casting method. • The samples were manufactured in the shape of plates of the thickness 0.5 mm. • The amorphous and nanocrystalline structure was confirmed using XRD, SEM, TEM, CT. • Magnetic properties were analysed in terms of contents of the spin waves stiffness parameter b. - Abstract: In this paper, the results of investigations concerning Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Y{sub 8}W{sub 1}B{sub 20} alloy are presented. The alloy samples were produced, using an injection-casting method, in the form of plates of approximate thickness 0.5 mm. Analysis of the results facilitates the description of structural transformations which occurred within the amorphous material as a result of isothermal annealing, the latter having been carried out under specified conditions. This thermal treatment led to the creation within the amorphous matrix of evenly distributed nanometric sized crystalline grains. The structure and microstructure of the samples in the as-quenched and nanocrystalline states were analysed by means of: X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and computer tomography (CT). The influence of the structural changes on the magnetic properties was studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Detailed analysis of the microstructure was performed on the ferromagnetic alloy samples with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure; this, in connection with the magnetic studies, facilitated full description of the influence of changes in the microstructure, and imperfections created during the production process, on the magnetic properties.

  20. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co90Sc10 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amorphous alloy Co90Sc10 has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co90Sc10 appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co90Sc10 alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co90Sc10 alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co

  1. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co90Sc10 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, M.; Sakurai, Y.; Peng, G.; Fang, Y. N.; Feng, T.; Hahn, H.; Gleiter, H.; Itou, M.; Kamali, S.

    2015-09-01

    An amorphous alloy Co90Sc10 has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co90Sc10 appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co90Sc10 alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co90Sc10 alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co.

  2. Fabrication of MEMS-based Micro-fluxgate Sensor with Runway-shaped Co-based Amorphous Alloy Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaobin; Chen, Shi; Ouyang, Jun; Zuo, Chao; Yu, Lei; Yang, Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    High-precision magnetic micro-sensor is an interdisciplinary subject of magnetic field measurement techniques and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. A micro-fluxgate magnetic sensor based MEMS technology was designed and fabricated in this paper. This device is a micro-magnetic sensor with a symmetric construction, closed magnetic circuits and differential form. A 25μm thick Fluxgate core of runway model, made by Co-based amorphous alloy, was etched by laser and pasted on the substrate accurately. Excitation coil and sensing coil of 3D solenoid structure were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering and UV-lithography. The minimum line width of the coil is 50 μm. The experimental result shows that micro-fluxgate devices with the size of 5.7mm×7.1mm×60μm had a stable structure.

  3. Microstructural observations of the crystallization of amorphous Fe-Si-B based magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Cu and Nb alloying additions on the crystallization of Fe-Si-B based alloys were studied. DSC, XRD, TEM, EELS and VSM techniques were used to study the thermal properties, phase formation during primary crystallization, morphological transitions and magnetic properties. The additions of individual Cu or Nb alloying additions changed the crystallization temperature as well as the activation energy for primary crystallization. The phases formed during primary crystallization for the Fe77.5Si13.5B9, Fe76.5Si13.5B9Cu1 and Fe74.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloys are the same, however the morphologies are significantly different. Alloying additions of 3 at.% Nb induced a change in the crystallization mechanism and the type of phases formed. The combined additions of Cu and Nb resulted in the formation of nanocrystals. B atoms were found to be rejected around dendrites formed during primary crystallization of the Fe77.5Si13.5B9 alloy. The highest saturation magnetization and the lowest coercivity is obtained in the Fe77.5Si13.5B9 and Fe74.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 alloy respectively after annealing at 550 deg. C for 1 h

  4. Creep of FINEMET alloy at amorphous to nanocrystalline transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csach, K.; Miškuf, J.; Juríková, A.; Ocelík, V.

    2009-01-01

    The application of FINEMET-type materials with specific magnetic properties prepared by the crystallization of amorphous alloys is often limited by their brittleness. The structure of these materials consists of nanosized Fe-based grains surrounded with amorphous phase. Then the final macroscopic me

  5. Preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon tin alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnat, M.; Marchal, G.; Piecuch, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to obtain hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor alloys. The method is reactive co-evaporation. Silicon tin hydrogenated alloys are prepared under atomic hydrogen atmosphere. We discuss the influence of various parameters of preparation (hydrogen pressure, tungsten tube temperature, substrate temperature, annealing...) on electrical properties of samples.

  6. Crystallization of amorphous Zr-Be alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovkova, E. A.; Surkov, A. V.; Syrykh, G. F.

    2015-02-01

    The thermal stability and structure of binary amorphous Zr100 - x Be x alloys have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and neutron diffraction over a wide concentration range (30 ≤ x ≤ 65). The amorphous alloys have been prepared by rapid quenching from melt. The studied amorphous system involves the composition range around the eutectic composition with boundary phases α-Zr and ZrBe2. It has been found that the crystallization of alloys with low beryllium contents ("hypoeutectic" alloys with x ≤ 40) proceeds in two stages. Neutron diffraction has demonstrated that, at the first stage, α-Zr crystallizes and the remaining amorphous phase is enriched to the eutectic composition; at the second stage, the alloy crystallizes in the α-Zr and ZrBe2 phases. At higher beryllium contents ("hypereutectic" alloys), one phase transition of the amorphous phase to a mixture of the α-Zr and ZrBe2 phases has been observed. The concentration dependences of the crystallization temperature and activation energy have been revealed.

  7. Development of radiation detectors based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon and related materials have been applied to radiation detectors, utilizing their good radiation resistance and the feasibility of making deposits over a large area at low cost. Effects of deposition parameters on various material properties of a-Si:H have been studied to produce a material satisfying the requirements for specific detection application. Thick(-∼50 μm), device quality a-Si:H p-i-n diodes for direct detection of minimum ionizing particles have been prepared with low internal stress by a combination of low temperature growth, He-dilution of silane, and post annealing. The structure of the new film contained voids and tiny crystalline inclusions and was different from the one observed in conventional a-Si:H. Deposition on patterned substrates was attempted as an alternative to controlling deposition parameters to minimize substrate bending and delamination of thick a-Si:H films. Growth on an inversed-pyramid pattern reduced the substrate bending by a factor of 3∼4 for the same thickness film. Thin (0.1 ∼ 0.2 μm) films of a-Si:H and a-SiC:H have been applied to microstrip gas chambers to control gain instabilities due to charges on the substrate. Light sensitivity of the a-Si:H sheet resistance was minimized and the surface resistivity was successfully' controlled in the range of 1012 ∼ 1017 Ω/□ by carbon alloying and boron doping. Performance of the detectors with boron-doped a-Si:C:H layers was comparable to that of electronic-conducting glass. Hydrogen dilution of silane has been explored to improve electrical transport properties of a-Si:H material for high speed photo-detectors and TFT applications

  8. Production, Properties and Applications of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Akihisa Inoue

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of recent work concerned with the production method, the characteristic properties(1) Bulk amorphous system; (2) Mechanical and magnetic properties of bulkamorphous alloys; (3)application of bulk amorphous alloys.

  9. Mechanisms of the formation of magnetic characteristics of a cobalt-based amorphous magnetically soft alloy under heat treatment in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulkina, N. A.; Ivanov, O. A.; Stepanova, E. A.; Shubina, L. N.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Mazeeva, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Physical causes of the formation of magnetic characteristics of cobalt-based alloys with a near to zero saturation magnetostriction under heat treatment in air have been studied using the Co-Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B amorphous magnetically soft alloy as an example. The results of the study have shown the possibility of using the vapor treatment of surfaces of ribbons made of amorphous magnetically soft alloys to determine the sign of magnetostriction. The dependence of the sign of magnetostriction on the structural state of a ribbon, which is produced by the heat treatment, has been experimentally found. It has been established that physical causes of the formation of magnetic characteristics of the cobalt-based alloys are the same as those for iron-based alloys. Changes in the magnetic characteristics after annealing result from the relaxation of quenchinginduced internal stresses, as well as from the effect of stresses induced by hydrogen and oxygen atoms incorporated into the surface of the ribbon in the course of its interaction with water vapor in air and by the formation of an amorphous-crystalline surface layer.

  10. Fe基合金薄带的ALDGMI效应%LDGMI effect on amorphous Fe-based alloy ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建强; 卢振华

    2012-01-01

    采用单辊快淬法制备的Fe648Co7.2Nb4Si4.8B19.2非晶合金薄带(Fe基合金薄带),在潮湿的大气环境中进行直流焦耳热退火,利用阻抗仪检测了Fe基合金薄带的纵向驱动巨磁阻抗(LDGMI)效应,研究了驱动频率f与LDGMI效应之间的关系,发现存在临界频率fc =80MHz,且当f<fc时LDGMI曲线呈对称性;当f>fc时出现非对称纵向驱动巨磁阻抗效应(ALDGMI).分析认为,出现ALDGMI效应的原因可能是由于薄带表面氧化层与中心非晶软磁层之间的磁交换耦合作用所致.%Amorphous Fe64.8Co7.2Nb4Si4,8Big.2 alloy ribbons(Fe-based alloy ribbons) are prepared by single roller melt-spinning technique. The longitudinal driven gaint magneto-impedance (LDGMI) effect of the Fe-based alloy ribbons which annealed by Joule-heating in the atmosphere of humid air have been investigated by impedance-analyzer. The relationship between ac driven frequencies / and LDGMI effect is discussed and it is proved that has a critical frequency (fc = 80 MHz), the symmetric GMI behavior appears in frequency region(f- fc). The analysis shows that the AGMI effect may be responsible for the magnetic exchange coupling between surface oxide layer and inner amorphous layer.

  11. Formation of nano-porous GeOx by de-alloying of an Al–Ge–Mn amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study shows that nanometer-scale amorphous phase separation occurs by spinodal decomposition of the undercooled liquid in a melt-spun Al60Ge30Mn10 alloy, although there is no atomic pair with positive enthalpy of mixing. By adopting a proper de-alloying process, an interconnected nano-porous germanium oxide with an amorphous structure is successfully synthesized. The present study shows that nano-porous amorphous germanium oxide can be easily obtained by de-alloying of Al-based amorphous alloys with nm-scale composition fluctuation

  12. An overview of uncooled infrared sensors technology based on amorphous silicon and silicon germanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Roberto; Mireles, Jose Jr. [Technology and Engineering Institute, Ciudad Juarez University UACJ, Av. Del Charro 450N, 32310 Chihuahua (Mexico); Moreno, Mario; Torres, Alfonso; Kosarev, Andrey [National Institute for Astrophysics Optics and Electronics INAOE, Luis E. Erro 1, PO Box 51 and 216, 7200 Puebla (Mexico); Heredia, Aurelio [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla, 21 sur 1103 Col. Santiago, 72160 Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-04-15

    At the present time there are commercially available large un-cooled micro-bolometer arrays (as large as 1024 x 768 pixels) for a variety of thermal imaging applications. Different thermo-sensing materials have been employed as thermo sensing elements as Vanadium Oxide (VO{sub x}), metals, and amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors. Those materials present good characteristics but also have some disadvantages. As a consequence none of the commercially available arrays contain optimum pixels with an optimum thermo-sensing material. This paper reviews the development of the un-cooled bolometer technology and the research achievements on this area, with special attention on the key factors that would lead to improve the pixels performance characteristics. The work considers the R and D of microbolometer arrays and the integration with MEMS and IC technologies. A comparative study with the state of the art and data reported in literature is presented. Finally, further directions of uncooled bolometer based in thin films materials are also discussed in this paper. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Effect of Co content on structure and magnetic behaviors of high induction Fe-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rajat K.; Panda, Ashis K.; Mitra, Amitava

    2016-11-01

    The replacement of Fe with Co is investigated in the (Fe1-xCox)79Si8.5B8.5Nb3Cu1 (x=0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.35, 0.5) amorphous alloys. The alloys are synthesized in the forms of ribbons by single roller melt spinning technique, and the structural and magnetic properties of annealed ribbons are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), B-H curve tracer, respectively. All as-cast alloys are structurally amorphous, however, their magnetic properties are varying with Co addition. The Co addition within 5-20 at% results in moderate thermal stability, saturation induction, Curie temperature and lowest coercivity, while 35 at% Co causes highest saturation induction, coercivity, Curie temperature and lowest thermal stability. On devitrification, the magnetic properties change with the generation of α-FeCo nanocrystallites and (FeCo)23B6, Fe2B phases during primary and secondary crystallization stages, respectively. A small amount Co is advantageous for maintaining finer nanocrystallites in amorphous matrix even after annealing at 600 °C, leading to high saturation magnetization (>1.5 T) and low coercivity (~35 A/m). The improved magnetic properties at elevated temperatures indicate these alloys have a potential for high frequency transformer core applications.

  14. Deconvolution of ferromagnetic resonance in devitrification process of Co-based amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, H. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico UP. O. Box 70-360, Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: herlinda_m@yahoo.com; Alvarez, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico UP. O. Box 70-360, Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Departamento de ciencia de los Materiales U.P. Adolfo L. Mateos Edif. 9, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional S/N, 07738 DF (Mexico); Betancourt, I. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico UP. O. Box 70-360, Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Zamorano, R. [Escuela de Fisica y Matematicas, IPN U.P. Adolfo L. Mateos Edif. 9, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional S/N, 07738 DF (Mexico); Valenzuela, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico UP. O. Box 70-360, Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2006-10-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements were carried out on soft magnetic amorphous ribbons of composition Co{sub 66}Fe{sub 4}B{sub 12}Si{sub 13}Nb{sub 4}Cu prepared by melt spinning. In the as-cast sample, a simple FMR spectrum was apparent. For treatment times of 5-20 min a complex resonant absorption at lower fields was detected; deconvolution calculations were carried out on the FMR spectra and it was possible to separate two contributions. These results can be interpreted as the combination of two different magnetic phases, corresponding to the amorphous matrix and nanocrystallites. The parameters of resonant absorptions can be associated with the evolution of nanocrystallization during the annealing.

  15. Cu-based bulk amorphous alloy with larger glass-forming ability and supercooled liquid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, H.M. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); School of Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: waterdrophmfu@hotmail.com; Zhang, H.F. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, H. [Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Qld 4350 (Australia); Hu, Z.Q. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2008-06-30

    The glassy rod with a maximum sample thickness of 11 mm and larger supercooled liquid region of 108 K was successfully fabricated when substituting Cu with minor amount of Ag in the Cu-Zr-Al-Gd alloy system. The value of {gamma} reaches a maximum of 0.418 for the Cu{sub 45.5}Zr{sub 45}Al{sub 7}Gd{sub 2}Ag{sub 0.5} bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloy. The high glass-forming ability (GFA) and larger supercooled liquid region are discussed from atomic size, negative mixing heat among constituent elements and thermodynamics.

  16. Study of oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 by thermogravimetric analyser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dhawan; K Raetzke; F Faupel; S K Sharma

    2001-06-01

    The oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 has been studied in air environment at various temperatures in the temperature range 591–684 K using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The oxidation kinetics of the alloy in the amorphous phase obeys the parabolic rate law for oxidation in the temperature range 591–664 K. The values of the activation energy and pre-factor as calculated from the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the rate constants have been found to be 1.80 eV and 2.12 × 109 g cm–2.sec–1/2, respectively.

  17. Influence of annealing on microstructure and magnetic properties of cobalt-based amorphous/nanocrystalline powders synthesized by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghvaei, Amir Hossein, E-mail: Amirtaghvaei@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bednarčik, Jozef [Photon Science DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Structural relaxation in mechanically alloyed Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 22}Ta{sub 8}B{sub 30} powders was studied. • Isochronal annealing notably changes the short-range order of the amorphous phase. • The medium-range correlations experienced volume shrinkage upon annealing. • Annealing decreased the coercivity and saturation magnetization of the powders. - Abstract: The effects of isochronal annealing on microstructure and magnetic properties of Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 22}Ta{sub 8}B{sub 30} powders with a large content of amorphous phase produced by mechanical alloying have been investigated. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicate that the synthesized powders exhibit a huge exothermic reaction before the crystallization temperature corresponding to structural relaxation of amorphous phase. Furthermore, the structural evolution of the powders upon isochronal heating has been investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) using high energy synchrotron radiation. The occurrence of an irreversible structural relaxation is confirmed by significant changes in position of the first and second diffuse maxima of the total structure factor S(Q) upon isochronal heating–cooling cycles. Moreover, analysis of the reduced pair distribution functions (PDFs) yields a volume shrinkage of about 1.5% after annealing due to annihilation of the excess free volume generated upon milling. The isochronal annealing significantly affects the magnetic properties of the powders through decreasing the saturation magnetization and coercivity. The correlation between structural relaxation and magnetic properties of the powders is discussed.

  18. Superconducting State Parameters of Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya M. Vora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Well recognized empty core (EMC pseudopotential of Ashcroft is used to investigate the superconducting state parameters viz; electron-phonon coupling strength λ, Coulomb pseudopotential μ*, transition temperature TC, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength NOV of some (Ni33Zr671 – xVx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 bulk amorphous alloys. We have incorporated five different types of local field correction functions, proposed by Hartree (H, Taylor (T, Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU, Farid et al. (F and Sarkar et al. (S to show the effect of exchange and correlation on the aforesaid properties. Very strong influence of the various exchange and correlation functions is concluded from the present study. The TC obtained from Sarkar et al. (S local field correction function are found an excellent agreement with available theoretical data. Quadratic TC equation has been proposed, which provide successfully the TC values of bulk amorphous alloys under consideration. Also, the present results are found in qualitative agreement with other such earlier reported data, which confirms the superconducting phase in the s bulk amorphous alloys.

  19. Upper critical fields and superconducting transition temperatures of some zirconium-base amorphous transition-metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkut, M. G.; Hake, R. R.

    1983-08-01

    Superconducting upper critical fields Hc2(T), transition temperatures Tc and normal-state electrical resistivities ρn have been measured in the amorphous transition-metal alloy series Zr1-xCox, Zr1-xNix, (Zr1-xTix)0.78Ni0.22, and (Zr1-xNbx)0.78Ni0.22. Structural integrity of these melt-spun alloys is indicated by x-ray, density, bend-ductility, normal-state electrical resistivity, superconducting transition width, and mixed-state flux-pinning measurements. The specimens display Tc=2.1-3.8 K, ρn=159-190 μΩ cm, and |(dHc2dT)Tc|=28-36 kG/K. These imply electron mean free paths l~2-6 Å, zero-temperature Ginzburg-Landau coherence distances ξG0~50-70 Å, penetration depths λG0~(7-10)×103 Å, and extremely high dirtiness parameters ξ0l~300-1300. All alloys display Hc2(T) curves with negative curvature and (with two exceptions) fair agreement with the standard dirty-limit theory of Werthamer, Helfand, Hohenberg, and Maki (WHHM) for physically reasonable values of spin-orbit-coupling induced, electron-spin-flip scattering time τso. This is in contrast to the anomalously elevated Hc2(T) behavior which is nearly linear in T that is observed by some, and the unphysically low-τso fits to WHHM theory obtained by others, for various amorphous alloys. Current ideas that such anomalies may be due to alloy inhomogeneity are supported by present results on two specimens for which relatively low-τso fits of Hc2(T) to WHHM theory are coupled with superconductive evidence for inhomogeneity: relatively broad transitions at Tc and Hc2 current-density-dependent transitions at Hc2 and (in one specimen) a J-dependent, high-H (>Hc2), resistive "beak effect." In the Zr1-xCox and Zr1-xNix series, Tc decreases linearly with x (and with unfilled-shell average electron-to-atom ratio in the range 5.05previous results for these systems and contrary to the Tc vs behavior of both amorphous and crystalline transition-metal alloys formed between near neighbors in the Periodic Table. Upper

  20. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Developments in the Ni-Nb-Zr amorphous alloy membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, S.; Chandra, D.; Hirscher, M.; Dolan, M.; Isheim, D.; Wermer, J.; Viano, D.; Baricco, M.; Udovic, T. J.; Grant, D.; Palumbo, O.; Paolone, A.; Cantelli, R.

    2016-03-01

    Most of the global H2 production is derived from hydrocarbon-based fuels, and efficient H2/CO2 separation is necessary to deliver a high-purity H2 product. Hydrogen-selective alloy membranes are emerging as a viable alternative to traditional pressure swing adsorption processes as a means for H2/CO2 separation. These membranes can be formed from a wide range of alloys, and those based on Pd are the closest to commercial deployment. The high cost of Pd (USD ~31,000 kg-1) is driving the development of less-expensive alternatives, including inexpensive amorphous (Ni60Nb40)100- x Zr x alloys. Amorphous alloy membranes can be fabricated directly from the molten state into continuous ribbons via melt spinning and depending on the composition can exhibit relatively high hydrogen permeability between 473 and 673 K. Here we review recent developments in these low-cost membrane materials, especially with respect to permeation behavior, electrical transport properties, and understanding of local atomic order. To further understand the nature of these solids, atom probe tomography has been performed, revealing amorphous Nb-rich and Zr-rich clusters embedded in majority Ni matrix whose compositions deviated from the nominal overall composition of the membrane.

  2. Amorphous Alloy Surpasses Steel and Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In the same way that the inventions of steel in the 1800s and plastic in the 1900s sparked revolutions for industry, a new class of amorphous alloys is poised to redefine materials science as we know it in the 21st century. Welcome to the 3rd Revolution, otherwise known as the era of Liquidmetal(R) alloys, where metals behave similar to plastics but possess more than twice the strength of high performance titanium. Liquidmetal alloys were conceived in 1992, as a result of a project funded by the California Institute of Technology (CalTech), NASA, and the U.S. Department of Energy, to study the fundamentals of metallic alloys in an undercooled liquid state, for the development of new aerospace materials. Furthermore, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center contributed to the development of the alloys by subjecting the materials to testing in its Electrostatic Levitator, a special instrument that is capable of suspending an object in midair so that researchers can heat and cool it in a containerless environment free from contaminants that could otherwise spoil the experiment.

  3. Unexpected magnetic behavior in amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, M., E-mail: mohammad.ghafari@kit.edu, E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu; Gleiter, H. [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sakurai, Y.; Itou, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Peng, G.; Fang, Y. N.; Feng, T. [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Hahn, H. [Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUD), Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kamali, S., E-mail: mohammad.ghafari@kit.edu, E-mail: skamali@utsi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    An amorphous alloy Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} has been prepared by rapid quenching from the melt. The results of magnetization measurements show that this alloy has the highest Curie temperature reported for any amorphous transition metal based alloys. Furthermore, for a Co based amorphous alloy, the magnetic moment is remarkably high. Moreover, the alloy exhibits soft magnetic properties. Based on the findings, amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} appears to be an attractive candidate for applications as a soft magnetic material. The temperature dependence of the reduced magnetization can be described by the Bloch power law. The results show that the B coefficient of the amorphous Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy, which is a measure of the rigidity of spin waves, exhibits the lowest value observed until now for any amorphous alloy and is comparable to crystalline alloys. It is found that the Sc atoms in the Co{sub 90}Sc{sub 10} alloy lead to an increase of the itinerant spin moment of Co atoms, and, in contrast to this behaviour, to a decrease of the local 3d-electrons of Co.

  4. Effects of Microalloying on Glass Forming Ability and Thermodynamic Fragility of Cu-Pr-Based Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of microalloying of Ti and B on the glass formation of Cu60Pr30Ni10Al10-2xTixBx(x=0, 0.05%(atom fraction)) amorphous alloys was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis showed that microalloying with 0.05% Ti and 0.05% B improved the glass forming ability (GFA). The smaller difference in the Gibbs free energy between the liquid and crystalline states at the glass transition temperature (ΔGl-x (Tg)) and the smaller thermodynamic fragility index (ΔSf/Tm, where ΔSf is the entropy of fusion, and Tm is the melting temperature) after microalloying correlated with the higher GFA.

  5. Parametrized dielectric functions of amorphous GeSn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard; Wang, Wei; Schmidt, Daniel; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2015-09-01

    We obtained the complex dielectric function of amorphous Ge1-xSnx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.07) alloys using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.4 to 4.5 eV. Amorphous GeSn films were formed by room-temperature implantation of phosphorus into crystalline GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The optical response of amorphous GeSn alloys is similar to amorphous Ge and can be parametrized using a Kramers-Kronig consistent Cody-Lorentz dispersion model. The parametric model was extended to account for the dielectric functions of amorphous Ge0.75Sn0.25 and Ge0.50Sn0.50 alloys from literature. The compositional dependence of band gap energy Eg and parameters associated with the Lorentzian oscillator have been determined. The behavior of these parameters with varying x can be understood in terms of the alloying effect of Sn on Ge.

  6. Low-Temperature Annealing Induced Amorphization in Nanocrystalline NiW Alloy Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Annealing induced amorphization in sputtered glass-forming thin films was generally observed in the supercooled liquid region. Based on X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis, however, here, we demonstrate that nearly full amorphization could occur in nanocrystalline (NC sputtered NiW alloy films annealed at relatively low temperature. Whilst the supersaturation of W content caused by the formation of Ni4W phase played a crucial role in the amorphization process of NiW alloy films annealed at 473 K for 30 min, nearly full amorphization occurred upon further annealing of the film for 60 min. The redistribution of free volume from amorphous regions into crystalline regions was proposed as the possible mechanism underlying the nearly full amorphization observed in NiW alloys.

  7. Thermal treatment of the amorphous base alloy Fe 2605SA1, analysis of its defects and microhardness; Tratamiento termico de la aleacion amorfa base Fe 2605SA1, analisis de sus defectos y microdureza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras V, J.A.; Cabral P, A.; Garcia Santibanez S, F.; Ramirez, J.; Lopez M, J.; Villaverde L, A.; Montoya E, A.; Merino, F.J. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. El Cerillo Piedras Blancas, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    By means of the use of the positron lifetime technique those characteristics of the present crystalline defects in an amorphous base alloy Fe (SA1) are determined, when this is subjected to thermal treatments from 293 K until 808 K. Also, some results about the microhardness and electric resistivity are presented. (Author)

  8. The preparation of well-dispersed Ni-B amorphous alloy nanoparticles at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Ming [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: m_wen@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Li Lujiang; Liu Qiuyan; Qi Haiquan [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronaut and Astronaut, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-05-08

    The air-stable well-dispersed Ni-B amorphous alloy nanoparticles in the similar size of 5 nm with narrow deviation were prepared by a chemical solution alloying process at room temperature in a positive microemulsion system. The proposed interface reaction mechanism, element analysis and thermal stability as well as the magnetic behavior of Ni-B amorphous alloy nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). All the results showed that as synthesized Ni-B amorphous alloy nanoparticles are air-stable in room temperature and coated by macromolecular compound oleic acid. The magnetic property of the as synthesized Ni-B amorphous alloy was discussed based on the obtained results.

  9. GMI field sensitivity near a zero external field in Co-based amorphous alloy ribbons: experiments and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in Co66Fe4Ni1Si15B14 amorphous ribbons was investigated, and the obvious blunt peaks of GMI curves were observed in a weak external magnetic field (0∼3 Oe). The shape of the blunt peaks could be changed by different treatments, such as changing the aspect ratio of the ribbons, premagnetization before magnetoimpedance measurement, and rapid heat-treatment, and the GMI sensitivity is improved. Based on the experimental results, a model in view of magnetostrictive energy is proposed to analyze the bluntness of the peak of the GMI curve and the process of transverse permeability varying with the external field near zero-field in the Co-based amorphous ribbons, and all the experimental results have good agreement with our model. (paper)

  10. Medium-Range Order Structure and Fragility of Superheated Melts of Amorphous CuHf Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Xiu-Fang; SUN Bao-An; HU Li-Na

    2006-01-01

    @@ The structural factors of amorphous CuHf alloys at different temperatures are determined by using a high temperature x-ray diffractometer. It is found that not only the short-range order structure but also the medium-range order structure exists in amorphous CuHf alloys. The dynamic viscosities of CuHf alloy melts are measured by a torsional oscillation viscometer. The fragility of superheated melts of CuHf alloys is calculated based on the viscosity data. The experimental results show that the glass-forming ability of the CuHf alloys is closely related to the fragility of their superheated melt. The relationship between the medium-range order structures and the fragility of superheated melts has also been established in amorphous CuHf alloys. In contrast to the fragility of supercooled liquids, the fragility of superheated liquids promises a better approach to reflecting the dynamics of glass forming liquids.

  11. Design of multi materials combining crystalline and amorphous metallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volland, A.; Ragani, J.; Liu, Y.; Gravier, S.; Suery, M. [Grenoble University/CNRS, SIMAP Laboratory, Grenoble INP/UJF, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Blandin, J.J., E-mail: jean-jacques.blandin@simap.grenoble-inp.fr [Grenoble University/CNRS, SIMAP Laboratory, Grenoble INP/UJF, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elaboration of multi materials associating metallic glasses and conventional crystalline alloys by co-deformation performed at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the metallic glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elaboration of filamentary metal matrix composites with a core in metallic glass by co extrusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sandwich structures produced by co-pressing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of atomic diffusion from the glass to the crystalline alloys during the processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good interfaces between the metallic glasses and the crystalline alloys, as confirmed by mechanical characterisation. - Abstract: Multi materials, associating zirconium based bulk metallic glasses and crystalline metallic alloys like magnesium alloys or copper are elaborated by co-deformation processing performed in the supercooled liquid regions (SLR) of the bulk metallic glasses. Two processes are investigated: co-extrusion and co-pressing. In the first case, filamentary composites with various designs can be produced whereas in the second case sandwich structures are obtained. The experimental window (temperature, time) in which processing can be carried out is directly related to the crystallisation resistance of the glass which requires getting information about the crystallisation conditions in the selected metallic glasses. Thermoforming windows are identified for the studied BMGs by thermal analysis and compression tests in their SLR. The mechanical properties of the produced multi materials are investigated thanks to specifically developed mechanical devices and the interfaces between the amorphous and the crystalline alloys are characterised.

  12. Crystallization kinetics and magnetic properties of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hu-ping; Wang, Ru-wu; Wei, Ding; Zeng, Chun

    2015-07-01

    The crystallization kinetics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy, characterized by the crystallization activation energy, Avrami exponent and frequency factor, was studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements. The crystallization activation energy and frequency factor of amorphous alloy calculated from Augis-Bennett model were 476 kJ/mol and 5.5×1018 s-1, respectively. The Avrami exponent n was calculated to be 2.2 from the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation. Toroid-shaped Fe-base amorphous powder cores were prepared from the commercial FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder and subsequent cold pressing using binder and insulation. The characteristics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder and the effects of compaction pressure and insulation content on the magnetic properties, i.e., effective permeability μe, quality factor Q and DC-bias properties of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores, were investigated. The FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores exhibit a high value of quality factor and a stable permeability in the frequency range up to 1 MHz, showing superior DC-bias properties with a "percent permeability" of more than 82% at H=100 Oe.

  13. STUDY ON MAXIMUM HYDROGEN CAPACITY FOR Zr-Ni AMORPHOUS ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To design the amorphous hydrogen storage alloy efficiently, the maximum hydrogen capacities for Zr-Ni amorphous alloy were calculated. Based on the Rhomb Unit Structure Model(RUSM) for amorphous alloy and the experimental result that hydrogen atoms exist in 3Zr1Ni and 4Zr tetrahedron interstices in Zr-Ni amorphous alloy, the numbers of 3Zr-1Ni and 4Zr tetrahedron interstices in a RUSM were calculated which correspond to the hydrogen capacity. The two extremum Zr distribution states were calculated, such as highly heterogeneous Zr distribution and homogeneous Zr distribution. The calculated curves of hydrogen capacity with different Zr contents at two states indicate that the hydrogen capacity increases with increasing Zr content and reaches its maximum when Zr is 75%. The theoretical maximum hydrogen capacity for Zr-Ni amorphous alloy is 2.0(H/M). Meanwhile, the hydrogen capacity of heterogeneous Zr distribution alloy is higher than that of homogenous one at the same Zr content. The experimental results prove the calculated results reasonable, and accordingly, the experimental results that the distribution of Zr atom in amorphous alloy occur heterogeneous after a few hydrogen absorption-desorption cycles can be explained.

  14. Devitrification of rapidly quenched Al–Cu–Ti amorphous alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Misra; R S Tiwari; O N Srivastava

    2003-08-01

    X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were carried out to study the transformation from amorphous to icosahedral/crystalline phases in the rapidly quenched Al50Cu45Ti5 and Al45Cu45Ti10 alloys. In the present investigation, we have studied the formation and stability of amorphous phase in Al50Cu45Ti5 and Al45Cu45Ti10 rapidly quenched alloys. The DSC curve shows a broad complex type of exothermic overlapping peaks (288–550°C) for Al50Cu45Ti5 and a well defined peak around 373°C for Al45Cu45Ti10 alloy. In the case of Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy amorphous to icosahedral phase transformation has been observed after annealing at 280°C for 73 h. Large dendritic growth of icosahedral phase along with -Al phase has been found. Annealing of Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy at 400°C for 8 h results in formation of Al3Ti type phase. Al45Cu45Ti10 amorphous alloy is more stable in comparison to Al50Cu45Ti5 alloy and after annealing at 400°C for 8 h it also transforms to Al3Ti type phase. However, this alloy does not show amorphous to icosahedral phase transformation.

  15. A novel approach to quantify nitrogen distribution in nanocrystalline-amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Blvd., 7134851154, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Modarres Blvd., 3619995161, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salahinejad, E., E-mail: erfan.salahinejad@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Blvd., 7134851154, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadianfard, M.J.; Bajestani, E. Askari [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Blvd., 7134851154, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifzadeh, M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > A novel method is introduced to determine nitrogen distribution in nanocrystalline-amorphous alloys, based on X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetery. > The technique determines the contribution of crystal interstitial sites, crystalline defects, and amorphous phase to nitrogen incorporation. > In Fe-18Cr-8Mn-2.5N alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying, about 4, 21 and 75 percent of nitrogen is distributed among the crystal interstitial sites, defects, and amorphous phase, respectively. - Abstract: A method is introduced to estimate nitrogen partitioning in the structure of nanocrystalline-amorphous alloys, based on X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetery. The technique quantitatively determines the contribution of crystal interstitial sites, crystalline defects, and amorphous phase to nitrogen incorporation. Typically, the method shows that in Fe-18Cr-8Mn-2.5N alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying, about 4, 21 and 75 percent of nitrogen is distributed among the crystal interstitial sites, defects, and amorphous phase, respectively.

  16. Electroless Deposition of Fe-Mo-W-B Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The preparation, formation mechanism, surface appearance and structure of electroless plating Fe-Mo-W-B amorphous alloys were systematically studied. The deposition rates of the deposits in different bath composition as plated were measured. The formation mechanism of the deposits was discussed. The parameter for amorphous structures formation was suggested for the deposits.

  17. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N; Franco, A; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M; S. Dunand; Powolny, F; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  18. Crystallization kinetics and magnetic properties of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hu-ping [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Wang, Ru-wu, E-mail: ruwuwang@hotmail.com [National Engineering Research Center For Silicon Steel, Wuhan 430080 (China); College of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wei, Ding [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zeng, Chun [National Engineering Research Center For Silicon Steel, Wuhan 430080 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The crystallization kinetics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy, characterized by the crystallization activation energy, Avrami exponent and frequency factor, was studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements. The crystallization activation energy and frequency factor of amorphous alloy calculated from Augis–Bennett model were 476 kJ/mol and 5.5×10{sup 18} s{sup −1}, respectively. The Avrami exponent n was calculated to be 2.2 from the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) equation. Toroid-shaped Fe-base amorphous powder cores were prepared from the commercial FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder and subsequent cold pressing using binder and insulation. The characteristics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder and the effects of compaction pressure and insulation content on the magnetic properties, i.e., effective permeability μ{sub e}, quality factor Q and DC-bias properties of FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores, were investigated. The FeSiCr amorphous alloy powder cores exhibit a high value of quality factor and a stable permeability in the frequency range up to 1 MHz, showing superior DC-bias properties with a “percent permeability” of more than 82% at H=100 Oe. - Highlights: • The crystallization kinetics of FeSiCr amorphous alloy was investigated. • The FeSiCr powder cores exhibit a high value of Q and a stable permeability. • The FeSiCr powder cores exhibit superior DC-bias properties.

  19. Features of exoelectron emission in amorphous metallic alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Veksler, A S; Morozov, I L; Semenov, A L

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of the photothermostimulated exoelectron emission in amorphous metallic alloys of the Fe sub 6 sub 4 Co sub 2 sub 1 B sub 1 sub 5 composition are studied. It is established that the temperature dependences of the exoelectron emission spectrum adequately reflect the two-stage character of the amorphous alloy transition into the crystalline state. The exoelectron emission spectrum is sensitive to the variations in the modes of the studied sample thermal treatment. The thermal treatment of the amorphous metallic alloy leads to growth in the intensity of the exoelectrons yield. The highest growth in the intensify of the exoelectron emission was observed in the alloys at the initial stage of their crystallization

  20. Advances in chemical synthesis and application of metal-metalloid amorphous alloy nanoparticulate catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhijie; LI Wei; ZHANG Minghui; TAO Keyi

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the advances in the chemical synthesis and application of metal-metalloid amorphous alloy nanoparticles consisting of transition metal (M) and metalloid elements (B,P).After a brief introduction on the history of amorphous alloy catalysts,the paper focuses on the properties and characterization of amorphous alloy catalysts,and recent developments in the solution-phase synthesis of amorphous alloy nanoparticles.This paper further outlines the applications of amorphous alloys,with special emphasis on the problems and strategies for the application of amorphous alloy nanoparticles in catalytic reactions.

  1. On amorphization and nanocomposite formation in Al–Ni–Ti system by mechanical alloying

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Das; G K Dey; B S Murty; S K Pabi

    2005-11-01

    Amorphous structure generated by mechanical alloying (MA) is often used as a precursor for generating nanocomposites through controlled devitrification. The amorphous forming composition range of ternary Al–Ni–Ti system was calculated using the extended Miedema's semi-empirical model. Eleven compositions of this system showing a wide range of negative enthalpy of mixing (− mix) and amorphization (− amor) of the constituent elements were selected for synthesis by MA. The Al88Ni6Ti6 alloy with relatively small negative mix (−0.4 kJ/mol) and amor (−14.8 kJ/mol) became completely amorphous after 120 h of milling, which is possibly the first report of complete amorphization of an Al-based rare earth element free Al–TM–TM system (TM = transition metal) by MA. The alloys of other compositions selected had much more negative mix and amor; but they yielded either nanocomposites of partial amorphous and crystalline structure or no amorphous phase at all in the as-milled condition, evidencing a high degree of stability of the intermetallic phases under the MA environment. Hence, the negative mix and amor are not so reliable for predicting the amorphization in the present system by MA.

  2. Stability of electrodeposited amorphous Ni-Fe-P alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Cheng-hui

    2006-01-01

    The stability of the electrodeposited amorphous Ni-Fe-P alloys was studied by DTA, DSC, XRD and improved four-ball wear tester in order to clear its applied scope. The results show that the element content has influence on the stability of amorphous Ni-Fe-P alloy, in which the crystallization temperature increases with Fe content, and the increase of P content delays the appearance of stable crystallization phases and recrystallization. There exist 6 exothermal reactions during heating the amorphous Ni69Fe8P23alloy continuously. The activation energies of exothermal reactions at 248, 303,322, 350, 376 and 442 ℃ are 131.5, 111.6, 237.8,253.6 and 238.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The amorphous Ni60Fe22P18 alloy crystallizes when the heating temperature is beyond 250 ℃.The stable crystallization phases consist ofNi (Fe) and Ni3P-type compounds Ni3P, Fe3P, (Fe,Ni)3P. The pressure and fraction have influence on the stability of amorphous alloy. Rubbing above the critical pressure crystallization will take place on the fractional surface. The crystallization phases due to pressure and fraction are different from those due to heating. It is the crystallization that increases the wear resistance of Ni-Fe-P coating under higher pressure.

  3. Parametrized dielectric functions of amorphous GeSn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Costa, Vijay Richard, E-mail: elevrd@nus.edu.sg; Wang, Wei; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: eleyeoyc@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Schmidt, Daniel [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117603 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    We obtained the complex dielectric function of amorphous Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.07) alloys using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.4 to 4.5 eV. Amorphous GeSn films were formed by room-temperature implantation of phosphorus into crystalline GeSn alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The optical response of amorphous GeSn alloys is similar to amorphous Ge and can be parametrized using a Kramers-Kronig consistent Cody-Lorentz dispersion model. The parametric model was extended to account for the dielectric functions of amorphous Ge{sub 0.75}Sn{sub 0.25} and Ge{sub 0.50}Sn{sub 0.50} alloys from literature. The compositional dependence of band gap energy E{sub g} and parameters associated with the Lorentzian oscillator have been determined. The behavior of these parameters with varying x can be understood in terms of the alloying effect of Sn on Ge.

  4. Properties of electrodeposited amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng-jiao; WANG Miao; LU Xin

    2006-01-01

    A new technique of electroplating amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits was proposed. The structure and morphology of Fe-Ni-W alloy deposit were detected by XRD and SEM. The friction and wear behavior of Fe-Ni-W alloy deposit were studied and compared with that of chromium deposit. The corrosion properties against 5% sodium chloride, 5% sulfuric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide were also discussed. The experimental results indicate that Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits have superior properties against wear than hard chromium deposits under dry sliding condition. Under oil sliding condition, except their better wear resistance, the deposits can protect their counterparts against wear. The deposits plated on brass and AISI 1045 steel show good behavior against corrosion of 5% sodium chloride, 5% sulfuric acid and 5% sodium hydroxide. The bath of electroplating amorphous Fe-Ni-W alloy deposits is environmentally friendly and would find widely use in industry.

  5. Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, K

    2013-09-30

    At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 °C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys

  6. Electroplating process of amorphous Fe-Ni-Cr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何湘柱; 夏畅斌; 王红军; 龚竹清; 蒋汉瀛

    2001-01-01

    A novel process of electroplating amorphous Fe-Cr-Ni alloy in chloride aqueous solution with Fe( Ⅱ ), Ni ( lⅡ ) and Cr( Ⅲ ) was reported. Couple plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray diffractometry(XRD),scanning electronic microscopy(SEM), microhardness test and rapid heating-cooling method were adopted to detect the properties of the amorphous Fe-Ni-Cr deposit, such as composition, crystalline structure, micrograph, hardness, and adherence between deposit and substrate. The effects of the operating parameters on the electrodeposit of the amorphous FeNi-Cr alloy were discussed in detail. The results show that a 8.7 μm thick mirror-like amorphous Fe-Ni-Cr alloy deposit,with Vicker's hardness of 530 and composition of 45%~55% Fe, 33%~37% Ni, 9%~23% Cr was obtained by electroplating for 20 min at room temperature( 10 30 C ), cathode current 10~16 A/dm2, pH = 1.0~3.0. The XRD pat terns show that there only appears a broad hump around 2θ of 41 °~47 °for the amorphous Fe-Ni-Cr alloy deposit, while the SEM micrographs show that the deposit contains only a few fine cracks but no pinholes.

  7. Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of Nanocrystalline and Amorphous Nd-Mg-Ni-Based NdMg12-Type Alloys Synthesized via Mechanical Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanghuan; Shang, Hongwei; Hou, Zhonghui; Yuan, Zeming; Yang, Tai; Qi, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Mg was partially substituted by Ni with the intent of improving the hydrogen storage kinetics performance of NdMg12-type alloy. Mechanical milling technology was adopted to fabricate the nanocrystalline and amorphous NdMg11Ni + x wt pct Ni (x = 100, 200) alloys. The effects of Ni content and milling duration on the microstructures and hydrogen storage kinetics of as-milled alloys have been systematically investigated. The structures were characterized by XRD and HRTEM. The electrochemical hydrogen storage properties were tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. Moreover, the gaseous hydrogen storage properties were investigated by Sievert apparatus and a differential scanning calorimeter connected with a H2 detector. Hydrogen desorption activation energy of alloy hydrides was estimated by using Arrhenius and Kissinger methods. The results reveal that the increase of Ni content dramatically ameliorates the gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics performance of the as-milled alloys. Furthermore, high rate discharge ability (HRD) reach the maximum value with the variation of milling time. The maximum HRDs of the NdMg11Ni + x wt pct Ni (x = 100, 200) alloys are 80.24 and 85.17 pct. The improved gaseous hydrogen storage kinetics of alloys via increasing Ni content and milling time can be attributed to a decrease in the hydrogen desorption activation energy.

  8. Integral bypass diodes in an amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, J. J.; Flaisher, H.

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film, tandem-junction, amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules were constructed in which a part of the a-Si alloy cell material is used to form bypass protection diodes. This integral design circumvents the need for incorporating external, conventional diodes, thus simplifying the manufacturing process and reducing module weight.

  9. Effect of Cerium on Chemical Short-Range Order of Al-Fe-Ce Amorphous Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The chemical short-range order of Al-Fe-Ce amorphous alloy was studied by means of X-ray diffraction(XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). It is found that the prepeak position in X-ray diffraction intensity curve shifts to higher angles as the content of Fe increases, but it shifts to smaller angles as the content of Ce increases. The crystallization character of the amorphous alloy changes with the variation of the content of Fe and Ce. Ce can improve the interaction between atoms and the capacity of compound formation, so it is favorable to Al-based glass formability.

  10. Structural models for amorphous transition metal binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dense random packing of 445 hard spheres with two different diameters in a concentration ratio of 3 : 1 was hand-built to simulate the structure of amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys. By introducing appropriate pair potentials of the Lennard-Jones type, the structure is dynamically relaxed by minimizing the total energy. The radial distribution functions (RDF) for amorphous Fe0.75P0.25, Ni0.75P0.25, Co0.75P0.25 are obtained and compared with the experimental data. The calculated RDF's are resolved into their partial components. The results indicate that such dynamically constructed models are capable of accounting for some subtle features in the RDF of amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys

  11. Neutron scattering studies of amorphous Invar alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Baca, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews recent inelastic neutron scattering experiments performed to study the spin dynamics of two amorphous Invar systems: Fe/sub 100-x/B/sub x/ and Fe/sub 90-x/Ni/sub x/Zr/sub 10/. As in crystalline Invar Fe/sub 65/Ni/sub 35/ and Fe/sub 3/Pt, the excitation of conventional long-wavelength spin waves in these amorphous systems cannot account for the relatively rapid change of their magnetization with temperature. These results are discussed in terms of additional low-lying excitations which apparently have a density of states similar to the spin waves.

  12. Electrochemical characteristics of nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg-Y-Ni-based Mg{sub 2}Ni-Type alloys prepared by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanghuan [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Key Lab. of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources; Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing (China). Dept. of Functional Material Research; Yuan, Zeming; Yang, Tai; Qi, Yan [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing (China). Dept. of Functional Material Research; Hou, Zhonghui [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Key Lab. of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources

    2015-04-15

    Nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg{sub 2}Ni-type Mg{sub 20-x}Y{sub x}Ni{sub 10} (x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) electrode alloys were prepared by mechanical milling. The structures of the as-cast and milled alloys were determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical hydrogen storage performances of the alloys were tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. The electrochemical impedance spectra, Tafel polarization curves and potential-step curves were plotted by an electrochemical workstation. The results indicate that a nanocrystalline structure can successfully be obtained through mechanical milling. The substitution of Y for Mg facilitates glass forming and leads to an obvious change in the phase composition. The substitution of Y for Mg dramatically improves the cycle stability of the as-milled alloys, while the mechanical milling more or less impairs the cycle stability of the alloys. The discharge capacity of the alloys first augments and then declines with increasing Y content and milling time. Furthermore, the high rate discharge ability, charge transfer rate, limiting current density and diffusion coefficient of hydrogen atomic all decrease with Y content and milling time increasing.

  13. Amorphous coatings deposited on aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-jun; XIA Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous [Al-Si-O] coatings were deposited on aluminum alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The process parameters, composition, micrograph, and mechanical property of PEO amorphous coatings were investigated. It is found that the growth rate of PEO coatings reaches 4.44 μm/min if the current density is 0.9 mA/mm2. XRD results show that the PEO coatings are amorphous in the current density range of 0.3 - 0.9mA/mm2. EDS results show that the coatings are composed of O, Si and Al elements. SEM results show that the coatings are porous. Nano indentation results show that the hardness of the coatings is about 3 - 4 times of that of the substrate, while the elastic modulus is about the same with the substrate. Furthermore, a formation mechanism of amorphous PEO coatings was proposed.

  14. Spontaneously Passivating Amorphous Fe-Cr-Mo-Metalloid Alloys in 6 N HCl at Room Temperature and 80℃

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichi; Hashimoto, Koji; MASUMOTO, Tsuyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous iron-base alloys capable of passivating spontaneously in 6 N HCl at 80℃ were prepared by rapid quenching of molten alloys. The corrosion resistance and passivating ability of the alloys increased with increasing chromium and molybdenum contents. The critical concentrations of chromium and molybdenum in the alloys necessary for spontaneous passivation in 6 N HCl at room temperature and 80℃ were established. These concentrations were greatly affected by coexisting metalloids. The pass...

  15. Simulation study for atomic size and alloying effects during forming processes of amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Caixing; LIU Rangsu; PENG Ping; ZHOU Qunyi

    2004-01-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study has been performed for the solidification processes of two binary liquid alloys Ag6Cu4 and CuNi by adopting the quantum Sutton-Chen many-body potentials. By analyzing bond-types, it is demonstrated that at the cooling rate of 2×1012K/s, the CuNi forms fcc crystal structures, while the Ag6Cu4 forms amorphous structures. The original reason is that the atomic radius ratio (1.13) of the CuAg is bigger than that (1.025) of the CuNi. This shows that the atomic size difference is indeed the main factor for forming amorphous alloys. Moreover, for Ag60Cu40,corresponding to the deep eutectic point in the phase diagram, it forms amorphous structure easily. This confirms that as to the forming tendency and stability of amorphous alloys, the alloying effect plays a key role. In addition, having analyzed the transformation of microstructures by using the bond-type index and cluster-type index methods, not only the key role of the icosahedral configuration to the formation and stability of amorphous alloys can be explained, but also the solidification processes of liquid metals and the characteristics of amorphous structures can be further understood.

  16. TEM study of amorphous alloys produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing foreign elements into surface layers of solids. Ions, as a suitably accelerated beam, penetrate the surface, slow down by collisions with target atoms to produce a doped layer. This non-equilibrium technique can provide a wide range of alloys without the restrictions imposed by equilibrium phase diagrams. This paper reports on the production of some amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys by implantation. Thinned foils of Ni, Fe and stainless steel were implanted at room temperature with Dy+ and P+ ions at doses between 1013 - 1017 ions/cm2 at energies of 20 and 40 keV respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction analysis were used to investigate the implanted specimens. Radial diffracted intensity measurements confirmed the presence of an amorphous implanted layer. The peak positions of the maxima are in good agreement with data for similar alloys produced by conventional techniques. Only certain ion/target combinations produce these amorphous layers. Implantations at doses lower than those needed for amorphization often result in formation of new crystalline phases such as an h.c.p. phase in nickel and a b.c.c. phase in stainless steel. (Auth.)

  17. Magnetocaloric response of amorphous and nanocrystalline Cr-containing Vitroperm-type alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, L. M.; Blázquez, J. S.; Franco, V.; Conde, A.; Marsilius, M.; Budinsky, V.; Herzer, G.

    2016-07-01

    The broad compositional range in which transition metal (TM) based amorphous alloys can be obtained, yields an easily tunable magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in a wide temperature range. In some TM-based alloys, anomalous behaviors are reported, as a non-monotonous trend with magnetic moment (e.g. FeZrB alloys). Moreover, in certain Cr-containing Vitroperm alloys anomalously high values of the magnetic entropy change were published. In this work, a systematic study on MCE response of Cr-containing amorphous alloys of composition Fe74-xCrxCu1Nb3Si15.5B6.5 (with x=2, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 20) has been performed in a broad Curie temperature range from 100 K to 550 K. Curie temperature and magnetic entropy change peak of the amorphous alloys decrease with the increase of Cr content at rates of -25.6 K/at% Cr and -54 mJ kg-1 K-1/at% Cr, respectively, following a linear trend with the magnetic moment in both cases. The presence of nanocrystalline phases has been considered as a possible cause in order to explain the anomalies. The samples were nanocrystallized in different stages, however, the magnetocaloric response decreases as crystallization progresses due to the large separation of the Curie temperatures of the two phases.

  18. Glow discharge amorphous silicon tin alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, A H; Sanchez, A; Williamson, D L; von Roedern, B; Madan, A

    1984-06-01

    We present basic density of states, photoresponse, and transport measurements made on low bandgap a-SiSn:H alloys produced by RF glow discharge deposition of SiH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/ and Sn(CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/. Although we demonstrate major changes in the local bonding structure and the density of states, the normalized photoresponse still remains poor. We provide evidence that two types of defect levels are produced with Sn alloying, and that the resultant density of states increase explains not only the n- to p-type conductivity transition reported earlier, but also the photoresponse behavior. We also report that a-SiSn:H can be doped with P. From our device analysis we suggest that in order to improve the alloy performance significantly, the density of states should be decreased to levels comparable to or lower than those presently obtained in a-Si:H.

  19. Amorphous Alloy Membranes Prepared by Melt-Spin methods for Long-Term use in Hydrogen Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Kim, Sang-Mun; Adibhatla, Anasuya; Dolan, Michael; Paglieri, Steve; Flanagan, Ted; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; Wermer, Joseph

    2013-02-28

    Amorphous Ni-based alloy membranes show great promise as inexpensive, hydrogenselective membrane materials. In this study, we developed membranes based on nonprecious Ni-Nb-Zr alloys by adjusting the alloying content and using additives. Several studies on crystallization of the amorphous ribbons, in-situ x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM, hydrogen permeation, hydrogen solubility, hydrogen deuterium exchange, and electrochemical studies were conducted. An important part of the study was to completely eliminate Palladium coatings of the NiNbZr alloys by hydrogen heattreatment. The amorphous alloy (Ni0.6Nb0.4)80Zr20 membrane appears to be the best with high hydrogen permeability and good thermal stability.

  20. Effect of bending stresses on the high-frequency magnetic properties and their time stability in a cobalt-based amorphous alloy with an extremely low magnetostriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil'nikov, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    An unusual effect of the stresses of bending (toroidal sample diameter D) on the hysteretic magnetic properties ( H c , μ5) of an amorphous Co69Fe3.7Cr3.8Si12B11 alloy with an extremely low magnetostriction (|λ s | ≤ 10-7) is revealed. These properties are measured in a dynamic regime at a magnetic-field frequency f = 0.1-20 kHz. The coercive force of the alloy H c weakly depends on D at low frequencies ( f fact that magnetization reversal via the displacement of rigid domain walls is predominant at low frequencies and during static measurements and magnetization reversal via the displacement of flexible domain walls is predominant at high frequencies.

  1. Crystallization kinetics of Fe-B based amorphous alloys studied in-situ using X-rays diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos D.R. dos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization processes for the amorphous metallic alloys Fe74B17Si2Ni4Mo3 and Fe86B6Zr7Cu1 (at. % were investigated using X-rays diffraction measurements performed in-situ during Joule-heating, with simultaneous monitoring of the electrical resistance. We determined the main structural transitions and crystalline phases formed during heating, and correlated these results to the observed resistance variations. As the annealing current is increased, the resistance shows an initial decrease due to stress relaxation, followed by a drop to a minimum value due to massive nucleation and growth of alpha-Fe nanocrystals. Further annealing causes the formation of small fractions of Fe-B, B2Zr or ZrO2, while the resistance increases due to temperature enhancement. In situ XRD measurements allowed the identification of metastable phases, as the gamma-Fe phase which occurs at high temperatures. The exothermal peaks observed in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC for each alloy corroborate the results. We also have performed DSC measurements with several heating rates, which allowed the determination of the Avrami exponent and crystallization activation energy for each alloy. The obtained activation energies (362 and 301 kJ/mol for Fe-B-Zr-Cu; 323 kJ/mol for Fe-B-Si-Ni-Mo are comparable to reported values for amorphous iron alloys, while the Avrami exponent values (n = 1.0 or n = 1.2 are consistent with diffusion controlled crystallization processes with nucleation rates close to zero.

  2. Properties of amorphous FeCoB alloy particles (abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, S. W.; Wells, S.; Meagher, A.;

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous and crystalline alloy particles (0.05–0.5 nm) of FexCoyBz in which the ratio x:y ranges from 0 to 1 have been prepared by the borohydride reduction of iron and cobalt salts in aqueous solution. The structure of the particles has been studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and x....... 1). It has been shown that the fraction of boron in the alloys (10–35 at. %) is dependent upon the rate of addition of salts to borohydride and the concentration of cobalt present; this in turn influences the crystallinity and magnetic properties . Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted...

  3. Ultralight amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic modules for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, J. J.; Chen, Englade; Fulton, C.; Myatt, A.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultralight and ultrathin, flexible, rollup monolithic PV modules have been developed consisting of multijunction, amorphous silicon alloys for either terrestrial or aerospace applications. The rate of progress in increasing conversion efficiency of stable multijunction and multigap PV cells indicates that arrays of these modules can be available for NASA's high power systems in the 1990's. Because of the extremely light module weight and the highly automated process of manufacture, the monolithic a-Si alloy arrays are expected to be strongly competitive with other systems for use in NASA's space station or in other large aerospace applications.

  4. Crystallization of amorphous Hf100-xCux alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization of Hf100-xCux (x=33, 44, 50, 59) amorphous alloys was studied by the TDPAC technique. The different stages in the transformation towards equilibrium were investigated through the evolution of the quadrupole perturbation after thermal annealings. The crystallization kinetics of Hf67Cu33 and Hf56Cu44 was analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. General trends in the crystallization behavior are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Amorphous structure in a laser clad Ni-Cr-Al coating on Al-Si alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A mixing microstructure containing Ni-based amorphous structures was observed by TEM in the laser cladzones. As the uniformity of chemical composition and temperature is poor in the laser cladding, the amorphous structurewith some Ni3Al crystals coexists in the cladding. The microhardness of the mixing amorphous structure is HV 600 ~800, which is lower than that of crystal phases in the coating. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) shows that Ni-basedamorphous structure exhibits a higher initial crystallizing temperature (about 588 ℃ ), which is slightly higher than that ofthe eutectic temperature of Al-Si alloy. The wear test results indicate that there are some amorphous structures in the laserclad coating, which reduces the peeling of the granular phases from matrix, and improves the wear resistance

  6. Mg amorphous alloys for biodegradable implants; Ligas amorfas de magnesio utilizadas em implantes consumiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danez, G.P., E-mail: gabidanez@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Koga, G.Y.; Tonucci, S.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The use of implants made from amorphous alloys magnesium-based with additions of zinc and calcium are promising. Properties such as biocompatibility, low density, high mechanical strength, low modulus (as compared to alloys such as stainless steel and titanium), corrosion resistance and wear resistance make it attractive for use in implants. Moreover, the by-products of corrosion and wear are not toxic and may contribute to fixation. Aiming to understand the tendency of this amorphous ternary (Mg-Zn-Ca) and expand the information about this system, this work involved the use of the topological criterion of instability ({lambda}) and the criterion of electronegativity ({Delta}e) to the choice of compositions. The alloys were processed into wedge-shaped and analyzed structurally and in X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  7. In Situ Nanocrystallization-Induced Hardening of Amorphous Alloy Matrix Composites Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish; Paul, Tanaji; Katakam, Shravana; Dahotre, Narendra B.; Harimkar, Sandip P.

    2016-07-01

    In situ nanocrystallization of amorphous alloys has recently emerged as a suitable technique for forming nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties. In this paper, we report on the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of Fe-based amorphous alloys with in situ-formed nanocrystals of (Fe,Cr)23(C,B)6. The SPS was performed with a range of sintering temperatures (570-800°C) in and above the supercooled liquid region of the alloy. Significant enhancement in relative density was observed with increasing sintering temperature due to particle deformation and improved interparticle contacts. The formation of nanocrystalline particles and enhanced densification resulted in an increase in the hardness of the nanocomposites from about 1150-1375 VHN.

  8. Electonic properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullot, J.; Galin, M.; Gauthier, M. (Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)); Bourdon, B. (CIT-Alcatel Transmission, Marcoussis (France))

    1983-06-01

    The electronic properties of some binary hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloys a-Sisub(x)Gesub(1-x):H in the silicon rich region (x > 0.6) are investigated. Experimental evidence is presented of photo-induced effects similar to those described in Si:H (Staebler-Wronski effect). The electronic properties are then studied from the dual point of view of the germanium content dependence and of the photo and thermal histories of the films. The dark conductivity changes between the annealed state and the light-soaked state are interpreted in terms of the variation of the temperature coefficient of the Fermi level. The photoconductivity efficiency is shown to remain close to that of a-Si:H for 1 > x >= 0.9 and to strongly decrease when the germanium content is further increased: the photoresponse of the Sisub(0.62)Gesub(0.38) alloy is 10/sup 4/ times smaller than that of a-Si:H. This deterioration of the photoconductive properties is explained in terms of the increase of the density of gap states following Ge substitution. This conclusion is based on the study of the width of the exponential absorption edge and on the results of photoconductivity time response studies. The latter data are interpreted by means of the model of Rose of trapping and recombination kinetics and it is found that for x approximately 0.6 the density of states at 0.4-0.5 eV below the mobility edge is 7 x 10/sup 17/ eV/sup -1/ cm/sup -3/ as compared to 2.4 x 10/sup 16/ eV/sup -1/ cm/sup -3/ for x = 0.97.

  9. Surface-Activated Amorphous Alloy Fuel Electrodes for Methanol Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Asahi; Hashimoto, Koji

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous alloy electrodes for electrochemical oxidation of methanol and its derivatives were obtained by the surface activation treatment consisting of electrodeposition of zinc on as-quenched amorphous alloy substrates, heating at 200-300℃ for 30 min, and subsequently leaching of zinc in an alkaline solution. The surface activation treatment provided a new method for the preparation of a large surface area on the amorphous alloys. The best result for oxidation of methanol, sodium formate an...

  10. Bulk amorphous metallic alloys: Synthesis by fluxing techniques and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi; Shen, Tongde; Schwarz, R.B.

    1997-05-01

    Bulk amorphous alloys having dimensions of at least 1 cm diameter have been prepared in the Pd-Ni-P, Pd-Cu-P, Pd-Cu-Ni-P, and Pd-Ni-Fe-P systems using a fluxing and water quenching technique. The compositions for bulk glass formation have been determined in these systems. For these bulk metallic glasses, the difference between the crystallization temperature T{sub x}, and the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g}, ranges from 60 to 1 10 K. These large values of {Delta}T open the possibility for the fabrication of amorphous near net-shape components using techniques such as injection molding. The thermal, elastic, and magnetic properties of these alloys have been studied, and we have found that bulk amorphous Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 22.5}Fe{sub 17.5}P{sub 20} has spin glass behavior for temperatures below 30 K. 65 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Developments in the Ni-Nb-Zr amorphous alloy membranes. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, S.; Chandra, D. [University of Nevada, Materials Science and Engineering, Reno, NV (United States); Hirscher, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme, Stuttgart (Germany); Dolan, M.; Viano, D. [CSIRO, QCAT, Energy, Pullenvale, QLD (Australia); Isheim, D. [Northwestern University, Materials Science and Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States); Wermer, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baricco, M. [University of Turin, Department of Chemistry and NIS, Turin (Italy); Udovic, T.J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Grant, D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Palumbo, O.; Paolone, A. [CNR-ISC, U.O.S. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Cantelli, R. [University of Rome, La Sapienza, Roma (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Most of the global H{sub 2} production is derived from hydrocarbon-based fuels, and efficient H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation is necessary to deliver a high-purity H{sub 2} product. Hydrogen-selective alloy membranes are emerging as a viable alternative to traditional pressure swing adsorption processes as a means for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation. These membranes can be formed from a wide range of alloys, and those based on Pd are the closest to commercial deployment. The high cost of Pd (USD ∝31,000 kg{sup -1}) is driving the development of less-expensive alternatives, including inexpensive amorphous (Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40}){sub 100-x} Zr{sub x} alloys. Amorphous alloy membranes can be fabricated directly from the molten state into continuous ribbons via melt spinning and depending on the composition can exhibit relatively high hydrogen permeability between 473 and 673 K. Here we review recent developments in these low-cost membrane materials, especially with respect to permeation behavior, electrical transport properties, and understanding of local atomic order. To further understand the nature of these solids, atom probe tomography has been performed, revealing amorphous Nb-rich and Zr-rich clusters embedded in majority Ni matrix whose compositions deviated from the nominal overall composition of the membrane. (orig.)

  12. 非晶态铁基合金退火样品的偏移回线%DISPLACED HYSTERESIS LOOPS IN ANNEALED Fe-BASED AMORPHOUS ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李印峰; 李笃行; 等

    2001-01-01

    报道了非晶态铁基合金(Fe65.9Cr11.6Si7.5 B15和Fe60Co5.9Cr11.6Si7.5B15)退火样品的回线 偏 移现象. 研究了偏移回线与测量磁场Hm,温度T和时间t的关系. 基于退火产生的 硬磁颗粒与剩余非晶软磁母体之间的静磁相互作用机制,利用等效的单向各向异性模型可以很好地分析和解释实验结果.%We report the displaced hysteresis loops in the annealed amorphous alloys Fe 65.9Cr11.6Si7.5B15 and Fe60Co5.9Cr11.6Si 7.5B15. The effects of measuring field Hm, temperature T and time t on the displacement HD have been studied. On the basis of t he magnetostatic interaction between the hard particle resulting from the anneal i ng and the residual amorphous soft matrix, the experiments could be well explain ed by the unidirectional anisotropy model.

  13. Structural Defects In The FeCoYB Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błoch K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the nature of the structural defects that have a major influence on the magnetisation process within the investigated alloys. The structure of the alloys in the as-quenched state was investigated by means of X-ray diffractometry. It was confirmed that the samples were amorphous. The magnetisation was measured within magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 2T using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The investigation of the ‘magnetisation in the area close to ferromagnetic saturation’ showed that, for this class of alloys, the magnetisation process in strong magnetic fields is connected with the following two influences: 1 Firstly, the rotation of the magnetic moments in the vicinity of the defects, which are the sources of the short-range stresses, and, 2 The dumping of the thermally-induced spin waves by the magnetic field. In the case of the Fe63Co10Y7B20 alloy, the magnetisation process is connected with both point and linear defects, whereas for the Fe64Co10Y6B20 alloy, only with linear defects. This suggests that the size of the defects, determining the character of the magnetisation in the vicinity of ferromagnetic saturation, depends on the atomic packing density. On the basis of analysis of the magnetisation curves, the spin wave stiffness parameter (Dsp was calculated.

  14. Laser spot welding of cobalt-based amorphous metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results concerning weldability of amorphous alloy (VAC 6025F) in shape of foils and the quality of laser-spot welded joints are presented in this paper. The aim of the research was the production of a high quality welding joint, by preserving the amorphous structure. The quality of the joint was tested by shear strength analysis and microhardness measuring. The metallographic studies were made by using optical microscope and SEM. The results show that (1) overlapped Co based amorphous metals foils can be welded with high-quality by a pulsed Nd: YAG-Laser, but only within a very narrow laser parameter window; (2) the laser welded spots show comparably high strength as the basic material; (3) the structure of the welded spot remains amorphous, so that the same characteristics as the base material can be achieved. (author)

  15. Properties and Applications of Nanocrystalline Alloys from Amorphous Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Idzikowski, Bogdan; Miglierini, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Metallic (magnetic and non-magnetic) nanocrystalline materials have been known for over ten years but only recent developments in the research into those complex alloys and their metastable amorphous precursors have created a need to summarize the most important accomplishments in the field. This book is a collection of articles on various aspects of metallic nanocrystalline materials, and an attempt to address this above need. The main focus of the papers is put on the new issues that emerge in the studies of nanocrystalline materials, and, in particular, on (i) new compositions of the alloys, (ii) properties of conventional nanocrystalline materials, (iii) modeling and simulations, (iv) preparation methods, (v) experimental techniques of measurements, and (vi) different modern applications. Interesting phenomena of the physics of nanocrystalline materials are a consequence of the effects induced by the nanocrystalline structure. They include interface physics, the influence of the grain boundaries, the aver...

  16. New Approaches to the Computer Simulation of Amorphous Alloys: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alvarez-Ramirez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we review our new methods to computer generate amorphous atomic topologies of several binary alloys: SiH, SiN, CN; binary systems based on group IV elements like SiC; the GeSe2 chalcogenide; aluminum-based systems: AlN and AlSi, and the CuZr amorphous alloy. We use an ab initio approach based on density functionals and computationally thermally-randomized periodically-continued cells with at least 108 atoms. The computational thermal process to generate the amorphous alloys is the undermelt-quench approach, or one of its variants, that consists in linearly heating the samples to just below their melting (or liquidus temperatures, and then linearly cooling them afterwards. These processes are carried out from initial crystalline conditions using short and long time steps. We find that a step four-times the default time step is adequate for most of the simulations. Radial distribution functions (partial and total are calculated and compared whenever possible with experimental results, and the agreement is very good. For some materials we report studies of the effect of the topological disorder on their electronic and vibrational densities of states and on their optical properties.

  17. Simulation and experimental analysis of nanoindentation and mechanical properties of amorphous NiAl alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hao; Fang, Te-Hua; Cheng, Po-Chien; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Chao, Kuan-Chi

    2015-06-01

    This paper used numerical and experimental methods to investigate the mechanical properties of amorphous NiAl alloys during the nanoindentation process. A simulation was performed using the many-body tight-binding potential method. Temperature, plastic deformation, elastic recovery, and hardness were evaluated. The experimental method was based on nanoindentation measurements, allowing a precise prediction of Young's modulus and hardness values for comparison with the simulation results. The indentation simulation results showed a significant increase of NiAl hardness and elastic recovery with increasing Ni content. Furthermore, the results showed that hardness and Young's modulus increase with increasing Ni content. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Adhesion test of amorphous NiAl alloys at room temperature is also described in this study. PMID:26037150

  18. Ballistic impact properties of mixed multi-layered amorphous surface alloyed materials fabricated by high-energy electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to investigate ballistic impact properties of multi-layered amorphous surface alloyed materials fabricated by high-energy electron-beam irradiation. The mixture of Zr-based amorphous alloy powders and LiF+MgF2 flux powders was deposited on a Ti alloy substrate, and then electron beam was irradiated on this powder mixture to fabricate an one-layered surface alloyed material. On top of this layer, the powder mixture was deposited again and then irradiated with electron beam whose beam current was decreased to fabricate the multi-layered surface alloyed material. In the mixed multi-layered surface alloyed materials fabricated with LM1 alloy powders and LM2 or LM10 alloy powders, the surface region consisted of amorphous phases, together with a small amount of crystalline particles, whereas the center region was complicatedly composed of amorphous phases, crystallized phases, and dendritic β phases. Since the surface region mostly composed of amorphous matrix was quite hard, the alloyed materials sufficiently blocked the travel of a projectile. When cracks formed at the surface region propagated into the center region, the formation of many cracks or debris was accelerated, which could beneficially work for absorbing the ballistic impact energy, thereby leading to the higher ballistic impact properties than the surface alloyed materials fabricated with LM1 or LM2 alloy powders

  19. Invar behavior of NANOPERM-type amorphous Fe–(Pt)–Zr–Nb–Cu–B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondro, J.; Świerczek, J., E-mail: swiercz@wip.pcz.pl; Rzącki, J.; Ciurzyńska, W.; Olszewski, J.; Zbroszczyk, J.; Błoch, K.; Osyra, M.; Łukiewska, A.

    2013-09-15

    Transmission Mössbauer spectra of amorphous Fe{sub 86}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 5}, Fe{sub 81}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 10} and Fe{sub 81}Pt{sub 5}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 5} alloys in the as-quenched state and subjected to the accumulative annealing for 15 min in the temperature range from 573 K up to 750 K are presented. After these heat treatments the alloys remain in the amorphous state. The accumulative annealing for 15 min at 573 K and then 600 K of the Fe{sub 86}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 5} and Fe{sub 81}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 10} alloys causes the narrowing of the transmission Mössbauer spectra as compared to the as-quenched state and the decrease of the average hyperfine field induction which is connected with the invar effect. For similar behavior in Fe{sub 81}Pt{sub 5}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 5} alloy the accumulative annealing up to 700 K is needed. With further increase of the annealing temperature up to 750 K the broadening of the Mössbauer spectra and the increase of the average hyperfine field induction occur. The lowest value of the average hyperfine field induction of amorphous samples is accompanied by the lowest value of the Curie temperature. The investigated amorphous alloys do not reach the magnetic saturation up to the magnetizing field of 2 T and the coefficient in Holstein–Primakoff term is about one order in magnitude larger than in other classical FeCo-based amorphous alloys due to the non-collinear magnetic structure. The Mössbauer spectra and hysteresis loops of the amorphous Fe{sub 86}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 5} alloy in the as-quenched state and after the accumulative annealing at 573+620 K for 15 min are sensitive to the tensile stresses subjected to the sample. Such behavior is ascribed to the invar anomalies. - Highlights: • Complex magnetic transformations found in the amorphous Fe{sub 86}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B{sub 5}, Fe{sub 81}Zr{sub 7}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}B

  20. Thermal Expansion Characteristics and Thermal Conductivity of FeCo-based Bulk Amorphous Alloys%铁钴基块体非晶合金的热膨胀特性和热导率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆军; 王健; 沈军; 周贤良; 华小珍; 董应虎

    2016-01-01

    采用真空非自耗电弧炉制备出Fe24+xCo24-xCr15Mo14C15B6Y2(x=0,2,4,6,8,at%)块体非晶合金,利用热膨胀测试仪和激光闪射热导率测试仪测量合金的热膨胀系数和热导率并与差示扫描量热曲线和高温XRD图谱进行对比,研究不同Co含量块体非晶合金的线性热膨胀行为随温度的变化规律和Co元素含量、不同组织对铁钻基块体合金热导率的影响.结果表明,随着Co含量减小,不同Co含量铁钴基非晶合金均出现规律相似的两次晶化过程,并且二次晶化起始温度依次提高.当x=0时,在875℃附近热膨胀系数出现第3个极大值点;25℃时Fe24+xCo24-xCr15Mo14C15B6Y2 (x=0,2,4,6,8)铁钴基非晶合金热导率在7.12~7.35 W/(m·K)范围内,在700℃温度退火处理的Fe24+xCo24-xCr15Mo14C15B6Y2 (x=0,2,4,6,8)铁钴基非晶合金的热导率值为7.5~9.46 W/(m·K),然而920℃退火处理后,热导率变化比较显著并出现先升高后下降的趋势.%Fe24+xCo24-xCr15Mo14C15B6Y2(x=0,2,4,6,8,at%) bulk amorphous alloys were prepared by a non-consumable arc-melting furnace.The thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the amorphous alloy were tested by thermal expansion test instrument and laser indeed thermal conductivity tester,respectively,and the results were compared with the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves and XRD patterns.Linear thermal expansion behavior with the temperature change of FeCo-based amorphous alloys with different Co contents and the effect of different Co element contents and different organizations on thermal conductivity of FeCo-base amorphous alloy were investigated.The results show that with the decrease of Co content,FeCo-base amorphous alloys have two crystallization processes,and the initial and the secondary crystallization temperature increase in turn.Thermal expansion coefficient of Fe24Co24Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 has the third maximum point around 875 ℃.At 25 ℃,thermal conductivity of the Fe

  1. Influence Intensive Plastic Deformation on Phase Formation Process in Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lysov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of intensive plastic deformation on structure and properties of amorphous alloys were investigated experimentally. Using highly sensitive dilatometer techniques shown that intensive plastic deformation of amorphous alloys leads to increased of thermal stability interval that can be explained by a shift of the phase equilibria in heterogeneous system: amorphous matrix - frozen crystallization centers. Thus there is a dissolution frozen crystallization centers present in the original sample that confirmed by electron researches.

  2. Structured analysis of iron-based amorphous alloy coating dep osited by AC-HVAF spray%通过AC-HVAF方法制备铁基非晶合金涂层的结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶凤霞; 陈燕; 余鹏; 罗强; 曲寿江; 沈军

    2014-01-01

    本研究通过活性燃烧高速燃气喷涂(AC-HVAF)方法制备出了均匀致密的铁基非晶化合金涂层。通过调制AC-HVAF喷涂过程的工艺参数,研究了喷涂枪长、喷涂距离和送粉率对涂层非晶化程度的影响,得出控制枪长是形成高质量非晶化涂层的关键,而喷涂距离和送粉率决定了涂层的厚度和形成速率。制备出的铁基非晶合金与基体结合致密,孔隙率较低,完全的非晶化结构有效的保持了铁基非晶合金优异的力学性能,可以对基体材料进行很好的防护。%The uniform and compact Fe-based amorphous alloy coating was prepared by active combustion high velocity air fuel (AC-HVAF) spray method. By tuning the parameters of AC-HVAF spray process, the influence of the spraying gun length, spraying distance, and powder feed rate on non-crystallization has been studied carefully. Results indicate that spraying gun length is the key factor in forming perfect amorphous coating. Spraying distance and powder feed rate may determine the thickness and formation rate of the coating. The prepared coatings have a tight adhesion with the substrate, low porosity, and good non-crystallization, which would effectively maintain the excellent mechanical properties of the Fe-based amorphous alloy. The coating can provide a good protection for the substrate material.

  3. Formation and thermal stability of amorphous Ni-Mo-P alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; MA Jun; FANG Yong-kui; DUAN Ji-guo

    2004-01-01

    The experimental researches on the chemical deposition of Ni-Mo-P amorphous alloys were carried out by adding Na2 MoO4 into acidic solutions. The optimum technology conditions were obtained by orthogonal design experiments. The structures and the relationship between compositions and their thermal stability were studied by energy spectrum (EC), scanning electron micrograph and X-ray diffraction spectrum. Compared with Ni-P amorphous alloys, the Ni-Mo-P amorphous alloys have high crystallization temperature and thermal stability, and the hardness reaches its peak when the annealing temperature is 500 ℃. With the increase of the heat treatment temperature, the surface morphology of the alloys changes.

  4. Amorphous structure and properties in laser-clad Ni-Cr-Al coating on Al-Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gongying; Wong, T. T.; Su, J. Y.; Woo, C. H.

    1999-09-01

    A Ni-Cr-Al coating was clad by a 5 kW CO2 laser with different laser power on Al-Si alloy. Using transmission electron microscopy, a mixing microstructure containing Ni- based amorphous structures was observed in the laser clad zones. As the uniformity of chemical composition and temperature is poor in the laser cladding, the amorphous structure with some Ni3Al crystals coexisted in the cladding. According to the morphologies of Ni-based amorphous structures, the amorphous structure existed not only in the net-like boundaries surrounding the granular structure but also in the granular structure. The microhardness of the mixture amorphous structure is between HV 600 - 800, which is lower than that of crystal phases in the coating. A differential thermal analysis showed that Ni- based amorphous structure exhibits a higher initial crystallizing temperature (about 588 degree(s)C), which is slightly higher than that of the eutectic temperature of Al- Si alloy. The wear experimental results showed that some amorphous structure exist in the laser cladding can reduce the peeling of the granular phases from matrix, and improve the its wear resistance.

  5. Short range ordering and microstructure property relationship in amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariq, A.

    2006-07-01

    A novel algorithm, ''Next Neighbourhood Evaluation (NNE)'', is enunciated during the course of this work, to elucidate the next neighbourhood atomic vicinity from the data, analysed using tomographic atom probe (TAP) that allows specifying atom positions and chemical identities of the next neighbouring atoms for multicomponent amorphous materials in real space. The NNE of the Pd{sub 55}Cu{sub 23}P{sub 22} bulk amorphous alloy reveals that the Pd atoms have the highest probability to be the next neighbours to each other. Moreover, P-P correlation corroborates earlier investigations with scattering techniques that P is not a direct next neighbour to another P atom. Analogous investigations on the Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}B{sub 20} metallic glass ribbons, in the as quenched state and for a state heat treated at 350 C for 1 hour insinuate a pronounced elemental inhomogeneity for the annealed state, though, it also depicts glimpse of a slight inhomogeneity for B distribution even for the as quenched sample. Moreover, a comprehensive microstructural investigation has been carried out on the Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} glassy system. TEM and TAP investigations evince that the as cast bulk samples constitutes a composite structure of an amorphous phase and crystalline phase(s). The crystallization is essentially triggered at the mould walls due to heterogeneous nucleation. The three dimensional atomic reconstruction maps of the volume analysed by TAP reveal a complex stereological interconnected network of two phases. The phase that is rich in Zr and Al concentration is depleted in Co concentration while the phase that is rich in Co concentration is depleted both in Zr and Al. Zr{sub 53}Co{sub 23.5}Al{sub 23.5} glassy splat samples exhibit a single exothermic crystallization peak contrary to the as cast bulk sample with a different T{sub g} temperature. A single homogeneous amorphous phase revealed by TEM investigations depicts that the faster cooling

  6. Effect of pre-annealing on thermal stability of amorphous Zr-Cu-Ni alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; HUI Xidong; WANG Huanrong

    2003-01-01

    The influence of pre-annealing on thermal stability of the amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy was reported by employing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. It has been observed that the supercooled liquid region decreases with increasing the annealing time under isothermal conditions, indicating that the thermal stability of the amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy decreases gradually. HRTEM observations reveal that there exist some ordered atomic clusters in the amorphous matrix at the relaxation stage. These ordered atomic clusters can be regarded as precursors for the precipitation of the crystalline phases in the subsequent crystallization process. The reasons resulting in the decrease in thermal stability of the amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy with annealing time are discussed through the Gaussian decomposition for the radial distribution function of the amorphous Zr70Cu20Nii0 alloy.

  7. Radiation Resistance Studies of Amorphous Silicon Alloy Photovoltaic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation resistance of commercial solar cells fabricated from hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys was investigated. A number of different device structures were irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The cells were insensitive to proton fluences below 1E12 sq cm. The parameters of the irradiated cells were restored with annealing at 200 C. The annealing time was dependent on proton fluence. Annealing devices for one hour restores cell parameters for fluences below lE14 sq cm require longer annealing times. A parametric fitting model was used to characterize current mechanisms observed in dark I-V measurements. The current mechanisms were explored with irradiation fluence, and voltage and light soaking times. The thermal generation current density and quality factor increased with proton fluence. Device simulation shows the degradation in cell characteristics may be explained by the reduction of the electric field in the intrinsic layer.

  8. Fabrication of Ti-based composites based on bulk amorphous alloys by spark plasma sintering and crystallization of amorphous phase%放电等离子烧结-非晶晶化法合成钛基块状非晶复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元元; 杨超; 李小强; 陈友

    2011-01-01

    In order to circumvent low plasticity of bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs), a material forming method by coupling spark plasma sintering with crystallization of amorphous phase, fabricating composites based on BAAs (CBBAAs) with excellent mechanical property was reviewed systematically. By appropriate annealing of sintered BAAs prepared from spark plasma sintering in the supercooled liquid region of a mechanically alloyed amorphous powder, crystallized ductile β-Ti phase with controllable grain size, phase morphology and distribution can precipitate from the amorphous phase, and therefore, CBBAAs with a matrix of amorphous phase or crystallized β-Ti phase were obtained. The effect of different additions or substitute elements on the particle size, thermal property and microstructure of TiNbCuNiAl amorphous powder, and the influence of different sintering parameters on the microstructure and mechanical property of fabricated CBBAAs were investigated. The theoretical bases of fabricating crystallized phase-containing CBBAAs, and nucleation and growth mechanism of crystalline phase during the crystallization process were elucidated. The facture mechanism of fabricated CBBAAs under stress was explained based on a proposed "Developed hard-soft model". The results provide a promising method for fabricating large-sized crystallized phase-containing bulk composites with excellent mechanical property by powder metallurgy.%鉴于块状非晶合金(BAAs)的低塑性特征,回顾了利用放电等离子烧结-非晶晶化法制备高性能块状材料的成形技术,即先机械合金化制备钛基多组元非晶合金粉末,然后利用放电等离子烧结在粉末的过冷液相区固结非晶粉末,再利用非晶晶化法使烧结的非晶块体在随后的烧结和热处理过程中晶化析出-Ti延性相,控制延性相的形貌、尺度和分布,合成以非晶相或β-Ti晶化相为基体的钛基块状非晶复合材料(CBBAAs),研究不同添加或替换组元对TiNb

  9. Formation and crystallization of bulk Pd82Si18 amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲建; 王敬丰; 肖建中; 崔昆

    2003-01-01

    Bulk amorphous Pd82Si18 alloy with the largest diameter of 8 mm was prepared by water quenching the molten alloy with flux medium in a quartz tube. The calculation result indicates that the bulk Pd82Si18 amorphous alloys have a low critical cooling rate (Rc) of 4.589 K/s or less. The experimental results show that purifying melt may improve glass forming ability(GFA) of undercooled melt, while liquid phase separation (LPS) of undercooled melt will decrease its GFA. There are some differences in crystallization experiments between bulk metallic glass and amorphous ribbons of Pd82Si18 alloys. These include the numbers of exothermic peak, glass transition temperature Tg, crystallization temperature Tx, region of undercooling liquid (ΔT=Tx-Tg) respectively. The links of cooling rates of melt and crystallization of Pd82Si18 amorphous alloys are explored.

  10. Preparation of Plate Fe60Co8Zr10Mo5W2B15 Bulk Amorphous Alloy and Its Fracture Toughness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Huaxing; CHEN Guang

    2005-01-01

    With processes of arc melting, inductive melting and copper mold suction casting, a plate Fe-based bulk amorphous alloy Fe60Co8Zr10Mo5W2B15 with a thickness of 1mm was prepared. The surfaces and fractures of the cast bulk amorphous alloy were agleam and with typical metallic luster. The glass transition temperature(Tg), supercooled liquid region(△Tx)and reduced glass transition temperature(T rg)of the prepared Fe-based amorphous alloy are 884 K,63 K, and 0.611 respectively. The fracture toughness of the cast bulk amorphous alloy is at the level of 1.6 MPa·m1/2.

  11. Fabrication of nanoporous silver by de-alloying Cu-Zr-Ag amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Xiao, Shang-gang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Nanoporous silver (NPS) with a ligament size ranging from 15 to 40 nm was fabricated by de-alloying (Cu50Zr50)100- x Ag x ( x = 10at%, 20at%, 30at%, and 40at%) amorphous ribbons in a mixed aqueous solution of hydrofluoric (HF) acid and nitric acid under free corrosion conditions. Nanoporous silver ligaments and pore sizes were able to be fine-tuned through tailoring the chemical composition, corrosion conditions, and de-alloying time. The ligament size increases with an increase in Ag content and de-alloying time, but decreases with an increase in HF concentration. This phenomenon may be attributed to the dissolution of Zr/Cu and the diffusion, aggregation, nucleation, and recrystallization of Ag, leading to an oriented attachment of adjacent nanocrystals as revealed by TEM analysis.

  12. Fabrication of nanoporous silver by de-alloying CuZrAg amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Wang; Shang-gang Xiao; Tao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous silver (NPS) with a ligament size ranging from 15 to 40 nm was fabricated by de-alloying (Cu50Zr50)100-xAgx (x = 10at%, 20at%, 30at%, and 40at%) amorphous ribbons in a mixed aqueous solution of hydrofluoric (HF) acid and nitric acid under free cor-rosion conditions. Nanoporous silver ligaments and pore sizes were able to be fine-tuned through tailoring the chemical composition, corro-sion conditions, and de-alloying time. The ligament size increases with an increase in Ag content and de-alloying time, but decreases with an increase in HF concentration. This phenomenon may be attributed to the dissolution of Zr/Cu and the diffusion, aggregation, nucleation, and recrystallization of Ag, leading to an oriented attachment of adjacent nanocrystals as revealed by TEM analysis.

  13. Relaxation of bending stresses and the reversibility of residual stresses in amorphous soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekalo, I. B.; Mogil’nikov, P. S., E-mail: pavel-mog@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    The reversibility of residual bending stresses is revealed in ribbon samples of cobalt- and iron-based amorphous alloys Co{sub 69}Fe{sub 3.7}Cr{sub 3.8}Si{sub 12.5}B{sub 11} and Fe{sub 57}Co{sub 31}Si{sub 2.9}B{sub 9.1}: the ribbons that are free of applied stresses and bent under the action of residual stresses become completely or incompletely straight upon annealing at the initial temperatures. The influence of annealing on the relaxation of bending stresses is studied. Preliminary annealing is found to sharply decrease the relaxation rate of bending stresses, and the initial stage of fast relaxation of these stresses is absent. Complete straightening of preliminarily annealed ribbons is shown to occur at significantly higher temperatures than that of the initial ribbons. Incomplete straightening of the ribbons is explained by the fact that bending stresses relaxation at high annealing temperatures proceeds due to both reversible anelastic deformation and viscous flow, which is a fully irreversible process. Incomplete reversibility is also caused by irreversible processes, such as the release of excess free volume and clustering (detected by small-angle X-ray scattering). The revealed differences in the relaxation processes that occur in the cobalt- and iron-based amorphous alloys are discussed in terms of different atomic diffusion mobilities in these alloys.

  14. Amorphous nickel boride membrane on a platinum-nickel alloy surface for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daping; Zhang, Libo; He, Dongsheng; Zhou, Gang; Lin, Yue; Deng, Zhaoxiang; Hong, Xun; Wu, Yuen; Chen, Chen; Li, Yadong

    2016-08-01

    The low activity of the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is a major barrier for electrocatalysis, and hence needs to be optimized. Tuning the surface electronic structure of platinum-based bimetallic alloys, a promising oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, plays a key role in controlling its interaction with reactants, and thus affects the efficiency. Here we report that a dealloying process can be utilized to experimentally fabricate the interface between dealloyed platinum-nickel alloy and amorphous nickel boride membrane. The coating membrane works as an electron acceptor to tune the surface electronic structure of the platinum-nickel catalyst, and this composite catalyst composed of crystalline platinum-nickel covered by amorphous nickel boride achieves a 27-times enhancement in mass activity relative to commercial platinum/carbon at 0.9 V for the oxygen reduction reaction performance. Moreover, this interactional effect between a crystalline surface and amorphous membrane can be readily generalized to facilitate the 3-times higher catalytic activity of commercial platinum/carbon.

  15. High pressure magnetic behaviour of amorphous Ysub(x)Nisub(1-x) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High pressure magnetization and Curie temperature measurements have been performed on several amorphous Ysub(x)Nisub(1-x) alloys. The results seem to indicate that ferromagnetism disappears in a rather inhomogeneous way

  16. Pressure effects on Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Yanxin; Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhou, T. J.;

    2000-01-01

    The pressure effect on the crystallization of the Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The amorphous alloy crystallizes in two steps in the pressure range studied (0-4 GPa). The first...... process, corresponding to simultaneous precipitation of fcc-Al crystals and the metastable bcc-(AlNi)(11)La-3-like phase, is governed by a eutectic reaction. The second process corresponds to the transformation of a residual amorphous alloy into fcc-Al, Al11La3, Al3Ni, and as yet unidentified phase......(s). The applied pressure strongly affects the crystallization processes of the amorphous alloy. Both temperatures first decrease with pressure in the pressure range of 0-1 GPa and then increase with pressure up to 4 GPa. The results are discussed with reference to competing processes between the thermodynamic...

  17. Amorphous Formation in an Undercooled Binary Ni-Si Alloy under Slow Cooling Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiping Lu; Gencang Yang; Xiong Li; Yaohe Zhou

    2009-01-01

    High undercooling up to 392 K was achieved in eutectic Ni70.2Si29.8 alloy melt by using glass fluxing combined with cyclic superheating.A small quantity of amorphous phase was obtained in bulk eutectic Ni70.2Si29.8 alloy when undercooling exceeds 240 K under slow cooling conditions (about 1 K/s).The amorphous phase was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.

  18. Calorimetric studies of non-isothermal crystallization in amorphous CuTi100– alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Mehta; K Singh; N S Saxena

    2011-12-01

    The present paper reports the composition dependence of pre-exponential factor and activation energy of non-isothermal crystallization in amorphous alloys of CuTi100– system using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) technique. The applicability of Meyer–Neldel relation between the pre-exponential factor and activation energy of non-isothermal crystallization for amorphous alloys of Cu–Ti system was verified.

  19. The formation and crystallization for amorphous AlFeZr{sub 4} prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hongmei, E-mail: chenhm@gxu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Ouyang Yifang [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Guo Debo [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liao Shuzhi [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhong Xiaping [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Du Yong; Liu Yong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Amorphous AlFeZr{sub 4} alloy has been prepared from elemental mixture powders by mechanical alloying. The microstructure, thermal stability and morphology of as-milled mixture powders were analyzed by XRD and DTA respectively. Two sequential exothermal peaks exist during the procedure of crystallization. The effective activation energies for crystallization were evaluated according to Kissinger's plot. The crystallization products of as-milled powders annealed at temperature over the crystallization temperature were studied, and the structural characteristic analysis of annealed sample was performed in an X-ray diffractometer. The crystallized phases are composed of FeZr{sub 2}, AlZr{sub 2} and AlFeZr intermetallic compounds. The formation enthalpies for FeZr{sub 2}, AlZr{sub 2} and AlFeZr are calculated from first-principles and Miedema's theory. Based on the calculated formation enthalpies, the products of crystallization for amorphous AlFeZr{sub 4} alloy are explained from thermodynamic point of view.

  20. Amorphization and magnetic properties of Fe62Nb38 mechanically alloyed powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Hongwei; HU Jifan; YANG Fuming

    2004-01-01

    The amorphization and magnetic properties of Fe62Nb38 mechanically alloyed powders were investigated. In the initial mechanical alloying processes, the lattice structure of pure Fe is destroyed due to the cold-welding and fracturing, accompanying the reduction of ferromagnetic properties. The Ms value of Fe62Nb38 powders with ball-milling time t = 6 h is only 48.1 A.m2/kg. With prolongating of mechanical alloying processes, a solid state amorphization reaction (SSAR) takes place and the Fe-Nb ferromagnetic amorphous phase is formed. With the milling time increasing from 6 to 18 h, the satura tion magnetization of Fe62NB38 powders increases with enhancement of the proportion of ferromagnetic amorphous phase in from dilute model. However, the Curie temperature of the Fe62Nb38 amorphous phase is only 206°C, which is much smaller than that of the pure Fe. This implies that the exchange interaction between Fe atoms in amorphous alloyed Fe62Nb38 becomes weak due to the Nb dilution. Investigation shows that the variation of magnetic properties of milled powders is one of important tools for describing the amorphization by mechanical alloying.

  1. Short-range order in ab initio computer generated amorphous and liquid Cu–Zr alloys: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galván-Colín, Jonathan, E-mail: jgcolin@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Ariel A., E-mail: valladar@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Valladares, Renela M.; Valladares, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-542, México, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics and a new approach based on the undermelt-quench method we generated amorphous and liquid samples of Cu{sub x}Zr{sub 100−x} (x=64, 50, 36) alloys. We characterized the topology of our resulting structures by means of the pair distribution function and the bond-angle distribution; a coordination number distribution was also calculated. Our results for both amorphous and liquids agree well with experiment. Dependence of short-range order with the concentration is reported. We found that icosahedron-like geometry plays a major role whenever the alloys are Cu-rich or Zr-rich disregarding if the samples are amorphous or liquid. The validation of these results, in turn would let us calculate other properties so far disregarded in the literature.

  2. Kinetics of glass transition and crystallization in multicomponent bulk amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) is used to investigate apparent activation energy of glass transition and crystallization of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloys by Kissinger equation under non-isothermal condition. It is shown that the glass transition behavior as well as crystallization reaction depends on the heating rate and has a characteristic of kinetic effects. After being isothermally annealed near glass transition temperature, the apparent activation energy of glass transition increases and the apparent activation energy of crystallization reaction decreases. However, the kinetic effects are independent of the pre-annealing.

  3. Transformers with amorphous alloy nucleus in distribution system; Transformadores com nucleo de liga amorfa em sistemas de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciano, Benedito Antonio; Freire, Raimundo Carlos Silverio [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Bezerra, Reno Barroso [Industria de Transformadores Itaipu, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Inacio, Renato Cucatu [Companhia de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Tocantins (CELTINS), TO (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    This paper compares the performance of amorphous alloy nucleus with oriented grain silicon steel alloy, related to losses, energy efficiency and energy quality. Besides, are highlighted the process obtention of the amorphous alloys and the electric, magnetic and mechanicals, magneto thermal treatment, effect of oxidation properties, and etc. (author)

  4. Evolution of amorphous and nanocrystalline phases in mechanically alloyed Mg{sub 1.9}M{sub 0.1}Ni (M=Ti,Zr,V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solsona, P.; Doppiu, S.; Spassov, T.; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D

    2004-11-03

    The evolution of amorphous and nanocrystalline phases in mechanically alloyed Mg{sub 1.9}M{sub 0.1}Ni (M=Ti,Zr,V) was studied under different milling conditions by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was found that the presence of air (oxygen and nitrogen) accelerates the nanocrystallization reaction, but has no influence on the amorphous phase formation during ball milling. The mechanochemical work necessary to obtain a certain degree of amorphization or nanocrystallization in the Mg{sub 2}Ni-based alloys was determined and it was found to control the end product of milling.

  5. Anisotropic phase separation in amorphous Fe--Ge alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetron sputtered amorphous FexGe100-x films have been examined with anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering (ASAXS) in an attempt to characterize composition fluctuations which have been previously reported in this system. Films grown under various deposition conditions have been studied, with the scattering vector both in and oblique to the plane of the films, to search for anisotropy. By manipulating the deposited power flux and rates of growth, films which have the same composition can be grown to different states of phase separation. The total correlation functions have been calculated from the oblique scattering experiments. The anisotropy can be successfully modeled as a close-packing of oriented prolate ellipsoidal particles, with the elongated axis along the direction of film growth. A method for using these measurements to determine the compositions of the phase-separating species has been developed and utilized. The results indicate phase separation into a-Ge and a-FeGe2 for the a-FexGe100-x (x<33) alloy

  6. Local order dynamics: its application to the study of atomic mobility, of point defects in crystalline alloys, and of structural relaxation in amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addressed the study of the atomic mobility mechanism and of the atom movement dynamics in the case of crystalline alloys and of amorphous alloys. The first part is based on a previous study performed on an α-Cu70-Zn30 crystalline alloy, and addresses the case of an α-Au70-Ni30 alloy. The specificity of this case relies in the fact that the considered solid solution is metastable and susceptible to de-mixing in the considered temperature range. This case of off-equilibrium crystalline alloy is at the crossroad between steady crystalline alloys and metallic glasses which are studied in the second part. The third part addresses the irradiation of metallic amorphous alloys by fast particles (neutrons or electrons). The author tried to characterise atomic defects induced by irradiation and to compare them with pre-existing ones. He studied how these defects may change atomic mobility, and, more generally, to which extent the impact of energetic particles could modify local order status

  7. Amorphous silicon based betavoltaic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N; Riesen, Y.; Franco, A; S. Dunand; Kind, H.; Schneider, S.; Ballif, C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon betavoltaic devices are studied both by simulation and experimentally. Devices exhibiting a power density of 0.1 μW/cm2 upon Tritium exposure were fabricated. However, a significant degradation of the performance is taking place, especially during the first hours of the exposure. The degradation behavior differs from sample to sample as well as from published results in the literature. Comparisons with degradation from beta particles suggest an effect of tritium...

  8. Structural studies of the phase separation of amorphous FexGe100-x alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, Robert D.; Bienenstock, Arthur; Morrison, Timothy I.

    1994-02-01

    Small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray-absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) experiments have been performed on amorphous FexGe100-x alloys over the composition range 0Janot for the related FexSn100-x system. This phase separation explains the Mossbauer observation of ``magnetic'' and ``nonmagnetic'' Fe atoms in these alloys.

  9. Formation mechanism of amorphous Ni-Fe-P alloys by electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Cheng-hui

    2005-01-01

    The formation mechanism of the amorphous Ni-Fe-P coating was studied by analysis of the forming thermodynamics, dynamics, and crystallography of the amorphous alloy. The results show that, in the initial stage of deposition a thin "crystal epitaxial growth" layer first forms, and then transforms to amorphous gradually. The cross section in Ni-Fe-P coatings by electrolytic etching exhibits a banded structure of alternate dark and light bands. It is proposed that the banded structure is caused by a change in the P content with thickness,which is due to alternated depletion and enrichment of [OH-] in the diffusion layer resulting from the generation and evolution of hydrogen gas. The amorphous Ni-Fe-P coating will be formed in proper composition, high nucleation rate and strongly hindered growth of the crystal nucleus. Amorphous Ni-Fe-P alloys form as islands, and grow up by layer.

  10. Amorphous TM1−xBx alloy particles prepared by chemical reduction (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Mørup, Steen

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous transition-metal boron (TM-B) alloy particles can be prepared by chemical reduction of TM ions by borohydride in aqueous solutions. ln the last few years systematic studies of the parameters which control the composition, and, in turn, many of the properties of the alloy particles, have...... been performed and are reviewed in the present paper. The most important preparation parameters which influence the composition are the concentration of the borohydride solution and the pH of the TM salt solution. By controlling these parameters it is possible to prepare amorphous alloy samples...

  11. Friction and wear behavior of electrodeposited amorphous Fe-Co-W alloy deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤姣; 雷惊天; 陆欣; 黄宇宁

    2004-01-01

    The microstructures, friction and wear behavior under dry sliding condition of electrodeposited amorphous Fe-Co-W alloy deposits heat treated at different temperatures were studied. A comparative study of hard chrome deposit under the same testing condition was also made. The experimental results show that the hardness and wear resistance of amorphous Fe-Co-W alloy deposits are improved with the increasing of heat treatment temperature, and reach the maximum value at 800 ℃, then decrease above 800 ℃. Under 40 N load, the wear resistance properties of the alloy deposits heat treated at 800 ℃ are superior to those of hard chrome deposit. The main wear mechanisms of amorphous Fe-Co-W alloy deposits heat treated below 600 ℃ are peeling, plastic and flowing deformation; when the deposits are heat treated above 700 ℃, they are plastic and flowing deformation. While the main wear mechanisms of hard chrome are abrasive wear, fatigue and peeling.

  12. Study on Interface Structure and Bond Properties between Cemented Carbide and Tool Steel Blazing with amorphous alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Ming-dong; Xu Jin-fu; Xu Xue-bo; Zou Gui-sheng; Huang Geng-hua

    2004-01-01

    Cemented Carbide YG11C and Tool Steel Crl2MoV was blazed with Ni-base amorphous alloys, QG-1011,MBF-20 and MBF-75, using dynamics thermodynamics analogue testing machine Gleeble 1500D. The effects of brazing temperature, holding time and holding pressure on micro-structure and bond strength were investigated. Results showed that YG11C and Cr12MoV were all wetted well by these three Ni-base alloys, and the bond strength was as high as 220MPa,320MPa, 320MPa respectively. When the blazing temperature was at the point over the melting point 60-70℃ of Ni-base alloy, the holding time was about 2-10min, the suitable pressure was benefit for improving the brazing quality.Microanalysis showed Co in cemented carbide diffused into liquid brazing alloy and formed the Fe-Co solid .solution.

  13. Synthesis of amorphous Ti-Al alloys by mechanical alloying of elemental powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊红; 黄伯云; 贺跃辉; 周科朝; 刘咏

    2002-01-01

    Blended elemental powders with the nominal compositions (mole fraction, %) of Ti54Al46, Ti52Al48 and Ti50Al50 were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball milling system for up to 100h.The structure evolution in these powders was characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal a nalysis techniques. It was found that elemental powders were progressively trans formed into nanocrystalline Ti(Al) supersaturated solid solution, then into amor phous phase. With increasing Al content, the formation of a fully Ti(Al) supersa turated solid solution and amorphous phase were accelerated, which are attributed to the fine grain size. And the grain size condition for formation of amorpho us phase in this system is ≤16 nm.

  14. Structural relaxation and crystallization in the Fe-Cr-Si-B and Fe-Cu-Cr-Si-B amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural relaxation, crystallization and optimisation processes in soft magnetic amorphous alloys based on iron are examined by applying different experimental techniques: X-ray diffraction analysis, high-resolution electron microscopy, measurements of magnetic and electric properties (permeability, after-effect resistivity). The presented results are discussed in terms of annealing out of microvoids, formation of nanocrystalline phase and changes of effective magnetostriction constant. (author)

  15. Phase separation and crystallization process of amorphous Fe78B12Si9Ni1 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the melt heat treatment on the structure and crystallization process of the rapidly quenched amorphous Fe78B12Si9Ni1 alloys have been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, DSC and TEM. Amorphous phase separation has been observed in the alloys quenched after the preliminary high temperature heat treatment of the liquid alloy (heating above 1400°C). Comparative analysis of the pair distribution functions demonstrates that this phase separation accompanied by a changes in the local atomic arrangement. It has been found that crystallization process at heating is strongly dependent on the initial amorphous phase structure - homogeneous or phase separated. In the last case crystallization goes through the formation of a new metastable hexagonal phase [a=12.2849(9) Ǻ, c=7.6657(8) Ǻ]. At the same time the activation energy for crystallization (Ea) reduces from 555 to 475 kJ mole−1

  16. Crystallization kinetics of amorphous Zr65Cu25Al10 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕荣; 石志强; 王艳; 滕新营; 叶以富; 闵光辉; 张均艳

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of amorphous Zr65Cu25Al10 alloy under isothermal annealing condition was investigated by DSC and XRD. It is found that two exothermic peaks appear in the DSC curve of amorphous Zr65Cu25Al10 alloy, indicating that the crystallization proceeds through double-stage mode. The crystallization process of amorphous Zr65Cu25Al10 alloy under isothermal annealing condition is mainly controlled by nucleation and one-dimensional growth with the crystallized volume fraction smaller than 70%. With the crystallized volume fraction ranging from 70% to 90%, crystallization process is mainly dominated by the growth of three-dimensional pre-existing quench-in nuclei. And when the crystallized volume fraction reaches above 90%, transient nucleation becomes the master of the crystallization process.

  17. Crystallization of the Amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕荣; 刘玉先; 萧莉美; 惠希东

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization behaviour of the amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy within the supercooled liquid region has been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).It is found that the relationship between the incubation time, which is necessary for the amorphous Zr70 Cu20Ni10 alloy to nucleate and grow, and the annealing temperature obeys an exponential function. A similar relationship can also be observed between the peak time corresponding to the minimum of the exothermic reaction in the DSC scan and the annealing temperature. TEM observations confirm that the first exothermic peak in the DSC trace of amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy mainly corresponds to the precipitation of the Zr2Cu phase, while the second peak mainly corresponds to the precipitation of the nanoscale Zr2Ni phase.

  18. Prediction of Failure Due to Thermal Aging, Corrosion and Environmental Fracture in Amorphous and Titanium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C

    2003-04-15

    DARPA is exploring a number of advanced materials for military applications, including amorphous metals and titanium-based alloys. Equipment made from these materials can undergo degradation due to thermal aging, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, denting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced cracking and microbial influenced corrosion. Amorphous alloys have exceptional resistance to corrosion, due in part to the absence of grain boundaries, but can undergo crystallization and other phase instabilities during heating and welding. Titanium alloys are extremely corrosion resistant due to the formation of a tenacious passive film of titanium oxide, but is prone to hydrogen absorption in crevices, and hydrogen induced cracking after hydrogen absorption. Accurate predictions of equipment reliability, necessary for strategic planning, requires integrated models that account for all relevant modes of attack, and that can make probabilistic predictions. Once developed, model parameters must be determined experimentally, and the validity of models must be established through careful laboratory and field tests. Such validation testing requires state-of-the-art surface analytical techniques, as well as electrochemical and fracture mechanics tests. The interaction between those processes that perturb the local environment on a surface and those that alter metallurgical condition must be integrated in predictive models. The material and environment come together to drive various modes of corrosive attack (Figure 1). Models must be supported through comprehensive materials testing capabilities. Such capabilities are available at LLNL and include: the Long Term Corrosion Test Facility (LTCTF) where large numbers of standard samples can be exposed to realistic test media at several temperature levels; a reverse DC machine that can be used to monitor the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in situ; and banks of potentiostats with

  19. Relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys investigated by dynamical calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.; Clavaguera, N.

    1997-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys. The Curie temperature(TC) evolution of the amorphous phase during relaxation as a function of heating rate, time and pre-annealing temperature were measured. Two distinct relaxation processes are observed, consequent with topological and chemical short range order changes.

  20. Relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys investigated by dynamical calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the relaxation process of Fe(CuNb)SiB amorphous alloys. The Curie temperature (TC) evolution of the amorphous phase during relaxation as a function of heating rate, time and pre-annealing temperature were measured. Two distinct relaxation processes are observed, consequent with topological and chemical short range order changes. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Raman Amplifier Based on Amorphous Silicon Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Ferrara; Rendina, I.; S. N. Basu; Dal Negro, L.; Sirleto, L.

    2012-01-01

    The observation of stimulated Raman scattering in amorphous silicon nanoparticles embedded in Si-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures (SRN/Si-SLs) is reported. Using a 1427 nm continuous-wavelength pump laser, an amplification of Stokes signal up to 0.9 dB/cm at 1540.6 nm and a significant reduction in threshold power of about 40% with respect to silicon are experimentally demonstrated. Our results indicate that amorphous silicon nanoparticles are a great promise for Si-based Raman la...

  2. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of the atom packing and density of Al-Ni amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Al-Ni alloys have better glass forming ability (GFA) than other Al-based alloys. However, the relationship among the atomic arrangement, glass transition, packing density and composition hasn’t been systematically studied. In this paper the ab initio molecular dynamics simulation (AIMD) was performed on the atom packing and density of AlxNi100-x (x=80, 83, 85, 86, 87 and 90) alloys. The pair correlation function and Voronoi tessellation indicated that there are obvious topological and chemical short-range orders in these alloys. The topological structure consists of Al-centered icosahedra like and Ni-centered tri-capped trigonal prism (TTP) like polyhedra. There is strong chemical short-range ordering between Al and Ni atoms indicated by the bond-length of Al-Ni pair shorter than the sum of the radii of Al and Ni atoms, which increases with the increasing of Ni content. It is shown that the densities of amorphous alloys don’t agree with the linear law with a peak at x=85. Based on the features of the structure and density, it is concluded that Al-Ni alloys at x=84–86 have high GFA, which can be extended to multi-component Al-based alloys.

  3. Compression behavior and equation of state of Ni77P23 amorphous alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gong; GAO YunPeng; SUN YiNan; MA MingZhen; LIU Jing; LIU RiPing

    2007-01-01

    The compression behavior of Ni77P23 amorphous alloy is investigated at room temperature in a diamond-anvil cell instrument using in-situ high pressure energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with a synchrotron radiation source. The equation of state is determined by fitting the experimental data according to Birch-Murnaghan equation: -△V/V0=0.08606P-3.2×10-4P2+5.7×10-6P3. It is found that the structure of Ni77P23 amorphous alloy is stable under pressures up to 30.5 Gpa.

  4. Compression Behaviour of Ni77P23 Amorphous Alloy up to 30.5 GPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gong; ZHANG Xin-Yu; SUN Yi-Nan; QIAN Yu-Qing; LIU Jing; LIU Ri-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The compression behaviour of Ni77P23 amorphous alloy is investigated at room temperature in a diamond-anvil cell instrument using in-situ high pressure energy dispersive x-ray diffraction with a synchrotron radiation source.The equation of state is determined by fitting the experimental data according to the Birch-Murnaghan equation.It is found that the structure of Ni77P23 amorphous alloy is stable under pressures up to 30.5GPa. Within the pressure range from zero to the experimental one, the pressure-induced structural relaxation is reversible.

  5. Evidence of eutectic crystallization and transient nucleation in Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Yanxin; Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, Z. G.;

    2001-01-01

    The phase evolution with the temperature and time in the process of crystallization of Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy has been investigated by in situ high-temperature and high-pressure x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Two crystalline phases, fcc-Al and a metastable bcc-(AlNi)(11......)La-3-like phase, were identified after the first crystallization reaction, revealing a eutectic reaction instead of a primary reaction suggested in the literature. Time-dependent nucleation in the amorphous alloy is detected and the experimental data can be fitted by both the Zeldovich...

  6. Formation Range, Mechanical Properties and Thermal Stability of Superconducting Zr-Si Amorphous Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Akihisa; Takahashi, Yoshimi; MASUMOTO, Tsuyoshi

    1980-01-01

    New type of refractory metal-metalloid amorphous alloys containing less than 20 at% Si have been found in binary Zr-Si system by a modified melt-spinning technique for high melting point alloys. Specimens are in the form of continuous ribbons of 1-2 mm width and 0.02-0.03 mm thickness. The silicon content in the amorphous range is limited to the range 12 to 24 at%. The Vickers hardness increases from 395 to 495 DPN with increasing silicon content and the tensile strength is of the order of 14...

  7. Magnetic and mechanical properties in FeXSiB (X = Cu, Zr, Co) amorphous alloys

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kwapuliński; Rasek, J.; Z. Stokłosa; G. Badura; B. Kostrubiec; Haneczok, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The idea of the paper is to study the influence of different alloying additions (Cu, Zr, Nb) on structuralrelaxation, crystallization, and improvement of soft magnetic properties in amorphous alloys of the type FeXSiBobtained by melt spinning technique.Design/methodology/approach: Magnetic and electric characteristics of the as quenched and successivelyannealed samples were determined at room temperature. Experiments were carried out by applying magneticpermeability measurements (Max...

  8. Novel Fe-based amorphous magnetic powder cores with ultra-low core losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous magnetic alloy powders were prepared from bulk metallic glasses Fe74Cr2Mo2Sn2P10Si4B4C2 with supercooled liq-uid region of 32 K by water atomization.Amorphous magnetic powder core precursor was produced from a mixture of the amorphous alloy powder with addition of insulation and bonding materials by mold compacting at room temperature.After annealing the core precursor,the amorphous magnetic core exhibits superior magnetic properties as compared with molypermalloy powder core.The initial permeability up to 1 MHz was about 80,the flux density at 300 Oe was 1.06 T and the core loss at 100 kHz for Bm=0.1 T was only 329 kW/m3.The ultra-low core loss is attributed to the combination of relatively high resistivity and the amorphous structure of the Fe-based amorphous powder.Besides the outstanding magnetic properties,the Fe-based amorphous magnetic powder core had a much lower cost which renders the powder cores a potential candidate for a variety of industrial applications.

  9. Ideal solution behaviour of glassy Cu–Ti, Zr, Hf alloys and properties of amorphous copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristić, R. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Trg Ljudevita Gaja 6, HR-3100 Osijek (Croatia); Cooper, J.R. [Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, CB3 0HE Cambridge (United Kingdom); Zadro, K.; Pajić, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bijenička cesta 32, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Ivkov, J. [Institute of Physics, Bijenička cesta 46, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Babić, E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bijenička cesta 32, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • Ideal solution behaviour (ISB) is established in all Cu–Ti, Zr, Hf glassy alloys. • ISB enables reliable estimates for various properties of amorphous Cu. • ISB also impacts glass forming ability in these and probably other similar alloys. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of selected properties of amorphous (a) Cu–TE alloys (TE = Ti, Zr and Hf) has been performed. Data for average atomic volumes of a-Cu–Hf, Ti alloys combined with literature data show that ideal solution behaviour (Vegard’s law) extends over the whole glass forming range (GFR) in all a-Cu–TE alloys. This enables one to obtain an insight into some properties and probable atomic arrangements for both, a-TEs (Ristić et al., 2010) and a-Cu by extrapolation of the data for alloys. Indeed the atomic volumes and other properties studied for all a-Cu–TE alloys extrapolate to the same values for a-Cu. Depending on the property, these values are either close to those of crystalline (c) Cu, or are close to those for liquid (L) Cu. In particular, the electronic transport properties of a-Cu seem close to those of L-Cu, whereas the static properties, such as the density of states, and Young’s modulus, converge to those of c-Cu. The possible impact of these results on our understanding of a-Cu–TE alloys, including glass forming ability, is discussed.

  10. A New Physical Metallurgy Phenomenon-the Shock Wave Nanocrystallization of Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some results of amorphous alloy nanocrystallization by shock wave are presented. Compared with the well knownannealing crystallization, these results seem novel and are very difficult to be explained by the diffusion theory, such asnucleation and growth mechanism in the solid state phase transitions. The shock wave crystallization of amorphousalloy is a new metallurgical phenomenon with possibilities for improving the crystallization theory in physics.

  11. Electro-oxidation of ethylene glycol on nanoporous Ti-Cu amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Cuijie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhu Shengli, E-mail: slzhu@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Pi Lele; Cui Zhenduo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > Nanoporous Ti-Cu amorphous alloy exhibits apparent EG electrocatalytic ability EG electro-oxidation occurs more easily in alkaline medium than in acid medium. > In acid medium, heat treatment plays an enhancing role towards EG oxidation. > In alkaline medium, heat treatment has opposite effect below and above 0.1 V. - Abstract: This work describes ethylene glycol (EG) electro-oxidation over nanoporous structure catalyst prepared by dealloying Ti-Cu amorphous alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize nanoporous catalysts. Electrocatalytic performances in acid and alkaline mediums were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that nanoporous Ti-Cu amorphous alloy exhibited apparent electrocatalytic ability in terms of higher oxidation current in CV and CA curves comparing to raw Ti-Cu amorphous alloy. Electro-oxidation of EG took place more easily in alkaline medium than that in acid medium. In acid medium, heat treatment improved the electrocatalytic activity of nanoporous catalyst. In alkaline medium, heat treatment played an enhancing role below 0.1 V and a depressing role above 0.1 V. Possible electro-oxidation mechanism of EG was also discussed.

  12. Crystallization behavior of amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy annealed at 380℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕荣; 叶以富; 闵光辉; 张均艳; 滕新营; 石志强

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy isothermally annealed at 380℃ was first investigated by employing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It has been found that an exothermic peak appears in the DSC trace when the annealing time is about 17~18min, indicating a certain phase transformation occurs in the matrix of amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy. Meanwhile, isothermal annealing experiments for amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy ranging from 360℃ to 400℃ with a temperature interval of 10℃ were also carried out, from which no exothermic reaction can be observed except for the case of 380℃. This behavior indicates that the phase transformation during isothermal annealing of amorphous Zr70Cu20Ni10 alloy is strongly temperature- and time-dependent. Further investigations are required to reveal the nature of such phenomenon.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin Jinhong [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78750 (United States); Waheed, Abdul [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Winkenwerder, Wyatt A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kim, Hyun-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Agapiou, Kyriacos [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Jones, Richard A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hwang, Gyeong S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)]. E-mail: ekerdt@che.utexas.edu

    2007-05-07

    Chemical vapor deposition growth of amorphous ruthenium-phosphorus films on SiO{sub 2} containing {approx} 15% phosphorus is reported. cis-Ruthenium(II)dihydridotetrakis-(trimethylphosphine), cis-RuH{sub 2}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 4} (Me = CH{sub 3}) was used at growth temperatures ranging from 525 to 575 K. Both Ru and P are zero-valent. The films are metastable, becoming increasingly more polycrystalline upon annealing to 775 and 975 K. Surface studies illustrate that demethylation is quite efficient near 560 K. Precursor adsorption at 135 K or 210 K and heating reveal the precursor undergoes a complex decomposition process in which the hydride and trimethylphosphine ligands are lost at temperatures as low at 280 K. Phosphorus and its manner of incorporation appear responsible for the amorphous-like character. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to suggest the local structure in the films and the causes for phosphorus stabilizing the amorphous phase.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of amorphous segregation inAg-Rh alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingxiang; BIAN Xiufang

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to investigate the liquid and amorphous microstructures of binary Agx-Rh(100-x) (x = 25, 50, 75 in atom fraction) alloys. Segregation feature of homogeneous interatomic binding of Ag-Rh liquid was found and probed, which can be retained into amorphous solids upon rapid cooling. Homogeneous binding may occur when the difference in the elemental atomic sizes is less than 10%. The icosahedra in liquid before the formation of amorphous state exist in a stable state and the network formed by 1551-clusters in molten alloys would inhibit the crystallization and diffusion of atoms. A higher degree of 155 1-clusters will be favorable to form metallic glasses.

  15. Formation and structure of V-Zr amorphous alloy thin films

    KAUST Repository

    King, Daniel J M

    2015-01-01

    Although the equilibrium phase diagram predicts that alloys in the central part of the V-Zr system should consist of V2Zr Laves phase with partial segregation of one element, it is known that under non-equilibrium conditions these materials can form amorphous structures. Here we examine the structures and stabilities of thin film V-Zr alloys deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computational methods. Atomic-scale modelling was used to investigate the enthalpies of formation of the various competing structures. The calculations confirmed that an amorphous solid solution would be significantly more stable than a random body-centred solid solution of the elements, in agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the modelling effort provided insight into the probable atomic configurations of the amorphous structures allowing predictions of the average distance to the first and second nearest neighbours in the system.

  16. Crystallization of the Al-Ni-Sm amorphous alloys; Cristalizacao de ligas amorfas no sistema Al-Ni-Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danez, G.P., E-mail: gabidanez@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Aliaga, L.C.R.; Kiminami, C.S.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Aluminum based amorphous alloys have received special attention due to unique properties such as high mechanical strength, corrosion, ductility and toughness as well as wear resistance. On the other hand, these properties can be improved by controlled crystallization of Al matrix with grain size ranged between 5 to 50 nanometers. The goal of this work was to study the thermal crystallization behavior of Al-Ni-Sm alloys. Compositions with the same topological instability ({lambda} = 0.1) were selected. Alloys were prepared in arc-melting furnace and ribbons were processed by melt-spinning technique. Samples ribbons were submitted to heating in order to induce crystallization, and its structure analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The difference in crystallization behavior is discussed in function of the topological instability due to the variation of the proportion of the transition metal to the rare-earth. (author)

  17. Wear mechanism of electrodeposited amorphous Ni-Fe-P alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高诚辉; 赵源

    2004-01-01

    The wear mechanism of amorphous Ni-Fe-P coating was discussed. The wear resistance of the amor phous Ni-Fe-P coatings was tested on a Timken wear apparatus, and the wear track of the amorphous Ni-Fe-P coat ings as-deposited and heated at various temperatures was observed by SEM. The results show that the wear resistthe coating will change with the heating temperature increasing from pitting+plowing at 200 ℃ to pitting at 400 ℃,and to plowing at 600 ℃. The pits on the worn surface of the amorphous Ni-Fe-P coating result from the tribo-fatigue fracture. The cracks of spalling initiate at pits and propagate at certain angle with the sliding direction on sur face, and then extend into sub-surface along the poor P layers or the interface between layers. Finally under repeated action of the stress in the rubbing process the cracks meet and the debris forms. The generation of the pits and spal-ling is related with the internal stress, brittleness and layer structure of the amorphous Ni-Fe-P coating.

  18. Amorphization of Ni61 Nb39 Alloy by Laser Surface Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-xiang LU; Ran LI; Yan LI; Tao ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    The surface of Ni61 Nb39 crystalline ingot was treated by laser surface melting with different processing parame-ters.A fully amorphous layer with a thickness of approximately 10 μm could be produced on the top surface under optimal parameters.An amorphous-crystalline composite layer with the depth from 10 to 50 μm,consisting of amor-phous matrix and intermetallic phases of Ni3 Nb and Ni6 Nb7 ,could be formed.The micro-hardness (about 831 HV) of the treated surface was remarkably improved by nearly 100% compared with the value of the crystalline substrate caused by the formation of the fully amorphous structure.A finite volume simulation was adopted to evaluate the temperature distribution in the laser-affected zone of Ni6 1 Nb3 9 alloys and to reveal the mechanism of glass formation in the laser-affected zone.

  19. Model calculations of thermodynamic functions of crystallization of Co-B amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of perfectly associated solution is used for the approximation of the properties of metal melts. The calculation programs are prepared for modelling thermodynamic properties of solutions on the basis of the model of perfectly associated solution, which programs can enable optimizational calculation relying on the results of several series of experiments. Co-B liquid alloys are modelled using all available in the literature experimental data. Estimated values ΔcrH = 10 kJ/mol; ΔcrS = -2 J/(K mol); ΔcrG = -9 kJ/mol are obtained for the crystallization of amorphous Co0.815B0.185 alloy. The calculated value of amorphous alloy crystallization enthalpy is compared with the literature data. 17 refs., 1 tab

  20. The effect of minor addition of insoluble elements on transformation kinetics in amorphous Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.; Perepezko, J.H., E-mail: perepezk@engr.wisc.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • By doping Pb or In in AlYFe alloys, the primary crystallization of Al is promoted. • The catalytic effect is based on the good wetting behavior between Al and Pb. • Pb promotes crystallization by providing heterogeneous nucleation sites. • Through doping 0.5–2 at.% of In, T{sub x} decreases by 35–47 °C. • The coherent interface shows a good contacting behavior between Al and In. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline metallic materials based on partial devitrification of amorphous aluminum alloys show an attractive combination of high strength and low density. A key feature concerning the improved mechanical properties is the high number density of Al nanocrystals (10{sup 22}–10{sup 23} m{sup −3}) that precipitate within the amorphous precursor structure upon low temperature annealing. For Al{sub 87}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5}Pb, the melt-spun ribbons consisted of an amorphous matrix with a dispersion of Pb nanoparticles (10 nm diameter). HRTEM images of the Pb–Al interface revealed a good wetting behavior between the Al and the Pb nanoparticles. Isothermal annealing for Al{sub 87}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5}Pb showed no transient stage even though the crystallization onset, T{sub x}, was at a much lower temperature (247 °C) compared with Al{sub 88}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5} (267 °C). For Al{sub (88−x)}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5}In{sub x} (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0), the DSC results indicated that T{sub x} continuously decreased from 232 °C to 220 °C as the indium level increases from 0.5 at.% to 2.0 at.%. Under STEM, the image showed a coherent interface between Al and In particles. In the analysis of the transformation kinetics, the addition of minor elements can effectively promote additional nucleation of Al nanocrystals by providing heterogeneous nucleation sites. These developments offer new opportunities for the control of nanoscale microstructures.

  1. Nanoporous nickel-copper-phosphorus amorphous alloy film for methanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel Ni-Cu-P amorphous alloy with nanoporous structure was fabricated by LSV etching. • Lower onset oxidation potential of methanol at NP-NiCuP than both S-NiCuP and NP-NiCu. • Superior activity and stability for methanol oxidation at the NP-NiCuP electrode. • Long lifetime of the NP-NiCuP electrode. - Abstract: Nanoporous Ni-Cu-P amorphous alloy (NP-NiCuP) and nanoporous Ni-Cu crystalline alloy (NP-NiCu) are prepared by the linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) etching of copper from the electroless Ni-Cu-P and Ni-Cu alloy coatings, respectively. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis show that the nanoporous Ni-Cu-P alloy is amorphous structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrates the NP-NiCuP shows a 3-D bi-continuous porous structure with the pore size of 150–200 nm and the ligament size of around 100 nm. Electrochemical performances are measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The results prove that the NP-NiCuP electrode exhibits higher the proton diffusion coefficient (D0) of Ni(OH)2 and surface coverage (Γ*) of the redox species than those on smooth electroless Ni-Cu-P amorphous alloy (S-NiCuP) and NP-NiCu electrodes in alkaline solution obviously. Moreover, electro-oxidation of methanol suggests that the NP-NiCuP electrode holds higher anodic current density and lower onset potential than the S-NiCuP and NP-NiCu electrodes. Finally, the NP-NiCuP electrode has stable redox behavior and superior catalytic stability for methanol oxidation

  2. Effect of composition on Curie temperature, magnetic moment, and high-field susceptibility of amorphous Fe90-xMxZr10 (M=V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Si, and B) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetization measurements for amorphous Fe90-xMxZr10 (M=V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Si, and B) alloys prepared by single-roller spin quenching have been made by an extracting sample magnetometer in magnetic fields up to 65 kOe and at temperatures ranging from 1.5 to 300 K. Preliminary results show that the magnetic properties of these amorphous alloys strongly depend upon the M concentration and display a similarity to those of the parent Fe-Zr base; compared with amorphous Fe-M-B alloys with the same concentration, all the samples are characterized by a large high-field susceptibility, a small magnetic moment, and a low Curie temperature, which, for low M concentration, are particularly sensitive to applied fields. The noncollinear spin structures that characterize Fe-rich Fe-Zr--based amorphous alloys have been proposed to explain the observed results

  3. Miedema model based methodology to predict amorphous-forming-composition range in binary and ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, N., E-mail: nirupamd@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mittra, J. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Pabi, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kulkarni, U.D.; Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A methodology was proposed to predict amorphous forming compositions (AFCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical contribution to enthalpy of mixing {proportional_to} enthalpy of amorphous for AFCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy in the prediction of AFC-range was noticed in Al-Ni-Ti system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical alloying (MA) results of Al-Ni-Ti followed the predicted AFC-range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Earlier MA results of Al-Ni-Ti also conformed to the predicted AFC-range. - Abstract: From the earlier works on the prediction of amorphous forming composition range (AFCR) using Miedema based model and also, on mechanical alloying experiments it has been observed that all amorphous forming compositions of a given alloy system falls within a linear band when the chemical contribution to enthalpy of the solid solution ({Delta}H{sup ss}) is plotted against the enthalpy of mixing in the amorphous phase ({Delta}H{sup amor}). On the basis of this observation, a methodology has been proposed in this article to identify the AFCR of a ternary system that is likely to be more precise than what can be obtained using {Delta}H{sup amor} - {Delta}H{sup ss} < 0 criterion. MA experiments on various compositions of Al-Ni-Ti system, producing amorphous, crystalline, and mixture of amorphous plus crystalline phases have been carried out and the phases have been characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Data from the present MA experiments and, also, from the literature have been used to validate the proposed approach. Also, the proximity of compositions, producing a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases to the boundary of AFCR in the Al-Ni-Ti ternary has been found useful to validate the effectiveness of the prediction.

  4. Effects of TM on stability of structure corresponding to prepeak of amorphous Al90TM5Ce5 Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵芳; 吴佑实

    2002-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and DSC were used to investigate the crystallization process of amorphous Al90Fe5Ce5 and Al90Ni5Ce5 alloys, and the stability of the structure corresponding to the prepeak. Both these amorphous alloys are crystallized by two stages. The stability of the structure corresponding to the prepeak has a large difference. The structure corresponding to the prepeak for amorphous Al90Fe5Ce5 alloy is more stable than the amorphous matrix. However, it is not stable for amorphous Al90Ni5Ce5 alloys during the first crystallization stage. The prepeak position of amorphous Al90Ni5Ce5 alloys is very close to that of amorphous Al90Fe5Ce5 alloys. It is estimated that the prepeak is also due to diffraction peak broadening caused by very fine quasi-crystalline structure and the structural unit is an icosahedral quasi-crystalline structure with Ni as the central atom. The large difference of the stability of the structure corresponding to the prepeak is likely caused by different stability of the quasi-crystalline structure.

  5. Corrosion-Resistant Amorphous Alloy Ribbons for Electromagnetic Filtration of Iron Rusts from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Asahi; Asami, Katsuhiko; Sato, Takeaki; Hashimoto, Koji

    1985-01-01

    An attempt was made to use corrosion-resistant amorphous Fe-9Cr-13P-7C alloy ribbons as an electromagnetic filter material for trapping various iron rusts suspended in water at 40℃. The ferrimagnetic Fe_3O_4 rust was trapped with the 100% efficiency and paramagnetic rusts such as α-Fe_2O_3, α-FeOOH and amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide were trapped with certain efficiencies at the magnetic field strength of 0.5-10 kOe. The regeneration of the filter by back-washing was easy. The trapping capacity...

  6. Recent developments in amorphous silicon-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneking, C.; Rech, B.; Foelsch, J.; Wagner, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Schicht- und Ionentechnik

    1996-03-01

    Two examples of recent advances in the field of thin-film, amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) pin solar cells are described: the improved understanding and control of the p/i interface, and the improvement of wide-bandgap a-Si:H material deposited at low substrate temperature as absorber layer for cells with high stabilized open-circuit voltage. Stacked a-Si:H/a-Si:H cells incorporating these concepts exhibit less than 10% (relative) efficiency degradation and show stabilized efficiencies as high as 9 to 10% (modules 8 to 9%). The use of low-gap a-Si:H and its alloys like a-SiGe:H as bottom cell absorber materials in multi-bandgap stacked cells offers additional possibilities. The combination of a-Si:H based top cells with thin-film crystalline silicon-based bottom cells appears as a promising new trend. It offers the perspective to pass significantly beyond the present landmark of 10% module efficiency reached by the technology utilizing exclusively amorphous silicon-based absorber layers, while keeping its advantages of potentially low-cost production. (orig.) 47 refs.

  7. Hard rhenium–boron–cobalt amorphous alloys with a wide supercooled liquid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianfeng, E-mail: jfwang316@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhu, Shijie; Wang, Liguo; Guan, Shaokang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Li, Ran; Zhang, Tao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Novel Re–B–Co amorphous alloys with compositions of Re{sub 65−x}B{sub 35}Co{sub x} (at%, x=25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50) were fabricated by single-roller melt spinning. These alloys were found to exhibit a clear glass transition phenomenon. The width of supercooled liquid region (ΔT{sub x}) is in the range of 52–71 K. Such a large ΔT{sub x} allows us to produce amorphous alloy bulks by thermoplastic forming. The Vickers hardness is up to 19.10 GPa for the Re{sub 40}B{sub 35}Co{sub 25} alloy, which is close to that reported for some hard covalent crystals. Thus, the present alloys with a combination of large ΔT{sub x} and high hardness are expected to be used as a new type of structural materials. Furthermore, the relationships of hardness with glass transition temperature and Young's modulus were also discussed.

  8. Mössbauer investigations of amorphous Fe(80-x B20Nbx (x=0,4,6,10 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Babilas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a structural and magnetic characterization of selected Fe-based metallic glasses in as-cast state.Design/methodology/approach: The studies were performed on Fe(80-xB20Nbx metallic glasses in form of ribbons with Nb addition of 0, 4, 6, 10 at.%. The amorphous structure of tested samples was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy methods. The Mössbauer spectroscopy was also applied to comparison of structure in studied amorphous samples with different chemical composition. The thermal properties associated with solidus temperature of master alloys were measured using the differential thermal analysis (DTA. The soft magnetic properties examination of tested materials contained relative magnetic permeability.Findings: The XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations revealed that the studied alloys in as-cast state were amorphous. The solidus temperature assumed as the onset temperature of the melting peak on the DTA curve reached a value of 1405, 1394, 1392 and 1389 K for Fe80B20, Fe76B20Nb4, Fe74B20Nb6 and Fe70B20Nb10 alloy, adequately. The Mössbauer spectra presented broadened six line patterns characteristic to the structural disorder of amorphous ferromagnetic materials. The changing of the average hyperfine magnetic field with niobium addition is connected with structural changing. A high concentration of Nb atoms with high atomic radius can acting as diffusion barrier what lead to formation of regions rich in iron or boron atoms. The niobium addition in Fe(80-xB20Nbx alloy improves soft magnetic properties in as-cast state. Practical implications: The Mössbauer spectroscopy is very useful method in studying the structural environment of Fe atoms on a nearest-neighbor length scale allowing the analysis of iron-containing phases.Originality/value: The obtained examination results confirm the utility of investigation methods in analysis of microstructure of ferromagnetic glassy alloys.

  9. ATOM PROBE FIM STUDY OF AN AMORPHOUS Pd-Si ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, M.; Yao, H; Nenno, S.; Ohnaka, I.; Fukusako, T.

    1987-01-01

    The amorphous structure of Pd84Si16 alloy wire obtained by inrotating-liquid spinning method from the liquid state, has been studied, in an atomic scale, by atom-probe field-ion microscopy. In the as-solidified specimen of Pd84Si16 alloy, whose electron diffraction pattern shows single halo ring, compositional fluctuation is found to exist in the range of 8 to 24 at% Si. The fluctuation is of the period of a few tenth nanometer, and it does not have long-range periodicity. We have discussed t...

  10. Accurate electrical resistance measurement of the crystallization kinetics of amorphous alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An accurate four-line ac electrical resistance measurement (ERM)apparatus was developed. By using the ERM the crystallization kinetics of amorphous Ni80P20, FeZr2, Fe86B14 alloys were investigated. The experimental results show that the ERM can identify the early stage of crystallization in amorphous alloys. The ERM detects a crystallization temperature range obviously wider than the DSC does, indicating that the ERM is more sensitive to the structure evolution in crystallization. For the eutectic or polymorphic crystallization, three distinct processes can be identified from the measured resistance variation: (i) crystal nucleation, (ii) subsequent growth of crystal nuclei, and (iii) coarsening of the crystallites. In the early stage of the primary crystallization, the ERM results reflect the nucleation information as well.

  11. Structure of amorphous Ag/Ge/S alloys: experimentally constrained density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akola, J.; Beuneu, B.; Jones, R. O.; Jóvári, P.; Kaban, I.; Kolář, J.; Voleská, I.; Wágner, T.

    2015-12-01

    Density functional/molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to determine structural and other properties of amorphous Ag/Ge/S and Ge/S alloys. In the former, the calculations have been combined with experimental data (x-ray and neutron diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure). Ag/Ge/As alloys have high ionic conductivity and are among the most promising candidates for future memristor technology. We find excellent agreement between the experimental results and large-scale (500 atoms) simulations in Ag/Ge/S, and we compare and contrast the structures of Ge/S and Ag/Ge/S. The calculated electronic structures, vibrational densities of states, ionic mobilities, and cavity distributions of the amorphous materials are discussed and compared with data on crystalline phases where available. The high mobility of Ag in solid state electrolyte applications is related to the presence of cavities and can occur via jumps to a neighbouring vacant site.

  12. Magnetic Properties Of Amorphous And Nanocrystalline FeNiZrCuB Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coercive fields Hc, saturation magnetizations Js and magnetostrictions λs of the amorphous Fe86-xNixZr7Cu1B6 alloys different contents of Ni(0-86 at.%) were investigated at room temperature. Thermomagnetic analyses by means of initial AC permeability and resistivity at the amorphous and nanocrystalline states of the investigated alloys were performed up to 5500 C. It was found that additions of Ni up to x = 33 at.% cause an increase of Hc, Js, λs. Additions of Ni (x = 0 - 43) cause drastic increase of the Curie temperature from 71 deg C for x 0at.% to 373 deg C for x = 43at.% of Ni. Higher concentration of Ni causes a decrease of Hc, Js, λs and Tc. (Authors)

  13. Evidence of eutectic crystallization and transient nucleation in Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase evolution with the temperature and time in the process of crystallization of Al89La6Ni5 amorphous alloy has been investigated by in situ high-temperature and high-pressure x-ray powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Two crystalline phases, fcc-Al and a metastable bcc-(AlNi)11La3-like phase, were identified after the first crystallization reaction, revealing a eutectic reaction instead of a primary reaction suggested in the literature. Time-dependent nucleation in the amorphous alloy is detected and the experimental data can be fitted by both the Zeldovich's and Kashchiev's transient nucleation models with transient nucleation times of 220 and 120 min, respectively. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  14. Nanocrystallization of Al80Ni6Y8Co4Cu2 amorphous alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边赞; 孙玉峰; 何国; 陈国良

    2001-01-01

    Nanoscale α(Al) phase with a size of 15  nm was precipitated from Al80Ni6Y8Co4Cu2 amorphous ribbons after annealing. The microhardness increases with increasing the crystallization volume fraction of nanoscale α(Al) phase. The combination effect of alloy strengthening and dispersion strengthening is main reason for the increase of microhardness. The formation of intermetallic compound (Al3Ni) with a small volume fraction leads to the decrease of microhardness resulting from the depletion of the solute elements in the residual amorphous matrix and the weakening of alloy strengthening. With increasing the volume fraction of intermetallic compound, microhardness increases again due to dispersion strengthening of nanoscale intermetallic compound.

  15. Hydrogen diffusion in Zr35Ni55V10 amorphous alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiao-ying; WAHG Fang

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen diffusion in Zr35Ni55V10 amorphous alloy was measured by chronopotentiometry. The results show that at lower molar ratio of hydrogen (x<0.06, x=n(H)/n(M)), the diffusivity of hydrogen increases rapidly with increasing the molar ratio of hydrogen. However, when x(H)>0.1, the diffusivity of hydrogen decreases slightly with increasing the molar ratio of hydrogen, which is similar to the change in crystalline alloy. It is proposed that hydrogen atoms mainly occupy the sites corresponding to tetrahedra with 4 Zr atoms at lower molar ratio of hydrogen. When the molar ratio of hydrogen is higher, the additional hydrogen atoms are in sites with higher energy and these sites in amorphous state are similar to these in crystalline states.

  16. Mossbauer studies of amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports a Mossbauer study of amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy between 10 and 673 K. The Curie temperature Tc is found to be 620-+ 1 K. The temperature dependence of the reduced average hyperfine field can be explained on the basis of Handrich's model of amorphous ferromagnetism...

  17. Investigation on corrosion and wear behaviors of nanoparticles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the role of amorphous SiO2 particles in corrosion and wear resistance of Ni-based metal matrix composite alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer has been prepared by double glow plasma alloying on AISI 316L stainless steel surface, where Ni/amorphous nano-SiO2 was firstly predeposited by brush plating. The composition and microstructure of the nano-SiO2 particles reinforced Ni-based composite alloying layer were analyzed by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The results indicated that the composite alloying layer consisted of γ-phase and amorphous nano-SiO2 particles, and under alloying temperature (1000 deg. C) condition, the nano-SiO2 particles were uniformly distributed in the alloying layer and still kept the amorphous structure. The corrosion resistance of composite alloying layer was investigated by an electrochemical method in 3.5%NaCl solution. Compared with single alloying layer, the amorphous nano-SiO2 particles slightly decreased the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the passive films formed on the composite alloying consisted of Cr2O3, MoO3, SiO2 and metallic Ni and Mo. The dry wear test results showed that the composite alloying layer had excellent friction-reduced property, and the wear weight loss of composite alloying layer was less than 60% of that of Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloying layer

  18. Crystallization kinetics of an amorphous Co77Si11.5B11.5 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    R. Nowosielski; A. Zajdel; S. Lesz; B. Kostrubiec; Z. Stokłosa

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes crystallization kinetics and changes magnetic properties involved by process of crystallization Co-Si-B amorphous alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The following experimental techniques were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrical resistivity in situ measurements (four-point probe) static and dynamic measurements of magnetic properties (magnetic balance, fluxmeter, Maxwell-Wien bridge).Findings: In this work has been performed influence of thermal annealing on...

  19. A Novel Ultrafine Ru-B Amorphous Alloy Catalyst for Glucose Hydrogenation to Sorbitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An ultrafine Ru-B amorphous alloy catalyst was prepared by chemical reduction with KBH4 in aqueous solution, which exhibited perfect selectivity to sorbitol (~100%) and very high activity during the liquid phase glucose hydrogenation, much higher than the corresponding crystallized Ru-B, the pure Ru powder, and Raney Ni catalysts. The correlation of the catalytic activity to both the structural and surface electronic characteristics was discussed briefly.

  20. Microstructure and properties of hydrophobic films derived from Fe-W amorphous alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Wang; Yun-han Ling; Jun Zhang; Jian-jun Wang; Gui-ying Xu

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous metals are totally different from crystalline metals in regard to atom arrangement. Amorphous metals do not have grain boundaries and weak spots that crystalline materials contain, making them more resistant to wear and corrosion. In this study, amorphous Fe-W alloy films were first prepared by an electroplating method and were then made hydrophobic by modification with a water repellent (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. Hierarchical micro-nano structures can be obtained by slightly oxidizing the as-deposited alloy, accompanied by phase transformation from amorphous to crystalline during heat treatment. The mi-cro-nano structures can trap air to form an extremely thin cushion of air between the water and the film, which is critical to producing hydrophobicity in the film. Results show that the average values of capacitance, roughness factor, and impedance for specific surface areas of a 600°C heat-treated sample are greater than those of a sample treated at 500°C. Importantly, the coating can be fabricated on various metal substrates to act as a corrosion retardant.

  1. Glass Forming Ability and Magnetic Property of Fe74Al4Sn2(PSiB)20 Amorphous Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei-fei; ZHOU Shao-xiong

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous ribbons of Fe74Al4Sn2(PSiB)20 alloy have been synthesized by melt spinning and axial design method. The thermal properties of the amorphous ribbons have been measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The DSC results show that the Fe74Al4Sn2P12Si4B4 amorphous alloy has relatively wider supercooled liquid region with a temperature interval of 40.38 K (ΔTx=Tx-Tg). The alloys with a higher phosphorous content in the metalloid element composition triangle of Fe74Al4Sn2(PSiB)20 have high glass forming ability. The amorphous alloys also show good magnetic properties in which Fe74Al4Sn2P6.67Si6.67B6.67 alloy has a large maximum permeability (μm), Fe78Al4Sn2P3Si3B10 alloy exhibits a high square ratio (Br/B10) and Fe74Al4Sn2P4Si12B4 shows a low core loss (P0.5/1.3T). High glass forming ability and good magnetic properties make Fe74Al4Sn2(PSiB)20 amorphous alloys valuable in future research.

  2. Study of Critical Behavior in Amorphous Fe85Sn5Zr10 Alloy Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L. A.; Hua, X. H.; Zhu, H. Z.; Yang, J.; Yang, H. P.; Yan, Z. X.; Zhang, T.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the critical behavior in amorphous Fe85Sn5Zr10 alloy ribbon prepared using a single-roller melt-spinning method. This alloy shows a second-order magnetic transition from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM) state at the Curie temperature T C (˜306 K). To obtain more information on the features of the magnetic transition, a detailed critical exponent study was carried out using isothermal magnetization M (H, T) data in the vicinity of the T C. Modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot, Widom's scaling relation and critical isotherm analysis techniques were used to investigate the critical behavior of this alloy system around its phase transition point. The values of critical exponents determined using the above methods are self-consistent. The estimated critical exponents are fairly close to the theoretical prediction of the three-dimensional (3D) Heisenberg model, implying that short-range FM interactions dominate the critical behavior in amorphous Fe85Sn5Zr10 alloy ribbon.

  3. Preparation and characterisation of electrodeposited amorphous Sn-Co-Fe ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical deposition was investigated as a process to obtain alloys of Sn-Co-Fe, which to date have not been reported in the literature. A constant current technique was used to electrochemically deposit tin-cobalt-iron alloys from a gluconate electrolyte. The gluconate system was chosen as an electrolyte, which could potentially provide an environmentally safe process. The effect of plating parameters such as current density, deposition time, temperature and pH are discussed. Results are reported for current density and plating time using an electrolyte temperature of 20-60 deg. C and pH of 7.0 in relation to phase composition, crystal structure and magnetic anisotropy of the deposited alloys. Investigations were conducted using 57Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), 119Sn CEMS, transmission Moessbauer Spectroscopy and XRD. The 57Fe and 119Sn CEMS spectra and XRD showed that the dominant phase in the deposits was amorphous Sn-Co-Fe. The relative area of the 2nd and 5th lines of the sextets representing the magnetic iron containing phases was found to decrease continuously with increasing current density while at the same time no significant changes in the magnetic anisotropy was found with plating time. Magnetically split 119Sn spectra reflecting a transferred hyperfine field were also observed. A range of good quality amorphous Sn-Co-Fe ternary alloys was obtained over a range of operating conditions from an environmentally acceptable gluconate electrolyte

  4. Low-emissivity coating of amorphous diamond-like carbon/Ag-alloy multilayer on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent low-emissivity (low-e) coatings comprising dielectrics of amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) and Ag-alloy films are investigated. All films have been prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. An index of refraction of the DLC film deposited in a gas mixture of Ar/H2 (4%) shows n = 1.80 + 0.047i at 500 nm wavelength. A multilayer stack of DLC (70 nm thick)/Ag87.5Cu12.5-alloy (10 nm)/DLC (140 nm)/Ag87.5Cu12.5-alloy (10 nm)/DLC (70 nm) has revealed clear interference spectra with spectra selectivity. This coating performs low emittance less than 0.1 for black body radiation at 297 K, exhibiting a transparent heat mirror property embedded in DLC films

  5. Control and optimization of baths for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasad

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization and control of an electrodeposition process for depositing boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of cobalt-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having cobalt sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, 1-dodecylsulfate-Na, ammonium sulfate and ammonia or sulfuric acid for pH adjustments has been studied. Detailed studies on bath composition, pH, temperature, mechanical agitation and cathode current density have led to optimum conditions for obtaining satisfactory alloy deposits. These alloys were found to have interesting properties such as high hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and also sufficient ductility. A voltammetric method for automatic monitoring and control of the process has been proposed.

  6. Critical behavior of electrical resistivity in amorphous Fe–Zr alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Perumal

    2001-04-01

    Electrical resistivity (ρ) of the amorphous (a-)Fe100-Zr ( = 8.5, 9.5 and 10) alloys has been measured in the temperature range 77 to 300 K, which embraces the second-order magnetic phase transition at the Curie temperature point . Analysis of the resistivity data particularly in the critical region reveals that these systems have a much wider range of critical region compared to other crystalline ferromagnetic materials. The value of and specific heat critical exponent, has the same values as those determined from our earlier magnetic measurements. The value of for all the present investigated alloys are in close agreement with the values predicted for three-dimensional (3D) Heisenberg ferromagnet systems, which gives contradiction to the earlier results on similar alloys. It is observed from the analysis that the presence of quenched disorder does not have any influence on critical behavior.

  7. Amorphous Structures in Laser Cladding of ZL111 Aluminum Alloy:Semi-quantitative Study by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianqin; CHENG Zhaogu; XIA Jin'an; XU Guoliang; LIANG Gongying

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with amorphous structures in the laser cladding. ZL111 alloy is the substrate and Ni-Cr-Al alloy is sprayed on the substrate as the coating material. The coating is clad by a 5 kW transverse flow CO2 laser. The observation of SEM and TEM reveal that in the laser cladding there are amorphous structures of two different morphologies: one is space curved flake-like, and exists in the white web-like structures; the other is fir leaf-like, and exists in the grain-like structures. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) is used to semi-quantitatively determine the content of the amorphous structures. A relation is obtained between the content of amorphous structures and the dimensionless laser cladding parameter C. We also show the changes of the amorphous structures after annealing.

  8. Crystallization Kinetics of Pr8Fe86-xZrxB6 Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of Pr8Fe86-xZrxB6 (x=0, 1, 2) amorphous alloys was studied by DTA and XRD methods. The experimental results showed that the crystalline phases of Pr8Fe86B6 alloy are composed of α-Fe phase, Pr2Fe23B3 and Pr2Fe14B, when crystallization temperature is below 900 ℃. The activation energy of α-Fe phase remains relatively constant about 306.09 kJ/mol, as the crystalline fraction of α-Fe phase is below 8 %. At the beginning of crystallization, the activation energy of Pr2Fe23B3 and Pr2Fe14B phases are 510.85 kJ/mol and 725.97 kJ/mol, respectively, and then the activation energy of three phases declines with increasing the crystalline fraction. The crystallization behavior of α-Fe and Pr2Fe14B essentially results in the formation of a α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B composite microstructure with a coarse grain size in annealed Pr8Fe86B6 alloy, which is attributed to a difficult nucleation and an easy growth for both the α-Fe and Pr2Fe14B in the alloy. Zr can be used to change the crystallization behavior of the α-Fe phase in Pr-Fe-B amorphous alloy, which is helpful to the formation of the α-Fe/Pr2Fe14B nanocomposite microstructure with a fine grain size for the α-Fe phase in the alloy.

  9. SHORT-RANGE ORDER IN AMORPHOUS Co-Sn ALLOYS THROUGH NMR AND MÖSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nabli, H; Piecuch, M.; Durand, J.; Marchal, G.

    1985-01-01

    The hyperfine field distribution on 59Co obtained by NMR in ferromagnetic amorphous Co-Sn alloys is related to the distribution of Sn environment around the Co resonant nuclei. The mean values of the quadrupole splitting and of the isomershift for tin in paramagnetic Co-Sn alloys, as obtained by 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy, suggest that the tin atoms in these alloys are located at the center of trigonal prisms of cobalt atoms.

  10. Ion-implantation-induced amorphization of InxGa1-xP alloys as functions of stoichiometry and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Z. S.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.; Schnohr, C. S.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry/Channeling and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure measurements have been combined to investigate the amorphization of InxGa1-xP alloys at 15 and 300 K for selected stoichiometries representative of the entire stoichiometric range. The amorphization kinetics differs considerably for the two temperatures: at 15 K, the amorphization kinetics of InxGa1-xP is intermediate between the two binary extremes while at 300 K, InxGa1-xP is more easily amorphized than both InP and GaP. Direct impact and stimulated amorphization both contribute to the amorphization process at 15 K. Dynamic annealing via thermally induced Frenkel pair recombination reduces the influence of direct impact amorphization at 300 K such that the stimulated amorphization is dominant. At this temperature, stimulated amorphization in ternary InxGa1-xP alloys is supported by the structural disorder inherent from the bimodal bond length distribution.

  11. PREPARATION AND ACTIVATION OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED Ni-Zr-Al AMORPHOUS ALLOY FOR CATALYTIC PURPOSE%快速凝固Ni-Zr-Al非晶态催化合金的制备与活化处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国胜; 张海峰; 沈宁福

    1999-01-01

    @@ As new catalytic materials, amorphous alloys have attracted much attention since 1980s. Rapid solidification is one of the main techniques to prepare amorphous alloys.However, as-cast rapidly solidified alloys usually can not be directly used as the catalyst for their poor surface area, oxide film on their surface, etc. Therefore, activation pretreatment must be carried out. Recently, leaching aluminum has been attempted to activate rapidly solidified amorphous catalytic alloys containing aluminum. In order to carry out such an activation pretreatment, the Al-rich amorphous precursor alloys must be obtained first, in which the content of active component must be sufficiently high so that the catalytic activity of the activated catalyst can be attained. On the other hand, the chemical composition of the precursor must approach eutectic point or contribute to the range of low liquidus temperature so that the glass transition can be easily achieved according to the solidification theory[1]. So far Al-based alloys which meet the dual confinement have not been found yet. For Ni-Al and Cu-Al systems,only the microcrystalline alloys can be obtained through rapid solidification[2,3].In the present study, glass formation was achieved by introducing promotion elements in Ni-Al system precursor alloys.

  12. Structures of bulk amorphous Zr41Ti14Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 alloy in amorphous, crystalline, supercooled liquid and liquid states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The amorphous and crystal structures of Zr41Ti14Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 alloy have been analyzed with X-ray diffractometer. The structures of bulk amorphous Zr41Ti14Ni10Cu12.5B22.5 alloy in solid, supercooled liquid and liquid states are almost of the same structure. The RDFs (Radius Distribution Function), the first coordination number, the first coordination radius, the correlation radius and atom number of the cluster were calculated for bulk amorphous Zr41Ti14Ni10Cu12.5B22.5 alloy in different states. The first coordination sphere radii and the first coordination numbers are 0.312nm, 11.2 in solid state, 0.301nm, 10.932 in supercooled liquid region and 0.305nm, 11.296 in liquid state. The crystal structure of Zr41Ti14Ni10Cu12.5B22.5 alloy is consisted of several intermetallic compounds which are CuZr2, Be2Zr, etc. The reason of formation glass for this alloy is that there is a larger resistance for atoms to rearrange and form intermetallic compounds in a long range order.

  13. Atomic Diffusion in Amorphous Alloy Melts%非晶合金熔体的原子扩散

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金亮; 朱纯傲; 耿永亮; 张博

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion in amorphous alloy melts is an important kinetic parameter to describe the properties in melts.Dif-ferent from the normal alloy melts,the diffusion behavior of amorphous alloy melts tend to have their own unique proper-ties,such as representing a typical slow diffusivity and a complex temperature dependent.But the researches on atomic diffusion are still at a preliminary stage whether in domestic or international study due to technical and theoretical difficul-ties.This paper mainly introduced some measurement techniques of the diffusion coefficient,including our self-designed sliding cell method,which combined the merits of the traditional long capillary method and the shear cell method,and ruled out the undesired atomic diffuse occuring in heating process.It’s concerned as an effective way to measure the diffu-sion coefficient.In addition,based on the diffusion results and models of the amorphous alloy melts,the diffusion research in amorphous alloy melts were summarized and discussed.As some good models to describe the diffusion behavior of the simple liquids,Arrhenius relationship,VFT function,Tn relationship,Darken equation and S-E relationship show a lot of limitations in amorphous alloy melts.At the same time,although MCT theory can predict the dynamics of glass forming liquids,which were confirmed by experiments and simulations,it also have some issues that are difficult to overcome.%非晶合金熔体的扩散是描述非晶合金熔体动力学行为的重要参数,不同于一般的金属熔体,非晶合金熔体的扩散行为具有自己独特的性质,如表现出典型的慢扩散和复杂的温度依赖关系等。由于技术、理论上的原因,目前无论是国内还是国际上,对非晶合金熔体扩散的研究尚处于不成熟的阶段。主要介绍了扩散系数的几种比较可行的测量方法,其中包括最近本课题组在传统长管法和切单元法基础上开发的滑动剪切技术,该技术能

  14. Preparation and Properties of Mg-Cu-Y-Al bulk Amorphous Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Ohnuma, M.;

    2000-01-01

    gap at the crystal-mould interface during crystallisation. The maximum amorphous layer thickness decreases from similar to3 mm to zero when the Al content increases in the range from 0 to about y = 10%. The evolution of the microstructure of the initially amorphous phase was examined by x...... temperatures in specimens containing a few percent Al. The alloy with no Al crystallises apparently without the formation of nanoparticles. The critical cooling rate for the formation of an amorphous Mg(60)CU(30)Y(10) specimen was determined experimentally by a combination of DSC data and temperature vs, time...... measurements to be 60-150 K/s, in agreement with estimates from the literature. The Vickers hardness (Hv) of the amorphous material for y = 2% is higher (similar to 360 kg/mm(2)) than for y = 0 (similar to 290 kg/mm(2)). On crystallisation the hardness of the latter material increases to the 400 kg/mm(2) level...

  15. Crystallization kinetics of an amorphous Co77Si11.5B11.5 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes crystallization kinetics and changes magnetic properties involved by process of crystallization Co-Si-B amorphous alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The following experimental techniques were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD, electrical resistivity in situ measurements (four-point probe static and dynamic measurements of magnetic properties (magnetic balance, fluxmeter, Maxwell-Wien bridge.Findings: In this work has been performed influence of thermal annealing on crystallization kinetics and magnetic properties amorphous Co77Si11.5B11.5 alloy.Practical implications: The attractive properties of Co-Si-B alloy are of special interest for basic research on the materials as well as for their potential applications, like magnetic sensors. The Co soft magnetic material is used in noise filters, saturable reactors, miniature inductance elements for abating spike noise, mains transformers, choke coils, zero-phase current transformers, and magnetic heads etc., i.e., devices which are expected to exhibit high levels of permeability at high frequencies.Originality/value: It has been shown that thermal annealing at temperature close to the crystallization temperature leads to a significant increase of the initial magnetic permeability.

  16. Effects of B upon glass forming ability of Al{sub 87}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5} amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shih-Fan [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jhewn-Kuang, E-mail: jkchen@ntut.edu.tw [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Shing-Liang [Taiwan Ductile Iron Factory Co. Ltd., Hsinchu 303, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yu-Lom [Katec R and D Corp., Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •15 at.% boron added to Al{sub 87}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5} alloy demonstrates glass transition in contrast to its non-boron opponent. •A large 24.6 K ΔT{sub x} (T{sub x}−T{sub g}) liquid supercooling range indicates (Al{sub 87}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5}){sub 85}B{sub 15} a possible ductile Al-based amorphous alloy. •Boron is effective in improving thermal stability of Al{sub 87}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5} amorphous alloy by increasing the activation energy for crystallization by 43%. •The hardness in crystallization of the boron-containing alloy could achieve as high as 595 Hv. •Boron could affect the short-range and medium-range symmetry which delays the nucleation and crystallization kinetics. -- Abstract: In this study, 15 at.% of boron is added to increase the thermal stability and amorphous forming ability of Al{sub 87}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5} alloy ribbons by single roller melt-spinning process. Thermal properties including crystallization activation energy and the Avrami exponent of crystallization are investigated using non-isothermal and isothermal analyses. Only the (Al{sub 87}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5}){sub 85}B{sub 15} amorphous alloy ribbon demonstrates a glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) at 529 K, and its ΔT{sub x} (=T{sub x} − T{sub g}) value is 24.6 K. Crystallization kinetic study show that the 15 at.% of boron increases the activation energy for crystallization from 159 to 228 kJ/mol. The Avrami exponent n value of Al{sub 87}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5} amorphous alloy is 1.5 ∼ 2.1 indicating a decreasing nucleation rate with crystallization time, whereas the n value of (Al{sub 87}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5}){sub 85}B{sub 15} amorphous alloy ribbon is 2.3 ∼ 3.1 or the nucleation rate increases with time. The addition of boron could affect the crystal symmetry in atomic clusters and thus the phase separation behavior in the amorphous alloy. Boron is shown to delay the nucleation of boron-containing Al nano-crystals in crystallization. The maximum hardness is obtained for

  17. Impact Ignition and Combustion Behavior of Amorphous Metal-Based Reactive Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin; Groven, Lori; Son, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Recently published molecular dynamic simulations have shown that metal-based reactive powder composites consisting of at least one amorphous component could lead to improved reaction performance due to amorphous materials having a zero heat of fusion, in addition to having high energy densities and potential uses such as structural energetic materials and enhanced blast materials. In order to investigate the feasibility of these systems, thermochemical equilibrium calculations were performed on various amorphous metal/metalloid based reactive systems with an emphasis on commercially available or easily manufactured amorphous metals, such as Zr and Ti based amorphous alloys in combination with carbon, boron, and aluminum. Based on the calculations and material availability material combinations were chosen. Initial materials were either mixed via a Resodyn mixer or mechanically activated using high energy ball milling where the microstructure of the milled material was characterized using x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical impact response and combustion behavior of select reactive systems was characterized using the Asay shear impact experiment where impact ignition thresholds, ignition delays, combustion velocities, and temperatures were quantified, and reported. Funding from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Grant Number HDTRA1-10-1-0119. Counter-WMD basic research program, Dr. Suhithi M. Peiris, program director is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon-Nitrogen Alloy Thin Films for Solar Cell Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-Bin; DING Zheng-Ming; PANG Qian-Jun; CUI Rong-Qiang

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen alloy (a-CNx :H) thin films have been deposited on silicon substratesby improved dc magnetron sputtering from a graphite target in nitrogen and hydrogen gas discharging. Thefilms are investigated by using Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectral ellipsometer and electron spin resonance techniques. The optimized process condition for solar cell application is discussed. Thephotovoltaic property of a-CNx:H/silicon heterojunctions can be improved by the adjustment of the pressureratio of hydrogen to nitrogen and unbalanced magnetic field intensity. Open-circuit voltage and short-circuitcurrent reach 300mV and 5.52 Ma/cm2, respectively.

  19. Correlation between Structures of Bulk Amorphous Zr-Ti-Ni-Cu-Be Alloy in Different States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structures of the bulk amorphous Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10.0Be22.5 alloy have been analyzed in solid, supercooled liquid and liquid with X-ray diffraction. The first coordination sphere radii and the first coordination numbers are 0.312 nm, 11.2 in solid state, 0.301 nm, 10.932 in supercooled liquid region and 0.305 nm, 11.296 in liquid state. The structures are the same in different states. But it shows some tendency to crystallizing that the first coordination sphere radius and the first coordination number drop in supercooled liquid region.

  20. STUDY ON THE SHOCK WAVE CRYSTALLIZATION OF AMORPHOUS ALLOYS BY DSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y. Zhao; H. Wang; Q.J. Liu; J.D. Kan; Z.Q. Liu

    2002-01-01

    Shock wave and annealing crystallization of amorphous alloys FeSiB, FeMoSiB andFeCuNbSiB were studied by isothermal and non-isothermal DSC technique. It wasfound that the shock wave crystallization is very perfect, the fraction crystallized isvery close to 100%, though the period of crystallization is very short, only about10-4-10-6 s. Their produced phases differ from the parent phase in structure andcomposition. The high velocity of the transformation is very difficult to explain by thediffusion theory of solid state phase transition.

  1. Magnetically stabilized bed reactor for selective hydrogenation of olefins in reformate with amorphous nickel alloy catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuhong; Mu; Enze; Min

    2007-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized bed (MSB) reactor for selective hydrogenation of olefins in reformate was developed by combining the advantages of MSB and amorphous nickel alloy catalyst. The effects of operating conditions, such as temperature, pressure, liquid space velocity, hydrogen-to-oil ratio, and magnetic field intensity on the reaction were studied. A mathematical model of MSB reactor for hydrogenation of olefins in reformate was established. A reforming flow scheme with a post-hydrogenation MSB reactor was proposed. Finally, MSB hydrogenation was compared with clay treatment and conventional post-hydrogenation.

  2. Silicon nanocrystals on amorphous silicon carbide alloy thin films: Control of film properties and nanocrystals growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbe, Jeremy, E-mail: jeremy.barbe@hotmail.com [CEA, Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); Xie, Ling; Leifer, Klaus [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Faucherand, Pascal; Morin, Christine; Rapisarda, Dario; De Vito, Eric [CEA, Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Makasheva, Kremena; Despax, Bernard [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Perraud, Simon [CEA, Liten, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2012-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the growth of silicon nanocrystals on amorphous silicon carbide alloy thin films. Amorphous silicon carbide films [a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H (with x < 0.3)] were obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a mixture of silane and methane diluted in hydrogen. The effect of varying the precursor gas-flow ratio on the film properties was investigated. In particular, a wide optical band gap (2.3 eV) was reached by using a high methane-to-silane flow ratio during the deposition of the a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H layer. The effect of short-time annealing at 700 Degree-Sign C on the composition and properties of the layer was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that the silicon-to-carbon ratio in the layer remains unchanged after short-time annealing, but the reorganization of the film due to a large dehydrogenation leads to a higher density of SiC bonds. Moreover, the film remains amorphous after the performed short-time annealing. In a second part, it was shown that a high density (1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}) of silicon nanocrystals can be grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on a-Si{sub 0.8}C{sub 0.2} surfaces at 700 Degree-Sign C, from silane diluted in hydrogen. The influence of growth time and silane partial pressure on nanocrystals size and density was studied. It was also found that amorphous silicon carbide surfaces enhance silicon nanocrystal nucleation with respect to SiO{sub 2}, due to the differences in surface chemical properties. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC) growth on amorphous silicon carbide alloy thin films Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plasma deposited amorphous silicon carbide films with well-controlled properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study on the thermal effect of 700 Degree-Sign C short-time annealing on the layer properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low pressure

  3. Iron-Based Amorphous Metals:The High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials(HPCRM) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) and SAM1651 (Fe48Mo14Cr15Y2C15B6) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and nickel-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear

  4. Iron-Based Amorphous Metals:The High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials(HPCRM) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J

    2007-07-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  5. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material (HPCRM) Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C; Haslam, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D' Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2008-01-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  6. Iron-Based Amorphous Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph; Choi, Jor-Shan; Saw, Cheng; Haslam, Jeffrey; Day, Dan; Hailey, Phillip; Lian, Tiangan; Rebak, Raul; Perepezko, John; Payer, Joe; Branagan, Daniel; Beardsley, Brad; D'Amato, Andy; Aprigliano, Lou

    2009-06-01

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition, materials synthesis, thermal stability, corrosion resistance, environmental cracking, mechanical properties, damage tolerance, radiation effects, and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) and SAM1651 (Fe48Mo14Cr15Y2C15B6) have been produced as meltspun ribbons (MSRs), dropcast ingots, and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of MSRs and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently, thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests; good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while the open-circuit corrosion potentials (OCPs) were simultaneously monitored; reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber and suitable for criticality-control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and Ni-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear

  7. Cyclic Fatigue Fracture of Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 Bulk Amorphous Alloy with Quenched-in Crystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effects of quenched-in crystallites on the fracture of bulk amorphous alloys under cyclic loading condition wereinvestigated in this paper. For the fully amorphous alloy and specimen with fine crystallites the fatigue crack initiationoccurred on the surface. For the specimen with larger crystallites the crack originated from a big broken crystallitenear the surface. The average striation spacing on amorphous area is much larger than that on the crystallite.Crack initiation occurred at the crystallites is due to that the brittle crystallites broke easily under cyclic deformationcondition. The fine crystallites seemed to be protruded from the amorphous matrix and some bulges appeared onthe surface of specimen with fine crystallites under cyclic loading.

  8. Performance of single wire earth return transformers with amorphous alloy core in a rural electric energy distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some considerations about the performance of single wire earth return amorphous alloy core transformers in comparison with conventional silicon steel sheets cores transformers used in rural electric energy distribution network. It has been recognized that amorphous metal core transformers improve electrical power distribution efficiency by reducing transformer core losses. This reduction is due to some electromagnetic properties of the amorphous alloys such as: high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, and low coercivity. Experimental results obtained with some single-phase, 60 Hz, 5 kVA amorphous core transformers installed in a rural area electric distribution system in Northern Brazil have been confirming their superior performance in comparison to identical nominal rated transformers built with conventional silicon steel cores, particularly with regard to the excitation power and to the no-load losses.

  9. Effect of high pressure on microstructure of crystallizing amorphous Nd9Fe85B6 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; LI Hui; XIE Yanwu; ZHANG Xiangyi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of high pressure on the microstructure of annealed amorphous NdgFegsB6 alloy was studied. It was found that applica- tion of high pressure made the microstructure of the crystallized alloy much more homogeneous. The average grain size of the Nd2Fe14B phase decreased with the increase of pressure, whereas, the size of the α-Fe first increased when a pressure of 1 Gpa was applied and then decreased with further increase of pressure. Pressure-induced (410) texture of the Nd2Fe14B phase was also observed. The present study sug-gested an effective route for controlling the microstructure in a nanoscale solid.

  10. Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.; Borca, C. N.;

    2014-01-01

    The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at. %. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms...... are not located in a TiO2 unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2 eV (300–135 nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al2O3 has a direct...

  11. Fabrication of amorphous Ti-based coating by pulsed laser deposition with potential for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Conventional biomaterials have been used in a wide range of application in our life. The major problems of these materials are low mechanical and chemical properties in long period of time that make some limits for their application. Idea of using new biomaterials that not only have superior mechanical and corrosion resistance properties but also have long lasting biocompatibility, leads us to use Ti-based amorphous alloys. Development of metallic amorphous alloys production in last decade caused a revolution in material science so that they are known as a new group of materials called metallic glass. However for technical problems it could not be produced in thicknesses more than few millimeters yet, but using metallic glass alloys as thin coat could be economical and operable. In this research a new amorphous bio material was introduced as coating for medical application .This new biocompatible coating with Ti64Cu12Zr11Co5(Mo,Nb)8 chemical formula was deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique using non amorphous composite target. By controlling process conditions such as laser power, amorphicity was maximized and coating was fully metallic glass. Achieved hardness for this coating is (570-600 HV) that was measured by micro hardness machine from generated coating surface. None of the elements known as allergic is used in this coat chemical composition. The cytotoxicity evaluations such as acute toxicity and [MTT tests] provide evidence that this coat doesn't have any toxic effect and could be candidate as a bio material in medical and dental applications. (author)

  12. Atomic structure and crystallization processes of amorphous (Co,Ni)–P metallic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modin, Evgeny B., E-mail: modin.eb@dvfu.ru [Far Eastern Federal University, Shukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Pustovalov, Evgeny V.; Fedorets, Aleksander N.; Dubinets, Aleksander V.; Grudin, Boris N.; Plotnikov, Vladimir S. [Far Eastern Federal University, Shukhanova 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Grabchikov, Sergey S. [Scientific and Practical Centre of Material Science, Belarus National Academy of Sciences, P. Brovki 19, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • The CoP–CoNiP amorphous alloys were studied by the Cs-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. • In situ heating experiments showed that crystallization starts at 200–250 °C on the network frame and cell boundaries. • Crystal growth occurs at the free surface, then the remaining material in the volume is crystallized. • Adding nickel to the CoP alloy leads to higher thermal stability. • At the beginning of crystallization there are high diffusion coefficients, 1.2–2.4 ∗ 10{sup −18} m{sup 2}/s at 250 °C. - Abstract: This work concerns the in situ investigation of the atomic structure of (Co,Ni)–P alloys during relaxation and crystallization by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The CoP–CoNiP alloys, in the initial state, have a hierarchical network-like disordered structure. Crystallization starts at 200–250 °C on the network frame and cell boundaries. In the early stages, crystal growth occurs at the free surface, then the remaining material in the volume is crystallized. The diffusion coefficient at the start of crystallization is 1.2–2.4 × 10{sup −18} m{sup 2}/s at 250 °C and we assume that the high diffusion speed is due to surface diffusion.

  13. Effect of the nanocrystallization of amorphous soft magnetic Fe-P-Nb alloys on corrosion resistance in a damp SO2-polluted atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, V. V.; Zabolotnyi, V. T.; Korneev, V. P.; Anosova, M. O.; Baldokhin, Yu. V.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of the nanocrystallization of amorphous soft magnetic Fe-P-Nb alloys on their electrochemical behavior in a damp SO2-polluted industrial atmosphere is studied. It is shown that their electro-chemical characteristics shit toward positive values when the phosphorus content in the Fe-P-Nb alloys increases and when they undergo nanocrystallization from an amorphous state.

  14. Interaction of the surfaces of ribbons of amorphous magnetically soft alloys with vapor at various stages of heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulkina, N. A.; Ivanov, O. A.; Pavlova, I. O.; Minina, O. A.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of heat treatment in air atmosphere combined with water vapor on the distribution of magnetization and on magnetic characteristics has been studied based on the example of a rapidly quenched amorphous magnetically soft Fe77Ni1Si9B13 alloy, which possesses a positive saturation magnetostriction. The interaction of the surface of a ribbon made of the alloy with vapor was implemented at various stages of heat treatment, such as heating, cooling, and isothermal holding. The results of the study have confirmed an important contribution of the stresses induced by hydrogen and oxygen atoms, which are incorporated into the surface of the ribbon, to the formation of the magnetic characteristics of the alloy. The heat treatment of the surface of the ribbon with vapor at various stages together with varying rate of cooling substantially enhance the maximum magnetic permeability at an optimum duration of isothermal holding. This is primarily due to a decrease in the relative volume of orthogonal-magnetization domains because of an additional rise in predominantly plane tensile stresses induced by hydrogen and oxygen atoms which are incorporated into the surface of the ribbon.

  15. First-principles study of amorphous Ga4Sb6Te3 phase-change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Assil; Gabardi, Silvia; Massobrio, Carlo; Boero, Mauro; Bernasconi, Marco

    2015-05-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics simulations within the density functional theory framework were performed to generate amorphous models of the Ga4Sb6Te3 phase change alloy by quenching from the melt. We find that Ga-Sb and Ga-Te are the most abundant bonds with only a minor amount of Sb-Te bonds participating to the alloy network. Ga and four-coordinated Sb atoms present a tetrahedral-like geometry, whereas three-coordinated Sb atoms are in a pyramidal configuration. The tetrahedral-like geometries are similar to those of the crystalline phase of the two binary compounds GaTe and GaSb. A sizable fraction of Sb-Sb bonds is also present, indicating a partial nanoscale segregation of Sb. Despite the fact that the composition Ga4Sb6Te3 lies on the pseudobinary Ga Sb -Sb2Te3 tie line, the amorphous network can be seen as a mixture of the two binary compounds GaTe and GaSb with intertwined elemental Sb.

  16. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, M., E-mail: fukuhara@niche.tohoku.ac.jp [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kawarada, H. [Research and Development Center, Waseda University, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)

    2015-02-28

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The I{sub d}-V{sub g} characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0–60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  17. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The Id-Vg characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)90H10 FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0–60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics

  18. Nanocrystals and amorphous matrix phase studies of Finemet-like alloys containing Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, J.A., E-mail: jmoya.fi.uba@gmail.co [IESIING, Facultad de Ingenieria e Informatica, UCASAL, A4402FYP Salta (Argentina); Lab. Solidos Amorfos, Facultad de Ingenieria, INTECIN, UBA-CONICET (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    Two simple models were developed in order to determine the chemical composition of both nanocrystals and intergranular amorphous phases in nanocrystallized Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3}Cu{sub 1} containing Ge using data from X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy techniques. Saturation magnetization of the amorphous intergranular matrix (M{sub s}{sup am}) was calculated considering the contribution of the alpha-Fe(Si,Ge) nanocrystals and saturation magnetization of the alloys. The behavior of M{sub s}{sup am} with the iron content of the matrix was obtained and discussed. The exchange stiffness constant for the nanograins and for the amorphous phases was determined. The increment in the coercive field (H{sub c}) with increasing Ge content was evaluated using two theoretical models for the random magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (). Results show that the magnetic hardening observed could not be attributed to an increase in but mainly to an important increment of the magnetostriction constant of the alpha-Fe(Si,Ge) nanocrystals (lambda{sub s}{sup cr}). Values for lambda{sub s}{sup cr} are proposed.

  19. In vitro metal ion release and biocompatibility of amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy with/without gelatin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous zinc-rich Mg–Zn–Ca alloys have exhibited good tissue compatibility and low hydrogen evolution in vivo. However, suboptimal cell–surface interaction on magnesium alloy surface observed in vitro could lead to reduced integration with host tissue for regenerative purpose. This study aims to improve cell–surface interaction of amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy by coating a gelatin layer by electrospinning. Coated/uncoated alloys were immersed and extracted for 3 days under different CO2. The immersion results showed that pH and metal ion release in the alloy extracts were affected by gelatin coating and CO2, suggesting their roles in alloy biocorrosion and a mechanism has been proposed for the alloy–CO2 system with/without coating. Cytotoxicity results are evident that gelatin-coated alloy with 2-day crosslinking not only exhibited no indirect cytotoxicity, but also supported attachment of L929 and MG63 cell lines around/on the alloy with high viability. Therefore, amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy coated with gelatin by electrospinning technique provides a useful method to improve alloy biocompatibility. - Highlights: • Electrospinning is a new method to coat amorphous Mg67Zn28Ca5 alloy with gelatin. • Gelatin-coated alloy has differential effect on pH and ion release at various CO2. • L929 cell proliferation correlates with Mg2+ level in alloy extracts. • Biomimetic gelatin coating significantly improves cell–surface interaction

  20. Uranium-Based Cermet Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes certain features of dispersion-hardened uranium-based cermets. As possible hardening materials, consideration was given to UO2, UC, Al2O3, MgO and UBe13. Data were obtained on the behaviour of uranium alloys containing the above-mentioned admixtures during creep tests, short-term strength tests and cyclic thermal treatment. The corrosion resistance o f UBe13-based uranium alloys was also studied. )author)

  1. Influence of Si on glass forming ability and properties of the bulk amorphous alloy Mg60Cu30Y10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The partial substitution of Cu by the right amount of Si increases the glass forming ability of the bulk amorphous alloy Mg60Cu30Y10. → The serrations size of Mg60Cu30-xY10Six is dependent on the content of Si. → The creep displacement of Mg60Cu30-xY10Six alloys decrease with increasing Si content. → The elastic modulus and nano-hardness of Mg60Cu30-xY10Six are dependent on the Si content. - Abstract: We studied the influence of partially replacing Cu by Si in the bulk amorphous alloy Mg30Cu30Y10. Glass forming ability (GFA), examined using X-ray diffraction and a differential scanning calorimeter, was increased at 1% Si, but decreased for larger Si concentrations. Nano-indentation measured nano-hardness, elastic modulus and load-displacement curves. The elastic modulus and nano-hardness increased with increasing Si content to a maximum at 2.5%. The load-displacement curves during nano-indentation revealed displacement serrations. These increased with decreasing loading rates, decreased with increasing Si content. The load-displacement curves also indicated that these bulk amorphous alloys exhibited primary creep at room temperature just like other high strength alloys. The creep displacement decreased with increasing Si content.

  2. Kinetic Characteristic of Hydrogenation Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delin PENG; Jun SHEN; Jianfei SUN; Yuyong CHEN

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the hydrogen content and the microhardness and the charging period, the effect of hydrogen on the activation energy, the kinetics of glass transition and crystallization of Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be bulk amorphous alloy were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the Kissinger equation. It shows that both of the hydrogen content and the microhardness are related to the charging period, and that the glass transition and crystallization behavior are associated with the heating rate, and possess the kinetic effect. Hydrogen increases the glass transition temperature and the crystallization temperature, decreasing the enthalpies in the different stages of crystallization.Hydrogen increases the activation energies of the glass transition and the crystallization and changes the kinetic effect. The dependent extent between the glass transition, the crystallization and heating rate decreases after hydrogen charging.

  3. Structure of amorphous silicon alloy films: Annual subcontract report, January 15, 1988--January 14, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, R.E.; Fedders, P.A.

    1989-06-01

    The principal objective of this research program has been to improve the understanding at the microscopic level of amorphous silicon-germanium-alloy films deposited under various conditions to assist researchers to produce higher quality films. The method has been a joint theoretical and experimental approach to the correlation of NMR, ESR, and other characterizations, especially relating to rearrangements of hydrogen. Deuteron magnetic resonance reveals the presence of (and changes in) tightly bonded hydrogen (deuterium), weakly bonded hydrogen, molecular hydrogen, and rotating silyl groups. Microvoids are investigated via observation of para D/sub 2/ for which /Delta/M/sub J/ transitions are frozen out. Solid echoes reveal HD and ortho D/sub 2/ trapped as singles in the semiconductor matrix. Theoretical calculations show dangling bonds to be more likely than floating bonds. 23 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Computer experiments on radiation strength and radiation enhanced segregation of Al–Si amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer experiments of irradiated Al–Si alloys were performed to clarify the mechanism of radiation enhanced segregation. The atomic configurations of pure Al, Al–5 at%Si and Al–10 at%Si with amorphous structure after the irradiation of high energy beam were calculated by the molecular dynamics method. We estimated the threshold energies to create voids in pure Al, Al–5 at%Si and Al–10 at%Si as 0.23, 0.25 and 0.25 keV/nm, respectively. This fact means that addition of Si to Al enhances strength against void formation by beam irradiation. We also confirmed that addition of Si to Al gave strong effect on radiation enhanced segregation. The degree of enhancement depended on the degree of dispersion of Si atoms in Al matrix because the Si atoms enhances clustering of the Al atoms surrounding them. (author)

  5. A thermodynamic approach towards glass-forming ability of amorphous metallic alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonal R Prajapati; Supriya Kasyap; Arun Pratap

    2015-12-01

    A quantitative measure of the stability of a glass as compared to its corresponding crystalline state can be obtained by calculating the thermodynamic parameters, such as the Gibbs free energy difference (), entropy difference () and the enthalpy difference () between the super-cooled liquid and the corresponding crystalline phase. is known as the driving force of crystallization. The driving force of crystallization () provides very important information about the glass-forming ability (GFA) of metallic glasses (MGs). Lesser the driving force of crystallization more is the GFA. The varies linearly with the critical size (). According to Battezzati and Garonne the parameter ( = (1−(/))/(1−( / ))) in the expression for should be a constant (i.e., 0.8), but its uniqueness is not observed for all MGs. The thermal stability of various alloy compositions is studied by their undercooled liquid region ( = − ). Large implies greater stability against crystallization of the amorphous structure. Other GFA parameters are also calculated and correlated with critical size ().

  6. Electronic structure and sign reversal of the Hall coefficient in amorphous CuZr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manh, D.N.; Pavuna, D.; Cyrot-Lackmann, F.; Mayou, D.; Pasturel, A.

    1986-04-15

    We present calculated densities of states (DOS) for Cu/sub x/Zr/sub 1-x/ amorphous alloys across the compositional range. We find that for x<80 at. % Cu there is no ordering and the Fermi level E/sub F/ is dominated by the Zr 4d subband, while above 80 at. % Cu the local order increases and the DOS at E/sub F/ abruptly decreases and is dominated by the s states. These changes in DOS and the fact that the energy derivative of the self-energy changes its sign (implying a change of sign of the Fermi velocity) gives further insight into the experimentally observed sign reversal of the Hall coefficient which occurs for 80< or =x< or =85 at. % Cu.

  7. Synthesis and Electro-Magneto-Mechanical Properties of Graphene Aerogels Functionalized with Co-Fe-P Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ping Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene aerogels (GAs are functionalized with Fe-Co-P alloy using an electro-deposition method. The Fe-Co-P alloy coated on the graphene nanosheets is found to possess an amorphous structure and a nanoporous architecture of GAs. The electro-mechanical properties of GAs are significantly affected by the Fe-Co-P nanoparticles embedded inside GAs. The electro-mechanical responses of GA/Fe-Co-P nanoporous hybrid structures are sensitive to an applied magnetic field, demonstrating that they are promising for electro-magneto-mechanical applications. The light-weight, high-strength and nanoporous GAs functionalized with Fe-Co-P amorphous alloys are desirable sensors, actuators, and nano-electro-mechanical systems that could be controlled or manipulated by mechanical, electric and magnetic fields.

  8. Low-field magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocystalline FeCrCuNbSiB alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AC susceptibility dependence on magnetic field, time and temperature of amorphous as well as nanocrystalline Fe73.5-xCrxCu1Nb3Si13.5B9 (x=0-4) alloys was studied. Micromagnetic model is used for calculating the activation energy spectra (AES) of the magnetic after-effect (MAE). It was observed that addition of Cr to the amorphous FeCrCuNbSiB alloys highly decreases the amplitude of the MAE so that no MAE is observed for Cr content higher than 2 at%. After annealing at 550 deg. C, the initial susceptibility increases as a result of magnetic softening during nanocrystallization and the MAE vanishes. The nanocrystalline state was characterized by the high magnetic as well as structural stability. Moreover, addition of 1 at% Cr makes the initial susceptibility of the nanocrytalline sample higher than in the FINEMET alloy

  9. First-principles study of the structural and dynamic properties of the liquid and amorphous Li-Si alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Han-Hsin; Lu, Jian-Ming; Kuo, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-21

    We have performed density functional theory calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the structures and dynamic properties of the liquid and amorphous LixSi alloys over a range of composition from x = 1.0 - 4.8. Our results show that Si atoms can form a variety of covalently bonded polyanions with diverse local bonding structures in the liquid alloys. Like in c-LiSi, Si atoms can form a continuous bond network in liquid Li1.0Si at 1050 K, while it gradually disintegrates into many smaller Si polyanions as the Li content increases in the alloys. The average sizes of Si polyanions in these liquid alloys were found to be relatively larger than those in their crystalline counterparts, which can even persist in the highly lithiated Li4.81Si alloy at 1500 K. Our results also show that amorphous LixSi alloys have similar local bonding structures but a largely increased short-range order as compared to their liquid counterparts. The differences between the average coordination number of each atomic pair in amorphous solids and that in the liquids are less than 1.1. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that Li and Si atoms can exhibit very distinct dynamic behaviors in the liquids and their diffusivities appear to be largely dependent on the chemical composition of the alloys. The diffusivity of Li was found to increase with the Li content in the alloys primarily because of the reduced interactions between Li and Si atoms, while the Si diffusivity also increases due to the gradual disintegration of the strongly interconnected Si bond network. The diffusivity of Li in amorphous LixSi was predicted to lie in the range between 10(-7) and 10(-9) cm(2)/s at 300 K, which is more than 20-fold larger than that of Si over the composition range considered. Our calculations further show that the diffusivities of both Li and Si can increase by two orders of magnitude as x increases from 1.0 to 3.57 in amorphous LixSi, indicating a more profound dependence on the

  10. First-principles study of the structural and dynamic properties of the liquid and amorphous Li–Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed density functional theory calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the structures and dynamic properties of the liquid and amorphous LixSi alloys over a range of composition from x = 1.0 − 4.8. Our results show that Si atoms can form a variety of covalently bonded polyanions with diverse local bonding structures in the liquid alloys. Like in c-LiSi, Si atoms can form a continuous bond network in liquid Li1.0Si at 1050 K, while it gradually disintegrates into many smaller Si polyanions as the Li content increases in the alloys. The average sizes of Si polyanions in these liquid alloys were found to be relatively larger than those in their crystalline counterparts, which can even persist in the highly lithiated Li4.81Si alloy at 1500 K. Our results also show that amorphous LixSi alloys have similar local bonding structures but a largely increased short-range order as compared to their liquid counterparts. The differences between the average coordination number of each atomic pair in amorphous solids and that in the liquids are less than 1.1. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that Li and Si atoms can exhibit very distinct dynamic behaviors in the liquids and their diffusivities appear to be largely dependent on the chemical composition of the alloys. The diffusivity of Li was found to increase with the Li content in the alloys primarily because of the reduced interactions between Li and Si atoms, while the Si diffusivity also increases due to the gradual disintegration of the strongly interconnected Si bond network. The diffusivity of Li in amorphous LixSi was predicted to lie in the range between 10−7 and 10−9 cm2/s at 300 K, which is more than 20-fold larger than that of Si over the composition range considered. Our calculations further show that the diffusivities of both Li and Si can increase by two orders of magnitude as x increases from 1.0 to 3.57 in amorphous LixSi, indicating a more profound dependence on the

  11. First-principles study of the structural and dynamic properties of the liquid and amorphous Li–Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Han-Hsin; Kuo, Chin-Lung, E-mail: chinlung@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jian-Ming [National Center for High-Performance Computing, Tainan 74147, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-21

    We have performed density functional theory calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the structures and dynamic properties of the liquid and amorphous Li{sub x}Si alloys over a range of composition from x = 1.0 − 4.8. Our results show that Si atoms can form a variety of covalently bonded polyanions with diverse local bonding structures in the liquid alloys. Like in c-LiSi, Si atoms can form a continuous bond network in liquid Li{sub 1.0}Si at 1050 K, while it gradually disintegrates into many smaller Si polyanions as the Li content increases in the alloys. The average sizes of Si polyanions in these liquid alloys were found to be relatively larger than those in their crystalline counterparts, which can even persist in the highly lithiated Li{sub 4.81}Si alloy at 1500 K. Our results also show that amorphous Li{sub x}Si alloys have similar local bonding structures but a largely increased short-range order as compared to their liquid counterparts. The differences between the average coordination number of each atomic pair in amorphous solids and that in the liquids are less than 1.1. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that Li and Si atoms can exhibit very distinct dynamic behaviors in the liquids and their diffusivities appear to be largely dependent on the chemical composition of the alloys. The diffusivity of Li was found to increase with the Li content in the alloys primarily because of the reduced interactions between Li and Si atoms, while the Si diffusivity also increases due to the gradual disintegration of the strongly interconnected Si bond network. The diffusivity of Li in amorphous Li{sub x}Si was predicted to lie in the range between 10{sup −7} and 10{sup −9} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 K, which is more than 20-fold larger than that of Si over the composition range considered. Our calculations further show that the diffusivities of both Li and Si can increase by two orders of magnitude as x increases from 1.0 to 3.57 in amorphous Li

  12. Search for novel amorphous alloys with high crystallization temperature by combinatorial arc plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a combinatorial search for novel amorphous alloys with high crystallization temperatures (Tx) using combinatorial arc plasma deposition (CAPD). The CAPD technique can deposit 1089 (33 x 33) thin film samples with different compositions on a substrate at one time. These 1089 samples on the substrate are individually referred to as CAPD samples and collectively referred to as a thin film library. Thin film libraries of Ir-Zr-Fe, Ir-Zr-Al, Mo-Zr-Al, Mo-Zr-Si, Ru-Zr-Fe and Ru-Zr-Si were deposited by CAPD. The compositions and phases of the CAPD samples were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. The results revealed that each library included amorphous CAPD samples. Since it is impossible to measure the Tx, fracture strength, fracture strain and Young's modulus of the CAPD samples by conventional measurement methods, larger samples having the same compositions as the amorphous CAPD samples were fabricated by a sputtering system. Since all CAPD samples of Ir-Zr-Fe and Ir-Zr-Al were too brittle, their corresponding sputter-deposited samples were not prepared. Sputter-deposited Mo-Zr-Al, Mo-Zr-Si, Ru-Zr-Fe and Ru-Zr-Si samples with ∼50 at.% Mo- or Ru-content were fabricated, and Tx and mechanical properties of these sputter-deposited samples were evaluated. All the sputter-deposited samples of Mo-Zr-Al and Mo-Zr-Si showed high Tx exceeding 973 K and as well as brittle characteristics. Ru50Zr35Fe10 samples showed high Tx exceeding 1273 K and a low fracture strength of 0.26 GPa. Samples of Ru51Zr5Si44 showed a high Tx of 923 K and a high fracture strength of 1.25 GPa

  13. Bulk amorphous Al{sub 75}V{sub 12.5}Fe{sub 12.5−x}Cu{sub x} alloys fabricated by consolidation of mechanically alloyed amorphous powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bo; Wang, Xinfu; Li, Xianyu; Wang, Dan; Qin, Yong; Han, Fusheng, E-mail: fshan@issp.ac.cn

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Al{sub 75}V{sub 12.5}Fe{sub 12.5−x}Cu{sub x} (x = 0, 6.25, and 12.5 at%) amorphous powders were synthesized by MA. • Bulk Al{sub 75}V{sub 12.5}Fe{sub 12.5} amorphous alloy is obtained by means of hydraulic pressing. • The Vickers microhardness of bulk sample is in the range of 821-927 HV. -- Abstract: Hydraulic press was used to produce bulk amorphous Al{sub 75}V{sub 12.5}Fe{sub 12.5−x}Cu{sub x} (x = 0, 6.25, and 12.5) (at.%) alloy by consolidation of mechanically alloyed amorphous powder. The as-milled powders and bulk alloy were examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The glass-forming ability was evaluated in accordance with the milling time. The results show that the glass-forming ability of the mechanical-alloyed Al{sub 75}V{sub 12.5}Fe{sub 12.5−x}Cu{sub x} powders decreases with the increase of x. The onset crystallization temperatures (T{sub x}{sup onset}) of the three powders are 749 K, 771 K and 712 K, respectively. The results also indicate that the quality of consolidation is very good and the product’s Vickers microhardness is relatively high (821–927 HV)

  14. Spectral selectivity constraints in fluorescence detection of biomolecules using amorphous silicon based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.P. [INESC Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias and IN- Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1000-049 Lisbon (Portugal); Joskowiak, A.; Pimentel, A.; Santos, M.; Chu, V. [INESC Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias and IN- Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Lipovsek, B.; Krc, J.; Topic, M. [Laboratory of Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pereira, A.T. [INESC Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias and IN- Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological and Chemical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1000-049 Lisbon (Portugal); Prazeres, D.M.F. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1000-049 Lisbon (Portugal); IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological and Chemical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1000-049 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    A microdevice based on a thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a -Si:H) p-i-n photodiode is used to quantify the density of DNA oligonucleotides labelled with a fluorophore and the density of E. coli cells expressing GFP (green fluorescent protein) by fluorescence. An absorption filter is integrated in the device which filters the excitation light and transmits the emitted light to the photodetector. This filter is an amorphous silicon carbon (a-SiC:H) alloy in which the bandgap can be selected according to the excitation and emission wavelengths of the fluorophores used by varying the carbon content of the film. Control of the thickness of the a-SiC:H film allows the modulation of the transmission ratio between the excitation wavelength and the emission wavelength. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Mechanically driven nanocrystallization of amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloy induced by high-energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanically driven nanocrystallization of amorphous Finemet alloy caused by high-energy ball milling was investigated by XRD, DSC and TEM techniques. A structural relaxation occurred in the amorphous Finemet alloy after milling for 0.5-2 h. Further milling for more than 3.5 h, uniformly and randomly distributed nanocrystalline α-Fe with grain size from ∝2 nm to ∝5 nm formed. The kinetics of the mechanical nanocrystallization of amorphous Finemet alloy was described by JMA model with the Avrami exponent n=1.55, which indicates a zero-nucleation rate and grain growth in all shapes from very small dimensions. In addition, the mechanical crystallization of amorphous Finemet alloys is mainly due to the severe deformation and local temperature rise during ball milling. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Dense and smooth amorphous films of multicomponent FeCoNiCuVZrAl high-entropy alloy deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We prepare a perfect dense and smooth amorphous nitride high entropy film. ► The formation mechanism has been discussed based on thermodynamic theory. ► The hardness and Young’s modulus of the film can reach to 12 and 166 GPa. ► We discuss the effects of N2 flow ratios. - Abstract: The multicomponent amorphous nitride films of FeCoNiCuVZrAl high-entropy alloy were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering in the mixture atmosphere of Ar and N2. The systematical investigations demonstrate that the chemical composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the amorphous films intimately rely on the concentration of N2 in the atmosphere mixture. When N2 flow ratio increases from 0% to 50%, the thickness of the films decreases, whereas the roughness firstly decreases and then increases. At the N2 flow ratio of 30%, a perfect dense and smooth amorphous nitride film could be achieved. While the hardness and Young’s modulus of the film reach the maximum values of 12 and 166 GPa, respectively

  17. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Comparative anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering study of hotwire and plasma grown amorphous silicon-germanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Goerigk, G.; Williamson, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    The nanostructure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloys, a-Si1-xGex:H, prepared by the hotwire deposition technique (x=0.06-0.79) and by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (x=0 and 0.50) was analyzed by anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering experiments. For all alloys with x >0 the Ge component was found to be inhomogeneously distributed with correlation lengths of about 1 nm. A systematic increase of the separated scattering was found due to the increasing ...

  19. Preparation and Cycling Performance of Iron or Iron Oxide Containing Amorphous Al-Li Alloys as Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Thoss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline phase transitions cause volume changes, which entails a fast destroying of the electrode. Non-crystalline states may avoid this circumstance. Herein we present structural and electrochemical investigations of pre-lithiated, amorphous Al39Li43Fe13Si5-powders, to be used as electrode material for Li-ion batteries. Powders of master alloys with the compositions Al39Li43Fe13Si5 and Al39Li43Fe13Si5 + 5 mass-% FeO were prepared via ball milling and achieved amorphous/nanocrystalline states after 56 and 21.6 h, respectively. In contrast to their Li-free amorphous pendant Al78Fe13Si9, both powders showed specific capacities of about 400 and 700 Ah/kgAl, respectively, after the third cycle.

  20. Study on glass-forming ability and hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Mg60Ni30La10−xCox (x = 0, 4) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mg60Ni30La10−xCox (x = 0, 4) amorphous alloys were prepared by rapid solidification, using a melt-spinning technique. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis were employed to measure their microstructure, thermal stability and glass-forming ability, and hydrogen storage properties were studied by means of PCTPro2000. Based on differential scanning calorimetry results, their glass-forming ability and thermal stability were investigated by Kissinger method, Lasocka curves and atomic cluster model, respectively. The results indicate that glass-forming ability, thermal properties and hydrogen storage properties in the Mg-rich corner of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys were enhanced by Co substitution for La. It can be found that the smaller activation energy (ΔΕ) and frequency factor (υ0), the bigger value of B (glass transition point in Lasocka curves), and higher glass-forming ability of Mg–Ni–La–Co alloys would be followed. In addition, atomic structure parameter (λ), deduced from atomic cluster model is valuable in the design of Mg–Ni–La–Co system alloys with good glass-forming ability. With an increase of Co content from 0 to 4, the hydrogen desorption capacity within 4000 s rises from 2.25 to 2.85 wt.% at 573 K. - Highlights: • Amorphous Mg60Ni30La10−xCox (x = 0 and 4) alloys were produced by melt spinning. • The GFA and hydrogen storage properties were enhanced by Co substitution for La. • With an increase of Co content, the hydrogen desorption capacity rises at 573 K

  1. A study of the diffusion mechanism in glasses: a theoretical and experimental study of tracers diffusion in amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal aims of this work are a better understanding of the experimental situation in amorphous metallic alloys and a tentative explanation of the role of collective mechanisms in matter transport. Self- and solute-diffusion of Hf, Au and Cu tracers in amorphous Ni Zr alloy have been studied. We study by SIMS analysis the broadening of the concentration profile with temperature and pressure, in thin amorphous layers which were prepared by sputtering and properly relaxed. The diffusion coefficient variation with temperature shows an Arrhenius behaviour for all of our tracers. The activation energy amount to 1.55 eV for Cu, 1.65 eV for Au and 1.78 eV for Hf and corresponds to nearly one half of the corresponding energy in crystalline zirconium. The diffusion coefficients variation with hydrostatic pressure yields an activation volume equal to one half of an average atomic volume of our matrix for medium and large sized tracers Au, Hf and a smaller activation volume for Cu. The second part of our work consists of numerical simulations of atomic displacements in a generic glass by two complementary methods. In a Lennard-Jones alloy with size effect, we observe by molecular dynamics (MD) some correlated displacements which consist of substitution cycles or chains. The associated energy of these collective events represents nearly 15 pc of that found in crystalline Lennard- Jones. The systematic exploration of energy surface in space configuration made with activation-relaxation technique ART yields energy distributions of stable and saddles positions and opens the way to an evaluation of diffusion coefficients. The events found by ART are qualitatively close to MD ones, but the averaged activation energy associated with these events represents only 10 pc of the crystalline one. This clearly points towards the limit of Lennard-Jones potential, which is not enough representative of actual glasses. This is the reason why an interaction model closer to amorphous

  2. Improved physical stability of amorphous state through acid base interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Chitra; Mujumdar, Siddharthya; Mathew, Michael

    2009-06-01

    To investigate role of specific interactions in aiding formation and stabilization of amorphous state in ternary and binary dispersions of a weakly acidic drug. Indomethacin (IMC), meglumine (MU), and polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP) were the model drug, base, and polymer, respectively. Dispersions were prepared using solvent evaporation. Physical mixtures were cryogenically coground. XRPD, PLM, DSC, TGA, and FTIR were used for characterization. MU has a high crystallization tendency and is characterized by a low T(g) (17 degrees C). IMC crystallization was inhibited in ternary dispersion with MU compared to IMC/PVP alone. An amorphous state formed readily even in coground mixtures. Spectroscopic data are indicative of an IMC-MU amorphous salt and supports solid-state proton transfer. IMC-MU salt displays a low T(g) approximately 50 degrees C, but is more physically stable than IMC, which in molecular mixtures with MU, resisted crystallization even when present in stoichiometric excess of base. This is likely due to a disrupted local structure of amorphous IMC due to specific interactions. IMC showed improved physical stability on incorporating MU in polymer, in spite of low T(g) of the base indicating that chemical interactions play a dominant role in physical stabilization. Salt formation could be induced thermally and mechanically.

  3. Microstructures of the silicon carbide nanowires obtained by annealing the mechanically-alloyed amorphous powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon, graphite and boron nitride powders were mechanically alloyed for 40 h in argon. The as-milled powders were annealed at 1700 °C in nitrogen for 30 min. The annealed powders are covered by a thick layer of gray–green SiC nanowires, which are 300 nm to 1000 nm in diameter and several hundred microns in length. Trace iron in the raw powders acts as a catalyst, promoting the V–L–S process. It follows that the actual substances contributing to the growth of the SiC nanowires may be silicon, graphite and the metal impurities in the raw powders. The results from HRTEM and XRD reveal that the products contain both straight α/β-SiC nanowires and nodular α/β-SiC nanochains. It is interestingly found that 6H–SiC coexists with 3C–SiC in one nodular nanowire. This novel structure may introduce periodic potential field along the longitudinal direction of the nanowires, and may find applications in the highly integrated optoelectronic devices. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • SiC nanowires were prepared by annealing the mechanically alloyed amorphous powders. • SiC nanowires are 300 nm to 1000 nm in diameter and several hundred microns in length. • The products contain both straight α/β-SiC nanowires and nodular α/β-SiC nanochains. • Trace Fe in the raw powders acts as a catalyst, promoting the V–L–S process. • 6H–SiC coexists with 3C–SiC in one nodular SiC nanowire

  4. Microstructures of the silicon carbide nanowires obtained by annealing the mechanically-alloyed amorphous powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei, E-mail: zhangpengfei1984@163.com; Li, Xinli

    2015-07-15

    Silicon, graphite and boron nitride powders were mechanically alloyed for 40 h in argon. The as-milled powders were annealed at 1700 °C in nitrogen for 30 min. The annealed powders are covered by a thick layer of gray–green SiC nanowires, which are 300 nm to 1000 nm in diameter and several hundred microns in length. Trace iron in the raw powders acts as a catalyst, promoting the V–L–S process. It follows that the actual substances contributing to the growth of the SiC nanowires may be silicon, graphite and the metal impurities in the raw powders. The results from HRTEM and XRD reveal that the products contain both straight α/β-SiC nanowires and nodular α/β-SiC nanochains. It is interestingly found that 6H–SiC coexists with 3C–SiC in one nodular nanowire. This novel structure may introduce periodic potential field along the longitudinal direction of the nanowires, and may find applications in the highly integrated optoelectronic devices. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • SiC nanowires were prepared by annealing the mechanically alloyed amorphous powders. • SiC nanowires are 300 nm to 1000 nm in diameter and several hundred microns in length. • The products contain both straight α/β-SiC nanowires and nodular α/β-SiC nanochains. • Trace Fe in the raw powders acts as a catalyst, promoting the V–L–S process. • 6H–SiC coexists with 3C–SiC in one nodular SiC nanowire.

  5. Electrical and Magneto-Resistivity Measurements on Amorphous Copper-Titanium Alloys at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Renyong

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous transport properties of highly disordered metallic glasses, which require corrections to the classical Boltzmann theory, are due to quantum interference effects of the scattered electron waves. These corrections provide new contributions to the resistivity: "weak localization" and "electron-electron interaction". To study these quantum interference effects, we have made the highest-precision measurements, so far, of the resistances of the amorphous rm Cu_{50}Ti_{50 } and rm Cu_{60}Ti _{40} ribbons at much lower temperatures than before (15mK 0.15K. In contrast, at the lowest temperatures, the magnetoresistances were dominated by weak localization with Zeeman splitting and Maki-Thompson superconducting fluctuations. For higher magnetic fields and lowest temperatures (B/T > 1 T/K), we find discrepancies between our data and the theoretical calculations. We found that most of the parameters of the theoretical fits to the data were similar for both rm Cu_{50}Ti_{50} and rm Cu_{60}Ti_ {40} alloys. The two important exceptions were the inelastic and spin-orbit lifetimes: their zero -field values were about an order of magnitude smaller than those from the magnetoresistances. Also the inelastic lifetimes tend to saturate for T<0.1K in non-zero magnetic fields. Finally, we were also able to estimate the expected superconducting transition temperatures of both rm Cu_{50}Ti_{50} and rm Cu_{60}Ti _{40} alloys: less than 15mK and 5mK, respectively. Our novel technique can, in principle, be used to make high precision resistance measurements down to 15mK on any ribbon or film-like high resistivity metal.

  6. Phase formation, liquid structure, and physical properties of amorphous and quasicrystal-forming alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Victor Medgar

    2009-12-01

    Since the discovery of quasicrystals in 1985 and the development of commercially viable bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) in the mid 1990's a great deal of attention has been given to the characterization of new alloys with desirable properties, such as larger amorphous casting thickness, higher mechanical strength, or hydrogen storage capacity. Here, the results of a number of investigations into the structures and properties of some noncrystalline solid alloys will be presented and analyzed. Beamline electrostatic levitation (BESL), a method for determining supercooled liquid structure and phase formation in-situ, was used. Using BESL, the development of structural and chemical inhomogeneity was observed in supercooled liquid Cu46Zr 54 (a BMG when cast) with an onset at 845 +/- 5°C, providing experimental support for structural changes determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of these liquids. Differing segregation of Hf and Zr atoms was observed in solidified Ti45Zr(38-x)HfxNi 17 using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and correlated to a previously observed, sharp boundary in phase formation near x = 19 that was further investigated using BESL. In addition to the BESL studies, results will be presented and discussed on changes in microstructure and devitrification mechanisms with the addition of Ag in Mg65Cu(25-x)AgxGd 10 BMGs, interesting for their light weight and resistance to oxygen during casting, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SEM, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Previous, preliminary results on the hydrogen storage capacity of icosahedral quasicrystal Ti45Zr38Ni 17 were re-examined, using an improved apparatus and analysis method developed as part of this work, and the previous results found to be in error.

  7. Amorphous oxide alloys as interfacial layers with broadly tunable electronic structures for organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Kim, Myung-Gil; Loser, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Guo, Xugang; Song, Charles; Jin, Hosub; Chen, Zhihua; Yoon, Seok Min; Freeman, Arthur J; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2015-06-30

    In diverse classes of organic optoelectronic devices, controlling charge injection, extraction, and blocking across organic semiconductor-inorganic electrode interfaces is crucial for enhancing quantum efficiency and output voltage. To this end, the strategy of inserting engineered interfacial layers (IFLs) between electrical contacts and organic semiconductors has significantly advanced organic light-emitting diode and organic thin film transistor performance. For organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, an electronically flexible IFL design strategy to incrementally tune energy level matching between the inorganic electrode system and the organic photoactive components without varying the surface chemistry would permit OPV cells to adapt to ever-changing generations of photoactive materials. Here we report the implementation of chemically/environmentally robust, low-temperature solution-processed amorphous transparent semiconducting oxide alloys, In-Ga-O and Ga-Zn-Sn-O, as IFLs for inverted OPVs. Continuous variation of the IFL compositions tunes the conduction band minima over a broad range, affording optimized OPV power conversion efficiencies for multiple classes of organic active layer materials and establishing clear correlations between IFL/photoactive layer energetics and device performance.

  8. Reduction of Vibration Noise for Amorphous Metal Alloy Core Distribution Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Daosheng刘道生; Du Boxue杜伯学; Zhang Jiangong张建功; Xu Qiuyuan徐秋元; Qi Zhihai祁治海; Guo Ying郭英

    2015-01-01

    To understand the vibration noise behaviors of amorphous metal alloy core distribution transformer (AMACDT), a 10 kVA prototype was tested under no-load and short-circuit conditions, respectively. The vibration characteristics were described when rated voltage was applied to the secondary side, and the primary side was con-nected with different load resistances. The largest amplitude positions on the upper bracket and tank surfaces were recorded by vibration sensors arranged on the surface. A data-acquisition platform was set up for signal measure-ment. The vibration amplitude related to frequency was discussed, and experimental results indicated that the posi-tion with the largest amplitude accrued in the middle of the upper bracket and tank surface, at phases a and c, re-spectively. The experimental results suggest that magnetostrictive and electrodynamic forces play a major role in exciting the vibration noise. At the same time, some rib-reinforcements were welded on the upper bracket and tank surfaces to lessen the vibration energy, which reduced the noise.

  9. Electrical properties and degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous Si alloys for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krühler, W.; Kusian, W.; Karg, F.; Pfleiderer, H.

    1986-12-01

    The electrical properties and the degradation behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys (a-Si1- x A x : H, with A=C, Ge, B, P) in designs of pin, pip, nin, and MOS structures are investigated by measuring the dark and light I(V) characteristics and the spectral response as well as the space-charge-limited current (SCLC), the time of flight (TOF) of carriers and the field effect (FE). These investigations give an overview of our recent work combined with new results emphasizing the physics of the a-Si:H pin solar cells. We discuss the stabilizing influence on the degradation behavior achieved by profiling the i layers of the pin solar cells with P and B. Two kinds of pin solar cells, namely glass/SnO2/p(C)in/metal and glass/metal/pin/ITO, are investigated and an explanation of their different spectral response behavior is given. SCLC measurements lead to the conclusion that trapping is also involved in the degradation mechanism, as is recombination. TOF experiments on a-Si1- x Ge x : H pin diodes indicate that the incorporation of Ge widens the tail-state distribution below the conduction band. FE measurements showed densities of gap states of about 5×l016cm-3eV-1.

  10. In vitro metal ion release and biocompatibility of amorphous Mg{sub 67}Zn{sub 28}Ca{sub 5} alloy with/without gelatin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.Y., E-mail: chan.wing.yue@sgh.com.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore); Chian, K.S.; Tan, M.J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2013-12-01

    Amorphous zinc-rich Mg–Zn–Ca alloys have exhibited good tissue compatibility and low hydrogen evolution in vivo. However, suboptimal cell–surface interaction on magnesium alloy surface observed in vitro could lead to reduced integration with host tissue for regenerative purpose. This study aims to improve cell–surface interaction of amorphous Mg{sub 67}Zn{sub 28}Ca{sub 5} alloy by coating a gelatin layer by electrospinning. Coated/uncoated alloys were immersed and extracted for 3 days under different CO{sub 2}. The immersion results showed that pH and metal ion release in the alloy extracts were affected by gelatin coating and CO{sub 2}, suggesting their roles in alloy biocorrosion and a mechanism has been proposed for the alloy–CO{sub 2} system with/without coating. Cytotoxicity results are evident that gelatin-coated alloy with 2-day crosslinking not only exhibited no indirect cytotoxicity, but also supported attachment of L929 and MG63 cell lines around/on the alloy with high viability. Therefore, amorphous Mg{sub 67}Zn{sub 28}Ca{sub 5} alloy coated with gelatin by electrospinning technique provides a useful method to improve alloy biocompatibility. - Highlights: • Electrospinning is a new method to coat amorphous Mg{sub 67}Zn{sub 28}Ca{sub 5} alloy with gelatin. • Gelatin-coated alloy has differential effect on pH and ion release at various CO{sub 2}. • L929 cell proliferation correlates with Mg{sup 2+} level in alloy extracts. • Biomimetic gelatin coating significantly improves cell–surface interaction.

  11. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Development Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4) and SAM1651 (Fe48Mo14Cr15Y2C15B6) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal make this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of these iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and nickel-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear

  12. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Development Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J; Saw, C; Haslem, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D' Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2009-03-16

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal make this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of these iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional

  13. Vibrational, optical and structural studies of an amorphous Se{sub 0.90}S{sub 0.10} alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, K D; Sanchez, D F; Maciel, G A [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Politecnico, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Brunatto, S F [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Centro Politecnico, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mangrich, A S [Departamento de Quimica, Centro Politecnico, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Stolf, S F [Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas, UNIOESTE, 85903-000, Toledo, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: kleber@fisica.ufpr.br

    2009-05-13

    The local atomic order of an amorphous Se{sub 0.90}S{sub 0.10} alloy produced by mechanical alloying was studied by x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data obtained at three temperatures, T = 300, 200 and 30 K. From the cumulant analysis of the EXAFS data, structural properties such as average interatomic distances, average coordination numbers, Debye-Waller factors and anharmonicity, given by the third cumulant, were obtained. The results found indicate that there is alloying at an atomic level, and Se-S pairs are more disordered and distorted than Se-Se ones due to the milling process.

  14. Interaction of the surface of ribbons of amorphous soft-magnetic alloys with vapor during isothermal holding upon heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulkina, N. A.; Ivanov, O. A.; Pavlova, I. O.; Minina, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of in-air heat treatment in combination with water vapor on the magnetization distribution and magnetic properties has been investigated based on the example of ribbons of amorphous soft-magnetic alloys Fe77Ni1Si9B13 and Fe81B13Si4C2 with positive magnetostriction. The results of the investigation showed the temperature lag of the dependence of the maximum magnetic permeability and of relative volume of domains with orthogonal magnetization on the isothermal-holding temperature. This effect can be associated with the inhibition of processes of surface crystallization by hydrogen and oxygen atoms introduced into the ribbon surface. Distinctive features of the heat treatment with and without vapor on the magnetization distribution in the ribbon plane that are explained within the theory of directed ordering with allowance for the processes of crystallization at the cooling stage have been found. This demonstrates the importance of the contribution of diffusion processes at this stage of treatment to the formation of the level of magnetic properties. It has been shown that the interaction of the ribbon surface with water vapor is not physical adsorption. Interaction with atmospheric gases is carried out by dispersion forces and exerts an influence on the magnetization distribution in the ribbon plane and maximum magnetic permeability.

  15. Amorphization of mixed Ni and Zr powders with Ni-rich compositions by mechanical alloying. Mechanical alloying ni yoru Ni oyobi Zr kongo funmatsu (Ni-rich sosei ryoiki) no hishoshitsuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahi, N.; Habu, T.; Yoshii, T.; Haruyama, O. (Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Scinece and Technology)

    1991-01-25

    Amorphous Ni {sub x} Zr {sub 100 {minus} x} alloy powders (x=75, 80, 85, and 90) were synthesized from pure crystalline powders of Ni and Zr through a mechanical alloying method by high-energy ball milling in an argon atmosphere. The alloying and amorphization process was investigated using X-ray diffractometer and differential scanning calorimeter. Consequently, the X-ray scattering vector of the broad amorphous peak for the mechanically alloyed Ni-Zr amorphous powders were identical with those of liquid quenched amorphous alloys of the same compositions, except for x=90. In the initial stage of mechanical alloying, Ni powders were observed to diffuse preferentially into Zr powders. The crystallization temperature and the crystallization enthalpy of the Ni-Zr amorphous powders as a function of Ni composition were also investigated. The crystallization enthalpy in the Ni {sub 90} Zr {sub 10} composition powders provided a much lower value than that of the other Ni-Zr compositions powders. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Application of Be-free Zr-based amorphous sputter coatings as a brazing filler metal in CANDU fuel bundle manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous sputter coatings of Be-free multi-component Zr-based alloys were applied as a novel brazing filler metal for Zircaloy-4 brazing. By applying the homogeneous and amorphous-structured layers coated by sputtering the crystalline targets, the highly reliable joints were obtained with the formation of predominantly grown α-Zr grains owing to a complete isothermal solidification, exhibiting high tensile and fatigue strengths as well as excellent corrosion resistance, which were comparable to those of Zircaloy-4 base metal. The present investigation showed that Be-free and Zr-based multi-component amorphous sputter coatings can offer great potential for brazing Zr alloys and manufacturing fuel rods in CANDU fuel bundle system. (author)

  17. A study of the diffusion mechanisms in amorphous metallic alloys: diffusion and diffusion under high pressure in an amorphous NiZr alloy; Contribution a l`etude des mecanismes de transport dans les materiaux metalliques amorphes: diffusion et diffusion sous pression dans NiZr amorphe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, A.

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this work is a better understanding of the diffusion mechanism in amorphous metallic alloys. Then interdiffusion and hafnium diffusion in amorphous NiZr alloy have been studied. Samples used are made by sputtering co-deposition under vacuum and are well relaxed before the diffusion measurements. The time evolution of resistivity during annealing due to the decay of a composition modulated film has been measured and from this change in resistivity interdiffusion coefficients have been determined. Dependence of Hf diffusion on temperature and pressure has been studied using (SIMS). In this two cases, the diffusion process obeys an Arrhenius law and gives an activation energy of 1.33 eV for interdiffusion, and 0.76 eV for Hf diffusion. An effect of pressure on Hf diffusion has been found leading to an activation volume of 8.5 angstrom{sup 3}. Thanks to these results, two approaches of the diffusion mechanisms in these systems have been proposed. The first comes from a comparison with the diffusion mechanisms in crystalline metals, that is to say by point defects. The second is an hypothesis of collective motions in these non crystalline alloys. (author).

  18. Magnetic properties and loss separation in Fe76−xAgxNb2Si13B9 amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Soft magnetic properties can be optimized by applying a suitable heat treatment. • Low field magnetic permeability of the optimized samples increases about 10 times. • Total magnetic loss of the optimized samples decreases at least 10 times. • Plasticity is much higher than that reported for similar nanocrystalline alloys. • Observed effects are attributed to formation of the relaxed amorphous phase. - Abstract: Some selected properties (magnetic, plastic, elastic) in amorphous Fe76−xAgxNb2Si13B9 (x = 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) alloys, obtained by melt spinning technique, are presented and discussed in detail. It was shown that a suitable heat treatment of the as quenched samples (i.e. the optimization annealing) leads to a significant improvement of soft magnetic properties (permeability increases at least 10 times). The observed effect is attributed to formation of the so-called relaxed amorphous phase free of iron nanograins. Special attention is paid for loss separation into different components: hysteresis loss, eddy-current loss and residual loss. The latter effect can be attributed to diffusion of free volume and practically disappear after the optimization annealing

  19. Polyimide based amorphous silicon solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Grimmer, Derrick P.; Martens, Steven A.; Abudagga, Khaled; Thomas, Michael L.; Noak, Max

    1993-01-01

    Requirements for space power are increasingly emphasizing lower costs and higher specific powers. This results from new fiscal constraints, higher power requirements for larger applications, and the evolution toward longer distance missions such as a Lunar or Mars base. The polyimide based a-Si modules described are being developed to meet these needs. The modules consist of tandem a-Si solar cell material deposited directly on a roll of polyimide. A laser scribing/printing process subdivides the deposition into discrete cell strips which are series connected to produce the required voltage without cutting the polymer backing. The result is a large, monolithic, blanket type module approximately 30 cm wide and variable in length depending on demand. Current production modules have a specific power slightly over 500 W/Kg with room for significant improvement. Costs for the full blanket modules range from $30/Watt to $150/Watt depending on quantity and engineering requirements. Work to date focused on the modules themselves and adjusting them for the AMO spectrum. Work is needed yet to insure that the modules are suitable for the space environment.

  20. Amorphous silicon based large format uncooled FPA microbolometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimert, T.; Brady, J.; Fagan, T.; Taylor, M.; McCardel, W.; Gooch, R.; Ajmera, S.; Hanson, C.; Syllaios, A. J.

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents recent developments in next generation microbolometer Focal Plane Array (FPA) technology at L-3 Communications Infrared Products (L-3 CIP). Infrared detector technology at L-3 CIP is based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon germanium(a-SiGe:H). Large format high performance, fast, and compact IR FPAs are enabled by a low thermal mass pixel design; favorable material properties; an advanced ROIC design; and wafer level packaging. Currently at L-3 CIP, 17 micron pixel FPA array technology including 320x240, 640 x 480 and 1024 x768 arrays is under development. Applications of these FPAs range from low power microsensors to high resolution near-megapixel imager systems.

  1. Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling for Amorphous Solid Dispersion Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amitava; Zhu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2016-09-01

    Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulations are routinely used to enable the delivery of poorly soluble compounds. This type of formulations can enhance bioavailability due to higher kinetic solubility of the drug substance and increased dissolution rate of the formulation, by the virtue of the fact that the drug molecule exists in the formulation in a high energy amorphous state. In this article we report the application of physiologically based absorption models to mechanistically understand the clinical pharmacokinetics of solid dispersion formulations. Three case studies are shown here to cover a wide range of ASD bioperformance in human and modeling to retrospectively understand their in vivo behavior. Case study 1 is an example of fairly linear PK observed with dose escalation and the use of amorphous solubility to predict bioperformance. Case study 2 demonstrates the development of a model that was able to accurately predict the decrease in fraction absorbed (%Fa) with dose escalation thus demonstrating that such model can be used to predict the clinical bioperformance in the scenario where saturation of absorption is observed. Finally, case study 3 shows the development of an absorption model with the intent to describe the observed incomplete and low absorption in clinic with dose escalation. These case studies highlight the utility of physiologically based absorption modeling in gaining a thorough understanding of ASD performance and the critical factors impacting performance to drive design of a robust drug product that would deliver the optimal benefit to the patients. PMID:27442959

  2. Formation of amorphous Fe 50Si 50 alloy by diffusion reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhihua; Wang, Wenkui; Li, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming

    1989-02-01

    The solid state reaction in the multilayer film with alternative polycrystalline Fe and amorphous Si layers has been studied with X-ray diffraction. Amorphous Fe 50Si 50 phase was formed after annealing isothermally at 300°C, which is explained in view of the consideration that an amorphous phase can be more favorable to form than a supersaturated solution in thermodynamics as well as than an equilibrium compound FeSi in kenetics.

  3. Thermal stability of Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 bulk amorphous alloy during continuous heating and isothermal annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉来; 沈军; 孙剑飞; 王刚; 邢大伟; 周彼德

    2003-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 (mole fraction, %) bulk amorphous alloy during continuous heating and isothermal annealing was investigated. The results show that there exists a first order exponential decay relation between the characteristic temperatures and the heating rates during continuous heating process. The activation energy for glass transition Eg and that for crystallization Ep and Ex during continuous heating were evaluated by Kissinger plots. In addition, there is a second order exponential decay relation between the annealing temperature and the corresponding crystallization time during isothermal annealing. The isothermal activation energy obtained by Arrhenius equation increases as crystallization proceeds, indicating the sufficient stability of the residual amorphous structure after initial crystallization.

  4. Magnetoimpedance of cobalt-based amorphous ribbons/polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semirov, A. V.; Derevyanko, M. S.; Bukreev, D. A.; Moiseev, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, V. O.; Safronov, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    The combined influence of the temperature, the elastic tensile stress and the external magnetic field on the total impedance and impedance components were studied for rapidly quenched amorphous Co75Fe5Si4B16 ribbons. Both as-cast amorphous ribbons and Co75Fe5Si4B16/polymer amorphous ribbon based composites were considered. Following polymer coverings were studied: modified rubber solution in o-xylene, solution of butyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid copolymer in isopropanol and solution of polymethylphenylsiloxane resin in toluene. All selected composites showed very good adhesion of the coverings and allowed to provide temperature measurements from 163 K up to 383 K under the applied deforming tensile force up to 30 N. The dependence of the modulus of the impedance and its components on the external magnetic field was influenced by the elastic tensile stresses and was affected by the temperature of the samples. It was shown that maximal sensitivity of the impedance and its components to the external magnetic field was observed at minimal temperature and maximal deforming force depended on the frequency of an alternating current.

  5. Nanocrystallization behaviour of a ternary amorphous alloy during isothermal annealing: a Monte Carlo simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Shi-Feng; Wang Wei-Min; Zhou Jian-Kun; Guo Hong-Xuan; J.F. Webb; Bian Xiu-Fang

    2005-01-01

    The nanocrystallization behaviour of Zr70Cu20Ni10 metallic glass during isothermal annealing is studied by employing a Monte Carlo simulation incorporating with a modified Ising model and a Q-state Potts model. Based on the simulated microstructure and differential scanning calorimetry curves, we find that the low crystal-amorphous interface energy of Ni plays an important role in the nanocrystallization of primary Zr2Ni. It is found that when T < TImax (where TImax is the temperature with maximum nucleation rate), the increase of temperature results in a larger growth rate and a much finer microstructure for the primary Zr2Ni, which accords with the microstructure evolution in "flash annealing". Finally, the Zr2Ni/Zr2Cu interface energy σG contributes to the pinning effect of the primary nano-sized Zr2Ni grains in the later formed normal Zr2Cu grains.

  6. Uniaxial tension effect on geometrical parameters of surface relief of amorphous alloy Fe77Ni1Si9B13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uniaxial tension effect on the topography of the Fe77Ni1Si9B13 amorphous alloy surface is studied within the wide range of loads (0-3 GPA) by the method of scanning tunnel microscopy. The change in the defects distributions by vertical and lateral dimensions, in particular, the increase in the number of the large-scale defects and also increase in the surface fractal dimensionality, by the load growth is determined. The supposition on the diffusion mechanism of the relief formation and also on the role of the observed effects in originating the seats of destruction on the surface is expressed

  7. Enhancement of the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Hardness of Zr-Al-Co Amorphous Alloys by Ag Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongyong; Dong, Xiao; Song, Xiaohui; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Gong; Liu, Riping

    2016-05-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of Zr57Al15Co28- X Ag X ( X = 0 and 8) amorphous alloys were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, in situ high-pressure angle dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation, and nanoindentation. Results show that Ag doping improves effective activation energy, nanohardness, elastic modulus, and bulk modulus. Ag addition enhances topological and chemical short-range orderings, which can improve local packing efficiency and restrain long-range atom diffusion. This approach has implications for the design of the microstructure- and property-controllable functional materials for various applications.

  8. Formation of amorphous Ti alloy layers by excimer laser mixing of Ti on AISI 304 stainless-steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, T. R.; Nastasi, M.; Zocco, T. G.; Martin, J. A.

    1988-07-01

    We used excimer laser radiation at 308 nm to mix thin layers of Ti into AISI 304 stainless steel. Different numbers of shots at a fluence about twice the threshold for melting varied the amount of mixing. When mixing is sufficiently complete, an amorphous surface layer is formed with Ti substituting for Fe on a one-to-one basis in the alloy. The laser mixing process, unlike Ti ion implantation, does not result in high incorporation of C in the processed layer, although some C from surface and interface contamination is incorporated into the surface layer.

  9. Effect of small additions of Cu and Cr on crystallization of Fe80B9Si11 amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of differential thermal and X-ray structure analyses, as well as, by measurement of microstrength one studied the effect of small additions of chromium and copper on the peculiarities of crystallization of Fe80B9Si11 amorphous alloy (Fe79Cr1B9Si11 and Fe79Cu1B9Si11). Chromium was determined to stabilize Fe3B nonequilibrium phase the formation of which resulted in eutectic type of crystallization at early stages while copper was determined to enable formation of α-Fe and Fe2B equilibrium phases and primary crystallization with precipitation of α-Fe primary crystals

  10. Evaluation of mechanical properties of partially amorphous and nanocrystalline Al{sub 50}Ti{sub 40}Si{sub 10} composites prepared by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D., E-mail: droy2k6@gmail.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, NIFFT, Ranchi 834003 (India); Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Pressure Physics (UNIPRESS), Sokolowska 29/37, Warszawa 01-142 (Poland); Mitra, R. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Ojo, O.A. [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Singh, S.S. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Kolesnikov, D.; Lojkowski, W. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Pressure Physics (UNIPRESS), Sokolowska 29/37, Warszawa 01-142 (Poland); Scattergood, R.O.; Koch, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Manna, I. [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2012-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Mechanically alloyed in situ nano Al{sub 3}Ti dispersed Al{sub 50}Ti{sub 40}Si{sub 10} amorphous matrix alloy powder was consolidated by hot isostatic pressing in the temperature range of 300-600 Degree-Sign C with a pressure of 1.2 GPa and holed at this temperature for 10 min. Microstructural and phase evolution studies of the mechanically alloyed powder and sintered compacts were conducted by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Alloy sintered at 500 Degree-Sign C recorded an excellent combination of high hardness (8.61 GPa), compressive strength (1212 MPa) and Young's modulus (149 GPa). Furthermore, these results have been compared with that of earlier studies based on conventional sintering (CCS), and high pressure sintering (HPS).

  11. Ionizing radiation solid detectors on the base of amorphous arsenic chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility to use radiation-sensitive elements of solid chalcogenide glass-like semiconductors (CGS) - special class of oxygen-free amorphous substances, which are alloys of groups 3, 4 and 5 elements with chalcogens (S, Se, Te), was analyzed. The materials feature lower temperatures of radiation information erasure (440-470 K) than oxide glasses. Radiation-induced electron-defect processes lay at physical basis of operation of CGS-based solid detectors. The processes consist in violation of atom normal coordination at the expense of chemical bond rupture and appearance of other bonds. The main principles of operation are reduced to registration of CGS density at a certain wavelength prior to and after total dose collection. The use of helium-neon laser as a probing radiation source simplifies considerably measurement procedure and permits making measurements without sensor extraction from radiation field

  12. Nickel-base alloys combat corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, D.C. [VDM Technologies Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Herda, W. [Krupp-VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    The modern chemical process industry must increase production efficiency to remain competitive. Manufacturers typically meet this challenge by utilizing higher temperatures and pressures, and more-corrosive catalysts. At the same time, the industry has to solve the technical and commercial problems resulting from rigid environmental regulations. To overcome these obstacles, new alloys having higher levels of corrosion resistance have been developed. These materials are based on increased understanding of the physical metallurgy of nickel-base alloys, especially the role of alloying elements. Results of many studies have led to innovations in nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys containing both high and low amounts of nickel. Higher molybdenum and chromium contents, together with nitrogen additions, have opened up an entirely new class of alloys having unique properties. In addition, a new chromium-base, fully wrought super stainless steel shows excellent promise in solving many corrosion problems. These newer alloys have the ability to combat uniform corrosion, localized corrosion, and stress-corrosion cracking in the harsh halogenic environment of the chemical process industry. This article briefly lists some of the major highlights and corrosion data on recent nickel-chromium-molybdenum and nickel-molybdenum alloys, and the development of a chromium-base, wrought super-austenitic alloy known as Nicrofer 3033 (Alloy 33). Some comparisons with existing alloys are presented, along with a few commercial applications.

  13. Crystallization of Fe{sub 83}B{sub 17} amorphous alloy by electric pulses produced by a capacitor discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgarakis, Konstantinos [WPI-AIMR Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG), Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes (SIMAP-CNRS), Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Dudina, Dina V. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mali, Vyacheslav I.; Anisimov, Alexander G. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bulina, Natalia V. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Moreira Jorge, Alberto Jr. [Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG), Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes (SIMAP-CNRS), Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France); Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Yavari, Alain R. [Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG), Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes (SIMAP-CNRS), Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France)

    2015-09-15

    Heating of conductive materials by electric current is used in many technological processes. Application of electric pulses to metallic glasses induces their fast crystallization, which is an interesting and complex phenomenon. In this work, crystallization of the Fe{sub 83}B{sub 17} amorphous alloy induced by pulses of electric current produced has been studied using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ribbons of the alloy were directly subjected to single pulses of electric current 250 μs long formed by a capacitor discharge. As the value of ∫I{sup 2}dt was increased from 0.33 to 2.00 A{sup 2} s, different crystallization stages could be observed. The crystallization began through the formation of the nuclei of α-Fe. At high values of ∫I{sup 2}dt, α-Fe and tetragonal and orthorhombic Fe{sub 3}B and Fe{sub 23}B{sub 6} were detected in the crystallized ribbons with crystallites of about 50 nm. Thermal annealing of the ribbons at 600 C for 2 min resulted in the formation of α-Fe and tetragonal Fe{sub 3}B. It was concluded that pulses of electric current produced by a capacitor discharge induced transformation of the Fe{sub 83}B{sub 17} amorphous phase into metastable crystalline products. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic and Distribution of Magnetic Moments in Amorphous Fe89.7 P10.3 Alloy Nanowire Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary amorphous Fe89.7P10.3 alloy nanowire arrays in diameter of about 40nm and length of about 3 μm have been fabricated in an anodic aluminium oxide template by electrodeposition. Magnetic properties of the samples are investigated by mean of vibrating sample magnetometer, transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. It is found that the nanowire arrays have obvious perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and are ferromagnetic at room temperature, with its Mössbauer spectra consisting of six broad lines. The average angles between the Fe magnetic moment and the wire axis are about 14° inside and 28° at the end of the amorphous Fe89.7P10.3 alloy nanowire arrays, respectively. The magnetic behaviour is decided by the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interaction between wires. In addition, the magnetic moments distribution is theoretically demonstrated by using the symmetric fanning mechanism of the spheres chain model

  15. Magnetic and Distribution of Magnetic Moments in Amorphous Fe89.7P10.3Alloy Nanowire Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hui-Gang; XUE De-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Binary amorphous Fe89.7P10.3 alloy nanowire arrays in diameter of about 40nm and length of about 3μm have been fabricated in an anodic aluminium oxide template by electrodeposition.Magnetic properties of the samples are investigated by mean of vibrating sample magnetometer,transmission M(o)ssbauer spectroscopy and conversion electron M(o)ssbauer spectroscopy at room temperature.It is found that the nanowire arrays have obvious perpendicular magnetic anisotropy,and are ferromagnetic at room temperature,with its M(o)ssbauer spectra consisting of six broad lines.The average anglas between the Fe magnetic moment and the wire axis are about 14°inside and 28°at the end of the amorphous Fe89.7P10.3 alloy nanowire arrays,respectively.The magnetic behaviour is decided by the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interaction between wires.In addition,the magnetic moments distribution is theoretically demonstrated by using the symmetric fanning mechanism of the spheres chain model.

  16. Effect of irradiation temperature on crystallization of {alpha}-Fe induced by He irradiations in Fe{sub 80}B{sub 20} amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San-noo, Toshimasa; Toriyama, Tamotsu; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Iijima, Hiroshi [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Isao

    1997-03-01

    Since amorphous alloys are generally highly resistant to irradiation and their critical radiation dose is an order of magnitude higher for Fe-B amorphous alloy than Mo-methods, these alloys are expected to become applicable as for fusion reactor materials. The authors investigated {alpha}-Fe crystallization in an amorphous alloy, Fe{sub 80}B{sub 20} using internal conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy. The amount of {alpha}-Fe component was found to increase by raising the He-irradiation dose. The target part was modified to enable He ion radiation at a lower temperature (below 400 K) by cooling with Peltier element. Fe{sub 80}B{sub 20} amorphous alloy was cooled to keep the temperature at 300 K and exposed to 40 keV He ion at 1-3 x 10{sup 8} ions/cm{sup 2}. The amount of {alpha}-Fe crystal in each sample was determined. The crystal formation was not observed for He ion radiation below 2 x 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, but that at 3 x 10{sup 8} ions/ cm{sup 2} produced a new phase ({delta} +0.40 mm/sec, {Delta} = 0.89 mm/sec). The decrease in the radiation temperature from 430 to 300 K resulted to extremely repress the production of {alpha}-Fe crystal, suggesting that the crystallization induced by He-radiation cascade is highly depending on the radiation temperature. (M.N.)

  17. Effects of Mo additions on the glass-forming ability and magnetic properties of bulk amorphous Fe-C-Si-B-P-Mo alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI; Seonghoon

    2010-01-01

    Glass formation, mechanical and magnetic properties of the Fe76-xC7.0Si3.3B5.0P8.7Mox (x=0, 1 at.%, 3 at.% and 5 at.%) alloys prepared using an industrial Fe-P master alloy have been studied. With the substitution of Mo for Fe, glass-forming ability (GFA) was significantly enhanced and fully amorphous rods with a diameter of up to 5 mm were produced in the alloy with 3% Mo. The Mo-containing amorphous alloys also exhibited high fracture strength of 3635–3881 MPa and excellent magnetic properties including a high saturation magnetization of 1.10–1.41 T, a high Curie temperature and a low coercive force. The unique combination of high GFA, high fracture strength and excellent magnetic properties make the newly developed bulk metallic glasses viable for practical engineering applications.

  18. Structure and Soft Magnetic Properties of the Amorphous Alloys: Fe61Co10Ti3-xY6+xB20 (x = 0, 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błoch K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents studies relating to the structure, soft magnetic properties and thermal stability of the following bulk amorphous alloys: Fe61Co10Ti3-xY6+xB20 (x = 0, 1. On the basis of the performed X-ray diffraction studies and Mössbauer spectroscopy, it was found that investigated samples were amorphous in the as-cast state. The DSC curve obtained for Fe61Co10Ti2Y7B20 alloy exhibited one exothermic peak, while for the Fe61Co10Ti3Y6B20 sample, two peaks were distinguishable. The change in the chemical structure of the investigated alloys has a major effect on their soft magnetic properties; especially on coercivity and saturation magnetization. On the basis of the magnetization curves analysis, the spin wave stiffness parameter Dsp were determined for the investigated alloys.

  19. Hot-press sintering of MA Fe-based nanocrystalline/amorphous soft magnetic powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢斌; 易丹青; 严彪; 殷俊林; 刘会群; 吴标理; 陈小丽

    2004-01-01

    Microstructures and magnetic properties of Fe84 Nb7 B9, Fe80 Ti8 B12 and Fe32 Ni36 (Nb/Ⅴ) 7 Si8 B17 powders and their bulk alloys prepared by mechanical alloying(MA) method and hot-press sintering were studied. The results show that: 1) After MA for 20 h, nanocrystalline bcc single phase supersaturated solid solution forms in Fe84-Nb7 B9 and Fe8o Ti8 B12 alloys, amorphous structure forms in Fe32 Ni36 Nb7 Si8 B17 alloy, duplex microstructure composed of nanocrystalline γ-(FeNi) supersaturated solid solution and trace content of Fe2B phase forms in Fe32 Ni36-V7 Si8 B17 alloy. 2) The decomposition process of supersaturated solid solution phases in Fe84 Nb7 B9 and Fe80 Ti8 B12alloys happens at 710 -780 ℃, crystallization reaction in Fe32 Ni36 Nb7 Si8 B17 alloy happens at 530 ℃ (the temperature of peak value) and residual amorphous crystallized further happens at 760 ℃ (the temperature of peak value), phase decomposition process of supersaturated solid solution at 780 ℃ (the temperature of peak value) and crystallization reaction at 431 ℃ (the temperature of peak value) happens in Fe32 Ni36 V7Si8B17 alloy. 3) under 900 ℃, 30 MPa,0.5 h hot-press sintering conditions, bulk alloys with high relative density(94.7%- 95.8%) can be obtained. Except that the grain size of Fe84 Nb7B9 bulk alloy is large, superfine grains (grain size 50 - 200 nm) are obtained in other alloys. Except that single phase microstructure is obtained in Fe80 Ti8B12 bulk alloy, multi-phase microstructures are obtained in other alloys. 4) The magnetic properties of Fe80 Ti8 B12 bulk alloy(Bs = 1.74 T, Hc = 4.35 kA/m) are significantly superior to those of other bulk alloys, which is related to the different phases of nanocrystalline or amorphous powder formed during hot-press sintering process and grain size.

  20. The effect of mechanical milling on the soft magnetic properties of amorphous FINEMET alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheiratmand, T., E-mail: t.gheiratmand@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11155-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, H.R. Madaah; Davami, P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., P.O. Box 11155-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gjoka, M. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Center for Scientific Research, DEMOKRITOS, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Song, M. [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-05-01

    The effect of milling time on the magnetic properties of FINEMET amorphous ribbons has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, thermo-magnetic measurements, transmission electron microscopy and SQUID magnetometery. Ribbons were melt-spun at a wheel speed of 38 ms{sup -1} and then mechanically milled for different periods up to 45 min. The results showed that the partially crystallization of the amorphous powder occurs during milling. TEM observations confirmed the formation of small volume fraction of the crystalline phase with ~9 nm crystallite size in the amorphous matrix for the ribbon milled for 45 min. Thermo-magnetic measurements indicated the enhancement of the Curie temperature of amorphous phase during milling which is due to the annihilation of free volumes and microstructural ordering. The Hopkinson effect led to the monotonic increase of magnetization with respect to the temperature before reaching the Curie temperature of the milled samples. Moreover; the magnetization increased with the formation of the Fe(Si) phase while the coercivity decreased. Mössbauer spectroscopy and thermo-magnetic measurements revealed the existence of 13% Fe in crystalline phase. The composition of crystalline phase was determined as Fe–16.5Si. Hyperfine field values increased with milling time, suggesting the ordering of the structure and enhancement of the number of Fe–Fe atomic pairs in the crystalline phase comparing to the primary amorphous ribbon. - Highlights: • Effect of crystallization of amorphous FINEMET during milling has been investigated. • Milling of amorphous ribbons for 45 min caused the formation of nano crystals. • Annihilation of free volumes increased the Curie temperature of amorphous phase. • Hyperfine field values increased with milling time suggesting ordering of the structure. • Hopkinson effect led to the monotonic increase in magnetization before T{sub c}.

  1. Deformation of Zr41 Ti14 CU12.5 Ni10 Be22.5 bulk amorphous alloy under isobaric pressure in super-cooled liquid region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ke-qin; LU Qi-zhu

    2005-01-01

    The curve of crystallization transition during continuous heating for the Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk amorphous alloy was measured by means of dilatation(Fully automatic transformation recording/measuring instrument) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) method. The deformation behavior of the alloy at various heating rates in the supercooled liquid region was studied. The results show that the glass transition temperature of the alloy increases slightly and the supercooled liquid region(SLR) increases significantly with increasing heating rate. The deformation amount under isobaric pressure of 1 N for the alloy in the SLR increases with increasing heating rate. As the heating rate of the alloy increases from 5 to 100 ℃/min, the amount of deformation of the alloy increases from 8.3% to 45%.

  2. M-Si-B合金非晶形成能力的CALPHAD模式评估%Evaluation of the amorphous-forming ability of M-Si-B ternary alloys using CALPHAD approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    长谷部光弘

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic study has been carried out on M-Si-B (M=Fe, Ni) ternary systems. A regular solution approximation based on the sublattice model was adopted to describe the Gibbs energy for the individual phases in the binary and ternary systems. Thermodynamic parameters for each phase were evaluated by using the experimental data. These parameters enabled us to obtain reproducible calculations of the isothermal and vertical section diagrams.The amorphous-forming ability of M-Si-B ternary alloys has been evaluated by introducing thermodynamic quantities obtained from the phase diagram calculations into Davies-Uhlmann kinetic formulations. For the computation, the timetemperature- transformation (TTT) diagram, which gives the time necessary for the formation of the detectable amount of crystal during transformation, was obtained at a finite temperature The critical cooling rate for amorphization could be defined as the minimum cooling speed that does not intersect the TTT curve and, hence, these critical cooling rates enable us to evaluate the glass-forming ability of M-Si-B ternary alloys. The driving force for the crystallization of the crystalline phase was derived, on the basis of the thermodynamic functions of each phase formulated by the present study. The calculated results showed good agreement with the experimental data on the compositional range of amorphization in these alloy systems.

  3. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Cabrera, Carolina; Morón, Alberto; García, Alfonso; González, Mercedes

    2015-11-11

    Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a "simple" and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc.

  4. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a “simple” and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc.

  5. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Sharma; M M Nayak; N S Dinesh

    2008-10-01

    Design and characterization of a new shape memory alloy wire based Poly Phase Motor has been reported in this paper. The motor can be used either in stepping mode or in servo mode of operation. Each phase of the motor consists of an SMA wire with a spring in series. The principle of operation of the poly phase motor is presented. The motor resembles a stepper motor in its functioning though the actuation principles are different and hence has been characterized similar to a stepper motor. The motor can be actuated in either direction with different phase sequencing methods, which are presented in this work. The motor is modelled and simulated and the results of simulations and experiments are presented. The experimental model of the motor is of dimension 150 mm square, 20 mm thick and uses SMA wire of 0·4 mm diameter and 125 mm of length in each phase.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Amorphous Layer on Aluminum Alloy Formed by Plasma Electrolytic Deposition (PED)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-jun; XIA Yuan

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, protective layers were formed on aluminum substrate by Plasma Electrolytic Deposition (PED) using sodium silicate solution. The relation between the thickness of the layer and process time were studied. XRD,SEM, EDS were used to study the layer's structure, composition and micrograph. The results show that the deposited layers are amorphous and contain mainly oxygen, silicon, and aluminum. The possible formation mechanism of amorphous [Al-Si-O] layer was proposed: During discharge periods, Al2O3 phase of the passive film and SiO32-near the substrate surface are sintered into xSiO2(1-x)Al2O3 and then transformed into amorphous [Al-Si-O] phase.

  7. Intrinsic complexity of the melt-quenched amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbal, M.; Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Tominaga, J.; Elliott, S. R.; Hegedus, J.; Uruga, T.

    2011-02-01

    Through the use of first-principles Ge K-edge XANES simulations we demonstrate that the structure of melt-quenched amorphous Ge-Sb-Te is intrinsically complex and is a mixture of Ge(3):Te(3) and Ge(4):Te(2) configurations in comparable concentrations, in contrast to the as-deposited amorphous phase that is dominated by the Ge(4):Te(2) configurations. The reasons for Ge-Te polyvalency are discussed and it is argued that both configurations are compatible with the Mott 8-N rule and the definition of an ideal amorphous solid. The near-perfect Te-Te distance match between the two major configurations accounts for the high cyclability of phase-change materials. Stable compositions in the Ge-Sb-Te system are suggested.

  8. Bacterial nanometric amorphous Fe-based oxide: a potential lithium-ion battery anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Genki; Sakuma, Ryo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Hayashi, Naoaki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Kanno, Ryoji; Takano, Mikio; Takada, Jun

    2014-04-23

    Amorphous Fe(3+)-based oxide nanoparticles produced by Leptothrix ochracea, aquatic bacteria living worldwide, show a potential as an Fe(3+)/Fe(0) conversion anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The presence of minor components, Si and P, in the original nanoparticles leads to a specific electrode architecture with Fe-based electrochemical centers embedded in a Si, P-based amorphous matrix.

  9. Tendency of metallic crystals to amorphization in the process of severe (Megaplastic) deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, A. M.; Sundeev, R. V.; Shalimova, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    The main features of the transition of crystalline Ni50Ti30Hf20, Ti50Ni25Cu25, Zr50Ni18Ti17Cu15, and Fe78B8.5Si9P4.5 alloys with various tendencies to amorphization into an amorphous state upon melt quenching and in the course of severe deformation in Bridgman anvils have been considered. The crystalline state of these alloys has been produced using various methods of annealing. In the iron-based alloy, single-phase and two-phase crystalline states have been studied. The nickel- and titanium-based alloys after annealing were in a single-phase crystalline state; the zirconium-based alloy, in a two-phase state. It is shown that at the same degree of deformation the rates of amorphization of crystalline alloys differ substantially; namely, the single-phase crystalline titanium- and iron-based alloys amorphize easily, whereas the Zr-based alloy amorphizes only poorly, just like the two-phase iron-based alloy. It can be assumed that the tendency to deformation-induced amorphization of crystalline alloys and the corresponding crystalline phases is mainly determined by three factors: mechanical, thermodynamic, and concentration-related.

  10. Ductile Bulk Aluminum-Based Alloy with Good Glass-Forming Ability and High Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Long-Chao; PANG Shu-Jie; WANG Hui; ZHANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Based on a new approach for designing glassy alloy compositions,bulk Al-based alloys with good glass-forming ability (GFA) are synthesized.The cast Al86Si0.5Ni4.06Co2.94 Y6Sc0.5 rod with a diameter of 1 mm shows almost fully amorphous structure besides about 5% fcc-Al nucleated in the center of the rod.The bulk alloy with high Al concentration exhibits an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.18 Gpa and maximum strength of 1.27 Gpa as well as an obvious plastic strain of about 2.4% during compressive deformation.This light Al-based alloy with good GFA and mechanical properties is promising as a new high specific strength material with good deformability.

  11. Glass forming ability of Zr-and Fe-based alloys at quenching from melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The master alloy ingots(MAI)with the nominal composition Zr52.5 Ti5Cu17.9 Ni14.6Al10 and Fe61Co7Zr10Mo5W2B15(at%)were prepared by arc-melting in Ti-gettered Ar atmosphere.The Zr-based buttons of 6 mm and 9 mm in diameter were fully amorphous,but those of 13 mm in diameter experienced crystallization.The glass forming ability(GFA)of Fe-based alloys was relatively lower,and the buttons obtained were fully crystallized.The microhardness of the Zr-based buttons was about 500(Hv),and the Fe-based rod obtained by injection technique exhibited a high Vickers hardness of 1329.In addition,an amorphous-crystalline transition layers were observed in both the buttons and the rods.

  12. Nanocrystallization in Co67Cr7Fe4Si8B14 Amorphous Alloy Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jamili-Shirvan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystallization of Co67Fe4Cr7Si8B14 amorphous ribbons which prepared by planar flow melt spinning process (PFMS was investigated. Crystallization of the ribbons was studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The DTA result of amorphous ribbon at heating rate of 10˚C/min showedoccurrence of phase transitions in two stages. The ribbons were isothermally annealed for 30 minutes in argon atmosphere at different temperatures between 300 and 650ºC with 25ºC steps. The magnetic properties of annealed samples were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The VSM results revealed that optimum soft magnetic properties occurred at 400ºC. XRD patterns showed that the samples isothermally annealed up to 450ºC were amorphous, while TEM results at 400ºC indicated 7-8 nm mean size nanocrytallites in amorphous matrix and size of the nanocrystallites increased by increasing temperature. Also by X-ray diffraction pattern, precipitation of different phases at higher temperatures confirmed.

  13. Effect of annealing on atomic ordering of amorphous ZrTaTiNbSi alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Huang, Rong-Tang; Wu, Cheng-An; Chen, Fu-Rong; Gan, Jon-Yiew; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Narayan, Jagdish

    2009-12-01

    In this letter, we have reported on initial stages of atomic ordering in ZrTaTiNbSi amorphous films during annealing. The atomic ordering and structure evolution were studied in Zr17Ta16Ti19Nb22Si26 amorphous films as a function of annealing temperature in the temperature range from 473 to 1173 K. Up to annealing temperature of 1173 K, the films retained amorphous structure, but the degree of disorder is increased with the increase in temperature. The formation of Si-M covalent bonds, which contributed to the local atomic arrangement, occurred in the initial stages of ordering. The bonding reactions between Si and other metal species explain the anomalous structural changes which were observed in x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. We discuss the stages of phase transformation for amorphous films as a function of annealing temperature. From these results, we propose that annealing leads to formation of random Si-M4 tetrahedron, and two observed rings, a first and second in the electron diffraction patterns compared to M-M and Si-M bond length, respectively.

  14. Morphology and magnetic behavior of cobalt rich amorphous/nanocrystalline (Co-Ni)70Ti10B20 alloyed powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-09-01

    The effect of milling time on microstructural and magnetic behavior of mechanically alloyed Co49Ni21Ti10B20 is investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown, with increasing milling time, the crystallite size decreases and finally reaches to a low value after 190 h of milling time. The increase in microstrain is also observed during the milling process. The results indicate the coexistence between amorphous and nanocrystalline phases after 190 h of milling time. Moreover, the lowest magnetic coercivity of about 39 Oe at the final milling stage is observed. The results of annealed sample reveal structural ordering of constituent elements.

  15. Hydrogenation of furfuryl alcohol to tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol on NiB/SiO2 amorphous alloy catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yun; LI Wei; ZHANG Minghui; TAO Keyi

    2007-01-01

    NiB/SiO2 amorphous alloy catalyst was prepared by power electroless plating method and characterized by induction coupled plasma (ICP),Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET),transmission electron microscope (TEM)and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques.The catalytic performance of NiB/SiO2 was investigated for the hydrogenation of furfuryl alcohol (FA) to tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA).The effects of operational conditions,such as reaction temperature,pressure,and stirring rate were carefully studied.The proper conditions were determined as the following:pressure 2.0 MPa,temperature 120℃ and stirring rate 550 r/min.A typical result with FA conversion of 99%and THFA selectivity of 100% was obtained under such conditions,which was close to that over Raney Ni.

  16. A tunable amorphous p-type ternary oxide system: The highly mismatched alloy of copper tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, Patrick J. M., E-mail: P.J.M.Isherwood@lboro.ac.uk; Walls, John M. [CREST, School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron [Centre for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    The approach of combining two mismatched materials to form an amorphous alloy was used to synthesise ternary oxides of CuO and SnO{sub 2}. These materials were analysed across a range of compositions, and the electronic structure was modelled using density functional theory. In contrast to the gradual reduction in optical band gap, the films show a sharp reduction in both transparency and electrical resistivity with copper contents greater than 50%. Simulations indicate that this change is caused by a transition from a dominant Sn 5s to Cu 3d contribution to the upper valence band. A corresponding decrease in energetic disorder results in increased charge percolation pathways: a “compositional mobility edge.” Contributions from Cu(II) sub band-gap states are responsible for the reduction in optical transparency.

  17. L-S mass transfer in G-L-S countercurrent magnetically stabilized bed with amorphous alloy SRNA-4 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Li; Baoning; Zong; Xiaofang; Li; Xiangkun; Meng; Jinli; Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Liquid-solid (L-S) mass transfer coefficients (Ks) were characterized in a gas-liquid-solid (G-L-S) three-phase countercurrent magnetically stabilized bed (MSB) using amorphous alloy SRNA-4 as the solid phase. Effects of superficial liquid velocity, superficial gas velocity, magnetic field strength, liquid viscosity and surface tension were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the external magnetic field increased Ks in three-phase MSB, as compared to those in conventional G-L-S fluidized beds; that Ks increased with magnetic field strength, superficial gas and liquid velocities and decreased with liquid viscosity and surface tension; and that Ks showed uniform axial and radial distributions except for small increases close to the wall. Dimensionless correlations were established to estimate Ks of the G-L-S countercurrent MSB using SRNA-4catalyst, with an average error of 3.6%.

  18. PREPARATION AND MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES OF AMORPHOUS FE1-XBX (15-LESS-THAN-OR-EQUAL-TO X LESS-THAN-40 ATMOSPHERIC PERCENT) ALLOY PARTICLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Mørup, S.

    1992-01-01

    Amorphous Fe1-xBx alloy particles have been prepared in aqueous solutions by reduction of Fe2+ ions to the metallic state by the use of NaBH4. It is demonstrated, that by changing the pH of the aqueous metal ion solution the amount of boron incorporated in the alloy particles can be varied between...... 15 and 28 at.%. Fe-57 Mossbauer spectra have been obtained at 10, 80 and 295 K. The hyperfine parameters for amorphous particles have been found to be similar to those found for ribbons and films prepared by the liquid-quench and sputtering techniques, respectively, though with a tendency...... for the magnetic hyperfine fields for the chemically prepared and sputter prepared alloys to deviate slightly from those for melt-spun samples. The magnetic hyperfine fields decrease linearly as a function of T3/2....

  19. Effect of temperature and magnetic fields on the structural state of the Fe-Zr-B amorphous alloy below crystallization temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova N.L.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous materials give the possibility to observe the phase and structural transformations in sufficiently narrow temperature intervals with the retention of their unchanged chemical composition. The present report is concerned with the results of the study of structure evolution and its dependence on magnetic field upon heating in the Fe-Zr-B amorphous alloy by the method of the photometric analysis of structural images (PHASI. The PHASI method makes it possible to establish the effect of external temperature and magnetic fields on the brightness spectra of the reflection from the surface of the object under study and the distribution of the zones, in which these changes are localized. The established temperature dependence of the energy characteristics of the reflection brightness spectrum in arbitrary units indicates the complex structural transformations caused by heating of the alloy under study. Also it is shown that the magnetic field produces residual structural changes in the alloy in comparison with its initial state

  20. Density and glass forming ability in amorphous atomic alloys: The role of the particle softness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Ian; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A key property of glass forming alloys, the anomalously small volume difference with respect to the crystal, is shown to arise as a direct consequence of the soft repulsive potentials between metals. This feature of the inter-atomic potential is demonstrated to be responsible for a significant component of the glass forming ability of alloys due to the decrease in the enthalpy of fusion and the associated depression of the freezing point.

  1. Influence of production method on the magnetic parameters and structure of Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Y{sub 8}Nb{sub 1}B{sub 20} amorphous alloys in the as-quenched state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrusiewicz, Paweł, E-mail: pietrusiewicz@wip.pcz.pl [Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Processing Technology and Applied Physics, Institute of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Nabiałek, Marcin; Dośpiał, Marcin; Gruszka, Konrad; Błoch, Katarzyna [Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Processing Technology and Applied Physics, Institute of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Gondro, Joanna; Brągiel, Piotr [Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institute of Physics, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Szota, Michał; Stradomski, Zbigniew [Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Processing Technology and Applied Physics, Materials Engineering Institute, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The paper presents the influence of rapid quenching method on structure and magnetic properties. • Classical and bulk Fe-based amorphous alloy in the as-cast state. • Samples were obtained by the use of three casting methods i.e. suction, injection and melt-spinning. • XRD and Mössbauer effect studies were used to confirm amorphous structure of samples. • The reduction of saturation of magnetization in BMGs was resulting from higher packing density of atoms. - Abstract: In this paper, the influence of production method on the basic magnetic properties and structure of amorphous alloys, in the forms of ribbons and plates, was investigated. The samples used in the investigations were obtained by three different production methods: ultrafast cooling of the liquid alloy on a rotating copper wheel (the melt-spinning method), and the injection or suction of the molten alloy into a water-cooled copper die injection- and suction-casting, respectively. The structure of the resulting samples of Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Y{sub 8}Nb{sub 1}B{sub 20} alloy was investigated by means of X-ray diffractometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the microstructural investigations confirmed that the obtained samples were amorphous and without crystalline precipitations. The images from the scanning electron microscope were typical for amorphous materials. Magnetic measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) using magnetic fields of up to 2 T. The highest value of the saturation magnetization was achieved for the sample which was in the form of a ribbon. The values of this parameter for the samples which were in the form of plates were similar to each other, regardless of the production method. The values of the coercivity showed much greater differences, depending on the production method. The smallest value of coercivity was found for the sample in plate-form obtained by injection-casting; this is

  2. The influence of structural changes on electrical and magnetic characteristics of amorphous powder of the nixmoy alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribić-Zelenović Lenka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel and molybdenum alloy powder was electrodeposited on a titanium cathode from a NiSO4⋅7H2O and (NH46 Mo7O24⋅4H2O ammonium solution. The desired chemical composition, structure, size and shape of particles in the powder samples were achieved by an appropriate choice of electrolysis parameters (current density, composition and temperature of the solution, cathode material and electrolysis duration. Metal coatings form in the current density range 15 mA cm-2alloy decreases with the increase of the current density of deposition. Smaller sized particles form at higher current density. X-ray analysis, differential scanning calorimetric and measurements of the temperature dependence of electric resistance and magnetic permeability of the powder samples were all used to establish a predominantly amorphous structure of the powder samples formed at the current density of j≥70mA cm-2. The crystalline particle content in the powder samples increases with the decrease of the current density of deposition. Powder heating causes structural changes. The process of thermal stabilization of nickel and molybdenum amorphous powders takes place in the temperature interval from 463K to 573K and causes a decrease in electrical resistance and increase in magnetic permeability. The crystallization temperature depends on the value of current density of powder electrodeposition. Powder formed at j=180 mA cm-2 begins to crystallize at 573K, while the powder deposited at j=50 mA cm-2 begins to crystallize at 673K. Crystallization of the powder causes a decrease in electric resistivity and magnetic

  3. Spatial-Temporal Oscillations of Relaxation and Pre-Turbulent Type in Ideal Confined Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Krasnyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for oscillating distributions at surface-induced crystallization of a quasi-binary volcanic melt, as a superposition of two travelling waves, are found. It is shown that change in the cooling conditions on the surfaces of flat walls which confine the melt leads to the change in the surface structure, i.e. surface amorphous-crystal waves penetrating the amorphous melt and initiating different types of pulse oscillations in the bulk in turn. For ideal melts, when bulk perturbations can be neglected, the solution tends to an asymptotically periodic piecewise-constant function. In the case of non-ideal melts, competition between surface and volume fluctuations arises and solution tends to an asymptotically quasi-periodic function.

  4. Co-catalytic effect of Rh and Ru for the ethanol electro-oxidation in amorphous microparticulated alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Tamara C.; Pierna, Angel R.; Barroso, Javier [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    The ethanol electro-oxidation on platinum catalyst in acid media leads to the formation of acetaldehyde and acetic acid as main products. Another problem is the poisoning of the electro-catalyst surface with CO formed during the fuel oxidation reaction. To increase the performance of Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells (DEFCs) it is necessary to develop new electrode materials or modification of the existing Pt catalysts. This work presents the electrochemical response to ethanol and CO oxidation of different compositional amorphous alloys obtained by ball milling technique, used as electrodes. Alloys with Ni{sub 59}Nb{sub 40}Pt{sub 0.6}Rh{sub 0.4} and Ni{sub 59}Nb{sub 40}Pt{sub 0.6}Rh{sub 0.2}Ru{sub 0.2} composi-tions were studied. The current density towards ethanol oxidation decreases with the presence of ruthenium; however, this electrode shows the best tolerance to CO, with lower surface coverage (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Crystallization process in rapidly solidified Al-Nd-Ni amorphous alloy prepared by melt spinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖于德; 黎文献; 马正青

    2004-01-01

    Rapidly solidified ribbons of Al90 Nd7 Ni3 metallic glasses were prepared by using melt spinning. Crystal lization process of the totally amorphous ribbons was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis, under continuous heating regime. The results show that, under continuous heating regime, the metallic glass devitrifies via two main stages: primary crystallization, resulting in two-phase mixture of α(Al) plus residual amorphous phase, and secondary crystallization, corresponding to some inter-metallic phases appearing,successively including Al11 Nd3, Al3 Ni, and some unknown phases, in the Al amorphous/crystal matrix. Four peaks appear on the continuous heating DSC curves. Their peak temperatures are respectively 470.8, 570.8, 585.6, and731.6 K at infinitesimal heating rate, and their activation energies of the respective phase transformation are 183.0,294.7, 232.5 and 269.1 kJ/mol. The values of Avrami exponent of the four reactions decrease with increasing relative transformation degree. At the earlier stage of phase transformation, the values of n are larger than 4, and at the later stage the values of n become close to some value from 0.5 to 2.0.

  6. Crystalline Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Nd60Fe30-xAl10Cox(x=0,5,10) Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晖; 谭晓华; 董远达

    2003-01-01

    Crystalline behavior and magnetic properties of Nd60Fe30-xAl10Cox (x=0,5,10) bulk amorphous alloys were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Neither glass transition nor supercooled liquid region before crystallization was observed for the as-cast Nd60Fe30-xAl10Cox (x=0,5,10) bulk amorphous alloys. The glass forming ability can be improved significantly by the addition of Co. The as-cast Nd60Fe30-xAl10Cox (x=0,5,10) alloys show hard magnetic behavior. With the addition of Co content, intrinsic coercivity (iHc) increases while the saturation magnetization(σs) and remanence (σr) decrease. The Curie temperature for the as-cast Nd60Fe30-xAl10Cox alloys increases from 451 K for x=0 to 468 K for x=10. Some precipitation of crystalline phases does not affect the hard magnetic properties of Nd60Fe30-xAl10Cox (x=0,5,10) alloys, while the hard magnetic behavior disappears quickly after the alloys being completely crystallized.

  7. Control of gigahertz permeability and permittivity dispersion by means of nanocrystallization in FeCo based nanocrystalline alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mangui; Lu, Haipeng; Deng, Longjiang

    2010-11-01

    An amorphous (FeCo) based alloy has been prepared by a rapid quench method. Subsequent annealing on the amorphous samples gives rise to the coexistence of two magnetic phases: amorphous matrix and nanocrystalline grains (α'-FeCo) with an average size of 9.8 nm. Permeability dispersion behaviors have been studied by Kittel theory [C. Kittel, J. Phys. Radium 12, 332 (1951)]. The results show that these two magnetic phases contribute to the permeability dispersion. The Cole-Cole dispersion law [K. S. Cole and R. H. Cole, J. Chem. Phys. 9, 341 (1941)] has been employed to explain the permittivity dispersion within microwave region based on the assumption that multiple dielectric relaxation processes existing. Our results indicate the possibility of tuning the high frequency permeability and permittivity values of (FeCo) based alloy by controlling the magnetic microstructure, which suggests an alternative method to develop smart electromagnetic materials.

  8. Experimental and Computer Modelling Studies of Metastability of Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyeme, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    We present a combination of experimental and computer modelling studies of the light induced degradation in the performance of amorphous silicon based single junction solar cells. Of particular interest in this study is the degradation kinetics of different types of amorphous silicon single junction

  9. Evolution of structure and infrared radiation properties for ferrite-based amorphous coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Fan, Xi’an, E-mail: groupfxa@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zhang, Jianyi [State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Hu, Xiaoming [Suzhou Sagreon New Materials Co., Ltd, Zhangjiagang 215625 (China); Li, Guangqiang; Zhang, Zhan [State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The ferrite-based amorphous infrared radiation coating was prepared by plasma spraying. • The coating could keep amorphous structure when the temperature was below 700 °C. • The amorphous structure can improve the emissivity of ferrite-based coatings. • The amorphous coating exhibited a higher emissivity than that by brushing process. • The coating has an excellent thermal shock resistance and can work at 1000 °C. - Abstract: The ferrite-based amorphous coatings with high infrared radiation properties have been successfully prepared on the surface of carbon steel substrate by plasma spraying process. The phase, morphology, microstructure, thermal behavior and infrared emissivity were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The prepared coating could keep amorphous structure when the ambient temperature was below 700 °C and it would crystallize gradually with further increasing the temperature. The amorphous structure is confirmed to be constructive for improving the emissivity of ferrite-based coatings, especially in the 3–8 μm band. The emissivity of the amorphous coating obtained by plasma spraying was over 0.8 in 3–8 μm band at 800 °C, which was higher than that of the coating with same composition prepared by conventional brushing method. The excellent thermal shock resistance of the coatings makes them to be good candidates for sensible energy-saving materials, which could work for long term at 1000 °C.

  10. Temperature affecting the magnetic properties of the Co79−xFe3Cr3Si15Bx amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the effect the temperature has on the magnetic properties of the Co79−xFe3Cr3Si15Bx amorphous alloy with different boron content. Magnetic saturation induction Bs and Curie temperature TC decrease as the boron content increases. Within the range of relatively high temperatures, magnetic saturation induction Bs = μ0Ms is related to the temperature by Bs(T) ∼ (TC − T)0.38. In the Co79−xFe3Cr3Si15Bx amorphous alloys with the Curie temperature of lower than 180 °C the initial permeability of 200,000 and the coercive force of 0.1 A/m were obtained. The high initial permeability of the amorphous alloy is attributed to the absence of the crystalline, magnetoelastic and induced magnetic anisotropy in this alloy. Low Curie temperature near which the permeability appreciably increases (Hopkinson effect) is another approach to the ideal magnetic softness

  11. Anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering of nanoporous two-phase atomistic models for amorphous silicon–germanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehaidar, A., E-mail: Abdallah.Chehaidar@fss.rnu.tn

    2015-09-15

    The present work deals with a detailed analysis of the anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering in amorphous silicon–germanium alloy using the simulation technique. We envisage the nanoporous two-phase alloy model consisting in a mixture of Ge-rich and Ge-poor domains and voids at the nanoscale. By substituting Ge atoms for Si atoms in nanoporous amorphous silicon network, compositionally heterogeneous alloys are generated with various composition-contrasts between the two phases. After relaxing the as-generated structure, we compute its radial distribution function, and then we deduce by the Fourier transform technique its anomalous X-ray scattering pattern. Using a smoothing procedure, the computed X-ray scattering patterns are corrected for the termination errors due to the finite size of the model, allowing so a rigorous quantitative analysis of the anomalous small-angle scattering. Our simulation shows that, as expected, the anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering technique is a tool of choice for characterizing compositional heterogeneities coexisting with structural inhomogeneities in an amorphous alloy. Furthermore, the sizes of the compositional nanoheterogeneities, as measured by anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering technique, are X-ray energy independent. A quantitative analysis of the separated reduced anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering, as defined in this work, provided a good estimate of their size.

  12. Electric and magnetic properties of Al86Ni8R6 (R=Sm, Gd, Ho) alloys in liquid and amorphous states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, V.; Svec, P.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D.; Mikhailov, V.; Sidorova, E.; Son, L.

    2016-06-01

    Electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility of Al86Ni8Sm6, Al86Ni8Gd6 and Al86Ni8Ho6 alloys are studied in a wide temperature range including amorphous, crystalline and liquid states. The negative value of resistivity temperature coefficient in amorphous ribbons is explained by the structural separation starting much before the beginning of their crystallization. The effective magnetic moments per Gd and Ho atoms are found to be essentially lower than for R3+ ions. The results are discussed in supposition of directed bonds between rare earth and aluminum atoms.

  13. Evidence for weak localization effects on the critical magnetic field for the amorphous alloys V/sub 1-//sub x/Si/sub x/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ousset, J.C.; Rakoto, H.; Broto, J.M.; Dupuis, V.; Durand, J.; Marchal, G.; Pavuna, D.

    1987-04-01

    In this paper we present measurements of the temperature dependence of the upper critical field H/sub c//sub 2/ and of the magnetoresistance for V/sub 1-//sub x/Si/sub x/ superconducting amorphous alloys. Negative deviations from the classical variation of H/sub c//sub 2/ in a dirty superconductor are observed related to a positive magnetoresistance due to weak localization in amorphous systems with finite spin-orbit coupling. These deviations can be qualitatively explained through the model recently developed by Coffey et al.

  14. Domain Wall Mobility in Co-Based Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kladivova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of the domain wall between opposite circularly magnetized domains in amorphous cylindrical sample with circular easy direction is theoretically studied. The wall is driven by DC current. Various mechanisms which influence the wall velocity were taken into account: current magnitude, deformation of the mowing wall, Hall effect, axially magnetized domain in the middle of the wire. Theoretical results obtained are in a good agreement with experiments on Cobased amorphous ferromagnetic wires.

  15. Wetting and reaction characteristics of crystalline and amorphous SiO2 derived rice-husk ash and SiO2/SiC substrates with Al-Si-Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; Gutiérrez, C. A.; Soltani, N.

    2015-12-01

    A study of the wetting behavior of three substrate types (SiC, SiO2-derived RHA and SiC/SiO2-derived RHA) by two Al-Si-Mg alloys using the sessile drop method has been conducted, using amorphous and crystalline SiO2 in the experiment. Mostly, there is a transition from non-wetting to wetting contact angles, being the lowest θ values achieved with the alloy of high Mg content in contact with amorphous SiO2. The observed wetting behavior is attributed to the deposited Mg on the substrates. A strong diffusion of Si from the SiC/Amorphous RHA substrate into the metal drop explains the free Si segregated at the drop/substrate interface and drop surface. Although incorporation of both SiO2-derived RHA structures into the SiC powder compact substrates increases the contact angles in comparison with the SiC substrate alone, the still observed acute contact angles in RHA/SiC substrates make them promising for fabrication of composites with high volume fraction of reinforcement by the pressureless infiltration technique. The observed wetting characteristics, with decrease in surface tension and contact angles is explained by surface related phenomena. Based on contact angle changes, drop dimensions and surface tension values, as well as on the interfacial elemental mapping, and XRD analysis of substrates, some wetting and reaction pathways are proposed and discussed.

  16. Study of superficial films and of electrochemical behaviour of some nickel base alloys and titanium base alloys in solution representation of granitic, argillaceous and salted ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behaviour of the stainless steels 304, 316 Ti, 25Cr-20Ni-Mo-Ti, nickel base alloys Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Ti and Ti-0.2% Pd alloy has been studied in the aerated or deaerated solutions at 200C and 900C whose compositions are representative of interstitial ground waters: granitic or clay waters or salt brine. The electrochemical techniques used are voltametry, polarization resistance and complexe impedance measurements. Electrochemical data show the respective influence of the parameters such as temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen, addition of soluble species chloride, fluoride, sulfide and carbonates, on which depend the corrosion current density, the passivation and the pitting potential. The inhibition efficiency of carbonate and bicarbonate activities against pitting corrosion is determined. In clay water at 900C, Ti and Ti-Pd show very high passivation aptitude and a broad passive potential range. Alloying Pd increases cathodic overpotential and also transpassive potential. It makes the alloy less sensitive to the temperature effect. Optical Glow Discharge Spectra show three parts in the composition depth profiles of surface films on alloys. XPS and SIMS spectrometry analyses are also carried out. Electron microscopy observation shows that passive films formed on Ti and Ti-Pd alloy have amorphous structure. Analysis of the alloy constituents dissolved in solutions, by radioactivation in neutrons, gives the order of magnitude of the Ni base alloy corrosion rates in various media. It also points out the preferential dissolution of alloying iron and in certain cases of chromium

  17. DEFECTS IN AMORPHOUS CHALCOGENIDES AND SILICON

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, D.

    1981-01-01

    Our comprehension of the physical properties of amorphous semiconductors has improved considerably over the past few years, but many puzzles remain. From our present perspective, the major features of chalcogenide glasses appear to be well understood, and some of the fine points which have arisen recently have been explained within the same general model. On the other hand, there are a grear number of unresolved mysteries with regard to amorphous silicon-based alloys. In this paper, the valen...

  18. Effect of structural variations in amorphous silicon based single and multi-junction solar cells from numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, M.I. [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Zahari; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Amin, Nowshad [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, single and multi-junction solar cells based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and its alloy amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) are analyzed using one dimensional simulator AMPS-1D (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures). Effects of thickness and doping concentration of different layers as well as the operating temperature on cell efficiency have been investigated with a view to find a more efficient and stable cell. For the single junction cell, the maximum efficiency of 19.62% has been achieved for a thickness of 500 nm of i-layer, which further improved to 20.8% after the optimization of the doping concentration. In case of double junction cell, the highest efficiency of 20.19% was found for top i-layer thickness of 700 nm after optimizing the bottom cell parameters. For the triple junction cell, parameters of the bottom cell and middle cell were optimized and the maximum efficiency of 21.89% was found with the top i-layer thickness of 600 nm. As regards the operating temperature, the double junction and the triple junction tandem cells showed better stability, with temperature gradient of 0.17% and 0.18%/C, respectively, than the single junction cell of 0.23%/C. The overall investigation on amorphous silicon solar cells as done here gives potential parametric suggestion that may lead to the fabrication of the high efficiency and stabilized a-Si thin film solar cells. (author)

  19. LASER CLADDING ON ALUMINIUM BASE ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Pilloz, M.; Pelletier, J; Vannes, A.; Bignonnet, A.

    1991-01-01

    laser cladding is often performed on iron or titanium base alloys. In the present work, this method is employed on aluminum alloys ; nickel or silicon are added by powder injection. Addition of silicon leads to sound surface layers, but with moderated properties, while the presence of nickel induces the formation of hard intermetallic compounds and then to an attractive hardening phenomena ; however a recovery treatment has to be carried out, in order to eliminate porosity in the near surface...

  20. Low-Energy Amorphization of Ti1Sb2Te5 Phase Change Alloy Induced by TiTe2 Nano-Lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Keyuan; Rao, Feng; Lv, Shilong; Cheng, Yan; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang

    2016-07-01

    Increasing SET operation speed and reducing RESET operation energy have always been the innovation direction of phase change memory (PCM) technology. Here, we demonstrate that ∼87% and ∼42% reductions of RESET operation energy can be achieved on PCM cell based on stoichiometric Ti1Sb2Te5 alloy, compared with Ge2Sb2Te5 and non-stoichiometric Ti0.4Sb2Te3 based PCM cells at the same size, respectively. The Ti1Sb2Te5 based PCM cell also shows one order of magnitude faster SET operation speed compared to that of the Ge2Sb2Te5 based one. The enhancements may be caused by substantially increased concentration of TiTe2 nano-lamellae in crystalline Ti1Sb2Te5 phase. The highly electrical conduction and lowly thermal dissipation of the TiTe2 nano-lamellae play a major role in enhancing the thermal efficiency of the amorphization, prompting the low-energy RESET operation. Our work may inspire the interests to more thorough understanding and tailoring of the nature of the (TiTe2)n(Sb2Te3)m pseudobinary system which will be advantageous to realize high-speed and low-energy PCM applications.

  1. Low-Energy Amorphization of Ti1Sb2Te5 Phase Change Alloy Induced by TiTe2 Nano-Lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Keyuan; Rao, Feng; Lv, Shilong; Cheng, Yan; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing SET operation speed and reducing RESET operation energy have always been the innovation direction of phase change memory (PCM) technology. Here, we demonstrate that ∼87% and ∼42% reductions of RESET operation energy can be achieved on PCM cell based on stoichiometric Ti1Sb2Te5 alloy, compared with Ge2Sb2Te5 and non-stoichiometric Ti0.4Sb2Te3 based PCM cells at the same size, respectively. The Ti1Sb2Te5 based PCM cell also shows one order of magnitude faster SET operation speed compared to that of the Ge2Sb2Te5 based one. The enhancements may be caused by substantially increased concentration of TiTe2 nano-lamellae in crystalline Ti1Sb2Te5 phase. The highly electrical conduction and lowly thermal dissipation of the TiTe2 nano-lamellae play a major role in enhancing the thermal efficiency of the amorphization, prompting the low-energy RESET operation. Our work may inspire the interests to more thorough understanding and tailoring of the nature of the (TiTe2)n(Sb2Te3)m pseudobinary system which will be advantageous to realize high-speed and low-energy PCM applications. PMID:27469931

  2. The temperature dependence of the magnetoelastic characteristics of cores for force sensors utilizing Fe70Ni8Si10B12 amorphous alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roman Szewczyk; Adam Bieńkowski; Jacek Salach

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation on the influence of temperature on magnetoelastic characteristics of the two ring-shaped cores, made of Fe70Ni8Si10B12 amorphous alloy. The cores were annealed for 1 h at 350 and 400° C, respectively. The compressive force was applied perpendicular to the direction of the magnetizing field in the sample. Special cylindrical backing enables application of the uniform compressive stress to the wound ring sample. A resistive furnace heated the experimental set-up. Results presented in the paper indicate a significant influence of the temperature on the magnetoelastic characteristics of Fe70Ni8Si10B12 amorphous alloy. Information about the magnetoelastic characteristics of this material may be useful in the magnetoelastic sensor development. Also this will create new possibilities in the development of physical model of magnetoelastic effect.

  3. The difference between the crystallization processes induced by mechanical milling and annealing under normal and high pressure in amorphous Fe-N alloy

    CERN Document Server

    LiuLi; Guo Xing Yuan; Zhao Xu Dong; Yao Bin; Su Wen Hui

    2002-01-01

    An amorphous Fe-N alloy was prepared by ball milling a mixture of Fe and h-BN. Its crystallization processes induced by mechanical milling (MM) and annealing under normal and high pressure were studied. The crystallization product of the amorphous Fe-N alloy induced by MM and annealing at temperatures between 690 and 800 K under pressures of 3-4 GPa is epsilon-Fe sub x N, while the thermal crystallization product under normal pressure is gamma'-Fe sub 4 N. The difference between the crystallization products produced by mechanical and thermal crystallization is attributed to the effects of local pressure and local temperature produced by ball collisions.

  4. Effect of rare-earth elements on nanophase evolution, crystallization behaviour and mechanical properties in Al–Ni–R (R = La/Mischmetal) amorphous alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K L Sahoo; Amitava Mitra; Sukomal Ghosh

    2005-10-01

    The crystallization behaviour and evolution of nanoparticles in amorphous Al–Ni–Mischmetal (Mm) and Al–Ni–La alloys during heat treatment have been studied. Rapidly solidified ribbons were obtained by induction melting and ejecting the melt onto a rotating Cu wheel in an Ar atmosphere. The crystallization behaviour of the melt-spun ribbons was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). XRD studies confirmed that all the ribbons were fully amorphous. Al–Ni–Mm systems showed a three-stage crystallization process whereas Al–Ni–La system, in general, showed a two-stage crystallization process on annealing. Crystallization kinetics was analysed by Kissinger and Johnson–Mehl–Avrami approaches. In Al–Ni–La alloys, the crystallization pathways depend on the La concentration. Microhardness of all the ribbons was examined at different temperatures and correlated with the corresponding evolution of phases.

  5. Atomic packing and diffusion in Fe85Si2B9P4 amorphous alloy analyzed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work reported in this paper, ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was performed on Fe85Si2B9P4 amorphous alloy. Preferred atomic environment of the elements was analyzed with Voronoi polyhedrons. It showed that B and P atoms prefer less neighbors compared with Fe and Si, making them structurally incompatible with Fe rich structure and repulsive to the formation of α-Fe. However, due to the low bonding energy of B and P caused by low coordination number, the diffusion rates of them were considerably large, resulting in the requirement of fast annealing for achieving optimum nano-crystallization for its soft magnetic property. The simulation work also indicates that diffusion rate in amorphous alloy is largely determined by bonding energy rather than atomic size

  6. Structural features and the microscopic dynamics of the three-component Zr47Cu46Al7 system: Equilibrium melt, supercooled melt, and amorphous alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinoff, R. M.; Mokshin, A. V.; Klumov, B. A.; Ryltsev, R. E.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.

    2016-08-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of the three-component Zr47Cu46Al7 system are subjected to a molecular dynamics simulation in the temperature range T = 250-3000 K at a pressure p = 1.0 bar. The temperature dependences of the Wendt-Abraham parameter and the translation order parameter are used to determine the glass transition temperature in the Zr47Cu46Al7 system, which is found to be T c ≈ 750 K. It is found that the bulk amorphous Zr47Cu46Al7 alloy contains localized regions with an ordered atomic structures. Cluster analysis of configuration simulation data reveals the existence of quasi-icosahedral clusters in amorphous metallic Zr-Cu-Al alloys. The spectral densities of time radial distribution functions of the longitudinal ( C˜ L( k, ω)) and transverse ( C˜ T ( k, ω)) fluxes are calculated in a wide wavenumber range in order to study the mechanisms of formation of atomic collective excitations in the Zr47Cu46Al7 system. It was found that a linear combination of three Gaussian functions is sufficient to reproduce the ( C˜ L ( k, ω)) spectra, whereas at least four Gaussian contributions are necessary to exactly describe the ( C˜ T ( k, ω)) spectra of the supercooled melt and the amorphous metallic alloy. It is shown that the collective atomic excitations in the equilibrium melt at T = 3000 K and in the amorphous metallic alloy at T = 250 K are characterized by two dispersion acoustic-like branches related with longitudinal and transverse polarizations.

  7. Molecular field analysis for melt-spun amorphous Fe sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 sub - sub x Gd sub x alloys (18<=60)

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, K

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic properties for the melt-spun amorphous Fe sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 sub - sub x Gd sub x alloys were analyzed using the molecular field theory (MFT). A concentration dependence of three exchange interaction constants was derived over a wide concentration range (18=T sub c sub o sub m sub p. Curvature of the Arrott plot in Gd-rich region was qualitatively simulated.

  8. Influence of the microstructure on the corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter-quenched amorphous metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.; Williams, R. M.; Landel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter deposited amorphous metallic films of (Mo6ORu40)82B18 under varying sputtering atmospheres have been investigated. The microstructural details and topology of the films have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the deposition conditions. By reducing the pressure of pure argon gas, the characteristic features of rough surface and columnar growth full of vertical voids can be converted into a mirror-smooth finish with very dense deposits. Films deposited in the presence of O2 or N2 exhibit columnar structure with vertical voids. Film deposited in pure argon at low pressure show remarkably high corrosion resistance due to the formation of a uniform passive surface layer. The influence of the microstructure and surface texture on the corrosion behavior is discussed.

  9. Tailoring of magnetic anisotropy in amorphous and nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys using swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous films of Fe0.85N0.15 and Fe73.9Cu0.9Nb3.1Si 13.2B8.9 have been prepared by using ion-beam sputtering. Magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) and Moessbauer measurement shows that the FeN film has a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy while the finemet film has a uniaxial in-plane anisotropy. The anisotropy in as-deposited state may be attributed to some quenched-in stresses present in the film during deposition. Films have been irradiated with Ag and Au ions of different energies. In both the films, irradiation results in gradual removal of anisotropy and a decrease in coercivity, which may be attributed to relaxation of internal stresses. This demonstrates that swift heavy ions can be used for controlled modification of magnetic properties of thin films

  10. Optical multilayer films based on an amorphous fluoropolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayered coatings were made by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, Teflon AF2400, and with other optical materials. A high reflector for 1064 nm light was made with ZnS and AF2400. An all-organic 1064 nm reflector was made from AF2400 and polyethylene. Oxide (HfO2 and SiO2) compatibility with AF2400 was also tested. The multilayer morphologies were influenced by coating stress and unintentional temperature rises from the PVD process. Analysis by liquid nuclear magnetic resonance of the thin films showed slight compositional variations between the coating and starting materials of perfluorinated amorphous polymers

  11. Triphenylamine-based amorphous polymers for bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the recent research progress on triphenylamine (TPA)-based donor-acceptor (D-A) amorphous polymers including our developed polymers is reviewed. TPA has three-dimensional branched structures and can provide D-A polymers containing D and A units in the main chain or side chain. The use of TPA-based amorphous polymers in the fabrication of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) offers great advantages over the use of a polycrystalline film in terms of high reproducibility of the OPV performance. The amorphous polymer design using TPA, therefore, indicates a promising direction for the development of new donor materials in OPVs

  12. Synthesis and photocatlytic performance of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} materials prepared by dealloying Ti–Cu–Pd amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhu, Shengli, E-mail: slzhu@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Wence; Cui, Zhenduo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanospindles were synthesized by dealloying Ti–Cu–Pd amorphous alloy. • Pd significantly enhanced the exposure of high-energy (0 0 1) facet of TiO{sub 2}. • TiO{sub 2} with high-energy (0 0 1) facet showed good photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanospindles with exposed (0 0 1) facet were synthesized through a simple dealloying reaction. The rutile photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. A Rhodamine B dye (RhB) was used to detect the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} under full light irradiation. The presence of Pd in the original amorphous alloy reduced the surface free energy of TiO{sub 2}, stabilized the (0 0 1) facet. The Pd8-TiO{sub 2} sample exhibited the largest crystal size along the direction which is perpendicular to the (0 0 1) facet. The photocatalytic degradation rate of RhB was improved due to the Pd addition in the original amorphous alloy. This indicated that the exposure of (0 0 1) facets could enhance the activity of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. In addition, the presence of isolated Pd atoms on the surface of TiO{sub 2} would be another probable reason for the improvement of photocatalytic activity.

  13. Phase separation and crystallization process of amorphous Fe{sub 78}B{sub 12}Si{sub 9}Ni{sub 1} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhgalin, V. V.; Lad’yanov, V. I. [Department of Structural-Phase Transformations, Physical Technical Institute, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirov street 132, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-17

    The influence of the melt heat treatment on the structure and crystallization process of the rapidly quenched amorphous Fe{sub 78}B{sub 12}Si{sub 9}Ni{sub 1} alloys have been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, DSC and TEM. Amorphous phase separation has been observed in the alloys quenched after the preliminary high temperature heat treatment of the liquid alloy (heating above 1400°C). Comparative analysis of the pair distribution functions demonstrates that this phase separation accompanied by a changes in the local atomic arrangement. It has been found that crystallization process at heating is strongly dependent on the initial amorphous phase structure - homogeneous or phase separated. In the last case crystallization goes through the formation of a new metastable hexagonal phase [a=12.2849(9) Ǻ, c=7.6657(8) Ǻ]. At the same time the activation energy for crystallization (Ea) reduces from 555 to 475 kJ mole{sup −1}.

  14. Correlation between isothermal expansion and functional properties change of the Fe81B13Si4C2 amorphous alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalezić-Glišović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural changes effect on functional properties of ribbon shaped samples of the Fe81B13Si4C2 amorphous alloy during annealing process was investigated in this paper. Differential scanning calorimetry method has shown that this alloy crystallizes in one stage, in temperature range from room temperature up to 700°C. Structural relaxation process was investigated by sensitive dilatation method in nonisothermal and isothermal conditions. It has been shown that structural relaxation process occurs in two stages by measuring thermal expansion at constant temperatures of t1=420°C, t2 = 440°C and t3 = 460°C. The first stage is characterized by linear logarithmic dependence of thermal expansion upon time at constant temperature. The second stage of structural relaxation process is characterized by linear dependence of isothermal expansion upon the square root of process time. These results imply that the first stage of structural relaxation process is a rapid kinetic process, while the second stage of structural relaxation process is a slow diffusion process. The rate constants k11 = 2,27⋅10- 3 s-1, k12 = 2,79⋅10-3 s-1, k13 = 3,6⋅10-3 s-1, k21 = 0,67⋅10-4 s-1, k22 = 3,72⋅10-4 s-1, k23 = 21,53⋅10-4 s-1 and activation energies E1 = 48,64 kJ/mol and E2 = 366, 23 kJ/mol were determined for both stages of structural relaxation process. The distinct correlation between structural relaxation process and magnetic susceptibility relative change was determined by thermomagnetic measurements. It has been shown that magnetic susceptibility can be increased by up to 80%, by convenient annealings after structural relaxation process, at magnetic field intensity of 8 kA/m.

  15. Cu clustering stage before the crystallization in Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu amorphous alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnuma, M.; Hono, K.; Onodera, H.;

    1999-01-01

    -enriched clusters. The average diameter and interparticle distance of the Cu-enriched clusters have also been estimated by SANS. An exothermic reaction is observed above the Curie Temperature in the DSC curves of the Fe-Si-B-Nb-Cu alloys. The onset temperature of the exothermic reaction is shifted to lower...... crystallization reaction. The number of the clusters estimated by 3DAP is large enough to provide heterogeneous nucleation sites to all bcc/D0(3) Fe-Si crystals which appear at higher temperatures. This fact indicates that the distribution of nanocrystalline Fe-Si is strongly affected by that of the Cu...

  16. Multiscale investigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation of NiTi shape memory alloy based on local canning compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shuyong, E-mail: jiangshy@sina.com [Industrial Training Centre, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu, Li [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhao, Yanan; Zhang, Yanqiu [Industrial Training Centre, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Liang, Yulong [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-05-01

    As a severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique, local canning compression provides a novel approach to produce bulk amorphous and nanocrystalline nickel–titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi SMA). From the macroscale, mesoscale and microscale viewpoint, physical mechanism of inhomogeneous plastic deformation of NiTi alloy under local canning compression is investigated by means of optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Inhomogeneous plastic deformation of NiTi alloy leads to coexistence of amorphous phase, nanocrystalline phase, B2 austenite and B19′ martensite. The interaction between the dislocations and the grain boundaries lays the profound foundation for guaranteeing the continuity and the compatibility between the grains in a polycrystalline NiTi sample subjected to inhomogeneous plastic deformation. Deformation twinning and dislocation slip are the two important deformation modes in plastic deformation of NiTi alloy under local canning compression. Based on the statistically stored dislocation and the geometrically necessary dislocation, the mechanism of the critical dislocation density plays a predominant role in the occurrence of the amorphous phase in the deformed NiTi sample. When the deformation temperature is higher than a critical temperature, the amorphous phase is not able to occur in the NiTi sample subjected to SPD.

  17. Impact of Ion Irradiation upon Structure and Magnetic Properties of NANOPERM-Type Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Miglierini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modifications and their impact upon magnetic properties are studied in amorphous and nanocrystalline NANOPERM-type 57Fe75Mo8Cu1B16 alloy. They are introduced by irradiation with 130 keV N+ ions to the total fluencies of up to 2.5 × 1017 ions/cm2 under different cooling conditions. Increased temperature during the irradiation triggers formation of nanocrystallites of bcc-Fe in those subsurface regions that are affected by bombarding ions. No crystallization occurs when good thermal contact between the irradiated sample and a sample holder is assured. Instead, structural rearrangement which favours development of magnetically active regions was determined by the local probe methods of Mössbauer spectrometry. Dipole magnetic interactions dominate in subsurface regions on that side of the ribbons which was exposed to ion irradiation. Nevertheless, structural modifications demonstrate themselves also via macroscopic magnetic parameters such as temperature dependence of magnetization, Curie temperature, and hysteresis loops. Impact of only the temperature itself to the observed effects is assessed by the help of samples that were subjected just to heat treatment, that is, without ion irradiation.

  18. Development of plastic elongation in nanocrystalline and amorphous Ni–W dual phase alloys by brushing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S., E-mail: 00sm.uk0806@gmail.com; Adachi, H., E-mail: adachi@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Yamasaki, T., E-mail: yamasaki@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A novel agitation technique called the brushing technique is proposed. • A homogeneous material can be obtained with the brushing technique. • The brushed material exhibits large plastic elongation with work hardening. - Abstract: A novel agitation technique, referred to as the “brushing technique” is proposed to treat the surface of a Ni–W alloy film during electrodeposition. This technique was developed to directly remove hydrogen bubbles on the film surface and to apply Ni ions to the interfacial layer with the substrate. The intrinsic mechanical properties of the Ni–W electrodeposits are then evaluated with respect to application. High resolution transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that both treated and untreated films have nanocrystallites of approximately 5 nm in diameter and an amorphous phase. There was a compositional difference of about. 1.4 at% W between the face side and the reverse side of the film that was not subjected to the brushing technique, whereas this difference was absent in the film subjected to the brushing technique. In addition, the brushing technique reduced the surface roughness of the film and decreased the number of defects. As a result, a large plastic strain of about. 2.9% was observed with work hardening under tensile testing.

  19. Structural and magnetic changes in FeNbCuSiB amorphous alloys during the crystallization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calorimetric and magnetic measurements, x-ray powder diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy have been used to study the magnetic and structural changes occurring after each of the two steps of crystallization that take place in FeNbCuSiB-type alloys. Two samples with different boron and silicon concentrations, Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si22.5-xBx (x=6, 9), have been studied. They give a somewhat different composition of the crystalline phases appearing after crystallization processes. The most noticeable phenomenon is the observed increase of about 50 K in the Curie temperature of the FeSi crystalline phase between the end of the first crystallization process and the end of the second one, although the composition of this phase remains unchanged. This result is discussed in terms of crystal boundary effects. Also, the Curie temperature of the remaining amorphous phase, in the crystallized samples, is greater than the expected one, due to the coupling with magnetic phases with higher Curie points and inhomogeneities in such a phase. (author)

  20. Thermal activation analysis of the structural and phase transformations in the Zr-Cu-Nb amorphous alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova N.L.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the procedure of the estimation of the thermal activation parameters from the data of dilatometric measurements and the results of its application to the Zr-Cu-Nb amorphous alloy discussed. The determination of the thermal activation parameters of the processes occurring in materials under known temperature-force conditions can be useful for the identification of the structural mechanisms of phase transformations and the evolution of defect structure. We used the data of dilatometric measurements for evaluating the effective activation energy. This method exhibits some advantages over the conventional one due to the design features of dilatometers. First, it ensures the precise measurement of strains; second, the assigned temperature regime is very precisely maintained both at the stage of heating and upon isothermal holding; third, it ensures a high-speed continuous record of the experimental data. The developed method of evaluating the effective activation energy from the results of dilatometric experiments provides statistically reliable results. The data of the photometric analysis of structure images are in accordance with the results of dilatometric experiments

  1. Atomic simulation of mechanical behavior of Mg in a super-lattice of nanocrystalline Mg and amorphous Mg-Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H. Y., E-mail: gsfshy@sohu.com [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an 710065 (China); An, M. R.; Li, Y. L., E-mail: liyulong@nwpu.edu.cn; Deng, Q. [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-12-07

    The mechanical properties of a super-lattice architecture composed of nanocrystalline Mg and Mg-Al amorphous alloy are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The results indicate that deformation mechanism of nanocrystalline Mg is obviously affected by the amorphous boundary spacing and temperature. The strength of the material increases with the decrease of amorphous boundary spacing, presenting a Hall-Petch effect at both 10 K and 300 K. A stress platform and following stiffness softening, as well as a linear strengthening in the plastic stage, are observed when the amorphous boundary spacing below 8.792 nm at 10 K. The implying reason may be that the amorphous boundary acts as the dislocations emission and absorption source. However, the second stress peak is not observed for the models at 300 K. Instead, the flow stress in plastic stage is a nearly constant value. The simulation demonstrates the emergence of the new grain, accompanied by the deformation twins and stacking faults associated with the plastic behaviors at 300 K. The general conclusions derived from this work may provide a guideline for the design of high-performance hexagonal close-packed metals.

  2. Oxygen diffusion in vanadium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental study of transport and equilibrium properties of oxygen in vanadium-based alloys was made by EMF measurements on solid electrolytic cells over the temperature range of 873 to 14230K. The oxygen diffusion in vanadium was not significantly modified by small additions of Ti, Cr, Ni, Nb and Ta. The increase in the activation energy for oxygen diffusion in the V-based alloys containing Cr, Ni, Nb and Ta probably reflects the effect of these substitutional solutes on the activity coefficient of oxygen. The oxygen activity was increased by the addition of 1 at % of Cr, Ni and Nb, and decreased by the addition of Ti and Ta. However, the effects in the alloys containing Nb and Ta are very small

  3. Irradiation creep of vanadium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Billone, M.C.; Strain, R.V.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Matsui, H. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    A study of irradiation creep in vanadium-base alloys is underway with experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in the United States. Test specimens are thin-wall sealed tubes with internal pressure loading. The results from the initial ATR irradiation at low temperature (200--300 C) to a neutron damage level of 4.7 dpa show creep rates ranging from {approx}0 to 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}/dpa/MPa for a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. These rates were generally lower than reported from a previous experiment in BR-10. Because both the attained neutron damage levels and the creep strains were low in the present study, however, these creep rates should be regarded as only preliminary. Substantially more testing is required before a data base on irradiation creep of vanadium alloys can be developed and used with confidence.

  4. Protective properties and structure of amorphous alumosilicophosphate coatings for niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of thermal tests of niobium alloy samples with a protective coating in gas media with different content of oxygen are presented. Microhardness of the metal under the coating and of the coating as such prior to and after thermal testing was studied. Near the contact areas of the metal and coating were studied using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction microprobe and X-ray phase analyses. Information on the structure, elementary and phase compositions of the near the contact areas was obtained. The processes occurring during formation and subsequent long-term annealing of the coating, which give rise to structural changes in the coating providing its adhesion to substrate and high protective efficiency, were interpreted

  5. PHB, crystalline and amorphous magnesium alloys: Promising candidates for bioresorbable osteosynthesis implants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celarek, Anna [Institute for Building Construction and Technology E-206-4, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Kraus, Tanja [Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, 8036 Graz (Austria); Tschegg, Elmar K., E-mail: elmar.tschegg@tuwien.ac.at [Institute for Building Construction and Technology E-206-4, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Fischerauer, Stefan F. [Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, 8036 Graz (Austria); Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie [Department of Material Sciences and Process Engineering, Institute of Physics and Materials Science, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan Str. 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Uggowitzer, Peter J. [Department of Materials, Laboratory for Metal Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Weinberg, Annelie M. [Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    In this study various biodegradable materials were tested for their suitability for use in osteosynthesis implants, in particular as elastically stable intramedullary nails for fracture treatment in paediatric orthopaedics. The materials investigated comprise polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which belongs to the polyester family and is produced by microorganisms, with additions of ZrO{sub 2} and a bone graft substitute; two crystalline magnesium alloys with significantly different degradation rates ZX50 (MgZnCa, fast) and WZ21 (MgYZnCa, slow); and MgZnCa bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Push-out tests were conducted after various implantation times in rat femur meta-diaphysis to evaluate the shear forces between the implant material and the bone. The most promising materials are WZ21 and BMG, which exhibit high shear forces and push-out energies. The degradation rate of ZX50 is too fast and thus the alloy does not maintain its mechanical stability long enough during the fracture-healing period. PHB exhibits insufficient mechanical properties: it degrades very slowly and the respective low shear forces and push-out energy levels are unsatisfactory. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-vivo (rat model) investigation of biodegradable materials suitable for ESIN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Materials: polymer PHB, crystalline Mg ZX50 and Mg WZ21, MgZnCa bulk metallic glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluated interface shear strength, push-out energies, stiffness, histology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg WZ21 suitable, other materials only after alterations.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that...

  7. Preparation of Zr50Al15−Ni10Cu25Y amorphous powders by mechanical alloying and thermodynamic calculation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woyun Long; Anxian Lu; Jing Li

    2013-12-01

    Amorphous Zr50Al15−Ni10Cu25Y powders were fabricated by mechanical alloying at a low rotation speed from commercial pure element powders. The beneficial effect of Al partially substituted by Y in Zr50Al15Ni10Cu25 on glass-forming ability was investigated. The as-milled powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that partial substitution of Al by Y can improve the glass-forming ability of Zr50Al15Ni10Cu25 alloy. Thermodynamic calculation of equivalent free energy shows that Zr50Al13.8Ni10Cu25Y1.2 alloy has the highest glass-forming ability, which is in good agreement with the report of orthogonal experiments.

  8. Microstructure and Wear Properties of Fe-based Amorphous Coatings Deposited by High-velocity Oxygen Fuel Spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang WANG; Ping XIAO; Zhong-jia HUANG; Ru-jie HE

    2016-01-01

    Fe-based powder with a composition of Fe42·87 Cr15·98 Mo16·33 C15·94 B8·88 (at·%)was used to fabricate coatings by high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying.The effects of the spraying parameters on the microstructure and the wear properties of the Fe-based alloy coatings were systematically studied.The results showed that the obtained Fe-based coatings with a thickness of about 400μm consisted of a large-volume amorphous phase and some nanocrystals.With increasing the fuel and oxygen flow rates,the porosity of the obtained coatings decreased.The coating deposited un-der optimized parameters exhibited the lowest porosity of 2·8%.The excellent wear resistance of this coating was at-tributed to the properties of the amorphous matrix and the presence of nanocrystals homogeneously distributed with-in the matrix.The wear mechanism of the coatings was discussed on the basis of observations of the worn surfaces.

  9. New sunscreen materials based on amorphous cerium and titanium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium-titanium pyrophosphates Ce1-xTi xP2O7 (with x = 0, 0.50, and 1.0), which are novel phosphate materials developed as UV-shielding agents for use in cosmetics, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescent analysis, UV-vis reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy. Since the optical reflectance shifted to lower wavelengths by the crystallization of the phosphates and the stabilization of the amorphous state of the cerium-titanium pyrophosphates was carried out by doping niobium (Nb). Raman spectroscopic study of the phosphate showed that P-O-P bending and stretching modes decreased with the loading of Nb, accompanying with the formation of Nb-O stretching mode. Therefore, the increase in the amount of the non-bridging oxygen in the amorphous phosphate should be the reason for the inhibition of the crystallization. This stabilization is a significant improvement, which enables to apply these amorphous phosphates not only to cosmetics and paints, but also plastics and films

  10. Glass-Forming Ability of an Iron-Based Alloy Enhanced by Co Addition and Evaluated by a New Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-Jun; SHEN Jun; FAN Hong-Bo; SUN Jian-Fei; HUANG Yong-Jiang; MCCARTNEY D. G.

    2005-01-01

    @@ A new Fe-based alloy that can be cast into a fully amorphous rod with a diameter of at least 16mm by the conventional copper-mould casting technique is obtained by partially replacing Fe with Co in a previously reported Fe-based bulk metallic glass. The preliminary thermodynamic analysis indicates that the Co-containing alloy has a significantly lower Gibbs free energy difference between the undercooled melt and the corresponding crystalline solid, compared to the Co-free alloy, reflecting the dramatic role of the Co addition in stabilizing the supercooled melt and facilitating glass formation in iron-based alloys. Here, a new criterion, derived from the classical nucleation and growth theory, is introduced to evaluate the glass-forming ability of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses.

  11. Experimental and Computer Modelling Studies of Metastability of Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Munyeme, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    We present a combination of experimental and computer modelling studies of the light induced degradation in the performance of amorphous silicon based single junction solar cells. Of particular interest in this study is the degradation kinetics of different types of amorphous silicon single junction solar cells and the role of dangling bond states in mediating or driving the degradation mechanism. The approach taken in this study has enabled has to examine how light induced degradation is aff...

  12. Crystalline to amorphous transition in solids upon high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundeev, R.V., E-mail: apricisvir@gmail.com [I.P. Bardin Central Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, 2-ya Baumanskaya 9/23, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Science, Stromynka 20, Moscow 107996 (Russian Federation); Glezer, A.M. [I.P. Bardin Central Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, 2-ya Baumanskaya 9/23, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Science, Stromynka 20, Moscow 107996 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky avenue 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Shalimova, A.V. [I.P. Bardin Central Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, 2-ya Baumanskaya 9/23, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Ti–Ni, Zr and Fe-based alloys were deformed using HTP processing. • Ability to deformation-induced amorphization (DIA) of these alloys was studied. • Amorphization is determined by mechanical, thermodynamic and concentration factors. • The smaller stability of phases the higher their ability to deformation amorphization. • There is the difference between of DIA and to thermal amorphization in the nature. - Abstract: The amorphization behavior of the crystalline multicomponent Ni{sub 50}Ti{sub 30}Hf{sub 20}, Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 25}Cu{sub 25,} Zr{sub 50}Ni{sub 18}Ti{sub 17}Cu{sub 15}, and Fe{sub 78}B{sub 8.5}Si{sub 9}P{sub 4.5} alloys upon severe plastic deformation (SPD) has been studied. It is shown that the crystalline to amorphous transition is determined by the ability of the crystals to accumulation of deformation defects under mechanical action, by the thermodynamic stability of the crystalline phases contained in the alloy, and by the possibility of the diffusion processes necessary for the change in the chemical composition of the crystalline and amorphous phases upon deformation. It is found that the susceptibility to amorphization upon SPD does not coincide with the tendency of the alloys to amorphization upon melt quenching.

  13. Fabrication and microstructure of Fe-based amorphous composite coatings by laser cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Qingjun; Zou Zengda; Qu Shiyao; Wang Xinhong

    2008-01-01

    Fe-based amorphous composite coatings were fabricated on AISI 1045 steel by laser cladding. The results of the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses show the coating is composed of an amorphous phase in majority and a nanocrystalline phase in minority. Phase composition of the coating changes along the depth of the coating. The reasonable scanning speed for fabricating an amorphous composite coating is 3 500mm/min when the laser power is 4 800W and the laser beam diameter is 2mm. If the scanning speed is lower than 3 500mm/min, the intensity of the two main diffraction peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns of the coatings decreases with the scanning speeds increasing. At the same time, a broad halo peak emerges and enlarges. High laser power and fast scanning speed are the essential conditions of amorphization. The coating exhibits high microhardness.

  14. Influences of hydrogen-induced amorphization and annealing treatment on gaseous hydrogen storage properties of La{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.6}Co{sub 0.4} (x = 0–0.4) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Tingting [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yang, Tai; Yuan, Zeming; Xu, Sheng; Bu, Wengang [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Qi, Yang [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Yanghuan, E-mail: zhangyh59@sina.com [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • The La–Mg–Ni-based AB{sub 2}-type alloys were prepared by casting. • La was substituted by a small amount of Pr in the experimental alloys. • The hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling properties of the alloys were studied. • The influences of hydrogen-induced amorphization were investigated in details. • The annealing treatment was applied to recover hydrogen storage capacity. - Abstract: La{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.6}Co{sub 0.4} (x = 0–0.4) alloys are prepared by vacuum induction melting. The phase composition and microstructure of the as-cast alloys is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The gaseous hydrogen absorption capacity of the alloys was measured by an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus. The results indicate that the as-cast alloys consist of two phases of LaMgNi{sub 4} and LaNi{sub 5}. The maximum gaseous hydrogen storage capacity of the La{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.6}Co{sub 0.4} (x = 0–0.4) alloys is 1.768, 1.745, 1.721, 1.681 and 1.653 wt%, respectively, under 3 MPa H{sub 2} at 373 K. But the hydrogen storage capacity after 20 cycles decays off to 0.746, 0.843, 0.947, 1.003 and 1.10 wt%, respectively. In order to reveal the mechanism of rapid degradation of the capacity, the structures of the alloys before and after hydrogen absorption/desorption cycle were analyzed. SEM observation displays that the micro-cracks can be clearly seen on the surface of the alloy particles after 20 cycles. XRD detection finds that the repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles give rise to a obvious broadening of the diffraction peaks of the alloys, exhibiting a typical amorphous structure, which is termed as hydrogen-induced amorphization. The La{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}MgNi{sub 3.6}Co{sub 0.4} (x = 0–0.4) alloys after 20 cycles were annealed at 623 K for 8 h, finding that the hydrogen storage capacity of the alloys recovers to 1.348, 1.365, 1.50, 1.485 and 1.30 wt

  15. Corrosion behaviour of amorphous Ti48Cu52, Ti50Cu50 and Ti60Ni40 alloys investigated by potentiodynamic polarization method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dhawan; S Roychowdhury; P K De; S K Sharma

    2003-10-01

    Potentiodynamic polarization studies were carried out on virgin specimens of amorphous alloys Ti48Cu52, Ti50Cu50 and Ti60Ni40 in 0.5 M HNO3, 0.5 M H2SO4 and 0.5 M NaOH aqueous media at room temperature. The value of the corrosion current density (corr) was maximum for Ti48Cu52 alloy in all the three aqueous media as compared to the remaining two alloys. The value of corr for the alloy Ti48Cu52 was maximum (corr = 2.6 × 10-5 A/cm2) in 0.5 M H2SO4 and minimum (corr = 3.5 × 10-6 A/cm2) in 0.5 M NaOH aqueous solutions. In contrast, the alloy Ti60Ni40 exhibited the least corrosion current density in 0.5 M HNO3 (corr = 4.0 × 10-7 A/cm2) and in 0.5 M NaOH (corr = 5.5 × 10-7 A/cm2) aqueous media as compared to those for Ti–Cu alloys, while its value in 0.5 M H2SO4 was comparable to that for Ti50Cu50. It is suggested that the alloy Ti60Ni40 is more corrosion resistant than the alloys Ti48Cu52 and Ti50Cu50 in all the three aqueous media.

  16. Changes in cluster magnetism and suppression of local superconductivity in amorphous FeCrB alloy irradiated by Ar+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunev, V. D.; Samoilenko, Z. A.; Szymczak, H.; Szewczyk, A.; Szymczak, R.; Lewandowski, S. J.; Aleshkevych, P.; Malinowski, A.; Gierłowski, P.; Więckowski, J.; Wolny-Marszałek, M.; Jeżabek, M.; Varyukhin, V. N.; Antoshina, I. A.

    2016-02-01

    We show that cluster magnetism in ferromagnetic amorphous Fe67Cr18B15 alloy is related to the presence of large, D=150-250 Å, α-(Fe Cr) clusters responsible for basic changes in cluster magnetism, small, D=30-100 Å, α-(Fe, Cr) and Fe3B clusters and subcluster atomic α-(Fe, Cr, B) groupings, D=10-20 Å, in disordered intercluster medium. For initial sample and irradiated one (Φ=1.5×1018 ions/cm2) superconductivity exists in the cluster shells of metallic α-(Fe, Cr) phase where ferromagnetism of iron is counterbalanced by antiferromagnetism of chromium. At Φ=3×1018 ions/cm2, the internal stresses intensify and the process of iron and chromium phase separation, favorable for mesoscopic superconductivity, changes for inverse one promoting more homogeneous distribution of iron and chromium in the clusters as well as gigantic (twice as much) increase in density of the samples. As a result, in the cluster shells ferromagnetism is restored leading to the increase in magnetization of the sample and suppression of local superconductivity. For initial samples, the temperature dependence of resistivity ρ(T)~T2 is determined by the electron scattering on quantum defects. In strongly inhomogeneous samples, after irradiation by fluence Φ=1.5×1018 ions/cm2, the transition to a dependence ρ(T)~T1/2 is caused by the effects of weak localization. In more homogeneous samples, at Φ=3×1018 ions/cm2, a return to the dependence ρ(T)~T2 is observed.

  17. Magnetic Properties of Fe- and FeNi-based Amorphous Composite Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    M8-T curves and hysteresis loops were investigated for amorphous Fe78Si9B13, (FeNi)78(CrSiB)22, their lap-wound-cores, and their composite ribbons made by two-chamber-crucible technique. The properties of the lap-wound cores of the two kinds of ribbons are similar. For the composite ribbons, the intrinsic properties are the average of the two alloys. Their technological properties, i.e., hysteresis loops, however, are no longer the average of the two alloys. Instead, they show some dramatic changes compared to the lap-wound-cores. Especially, the shape of the hysteresis loop of the composite ribbon cores is largely different from that of lap-wound-cores. The reason for the difference is supposed to be internal stress induced from cooling after annealing.

  18. Effect of amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} on hydriding and dehydriding behavior of Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, D., E-mail: danny.guzman@uda.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama y Centro Regional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama (CRIDESAT), Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile); Ordonez, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Serafini, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Materials, CIMAT, Av. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rojas, P.A. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Av. Los Carrera 01567, Quilpue, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, PUCV (Chile); Aguilar, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica y Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Av. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Tapia, P. [Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile)

    2011-04-15

    Composite Mg{sub 2}Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} was prepared by mechanical milling starting with nanocrystalline Mg{sub 2}Ni and amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, by using a SPEX 8000 D mill. The morphological and microstructural characterization of the powders was performed via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydriding characterization of the composite was performed via a solid gas reaction method in a Sievert's-type apparatus at 363 K under an initial hydrogen pressure of 2 MPa. The dehydriding behavior was studied by differential thermogravimetry. On the basis of the results, it is possible to conclude that amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} improved the hydriding and dehydriding kinetics of Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy upon cycling. A tentative rationalization of experimental observations is proposed. - Research Highlights: {yields} First study of the hydriding behavior of composite Mg{sub 2}Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50}. {yields} Microstructural characterization of composite material using XRD and SEM was obtained. {yields} An improved effect of Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} on the Mg{sub 2}Ni hydriding behavior was verified. {yields} The apparent activation energy for the hydrogen desorption of composite was obtained.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and understanding of the mechanisms of electroplating of nanocrystalline–amorphous nickel–tungsten alloys using in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Guinel, Maxime J-F., E-mail: maxime.guinel@upr.edu

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Nanocrystalline–amorphous Ni–W alloys were electro co-deposited. •A better understanding of the co-deposition mechanisms was achieved. •The in situ EIS results were modeled and simulated to an equivalent circuit. •The deposited films were characterized using SEM, XRD and HRTEM. -- Abstract: In this study, a series of Nickel (Ni)–Tungsten (W) alloys were electrodeposited onto copper (Cu) substrates using electroplating baths and tri-sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}) as the complex agent. The electro co-deposition of Ni–W alloys was carried out by varying several important experimental parameters: the tungstate ion [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} concentration, the bath temperature and the speed of stirring. Potentio-dynamic polarization and in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques were used as electroplating methods to study the processes. The phases present in the films were identified using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (ED). The films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their elemental compositions determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (XEDS). The electrodeposited films were found to be a mixture of amorphous and nanocrystalline Ni–W. This study has allowed us to reach a better understanding of the complex mechanisms and effective parameters of co-deposition of Ni and W using citrate ions complex baths.

  20. Laser surface treatment of amorphous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakam, Shravana K.

    Amorphous materials are used as soft magnetic materials and also as surface coatings to improve the surface properties. Furthermore, the nanocrystalline materials derived from their amorphous precursors show superior soft magnetic properties than amorphous counter parts for transformer core applications. In the present work, laser based processing of amorphous materials will be presented. Conventionally, the nanocrystalline materials are synthesized by furnace heat treatment of amorphous precursors. Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline materials due to their low cost and superior magnetic properties are the most widely used soft magnetic materials. However, achieving nanocrystalline microstructure in Fe-Si-B ternary system becomes very difficult owing its rapid growth rate at higher temperatures and sluggish diffusion at low temperature annealing. Hence, nanocrystallization in this system is achieved by using alloying additions (Cu and Nb) in the ternary Fe-Si-B system. Thus, increasing the cost and also resulting in reduction of saturation magnetization. laser processing technique is used to achieve extremely fine nanocrystalline microstructure in Fe-Si-B amorphous precursor. Microstructure-magnetic Property-laser processing co-relationship has been established for Fe-Si-B ternary system using analytical techniques. Laser processing improved the magnetic properties with significant increase in saturation magnetization and near zero coercivity values. Amorphous materials exhibit excellent corrosion resistance by virtue of their atomic structure. Fe-based amorphous materials are economical and due to their ease of processing are of potential interest to synthesize as coatings materials for wear and corrosion resistance applications. Fe-Cr-Mo-Y-C-B amorphous system was used to develop thick coatings on 4130 Steel substrate and the corrosion resistance of the amorphous coatings was improved. It is also shown that the mode of corrosion depends on the laser processing

  1. New analysis of the small-angle-magnetization-rotation method for magnetostriction measurements on amorphous ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, A. M.; Missell, F. P.

    1987-09-01

    The small-angle-magnetization-rotation (SAMR) method for measuring the saturation magnetostrictin λ s has been reanalyzed, taking into account the underlying domain structure of the amorphous ribbon. Although the condition for determining λ s reamins unchenged, the modifications introduced allow one to understand many additional features of the experimental data. With the appropriate modifications, the SAMR method can be used to study stress relaxation in amorphous alloys. Examples are given Fe-based and Co-based alloys.

  2. The study of structural relaxation kinetics in amorphous alloy Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 using Curie temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural relaxation and the initial stage of crystallization of rapidly quenched finemet-type Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 alloy were studied using both continuous heating and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is found that Curie temperature of amorphous phase TcA increases with the annealing temperature, as well as with an increase in the heat treatment duration. The crystallization process starts at 460 deg. C. The microstructural evolution and the redistribution of elements were investigated by DSC, thermomagnetic analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The pre-crystallization process results in the changes of hyperfine interactions in the amorphous phase, which are caused by clustering during the relaxation process

  3. Structure transformation and elements redistribution at heating of Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of structure and elements redistribution in rapidly quenched Finemet-type Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 alloy at heat treatments were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermomagnetic analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), and X-ray diffraction methods. The effect of the structural relaxation on the Curie point of amorphous phase (TcA) has been studied using DSC and magnetic measurements. Using both heating and isothermal DSC scanning modes, we found that TcA value increases with the treatment temperature, as well as with the increase of the treatment duration. MS analysis shows that the pre-crystallization process results in the changes of fine structure of amorphous phase spectra, which are caused by the components redistribution during the relaxation process, resulting in the Cu-rich clusters formation and subsequence appearance of nanocrystals

  4. Amorphization, Crystallization, and Magnetic Properties of Melt-Spun SmCo7−x(Cr3C2x Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Cr3C2 content and wheel surface speed on the amorphous formation ability and magnetic properties have been investigated for melt-spun SmCo7−x(Cr3C2x (x=0.10-0.25 alloys. Ribbon melt-spun at lower wheel speed (30 m/s has composite structure composed of mostly SmCo7, a small amount of Sm2Co17, and residual amorphous phases. The grain size of SmCo7 phase decreases with the increase of Cr3C2 content x. When melt spinning at 40 m/s, SmCo7−x(Cr3C2x alloys can be obtained in the amorphous state for 0.15≤x≤0.25 with intrinsic coercive Hci of the order of 40–70 Oe. DSC analysis reveals that SmCo7 phase first precipitates from the amorphous matrix at 650∘C, followed by the crystallization of Sm2Co17 phase at 770∘C. Optimal coercivity Hci of 7.98 kOe and remanent magnetization Mr of 55.05 emu/g have been realized in SmCo6.8(Cr3C20.20 magnet subjected to melt spinning at 40 m/s and annealing at 650∘C for 5 min. The domain structure of the annealed ribbon is composed of interaction domains typically 100–400 nm in size, which indicates the presence of a strong exchange coupling between the grains.

  5. Effects of alloying side B on Ti-based AB2 hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家淳; 于荣海; 刘庆

    2004-01-01

    Ti-based AB2-type hydrogen storage alloys are a group of promising materials, which will probably replace the prevalent rare earth-based AB5-type alloys and be adopted as the main cathode materials of nickelmetal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries in the near future. Alloying in side B is a major way to improve the performance of Ti-based AB2-type alloys. Based on recent studies, the effects of alloying elements in side B upon the performance of Ti-based AB2 -type hydrogen storage alloys are systematically reviewed here. These performances are divided into two categories, namely PCI characteristics, including hydrogen storage capacity (HSC), plateau pressure (PP), pressure hysteresis (PH) and pressure plateau sloping (PPS) , and electrochemical properties, including discharge capacity (DC), activation property (AP), cycling stability (CS) and high-rate dischargeability (HRD). Furthermore, the existing problems in these investigations and some suggestions for future research are proposed.

  6. Fabric cutting application of FeAl-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Blue, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Sklad, S.P. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Deevi, S.C. [Philip Morris U.S.A., Richmond, VA (United States); Shih, H.R. [Jackson State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Four intermetallic-based alloys were evaluated for cutting blade applications. These alloys included Fe{sub 3}Al-based (FAS-II and FA-129), FeAl-based (PM-60), and Ni{sub 3}Al-based (IC-50). These alloys were of interest because of their much higher work-hardening rates than the conventionally used carbon and stainless steels. The FeAl-based PM-60 alloy was of further interest because of its hardening possibility through retention of vacancies. The vacancy retention treatment is much simpler than the heat treatments used for hardening of steel blades. Blades of four intermetallic alloys and commercially used M2 tool steel blades were evaluated under identical conditions to cut two-ply heavy paper. Comparative results under identical conditions revealed that the FeAl-based alloy PM-60 outperformed the other intermetallic alloys and was equal to or somewhat better than the commercially used M2 tool steel.

  7. Synthesis and thermal behavior of tin-based alloy (Sn-Ag-Cu) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanghias, Ali; Yakymovych, Andriy; Bernardi, Johannes; Ipser, Herbert

    2015-03-19

    The prominent melting point depression of nanoparticles has been the subject of a considerable amount of research. For their promising applications in electronics, tin-based nano-alloys such as near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloys have been synthesized via various techniques. However, due to issues such as particle aggregation and oxidation or introduced impurities, the application of these nano-size particles has been confined or aborted. For instance, thermal investigations by DTA/DSC in a large number of studies revealed exothermic peaks in the range of 240-500 °C, i.e. above the melting point of SAC nanoparticles, with different and quite controversial explanations for this unclear phenomenon. This represents a considerable drawback for the application of nanoparticles. Correspondingly, in the current study, the thermal stability of SAC nanoparticles has been investigated via electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR, and DSC/TG analysis. It was found that the nanoparticles consist mainly of a metallic β-Sn core and an amorphous tin hydroxide shell structure. The SnO crystalline phase formation from this amorphous shell has been associated with the exothermic peaks on the first heating cycle of the nanoparticles, followed by a disproportionation reaction into metallic Sn and SnO₂.The results also revealed that the surfactant and reducing agent cannot only affect the size and size distribution of the nanoparticles, they might also alter the ratio between the amorphous shell and the crystalline core in the structure of particles. PMID:25757694

  8. A preliminary study of the preparation and characterization of shielding fabric coated by electrical deposition of amorphous Ni–Fe–P alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Zhentao; Zhang, Xiaoyi, E-mail: zxyzl66@163.com; Li, Haiguang

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The manufacturing process of electrical deposition amorphous Ni–Fe–P alloy on copper-coated PET fabric was determined. • The EMI SE is more than 60 dB in the wide frequency range. • This kind of material is easy to mass production, and will have a great application prospect. - Abstract: A flexible shielding fabric with dense uniform coating was prepared after electrical deposition of amorphous Ni–Fe–P alloy on copper-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. The manufacturing process was studied using orthogonal test with 8 factors and 3 levels. The effects of coating composition and the SE were discussed by pH value. The morphology, composition, and structure of coating were analyzed by SEM, EDS, and XRD characterizations. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) was also tested. The results indicate that the processing conditions of electrical deposition amorphous Ni–Fe–P alloy coated fabric are: 140 g/L NiSO{sub 4}⋅6H{sub 2}O, 100 g/L FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O, 10 g/L NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2}⋅H{sub 2}O, 24 g/L C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6}, 36 g/L C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}⋅H{sub 2}O, 20 g/L H{sub 3}PO{sub 3}, 65 °C, pH = 1.5, and current density = 13 A/dm{sup 2}. The resulting fabric possesses dense, smooth, and uniform coating, which consists of amorphous Ni–Fe–P alloy with 17.04% P (weight percent). The EMI SE of this coated fabric achieves 59.3–70.2 dB, in a broad frequency range between 300 kHz and 1.5 GHz.

  9. Amorphous IZO-based transparent thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, David C. [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)], E-mail: David_Paine@Brown.edu; Yaglioglu, Burag; Beiley, Zach; Lee, Sunghwan [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Active electronics implemented on cheap flexible polymer substrates offer the promise of novel display technologies, wearable electronics, large area memory, and a multitude of other, as-yet-unthought-of applications that require low cost and high volume manufacturing. Thin film transistors (TFT's) fabricated on temperature-sensitive plastic substrates at low temperatures are the key to this technology. TFT's that use metal (In, Zn, Sn, Ga) oxide channels offer both high mobility (relative to amorphous Si) and the advantage of optical transparency in the visible regime. We report on the fabrication and performance of amorphous oxide transparent thin film transistors that use dc-magnetron sputter techniques to deposit IZO (In{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 10 wt.% ZnO) at low oxygen potential (0 vol.% O{sub 2}) for the source, drain, and gate-contact metallization and, at higher oxygen partial pressures (10 vol.% O{sub 2}), for the semi-conducting channel. The devices in this study were processed at room temperature except for a single 280 {sup o}C PECVD deposition step to deposit a 230 nm-thick SiO{sub x} gate dielectric. The devices are optically transparent and operate in depletion mode with a threshold voltage of - 5 V, mobility of 15 cm{sup 2}/V s, an on-off ratio of > 10{sup 6} and, a sub-threshold slope of 1.2 V/decade. In addition, we report persistent photo-conductivity in the channel region of these devices when exposed to UV illumination.

  10. Effects of Ti and Zr Substituted on the Electrochemical Characteristics of MgNi-Based Alloy Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yan; JIAO Li-Fang; YUAN Hua-Tang; ZHAO Ming

    2007-01-01

    Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys MgNi, Mg0.9Ti0.1Ni, and Mg0.9Ti0.06Zr0.04Ni were successfully prepared by means of mechanical alloying (MA). The structure and the electrochemical characteristics of these Mg-based materials were studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that the main phases of the alloys exhibit amorphous structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photograph shows that the particle size of Ti and Zr substituted alloys was about 2-4 μm in diameter. The cycle lives of the alloys were prolonged by adding Ti and Zr. After 50charge-discharge cycles, the discharge capacity of Mg0.9Ti0.06Zr0.04Ni was 91.74% higher than that of MgNi alloy and 37.96% higher than that of Mg0.9Ti0.1Ni alloy. The main reason for the electrode capacity decay is the formation of Mg(OH)2 (product of Mg corrosion) at the surface of alloy. The potentiodynamic polarization result indicates that Ti and Zr doping improves the anticorrosion in an alkaline solution. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results suggest that proper amount of Ti and Zr doping improves the electrochemical catalytic activity significantly.

  11. Discontinuous precipitation in copper base alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap

    2009-08-01

    Discontinuous precipitation (DP) is associated with grain boundary migration in the wake of which alternate plates of the precipitate and the depleted matrix form. Some copper base alloys show DP while others do not. In this paper the misfit strain parameter, , has been calculated and predicted that if 100 > ± 0.1, DP is observed. This criterion points to diffusional coherency strain theory to be the operative mechanism for DP.

  12. Hydrogen storage kinetics of nanocrystalline and amorphous NdMg{sub 12}-type alloy-Ni composites synthesized by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanghuan; Cui, Songsong; Cai, Ying [Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). Lab. of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources; Song, Xiping [Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. for Advanced Metals and Materials; Zhang, Peilong; Zhu, Yongguo [Whole Win (Beijing) Materials Sci. and Tech. Co., Ltd., Beijing (China)

    2016-07-15

    Nanocrystalline and amorphous NdMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt.% Ni (x = 100, 200) composites were synthesized by mechanical milling, and their gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetic performances were systematically investigated. Hydrogen absorption and desorption properties were investigated by means of a Sievert apparatus and a differential scanning calorimeter connected with an H{sub 2} detector. Electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics of the as-milled alloys were tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. Results show that increasing Ni content significantly improves gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics. The improved gaseous hydrogen storage kinetics of the alloys are ascribed to the decrease in hydrogen desorption activation energy caused by increasing Ni content and milling time.

  13. A physical model of the effect of irreversible changes in structure and properties of amorphous alloys caused by low-temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low temperature ΔT-effect physical model for amorphous metallic alloys (AMA) is developed. Using Ni-P, Fe-Co-Si-B, Co-Ni-Fe-Si-B, Fe-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Si-B, Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloys the studies are carried out which results support basic concepts of the theory, namely: a motive force for atom drift, resulting in irreversible changes of a short-range order, is at the heart of longitudinal oscillations of AMA ribbon initiate the process of changing the initial short-range order. Variations of topological and short-range orders are responsible for a decrease in yield strength and Young modulus, a Curie point shift, an increase of saturation magnetization at an insignificant drop of coercive force or a significant drop of coercive force at a slight increase of saturation magnetization

  14. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications.

  15. Connection of the Hall coefficient with some parameters in amorphous and crystalline ferromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kunyts’ky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the series of alloys based on iron metal group the temperature dependences of Hall coefficient, resistivity, saturation magnetization in the amorphous and crystalline states are investigated. Within the Kondorsky-Vedyaev-Granovski theory framework the relationship between anomalous Hall coefficient Rs specific resistivity ρ and saturation magnetization Js was determined. The changes mechanism for some physical parameters of amorphous alloys was revealed in the case of the heat treatment and for the transition to the crystalline state as well.

  16. How Can Synchrotron Radiation Techniques Be Applied for Detecting Microstructures in Amorphous Alloys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, how synchrotron radiation techniques can be applied for detecting the microstructure in metallic glass (MG is studied. The unit cells are the basic structural units in crystals, though it has been suggested that the co-existence of various clusters may be the universal structural feature in MG. Therefore, it is a challenge to detect microstructures of MG even at the short-range scale by directly using synchrotron radiation techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption methods. Here, a feasible scheme is developed where some state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation-based experiments can be combined with simulations to investigate the microstructure in MG. By studying a typical MG composition (Zr70Pd30, it is found that various clusters do co-exist in its microstructure, and icosahedral-like clusters are the popular structural units. This is the structural origin where there is precipitation of an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase prior to phase transformation from glass to crystal when heating Zr70Pd30 MG.

  17. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Yang, N; Headley, T; Lucadamo, G; Yio, J; Chames, J; Gardea, A; Clift, M; Blue, G; Peters, W; Rivard, J; Harper, D; Swank, D; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Brown, R; Wolejsza, T; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Graeve, O; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-20

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer

  18. Development of amorphous silicon-germanium-alloys for stacked solar cells; Entwicklung von amorphen Silizium-Germanium-Legierungen fuer den Einsatz in Stapelsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundszien, D.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain high efficiency silicon based thin film solar cells, the concept of stacked solar cells is routinely used. The use of component cells with different optical bandgaps provides a better utilization of the solar spectrum. In a stacked cell structure, a high quality narrow bandgap material is needed for the active layer of the bottom cell. Amorphous silicon-germanium-alloys (a-SiGe:H) have been successfully employed because of their tunable optical bandgap E{sub G} between 1.8 eV (a-Si:H) and 1.1 eV (a-Ge:H). Considerable effort has been put into the development of a-SiGe:H. Still, with increasing Ge content, the material shows a characteristic deterioration of its electronic properties, like an exponential increase of the defect density, thus counteracting the gain in absorption obtained for higher Ge contents. It is the defect density which has the dominant influence on carrier transport and cell efficiency by affecting the mobility lifetime product and the electric field in the devices. The performance of a-SiGe:H pin solar cells with a wide range of Ge contents i.e. a wide range of optical band gaps (E{sub G}=1.3 to 1.6 eV) are compared. It is demonstrated how the deterioration of the material properties can be overcome by careful adjustment of the device design and the use of highly reflective ZnO/Ag back contacts. (orig.)

  19. Electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics of nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg{sub 20}Ni{sub 10-x}Co{sub x}(x=0-4) alloys prepared by melt spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang-huan [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); School of Material, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Ren, Hui-ping; Li, Bao-wei; Pang, Zai-guang [School of Material, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Guo, Shi-hai; Wang, Xin-lin [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloys with nominal compositions of Mg{sub 20}Ni{sub 10-x}Co{sub x} (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) were synthesized by melt-spinning technique. The microstructures of the as-cast and spun alloys were characterized by XRD, SEM and HRTEM. The electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics of the as-cast and spun alloys were measured. The obtained results show that the substitution of Co for Ni does not change the major phase of Mg{sub 2}Ni, but it leads to the formation of secondary phase MgCo{sub 2} and Mg. No amorphous phase forms in the as-spun alloy (x = 0), whereas the as-spun alloy (x = 4) holds a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure, confirming that the substitution of Co for Ni significantly heightens the glass forming ability of the Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloy. The substitution of Co for Ni and melt spinning significantly improve the electrochemical hydrogen storage performances of the alloys. When Co content x increases from 0 to 4, the maximum discharge capacity of the as-cast alloy increases from 30.3 to 113.3 mAh/g, and from 135.5 to 402.5 mAh/g for as-spun (30 m/s) alloy. The capacity retaining rate of the as-cast alloy after 20 cycles rises from 36.71 to 37.04%, and from 27.06 to 83.35% for as-spun (30 m/s) alloy, respectively. (author)

  20. Modeling Physical Stability of Amorphous Solids Based on Temperature and Moisture Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Donghua Alan; Zografi, George; Gao, Ping; Gong, Yuchuan; Zhang, Geoff G Z

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal microcalorimetry was utilized to monitor the crystallization process of amorphous ritonavir (RTV) and its hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate-based amorphous solid dispersion under various stressed conditions. An empirical model was developed: ln(τ)=ln(A)+EaRT-b⋅wc, where τ is the crystallization induction period, A is a pre-exponential factor, Ea is the apparent activation energy, b is the moisture sensitivity parameter, and wc is water content. To minimize the propagation of errors associated with the estimates, a nonlinear approach was used to calculate mean estimates and confidence intervals. The physical stability of neat amorphous RTV and RTV in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate solid dispersions was found to be mainly governed by the nucleation kinetic process. The impact of polymers and moisture on the crystallization process can be quantitatively described by Ea and b in this Arrhenius-type model. The good agreement between the measured values under some less stressful test conditions and those predicted, reflected by the slope and R(2) of the correlation plot of these 2 sets of data on a natural logarithm scale, indicates its predictability of long-term physical stability of amorphous RTV in solid dispersions. To further improve the model, more understanding of the impact of temperature and moisture on the amorphous physical stability and fundamentals regarding nucleation and crystallization is needed.

  1. Modeling Physical Stability of Amorphous Solids Based on Temperature and Moisture Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Donghua Alan; Zografi, George; Gao, Ping; Gong, Yuchuan; Zhang, Geoff G Z

    2016-09-01

    Isothermal microcalorimetry was utilized to monitor the crystallization process of amorphous ritonavir (RTV) and its hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate-based amorphous solid dispersion under various stressed conditions. An empirical model was developed: ln(τ)=ln(A)+EaRT-b⋅wc, where τ is the crystallization induction period, A is a pre-exponential factor, Ea is the apparent activation energy, b is the moisture sensitivity parameter, and wc is water content. To minimize the propagation of errors associated with the estimates, a nonlinear approach was used to calculate mean estimates and confidence intervals. The physical stability of neat amorphous RTV and RTV in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate solid dispersions was found to be mainly governed by the nucleation kinetic process. The impact of polymers and moisture on the crystallization process can be quantitatively described by Ea and b in this Arrhenius-type model. The good agreement between the measured values under some less stressful test conditions and those predicted, reflected by the slope and R(2) of the correlation plot of these 2 sets of data on a natural logarithm scale, indicates its predictability of long-term physical stability of amorphous RTV in solid dispersions. To further improve the model, more understanding of the impact of temperature and moisture on the amorphous physical stability and fundamentals regarding nucleation and crystallization is needed. PMID:27185539

  2. Fabrication and characterization of Fe-based amorphous coatings prepared by high-velocity arc spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fe-based cored wires were designed to achieve high glass forming ability. • Novel highly amorphous coatings were fabricated by arc spray technology. • The as-obtained amorphous coating possessed high thermal stability up to 873 K. • The as-obtained amorphous coating exhibited a high bonding strength over 44 MPa. - Abstract: Fe-based coatings with a high amorphous content were firstly developed by the traditional twin wires arc spray technology. In consideration of empirical rules, including the multi-component system, an optimal concentration of small atoms, negative heat of mixing and an appropriate atom size mismatch among the main components, the cored wires were designed to contain eight elements, which have an optimized atomic volume strain criterion λn, in range of 0.14–0.21, to render the coatings a high glass forming ability. Then the coatings were prepared using the above-designed cored wires through a rapid arc spray melting and solidification process. Crystalline phases could not be identified from the XRD patterns within the XRD resolution limits, suggesting that the as-sprayed coatings were approximately comprised of fully amorphous phases. With a dense structure and a low porosity of only 2%, the amorphous Fe-based coatings exhibited an attractive combination of high hardness (900–1100 HV0.3) and superior bonding strength (44.9–54.8 MPa). The coating at λn = 0.21 had the lowest Gibbs free energy difference ΔG, exhibited the largest super-cooled liquid region ΔTx, Lu’s criterion factor γ value and the heat of crystallization (ΔH) values, which indicating the highest GFA

  3. Amorphization and thermal stability of aluminum-based nanoparticles prepared from the rapid cooling of nanodroplets: effect of iron addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shifang; Li, Xiaofan; Deng, Huiqiu; Deng, Lei; Hu, Wangyu

    2015-03-01

    Despite an intensive investigation on bimetallic nanoparticles, little attention has been paid to their amorphization in the past few decades. The study of amorphization on a nanoscale is of considerable significance for the preparation of amorphous nanoparticles and bulk metallic glass. Herein, we pursue the amorphization process of Al-based nanoparticles with classic molecular dynamics simulations and local structural analysis techniques. By a comparative study of the amorphization of pure Al and Fe-doped Al-based nanodroplets in the course of rapid cooling, we find that Fe addition plays a very important role in the vitrification of Al-based nanodroplets. Owing to the subsurface segregated Fe atoms with their nearest neighbors tending to form relatively stable icosahedral (ICO) clusters, the Fe-centred cluster network near the surface effectively suppresses the crystallization of droplets from surface nucleation and growth as the concentration of Fe attains a certain value. The glass formation ability of nanodroplets is suggested to be enhanced by the high intrinsic inner pressure as a result of small size and surface tension, combined with the dopant-inhibited surface nucleation. In addition, the effect of the size and the added concentration of nanoparticles on amorphization and the thermal stability of the amorphous nanoparticles are discussed. Our findings reveal the amorphization mechanism in Fe-doped Al-based nanoparticles and provide a theoretical guidance for the design of amorphous materials.

  4. Effect of External Electric Field on Phase Selection and Stability of Amorphous( Nd0.1Fe0.9 )3 B Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李山东; 唐建成; 袁钻如; 顾本喜; 都有为

    2004-01-01

    The effect of an external electric field on the crystallization behavior of amorphous(Nd0.1Fe0.9)3B alloy was investigated. The crystallization product of Nd2Fe23B3 phase was obtained for this amorphous alloy annealed at 923 K for 300 s in the presence of an external electric field of 300 kV·m-1(50 Hz); while the crystallization products are Nd1.1Fe4B4, α-Fe, and Fe3B phases under the same annealing condition except for free-electric field. On the other hand, the samples were annealed at 1023 K, which is higher than the decomposition temperature of metastable Nd2Fe23B3 phase, for 600 s. In the case of the presence of an external electric field, the metastable Nd2Fe23B3 phase, as a main phase, is still stayed in the sample. This fact suggests that the external electric field enhances the stabilization of the metastable Nd2Fe23B3 phase. The effect of the external electric field on the phase selection and stabilization was explained in terms of the specific conductance difference between the crystallization products.

  5. Structure and magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe40Co40Cu0.5Zr9Al2Si4B4.5 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallisation behaviour and magnetic properties of as-spun and annealed Fe40Co40Cu0.5Zr9Al2Si4B4.5 alloy have been studied. The annealing was performed at 873 K for 15 min. XRD and TEM studies shows the formation of nanocrystalline α-(Fe,Co)(SiAl) particles with 7.5±2 nm in diameter dispersed in an amorphous matrix. The Curie temperature of the as-spun amorphous ribbon is 736 K. Saturation magnetisation of the annealed sample decreases at a rate of 0.5 emu/g/K in the measured temperature range of 300-1000 K. Excellent room temperature AC magnetic properties are achieved for the nanocrystalline sample. The low value of the imaginary part of the permeability and the high cut-off frequency (20 kHz) suggest that the eddy current contribution in the annealed materials is low. The coercivity of the annealed sample remains almost constant at 95 A/m up to the frequency of 20 kHz. High saturation magnetisation, high Curie temperature and excellent soft magnetic properties in the nanocrystalline state suggests that Fe40Co40Cu0.5Zr9Al2Si4B4.5 alloy is a strong candidate for high temperature magnetic application

  6. Magnetic properties of amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Mo3Si12.5Al1B9 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FINEMET type Fe73.5Cu1Mo3Si12.5Al1B9 (numbers indicate at.%) alloy has been synthesized using single wheel melt spinning technique. The samples have been thermally annealed at about 40 K less than the crystallization temperature for various durations. The samples show increase in Curie temperature of the amorphous phase with annealing. To get a better insight into their magnetic behaviour we have done spin wave analysis on the as-spun and thermally annealed samples and extracted the spin wave stiffness constant and mean square range of exchange interaction. Low temperature thermomagnetic measurements from 10 to 300 K were performed with an applied field of 0.5 T. The data were fitted using the Bloch equation. The value of the C/B ratio and the mean square range of exchange interaction were found to be characteristic of amorphous ferromagnets. The variation of spin wave stiffness constant is correlated to the changes in Curie temperature and the nature of the exchange interaction existing in this alloy is determined

  7. Metallic and Insulating Interfaces of Amorphous SrTiO3-Based Oxide Heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Pryds, Nini; Kleibeuker, Josée E.;

    2011-01-01

    The conductance confined at the interface of complex oxide heterostructures provides new opportunities to explore nanoelectronic as well as nanoionic devices. Herein we show that metallic interfaces can be realized in SrTiO3-based heterostructures with various insulating overlayers of amorphous La......AlO3, SrTiO3, and yttria-stabilized zirconia films. On the other hand, samples of amorphous La7/8Sr1/8MnO3 films on SrTiO3 substrates remain insulating. The interfacial conductivity results from the formation of oxygen vacancies near the interface, suggesting that the redox reactions on the surface...

  8. Amorphous Fe-B alloys in B-Fe-Ag multilayers studied by magnetization and Mössbauer measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, L. F.; Balogh, J.; Bujdoso, L.;

    2011-01-01

    no such effect is observed above this value. The Mössbauer measurements indicate a complete amorphization of the thin Fe layers in each sample, as a result of intermixing with the B layers. The variation of the magnetic properties is explained by the variation of the average B concentration of the......Bulk and local magnetic properties were studied in [1 nm B + 1 nm 57Fe + x nm Ag]5, x = 1, 2, 4, 5 and 10, multilayer samples. Although Ag does not mix with either of the other two elements the magnetic properties of the multilayers are strongly influenced by the Ag thickness below x = 5, whereas...... amorphous Fe–B layers, which depends on the thickness of the Ag barrier layers. The magnetization measurements indicate ferromagnetic behaviour of the ultra-thin amorphous layers with the presence of less than 10% superparamagnetic moments for x = 5 and 10. The average B concentration of the amorphous Fe...

  9. Microstructural characterization of rapidly solidified Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 40}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 5} amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursun, Celal, E-mail: celalkursun@ksu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras 46100 (Turkey); Gögebakan, Musa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras 46100 (Turkey); Gencer, Yucel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The amorphous Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 40}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 5} alloy was produced by melt-spinning at wheel speeds of 35, 38 and 41 m s{sup −1}. The resulting melt-spun ribbons were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Vickers microhardness (HV) tester. The XRD and SEM results revealed that the rapidly solidified ribbons have a fully amorphous structure. After partial or fully crystallisation of Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 40}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 5} ribbons upon annealing, the microstructure had uneven and irregularly shaped features with the existence of Cu{sub 10}Zr{sub 7}, Cu{sub 8}Zr{sub 3}, CuZr and FCC-Cu phases while as quenched ribbons had featureless microstructure. The SEM-EDX analysis confirmed compositional homogeneity of the Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 40}Ni{sub 5}Ti{sub 5} alloy ribbon. According to DSC results, the amorphous ribbons exhibited distinct glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and wide supercooled liquid region (ΔT{sub x} = T{sub x} − T{sub g}) before crystallization. Accordingly, T{sub g} and ΔT{sub x} are around 409–414 °C and 37–54 °C, respectively. The microhardness of the as-quenched ribbons was about 522 HV while it decreased with increasing annealing temperature and had a value of 463 HV for 725 °C.

  10. Phase transformations of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 amorphous alloy upon thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural transformations of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 amorphous alloy under non-isothermal as well as isothermal conditions were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that slow heating rates induce a series of stepwise structural transformations consisting of endothermic peaks and more pronounced exothermic peaks in the broad temperature range from 350 to 970 K. Over this range the system changed from an as-deposited amorphous alloy of higher excess free energy to an annealed sample exhibiting lower excess of free energy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis found that primary crystallization started with formation of a face-centred Fe3Si phase in an amorphous matrix. At higher temperatures (between 780 and 920 K) we detected, in addition to the Fe3Si phase, which reached an almost constant value of 85 wt%, three new phases, FeCu4, Fe16Nb6Si7 and Fe2B. Further annealing above 923 K led to, with Si initially migrating from the Fe-Si phase to the Nb-rich grain boundaries, formation of two new phases, Fe5Si3 and Nb5Si3. The Fe content in the cubic Fe-Si phase was estimated by means of a change in lattice parameter. Below 923 K the size of crystallites for the major Fe3Si phase was less than 10 nm. It was shown that further heating induced rapid crystallite growth, reaching a size greater than 500 nm at 1123 K.

  11. An initio calculations for defects in silicon-based amorphous semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Nobuhiko; Shimizu, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    We have calclulated the ESR hyperfine parameters of threefold-coordinated Si atoms and twofold-coordinated P and N atoms in Si-based amorphous semiconductors using the density functional theory with a local-spin-density approximation. These calculated results have been compared with the observed ESR results.

  12. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  13. In situ ultraviolet treatment in an Ar ambient upon p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbide windows of hydrogenated amorphous silicon based solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed an in situ postdeposition ultraviolet treatment in an Ar ambient (UTA) to improve the p/i interface of amorphous silicon based solar cell. We have increased the conversion efficiency by ∼16% by improving the built-in potential and reducing recombination at the p/i interface. Through spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier-transform infrared measurements, it is concluded that the UTA process induces structural modification of the p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbide (p-a-SiC:H) window layer. An ultrathin p-a-SiC:H contamination layer formed during the UTA process acts as a buffer layer at the interface

  14. Indentation toughness of Mo5Si3-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The indentation toughness of Mo5Si3 -based phases was studied with regard to different alloying elements, amount of alloying addition as well as the presence of secondary phases. Cr, Ti, Nb, Ni and Co were added as alloying elements. The results show that the indentation fracture toughness of Mo5Si3 increases with the alloying additions, from 2.4 Mpa *m1/2 for mon olithic to just over 3 Mpa*m1/2 for highly alloyed Mo5Si3. Small volume fractions of brittle secondary phases may have a positive impact on the inde ntation toughness; while larger fractions seems to lower the toughness.

  15. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy; Efeito das terras raras Y, Gd e Sm na tendencia a formacao de amorfo e na cristalizacao termica em ligas a base de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J., E-mail: aliaga@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Danez, G.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}RE{sub 5} alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  16. The microstructure of liquid immiscible Fe-Cu-based in situ formed amorphous/crystalline composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the microstructures of slowly and rapidly cooled liquid of the immiscible alloy Fe30Cu32Ni10Si13Sn4B9Y2 two distinct regions were observed following arc melting and slow cooling, confirming that liquid/liquid phase separation had occurred. Rapid cooling from a temperature within the liquid immiscibility gap, melt spinning, resulted in an amorphous/crystalline composite, formed from the previously melted Fe- and Cu-rich regions, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic studies of this melt-spun ribbon revealed the glassy nature of the Fe-rich matrix, as well as of the Fe-rich spheres formed within the previously existing Cu-rich liquid

  17. Fabrication and hyperthermia effect of magnetic functional fluids based on amorphous particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuncheng; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Jingyu; Guo, Tongxiao; Zhao, Shuchun

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study conducted on the preparation and hyperthermia effect of magnetic functional fluids based on Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 amorphous particles, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in water is presented. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating sample magnetometer methods have been used to characterize the morphology, structure and magnetic property of the amorphous particles. It is disclosed that the Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 particles are still amorphous after being milled for 48 h. Moreover, the saturation magnetization of metallic glass particles is approximately 75% and 50% larger than that of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, respectively. The hyperthermia experiment results show that when alternating electrical current is 150 A, the temperature of the functional fluids based on amorphous particles could rise to 33 °C in 1500 s. When the current is 300 A, the final stable temperature could reach to 60 °C. This study demonstrates that the Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9 magnetic functional fluids may have potential on biomedical applications.

  18. Electrochemical hydrogen storage performances of the nanocrystalline and amorphous (Mg24Ni10Cu2)100-xNdx (x=0-20) alloys applied to Ni-MH battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张羊换; 王海涛; 杨泰; 翟亭亭; 张国芳; 赵栋梁

    2013-01-01

    Melt spinning technology was used to prepare the Mg2Ni-type (Mg24Ni10Cu2)100-xNdx (x=0, 5, 10, 15, 20) alloys in order to obtain a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure. The effects of Nd content and spinning rate on the structures and electrochemical hydrogen storage performances of the alloys were investigated. The structure characterizations of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmis-sion electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) linked with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) re-vealed that the as-spun Nd-free alloy displayed an entire nanocrystalline structure, whereas the as-spun Nd-added alloys held a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure and the degree of amorphization visibly increased with the rising of Nd content and spinning rate, suggesting that the addition of Nd facilitated the glass forming of the Mg2Ni-type alloy. The electrochemical measurements in-dicated that the addition of Nd and melt spinning improved the electrochemical hydrogen storage performances of the alloys signifi-cantly. The discharge capacities of the as-cast and spun alloys exhibited maximum values when Nd content was x=10, which were 86.4, 200.5, 266.3, 402.5 and 452.8 mAh/g corresponding to the spinning rate of 0 (As-cast was defined as the spinning rate of 0 m/s), 10, 20, 30 and 40 m/s, respectively. The cycle stability (S20, the capacity maintain rate at 20th cycle) of the as-cast alloy always rose with the increasing of Nd content, and those of the as-spun alloys exhibited the maximum values for Nd content x=10, which were 77.9%, 83.4%89.2%and 89.7%, corresponding to the spinning rate of 10, 20, 30 and 40 m/s, respectively.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Amorphous Layer on Aluminum Alloy Formed by Plasma Electrolytic Deposition (PED)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYong-jun; XIAYuan

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, protective layers were formed on aluminum substrate by Plasma Electrolytic Deposition (PED) using sodium silicate solution. The relation between the thickness of the layer and process time were studied. XRD, SEM, EDS were used to study the layer's structure, composition and micrograph. The results show that the deposited layers are amorphous and contain mainly oxygen, silicon, and aluminum. The possible formation mechanism of amorphous[Al-Si-O] layer was proposed: During discharge periods, Al2O3 phase of the passive film and SiO32- near the substrate surface are sintered into xSiO2(1-x)Al2O3 and then transformed into amorphous [Al-Si-O] phase.

  20. Mechanism of Dissolution-Induced Nanoparticle Formation from a Copovidone-Based Amorphous Solid Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Paul; Galipeau, Kendra; Xu, Wei; Brown, Chad; Wuelfing, W Peter

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) have been increasingly used to maximize human exposures from poorly soluble drug candidates. One well-studied advantage of ASDs is the increased amorphous drug solubility compared to crystalline forms. This provides more rapid dissolution rates. An additional advantage of ASDs is that the dissolution process of the ASD particle may also rapidly transform much of the drug present in the ASD particle to small (drug nanoparticles which will have fast dissolution rates. This work examines the mechanism by which this nanoparticle formation occurs by studying an ASD consisting of 70-80% copovidone, 20% anacetrapib (a low solubility lipophilic drug), and 0-10% TPGS (d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, a surfactant). Nanoparticle formation is found to derive from a rapid amorphous drug domain formation within the ASD particle, driven by copovidone dissolution from the particle. The role of surfactant in the ASD particle is to prevent an otherwise rapid, local drug domain aggregation event, which we term "hydrophobic capture". Surfactant thus allows the amorphous drug domains to escape hydrophobic capture and diffuse to bulk solution, where they are reported as nanoparticles. This view of surfactant and nanoparticle formation is compared to the prevailing view in the literature. The work here clarifies the different roles that surfactant might play in increasing nanoparticle yields and extending the useful drug loading ranges in copovidone-based ASDs. PMID:27019407

  1. Variation of the electronic densities of states as a function of impurity concentration in amorphous bismuth alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Pinzon, Zaahel; Valladares, Ariel Alberto; Valladares, Alexander; Valladares, Renela Maria

    2014-03-01

    The properties of materials are strongly related to their atomic topology, especially when we compare properties related to the ordered and disordered phases. Using Density Functional Theory methods on 64-atom supercells we obtain the structure and calculate the electronic density of states (eDOS) as a function of the concentration of lead, thallium or antimony in an amorphous bismuth supercell. This is done to investigate how the eDOS affects the superconducting transition temperature (Tc), taking into account the measurements made by Shier and Ginsberg[2] on contaminated amorphous bismuth thin films. Supported by CONACYT and DGAPA (UNAM).

  2. ATOM PROBE STUDY OF TITANIUM BASE ALLOYS : PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Menand, A.; Chambreland, S.; Martin, C

    1986-01-01

    Two different titanium base alloys, Ti46 Al54 and Ti88.8 Cu2.3, Al8.9, have been studied by atom probe microanalysis. A precipitate of Ti2 Al was analysed in the binary alloys. Micro-analysis of Ti Cu Al alloy revealed the presence of Copper enriched zones. The study has also exhibited a penetration of Hydrogen in the samples, probably due to preparation technique. The results demonstrate the feasibility of studies on titanium base alloys by mean of atom probe.

  3. Effect of cobalt on the corrosion behaviour of amorphous Fe-Co- Cr-B-Si alloys in dilute mineral acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon, N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of increasing cobalt content on the corrosion resistance of the Fe- Co-Cr-B-Si alloys in dilute mineral acids. The corrosion rates in 0.5N HCl, 1N HCl and 1N H2SO4 significantly decrease with an increase in cobalt content. The alloys with a larger amount of cobalt can passivate spontaneously. The high corrosion resistance of the Fe-Co-Cr-B-Si alloys is also due to the formation of chromium -enriched passive film. Generally, the corrosion resistance of chromium –bearing alloy is improved by alloying with various metalloids but it is lowered by addition of boron and silicon. The corrosion behaviour of the amorphous Fe75-xCoxCr1B7Si17 alloys obtained by the melt-spinning technique was studied using gravimetric method. The best results were obtained with Fe65Co10Cr1B7Si17 alloy. The studied amorphous alloy ribbons exhibit not only excellent physical properties which are useful for many electric and magnetic applications: magnetic sensors, power transformers, high frequency transformers, etc., but also a very good corrosion resistance which extend their application domain.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de la investigación sobre la resistencia a la corrosión de un nuevo sistema de aleaciones amorfas, p. ej., Fe-Co-Cr-B-Si. El comportamiento de la corrosión de aleaciones amorfas así como el de cualquier otra aleación cristalina puede ser determinado, en ambas, por factores internos (la estructura y composición de la aleación y por factores externos (tipo medio agresivo, concentración y coeficiente pH. La falta de cristalinidad y de defectos específicos al estado de cristalinidad -limitaciones de grano, dislocaciones y segregaciones- aseguran una alta resistencia a la corrosión a las aleaciones amorfas, en lugar de ser termodinámicamente metaestables La investigación se desarrolló a través del método gravimétrico en muestras de aleación amorfa Fe75-xCoxCr1B7Si17 obtenidos por

  4. Thermal sprayed iron base alloys coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particularities of thermal spraying of iron-based alloys coatings are associated with sufficiently great values of parameter of melting difficulty (for Fe D = 2.08 I-10/sup 10/ kJ.kg/sup -1/.m/sup -3/), and relatively low values of coefficients-of heat accumulation (for Fe b=C.raw.Lambda /sub 0.5/=108 W.m/sup -2/.K.sec/sup-0.5/). These materials are less inclined to form quality coating under the influence of the thermal activation and therefore it is reasonable to use in addition the mechanical activation of substrate surface. The powder of iron-base alloy FeSi/sub 7/AI/sub 3.5/C/sub 2/ was obtained by melt-atomization with water hardening of droplets. The main phase components of powder are alpha and gamma -solid solution on base of Fe (austenite), cementite (Fe/sub 3/C), metastable rhombic lattice x-phase, and possibly metastable carbide Fe/sub 2/C. When the powder particles shape is oval which axis dimensions about 80 and 300 micro meter, the main phase components of detonation sprayed coatings in case of oxy-acetylene gas mixture are alpha and gamma -phases, in case of oxy-propane-butane mixture the coating phase component the same as initial powder. When the powder particles size is 63-100 micro meter, the coatings phase components are alpha and gamma - solid solutions, Fe/sub 3/C, x-phase, Fe/sub 2/C, Fe/sub 3/0/sub 4/ and FeO. The main phase components of FeSi/sub 7/B/sub 12,6/ powder are alpha-solid solution, borides Fe/sub 2/B and FeB, X- phase. The sprayed coatings have the same phase composition. These types of Fe-base alloys powders have relatively low cost, easy available and can used for deposition of wear resistant coatings. (author)

  5. Kinetic study of the crystallization process of the α-Fe phase in the amorphous Fe81B13Si4C2 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ž. Janković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic study of the crystallization process of the α-Fe phase from the amorphous Fe81B13Si4C2 alloy was investigated by DSC and XRD techniques. The kinetic parameters (lnA, Ea of the investigated process were determined using the Kissinger and isoconversional (model-free methods. It was established that the α-Fe crystallization process can be described by the JMA (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetic equation. In accordance with the XRD analysis and the calculated crystallization parameters (n = 4; m = 3, it was concluded that the crystallization stages of the considered process can be described by the bulk nucleation and the three-dimensional (3D growth of nuclei.  

  6. Investigation of the Stability and 1.0 MeV Proton Radiation Resistance of Commercially Produced Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Alloy Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Kenneth R., II; Walters, Michael R.; Woodyard, James R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation resistance of commercial solar cells fabricated from hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys is reported. A number of different device structures were irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The cells were insensitive to proton fluences below 1E12 sq cm. The parameters of the irradiated cells were restored with annealing at 200 C. The annealing time was dependent on proton fluence. Annealing devices for one hour restores cell parameters for fluences below 1E14 sq cm fluences above 1E14 sq cm require longer annealing times. A parametric fitting model was used to characterize current mechanisms observed In dark I-V measurements. The current mechanism were explored with irradiation fluence, and voltage and light soaking times. The thermal generation current density and quality factor increased with proton fluence. Device simulation shows the degradation in cell characteristics may be explained by the reduction of the electric field in the intrinsic layer.

  7. Non-alloyed Ni3Al based alloys – preparation and evaluation of mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malcharcziková

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the fabrication and mechanical properties of Ni3Al based alloy, which represents the most frequently used basic composition of nickel based intermetallic alloys for high temperature applications. The structure of the alloy was controlled through directional solidification. The samples had a multi-phase microstructure. The directionally solidified specimens were subjected to tensile tests with concurrent measurement of acoustic emission (AE. The specimens exhibited considerable room temperature ductility before fracture. During tensile testing an intensive AE was observed.

  8. 非晶态Cr-C合金镀层制备及其耐腐蚀性%Preparation and Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Cr-C Alloy Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毕学; 揭晓华; 李国亮

    2012-01-01

    以酒石酸为添加剂,采用电沉积法制备了非晶态Cr-C合金镀层。用X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜及能谱仪对镀层结构、形貌及成分进行表征,并对镀层进行电化学耐腐蚀性测试。结果表明,当酒石酸加入量为40g/L时,镀层的x射线衍射图出现非晶态的特征峰,镀层表面平整、致密,无裂纹和针孔,与普通晶态Cr镀层相比,非晶态Cr-C合金镀层具有更优良的耐腐蚀性能。%Amorphous Cr-C alloy coating was prepared by electrodepositing in tartaric acid additive bath. The microstructure, composition and surface morphology of the coating were detected by ?(ray diffraction, SEM and EDS, also the microhardness, electrochemical corrosion resistance of the coating were tested. The results showed that a broad diffraction peak appeared on the Xray diffraction pattern, the coating had a smooth and dense surface without pinhole and crack when the dosage of tartaric acid was 40 g/L. Compared with conventional crystalline Cr coating, amorphous Cr-C alloy coating had better corrosion resistance.

  9. Study on Preparation of Amorphous Cr-C Alloy Coating%非晶态Cr-C合金镀层的制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毕学; 揭晓华; 卢国辉

    2011-01-01

    A new formula used to prepare amorphous CrC alloy coating by electrodepositing was studied with optimization study on tartaric acid additive. The microstructore and surface morphology of the coating was detected by X-my diffraction and SEM. The microhardness and adhesion of the coating was tested. The results show that a broad diffraction peaks appeares on the X-ray diffraction pattern and the coating has a smooth, dense surface without pinhole and crack, and has maximum microhardness and binding force when the dosage of tartaric acid is 40 g/L. The main reasons to result in generation of amorphous Cr-C alloy coating are that alien atoms mixed into Cr layer and the active point on the layer surface are adsorbed by tartaric acid in the process of electrodeposition.%通过对添加剂酒石酸的优化研究,研究电沉积制备非晶态Cr-C合金镀层的新配方.用X射线衍射和扫描电子显微镜对镀层结构和形貌进行表征,并对镀层硬度及结合力进行测试.结果表明,当酒石酸加入量为40g/L时,镀层的X射线衍射图出现非晶态的宽化峰,镀层的硬度和结合力最高,表面平整、致密,无裂纹和针孔,异类原子的加入和酒石酸对表面活性点的吸附作用是形成非晶态结构的主要原因.

  10. HIGH CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF NICKEL-BASE ALLOY 718

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Kobayashi; K.Yamaguchi; M.Hayakawa; M.Kimura

    2004-01-01

    The fatigue properties of nickel-base Alloy 718 with fine- and grain-coarse grains were investigated. In the fine-grain alloy, the fatigue strength normalized by the tensile strengtn was 0.51 at 107 cycles. In contrast, the fatigue strength of the coarse-grain alloy was 0.32 at the same cycles, although the fatigue strengths in the range from 103to 105 cycles are the same for both alloys. The fracture appearances fatigued at around 106 cycles showed internal fractures originating from the flat facets of austenite grains for both alloys. The difference in fatigue strength at 107 cycles between the fine- and coarse-grain alloys could be explained in terms of the sizes of the facets from which the fractures originated.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of niobium based Fe-Cr alloys via mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niobium (Nb) based alloys and composites are currently used in various high temperature applications such as rocket engine nozzles, superconducting magnets, and automotive structural components. Niobium has also been traditionally employed as a micro-alloying element to fabricate high strength, low alloy steels and nickel based superalloys (example: Inconel 718) on account of its ability to form nano dispersions/precipitates which effectively impede high temperature grain growth. Traditionally, niobium alloys such as C-103 (Nb-10Hf-1Ti) and FS-85 (Nb-10W-28Ta-1Zr) having excellent high temperature properties have been fabricated using arc melting and e-beam melting methods. However these alloys have not been widely used on account of their high fabrication costs. On the other hand, nanostructured steels such as oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys (example: 12Y1, 12YWT, FeCrAl, HT-9, Hestalloy etc) are being proposed for high temperature structural applications for new generation nuclear reactors. In this context we present some of the work related to fabrication and characterization of some known ODS steel compositions with Nb as a micro-alloying element that is currently underway at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory at Virginia Commonwealth University in context of high temperature nuclear applications. (author)

  12. LASER CLADDING WITH COBALT-BASED HARDFACING ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Frenk, A.; WagniÈre, J.-D.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results aimed at designing Co-based hardfacing alloys specifically for the laser cladding process are reported. Three alloys, ranging from hypo- to hypereutectic were deposited using scanning velocities between 1.7 and 170 mm/s. The microstructures and the dry sliding wear resistances of the clads were investigated. First trends relating composition to dry sliding wear resistance were deduced.

  13. Microstructural and Microhardness Variation of Amorphous Fe78Si9B13 Alloy during Bend Stress Relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xifeng LI; Kaifeng ZHANG; Changli WANG; Wenbo HAN; Guofeng WANG

    2007-01-01

    The amorphous Fe78Si9B13 ribbons were bend stress relaxed at various temperature well below the crystallization temperature (Tx) for different time. The effect of pre-annealing on the subsequent bend stress relaxation was examined. The variation of the microstructure and microhardness during bend stress relaxation process was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Vickers microhardness test,respectively. Curvature radius of the amorphous Fe78Si9B13 ribbons decreased with increase bend stress relaxation temperature and time. The microhardness of the stress relaxed specimens increased with time at 300℃ due to the forming of nanocrystals during bend stress relaxation. The pre-annealing reduced the decrease rate of the curvature radius of stress relaxed specimens.

  14. Modern Theory of Magnetism in Metals and Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    This book describes theoretical aspects of the metallic magnetism from metals to disordered alloys to amorphous alloys both at the ground state and at finite temperatures. The book gives an introduction to the metallic magnetism, and treats effects of electron correlations on magnetism, spin fluctuations in metallic magnetism, formation of complex magnetic structures, a variety of magnetism due to configurational disorder in alloys as well as a new magnetism caused by the structural disorder in amorphous alloys, especially the itinerant-electron spin glasses. The readers will find that all these topics can be understood systematically  by means of the spin-fluctuation theories based on the functional integral method.

  15. Effect of rare earth additions on magnetic properties of Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}RE{sub 2} (RE = Y, Gd, Tb and Dy) amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrobak, A., E-mail: artur.chrobak@us.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, 4 Uniwersytecka, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Nosenko, V. [G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Physics of Metals, NAS of Ukraine, Vernadsky ave. 36, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Haneczok, G. [University of Silesia, Institute of Materials Science, 12 Bankowa, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Boichyshyn, L.; Kotur, B. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla and Mefodia St. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Bajorek, A. [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, 4 Uniwersytecka, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zivotsky, O.; Hendrych, A. [Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Physics, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} We studied magnetic properties of Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}RE{sub 2} (RE=Y,Gd,Tb,Dy) amorphous alloys. {yields} In a comparison with Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}Y{sub 2} alloy the rare earth editions cause an increase of the Curie temperature and a decrease of magnetic moment per magnetic atom. {yields} Doping of Tb and Dy lead to a strong decrease of magnetic permeability and a formation of low dimensional finger-print magnetic domains. - Abstract: In the present paper the influence of RE alloying additions (Y, Gd, Tb and Dy) on magnetic properties (Curie temperatures, low temperature magnetization, zero field cooling-field cooling curves, domain structure, room temperature magnetostriction and magnetic permeability) of amorphous alloys of type Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}RE{sub 2} are carefully examined. It was shown that substituting of yttrium atoms by magnetic elements, i.e. Gd, Tb and Dy leads to (i) an increase of the Curie temperature of amorphous phase from 416 K (for Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}Y{sub 2}) to 450 K (for Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}Gd{sub 2}) and (ii) a decrease of magnetization in saturation (magnetic field 7 T) which can be explained by antiferromagnetic Fe-RE coupling resulting in a decrease of magnetic moment calculated per magnetic atom from 2.00 {mu}{sub B} for the Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}Y{sub 2} alloy (Fe in amorphous phase) to 1.51 {mu}{sub B} for the Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}Tb{sub 2} alloy. It was concluded that Tb and Dy alloying additions introduce a local magnetic anisotropy responsible for significant decrease of initial magnetic permeability (about 5 times in relation to Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}Y{sub 2} or Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}Gd{sub 2} alloy), increase of magnetic irreversibility effect measured at 2 K (about 10 times in relation to the same alloys) and appearing of the finger-print magnetic domain regions (not observed for the Fe{sub 82}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 14}Y{sub 2} and Fe{sub 82}Nb

  16. Improved Photo-Induced Stability in Amorphous Metal-Oxide Based TFTs for Transparent Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sang-Mo; Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the origin of photo-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) by exploring threshold voltage (Vth) shift in transfer characteristics. The combination of photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress enhanced the shift in Vth in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs. Such results stem from the extended trapped charges at the localized defect states related to oxygen vacancy which play a role in a screening effect on the electric field induced by gate voltage. We also demonstrate the chemically clean interface in oxide-TFTs by employing oxygen annealing which reduces the density of trap states, thereby resulting in improved photo-induced stability. We believe that this work stimulates the research society of transparent electronics by providing a promising approach to suppress photo-induced instability in metal-oxide TFTs. PMID:26726416

  17. Optimisation of soft magnetic properties in Fe-Cu-X-Si{sub 13}B{sub 9} (X=Cr, Mo, Zr) amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwapulinski, P.; Rasek, J.; Stoklosa, Z.; Haneczok, G. E-mail: haneczok@us.edu.pl

    2001-09-01

    In the present paper a group of Fe-Cu-X-Si{sub 13}B{sub 9} (X=Cr, Mo, Zr) amorphous alloys has been examined by applying different experimental techniques--magnetic permeability, magnetic after-effect, coercive force and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been shown that their soft magnetic properties can be optimised by 1-h thermal annealing at the temperature close to the crystallisation temperature. This leads to an increase of permeability and a decrease of coercive force, thermal instability (magnetic after-effect intensity) and electrical resistivity of the material. The optimisation effect is discussed in terms of different processes--(i) a formation of a nanocrystalline phase with the grain size much smaller than the ferromagnetic exchange length, (ii) an annealing out of microvoids formed during the fabrication process and also (iii) a decrease of the effective magnetostriction constant. The temperature of optimisation annealing treatment is always higher than the Curie temperatures of the materials and varies approximately linearly with the atomic radius of the alloying additions.

  18. Optimisation of soft magnetic properties in Fe-Cu-X-Si13B9 (X=Cr, Mo, Zr) amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper a group of Fe-Cu-X-Si13B9 (X=Cr, Mo, Zr) amorphous alloys has been examined by applying different experimental techniques--magnetic permeability, magnetic after-effect, coercive force and electrical resistivity measurements. It has been shown that their soft magnetic properties can be optimised by 1-h thermal annealing at the temperature close to the crystallisation temperature. This leads to an increase of permeability and a decrease of coercive force, thermal instability (magnetic after-effect intensity) and electrical resistivity of the material. The optimisation effect is discussed in terms of different processes--(i) a formation of a nanocrystalline phase with the grain size much smaller than the ferromagnetic exchange length, (ii) an annealing out of microvoids formed during the fabrication process and also (iii) a decrease of the effective magnetostriction constant. The temperature of optimisation annealing treatment is always higher than the Curie temperatures of the materials and varies approximately linearly with the atomic radius of the alloying additions

  19. Tantalum modified ferritic iron base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldrieve, R. E.; Blankenship, C. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Strong ferritic alloys of the Fe-CR-Al type containing 0.4% to 2% tantalum were developed. These alloys have improved fabricability without sacrificing high temperature strength and oxidation resistance in the 800 C (1475 F) to 1040 C (1900 F) range.

  20. A comparative study of the structure and crystallization of bulk metallic amorphous rod Pr60Ni30Al10 and melt-spun metallic amorphous ribbon Al87Ni10Pr3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qing-Ge; Li Jian-Guo; Zhou Jian-Kun

    2006-01-01

    Pr-based bulk metallic amorphous (BM1 rods (Pr60Ni30Al10) and Al-based amorphous ribbons (Al87Ni10Pr3)have been prepared by using copper mould casting and single roller melt-spun techniques, respectively. Thermal parameters deduced from differential scanning calorimeter (DS3 indicate that the glass-forming ability (GF1 of Pr60Nia0Al10 BMA rod is far higher than that of Al87Ni10Pr3 ribbon. A comparative study about the differences in structure between the two kinds of glass-forming alloys, superheated viscosity and crystallization are also made. Compared with the amorphous alloy Al87Ni10Pr3, the BMA alloy Pr60Ni30Al10 shows high thermal stability and large viscosity, small diffusivity at the same superheated temperatures. The results of x-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) show the pronounced difference in structure between the two amorphous alloys.Together with crystallization results, the main structure compositions of the amorphous samples are confirmed. It seems that the higher the GFA, the more topological type clusters in the Pr-Ni-Al amorphous alloys, the GFAs of the present glass-forming alloys are closely related to their structures.

  1. Amorphous ribbons consolidation of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 42}Al{sub 7}Y{sub 5} alloy by hot extrusion; Consolidacao de fitas amorfas da liga The Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 42}Al{sub 7}Y{sub 5} alloy with amorphous structure shows a temperature rangepor extrusao a quente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melle, A.K.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Peres, M.M., E-mail: anakarla13_8@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itabira, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 42}Al{sub 7}Y{sub 5} alloy with amorphous structure shows a temperature range between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the crystallization temperature (Tx) of Tx-Tg={Delta}T{sub x}= 100K. At this temperature range, the metal behavior is of a supercooled liquid with viscosity {approx_equal} 10{sup 6} N.s/m{sup 2}. The aim of this work is to contribute on the development of a processing route to produce bulk metallic glass. Amorphous ribbons was produced by rapid quenching using 'melt spinning' process, the ribbons were fragmented in small pieces, compacted at room temperature and consolidated by hot extrusion under extrusion temperatures on the {Delta}T{sub x}, ram speed of 1mm/min and extrusion ratio of 3:1. The extruded samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that extrusion temperature was fundamental to promote a full or partial consolidation of the amorphous ribbons, but causing the formation of some voids and inducing some regions to crystallization that showing the high sensibility to fit the extrusion temperature.(author)

  2. Corrosion resistance improvement of titanium base alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy in comparison with ternary Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Ringer-Brown solution and artificial Carter-Brugirard saliva of different pH values was studied. In Ringer-Brown solution, the new alloy presented an improvement of all electrochemical parameters due to the alloying with Zr; also, impedance spectra revealed better protective properties of its passive layer. In Carter-Brugirard artificial saliva, an increase of the passive film thickness was proved. Fluoride ions had a slight negative influence on the corrosion and ion release rates, without to affect the very good stability of the new Ti-6Al-4V-1Zr alloy.

  3. Review on Formation Mechanism and Ability About Amorphous Alloys%非晶合金的形成机理及其形成能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张科; 马光; 贾志华; 孙晓亮; 李银娥; 李进

    2012-01-01

    概述了现有非晶合金的种类,并从合金的热力学、动力学和结构3个方面阐述了合金的非晶形成机理,同时全面总结和探讨了表征合金非晶形成能力的各种参数,主要包括Inoue经验规律、△H(熔化焓)、△S(熔化熵)、过冷液体温度区间△Tx(△Tx=Tx=Tg)、约化玻璃转变温度Trg(Trg=Tg/Tm)、粘度(η)、αβ1/3、临界冷却速度(Rc)、非晶晶化开始温度(Tx)与合金开始熔化温度(Tm)之比(Tx/Tm)、合金开始熔化温度(Tm)与玻璃转变温度(Tg)或非晶晶化开始温度(Tx)之差△Tm(△Tm=Tm-Tg或△Tm=Tm-Tx)、电子浓度e/a、原子尺寸、重力等.%The type of the existing amorphous alloys are summarized. The forming mechanisms of amorphous alloys have been investigated from the structure, thermodynamics and kinetics of the alloys. And the characterization parameters of glass forming ability have been summarized and investigated. They include the Inoue's empirical laws, melting enthalpy (△H) , entropy of fusion (△S) , supercooled liquid temperature interval(Atx) , reduced glass transition temperature(Trg), viscosity(η) , αβ1/3 , critical cooling rate (Rc), the ratio(Tx/Tm) between the crystallization starting temperature(Tx) and melting initiation temperature(Tm), the difference(△Xm = Tm — Tg or △Tm = Tm - Tx ) between melting initiation temperature(Tm) and glass transition temperature(Tg) or crystallization starting tempera-ture(Tx), electron concentration(e/α) , atomic size, gravity,etc.

  4. Processing TiAl-Based Alloy by Elemental Powder Metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TiAl-based alloys with various compositions (including Ti-48Al, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb-0.2B and Ti-47Al-3Cr, in mole fraction) had been prepared by elemental powder metallurgy (EPM). The results have shown that the density of the prepared Ti-48Al alloy increases with increasing hot pressing temperature up to 1300℃. The Ti-48Al alloy microstructure mainly consisted of island-like Ti3Al phase and TiAl matrix at hot pressing temperature below 1300℃, however, coarse α2/γlamellar colonies and γ grains appeared at 1400℃. It has also indicated that the additions of elemental Cr and B can refine the alloy microstructure. The main microstructural inhomogeneity in EPM TiAl-based alloys was the island-like α2 phase or the aggregate of α2/γ lamellar colony, and such island-like structure will be inherited during subsequent heat treatment in (α+γ) field. Only after heat treatment in α field would this structure be eliminated. The mechanical properties of EPM TiAl-based alloys with various compositions were tested, and the effect of alloy elements on the mechanical properties was closely related to that of alloy elements on the alloy microstructures. Based on the above results, TiAl-based alloy exhaust valves were fabricated by elemental powder metallurgy and diffusion joining. The automobile engine test had demonstrated that the performance of the manufactured valves was very promising for engine service.

  5. Fabric cutting application of FeAl-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Blue, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Sklad, S.P. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22905 (United States); Deevi, S.C. [Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA 23234 (United States); Shih, H.-R. [Jackson State University, 1400 J.R. Lynch Street, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Four intermetallic-based alloys were evaluated for cutting blade applications. These alloys included Fe{sub 3}Al-based (FAS-II and FA-129), FeAl-based (PM-60) and Ni{sub 3}Al-based (IC-50). These alloys were of interest because of their much higher work-hardening rates than the conventionally used carbon and stainless steels. The FeAl-based PM-60 alloy was of further interest because of its hardening possibility through retention of vacancies. The vacancy retention treatment is much simpler than the heat treatments used for hardening of steel blades. Blades of four intermetallic alloys and commercially used M2 tool steel blades were evaluated under identical conditions to cut two-ply heavy paper. Comparative results under identical conditions revealed that the FeAl-based alloy PM-60 outperformed the other intermetallic alloys and was equal to or somewhat better than the commercially used M2 tool steel. (orig.) 18 refs.

  6. Corelation between the crystallisation process and change in thermoelectromotive force for the amorphous alloy Fe89.8Ni1.5Si5.2B3C0.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Aleksa M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal and kinetic analyses of the structural changes for the amorphous alloy Fe89.8Ni1.5Si5.2B3C0.5, during the processes of non-isothermal heating and isothermal annealing, have been performed. The crystallisation process has been investigated using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. It is determined that this alloy crystalizes through three different stages. Changes in the electronic structure of the amorphous tape, for the temperature range 20 to 700ºC have been studied. This was achieved by measuring the thermoelectromotive force (TEMS, of the thermo pair made of two tapes with same chemical structure of the alloy FeNiSiBC, but different atomic structure: one is in the crystal state (CL and the other is in the amorphous state (AM. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the electromotive force has shown the following: the investigated alloy is thermically stable up to 450ºC and changes in the atomic structure as well as equalising of the free electron density in both parts of the thermo pair AM-CL, take place in the temperature range from 450 to 550ºC. Kinetic parameters of the process were determined by measuring time dependence of the TEMS in isothermic conditions at the temperatures 450, 480 and 510ºC.

  7. Influence of Al addition on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of Fe76.5-xCu1Si13.5b9Alx amorphous alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Y.Y.; Song M

    2012-01-01

    This paper fabricated Fe76.5-xCu1Si13.5B9Alx (x=0,1,2,3,5,7 at.%) amorphous ribbons using singleroller melt-spinning method. The effect of Al content on the thermal stability and mechanical properties was investigated. The results indicated that Al addition have little effect on the amorphous formation ability of the alloys. On the other hand, increasing the Al content can substantially increase Tx2, which corresponds to the crystallization of Fe borides. Nanoindentation tests indicated...

  8. Cr{sub 2}Nb-based alloy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Horton, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Alloys of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb with exceptionally high strength at 1200{degrees}C have been developed. However, these compositions suffer from limited ductility and toughness at room temperature. Despite improvements from processing modifications, as-fabricated defects still limit room temperature mechanical behavior. In contrast, an alloy system with only a small mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the two phases, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr, showed good fabricability. However, these alloys are weaker than Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb compositions at high temperatures and have poor oxidation resistance. Silicide coatings can provide high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation protection of these alloys. Improvements in room temperature mechanical properties of Laves-phase-strengthened alloys will rely on further development based on increasing the ductility of the matrix phase by impurity control and compositional modifications.

  9. Effect of Cu addition on the GFA, structure and properties of Fe-Co-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lesz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper was investigation of the effect of Cu addition on GFA (Glass Forming Ability, structure, magnetic and mechanical properties of amorphous Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The following experimental techniques were used: differential thermal analysis (DTA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD method, measurements of magnetic properties (VSM method, Vickers microhardness (HV.Findings: It was shown that when Cu is added to the Fe-Co-based alloy, increase of the GFA and change of the magnetic properties was obtained.Research limitations/implications: The results can give more details to understand the relationship between structure, magnetic and mechanical properties. Thus can be useful for practical application of these alloys.Practical implications: The (Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4100-xCux (x=0 and 0.6 metallic glasses due to their excellent soft magnetic properties have shown great industrial value for commercial application. Many products consisting of these kinds of metallic glasses have been widely used, for example anti-theft labels, precision sensor material, and high efficient magnetic transformers in electronic industry.Originality/value: The applied investigation methods are suitable to determine the changes of GFA and structure combined with magnetic and mechanical properties of (Fe36Co36B19Si5Nb4100-xCux (x=0 and 0.6 metallic glasses.

  10. On the mechanical properties of TiNb based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. [SIMAP-CNRS, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, St. Martin d’Hères 38402 (France); Georgarakis, K. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); SIMAP-CNRS, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, St. Martin d’Hères 38402 (France); Yokoyama, Y. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yavari, A.R., E-mail: euronano@minatec.inpg.fr [SIMAP-CNRS, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, BP 75, St. Martin d’Hères 38402 (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Systematic study of compressive behaviors of TiNb based alloys in different states. •Comparison between X-ray diffraction results in reflection and transmission mode. •High melting temperature TiNb based alloys were fabricated by copper mold casting. •Textures of studied alloys are analyzed through synchrotron radiation data. -- Abstract: A series of TiNb(Sn) alloys were synthesized by copper mold suction casting and subjected to different heat treatments (furnace cooling or water quenching). The microstructure, thermal and mechanical properties of the as-cast and heat treated samples were investigated. For the Ti–8.34 at.% Nb alloy, the as-cast and water quenched samples possess martensitic α′′ phase at room temperature and compression tests of these samples show occurrence of shape memory effect. For β phase Ti–25.57 at.% Nb alloys, stress-induced martensitic transformation was found during compression in the as-cast and water quenched samples. For the ternary Ti–25.05 at.%Nb–2.04 at.%Sn alloy, conventional linear elastic behavior was observed. It is shown that the addition of Sn increases the stability of the β phase. The Young’s moduli of these alloys were also measured by ultrasonic measurements. Water-quenched Ti–25.57 at.%Nb alloy was found to exhibit the lowest Young’s modulus value. Sn addition has small impact on the Young’s moduli of the TiNb alloys.

  11. Annealing characteristics of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells irradiated with 1.00 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz, Salman S.; Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous Si:H and amorphous Si sub x, Ge sub (1-x):H solar cells were irradiated with 1.00 MeV proton fluences in the range of 1.00E14 to 1.25E15 cm (exp -2). Annealing of the short circuit current density was studied at 0, 22, 50, 100, and 150 C. Annealing times ranged from an hour to several days. The measurements confirmed that annealing occurs at 0 C and the initial characteristics of the cells are restored by annealing at 200 C. The rate of annealing does not appear to follow a simple nth order reaction rate model. Calculations of the short-circuit current density using quantum efficiency measurements and the standard AM1.5 global spectrum compare favorably with measured values. It is proposed that the degradation in J sub sc with irradiation is due to carrier recombination through the fraction of D (o) states bounded by the quasi-Fermi energies. The time dependence of the rate of annealing of J sub sc does appear to be consistent with the interpretation that there is a thermally activated dispersive transport mechanism which leads to the passivation of the irradiation induced defects.

  12. Development of Mg-based Hydrogen Storage Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys are considered as a promising candidate for hydrogen system because of its lightweight, high storage capacity, low price and rich mineral resources. In detail,we reviewed the preparation and properties of Mg-Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys. All kinds of attempts have been done to improve the hydriding and dehydriding behaviors. It is found that the partial substitution of foreign elements can decrease the hydrogen absorption temperature,especially the substitution of a more electronegative element, such as Al and Mn. Mechanical alloying (MA) and mechanical grinding (MG) are the most effective methods to improve the hydriding/dehydriding kinetics and electrochemical capacity, and decrease the desorption temperature, but the corrosion resistance is so poor that the 80% of maximum capacity is lost within ten cycles. Microencapsulation is a useful measurement for improving the corrosion resistance and electrocatalytic activity. In order to improve the properties of the alloys for practical application, the alloys should have a large number of defects, which give activated sites, subsequently,MA, MG and electroless plating should be used to improve the hydriding/dehydriding kinetics and protect the surface of alloys, respectively. The new composite Mg-based alloys give a new way for the hydrogen storage material to practical application. Furthermore we put forward several problems which will be discussed in future.

  13. Influence of the chemical composition of rapidly quenched amorphous alloys (Ni, Fe, Cr)-B-Si on its crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmanov, G.; Dzhumaev, P.; Ivanitskaya, E.; Skrytnyi, V.; Ruslanov, A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of research of the structure and phase transformations during the multistage crystallization of the metallic glasses with the compositions Ni71,5Cr6,8Fe2,7B11,9Si7,1 and Ni63,4Cr7,4Fe4,3Mn0,8B15,6Si8,5 labeled as AWS BNi-2 according to American Welding Society. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) were used as experimental research methods. The influence of the alloys chemical composition (boron, manganese and iron) on the temperatures and the exothermic heat effects of phase transformations, as well as on the phase composition of alloys at three stages of crystallization was analyzed. We present a thermodynamic explanation of the observed heat effects. It has been shown that manganese has the main influence on the phase transformations temperatures and heat effects in these two alloys. It is also assumed that at the final crystallization stage simultaneously with the formation of phases Ni3B and β1-Ni3Si should occur the nucleation of borides of CrB type with high Cr and low Si content.

  14. Field-emission transmission electron microscopy study of the reaction sequence between Sn–Ag–Cu alloy and an amorphous Pd(P) thin film in microelectronic packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.E., E-mail: ceho1975@hotmail.com; Wang, C.C.; Rahman, M.A.; Lin, Y.C.

    2013-02-01

    The reaction sequence between liquid Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu solder and solid Au/Pd(P)/electrolytic-Ni films was carefully examined using a field-emission transmission electron microscope at different exposure times (15 s, 30 s, and 120 s). After 15 s of exposure, the uppermost layer of Au was removed from the interface and a portion of the Pd(P) film remained. At this stage of the reaction, the predominant products were PdSn{sub 3} and Pd{sub 3}P. After 30 s of exposure, Pd(P) was completely exhausted, and three additional intermetallic species, including Pd–Sn–P, Pd{sub 6}P, and Pd{sub 15}P{sub 2}, nucleated. After 120 s of exposure, the aforementioned species were destroyed, and Cu and Ni were involved in the reaction. The predominant product became (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, and the nucleation of a nanocrystalline Ni{sub 2}SnP layer in the middle of (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} resulted. These results suggest that Pd and P play a vital role in the early stage of soldering reaction, even though the Pd(P) film is only a few submicrons thick and its P content is quite low (2–5%). - Highlights: ► Reaction sequence between an amorphous Pd(P) film and Sn–Ag–Cu alloy. ► Solder reaction assisted the crystallization of amorphous Pd(P) into Pd–P phase(s). ► Direct proof of the Pd(P)-induced Ni{sub 2}SnP nucleation. ► Pd and P both played a central role in the early stage of soldering reaction.

  15. Atomic packing and diffusion in Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 9}P{sub 4} amorphous alloy analyzed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaocen; Takeuchi, Akira; Makino, Akihiro [Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Liang, Yunye [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-07

    In the work reported in this paper, ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was performed on Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 9}P{sub 4} amorphous alloy. Preferred atomic environment of the elements was analyzed with Voronoi polyhedrons. It showed that B and P atoms prefer less neighbors compared with Fe and Si, making them structurally incompatible with Fe rich structure and repulsive to the formation of α-Fe. However, due to the low bonding energy of B and P caused by low coordination number, the diffusion rates of them were considerably large, resulting in the requirement of fast annealing for achieving optimum nano-crystallization for its soft magnetic property. The simulation work also indicates that diffusion rate in amorphous alloy is largely determined by bonding energy rather than atomic size.

  16. In situ X-ray diffraction study of structural evaluation in Fe73Cu1.5Nd3Si13.5B9 amorphous alloy at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamics structural relaxation of Fe73Cu1.5Nd3Si13.5B9 amorphous alloy from room temperature to 400℃ has been investigated by measuring the structure factor with in situ X-ray diffraction. The structural information of the atomic con-figuration such as radial distribution function (RDF) and neighbor atomic distance was gained by Fourier transformation. The research result shows that the amor-phous structure remains stable in the temperature range of 30 to 400℃ but exhibits distinct changes in local atomic configuration with the increase of temperature. The quantitative determination of the neighbor atomic distance suggests that the de-gree of short-range order changes by the temperature altering the second nearest neighbor local atomic configuration of the amorphous when structural relaxation occurs.

  17. In situ X-ray diffraction study of structural evaluation in Fe73Cu1.5Nd3Si13.5B9 amorphous alloy at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gong; Xu, Tao; Gao, Yunpeng; Liu, Riping

    2008-04-01

    The thermodynamics structural relaxation of Fe73Cu1.5Nd3Si13.5B9 amorphous alloy from room temperature to 400°C has been investigated by measuring the structure factor with in situ X-ray diffraction. The structural information of the atomic configuration such as radial distribution function (RDF) and neighbor atomic distance was gained by Fourier transformation. The research result shows that the amorphous structure remains stable in the temperature range of 30 to 400°C but exhibits distinct changes in local atomic configuration with the increase of temperature. The quantitative determination of the neighbor atomic distance suggests that the degree of short-range order changes by the temperature altering the second nearest neighbor local atomic configuration of the amorphous when structural relaxation occurs.

  18. Review of amorphous silicon based particle detectors: the quest for single particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrsch, N.; Ballif, C.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is attractive for radiation detectors because of its radiation resistance and processability over large areas with mature Si microfabrication techniques. While the use of a-Si:H for medical imaging has been very successful, the development of detectors for particle tracking and minimum-ionizing-particle detection has lagged, with almost no practical implementation. This paper reviews the development of various types of a-Si:H-based detectors and discusses their respective achievements and limitations. It also presents more recent developments of detectors that could potentially achieve single particle detection and be integrated in a monolithic fashion into a variety of applications.

  19. Microstructures and oxidation behavior of some Molybdenum based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Pratik Kumar [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Ni based superalloys revolutionized the high temperature alloy industry. These materials are capable of operating in extremely harsh environments, comprising of temperatures around 1050 C, under oxidative conditions. Demands for increased fuel efficiency, however, has highlighted the need for materials that can be used under oxidative conditions at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. The Ni based superalloys are restricted to lower temperatures due to the presence of a number of low melting phases that melt in the 1250 - 1450 C, resulting in softening of the alloys above 1000 C. Therefore, recent research directions have been skewed towards exploring and developing newer alloy systems. This thesis comprises a part of such an effort. Techniques for rapid thermodynamic assessments were developed and applied to two different systems - Mo-Si alloys with transition metal substitutions (and this forms the first part of the thesis) and Ni-Al alloys with added components for providing high temperature strength and ductility. A hierarchical approach towards alloy design indicated the Mo-Ni-Al system as a prospective candidate for high temperature applications. Investigations on microstructures and oxidation behavior, under both isothermal and cyclic conditions, of these alloys constitute the second part of this thesis. It was seen that refractory metal systems show a marked microstructure dependence of oxidation.

  20. Investigation of Sb diffusion in amorphous silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Csik, A.; Langer, G A; Erdelyi, G.; Beke, D. L.; Erdelyi, Z.; Vad, K.

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous silicon materials and its alloys become extensively used in some technical applications involving large area of the microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the amorphous-crystalline transition, segregation and diffusion processes still have numerous unanswered questions. In this work we study the Sb diffusion into an amorphous Si film by means of Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS). Amorphous Si/Si1-xSbx/Si tri-layer samples with 5 at% antimony concentration were...

  1. Super-cooled and amorphous lipid-based colloidal dispersions for the delivery of phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H S; Gupta, R; Smith, K W; van Malssen, K F; Popp, A K; Velikov, K P

    2016-07-01

    Super-cooled and amorphous lipid-based colloids are highly desirable delivery systems because of their ability to encapsulate compounds in a soluble or in a non-crystalline state. In this study, we demonstrate the preparation and characterization of super-cooled and amorphous lipid-based nanoscale colloidal dispersions containing high concentrations of phytosterols (PSs). PSs are highly hydrophobic natural bioactive compounds that are known to significantly reduce blood cholesterol levels in humans, but are insoluble in water and are poorly soluble in common lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAGs). Using the ultrahigh pressure homogenization of pre-heated dispersions, followed by temperature quenching, colloidal dispersions with varying concentrations of PSs in the lipid phase are prepared. Long and medium chain TAGs in combination with a non-ionic surfactant are used. The particle size, morphology and stability are analysed by dynamic and static light scattering, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Rapid temperature quenching enables the formation of stable colloidal dispersions of 10 wt% PSs, more than five times the equilibrium solubility at room temperature. Super-cooled emulsions are formed using liquid TAG, whereas amorphous particles are formed in the case of solid TAG. In both cases, the complete suppression of the crystallization of both PSs and lipids is observed due to the nanoscale confinement. The colloidal dispersions are stable for at least four months. The insights of this work will help understand the colloid formation and particle morphology control in the development of delivery systems for hydrophobic bio-actives such as drugs, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, nutritional and agricultural nanoscale formulations. PMID:27174457

  2. Fundamentals of amorphous solids structure and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stachurski, Zbigniew H

    2014-01-01

    Long awaited, this textbook fills the gap for convincing concepts to describe amorphous solids. Adopting a unique approach, the author develops a framework that lays the foundations for a theory of amorphousness. He unravels the scientific mysteries surrounding the topic, replacing rather vague notions of amorphous materials as disordered crystalline solids with the well-founded concept of ideal amorphous solids. A classification of amorphous materials into inorganic glasses, organic glasses, glassy metallic alloys, and thin films sets the scene for the development of the model of ideal amorph

  3. Electrochemical properties of TiV-based hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云峰; 李锐; 高明霞; 刘永锋; 潘洪革; 王启东

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of the super-stoichiometric TiV-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys(Ti0.8Zr0.2)(V0.533Mn0.107Cr0.16Ni0.2)x(x=2, 3, 4, 5, 6) were studied. It is found by XRD analysis that all the al-loys mainly consist of a C14 Laves phase with hexagonal structure and a V-based solid solution phase with BCCstructure. The lattice parameters and the unit cell volumes of the two phases decrease with increasing x. The cyclelife, the linear polarization, the anode polarization and the electrochemical impedance spectra of the alloy electrodeswere investigated systematically. The overall electrochemical properties of the alloy electrode are found improvedgreatly as the result of super-stoichiometry and get to the best when x= 5.

  4. Hall current sensor IC with integrated Co-based alloy thin film magnetic concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, V.; Marchesi, M.; Chiesi, V.; Paci, D.; Iuliano, P.; Toia, F.; Casoli, F.; Ranzieri, P.; Albertini, F.; Morelli, M.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with a cobalt-based alloy thin film magnetic concentrator (MC) which is fully integrated on a Hall sensor integrated circuit (IC) developed in the 0.35 µm Bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) technology on 8" silicon wafer. An amorphous magnetic film with a thickness of 1µm, coercitive field Hc<10A/m and saturation magnetization (µ0MS) of 0.45T has been obtained with a sputtering process. The Hall sensor IC has shown sensitivity to magnetic field at room temperature of 240V/AT without concentrator and 2550V/AT with concentrator, gaining a factor of 10.5. A current sensor demonstrator has been realized showing linear response in the range -50 to 50A.

  5. Hall current sensor IC with integrated Co-based alloy thin film magnetic concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertini F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a cobalt-based alloy thin film magnetic concentrator (MC which is fully integrated on a Hall sensor integrated circuit (IC developed in the 0.35 µm Bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD technology on 8” silicon wafer. An amorphous magnetic film with a thickness of 1µm, coercitive field Hc<10A/m and saturation magnetization (µ0MS of 0.45T has been obtained with a sputtering process. The Hall sensor IC has shown sensitivity to magnetic field at room temperature of 240V/AT without concentrator and 2550V/AT with concentrator, gaining a factor of 10.5. A current sensor demonstrator has been realized showing linear response in the range -50 to 50A.

  6. Stabilized nanocrystalline iron-based alloys: Guiding efforts in alloy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A regular solution model for solute segregation is capable of estimating the effect of solutes on the stability of nanocrystalline Fe. → Stability increases for solutes having larger heats of segregation. → Zr and Ta had an effect on stabilizing the nanocrystalline microstructure of Fe, while Cr and Ni did not. - Abstract: Using a modified regular solution model for grain boundary solute segregation, the relative thermal stability of a number of Fe-based nanocrystalline binary alloys was predicted with considerable accuracy. It was found that nanocrystalline iron was strongly stabilized by zirconium, moderately stabilized by tantalum, and not significantly stabilized by nickel or chromium. These findings are fully in line with the aforementioned predictions. This success with iron based alloys highlights the utility of this practical approach to selecting stabilizing solutes for nanocrystalline alloys.

  7. Incorporation of Refractory Metals into Niobium Base Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni-Zdziobek, A.; Driole, J.; Durand, Franck; Durand, F.

    1995-01-01

    Niobium-based alloys with additions such as Al, Ti and Mo were prepared in an inductive cold crucible. A process route was established to provide homogeneous ingots. Key ideas concerning the application of inductive cold crucible to preparation of refractory alloys are brought out. A model is proposed to explain and quantify the experimental observations, which couples the diffusive and convective heat transfers and the heat of mixing involved.

  8. Microstructural Characterization and Wear Properties of Fe-Based Amorphous-Crystalline Coating Deposited by Twin Wire Arc Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arizmendi-Morquecho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin wire arc spraying (TWAS was used to produce an amorphous crystalline Fe-based coating on AISI 1018 steel substrate using a commercial powder (140MXC in order to improve microhardness and wear properties. The microstructures of coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM as well as the powder precursor. Analysis in the coating showed the formation of an amorphous matrix with boron and tungsten carbides randomly dispersed. At high amplifications were identified boron carbides at interface boron carbide/amorphous matrix by TEM. This kind of carbides growth can be attributed to partial crystallization by heterogeneous nucleation. These interfaces have not been reported in the literature by thermal spraying process. The measurements of average microhardness on amorphous matrix and boron carbides were 9.1 and 23.85 GPa, respectively. By contrast, the microhardness values of unmelted boron carbide in the amorphous phase were higher than in the substrate, approaching 2.14 GPa. The relative wear resistance of coating was 5.6 times that of substrate. These results indicate that the twin wire arc spraying is a promising technique to prepare amorphous crystalline coatings.

  9. Investigation of amorphous RuMoC alloy films as a seedless diffusion barrier for Cu/p-SiOC:H ultralow-k dielectric integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Guohua [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Liu, Bo [Sichuan University, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Chengdu (China); Li, Qiran [CNRS-Universite Paris Sud UMR 8622, Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Orsay (France)

    2015-08-15

    Ultrathin RuMoC amorphous films prepared by magnetron co-sputtering with Ru and MoC targets in a sandwiched scheme Si/p-SiOC:H/RuMoC/Cu were investigated as barrier in copper metallization. The evolution of final microstructure of RuMoC alloy films show sensitive correlation with the content of doped Mo and C elements and can be easily controlled by adjusting the sputtering power of the MoC target. There was no signal of interdiffusion between the Cu and SiOC:H layer in the sample of Cu/RuMoC/p-SiOC:H/Si, even annealing up to 500 C. Very weak signal of oxygen have been confirmed in the RuMoC barrier layer both as-deposited and after being annealed, and a good performance on preventing oxygen diffusion has been proved. Leakage current and resistivity evaluations also reveal the excellent thermal reliability of this Si/p-SiOC:H/RuMoC/Cu film stack at the temperatures up to 500 C, indicating its potential application in the advanced barrierless Cu metallization. (orig.)

  10. Urchin-Like Amorphous Ni2B Alloys: Efficient Antibacterial Materials and Catalysts for Hydrous Hydrazine Decomposition to Produce H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Miao; Fu, Shi Yan; Yang, Fan; Wu, Ping; Tong, Dong Ge

    2016-03-01

    Urchin-like amorphous Ni2B alloys were successfully prepared for the first time from a mixture of Ni(NH3)6(2+) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) via a solution plasma process (SPP). The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), selected-area electron diffraction patterns (SAED) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. In the performance test, the obtained Ni-B urchins showed great antibacterial activities, comparable with those of amikacin and kanamycin, especially towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Meanwhile, the magnetic properties of Ni-B urchins are enhanced in comparison with those of conventional Ni-B. During hydrous hydrazine (N2H4) decomposition, the dehydrogenation performance of Ni-B urchins is superior to those of Raney Ni and conventional Ni-B. The enhanced catalytic performance of Ni-B urchins is attributed to their high surface area of active species nickel and the enhanced intrinsic activity resulting from their unique structure. PMID:27455647

  11. Mechanical spectroscopy study on the Cu{sub 54}Zr{sub 40}Al{sub 6} amorphous matrix alloy at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, P.W.B., E-mail: paulowilmar@df.ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, CP-676, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Chaves, J.M.; Silva, P.S.; Florêncio, O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, CP-676, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moreno-Gobbi, A. [Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias (UDELAR), Iguá 4225, CEP 11400 Montevideo (Uruguay); Aliaga, L.C.R.; Botta, W.J. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, CP-676, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 54}Zr{sub 40}Al{sub 6} alloy was characterized by mechanical spectroscopy at low temperature. • Flexural and ultrasonic methods showed peaks associated to rearrangement of clusters. • The peaks less stable were associated with annihilation of Zr or Cu clusters. • MHz range can be favors the formation of Cu an Al-centered icosahedral structures. • TEM images show an increase in the size and number of crystal in amorphous matrix. - Abstract: A mechanical spectroscopy study of Cu{sub 54}Zr{sub 40}Al{sub 6} bulk metallic glasses composites was carried out in the kHz and MHz frequency ranges, by means of flexural and ultrasonic methods, respectively, in the temperature interval 150–300 K. In internal friction and attenuation curves at low temperature were observed peaks which were associated with distortions in the configuration of atomic clusters, which absorbed different quantities of energy due to short and medium order rearrangements. Changes within the clusters or atomic jumps between clusters occurring in the specimen induced the onset of polyamorphic peaks, since electronic interactions and bonding changed abruptly.

  12. Magnetic and Electrical Characteristics of Cobalt-Based Amorphous Materials and Comparison to a Permalloy Type Polycrystalline Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieserman, William R.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic component designers are always looking for improved soft magnetic core materials to increase the efficiency, temperature rating and power density of transformers, motors, generators and alternators, and energy density of inductors. In this paper, we report on the experimental investigation of commercially available cobalt-based amorphous alloys which, in their processing, were subjected to two different types of magnetic field anneals: A longitudinal magnetic field anneal or a transverse magnetic field anneal. The longitudinal field annealed material investigated was Metglas 2714A. The electrical and magnetic characteristics of this material were investigated over the frequency range of 1 to 200 kHz and temperature range of 23 to 150 C for both sine and square wave voltage excitation. The specific core loss was lower for the square than the sine wave voltage excitation for the same maximum flux density, frequency and temperature. The transverse magnetic field annealed core materials include Metglas 2714AF and Vacuumschmelze 6025F. These two materials were experimentally characterized over the frequency range of 10 to 200 kHz for sine wave voltage excitation and 23 C only. A comparison of the 2174A to 2714AF found that 2714AF always had lower specific core loss than 2714A for any given magnetic flux density and frequency and the ratio of specific core loss of 2714A to 2714AF was dependent on both magnetic flux density and frequency. A comparison was also made of the 2714A, 2714AF, and 6025F materials to two different tape thicknesses of the polycrystalline Supermalloy material and the results show that 2714AF and 6025F have the lowest specific core loss at 100 kHz over the magnetic flux density range of 0.1 to 0.4 Tesla.

  13. Effect of Annealing on Rare Earth Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth-based hydrogen storage alloy used as negative electrode materials for nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries are used commercially.The effect of annealing treatment with different annealing temperature and time on the MLNi3.68 Co0.78 Mn0.35 Al0.27 and MMNi3.55 Co0.75 Mn0.40 Al0.30 alloys were investigated.The crystal microstructure,pressure-composition-isotherms (p-C-T) and electrochemical properties of alloys were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), automatic PCI monitoring system and electrical performance testing instruments.The optimum annealing treatment conditions of two kinds of alloys were determined.

  14. Laser cladding of Ni-based alloy on stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chun-fang; TIAN Xin-li; TAN Yong-sheng; WU Zhi-yuan

    2004-01-01

    The coatings on a stainless steel substrate were conducted by laser cladding of Ni-based alloy, using a 5 kW continuous wave CO2 flow transverse laser. SEM, EDX and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the microstructure and constituent phases of the obtained coatings by laser cladding with direct injection of the powder into the melt pool. Solidification planar, cellular and dendrite structures were observed in Ni-based alloy coating. There exists an optimum metallurgical bond between Ni-based laser cladding layer and the base material. The high hardness of the Ni-based alloy coating is attributed to the presence of M7C3-type carbides (essentially chromium-riched carbide) dispersed in the γ(Ni,Fe) phase matrix.

  15. Crystallization Kinetics of Fe76.5- x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x ( x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) Bulk Amorphous Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Yun; Stoica, Mihai; Yi, Seonghoon; Kim, Do Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The influence of Cu on crystallization kinetics of Fe76.5- x C6.0Si3.3B5.5P8.7Cu x ( x = 0, 0.5, and 1 at. pct) bulk amorphous alloys was investigated by isothermal and isochronal differential scanning calorimetry combined with X-ray diffraction. The thermal analysis revealed that the crystallization of the amorphous matrix proceeds through at least two exothermic events. The Cu-free glassy alloy forms by primary crystallization the metastable Fe23C6 phase, while upon 0.5 at. pct Cu addition the primary crystallized phase is α-Fe. The activation energy for crystallization, calculated using both Kissinger and Ozawa methods, decreases from about 500 kJ/mol to about 330 kJ/mol. Further increase of Cu addition to 1 at. pct promotes the concomitant crystallization of several phases, as α-Fe, FeB, Fe3C, and Fe2P. In order to understand the crystallization behavior of the alloys as a function of Cu content, the Avrami exponent n, evaluated from the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation, was in details analyzed. The current study reveals that the minor Cu addition plays a crucial role at the initial stage of the crystallization. Among the studied alloys, the glassy samples with 0.5 at. pct Cu addition have the optimum compositional condition for the single α-Fe formation with a high nucleation rate.

  16. Amorphous Ni-B alloy nanoparticle film on Ni foam: rapid alternately dipping deposition for efficient overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanhui; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M.; He, Yuquan

    2016-03-01

    It is highly attractive, but still remains challenging, to develop noble metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts efficient for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media. In this letter, we describe the rapid electroless deposition of amorphous Ni-B nanoparticle film on Ni foam (Ni-B/Ni foam) by alternative dipping of Ni foam into Ni precursor and reducing solutions. This Ni-B/Ni foam acts as an efficient and durable 3D catalytic electrode for water splitting, affording 100 mA cm-2 at 360 mV overpotential for the OER and 20 mA cm-2 at 125 mV overpotential for the HER in 1.0 M KOH, and its two-electrode electrolyzer demands a cell voltage of 1.69 V to afford 15 mA cm-2 water-splitting current. Moreover, the catalyst loading can be easily tuned and this alternately dipping deposition technique works universally for other conductive substrates.

  17. New Zr-based glass-forming alloys containing Gd and Sm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis César Rodríguez Aliaga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of minor additions of Gd and Sm on the glass-forming ability (GFA of Cu-Zr-Al alloys is investigated here. The rationale for these additions is the fact that the atomic size distribution can increase GFA by changing the topology of the alloy as a function of cluster stability, which is tied to the electronegativity and ionic and covalent nature of alloys. Ingots with nominal compositions of Cu40Zr49Al10.5Gd0.5, Cu40Zr49Al10.5Sm0.5 and Cu39Zr50Al9Gd2 were prepared by arc-melting and rapidly quenched ribbons were produced by the melt-spinning technique. Bulk samples with a thickness of up to 10 mm were also produced by casting, using a wedge-shaped copper mold. The samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The three compositions showed a fully amorphous structure in the ribbons and a predominantly homogeneous amorphous structure with a thickness of up to 10 mm, although some gadolinium oxide crystals as well as samarium compounds were found to be scattered in the amorphous matrix in 5-mm-thick samples. The amorphous phases in the alloys showed high thermal stability with a supercooled liquid region (ΔTx of about 70 K.

  18. Phase selection and nanocrystallization in Cu-free soft magnetic FeSiNbB amorphous alloy upon rapid annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsdorf, L.; Pradeep, K. G.; Herzer, G.; Kovács, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Povstugar, I.; Konygin, G.; Choi, P.; Raabe, D.

    2016-03-01

    Nucleation of soft magnetic Fe3Si nanocrystals in Cu-free Fe74.5Si15.5Nb3B7 alloy, upon rapid (10 s) and conventional (30 min) annealing, was investigated using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography. By employing rapid annealing, preferential nucleation of Fe3Si nanocrystals was achieved, whereas otherwise there is simultaneous nucleation of both Fe3Si and undesired Fe-B compound phases. Analysis revealed that the enhanced Nb diffusivity, achieved during rapid annealing, facilitates homogeneous nucleation of Fe3Si nanocrystals while shifting the secondary Fe-B crystallization to higher temperatures resulting in pure soft magnetic nanocrystallization with very low coercivities of ˜10 A/m.

  19. Amorphous silicon based p-i-i-n photodetectors for point-of-care testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furin, Dominik; Proll, Guenther; Gauglitz, Guenther [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Thielmann, Johannes; Harendt, Christine [Institut fuer Mikroelektronik Stuttgart, Allmandring 30a, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Pfaefflin, Albrecht; Schleicher, Erwin [Universitaetsklinikum und Medizinische Fakultaet, Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Geissweg 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Schubert, Markus B. [Institut fuer Physikalische Elektronik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 47, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Saemann, Marc

    2010-04-15

    Modern medical diagnostics demands point-of-care testing (POCT) systems for quick tests in clinical or out-patient environments. This investigation combines the Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS) with thin film technology for a highly sensitive, direct optical and label-free detection of proteins, e.g. inflammation or cardiovascular markers. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film photodetectors replace the so far needed spectrometer and permit downsizing of the POCT system. Photodetectors with p-i-i-n structure adjust their spectral sensitivity according to the applied read-out voltage. The use of amorphous silicon carbide in the p-type and the first intrinsic layer enhances the sensitivity through very low dark currents of the photodetectors and enables the adjustment of their absorption characteristics. Integrating the thin film photodetectors on the rear side of the RIfS substrate eliminates optical losses and distortions, as compared to the standard RIfS setup. An integrated Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip performs a current-frequency conversion to accurately detect the photocurrent of up to eight parallel photodetector channels. In addition to the optimization of the photo-detectors, this contribution presents first successful direct optical and label-free RIfS measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer in buffer solution in physiological relevant concentrations. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based TFTs for transparent electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jun Ha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the origin of visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin film transistors (oxide-TFTs for transparent electronics by exploring the shift in threshold voltage (Vth. A large hysteresis window in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO TFTs possessing large optical band-gap (≈3 eV was observed in a visible-light illuminated condition whereas no hysteresis window was shown in a dark measuring condition. We also report the instability caused by photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress in oxide-TFTs. Larger Vth shift was observed after photo-induced stress combined with a negative gate bias than the sum of that after only illumination stress and only negative gate bias stress. Such results can be explained by trapped charges at the interface of semiconductor/dielectric and/or in the gate dielectric which play a role in a screen effect on the electric field applied by gate voltage, for which we propose that the localized-states-assisted transitions by visible-light absorption can be responsible.

  1. Effect of Minor Alloying on Crystallization Behavior and Thermal Properties of Zr64.5Ni15.5Al11.5Cu8.5 Bulk Amorphous Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Iqbal; Javed Iqbal Akhter; Haifeng Zhang; Zhuangqi Hu

    2011-01-01

    Minor alloying plays an important role in the synthesis and improvement of thermal stability of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of minor additions of Y, Ti and Nb on the crystallization behavior and the thermal properties of Zr64.5Ni15.5Al11.5Cu8.5 alloy. Thermal parameters and the activation energies for crystallization were calculated for four (Zr0.645Ni0.155Al0.115-Cu0.085)100-xMx (M=Y, Ti and Nb, while x=0, 2 at.%) alloys. The present alloys have wide supercooled liquid region of ≥87K. Maximum activation energy was found to be greater than 300 k J/mol for the base alloy. Four crystalline phases were identified in the samples annealed at 823 K for 20 min. Reduced glass transition temperature (Trg) and other thermal parameters such as γ, δ and /β were improved by Y and Ti addition. Nb addition resists crystallization below annealing temperature 713 K, however, its effect on thermal properties is not very promising.

  2. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    The infrastructure for transportation in the United States allows for a high level of mobility and freight activity for the current population of 300 million residents, and several million business establishments. According to a Department of Transportation study, more than 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroads cars were used on 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways in 1998. Pipelines and storage tanks were considered to be part of this deteriorating infrastructure. The annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category was estimated to be approximately $22.6 billion in 1998. There were 583,000 bridges in the United States in 1998. Of this total, 200,000 bridges were steel, 235,000 were conventional reinforced concrete, 108,000 bridges were constructed using pre-stressed concrete, and the balance was made using other materials of construction. Approximately 15 percent of the bridges accounted for at this point in time were structurally deficient, primarily due to corrosion of steel and steel reinforcement. Iron-based amorphous metals, including SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been developed, and have very good corrosion resistance. These materials have been prepared as a melt-spun ribbons, as well as gas atomized powders and thermal-spray coatings. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stabilities of these materials were found to be comparable to that of more expensive high-performance alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. These materials also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation

  3. Development of an amorphous selenium-based photodetector driven by a diamond cold cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Saito, Ichitaro; Yamada, Takatoshi; Onishi, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Suzuki, Yu; Oonuki, Kousuke; Kato, Nanako; Ogawa, Shuichi; Takakuwa, Yuji; Koh, Angel T T; Chua, Daniel H C; Mori, Yusuke; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Okano, Ken

    2013-10-11

    Amorphous-selenium (a-Se) based photodetectors are promising candidates for imaging devices, due to their high spatial resolution and response speed, as well as extremely high sensitivity enhanced by an internal carrier multiplication. In addition, a-Se is reported to show sensitivity against wide variety of wavelengths, including visible, UV and X-ray, where a-Se based flat-panel X-ray detector was proposed. In order to develop an ultra high-sensitivity photodetector with a wide detectable wavelength range, a photodetector was fabricated using a-Se photoconductor and a nitrogen-doped diamond cold cathode. In the study, a prototype photodetector has been developed, and its response to visible and ultraviolet light are characterized.

  4. Development of an Amorphous Selenium-Based Photodetector Driven by a Diamond Cold Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Shimosawa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous-selenium (a-Se based photodetectors are promising candidates for imaging devices, due to their high spatial resolution and response speed, as well as extremely high sensitivity enhanced by an internal carrier multiplication. In addition, a-Se is reported to show sensitivity against wide variety of wavelengths, including visible, UV and X-ray, where a-Se based flat-panel X-ray detector was proposed. In order to develop an ultra high-sensitivity photodetector with a wide detectable wavelength range, a photodetector was fabricated using a-Se photoconductor and a nitrogen-doped diamond cold cathode. In the study, a prototype photodetector has been developed, and its response to visible and ultraviolet light are characterized.

  5. Tunnel Magnetoresistance and Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching in Polycrystalline Co2FeAl Full-Heusler-Alloy Magnetic Tunnel Junctions on Amorphous Si /SiO2 Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenchao; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Kasai, Shinya; Inomata, Koichiro; Mitani, Seiji

    2014-08-01

    We study polycrystalline B2-type Co2FeAl (CFA) full-Heusler-alloy-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) fabricated on a Si /SiO2 amorphous substrate. Polycrystalline CFA films with a (001) orientation, a high B2 ordering, and a flat surface are achieved by using a MgO buffer layer. A tunnel magnetoresistance ratio up to 175% is obtained for a MTJ with a CFA /MgO/CoFe structure on a 7.5-nm-thick MgO buffer. Spin-transfer-torque-induced magnetization switching is achieved in the MTJs with a 2-nm-thick polycrystalline CFA film as a switching layer. By using a thermal activation model, the intrinsic critical current density (Jc0) is determined to be 8.2×106 A /cm2, which is lower than 2.9×107 A /cm2, the value for epitaxial CFA MTJs [Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 182403 (2012), 10.1063/1.4710521]. We find that the Gilbert damping constant (α) evaluated by using ferromagnetic resonance measurements for the polycrystalline CFA film is approximately 0.015 and is almost independent of the CFA thickness (2-18 nm). The low Jc0 for the polycrystalline MTJ is mainly attributed to the low α of the CFA layer compared with the value in the epitaxial one (approximately 0.04).

  6. Preparation and characterization of a ferrimagnetic amorphous alloy of GdCo entering the design of magnetic tunnel junctions: ionizing radiations hardness of magnetic tunnel junctions; preparation et caracterisation d'un alliage amorphe ferrimagnetique de GdCo entrant dans la conception de jonctions tunnel magnetiques. Resistance des jonctions tunnel magnetiques aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conraux, Y

    2005-10-15

    The magnetic random access memories (MRAM) are on the way to supplant the other forms of random access memories using the states of electric charge, and this thanks to their many technical advantages: not-volatility, speed, low consumption power, robustness. Also, the MRAM are alleged insensitive with the ionizing radiations, which was not checked in experiments until now. The current architecture of the MRAM is based on the use of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ). These MRAM can present an important disadvantage, because they are likely of present errors of addressing, in particular when integration (density of memory cells) is increasingly thorough. The work undertaken during this thesis relates to these two points: - to check the functional reliability of the MRAM containing JTM exposed to high energy ionizing radiations; - to study a ferrimagnetic amorphous alloy, GdCo, likely to enter the composition of JTM and allowing to free from the possible errors of addressing by a process of thermal inhibition of the memory cells. This work of thesis showed that the MRAM containing JTM preserve their functional properties fully when they are subjected to intense ionizing radiations, and that GdCo is a very interesting material from the point of view of the solid state physics and magnetism, that its physical properties are very promising as for its applications, and that its integration in a JTM still claims technological developments. (author)

  7. Characterization of the microstructure in Mg based alloy

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T

    2013-06-01

    The cast products Mg–Sn based alloys are promising candidates for automobile industries, since they provide a cheap yet thermally stable alternative to existing alloys. One drawback of the Mg–Sn based alloys is their insufficient hardness. The hardenability can be improved by engineering the microstructure through additions of Zn to the base alloy and selective aging conditions. Therefore, detailed knowledge about the microstructural characteristics and the role of Zn to promote precipitation hardening is essential for age hardenable Mg-based alloys. In this work, microstructural investigation of the Mg–1.4Sn–1.3Zn–0.1Mn (at.%) precipitation system was performed using TEM. The chemical composition of the precipitates was analyzed using EDS. APT was employed to obtain precise chemical information on the distribution of Zn in the microstructure. It was found from microstructural studies that different precipitates with varying sizes and phases were present; lath-shaped precipitates of the Mg2Sn phase have an incoherent interface with the matrix, unlike the lath-shaped MgZn2 precipitates. Furthermore, nano-sized precipitates dispersed in the microstructure with short-lath morphology can either be enriched with Sn or Zn. On the other hand, APT analysis revealed the strong repulsion between Sn and Zn atoms in a portion of the analysis volume. However, larger reconstruction volume required to identify the role of Zn is still limited to the optimization of specimen preparation.

  8. Hydrogen absorption study of Ti-based alloys performed by melt-spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, R.M.; Lemus, L.F.; Santos, D.S. dos, E-mail: rafaella@metalmat.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEMM/COPPEP/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    The hydrogen absorption and desorption of Ti{sub 53}Zr{sub 27}Ni{sub 20} icosahedral quasicrystal (ICQ) and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} shape memory alloy (SMA) melt-spun ribbons was studied. Samples were exposed to hydrogen gas at 623 K and 4 MPa for 1000 minutes. The total capacity of hydrogen obtained for Ti{sub 53}Zr{sub 27}Ni{sub 20} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} was 3.2 and 2.4 wt. % respectively. The Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS) of the hydrogenated alloys shows that both alloys start to desorb hydrogen around 750 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, performed after hydrogenation, indicate a complete amorphization of the Ti{sub 53}Zr{sub 27}Ni{sub 20} i-phase alloy, while the Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} alloy remained crystalline after hydride formation. (author)

  9. An investigation on hydrogen storage kinetics of nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (x = 0-0.4) alloy prepared by melt spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yanghuan, E-mail: zyh59@yahoo.com.cn [Elected State Key Laboratory, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Li Baowei; Ren Huipin [Elected State Key Laboratory, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Ding Xiaoxia; Liu Xiaogang; Chen Lele [Elected State Key Laboratory, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-02-10

    Research highlights: > The investigation of the structures of the Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) alloys indicates that a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure can be obtained in the experiment alloys by melt spinning technology. The substitution of Co for Ni facilitates the glass formation in the Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloy. And the amorphization degree of the alloys visibly increases with increasing Co content. > Both the melt spinning and Co substitution significantly improve the hydrogen storage kinetics of the alloys. The hydrogen absorption saturation ratio (R{sub t}{sup a}) and hydrogen desorption ratio (R{sub t}{sup d}) as well as the high rate discharge ability (HRD) increase with rising spinning rate and Co content. The hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D), the Tafel polarization curves and the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements show that the electrochemical kinetics notably increases with rising spinning rate and Co content. > Furthermore, all the as-spun alloys, when the spinning rate reaches to 30 m/s, have nearly same hydrogen absorption kinetics, indicating that the hydrogen absorption kinetics of the as-spun alloy is predominately controlled by diffusion ability of hydrogen atoms. - Abstract: In order to improve the hydrogen storage kinetics of the Mg{sub 2}Ni-type alloys, Ni in the alloy was partially substituted by element Co, and melt-spinning technology was used for the preparation of the Mg{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) hydrogen storage alloys. The structures of the as-cast and spun alloys are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of the alloys were measured by an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus. The electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics of the as-spun alloys is tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. The hydrogen diffusion coefficients in the alloys are calculated by virtue of potential-step method. The

  10. High mechanical endurance RRAM based on amorphous gadolinium oxide for flexible nonvolatile memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbin; Tu, Hailing; Wei, Feng; Shi, Zhitian; Xiong, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Du, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we use amorphous Gd2O3 as the switching layer for fabricated RRAM devices with novel high performance, excellent flexibility, and mechanical endurance properties as potential candidate memory for flexible electronics applications. The obtained Cu/Gd2O3/Pt devices on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates show bipolar switching characteristics, low voltage operation (106 s). No performance degradation occurs, and the stored information is not lost after the device has been bent to different angles and up to 104 times in the bending tests. Based on temperature-dependent switching characteristics, the formation of Cu conducting filaments stemming from electrochemical reactions is believed to be the reason for the resistance switching from a high resistance state to a low resistance state. The studies of the integrated experiment and mechanism lay the foundation for the development of high-performance flexible RRAM.

  11. Magnetic properties and loss separation in Fe{sub 76−x}Ag{sub x}Nb{sub 2}Si{sub 13}B{sub 9} amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokłosa, Z., E-mail: zbigniew.stoklosa@us.edu.pl; Kwapuliński, P.; Rasek, J.; Haneczok, G.; Kubisztal, M.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Soft magnetic properties can be optimized by applying a suitable heat treatment. • Low field magnetic permeability of the optimized samples increases about 10 times. • Total magnetic loss of the optimized samples decreases at least 10 times. • Plasticity is much higher than that reported for similar nanocrystalline alloys. • Observed effects are attributed to formation of the relaxed amorphous phase. - Abstract: Some selected properties (magnetic, plastic, elastic) in amorphous Fe{sub 76−x}Ag{sub x}Nb{sub 2}Si{sub 13}B{sub 9} (x = 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) alloys, obtained by melt spinning technique, are presented and discussed in detail. It was shown that a suitable heat treatment of the as quenched samples (i.e. the optimization annealing) leads to a significant improvement of soft magnetic properties (permeability increases at least 10 times). The observed effect is attributed to formation of the so-called relaxed amorphous phase free of iron nanograins. Special attention is paid for loss separation into different components: hysteresis loss, eddy-current loss and residual loss. The latter effect can be attributed to diffusion of free volume and practically disappear after the optimization annealing.

  12. Strain heterogeneity and the production of coarse grains in mechanically alloyed iron-based PM2000 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevila, Carlos; Miller, U; Jelenak, H; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanically alloyed iron-based ODS alloys have the potential for application in heat exchangers for biomass processing, with gas operating temperatures and pressures of approximately 1100°C and 15–30 bar. The yttria dispersion in such alloys improves the high-temperature creep and stress rupture life. The elevated temperature strength is enhanced by the development of a coarse-grained microstructure during recrystallisation. Factors controlling the evolution of this desirable micros...

  13. Recrystallization characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotzler, R. K.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microscopy was employed to study the process of recrystallization in two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) mechanically alloyed nickel-base alloys, MA 754 and MA 6000E. MA 754 contained both fine, uniformly dispersed particles and coarser oxides aligned along the working direction. Hot rolled MA 754 had a grain size of 0.5 microns and high dislocation densities. After partial primary recrystallization, the fine grains transformed to large elongated grains via secondary (or abnormal) grain growth. Extruded and rolled MA 6000E contained equiaxed grains of 0.2 micron diameter. Primary recrystallization occurring during working eliminated virtually all dislocations. Conversion from fine to coarse grains was triggered by gamma prime dissolution; this was also a process of secondary or abnormal grain growth. Comparisons were made to conventional and oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys.

  14. Cr{sub 2}Nb-based alloy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Horton, J.A.; Easton, D.S.; Heatherly, L.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a new generation of structural materials based on intermetallic alloys for use at high temperatures in advanced fossil energy conversion systems. Target applications of such ultrahigh strength alloys include hot components (for example, air heat exchangers) in advanced energy conversion systems and heat engines. However, these materials may also find use as wear-resistant parts in coal handling systems (for example, nozzles), drill bits for oil/gas wells, and valve guides in diesel engines. One potential class of such alloys is that based on Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloys. The intermetallic phase, Cr{sub 2}Nb, with a complex cubic structure (C-15) has been selected for initial development because of its high melting point (1770{degrees}C), relatively low material density (7.7 g/cm{sup 2}), and excellent high-temperature strength (at 1000 to 1250{degrees}C). This intermetallic phase, like many other Laves phases, has a wide range of compositional homogeneity suggesting the possibility of improving its mechanical and metallurgical properties by alloying additions.

  15. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  16. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., 2000 Aluminum Dr., Columbia Falls, MT 59912 (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., P.O. Box 1071, Anaconda, MT 59711 (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{sup TM} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast. (orig.) 18 refs.

  17. Weldability and Microstructure of Nickel-Silicon Based Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing-cai; LIU Yi; YANG Jian; J.W.Newkirk; ZHANG Shan-hong

    2006-01-01

    The NiSix based alloy typically has poor weldability due to its lower ductility. A limited amount of work has been performed on the weldability of NiSix based alloys. Therefore, the effect of heat treatment and welding parameters on weldability of the alloys, and the relationship between the weldability and microstructure were studied. The results show that the as-cast Ni-Si-Nb-B alloy (Ni 76.5%, Si 20%, Nb 3%, and B 0.5%) could be successfully welded after preheating at 600 ℃. The welding procedure should be performed on the alloys before any heat treatment and a preheating at 600 ℃ should be used. The fusion zone is harder than the matrix due to a large amount of γ phase and a finer microstructure. The cracks are predominantly intergranular in heat affected zone and associated with the needle-like γ phase. The heat treatment before welding increases the tendency of cracking in the fusion zone.

  18. Solid solution or amorphous phase formation in TiZr-based ternary to quinternary multi-principal-element films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Braic

    2014-08-01

    The deposited films exhibited only solid solution (fcc, bcc or hcp or amorphous phases, no intermetallic components being detected. It was found that the hcp structure was stabilized by the presence of Hf or Y, bcc by Nb or Al and fcc by Cu. For the investigated films, the atomic size difference, mixing enthalpy, mixing entropy, Gibbs free energy of mixing and the electronegativity difference for solid solution and amorphous phases were calculated based on Miedema׳s approach of the regular solution model. It was shown that the atomic size difference and the ratio between the Gibbs free energies of mixing of the solid solution and amorphous phases were the most significant parameters controlling the film crystallinity.

  19. On the dynamics of the reentrant spin-glass state of the Fe100-xZrx (x = 9, 10) amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, P. R. T.; Machado, F. L. A.; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2015-05-01

    Low temperature magnetization (M) and ac susceptibility (χac) data were used to investigate the reentrant spin-glass state in lengths of melt-spun ribbons of Fe100-xZrx (x = 9, 10) amorphous alloys. The temperature range investigated was from 2 to 300 K, while the applied magnetic field H was varied in the range of ±85 kOe. The magnetic properties were found to be strongly influenced by the sample composition despite the fact that the amount of Fe varies by 1 at. %. For instance, the Curie temperature (TC) is reduced from 232.5 K to 213.0 K with decreasing Fe concentration, while M for the lower Fe concentration, measured at the highest applied magnetic field (H = 85 kOe) was nearly double the value for that of the higher; the coercivity in the ferromagnetic regime is reduced by a factor close to five when x is increased from 9 at. % to 10 at. %. The ac susceptibility measured for frequencies f in the range of 10-104 Hz showed a sharp drop in the magnitude of the in-phase contribution ( χa c ' ) and a peak at the out-of-phase component ( χa c ″ ), which shifts to higher temperatures with increasing values of f. The Voguel-Fulcher law applied to the χa c ″ data yielded an activation energy Ea/kB = 21.3 K (40.1 K), the glassy temperature TG = 15.5 K (38.2 K), and a relaxation time τ 0 = 9.1 × 10 - 7 s ( 8.3 × 10 - 7 s ) , for the sample with x = 10 (x = 9). A plot of χa c ″ vs χa c ' for a broad range of T and f yielded a broad maximum near the glassy temperature TG for both sample concentrations.

  20. Microfluidic platforms for gallium-based liquid metal alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyoung

    As an alternative to toxic mercury, non-toxic gallium-based liquid metal alloy has been gaining popularity due to its higher thermal and electrical conductivities, and low toxicity along with liquid property. However, it is difficult to handle as the alloy becomes readily oxidized in atmospheric air environment. This instant oxidation causes the gallium-based liquid metal alloy to wet almost any solid surface. Therefore, it has been primarily limited to applications which rely only on its deformability, not on its mobility. In this research, various approaches to mobilize gallium-based liquid metal alloy were investigated. Multi-scale surface patterned with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro pillar array showed super-lyophobic property against gallium-based liquid metal alloy by minimizing the contact area between the solid surface and the liquid metal, and it was expanded to a three-dimensional tunnel shaped microfluidic channel. Vertically-aligned carbon nanotube forest leads to another promising super-lyophobic surface due to its hierarchical micro/nano scale combined structures and chemical inertness. When the carbon nanotubes were transferred onto flexible PDMS by imprinting, the super-lyophobic property was still maintained even under the mechanical deformation such as stretching and bending. Alternatively, the gallium-based liquid metal can be manipulated by modifying the surface of liquid metal itself. With chemical reaction with HCl 'vapor', the oxidized surface (mainly Ga2O3/Ga2O) of gallium-based liquid metal was converted to GaCl3/InCl 3 resulting in the recovery of non-wetting characteristics. Paper which is intrinsically porous is attractive as a super-lyophobic surface and it was found that hydrochloric acid (HCl) impregnation enhanced the anti-wetting property by the chemical reaction. As another alternative method, by coating the viscoelastic oxidized surface of liquid metal with ferromagnetic materials (CoNiMnP or Fe), it showed non