WorldWideScience

Sample records for baseball

  1. Quantum Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ivars

    1989-01-01

    An analogy from the game of baseball can be used to examine the philosophy involved in statistics surrounding quantum mechanical events. The "Strong Baseball Principle" is proposed and discussed. (CW)

  2. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Safety Tips: Baseball KidsHealth > For Parents > Safety Tips: Baseball ... sport, and it's fun. View Survey Why Baseball Safety Is Important Baseball is by no means a ...

  3. Mathematics in Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of 13 activities to explore the mathematics of baseball. Activities examine the numerical measures of player statistics and team standings and the geometry of baseball. Discusses the use of computer spreadsheets and LOGO computer simulations to study the concepts embodied in the activities. (MDH)

  4. Baseball Sans Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADAM; FEENEY

    2006-01-01

    If anyone needs a reminder that the word "fan" is merely the short form of "fanatic," they need only observe me watching baseball on the Internet. No, I'm not talking about a webcast with images of the game actually being played. My falsely advertised "DSL" Internet connection isn't fast enough for that. Instead, on balmy summer evenings

  5. Physics of Baseball & Softball

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the physics of baseball and softball, assuming that the reader has a background in both physics and mathematics at the high school level. The physics is explained in a conversational style, and illustrated with experimental results obtained both in the laboratory and in the field. Simple equations are also used in order to model the experimental results and to test whether the explanations are actually valid. The subject matter provides an excellent opportunity to explain physics in an interesting manner, given the universal popularity of baseball and softball as pastimes. There is also the interaction between a bat and ball, which is a classic problem in physics involving large forces, short time intervals, momentum, and energy transfer, vibration, rotation, and the different physical properties of the wood (or aluminum) of the bat, and the ball. The flight of the ball through the air is another fascinating example of physics in action, involving the effects of gravity, air resistance and...

  6. Baseball and Canadian Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, William

    2005-01-01

    Baseball research generally acts as a window into the game--a means as it were to understand its underlying order and disorder, its hidden beauty and historic complexity. Less common is the view from the other side of the window in which the patterns of the game are a lens as it were into the outside world, a channel for making sense of a…

  7. Real Time Baseball Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  8. Mahjong and Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AARON; A.VESSUP

    2009-01-01

    My television screen flicked on, and the crowd’s excitement with sports action seemed so familiar, yet momentarily strange. An announcer’s voice described the game with infectious enthusiasm. The crowd of over 70,000 in the stands was going wild, and the players were moving with precision and speed. The pitching, the batting, runners racing around the bases, and acrobatic fielding. Yes, this was baseball, a

  9. Fantasy Baseball with a Statistical Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Lori; McNelis, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Fantasy baseball, a game invented in 1980, allows baseball fans to become managers of pretend baseball teams. In most fantasy baseball leagues, participants choose teams consisting of major league players who they believe will do well in five offensive categories (batting average, home runs, runs batted in, stolen bases, and runs scored) or in…

  10. Major League Baseball and Globalization: The World Baseball Classic

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Nagel; Matt, Brown; Daniel, Rascher; Chad, McEvoy

    2010-01-01

    In addition to generating initial profits, the WBC has positioned MLB to be the leader in growing the game of baseball and the commercial aspects of the sport throughout the world. As baseball grows, and more importantly as the American brand of baseball grows, it will be interesting to watch the worldwide reaction – particularly if MLB begins to generate huge profits overseas. Other prominent American brands such as Coke, Nike, Disney, and McDonalds have been both embraced and scorned as the...

  11. Baseball and American Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Elias

    2012-01-01

    While many have observed baseball’s longstanding resonance with U.S. domestic life, our national pastime has also figured prominently in how America has projected itself abroad—in its foreign, military, diplomatic and globalization policies. And vice versa: U.S. foreign policy has affected baseball, as well.For more than two centuries, baseball has shown up in surprising ways as America has emerged in the world, and then built itself into an empire. While baseball was played in America as far...

  12. The Flight of a Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The trajectory of a baseball moving through the air is very different from the one we teach in our introductory classes in which the only force is that due to gravity. In reality, the aerodynamic drag force (which retards the motion) and the Magnus force on a spinning baseball (which causes the ball to curve) play very important roles that are crucial to many of the subtleties of the game. These forces are governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools have been developed that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking (the so-called PITCHf/x and HITf/x systems), and Doppler radar tracking via the TrackMan system. In this talk, I will discuss how these new tools work, what they are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics, and how they have the potential to revolutionize the analysis of the game itself.

  13. Attendance Demand for Baseball Games in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirao, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how competitive balance in the Japanese professional baseball teams has changed over time, and estimates the effect of competitive balance on attendance demand for baseball games. Nippon Professional Baseball Organization (the ‘NPB’ hereinafter) consists of the Central League and the Pacific League, and there are six teams in each league. In 2004, a series of changes took place in the Pacific League, including the merger of the two existing teams, the entry of a new team, t...

  14. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation. PMID:11641701

  15. Magnetic field on the baseball coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expression is developed in spherical harmonics for the magnetic field of a baseball coil. A simple dipole-layer model for the coil, and the computer program, MAFCO, yield comparable expansion coefficients, and give practically identical fields near the center of the baseball. 13 refs

  16. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  17. MR imaging of the elbow in baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseball pitcher throwing biomechanics are important to understanding the pathophysiology and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of injuries in baseball pitchers. Baseball pitchers experience repetitive excessive valgus forces at the elbow. Typical injuries are secondary to medial joint distraction, lateral joint compression, and rotatory forces at the olecranon. MR imaging is useful for evaluation of the elbow in baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  18. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references f...

  19. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  20. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  1. Friendly Exchanges Between Yizheng and Japanese Youth Baseball Teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Jiangsu Provincial Baseball and Softball Association, and with the help from the Japan IBA Youth Baseball and Softball League, on March 28, the Youth Baseball Team of Kawasaki City of Saitama Prefecture played two friendly matches against the team of Yizheng Experimental School in Jiangsu Province.

  2. The Effect of Major League Baseball Rehab Assignments on Attendance in the International Baseball League

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Turner

    2013-01-01

    Prior to his return from the disabled list, a Major League Baseball (MLB) player may be given a "rehab assignment" to a Minor League Baseball (MiLB) club. One can intuitively expect that successful MLB players should positively affect attendance at the MiLB clubs that they are assigned to. This study develops a regression model to determine the effect of MLB rehab assignments on attendance in the International Baseball League. The regression model also introduces a new technique to measure th...

  3. Scattering of a Baseball by a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R; Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements are presented in this paper of the tradeoff between speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  4. EVALUATION OF PAINFUL SHOULDER IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Soares, André Lopes; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. Methods: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. Results: 14 of...

  5. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Bohn, John L.

    2008-11-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. We measure the change in diameter and weight of baseballs as a function of relative humidity in which the balls are stored. The trajectories of pitched and batted baseballs are modeled to assess the difference between those stored at 30% relative humidity versus 50% relative humidity. We find that a drier baseball will curve slightly more than a humidified one for a given pitch velocity and rotation rate. We also find that aerodynamics alone would add 2ft to the distance a wetter baseball ball is hit. This increased distance is compensated by a 6ft reduction in the batted distance due to the change in the coefficient of restitution of the ball. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% relative humidity since 2002.

  6. No Dummies: Deafness, Baseball, and American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by examining the historical and social factors that led to 1901 being the "deafest" year in major league baseball history with four deaf players. In particular, the author discusses the career of William Ellsworth "Dummy" Hoy, a deaf man from Ohio who became the most celebrated deaf player in history and explores the reasons…

  7. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  8. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  9. Batter Up: Baseball for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Dorothy K.; Fredericks, H. D. Bud

    1980-01-01

    The parents of a 13-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation (due to Down's syndrome) describe their experiences with their son's participation in Little League baseball. With much parental coaching and practice, he was able to play on a team with children one year younger and was accepted by players and coaches alike. (PHR)

  10. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  11. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. To do this, we measure the change in diameter and mass of baseballs as a function of relative humidity (RH). We then model trajectories for pitched and batted baseballs to assess the difference between those stored at 30% RH versus 50% RH. The results show that a drier baseball may be expected to curve slightly more than a humidified one, and that the drier ball will also likely travel slightly less far when batted. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% RH since 2002.

  12. Productivity, wages, and marriage: The case of major league baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Feldman, Naomi E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of professional baseball players from 1871–2007, this paper aims at analyzing a longstanding empirical observation that married men earn significantly more than their single counterparts holding all else equal (the "marriage premium"). Baseball is a unique case study because it has a long history of statistics collection and numerous direct measurements of productivity. Our results show that the marriage premium also holds for baseball players, where married players earn up to ...

  13. Traveling Baseball Players' Problem in Korea

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Aaram J; Choi, Younguk; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We study the so-called the traveling tournament problem (TTP), to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  14. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  15. Mutually-Antagonistic Interactions in Baseball Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit interesting structural changes over time. We also find that these networks exhibit a significant network structure that is sensitive to baseball's rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions. We find that a player's position in the network does not correlate with his success in the random walker ranking but instead has a substantial effect on its sensitivity to changes in his own aggregate performance.

  16. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  17. Understanding baseball team standings and streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, C.; Redner, S.

    2009-02-01

    Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

  18. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  19. Training the Baseball Hitter: What Does Research Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Robin J.; Heefner, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Former baseball star Jim Lefebvre (1983) claimed that hitting a baseball may be the most talked about but least understood skill in all of sports. Historically, hitting instruction has been based on intuitive thinking by "hitting gurus," rather than on scientific fact, which has contributed to this lack of understanding (DeRenne, Stellar, &…

  20. Finding the Area of a Major League Baseball Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Courchaine

    2013-01-01

    Using a Major League Baseball (MLB) baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.

  1. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  2. Finding the Area of a Major League Baseball Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Courchaine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a Major League Baseball (MLB baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.

  3. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  4. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  5. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July...

  6. Collapsing the Wavefunction of a Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, T

    2003-01-01

    The transition from microscopic to macroscopic in quantum mechanics can be seen from various points of view. It is often not merely a transition from quantum to classical mechanics in the sense of the Correspondence Principle. The fact that real macroscopic objects like baseballs are composites of an extremely large number of microscopic particles (electrons, protons etc.) is a complicating factor. Here such composite objects are studied in some detail and the Copenhagen interpretation is applied to them. A computer game model for a simplified composite object is used to illustrate some of the issues.

  7. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  8. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gretchen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  9. Major league baseball career length in the twentieth century*

    OpenAIRE

    Witnauer, William D.; Rogers, Richard G.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2007-01-01

    Although baseball is considered “the” American pastime, little is known about the career prospects of the individuals who play the game. This study fills that void by examining the careers of baseball players over the last century. Between 1902 and 1993, 5,989 position players started their careers and played 33,272 person years of major league baseball. A rookie position player can expect to play 5.6 years; one in five position players will have only a single-year career, and at every point ...

  10. Spectrum of shoulder injuries in the baseball pitcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes a range of shoulder injuries experienced by baseball pitchers. It is estimated that more than 57% of pitchers suffer some form of shoulder injury during a playing season. Knowledge of the overhead throwing cycle is crucial for our understanding of these shoulder injuries. Baseball pitchers are prone to rotator cuff tears from tensile overload and impingement. Glenoid labrum degeneration or tears are also common, due to overuse syndrome (micro-instability), internal impingement and microtrauma. An understanding of the lesions involved in overhead throwing is crucial in baseball pitchers, as long-term disability can result from these injuries, sometimes with severe financial consequences to the player. (orig.)

  11. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player

    OpenAIRE

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.

  12. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  13. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  14. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG FEMALE BASEBALL PLAYERS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalwinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The present study was conducted to determine the emotional intelligence among Indian female baseball players. Material : For the purpose of present study, two hundred (N=200 senior national female baseball players were selected through purposive sampling technique from different regions of India. They were selected from four different regions: A (North region baseball players=50, B (East region baseball players=50, C (West region baseball players=50 and D (South region baseball players=50. To collect the required data for the present study, the questionnaire developed by Hyde et al. (2001 on emotional intelligence was administered. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was employed to compare the entire regions. Where ‘F’ values were found significant, LSD (Least Significant Difference Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results : Significant differences were observed among North, East, West and South regions female baseball players on the sub-parameters; empathy, self-development, value orientation and on the parameter Emotional Intelligence (Total. No significant differences were noticed on the sub-parameters; self-awareness, self-motivation, emotional stability, managing relations, integrity, commitment and altruistic behaviour. Conclusion: The outcome of results might be due to the fact that East region female baseball players are able to pay attention to the worries and concerns of others, can listen to someone without the urge to say something, can stay focused under pressure, are able to handle multiple demands and able to identify and separate their emotions.

  15. The Classic: Shoulder and Elbow Lesions Distinctive of Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, George E.

    2012-01-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by G. Bennett, Shoulder and Elbow Lesions Distinctive of Baseball Players. An accompanying biographical sketch of G. Bennett is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2334-3. The Classic Article is ©1947 and is reprinted with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health from Bennett G. Shoulder and elbow lesions distinctive of baseball players. Ann Surg. 1947;126:107–110.

  16. Study on Impact Loading and Humerus Injury for Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Jiro

    In the United States and Japan, baseball is a very popular sport played by many people. However, the ball used is hard and moves fast. A professional baseball pitcher in good form can throw a ball at speeds upwards of 41.7m/s (150km/hr). If a ball at this speed hits the batter, serious injury can occur. In this paper we will describe our investigations on the impact of a baseball with living tissues by finite element analysis. Baseballs were projected at a load cell plate using a specialized pitching machine. The dynamic properties of the baseball were determined by comparing the wall-ball collision experimentally measuring the time history of the force and the displacement using dynamic finite element analysis software (ANSYS/ LS-DYNA). The finite element model representing a human humerus and its surrounding tissue was simulated for balls pitched at variable speeds and pitch types (knuckle and fastball). In so doing, the stress distribution and stress wave in the bone and soft tissue were obtained. From the results, the peak stress of the bone nearly yielded to the stress caused by a high fast ball. If the collision position or direction is moved from the center of the upper arm, it is assumed that the stress exuded on the humerus will be reduced. Some methods to reduce the severity of the injury which can be applied in actual baseball games are also discussed.

  17. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  18. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  19. Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Faber, Warren L.; Russell, Daniel A.

    2011-06-01

    Three questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. Can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? These questions are subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment and an interpretation of the data. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes, respectively.

  20. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  1. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the opening of a national kids' baseball coin design challenge on April...

  2. Out at Home: Why the Major League Baseball Advanced Media Agreement May Violate Antitrust Law

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenvogel, Sally E.

    2013-01-01

    Major League Baseball Advanced Media (MLBAM or BAM) has created one of the most successful technology platforms for broadcasting professional baseball games online. BAM is extremely profitable, but its exclusive online broadcast of professional baseball games through MLB.tv may violate antitrust law. Conventional wisdom may sugges...

  3. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  4. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  5. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  6. Baseball Aerodynamics: What do we know and how do we know it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Baseball aerodynamics is governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools are being used that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking of pitched baseballs (the PITCHf/x system), and Doppler radar tracking. In this contribution, I will discuss what these new tools are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics.

  7. Home-run probability as a function of coefficient of restitution of baseballs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuninaka, Hiroto; Mizutani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In baseball games, the coefficient of restitution of baseballs strongly affects the flying distance of batted balls, which determines the home-run probability. In Japan, the range of the coefficient of restitution of official baseballs has changed frequently over the past five years, causing the the number of home runs to vary drastically. We analyzed data from Japanese baseball games played in 2014 to investigate the statistical properties of pitched balls. In addition, we used the analysis results to develop a baseball-batting simulator for determining the home-run probability as a function of the coefficient of restitution. Our simulation results are explained by a simple theoretical argument.

  8. Another look at baseball player initials and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Abel and Kruger (2007) reported that Major League Baseball players whose names have positive initials (such as ACE or GOD) live an average of 13 years longer than do players with negative initials (such as ASS or BAD) or players with neutral initials (such as GHR or TSW). However, this conclusion is based on a very small sample, selective initials, and a flawed statistical test. There is no statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity for Major League Baseball players when a correct test is applied to independently selected initials. PMID:21466094

  9. Predicting Baseball Home Run Records Using Exponential Frequency Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, D J; Phillips, J A

    2006-01-01

    A new model, which uses the frequency of individuals' annual home run totals, is employed to predict future home run totals and records in Major League Baseball. Complete home run frequency data from 1903--2005 is analyzed, resulting in annual exponential distributions whose changes can be a used as a measure of progression in the sport and serve as a basis against which record-setting performances can be compared. We show that there is an 80% chance that Barry Bonds' current 73 home run record will be broken in the next 10 years, despite the longevity of previous records held by baseball legends Babe Ruth and Roger Marris.

  10. Teacher to Teacher: Learn about Statistics--Math League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Presents an introductory activity in statistics in which a mathematics class is divided into groups to "draft" teams of major league baseball players. Describes the drafting procedure, charting the team, scoring, roster changes, and gathering and evaluating data. Includes draft list, daily box scores, and cumulative box scores. (MKR)

  11. Empirical Bayes in-season prediction of baseball batting averages

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wenhua; Zhang, Cun-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a number of empirical Bayes methods are examined for the in-season prediction of batting averages with the 2005 Major League baseball data. Among the methodologies considered are new general empirical Bayes estimators in homoscedastic and heteroscedastic partial linear models.

  12. The Economics of the Duration of the Baseball World Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassuto, Alexander E.; Lowenthal, Franklin

    2007-01-01

    This note examines some statistical features of the major league baseball World Series. We show that, based upon actual historical data, we cannot reject the hypothesis that the two World Series teams are evenly matched. Yet, we can also calculate the relative strengths of the teams that would best match the actual outcomes, and we find that those…

  13. Simplified Models for the Drag Coefficient of a Pitched Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David; Nathan, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The classic experiment to measure the drag coefficient involves dropping coffee filters. Wouldn't it be more fun to try something different? In fact, an experiment on the drag force is conducted nearly 4000 times a day during the baseball season and you have free access to this PITCHf/x data!

  14. Peculiarities of the Major League Baseball Posting System

    OpenAIRE

    Rockerbie, Duane

    2006-01-01

    The posting system used in major league baseball to obtain free agent players from Japan has some similarities and many differences from the transfer system used to obtain foreign free agents in European football. This paper uses auction theory to assess the efficiencies (or lack of) in the posting system and to suggest alternatives.

  15. Plasma confinement in a multi-baseball system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma confinement along the field lines in a system of serially interconnected non-adiabatic baseball-type traps with absolute minimum B is considered. It is shown that it is possible to get diffusive flow along the axis of such a system. The confinement time is proportional to N2, where 2N is the number of traps. (author)

  16. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  17. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  18. The Use of Ice in Baseball Injuries (Cryotherapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Cryotherapy (the use of ice and exercise to rehabilitate athletic injuries) can be an effective method of treating baseball injuries. It is generally agreed that ice is appropriate for the first 24 to 48 hours, but there is disagreement over its use beyond 72 hours. Some physicians and trainers support the use of heat with either exercise or rest,…

  19. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Major League Baseballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstman, Victoria; Raue, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In a study inspired by the famous humidor of the Colorado Rockies of Major League Baseball, we have measured the effects of temperature and humidity on the elasticity of official Major League baseballs. The elasticity, e, also referred to as the coefficient of restitution (COR), of the baseballs was determined by dropping the balls from a fixed height onto a concrete floor and determining the speed of the ball after the initial impact. Corrections for air drag were made to the measured COR. Measurements were done for baseballs stored under a wide variety of conditions that included storage in the freezer compartment of a household refrigerator, storage in an 80^rcC oven with varying humidity conditions, and storage in a crude humidor. The balls were tested over a period of several hours after removal to nominal conditions. Our results show a linear increase of the COR with increasing temperature, as well as a nearly linear decrease in the COR as water mass is increased. Using the results of our measurements, we have determined the effects of temperature and humidity on batted-ball speeds and flight distances at the Rockies' home field.

  20. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility. PMID:26559562

  1. Playing Baseball/Playing "House": The Reproduction and Naturalization of "Separate Spheres" in Japanese High School Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although Japanese schools are generally considered to be one of the most gender-equitable social institutions in Japan, they play an important role in helping to reproduce and naturalize the notion of sex-based separate spheres, through endorsing the maintenance of such separate spheres in extracurricular sports clubs, such as baseball, where…

  2. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-01-01

    Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB) of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collap...

  3. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home run prowess in professional baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability de...

  4. National Pastime to Dismal Science: Using Baseball to Illustrate Economic Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Bruggink

    1993-01-01

    The game of baseball has enormous appeal to students and economists. By using baseball examples in teaching economics, the professor creates the atmosphere of fun while covering substantive topics in economics. This paper enables professors to enrich their principles course with illustrations, outlines, and annotations. The paper also provides the motivation and the suggested content of a special topics course on Baseball Economics, a sure winner in any Economics Department.

  5. BASEBALL THROWING MECHANICS AS THEY RELATE TO PATHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Whiteley

    2007-01-01

    It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury...

  6. The Immediate Effect of Lumbar Spine Patterns of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation in Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Takasumi; Naito, Daiki; Koiso, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other wi...

  7. Team performance and within-team salary disparity: an analysis of nippon professional baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Takuma Kamada; Hajime Katayama

    2014-01-01

    Using data from Nippon Professional Baseball, which is the Japanese professional baseball league, we examine the relationship between within-team salary disparity and team performance. We find that greater salary disparity tends to result in better team performance, which is the opposite of what prior studies have observed for Major League Baseball. Our results suggest that even within the same sport, the relationship may be partly affected by different institutional settings

  8. Corked Bats, Juiced Balls, and Humidors: The Physics of Cheating in Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Alan M; Faber, Warren L; Russell, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Three separate questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. First, can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Second, is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Third, can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? Each of these questions is subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment, an interpretation of the data, and a definitive answer. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes.

  9. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cuban national baseball team reigned in amateur competitions worldwide. Sporting successes in general and those of baseball in particular, were managed by the government as a political tool; the government used to display the loyalty of the athletes as a triumph of the Cuban system. However, since the nineties there has been a growing departure of Cuban top baseball players who have had the target of entering in MLB franchises, disregarding that the Cuban migration policy had remained unwavering. On the other hand, after the enactment of changes in the Cuban migration policy in 2013, the unconventional departure of high performance baseball players has increased sharply. The relationship between the migration reform and the increased leakage of baseball players has not been studied by scholars. The relevance of this paper is that it is the first academic approach to that relationship. This paper discusses the migration reform in Cuba and focuses mainly on its impact on baseball.

  10. Modeling Rare Baseball Events--Are They Memoryless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael; Glen, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Three sets of rare baseball events--pitching a no-hit game, hitting for the cycle, and turning a triple play--offer excellent examples of events whose occurrence may be modeled as Poisson processes. That is, the time of occurrence of one of these events doesn't affect when we see the next occurrence of such. We modeled occurrences of these three…

  11. Productivity under Large Pay Increases: Evidence from Professional Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Papps, Kerry L.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of the free agency system in the 1970s resulted in large salary increases among professional baseball players. Historical data show that players have tended to perform better at early stages of their careers since free agency was introduced. Under the current salary bargaining system, players only become eligible for salary arbitration and free agency at predetermined points in their careers, resulting in sudden changes in salary growth rates at these points. Using data on o...

  12. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Hibberd EE; Brown JR; Hoffer JT

    2015-01-01

    Elizabeth E Hibberd,1 J Rodney Brown,2 Joseph T Hoffer21Department of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA; 2Department of Intercollegiate Athletics, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USAAbstract: The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching excee...

  13. Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling of Hitting Performance in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Shane T.; McShane, Blake; Wyner, Abraham J.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a sophisticated statistical model for predicting the hitting performance of Major League baseball players. The Bayesian paradigm provides a principled method for balancing past performance with crucial covariates, such as player age and position. We share information across time and across players by using mixture distributions to control shrinkage for improved accuracy. We compare the performance of our model to current sabermetric methods on a held-out seaso...

  14. An Econometric Analysis of the 2013 Major League Baseball Season

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Steven L.; Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Walke, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    An econometric analysis of 2013 Major League Baseball season is conducted with respect to regular season victories. Results obtained confirm many, but not all, results reported in prior research. The importance of solid team pitching, defense, and offense is underscored. Outcomes for salaries and league affiliations differ substantially from prior seasons. History may serve as a guide to what occurs on the field, but it does not always repeat in the manner indicated in bygone years. Ulti...

  15. Biomechanical Comparison of the Interval Throwing Progression and Baseball Pitching

    OpenAIRE

    Slenker, Nicholas; Limpisvasti, Orr; Mohr, Karen; ElAttrache, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The interval throwing progression is a hallmark of the rehabilitation program designed for baseball pitchers or position players returning from shoulder or elbow injury. It typically begins with flat-ground throws at a short distance and progressively increases to 180 feet or more. For pitchers, this phase is then followed by throwing off the mound, progressing from partial-effort to full-effort pitches. Theoretically, the progression of throwing phases allows an injured athlete t...

  16. Baseball Pitching Biomechanics in Relation to Injury Risk and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fortenbaugh, Dave; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Baseball pitching kinematics, kinetics, ball velocity, and injuries at the shoulder and elbow are related. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and Sport Discus were searched for original studies published between 1994 and 2008. Relevant references in these studies were retrieved. Inferential studies that tested relationships between kinematics and kinetics were included, as were studies that tested relationships between kinematics and ball velocity. Descriptive studies that simply quantifie...

  17. Oblique Collisions of Baseballs and Softballs with a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Kensrud, Jeffrey R; Smith, Lloyd V

    2016-01-01

    Experiments are done by colliding a swinging bat with a stationary baseball or softball. Each collision was recorded with high-speed cameras, from which the post-impact speed, launch angle, and spin of the ball could be determined. Initial bat speeds were in the range 63-88 mph, producing launch angles in the range 0$^\\circ$-30$^\\circ$ and spins in the range 0-3500 rpm. The results are analyzed in the context of a ball-bat collision model and the parameters of that model are determined. For both baseballs and softballs, the data are consistent with a mechanism whereby the ball grips the surface of the bat, stretching the ball in the transverse direction and resulting in a spin that was up to 40\\% greater than would be obtained by rolling contact of rigid bodies. Using a lumped parameter contact model, baseballs are shown to be less compliant tangentially than softballs. Implications of our results for batted balls in game situations are presented.

  18. The effect of spin on the flight of a baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements are presented of the Magnus force on a spinning baseball. The experiment utilizes a pitching machine to project the baseball horizontally, a high-speed motion analysis system to determine the initial velocity and angular velocity and to track the trajectory over 5m of flight, and a ruler to measure the total distance traversed. Speeds in the range v =50-110mph and spin rates ω (topspin or backspin) in the range 1500-4500rpm were utilized, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of Re =(1.1-2.4)×105 and spin factors S ≡Rω/v in the range 0.090-0.595. Least-squares fits were used to extract the initial parameters of the trajectory and to determine the lift coefficients. Comparison is made with previous measurements and parametrizations, and implications for the effect of spin on the flight of a baseball are discussed. The lift coefficient CL is found not to depend strongly on v at fixed values of S.

  19. Saved at Home: Christian Branding and Faith Nights in the "Church of Baseball"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Baseball has enjoyed its status as the "national pastime" in part because it has been associated with democracy. To the extent that baseball, as an institution of civil religion, fosters pluralism and inclusion, it can indeed be viewed in democratic terms. In recent years, the advent of conservative Christian events called "Faith Nights" threatens…

  20. Smokeless tobacco use among professional baseball players: survey results, 1998 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Severson, H; Klein, K.; Lichtensein, E; Kaufman, N.; Orleans, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (snuff and chewing tobacco) has long been associated with baseball in the USA. This article reviews six years of survey data from major and minor league baseball players to evaluate trends in tobacco use and quitting patterns over time in order to gain insight into the effects of past interventions and to document continued intervention needs.

  1. Delving Deeper: Studying Baseball's Wild-Card Team Using Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Richard E.; Knapp, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The modern era of professional baseball playoffs began in 1903, when the champions of the American League and the National League played the first World Series. Except for one year, 1904, this playoff system was maintained until 1969. Beginning in 1969, each of the two leagues in Major League Baseball (MLB) was divided into two divisions to…

  2. Factors Affecting High School Baseball Coaches' Enforcement of School Tobacco Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Ted; Strack, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of policy bans and recommendations against spit tobacco (ST) use, baseball athletes have demonstrated ST prevalence rates ranging from 34% to 50% in high school, 42% in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and 50% in the professional ranks. To evaluate enforcement of ST bans, high school baseball coaches in North Carolina…

  3. The Baseball Hall of Fame Is Not the Kiss of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel and M. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in…

  4. An analysis of an optimal selection process for characteristics and technical performance of baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Bin; Tung, I-Wu; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Selection of a qualified pitcher has relied previously on qualitative indices; here, both quantitative and qualitative indices including pitching statistics, defense, mental skills, experience, and managers' recognition were collected, and an analytic hierarchy process was used to rank baseball pitchers. The participants were 8 experts who ranked characteristics and statistics of 15 baseball pitchers who comprised the first round of potential representatives for the Chinese Taipei National Baseball team. The results indicated a selection rate that was 91% consistent with the official national team roster, as 11 pitchers with the highest scores who were recommended as optimal choices to be official members of the Chinese Tai-pei National Baseball team actually participated in the 2009 Baseball World Cup. An analytic hierarchy can aid in selection of qualified pitchers, depending on situational and practical needs; the method could be extended to other sports and team-selection situations. PMID:21987928

  5. Effects of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation on Baseball Pitching Velocity and Electromechanical Reaction Times of the Teres Major of Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Peng; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of the teres major of young amateur baseball players after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 8 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received ...

  6. Depth Perception Improvement in Collegiate Baseball Players with Vision Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Clark, PhD, ATC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vision training is rapidly becoming a component of sports enhancement, but quantifiable and validated improvement in visual performance has not been clearly demonstrated in high-caliber and/or collegiate athletes. We have performed vision training for the last three seasons on the University of Cincinnati baseball team’s hitters. The goal for the work was performance enhancement, and for monitoring purposes, we measured stereopsis pre- and post-vision training. Methods: From the preseason (January 2011 through to the end of the season (May 2013, all hitters in the University of Cincinnati baseball team underwent regular vision training. Out-of-season training was 20 minutes twice per week, and in-season was 20 minutes once per week. Traditional stereopsis (Stereo Fly was performed and recorded. Vision training typically consisted of: Dynavision light board, Brock string, strobe glasses, Eyeport, saccades, and near-far. Results: The players consistently came into the season with stereopsis of 23.7 ± 1.0 mm, and six weeks of training increased this stereopsis to 36.9 ± 0.49 mm (p<0.0001. Discussion: There was a consistent and significant improvement in stereopsis measured by Stereo Fly with the baseball team after 6 weeks of vision training. Equally, the stereopsis returned to baseline out of season. Temporal benefits seemed to continue post-6 weeks of vision training. We conclude that in a population of healthy and high-caliber athletes, stereopsis can improve with training and suffer from detraining effects as well. We suggest that vision training for sports that require good stereo acuity be considered.

  7. Zeroing the Baseball Indicator and the Chirality of Triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Christopher S.; Wright, Marcus

    2004-03-01

    Starting with a common baseball umpire indicator, we consider the zeroing number for two-wheel indicators with states (a,b) and three-wheel indicators with states (a,b,c). Elementary number theory yields formulae for the zeroing number. The solution in the three-wheel case involves a curiously nontrivial minimization problem whose solution determines the chirality of the ordered triple (a,b,c) of pairwise relatively prime numbers. We prove that chirality is in fact an invariant of the unordered triple {a,b,c }. We also show that the chirality of Fibonacci triples alternates between 1 and 2.

  8. Radionuclide distribution in a nuclear test cavity: the baseball event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994 two holes were drilled into the cavity formed in 1981 by the underground nuclear test named Baseball. An extensive set of side wall samples were collected in these holes. We have analyzed the samples for tritium and for gamma-emitting radionuclides (both fission products and neutron activation products). It appears that the distribution pattern of these radioactive materials, established at the time of the detonation, have persisted even though the cavity has been under water for 13 years. These findings are discussed in the context of radionuclide migration and groundwater contamination at the Nevada Test Site. (orig.)

  9. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L

    2005-03-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of shoulder mobility in professional baseball players in order to examine differences between the throwing and the nonthrowing shoulders and to describe chronic adaptations to throwing.Design: Descriptive.Setting: The athletic training room at Maryvale Baseball Park, Phoenix, AZ.Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven professional baseball players (20 pitchers, 7 position players; age = 20 +/- 1.6 years, height = 190.5 +/- 4.8 cm, mass = 91.6 +/- 9.6 kg) with no previous history of shoulder or elbow injury.Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded scapular upward rotation at 4 levels of humeral elevation in the scapular plane (rest, 60 degrees , 90 degrees , 120 degrees ); posterior shoulder tightness; and passive, isolated glenohumeral joint internal and external range of motion.Results: Scapular upward rotation was significantly greater in the throwing shoulder (14.2 +/- 6.5 degrees ) than in the nonthrowing shoulder (10.6 +/- 6.1 degrees ) at 90 degrees of humeral elevation (P = .04). We observed no statistically significant difference in posterior shoulder tightness between the throwing (30.2 +/- 4.6 cm) and the nonthrowing (28.0 +/- 4.8 cm) shoulder (P = .09). In addition, the throwing shoulder exhibited a statistically significant decrease in isolated glenohumeral internal rotation (56.6 +/- 12.5 degrees ) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder (68.6 +/- 12.6 degrees ) (P = .001), with a concomitant increase in isolated glenohumeral external rotation (throwing = 108.9 +/- 9.0 degrees , nonthrowing = 101.9 +/- 5.9 degrees , P = .0014). An analysis of the total arc of motion (internal rotation + external rotation) revealed no statistically significant

  10. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  11. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  12. Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Eric; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Piquero, Alex R; Regoli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature in a variety of disciplines has appeared over the last 20 years examining customer racial bias in the secondary sports card market; however, consensus on the matter has yet to emerge. In this article, we explore the more subtle ways that a player's race/ethnicity may affect the value of his sports card including a player's skin tone (light- to dark-skinned). Data were obtained for 383 black, Latino, and white baseball players who had received at least one vote for induction into Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame including their career performance statistics, rookie card price, card availability, Hall of Fame status, and skin tone. Findings indicate that card availability is the primary determinant of card value while a player's skin tone has no direct effect. Subsequent analysis demonstrates that a player's race (white/non-white) rather than skin tone did have an effect as it interacts with Hall of Fame status to influence his rookie card price. PMID:21337740

  13. The Effect of Spin on the Flight of a Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, A M; Chong, L; Kaczmarski, H; Nathan, Alan M.; Hopkins, Joe; Chong, Lance; Kaczmarski, Hank

    2006-01-01

    New measurements are presented of the lift on a spinning baseball. The experiment utilizes a pitching machine to project the baseball horizontally; a high-speed motion capture system to measure the initial velocity and angular velocity and to track the trajectory over ~5 m of flight; and a ruler to measure the total distance traversed by the ball. Speeds in the range v=50-110 mph and spin rates (topspin or backspin)in the range omega=1500-4500 rpm were utilized, corresponding to Reynold's numbers Re=(1.1-2.4) x 10^5 and spin parameters R*omega/v=0.1-0.6. Standard least-squares fitting procedures were used to extract the initial parameters of the trajectory and to determine the lift and drag coefficients. Comparison is made with previous measurements or parametrizations of the lift and drag coefficients, and implications for the effect of spin on the flight of a long fly ball are discussed.

  14. Efficiency of application of special exercises and exercises with the use of baseball pitching machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the approach on making up coordination capabilities and technical tactical performances in baseball is confirmed. 100 boys (age 12-14 years take part in experiment. Relative analysis of a level of development of coordination capabilities and technical tactical readiness of baseball players is carried out. The level of development of technical readiness after experiment under the program «pitch, hit and run» is taped. The frame of special exercises with usage of colour balls is featured. Dynamics of hits for baseball players on a flying ball is presented. The approach in modelling of requirements of competitive activity is developed.

  15. Effects of lumbar disk herniation on the careers of professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Jeffrey S; Roberts, David; Roc, Gilbert; Gryzlo, Stephen; Hsu, Wellington

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes after lumbar disk herniation in baseball athletes are currently unknown. It has been postulated that the repetitive torque-producing motions of a baseball player may have negative implications after a disk injury. Sixty-nine lumbar disk herniations (40 treated operatively, 29 nonoperatively) in 64 professional baseball players were identified, and important outcome measures including successful return to play, time to recovery, career longevity, and performance based on vital statistics to each position were documented. Ninety-seven percent of baseball athletes successfully returned to play at an average of 6.6 months after diagnosis. Athletes treated operatively required significantly more time to return to play than those managed nonoperatively (8.7 vs 3.6 months, respectively; P<.0001). PMID:22229920

  16. The view from New Haven: a physicist at Yale is helping baseball umpires make the call

    CERN Document Server

    King, C

    2002-01-01

    A particle physicist from Yale university has been asked to examine the QuesTec Umpire Information System, a machine that is being used to evaluate umpires in baseball by judging balls and strikes (1 page).

  17. Aerodynamics of knuckle ball: Flow-structure interaction problem on a pitched baseball without spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro

    2012-07-01

    In the game of baseball, the knuckleball—so-called because the baseball is gripped with the knuckles in a certain position—is pitched in a way that introduces nearly no rotation, resulting in erratic flight paths which confuse batters. The “knuckleball” effect is believed to be caused by asymmetric flow separation over the baseball, but little is known about its flow physics. In the experiment described in this paper, the flow near the seams of the baseball is visualized thoroughly and the velocity vector fields near the surface and in the wake are obtained with Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Depending on its position, the seam is found to trigger the boundary layer transition thus delaying the separation, or to cause separation itself. Three-dimensional wake patterns associated with specific ball orientations are identified and related to the force variations on the ball.

  18. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  19. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  20. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  1. Correlation between shoulder muscle strength and shoulder impingement in baseball players

    OpenAIRE

    嘉手川, 啓; 上里, 智美; 高良,宏明; 金谷, 文則; Kadekawa, Kei; Uesato, Tomomi; TAKARA,HIROAKI; Kanaya, Fuminori; 琉球大学医学部整形外科学講座; 浦添総合病院整形外科; 琉球大学保健管理センター

    1998-01-01

    The shoulder impingement syndrome may occur through the imbalance of the muscle strength around the shoulder of baseball players. Our previous study suggested that latissimus dorsi (LD), the back muscle which is the adductor and internal rotator of the shoulder, would possibly prevent shoulder impingement. The purposes of this study were to clarify the correlation between the muscle strength around shoulder and impingement signs in baseball players and to identify the influence of LD on impin...

  2. The Theory of Theft: An Inspection Game Model of the Stolen Base Play in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore L. Turocy

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of equilibrium in mixed strategies in an inspection game model to describe the strategic interaction in the stolen base play in baseball. A parsimonious simultaneous-move game model offers predictions about how the observable conduct of the teams on offense and defense responds as the characteristics of the players involved change. The theory organizes observations from play-by-play data from Major League Baseball, where highly-motivated, experienced professional...

  3. Major League Baseball Player Contracts: An Investigation of the Empirical Properties of Real Options

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Clayton; David Yermack

    1999-01-01

    We study contracts negotiated between professional baseball players and teams to investigate the use of real options in a commercial setting. Baseball contracts feature options in diverse forms, and we find that these options have significant effects on player compensation. As predicted by theory, players receive higher guaranteed compensation when they allow teams to take options on their future services, and lower salaries when they bargain for options to extend their own contracts. The app...

  4. Vibrational, thermal, and alignment considerations of the laser system for Baseball II-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designing the Baseball II-T laser system required addressing a number of mechanical parameters. Among them are low frequency floor vibrations, high acoustical noise levels, and large thermal fluctuations in the vicinity of the experiment. In addition, the 8-in. apertures from the 300-K environment of the laser system had to be compatible with the cryogenic environment of the superconducting Baseball magnet. This paper discusses these problems and describes their influence on the laser system design

  5. Bilateral midshaft femoral fractures in an adolescent baseball player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, D G; Mogayzel, P J; Sponseller, P D; Familiari, F; McFarland, E G

    2016-07-01

    Bone disease, specifically low bone mineral density, is a common and undertreated complication that begins during childhood in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case describes a male baseball player, aged 14years, with undiagnosed CF who sustained a left midshaft femoral fracture while running toward base; 8months later, he sustained a right midshaft femoral fracture under similar conditions. After the second fracture, further evaluation revealed low bone mineral density and CF. There is no previously published report of pathologic fractures occurring in the femoral shaft in an athlete with undiagnosed CF. Patients with CF have a higher fracture rate. Low-energy fractures of major bones in athletically active individuals should be viewed with suspicion for an underlying process. PMID:26927602

  6. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is high among individuals who have played baseball since childhood. Recently two cross-sectional studies according to prevalence of OCD have been published. In a study of 1040 baseball players aged 10 to 12 years, Matsuura et al found that 2.1% of players had OCD, with no differences in prevalence according to age or player position. Kida et al., in their study of 2433 baseball players aged 12 to 18 years, found OCD in 3.4% of subjects. Furthermore, they found that players with OCD began playing baseball at earlier ages, had played for longer periods, and had experienced more elbow pain. The player’s current baseball position may not be related to the existence of OCD lesions. Together, these findings led us to examine the longitudinal study for examining the risk factors for occurrence of OCD. Our objectives were to determine (1) cumulative incidence rates of OCD in the school child players aged 6-11 years old, (2) the relative risk of OCD by age, beginning age playing baseball, playing period, experimental hours per week, playing position, and elbow pain. Methods: A total of 1,275 players aged 6-11 years (mean, 9.4 years) belonged to youth baseball teams without OCD lesions received examination in the next year and were the subjects of this investigation. Subjects were examined by questionnaire, and ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. Questionnaire items included age, player position, beginning age of playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week and history of elbow pain. Ultrasonography of the lateral aspect of the elbow was performed. An irregularity of the subchondral bone of the capitellum was regarded as an abnormality. Radiographic examination was recommended to players who had an abnormal finding on ultrasonographic examination. We investigated the following risk factors for occurrence of OCD: age, player position, beginning age of

  7. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  8. Baseball pitching kinematics,joint loads,and injury prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakiko; Oyama

    2012-01-01

    <正>There is a need for the prevention of upper extremity injuries that affect a large number of competitive baseball players.Currently available evidence alludes to three possible ways to prevent these injuries:1) regulation of unsafe participation factors,2) implementation of exercise intervention to modify suboptimal physical characteristics,and 3) instructional intervention to correct improper pitching techniques.Of these three strategies,instruction of proper pitching technique is under-explored as a method of injury prevention.Therefore,the purpose of this review was to explore the utility of pitching technique instruction in prevention of pitching-related upper extremity injuries by presenting evidence linking pitching technique and pitching-related upper extremity injuries,as well as identifying considerations and potential barriers in pursuing this approach to prevent injuries.Various kinematic parameters measured using laboratory-based motion capture system have been linked to excessive joint loading,and thus pitching-related upper extremity injuries.As we gain more knowledge about the influence of pitching kinematics on joint loading and injury risk,it is important to start exploring ways to modify pitching technique through instruction and feedback while considering the specific skill components to address,mode of instruction,target population,duration of program,and ways to effectively collaborate with coaches and parents.

  9. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik eCheshin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from MLB World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  10. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  11. EMG analysis of the lower extremities during pitching in high-school baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, T

    1998-01-01

    I evaluated the contractions of the muscles of the lower extremities during baseball pitching using video imaging and simultaneous surface EMG. The subjects were 10 members of a high school baseball club and, for contrast, 10 students without any baseball club experience. I divided their pitching movements into two phases determined with respect to the landing of the non-pivot leg. The EMG signal intensities over the 2 seconds prior to landing, and over the 2 seconds after landing, were then integrated to give an EMG value to each phase. I then computed this value as the % MMT. The abductor and adductor of the hip muscles of both lower extremities in the players were strongly contracted, especially the adductor. This finding was consistent with the observation that pitching tends to lead to adductor muscle disorders. Strengthening the adductor and its antagonist abductor can therefore directly influence the capability for pitching, and can reduce the risk for the adductor disorders. PMID:9658746

  12. Change in pitching biomechanics in the late-inning in Taiwanese high school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei-Hsi Chou, Paul; Huang, Yen-Po; Gu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Chiang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session. The mean Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion index was found to have a value of 14.14, indicating a medium-to-large degree of perceived tiredness. The results showed that the ball velocity and horizontal abduction angle decreased significantly as the pitchers became tired. Moreover, the upper torso forward tilt and knee flexion angle both increased significantly at the moment of ball release. Finally, the muscle strength of the upper extremity remained decreased 2 days after the bullpen throwing session. Overall, the results suggest that an adequate amount of rest and specific strengthening programs for the shoulder external rotator, shoulder internal rotator, shoulder flexor, shoulder extensor, shoulder adductor, and shoulder abductor muscles are recommended to the coaches and for adolescent baseball pitchers. In addition, the changes in pitching mechanics noted in this study should be carefully monitored during the course of a baseball game to minimize the risk for overuse injuries. PMID:25474340

  13. Building a model for scoring 20 or more runs in a baseball game

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Michael R.; Sturdivant, Rodney X.

    2010-01-01

    How often can we expect a Major League Baseball team to score at least 20 runs in a single game? Considered a rare event in baseball, the outcome of scoring at least 20 runs in a game has occurred 224 times during regular season games since 1901 in the American and National Leagues. Each outcome is modeled as a Poisson process; the time of occurrence of one of these events does not affect the next future occurrence. Using various distributions, probabilities of events are generated, goodness-...

  14. The Baseball Hall of Fame is not the kiss of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel andM. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in life expectancy. However, the data used in that study are incorrect. A robust test applied to correct data shows that there is no statistically persuasive difference in the life expectancy of players elected to the Hall of Fame and their peers. PMID:24501860

  15. A Monte Carlo Approach to Joe DiMaggio and Streaks in Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Arbesman, S

    2008-01-01

    We examine Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak and look at its likelihood, using a number of simple models. And it turns out that, contrary to many people's expectations, an extreme streak, while unlikely in any given year, is not unlikely to have occurred about once within the history of baseball. Surprisingly, however, such a record should have occurred far earlier in baseball history: back in the late 1800's or early 1900's. But not in 1941, when it actually happened.

  16. Main design elements of the superconducting magnet for the LIN-5B baseball trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design of superconducting magnet system (SMS) is described for the LIN-5B baseball trap elaborated for the OGRA-3B experimental installation. The general layout of the trap, cross sections of the superconducting coil and load-bearing frame, the current leads arrangement and main LIN-5B SMS parameters are presented. A three-year experience in operation of the baseball LIN-5B SMS and successful tests followed by achieving critical conditions four times permit to make the conclusion that the design and SMS assembly meet the requirements

  17. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  18. Foul Lines: Teaching Race in Jim Crow America through Baseball History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Far more than just recreation, baseball offers social, cultural, and political insights into history. For teachers, the goals of this article are threefold. First, this narrative is designed to provide the introductory content knowledge needed to develop a colorful lecture, structure a spirited discussion, or create a student project on the topic.…

  19. Coaches, Eying Miami's Success, Try to Turn College Baseball into a Money-Making Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    The University of Miami developed its debt-ridden intercollegiate baseball program into a source of substantial income and visibility, as better players and aggressive marketing helped with the increased attendance and support. Other institutions, even in more northern climates, are following Miami's example. (MSE)

  20. Double-Play: Using Minor League Baseball to Apply Themes and Standards in Human Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…

  1. Estimation of Rotational Velocity of Baseball Using High-Speed Camera Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Uematsu, Yuko; Saito, Hideo

    Movies can be used to analyze a player's performance and improve his/her skills. In the case of baseball, the pitching is recorded by using a high-speed camera, and the recorded images are used to improve the pitching skills of the players. In this paper, we present a method for estimating of the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of movies recorded by high-speed cameras. Unlike in the previous methods, we consider the original seam pattern of the ball seen in the input movie and identify the corresponding image from a database of images by adopting the parametric eigenspace method. These database images are CG Images. The ball's posture can be determined on the basis of the rotational parameters. In the proposed method, the symmetric property of the ball is also taken into consideration, and the time continuity is used to determine the ball's posture. In the experiments, we use the proposed method to estimate the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of real movies and movies consisting of CG images of the baseball. The results of both the experiments prove that our method can be used to estimate the ball's rotation accurately.

  2. As Cutbacks Hit College Sports, Baseball Falls behind in the Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    For two weeks every June, the College World Series showcases one of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) most popular sports. More than 300,000 fans flock to picturesque Rosenblatt Stadium, in Omaha, with millions more tuning in on ESPN. Ticket sales, which in recent years topped $9-million, make baseball the NCAA's…

  3. Path Analysis Examining Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Performance on a Simulated Baseball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…

  4. THE ROLE OF SHOULDER MAXIMUM EXTERNAL ROTATION DURING THROWING FOR ELBOW INJURY PREVENTION IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Ida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether the passive range of shoulder external rotation (ER, the maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER during throwing, and the ratio of MER to ER are related to the incidence of the elbow injury. A mixed design with one between-factor (a history of the elbow injury and two within-factors (ER and MER was used to analyze the difference between baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain. Twenty high school baseball players who had experienced the medial elbow pain within the previous month but who were not experiencing the pain on the day of the experiment were recruited (elbow-injured group. Another twenty baseball players who had never experienced the medial elbow pain were also used for testing (control group. MER during throwing, ER, and the ratio of MER to ER were obtained in both of the group. A Mann-Whitney test was used for the group comparison (p < 0.05. The ratio of MER to ER was significantly greater in the elbow-injured group (1.52 ± 0.19 than that in the control group (1.33 ± 0.23 (p = 0.008. On the other hand, there was no statistical significance in MER and ER between two groups. The findings of the study indicate that MER/ER relation could be associated with the incidence of the elbow injury in baseball players

  5. Dynamic sonography with valgus stress to assess elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonography is a valuable method for imaging superficial tendons and ligaments. The ability to obtain comparison images easily with dynamic stress allows assessment of ligament and tendon integrity. We studied the medial elbow joints of two baseball pitchers using MR imaging and dynamic sonography. Both sonography and MR imaging identified the ulnar collateral ligament tears. Dynamic sonography uniquely demonstrated the medial joint instability. (orig.)

  6. A Model of Motor Inhibition for a Complex Skill: Baseball Batting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The ability to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a signal from the environment is important for many perceptual-motor actions. This paper examines a particular example of this behavior: attempting to inhibit or "check" a swing in baseball batting. A model of motor inhibition in batting is proposed. In the model there are three different…

  7. Precocity Predicts Shorter Life for Major League Baseball Players: Confirmation of Mccann's Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…

  8. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  9. Statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in professional baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander; Stanley, H Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that that level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find universal power laws in the distributions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence of performance enhancement in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is consistent with the findings of the Mi...

  10. Epidemiology and Impact of Knee Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives. PMID:26991584

  11. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    Bishop, SH, Herron, RL, Ryan, GA, Katica, CP, and Bishop, PA. The effect of intermittent arm and shoulder cooling on baseball pitching velocity. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1027-1032, 2016-The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game. PMID:24077378

  12. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  13. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-09-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.

  14. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key pointsHigh-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion.For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk.Computation of the lower-extremity kinetics and measurement of lower

  15. Detrending career statistics in professional baseball: Accounting for the steroids era and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-01-01

    There is a long standing debate over how to objectively compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras. Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as Major League Baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional baseball players. We detrend player statistics by normalizing achievements to seasonal averages, which accounts for changes in relative player ability resulting from both exogenous and endogenous factors, such as talent dilution from expansion, equipment and training improvements, as well as performance enhancing drugs (PED). In this paper we compare the probability density function (pdf) of detrended career statistics to the pdf of raw career statistics for five statistical categories -- hits (H), home runs (HR), runs bat...

  16. Mass analysis of low-energy ions in the Baseball II plasma containment experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a magnetic mirror plasma experiment, the plasma containment time is often limited by the charge exchange of energetic plasma ions with thermal gas. The low-energy ions that result from the charge exchange are not trapped by the magnetic field, but emerge through the mirrors and follow the field lines with an energy of the order of the plasma potential. Mass identification of these ions helps in locating and eliminating the source of the charge-exchange gas. To perform this identification, a modified quadrupole mass spectrometer is operated in the fringe magnetic field of the Baseball II plasma experiment. From the resulting spectra an estimate is made of the density of each component of the thermal gas. For various experimental conditions of Baseball II, component density estimates and time-resolved mass analyses are given. The mass spectrometer and its operation are also described. (author)

  17. Detrending career statistics in professional baseball: Accounting for the steroids era and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Penner, Orion; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-01-01

    There is a long standing debate over how to objectively compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras. Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as Major League Baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional b...

  18. Bayesball: A Bayesian hierarchical model for evaluating fielding in major league baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Shane T.; Shirley, Kenneth E.; Wyner, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of statistical modeling in baseball has received substantial attention recently in both the media and academic community. We focus on a relatively under-explored topic: the use of statistical models for the analysis of fielding based on high-resolution data consisting of on-field location of batted balls. We combine spatial modeling with a hierarchical Bayesian structure in order to evaluate the performance of individual fielders while sharing information between fielders at each posi...

  19. Offensive Performance, Omitted Variables, and the Value of Speed in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Turocy, Theodore L.

    2003-01-01

    This note considers the problem of estimating the marginal products of offensive events towards a baseball team's objective of scoring runs. Regression techniques on official statistics give a positive marginal product for a stolen base attempt, which is inconsistent with the theory of mixed strategy Nash equilibrium. Augmenting the specification of the production function to include other productive qualities of footspeed restores estimates consistent with equilibrium theory.

  20. Team payroll and team performance in major league baseball: 1985-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Wiseman; Sangit Chatterjee

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between team payroll and team performance in major league baseball from 1985 to 2002. The results indicate that the relationship has changed over time. Unlike the early years, there is now a much clearer relationship between payroll and performance. Specifically, in the latter part of the 1990s and continuing into the 21st century, the greater the team payroll and the more equally this payroll is distributed among team members, the better the on-field perf...

  1. The impact of the luxury tax on competitive balance in Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Olugbenga Ajilore; Joshua Hendrickson

    2005-01-01

    There has been much discussion recently in the world of professional sports about competitive balance. As more is focused on the growing disparity between large market and small market teams, one must ask whether the luxury tax, as implemented by Major League Baseball, has had its intended effect. This paper adds to the literature on competitive balance by developing measures to quantify competitiveness at the individual team-level. We estimate a model analyzing the impact of the luxury tax o...

  2. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koya Yamashiro

    Full Text Available Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4 in 12 baseball players (baseball group and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group. The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT. Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes.

  3. The Economic Impact on the Dominican Republic of Baseball Player Exports to the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper pulls together into one practical model two strands of economic theory to assess the impact of baseball player exports on the aggregate economic performance of the Dominican Republic. On one hand, foreign trade theory predicts a strong correlation between a country’s exports and economic performance measured as per capita income. On the other hand, microeconomic research finds a positive, but statistically insignificant, impact of sports activities on local economies. A...

  4. Evaluation of Talent in a Changing World: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Groothuis; Kurt W. Rotthoff; Mark C. Strazicich

    2013-01-01

    Comparing talent across time is difficult as productivity changes. To compare talent across time we utilize Major League baseball data from 1871-2010 and time series techniques to determine if the mean and standard deviation of five performance measures are stationary and if structural breaks exist. We identify two structural breaks in the mean slugging percentage: in 1921, the free swinging era of Babe Ruth, and in 1992, the steroid era. Given that productivity changes over time, we develop ...

  5. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...The United States Mint announces the opening of a national coin design competition that will culminate in the Secretary of the Treasury's selection of the image for the obverse (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which is open to all United States citizens and permanent residents ages 14 and over, begins on April 11, 2013, at 12 noon......

  6. Lumbopelvic control and days missed due to injury in professional baseball pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.; McKenzie, Christopher S.; Pan, Xueliang; Oñate, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injury in baseball pitchers. Hypothesis Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss 30 or more days due to injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. Study design Cohort study. Methods Three hundred forty-seven professional baseball pitchers were enrolled into the study during the last 2 weeks of spring training and stayed with the same team for the entire season. Lumbopelvic control was quantified by peak anterior-posterior deviation of the pelvis relative to starting position during a single leg raise test (APScore). Days missed due to injury through the entire season were recorded by each team's medical staff. Results Higher APScore was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of missing 30 days or more (Chi-Square, p=0.023). When divided into tertiles based on their APScore, participants in the highest tertile were 3.0 times and 2.2 times more likely to miss at least 30 days throughout the course of a baseball season relative to those in the lowest or middle tertiles, respectively. Higher APScore was also significantly associated with missing more days due to injury within participants who missed at least one day to injury (ANOVA, p=0.018), with the highest tertile missing significantly more days (mean=98.6 d) than the middle tertile (mean=45.8d, p=0.017) or the lowest tertile (mean=43.8, p=0.017). Conclusion This study found that poor lumbopelvic control in professional pitchers was associated with increased risk of missing significant time due to injury. PMID:25159541

  7. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level. PMID:27110899

  8. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel C. Perkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher’s hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball’s velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  9. On using of baseball traps for a dense hot plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variant of an open trap with the ''baseball-type'' magnetic field, which is produced by deformation and compression of a straight cylindrical liner by a profiled field, has been considered. The magnetic configuration of the ''baseball'' trap is locally stable and permits plasma injection from two plasma accelerators. In the first stage owing to the deformation of the straight liner an open ''baseball-type'' trap is produced. In the second stage two plasmoids having the directed energy above 2 keV are injected into the trap. Colliding the plasmoids stop, as a result of which the trap is filled with the plasma having a temperature of about 1 keV. In the third stage, while the configuration of the trap retains, plasma is being compressed and its temperature increases to 10 keV. The parameters of such a system have been evaluated as follows: for the field of 2 MOe and a temperature of 10 keV the plasma density will be 5 x 1018 cm-3 and the confinement time - 2 x 10-5s

  10. Method of estimation of technical preparedness level of baseballs aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of level of technical preparedness is developed for young baseballs. The scale of estimation of level of technical preparedness of sportsmen is formed on the method of sigmantion rejections. In an experiment took part 100 boys in age 12-14 years. The test of the program «Aquafina MLB Pitch was utillized, Hit & Run». The maximally attained indexes are certain on separate baseball skills. The level of development of technical preparedness is exposed after an experiment on the program: a test of «pitch» is 450 marks, a test of «hit» is 402 marks, a test of «run» is a 361 mark, indexes of general marks are 1043 marks. The comparative analysis of level of technical preparedness of baseballs of control and experimental groups is conducted. Authenticity of distinctions is proved between control and experimental groups on the followings criteria of technical preparedness: throw, blow at run.

  11. Curve ball baseball, statistics, and the role of chance in the game

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Jay

    2001-01-01

    In its formative years, from the 1970s through the 1990s, sabermetrics was p- marily an amateur undertaking. Publications were aimed at a relatively small audience of baseball fans. To be sure, this ever-growing group of aficionados brought a lot of sophistication to baseball analysis, and were constantly looking for statistical insights beyond the listings of the top ten batters found in popular newspapers and magazines. But their influence on the baseball profession was very limited. A few consultants like Craig Wright developed temporary relati- ships with various teams, but none were able to stay long enough to create a p- manent sabermetrician staff position. (See Rob Neyer’s November 11, 2002, arti- 1 cle on ESPN. com. ) All of this changed, however, in 2002 with the hiring of Bill James by the Boston Red Sox. With that move, we have seen the admittance of the foremost proponent of sabermetrics into the top echelon of professional ba- ball management. The art and science of careful statistical analysi...

  12. A study of static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity in 102 Japanese professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshina K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kohji Hoshina,1 Yuichi Tagami,2 Osamu Mimura,3 Hiroshi Edagawa,4 Masao Matsubara,5 Teiichi Nakayama6 1Hoshina Eye Clinic, Nishinomiya, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe Century Memorial Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan; 4Edagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 6Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan Background: It seemed that visual functions might have some effects on the performance of baseball players. We measured static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity (SVA, KVA, and DVA, respectively of Japanese professional baseball players to ascertain whether there would be any difference in SVA, KVA, and DVA among player groups stratified according to their performance level. Methods: The subjects were 102 male professional baseball players with a mean age of 26 years who were members of a Japanese professional baseball club from 2000 to 2009. They were stratified into three groups according to their performance level: A (players who were on the roster of the top-level team all the time throughout the study period, B (players who were on the roster of the top-level team sometimes but not all the time, and C (players who were never on the roster of the top-level team. They were interviewed for the use of corrective visual aids, and examined for SVA, KVA, and DVA. The measurements of these parameters were compared among groups A, B, and C. We also investigated and analyzed the association of KVA or DVA with player position (pitchers or fielders and with hand dominance for batting. KVA was compared between the pitchers and the fielders because they each require different playing skills. DVA was compared between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among groups A, B, and C. There was a statistically significant difference in

  13. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes.

  14. Three-Tesla MR imaging of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, Filippo [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Servizio di Radiologia. Lugano, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano-TI (Switzerland); Aro, Michael; Farahani, Sahar Jalali; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wilckens, John; Cosgarea, Andrew [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-01-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative 3-T MR imaging features of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers presenting as major league draft picks or trades. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the HIPPA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived. Twenty-one professional non-symptomatic baseball pitchers (mean age 23, range 18 to 34 years old) underwent 3-T MR imaging of the pitching elbow. Two experienced readers independently performed qualitative (collateral ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bones, ulnar nerve, olecranon fossa, and joint fluid) and quantitative (collateral ligaments and posteromedial plica) evaluation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Collateral ligament thickening was seen in a high proportion, nearly half, however, without features of full thickness tearing. Tendinosis without tearing was seen in 19 % (4/21) of common extensors. Cartilage abnormalities were infrequent. Bone abnormalities manifested as edema in 24 % (5/21) and humeroulnar osteophytosis. Ulnar nerve signal and/or morphologic abnormalities were seen in a very high proportion, up to 81 % (17/21). The olceranon fat pad showed scarring features in about one third. The median ligament thicknesses in mm measured: 4.6 UCL anterior bundle, 1.8 UCL posterior bundle, 1.9 RCL, 2.5 LUCL, and 0.7 mm anular. The median plica dimensions were 5.3 by 2.2 by 2.7 mm. High-resolution 3-T MR imaging frequently shows abnormalities involving the ligaments, tendons, nerves, olecranon fat pad, and bones in non-symptomatic baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  15. MR imaging of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball players: Value for predicting rehabilitation outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To compare the MR findings of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury in baseball players between rehabilitation and reconstruction surgery. Materials and methods: Thirty nine baseball players with clinical evidence of a UCL injury based on medial elbow pain and valgus instability were included. All patients received the rehabilitation treatment for more than six weeks. The elbow MR images of 27 patients not responding to rehabilitation treatment were reviewed that consequently had reconstruction surgery; in addition to 12 patients with improved symptoms with only rehabilitation treatment. The MR imaging was compared between the two treatment groups using the Pearson's chi-square test, and linear-by-linear association for the following features: the degree, signal intensity and site of the UCL injury on fat suppressed T2-weighted images. Results: High-grade partial tears and complete tears were more commonly seen in the group that had surgery (14 out of 27 patients, 52%; 8 out of 27 patients, 30%), and low-grade partial tears and intact continuity were more common in the group that had rehabilitation only (5 out of 12 patients, 42%; 5 out of 12 patients, 42%) (p = 0.001). The injured UCL showed a fluid-like bright high or intermediate high signal intensity in the group that had surgery more frequently (14 out of 27 patients, 52%; 12 out of 27 patients, 44%), and intermediate high or low signal intensity was more frequent in the rehabilitation group (7 out of 12 patients, 58%; 3 out of 12 patients, 25%) (p = 0.013). The UCL injury at the origin site was most commonly seen in both groups (23 out of 27 patients, 85%; 11 out of 12 patients, 92%, respectively) (p = 0.496). Conclusion: Preoperative MR imaging is useful for predicting the rehabilitation outcome of UCL injuries in baseball players.

  16. Three-Tesla MR imaging of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative 3-T MR imaging features of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers presenting as major league draft picks or trades. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the HIPPA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived. Twenty-one professional non-symptomatic baseball pitchers (mean age 23, range 18 to 34 years old) underwent 3-T MR imaging of the pitching elbow. Two experienced readers independently performed qualitative (collateral ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bones, ulnar nerve, olecranon fossa, and joint fluid) and quantitative (collateral ligaments and posteromedial plica) evaluation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Collateral ligament thickening was seen in a high proportion, nearly half, however, without features of full thickness tearing. Tendinosis without tearing was seen in 19 % (4/21) of common extensors. Cartilage abnormalities were infrequent. Bone abnormalities manifested as edema in 24 % (5/21) and humeroulnar osteophytosis. Ulnar nerve signal and/or morphologic abnormalities were seen in a very high proportion, up to 81 % (17/21). The olceranon fat pad showed scarring features in about one third. The median ligament thicknesses in mm measured: 4.6 UCL anterior bundle, 1.8 UCL posterior bundle, 1.9 RCL, 2.5 LUCL, and 0.7 mm anular. The median plica dimensions were 5.3 by 2.2 by 2.7 mm. High-resolution 3-T MR imaging frequently shows abnormalities involving the ligaments, tendons, nerves, olecranon fat pad, and bones in non-symptomatic baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  17. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd; Casey E. Shutt; Sakiko Oyama; J. Troy Blackburn; Joseph B. Myers

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a risk factor for shoulder and elbow injury in baseball players. Although this evidence forms a basis for recommending stretching, clinical measures of internal rotation range of motion (ROM) do not differentiate if GIRD is due to muscular, capsuloligamentous, or osseous factors. Understanding the contributions of these structures to GIRD is important for the development of targeted interventions. We hypothesize that the osseous component will have the greatest relative contribution to GIRD, followed by muscle stiffness and posterior capsule thickness. Methods:Internal rotation ROM, muscle stiffness (teres minor, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid), posterior capsule thickness, and humeral retrotorsion were evaluated on 156 baseball players. A side-to-side difference was calculated for each variable. Variables were entered into a multivariable linear regression to determine the significant predictors of GIRD. Results:The regression model was statistically significant (R2=0.134, F(1, 156)=24.0, p<0.01) with only humeral retrotorsion difference remaining as a significant predictor (β=-0.243, t156=-4.9, p<0.01). A greater humeral retrotorsion side-to-side difference was associated with more GIRD. Conclusion:Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3%of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence

  18. Mortality of major league baseball players from Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Reynolds

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Professional baseball players have lower mortality rates than the US general population, but whether this is true of foreign-born players is not known. Using data on ballplayers from six nations, we compare mortality rates with those of US players via standardized mortality ratios. After controlling for confounders, four countries had statistically insignificant SMRs while two nations had significantly elevated SMRs. In the two nations with elevated SMRs, low average ages at death and high crime rates suggest the increased mortality may be linked to violent crime. A full understanding of the causes of disparity in mortality will require further research.

  19. Unusual stress fracture in an adolescent baseball pitcher affecting the trochlear groove of the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress fractures of the proximal ulna are known to occur in throwing athletes. Most cases extend to involve the olecranon, and cases limited to the trochlear groove are rare. In this report we present a 17-year-old elite baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the trochlear groove of the proximal ulna. Diagnosis was made by demonstration of characteristic signal changes on MRI of the elbow. The fracture occurred at the cortical notch, also known as the pseudodefect of the trochlear groove. This case suggests that the cortical notch serves as an area of weakness predisposing pitchers to development of a stress fracture. (orig.)

  20. Contested Representations of Taiwanese Baseball: Political Interpretations and Moral Values of a National Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Soldani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, baseball is a national passion that the whole society can relate to. Appeared under Japanese rule, it was enrolled in the nationalist “physical culture” (tiyu 體育 just after WWII and became, at the turn of the 1970s, the “national sport” (guoqiu 國球 and the flagship of a state isolated on the international scene. It thus provides Taiwanese society with many symbols and references which the political elite cannot afford to ignore. Deeply involved with the education of moral values, its representations are used and claimed by the main existing political and ideological forces.

  1. Retired NASA F-18 being lowered on to pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A large crane gingerly lowers an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft onto a 28-foot-tall pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The blue-and-white F/A-18 was recently loaned to the city by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA Dryden had flown the twin-jet aircraft as a safety chase and support aircraft over the past nine years. The stadium, known as 'The Hangar,' is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  2. Streaming-plasma measurements in the Baseball II-T mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The warm plasma from a deuterium-loaded titanium washer gun, streaming along magnetic-field lines through the steady-state magnetic well of Baseball II, has been examined for its suitability in this experimental situation as a target plasma for hot-ion buildup experiments and for microinstability control. The gun was positioned near the magnetic axis outside the mirror region. Measurements were made with gridded, end-loss detectors placed outside the opposite mirror, a microwave interferometer, a beam-attenuation detector, and other diagnostics

  3. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers. PMID:25303496

  4. Localized vitreous adhesion to the retina after ocular contusion with a baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Masayo Kimura, Akira Nishimura, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanPurpose: To report a series of five cases of vitreous adhesions after blunt trauma caused by a baseball strike.Methods: The medical records of patients with ocular contusion after being struck by a baseball, who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy, were reviewed. An aqueous suspension of triamcinolone acetonide was used intraoperatively to facilitate visualization of the vitreous.Results: Five eyes were reviewed in this study. There were two cases of retinal detachment, two cases of traumatic macular hole, and one case of retinal detachment due to traumatic macular hole. Despite the surgical creation of posterior vitreous detachment, if not already present, the thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion to the retinal necrotic area with/without retinal hole was found between the major vascular arcades and the equator in all cases. The thin layer of the vitreous was removed with a vitreous cutter and diamond-dusted membrane scraper, but complete removal was impossible.Conclusions: A thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion at the area of retinal degeneration was observed in eyes following ocular contusion.Keywords: localized, vitreous adhesion, triamcinolone acetonide, ocular contusion, pars plana vitrectomy

  5. A rare cause of chronic elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylynko, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of chronic elbow pain as a result of a hidden underlying osteochondral defect. Clinical Features: A 17-year old baseball player presented with chronic lateral elbow pain. Examination revealed swelling of the elbow with signs of possible ligament, muscle, and tendon injury. Diagnosis and Treatment: Although there was apparent soft-tissue injury, the elbow swelling created immediate suspicion of a more serious underlying condition. Examination revealed a swollen and tender elbow, with plain x-ray confirming a subchondral bone disorder (osteochondral defect) of the capitellum. Surgical repair was performed by an orthopedic surgeon using DeNovo NT Natural Tissue Grafts: the implantation of small pieces of juvenile joint cartilage into the affected area, using glue-like fibrin. Rehabilitation of the elbow began immediately following surgery. Summary: Examination and imaging indicated that elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player could be from multiple sources, however, the chronic swelling raised suspicion of a condition requiring immediate and further investigation. PMID:27713578

  6. DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY COMPOSITION OF PLAYERS OF THE POLISH NATIONAL BASEBALL TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełło Marina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the differentiation of body composition among players of Polish national baseball team in comparison to persons of the same population not professionally engaged in sport. The study involved Polish baseball representatives (n=20. Competitors’ age was 18-28 years, body mass from 67.7 kg to 114 kg (85±10.3 kg, and body height 173-196 cm (185.1±4.8. The training experience was 7-14 years and it was highly differentiated. The stoutness factor is the dominant factor among "infielders" and "pitchers", and among "outfielders" - the length one. The proportions of the features within the factors show that players are characterized by a strongly muscled forearm and a shank and by a clear predominance of the elbow width with a disproportionately - to the overall size of the factor - small knee and shoulder width. In the length factor an even contribution of the upper and lower extremity length with lower sitting body height can be noted. Depending on the position on the field there is a differentiation of the internal proportions of the body.

  7. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  8. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  9. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  10. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology.

  11. Ammonia-pellet generation system for the Baseball II-T target plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of a small pellet by a pulsed laser is one method of producing a startup target plasma for plasma experiments employing neutral-beam injection. A system for generating charged, uniformly sized, solid-ammonia, 150-μm-diam, spherical pellets having a charge-to-mass ratio of 10-4 C/kg is described. These pellets are electrostatically guided at a speed of 32 m/sec (over a distance of several meters) to a laser focal zone. This complete system (pellet generation and pellet guidance) has been successfully operated on a 3-m test stand where 250-μm-diam pellets were regularly irradiated by a pulsed, 30-J CO2 laser. The system is now installed on the Baseball II-T experiment; in preliminary tests, several 150-μm-diam pellets were irradiated with the pulsed 300-J CO2 laser

  12. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence-based evaluations and intervention programs to decrease the risk of injury in baseball players.

  13. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Subhas, Naveen [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lynch, T.S. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Bullen, Jennifer A. [Cleveland Clinic, Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, OH (United States); Soloff, Lonnie [Cleveland Indians, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schickendantz, Mark S. [Cleveland Clinic, Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  14. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  15. High-performance vision training improves batting statistics for University of Cincinnati baseball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Clark

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Baseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting. METHODS: All players for the 2010 to 2011 season underwent normal preseason physicals and baseline testing that is standard for the University of Cincinnati Athletics Department. Standard vision training exercises were implemented 6 weeks before the start of the season. Results are reported as compared to the 2009 to 2010 season. Pre season conditioning was followed by a maintenance program during the season of vision training. RESULTS: The University of Cincinnati team batting average increased from 0.251 in 2010 to 0.285 in 2011 and the slugging percentage increased by 0.033. The rest of the Big East's slugging percentage fell over that same time frame 0.082. This produces a difference of 0.115 with 95% confidence interval (0.024, 0.206. As with the batting average, the change for University of Cincinnati is significantly different from the rest of the Big East (p = 0.02. Essentially all batting parameters improved by 10% or more. Similar differences were seen when restricting the analysis to games within the Big East conference. CONCLUSION: Vision training can combine traditional and technological methodologies to train the athletes' eyes and improve batting. Vision training as part of conditioning or injury prevention can be applied and may improve batting performance in college baseball players. High performance vision training can be instituted in the pre-season and maintained throughout the season to improve batting parameters.

  16. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.]. PMID:27045482

  17. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Higuchi

    Full Text Available The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms after the ball release (R+150, occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150, and a condition with no occlusion (NO. Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1. Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001, additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05. The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay.

  18. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success. PMID:26677832

  19. Why are Americans Addicted to Baseball? An Empirical Analysis of Fandom in Korea and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Trenton Smith; Lee, Young H.

    2006-01-01

    Theories of rational addiction posit that certain habit -forming goods "characterized by an increasing marginal utility of consumption "generate predictable dynamic patterns of consumer behavior. It has been suggested that attendance at sporting events represents an example of such a good, as evidenced by the pricing strategies of commercial sports interests. In this essay, we provide new evidence in support of rational addiction for the case of Major League Baseball, but fail to find such su...

  20. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors.

  1. Pelvis and torso kinematics and their relationship to shoulder kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Keeley, David W

    2010-12-01

    It was the purpose of our study to examine the kinematics of the pelvis and torso and determine their relationship to the kinematics of the shoulder in high-school baseball pitchers. A single group, repeated-measures design was used to collect pelvis, torso, and shoulder kinematics throughout the pitching motion. Subjects threw a series of maximal effort fastballs to a catcher located the regulation distance (18.44m) from the pitching mound, and those data from the fastest pitch passing through the strike zone were analyzed. After test trials, kinematic data were analyzed using a series of descriptive statistics to identify outliers and determine the nature of the distribution before testing for the presence of relationships between the various parameters. Results indicated that for several parameters, the actions at and about the shoulder are strongly related to the actions of the pelvis and torso throughout the pitching motion. However, although pelvis and torso kinematics throughout the pitching motion were inversely related to both shoulder elevation and the plane of shoulder elevation, only the rate of axial torso rotation was significantly related to these shoulder parameters. More importantly, the rate of axial torso rotation is significantly related to these shoulder parameters in a way that may help explain the high rate of shoulder injury in high-school pitchers. Therefore, strength training should focus on developing a strong stable core including the gluteal musculature in an attempt to control the rate of torso rotation during the pitch. PMID:20703168

  2. Relation Between Lift Force and Ball Spin for Different Baseball Pitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakata, Hiroki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Although the lift force (FL) on a spinning baseball has been analyzed in previous studies, no study has analyzed such forces over a wide variety of spins. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between FL and spin for different types of pitches thrown by collegiate pitchers. Four high-speed video cameras were used to record flight trajectory and spin for 7 types of pitches. A total of 75 pitches were analyzed. The linear kinematics of the ball was determined at 0.008-s intervals during the flight, and the resultant fluid force acting on the ball was calculated with an inverse dynamics approach. The initial angular velocity of the ball was determined using a custom-made apparatus. Equations were derived to estimate the FL using the effective spin parameter (ESp), which is a spin parameter calculated using a component of angular velocity of the ball with the exception of the gyro-component. The results indicate that FL could be accurately explained from ESp and also that seam orientation (4-seam or 2-seam) did not produce a uniform effect on estimating FL from ESp. PMID:26576060

  3. Origins of superior dynamic visual acuity in baseball players: superior eye movements or superior image processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Uchida

    Full Text Available Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions, whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions. The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina.

  4. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent. PMID:26757065

  5. Rotator Interval Lesion and Damaged Subscapularis Tendon Repair in a High School Baseball Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Muto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, a 16-year-old baseball pitcher visited Nobuhara Hospital complaining of shoulder pain and limited range of motion in his throwing shoulder. High signal intensity in the rotator interval (RI area (ball sign, injured subscapularis tendon, and damage to both the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments were identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Repair of the RI lesion and partially damaged subscapularis tendon was performed in this pitcher. During surgery, an opened RI and dropping of the subscapularis tendon were observed. The RI was closed in a 90° externally rotated and abducted position. To reconfirm the exact repaired state of the patient, arthroscopic examination was performed from behind. However, suture points were not visible in the >30° externally rotated position, which indicates that the RI could not be correctly repaired with the arthroscopic procedure. One year after surgery, the patient obtained full function of the shoulder and returned to play at a national convention. Surgical repair of the RI lesion should be performed in exactly the correct position of the upper extremity.

  6. Unusual chest wall pain caused by thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kinshi; Yabuki, Shoji; Otani, Koji; Nikaido, Takuya; Otoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is clinically rare. There are few cases of disc herniation of the thoracic spine in top athletes described in the literature. We herein present a rare case of chest wall pain due to thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher. A 30-year-old, left-handed pitcher complained of left-sided chest wall pain in the region of his lower ribs during a game. Neurological examination revealed hypoesthesia of the left side of the chest at the level of the lower thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showed a left-sided paramedian disc herniation at the T9-T10 level. The player was initially prescribed rest, administration of pregabalin (150 mg twice a day), and subsequent physical rehabilitation. He was able to resume full training and pitching without medication 6 months after the onset. A follow-up MRI of the thoracic spine showed a reduction in the size of the herniated disc compared to the initial findings. Though relatively rare, thoracic disc herniation should be considered in cases of chest wall pain in athletes. PMID:26983590

  7. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity.

  8. Kinematic comparison of baseball batting off of a tee among various competition levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Brittany; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-09-01

    Determining and understanding baseball batting mechanics at various competition levels may help players and coaches identify key kinematics crucial to being a successful hitter. The purpose of this study was to compare batting kinematics across competition levels. Kinematic and temporal data were analysed for 170 male batters (youth n = 33; high school n = 69; college n = 22; professional n = 46) using 3D motion capture (480 Hz). The results showed differences in angular positions between competition levels during the five phases of the swing, with the greatest differences seen between the youth and professional batters. At the instant of ball contact, professional batters held the bat farther away from their body, with greater back shoulder abduction (35°) and less back elbow flexion (78°) compared to youth (27° and 89°, respectively). These differences were associated with greater back elbow extension velocity for professionals (1539°/s) compared to youth (1174°/s). Additionally, higher level batters had higher bat angular and linear velocities compared to the youth batters. As batters progress through their career, they should focus on their back arm by keeping their elbow up and their arm extended in front of them. PMID:27278749

  9. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

  10. Aerodynamics of the curve-ball: An investigation of the effects of angular velocity on baseball trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaways, Leroy Ward

    In this dissertation the aerodynamic force and initial conditions of pitched baseballs are estimated from high-speed video data. Fifteen parameters are estimated including the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and the angular velocity vector using a parameter estimation technique that minimizes the residual error between measured and estimated trajectories of markers on the ball's surface and the center of mass of pitched baseballs. Studies are carried out using trajectory data acquired from human pitchers and, in a more controlled environment, with a pitching machine. In all 58 pitch trajectories from human pitchers and 20 pitching machine pitches with spin information are analyzed. In the pitching machine trials four markers on the ball are tracked over the first 4 ft (1.22 m) and the center of mass of the ball is tracked over the last 13 ft (3.96 m) of flight. The estimated lift coefficients are compared to previous measured lift coefficients of Sikorsky (Alaways & Lightfoot, 1998) and Watts & Ferrer (1987) and show that significant differences exists in the lift coefficients of two- and four-seam curve balls at lower values of spin parameter, S. As S increased the two- and four-seam lift coefficients merge becoming statistically insignificant. The estimated drag coefficients are compared to drag coefficients of smooth spheres and golf-balls and show that these data sets bound the drag-coefficient of the baseball. Finally, it is shown that asymmetries of the ball associated with the knuckleball can influence the trajectory of the more common curve and fastball.

  11. Mouthguard BITES (behavior, impulsivity, theory evaluation study): what drives mouthguard use among high school basketball and baseball/softball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p basketball and baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes' use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific behavioral and social factors influencing each athlete's decision making regarding use of mouthguards.

  12. On the potential of a chemical Bonds: Possible effects of steroids on home run production in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several baseball players have hit a remarkable number of home runs, and there has been speculation that their achievements were enhanced by the use of anabolic steroids. Basic mechanics and physiology, combined with simple but reasonable models, show that steroid use by a player who is already highly skilled could produce such dramatic increases in home run production. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even modest changes in bat speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 50-100%. The possible effect of steroid use by pitchers is briefly considered.

  13. Do Fans Care about Compliance to Doping Regulations in Sports? The Impact of PED Suspension in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Cisyk, Jeffrey; COURTY, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence in support of the main economic rationale for regulating athletic doping: that doping reduces fan interest. The introduction of random testing for performance-enhancing drugs (PED) by Major League Baseball (MLB) offers unique data to investigate the issue. The announcement of a PED violation: (a) initially reduces home-game attendance by 8 percent, (b) has no impact on home-game attendance after 12 days, and (c) has a small negative impact on the game attendance for o...

  14. Risk Stratification for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury in Major League Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Kriz, Peter K.; Hall, Amber M.; Zurakowski, David; Fadale, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury has become increasingly common in Major League Baseball (MLB) players in recent years. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in preinjury fastball velocity between MLB pitchers with tears and matched controls without UCL injury. Pitchers with injuries are throwing harder and getting injured earlier in their MLB careers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, a total of 170 documented UCL injuries (156 pitchers, 14 position players) occurred in MLB. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of any player who tore his UCL in MLB during this time frame. There were 130 regular-season tears (April-September). From this group, 118 players who pitched more than 100 innings prior to tear were matched to subjects with no tear and were compared using a logistic regression analysis. A subgroup of “early tear” players who threw less than 100 career innings (n = 37) was also identified and compared with the larger tear group using a logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 130 tears that occurred during the regular season, a significantly larger number (62%) occurred in the first 3 months (P = .011). The rate of UCL tears per MLB player (P = .001) was statistically significant. In the group of 118 matched tears, the mean fastball velocity was greater in the tear group (91.7 mph) compared with the control group (91.0 mph; P = .014). Furthermore, relief pitchers made up a greater percentage of the early tear group (statistically significant difference in the mean fastball velocity of pitchers who injure their UCL. Small increases in pitcher fastball velocity are a main contribution to the increased rate of tear in MLB. In addition, there has been an increased incidence of injury in the first 3 months of the season. Finally, early tears are more likely to occur in relief pitchers than starters. PMID:26848482

  15. Injury Trends in Major League Baseball Over 18 Seasons: 1998-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Stan; Camp, Christopher L; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Since Major League Baseball (MLB) expanded to its current size of 30 teams in 1998, a comprehensive and longitudinal study of injury trends has not been performed. The purpose of this work is to report the epidemiology of injuries in MLB over that time utilizing disabled list (DL) data. Additionally, we sought to determine the financial impact of these injuries for MLB teams. During this analysis, we focused special attention on injuries of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) and conducted a comprehensive review of all MUCL reconstructions ever performed on MLB players. Over the study period, there were a total of 8357 DL designations (mean of 464 annually). Players lost a total of 460,432 days (25,186 days annually) due to injury. Both the number of DL assignments and number of DL days increased from year to year (P cost of designating players to the DL was $423,267,634 and a total of $7,618,817,407 was spent over the entire 18 seasons. Regarding MUCL injuries, a total of 400 MUCL reconstructions were performed in MLB players between 1974 and 2015, and the mean time to return to MLB competition was 17.1 months. The annual incidence of MUCL reconstructions increased dramatically from year to year (P < .001) and nearly one-third (n = 131, 32.8%) of all procedures performed over the 42-year period occurred in the last 5 years (2011 to 2015). In summary, overall injury rates and DL assignments continue to rise. Although shoulder injuries are declining, this improvement is countered by increasing elbow injuries, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of lost revenue. PMID:26991562

  16. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-06-18

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  17. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game.

  18. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game. PMID:20435800

  19. Social Emotional Needs: On the Social and Emotional Lives of Gifted Students: Using a Baseball Metaphor to Illustrate the Opportunities of Gifted Students from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the author uses the analogy of baseball to describe the lives of gifted children as a vehicle to think about similarities and differences. The author states that he has experienced how educators often gloss over the powerful and all-inclusive living conditions of high-ability students from financially impoverished backgrounds. In…

  20. 粤、台两地棒球运动发展的差异及其启示%Differences in baseball development between Guangdong and Taiwan and inspirations therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洪

    2014-01-01

    Baseball exiting the Olympic Games has brought serious challenges to baseball development worldwide, while Guangdong baseball faces a choice of its development direction. In order to learning something beneficial from Taiwan’s experience of success in baseball development, and to boost baseball development in Guangdong, the author carried out a comparative analysis on the courses and current situations of baseball development in Guang-dong and Taiwan, and via comparison revealed that with a weak mass foundation, inadequate field construction, fund shortage, as well as incomplete organization and management system, competition system and talent cultiva-tion system, Guangdong baseball had fallen far behind Taiwan. Opportunities should be brought to baseball devel-opment in Guangdong by learning from the experience of baseball development in Taiwan, dialectically looking at the influence brought to Guangdong baseball by baseball exiting the Olympic Games, utilizing existing conditions, and basing the key on university baseball development.%棒球运动退出奥运会给棒球运动在世界范围的发展带来了严峻的挑战,广东棒球运动也面临着发展方向的选择。为了借鉴台湾地区棒垒球运动开展的成功经验,以便取长补短,促进广东地区棒垒球运动的发展,对粤、台两地棒球运动发展历程、开展现状进行对比分析。通过对比看到:广东棒球运动群众基础薄弱,场地建设不足,资金短缺,组织管理制度、竞赛制度、人才培养制度不完善,远远落后于台湾地区。借鉴台湾棒球的发展经验,辨证地看待棒球运动退出奥运会给广东棒球运动带来的影响,借助现有条件,以高校棒球运动发展作为关键点,给广东的棒球运动发展带来机遇。

  1. Difference Between Adolescent and Collegiate Baseball Pitchers in the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Lower Limbs and Trunk During Pitching Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs during the pitching motion. The subjects were thirty-two adolescent baseball pitchers aged 12-15 years (APG and thirty collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years (CPG. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground reaction forces (GRFs of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by the inverse-dynamics computation of musculoskeletal human models using motion-capture data. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRFs data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The velocity of a pitched ball was significantly higher (p < 0.01 in CPG (35.2 ± 1.9 m·s-1 than in the APG (30.7 ± 2.7 m·s-1. Most kinematic parameters for the lower limbs were similar between the CPG and the APG. Maximum Fy (toward the throwing direction on the pivot leg and Fy and resultant forces on the stride leg at ball release were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05. Hip and knee joint torques on the lower limbs were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05. The present study indicates that the kinematics of lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered.

  2. 棒球退出奥运会比赛的现状分析%Analysis of baseball withdraw from the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2012-01-01

    From the London Olympic Games start, baseball is no longer an official Olympic sport. October 7, 2005, the International Olympic Committee should be international bar group requirements, announced the Singapore all the project Settings the vote, baseball project for 50 ticket support, 54 votes against to 4 vote short been ruled out of the London 2012 Olympics. Similarly, baseball missed the 2016 Olympics, these decided to give the world baseball sports development brought serious challenges.Why did the International Olympic Committee this decision? The author through widely data access, baseball games out reason of discussion and analysis, and carries on the induction and summary.%从伦敦奥运套开始,棒球不再是奥运会正式比赛项目。2005年10月7日,一际奥委会应国际棒联的要求,公布了新加坡全全项目设置投票结果,棒球项目因50票支持、54票反对,以4票之差被排除出2012年伦敦奥运会。同样,棒球无缘2016年奥运会,这些决定给世界棒球运动的发展带来了严峻的挑战。为什么国际奥委会做出这一决定,作者通过广泛地查阅资料,就棒球退出奥运会的原因进行探讨和分析,并进行归纳和总结。

  3. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  4. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  5. Modulation of motor area activity by the outcome for a player during observation of a baseball game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotaro Shimada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observing competitive games such as sports is a pervasive entertainment among humans. The inclination to watch others play may be based on our social-cognitive ability to understand the internal states of others. The mirror neuron system, which is activated when a subject observes the actions of others, as well as when they perform the same action themselves, seems to play a crucial role in this process. Our previous study showed that activity of the mirror neuron system was modulated by the outcome of the subject's favored player during observation of a simple competitive game (rock-paper-scissors. However, whether the mirror neuron system responds similarly in a more complex and naturalistic sports game has not yet been fully investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we measured the activity of motor areas when the subjects, who were amateur baseball field players (non-pitchers, watched short movie clips of scenes in professional baseball games. The subjects were instructed to support either a batter or a pitcher when observing the movie clip. The results showed that activity in the motor area exhibited a strong interaction between the subject's supported side (batter or pitcher and the outcome (a hit or an out. When the subject supported the batter, motor area activity was significantly higher when the batter made an out than when he made a hit. However, such modulation was not apparent when the subject supported the pitcher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This result indicates that mirror neuron system activity is modulated by the outcome for a particular player in a competitive game even when observing a complex and naturalistic sports game. We suggest that our inclination to watch competitive games is facilitated by this characteristic of the mirror neuron system.

  6. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery. PMID:26991564

  7. 论如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣%Discuss How to Develop the Beginners’ Learning Interest of Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜楷

    2015-01-01

    通过自身十几年的棒球教学经验,并从各类体育文献上查看相关资料,总结出如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣要点,主要包括初学者心理素质的培养、基本训练兴趣的培养、身体素质兴趣的培养、培养师生关系增加学习兴趣的、规则渗透训练培养、以大带小训练培养、全方位训练培养七个方面进行介绍,希望能为棒球教练员在如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣上提供一定参考。%Through my own teaching experience in baseball over ten years, and consulting the related materials about all kinds of sports literature. Generally speaking, there are seven key points of how to develop the beginners’ learning interest of baseball, mainly including improving beginners’ psychological quality, improving the interest in basic training, improving the interest in physical quality, cultivating the relationship between teachers and students to increase the learning interest, the training with Rules of the penetration, with big with small training, comprehensive training. I look forward to providing references for baseball coaches on how to develop the beginners’ learning interest of baseball.

  8. Chronic pain due to Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in an adolescent baseball pitcher: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylynko, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of chronic Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in reference to pain presentation, physical capabilities, and recovery time. Clinical Features: A 17-year-old, junior baseball pitcher presented with shoulder pain when performing high velocity pitching. Conservative treatment for an assumed soft tissue injury failed to resolve the pain, which was regularly aggravated by pitching, and which subsequently prompted further evaluation, and eventual confirmation of Little Leaguer’s Shoulder on subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Intervention and Outcome: Prior to proper diagnosis, conservative treatment had consisted of activity modification, spinal adjusting, laser therapy, shockwave therapy, Active Release Techniques®, Kinesiotape,® and rehabilitation. Later, rehabilitation, consisting of general muscle and core strengthening, continued for a further six months under the supervision of college athletic trainers. The athlete was able to return to normal pitching duties approximately 12 months later. Summary: In this case, a potentially damaging bone injury masquerading as a simple musculo-tendinous injury created a diagnostic challenge. The patient eventually recovered with rest, time, strengthening, and eventual compliance to prescribed activity modification. PMID:26815884

  9. Conception season and cerebral asymmetries among American baseball players: implications for the seasonal birth effect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Giovanni; Fraser, Frank Clarke

    2009-05-30

    People with schizophrenia and children born with neural tube defects both tend to be conceived most often in May-June, about a month before the summer solstice, and least often in November-December, a month before the winter solstice. Such timings, coupled with evidence of cerebral asymmetry deficits in schizophrenia, and evidence that asymmetry development and neural tube closure represent concurrent fourth-embryonic-week processes both sensitive to oxidant stress, led us to the hypothesis that pro-oxidant sunlight actions capable of affecting the mother's blood could result in a peri-June peak of inhibition and a peri-December peak of facilitation of both processes. Here, using birth and hand preference data from baseball statistics, we tested the hypothesis's prediction that, as a group representing minimal cerebral lateralization, left-handed players would show the same conception rhythm as that observed in the above disorders. We found that not only strict left-handers (those both batting and throwing left) were most often conceived in May-June but that also strict right-handers and other players denoting more extreme levels of cerebral lateralization were most often conceived in November-December. PMID:19395089

  10. An inferential and descriptive statistical examination of the relationship between cumulative work metrics and injury in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L

    2013-08-01

    In Major League Baseball (MLB), games pitched, total innings pitched, total pitches thrown, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game are used to measure cumulative work. Often, pitchers are allocated limits, based on pitches thrown per game and total innings pitched in a season, in an attempt to prevent future injuries. To date, the efficacy in predicting injuries from these cumulative work metrics remains in question. It was hypothesized that the cumulative work metrics would be a significant predictor for future injury in MLB pitchers. Correlations between cumulative work for pitchers during 2002-07 and injury days in the following seasons were examined using regression analyses to test this hypothesis. Each metric was then "binned" into smaller cohorts to examine trends in the associated risk of injury for each cohort. During the study time period, 27% of pitchers were injured after a season in which they pitched. Although some interesting trends were noticed during the binning process, based on the regression analyses, it was found that no cumulative work metric was a significant predictor for future injury. It was concluded that management of a pitcher's playing schedule based on these cumulative work metrics alone could not be an effective means of preventing injury. These findings indicate that an integrated approach to injury prevention is required. This approach will likely involve advanced cumulative work metrics and biomechanical assessment. PMID:23090322

  11. A comparison of throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Yu; Learman, Kenneth E; Tsai, Yung-Shen

    2010-06-30

    Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth PMID:21793324

  12. Team Payroll, Competitive Balance, and Team Performance in the Japan Professional Baseball League: A Study using 1993-2004 Panel Data.

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMURA, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    This research aimed to explore how a team payroll has an effect on team performance as measured by the winning percentage using panel data of the Japan Professional Baseball League; separately for each of the Central and the Pacific Leagues. The major finding is that a team payroll has a remarkably positive impact on the outcomes of Pacific League team performance; however it has none on central League teams. The reason why such different results are brought about is that the popularity of t...

  13. Comparative analysis on the physique and batting records of the players in the National Summer High School Baseball Tournaments before and after the adoption of metal bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Hayato; Mino, Yoshio; Babazono, Akira; Ogawa,Takanori; Aoyama, Hideyasu

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the influence of the introduction of metal bats on the physique and batting records of the players in the National Summer High School Baseball Tournaments, a comparative analysis was conducted between height, body weight, body-weight ratio (body weight/height), batting average and home run average of the best four teams' players (n = 493) and those of the other teams' players (n = 4,590) in three periods: the period of the use of wooden bats, that of the use of both wooden and meta...

  14. You Can’t Think and Hit at the Same Time: Neural Correlates of Baseball Pitch Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eSherwin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hitting a baseball is often described as the most difficult thing to do in sports. A key aptitude of a good hitter is the ability to determine which pitch is coming. This rapid decision requires the batter to make a judgment in a fraction of a second based largely on the trajectory and spin of the ball. When does this decision occur relative to the ball’s trajectory and is it possible to identify neural correlates that represent how the decision evolves over a split second? Using single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG we address this question within the context of subjects discriminating three types of pitches (fastball, curveball, slider based on pitch trajectories. We find clear neural signatures of pitch classification and, using signal detection theory, we identify the times of discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Based on these neural signatures we estimate neural discrimination distributions as a function of the distance the ball is from the plate. We find all three pitches yield unique distributions, namely the timing of the discriminating neural signatures relative to the position of the ball in its trajectory. For instance, fastballs are discriminated at the earliest points in their trajectory, relative to the two other pitches, which is consistent with the need for some constant time to generate and execute the motor plan for the swing (or inhibition of the swing. We also find incorrect discrimination of a pitch (errors yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10, which has been implicated in prospective memory, recall and task difficulty. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative distributions of the relative point in a baseball’s trajectory when the batter makes a decision on which pitch is coming.

  15. Sistema para el Manejo de un Tablero Electrónico de Béisbol Control System for an Electronic Baseball Scoreboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un sistema controlador para un tablero electrónico de béisbol. El sistema permite la captura de las anotaciones durante un partido de béisbol, las cuales serán utilizadas para realizar las estadísticas. También permite almacenar un listado de los equipos y jugadores participantes dentro de la liga. A través de un puerto paralelo el sistema controla remotamente el tablero electrónico que se encuentra en el fondo del estadio. Los datos del marcador también pueden ser consultados desde una página web. La página web es útil para mantener informado al público interesado ya que permite ver las estadísticas de los juegos y el seguimiento del partido en tiempo real.The aim of this paper is to present a controller system for an electronic baseball scoreboard. The system allows capturing baseball games scores, which will be used for statistical purposes. It also allows storing a list of teams and players who are league members. The system remotely controls the electronic board located at the end of the stadium, through the parallel port. The score data can be also consulted from a web page. The web page is useful to keep the users informed since all statistics of a game can be followed in real time.

  16. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  17. Avaliação do ombro doloroso no jogador de beisebol Evaluation of painful shoulder in baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar em jogadores de beisebol a relação entre mobilidade e força do ombro e a presença de dor. MÉTODOS: Entre abril e julho de 2009 foram avaliados 55 jogadores de beisebol pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Todos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 15 e 33 anos (média de 21, média de três treinos por semana e tempo médio de prática da modalidade de 10 anos. RESULTADOS: 14 dos 55 atletas avaliados eram arremessadores, 20 referiram dor no arremesso. As médias de rotação lateral, medial e amplitude de movimento (ADM do ombro dominante foram de 110º, 61º e 171º, respectivamente, com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação ao membro não dominante. Arremessadores tiveram maior ganho de rotação lateral e déficit de rotação medial que os não arremessadores. Dor teve correlação estaticamente significante com ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes na mobilidade do ombro dominante com aumento da rotação lateral, diminuição da rotação medial e menor amplitude de movimento, em relação ao membro contralateral. Foram encontradas relações estatisticamente significantes entre maior ganho de rotação lateral e diminuição da rotação medial e a posição de arremessador. Houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre dor e ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". Existe uma tendência estatística sugerindo que os atletas com rotação medial do ombro dominante diminuída tenham relação com dor.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. METHODS: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical

  18. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  19. Reavaliação do ombro doloroso em atletas de beisebol após tratamento conservador Reassessment of painful shoulders among baseball players after conservative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os resultados da reabilitação nos jogadores de beisebol que possuíam dor e déficit de rotação medial no ombro. MÉTODOS: Dos 55 atletas avaliados no período de abril a junho de 2009, observou-se que 20 atletas tinham dor em algum momento do arremesso. Eles foram orientados a realizar um programa de reabilitação com exercícios para alongamento da cápsula posterior e reforço dos músculos da cintura escapular, especialmente os rotadores laterais. Dezoito pacientes seguiram as orientações, dois perderam o seguimento. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: dor, amplitude de movimento e força pré e pós o término do programa. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação final, em comparação com a inicial, observamos: aumento em média da elevação de 10º (p = 0,001, de três níveis vertebrais da rotação medial (p OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the rehabilitation results among baseball players who presented pain and medial rotation deficit in their shoulders. METHODS: Out of 55 baseball players assessed between April and June 2009, it was observed that 20 presented pain at some instant during throwing movements. They were advised to undergo a rehabilitation program with exercises to stretch the posterior capsule and reinforce the muscles of the scapular belt, especially the lateral rotators. Eighteen patients followed the advice, while two were lost from the follow-up. The parameters evaluated were: pain, range of motion, strength before the program and strength after the end of the program. RESULTS: Comparing the initial and final assessments, we observed mean increases as follows: 10º of elevation (p = 0.001; three vertebral levels of medial rotation (p < 0.001; 20º of medial rotation at 90º abduction (p < 0.001; and 26º of range of motion (p < 0.001. Regarding strength, elevation force increased by 3 kgf (p = 0.002 and lateral rotation force increased by 1 kgf (p = 0

  20. Analysis of Range of Motion and Isokinetic Strength of Internal and External Rotation According to Humeral Retroversion of the Dominant Shoulder in Youth Baseball Players: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Yob Rhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyze the range of motion (ROM and internal rotation (IR and external rotation (ER isokinetic strength according to humeral retroversion of the dominant shoulder.We included 40 elite baseball players in Korea (OBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning >10 years, age: 19.37±2.21 years, height: 181.00±5.41 cm, weight: 84.58±7.85 kg; BBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning 10 years had significantly higher humeral retroversion, IROM, EROM, and IR and ER isokinetic strength of the dominant shoulder than youth players with careers spanning <10 years. Furthermore, humeral retroversion and ROM were not significantly related, but IR and ER isokinetic strength were significantly positively related with retroversion in both groups.

  1. Nostalgia-Related Aspects of Professional Sport Facilities: A Facility Audit of Major League Baseball and National Football League Strategies to Evoke the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Seifried

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on documenting how Major League Baseball (MLB and the National Football League (NFL utilize nostalgia through their sport facilities to showcase the past, present and even the future. This study involved the collection and examination of several facility elements through a facility audit. Data was collected on nostalgia inducing elements by using facility and renovation documents/blueprints and announcements, archived data, published websites, facility visits, and interaction/contact with front office employees. The collected information led the researchers to determine that MLB and NFL teams use specific strategies or tactics within their facilities to create or evoke nostalgia. Furthermore, there are opportunities for each organization to attract more live and remote spectators to their venue and organizational-sponsored events in order to establish or maintain membership in their fan nation through methods which center on enhancing the nostalgic experience.

  2. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of An Athletic Trainer-Directed Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco Intervention for Collegiate Baseball Athletes: Results After 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansky, Stuart A; Ellison, James A; Rudy, Diane; Bergert, Ned; Letendre, Mark A; Nelson, Lisa; Kavanagh, Catherine; Walsh, Margaret M

    2005-06-01

    Context: Athletes in the United States are at high risk for using spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) and incurring its associated adverse health effects.Objective: To examine whether an athletic trainer-directed ST intervention could decrease initiation and promote cessation of ST use among male collegiate baseball athletes.Design: Stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial.Setting: Fifty-two California colleges.Patients or Other Participant(s): A total of 883 subjects in 27 intervention colleges and 702 subjects in 25 control colleges participated, as did 48 certified athletic trainers.Intervention(s): For college athletic trainers and associated dental professionals, a 3-hour video conference, and for collegiate athletes, an oral cancer screening with feedback and brief counseling during the preseason health screenings, athletic trainer support for cessation, and a peer-led educational baseball team meeting.Main Outcome Measure(s): The subjects' ST use over 1 year was assessed by self-report. At the end of the study, the certified athletic trainers were mailed a survey assessing their tobacco use and perceptions and behavior related to tobacco control in the athletic environment. We used multivariable logistic regression models for clustered responses (generalized estimating equations) to test the difference between groups in ST-use initiation and cessation and to identify significant overall predictors of noninitiation and cessation of ST use.Results: Of the 1585 athletes recruited, 1248 (78.7%) were followed up at 12 months. In addition, 48 of the 52 athletic trainers (92%) responded to the 1-year follow-up survey. The ST-use initiation (incidence) was 5.1% in intervention colleges and 8.4% in control colleges (generalized estimating equation odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.35-0.99). Predictors of ST noninitiation were low lifetime tobacco and monthly alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.40- 2.82) and athletic trainers

  3. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  4. 應用 Google Analytics 於數位典藏網站計量分析 A Web Metrics Study on Taiwan Baseball Wiki Using Google Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 數位典藏系統的最終目的是為了提供使用者使用,因此,必須從使用者角度評估系統的設計,以充分掌握使用者需求,發掘系統潛在問題,藉以改善系統、提升品質與增進使用者滿意度。本研究選擇以使用者到訪率極高的數位典藏網站-「台灣棒球維基館」為對象,利用著名的網站計量軟體GoogleAnalytics做為主要分析工具,再輔以問卷調查結果,希望能掌握使用者的多樣面貌,包括:誰在使用?何時使用?何地使用?使用何物?如何使用q工具,有效地分析網站營運成果,解析網站使用客群,據以調整網站未來經營方向。The ultimate purpose of digital archives is to provide users with an easy access to archived data. The assessment of the website with digital archives should be from the user’s perspectives so that users’ needs can be better understood, the potential design problems can be easily revealed, and the websites can be improved accordingly. This study analyzed Taiwan Baseball Wiki, a very popular website dedicated to baseball archives in Taiwan. Google Analytics, a well-known web metrics tool, was used as the primary research instrument. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the users’ profile. Questions such as the 5W1H (i.e., who, when, where, why, what, and how questions regarding the users and the use of the website, and the satisfaction level of the users are investigated. The results of the research provided valuable reference for future improvement of the website, especially for the areas of website management and administration. Furthermore, this study recommended web metrics tools to other websites which provide digital archives. The application of these tools can help with understanding and optimizing web usage.

  5. The Development of Training Model Based on Theory of Planned Behavior and Willingness to Behave Higienic Practices for The Food Handler at Foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handajani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Training is not always change the personal behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2005, the behavior intention is influence by three factors including the attitude, the subjective norms and the perceived behavior control (PBC. Willingness is the independent concept of the presumption behavior and influenced by intention as well. The aim of  this study was to develop training model based on the theory of planned behavior and and willingness to higienic behavior for the food handler at foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya and implementation analysis of the development of training model. The development of the training model is using preliminary investigation phase, design phase and implementation. Partial Least Square (PLS was performed. The effectiveness of training model was analyzed by using t test with two paired samples (paired t - test. The result of food handlers hygienic behavioral analisys showed: PBC had contributed the most to the intentions through the willingness to behave hygienic practices, compared to the contribution of the attitude, subjective norm and PBC directly against the intention. These results could be used to develop a model of training for food handlers at the venue. The training was significantly effective (paired t test, p <0,05 in increasing the knowledge, practicing the hygienic behavior, attitude, subjective norm, PBC, intention and willingness of hygienic behavior of food handlers. The practicality of evaluation model was obtained by instructor assessment activities in very good result (88,42, 96% of trainees could participate well, and 89% of trainees responded well to the training. This training model was effectively proven to be used in increasing the intention of hygienic behavior of food handlers.

  6. 台灣棒球維基館網站推展成效探討 Evaluating the Effectiveness of TaiwanBaseballWiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 本文旨在探討台灣棒球維基館成立兩年餘之發展成效。首先,本研究分析2005/4/14至2007/8/19期間之相關數據,發現:(一網站瀏覽量共3600多萬次,其中74%來自前20%的高流量頁面;瀏覽量月成長率平均值約15%;(二註冊使用者月成長率平均值約33%,雖已有880餘位,但編寫10次以上者僅163人,只佔18.43%,卻完成了高達91%的內容,而使用者中1.9%的17位核心使用者更貢獻了80.8%的主要內容;(三頁面月成長率平均值約6.06%,在一萬多個內容頁面中,每日平均被瀏覽10次以上的僅有915頁。其次,本研究針對使用者進行問卷調查,結果顯示:(一受訪者以年輕球迷居多,平均年齡24.8歲;(二受訪者有64%未註冊帳號,多數原因為只做短暫的查詢;(三受訪者僅有34%曾參與寫作,其動機以增進內容豐富性佔多數。此外,本文綜合多項指標,提出一個客觀的核心頁面評定準則,並建議台灣棒球維基館在進一步掌握使用者特性後,應加強內容品質之提升,並積極推展具歷史傳承、知識深化等價值之內容,以平衡目前較偏重於當代職棒明星之走向。This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TaiwanBaseballWiki, established in 2005. First, the researchers collected data and analyzed the web logs from April 14, 2005 to August 19, 2007. A number of statistical measurements were used to analyze the data. The results show that 1. The number of page views has grown by almost 15% per month on average; 74% of page views came from 20% high browsing pages; 2. The registered users has grown by nearly 33% every month on average. It is also found that only 163 users have edited more than 10 times and were accounted for 91% of all the editing. Among them, the most active 1.9% of the users did 80.8% of all the editing; 3. The pages have grown by almost 6.06% per month on average, and only 8

  7. 腹部小切口及棒球缝合在大子宫肌瘤剔除术中的应用%Evaluation of Minilaparotomy and Baseball Suture in Myomectomy for Large Hysteromyoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申爱方; 李少丛; 由卫芝; 焦盈盈

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of Minilaparotomy and Baseball suture in myomectomy for large hysteromyoma.Method:24 patients with large hysteromyoma as the research group were operated by minilaparotomy,the myoma wounds were used baseball suture to closed tumor cavity,and the hysteromyoma were taked out with electric uterus removal device;30 patients were treated by traditional method as the control group.The duration of operation,blood loss, time needed for recovery were observed.Result:The two groups showed the same time of operation and amount of bleed loss, the difference was no statistically significant(P>0.05); the research group needed shorter time for evacuation time and hospital stays than the control group, the difference was statistically significant(P0.05);而研究组术后排气时间及住院时间明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:腹部小切口及棒球缝合用于子宫肌瘤剔除术优于传统开腹手术。

  8. Sports courtyard school-operated high level baseball team training and management research%体育院校办高水平棒球队训练与管理研究--以天津体育学院棒球队为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路欢

    2013-01-01

    Along with the baseball movement in the domestic popularization, the baseball movement more and more receives takes, each provinces and cities sports colleges and universities also all invest the vision to this item have the development, has in the potential movement project, but the sports courtyard school-operated high level baseball team also has many difficulties, how handles the high level baseball Sports Team, the sports courtyard school-operated high level Sports Team's development pattern also is how, how between the training time and does the study conflict solve, these questions all are worth us considering.%  随着棒球运动在国内的普及,棒球运动越来越受到重视,各个省市的体育运动院校也都将目光投入到这项有发展,有潜力的运动项目上,但是体育运动院校办高水平棒球队还有许多的困难,如何办好高水平棒球运动队,体育院校办高水平运动队的发展模式又是怎样的,训练时间与学习之间的冲突如何解决,这些问题都是值得我们考虑的。

  9. 棒球缝合法在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中的应用%Application of baseball suture in laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromyoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干晓琴; 刘江; 林海; 张凌; 张强; 黄利琼; 张家佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of the baseball suture in laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromy-oma.Methods Ninety-six patients with gigantic hysteromyoma undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy at our department from January, 2013 to December,2015 were randomly divided into research group ( using Lin's baseball suture) and control group ( with classical con-tinuous suture) ,48 cases in each group.The suture time,whole operation time,intraoperative blood loss,postoperative complications and hospital stay were compared between the two groups.Results The average intraoperative blood loss in the research group was signifi-cantly lower than that in the control group (P0.05).No postoperative complications happened in the both groups.Conclusion In laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromyoma,baseball suture can reduce the intraoperative blood loss.Therefore,it is a very good method for clinical application.%目的:观察棒球缝合法在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中的应用效果。方法将2013年01月至2015年12月在成都市妇女儿童中心医院妇科接受腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术的患者96例,采用随机数字表法分为研究组(采用棒球缝合法)和对照组(采用传统连续扣锁缝合法),每组48例,比较两组子宫肌瘤剥除创面缝合时间、手术总时间、术中出血量、住院天数及术后并发症情况。结果研究组患者术中出血量明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);两组术中缝合肌瘤剥除创面时间、手术总时间、术后住院天数比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。两组患者均无术中术后并发症发生。结论在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中采用棒球缝合法可以减少术中出血量,是一种值得临床应用的好方法。

  10. Reducción del costo de transportación en las Series Nacionales de Béisbol empleando metaheurísticas//Metaheuristics for the reduction of transportation cost in Baseball National Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosete-Suárez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo demuestra cómo se pueden disminuir el costo de transportación en las Series Nacionales de Béisbol de Cuba reduciendo la distancia total recorrida por los equipos. Se planteó el problema de optimización correspondiente para luego enfrentar su solución usando varias metaheurísticas, en el problema de la construcción de los calendarios de las tres Series Nacionales de Béisbol más recientes. Los resultados mejores los obtuvieron las metaheurísticas RRT y Escalador de Colinas. Los calendarios obtenidos ahorran entre un 13 y un 29% de la distancia total recorrida y se obtienen en menos del 1% del tiempo empleado por los expertos humanos que diseñaron los calendarios oficiales de esascompetencias. Estos resultados muestran que el uso más eficiente de los portadores energéticos puede enfocarse desde la perspectiva de la optimización de los kilómetros recorridos usando metaheurísticas.Palabras claves: metaheurísticas, problema de optimización combinatoria, problema de la transportación en un torneo, calendario deportivo.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper shows that the transportation cost of Baseball National Series may be reduced using metaheuristics. This may be achieved by the reduction of the total distance of the itineraries of the teams. First, the corresponding optimization problem is defined. Then, the solution is faced using metaheuristics. Many metaheuristics were compared in the optimization of the schedules of the last three Baseball National Series. The best results were obtained by RRT and Hill Climbing. The schedules obtained by these metaheuristics allow to save between 13 and 29% of the overall distance travelled by teams, respect to the official schedules designed by human experts. Also, the time to obtain the schedules with metaheuristics is about 1% of the time used by human experts. These results show that a better used of combustible can

  11. Experimental Research on How Baseball Teaching Model in Colleges Affects Students’ Physical Health%高校棒垒球教学模式改革对学生体质健康影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国胜

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore how different baseball teach-ing models affect college students’ physical health,this re-search group takes two different teaching models, which are Regular Teaching and Competitive Teaching. We have carried out 1 15 - week teaching experiment on 166 students from the Baseball Club in our institute. The final result demonstrates that the performances of the students from Regular Team in force, speed as well as flexibility have been improved greatly ( P<0. 05 ) , while students’ performance from Experimental Group have been even better(P<0. 001). Moreover,boy students’ chin-ups have been improved sharply. Thus, we can make a conclusion that the two teaching models mentioned above both have a positive effect on boys’ upper limp,as well as their speed, endurance, flexibility, and so on. Competitive Teaching model has an obvious advantage over students’ physical health.%为了探索在不同教学模式下实施棒垒球教学对学生体质健康促进的影响,课题组采用常规教学和竞赛法教学两种模式、对166名棒垒球俱乐部学生、实施了为期15周的教学实验。结果显示:实验前、后在力量、速度、耐力和柔韧等身体素质达标成绩方面,常规组学生成绩提高显著( P<0.05);竞赛组学生成绩提高非常显著( P<0.001);且两组男生引体向上成绩提高特别显著。结论是两种模式棒垒球教学,均对男生上肢力量发展有非常显著促进作用;均对学生速度、耐力、柔韧等身体素质提高有明显促进作用;竞赛法教学模式在提高学生身体素质方面具有明显优势。

  12. Baseball sport adapts college students ability of the orientation society%棒垒球运动对大学生社会适应能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晨

    2013-01-01

    Baseball is an aspect of education of school, not only can strengthen the high school student's physical endowment, but also contribute to the brave and stubborn personality of the student in the development high school, surmounting the quality of the ego, greeting the will of the challenge and undertaking the ability of the risk, helping and developping the high school student's competition consciousness and cooperating the ability of the spirit and the human relations association, to adapt the society. Along with the progress of the society, civilized development of mankind, society the competition is gradually vigorous. Therefore, for adapting the demand of the social development, the modern athletics teaching should pay attention to foster the high school student's ability of the orientation society.%  棒垒球运动作为学校教育的一个方面,不仅可以增强大学生的体质,而且有助于培养大学学生勇敢顽强的性格,超越自我的品质,迎接挑战的意志和承担风险的能力,有助与培养大学生的竞争意识、合作精神和人际交往的能力,以适应社会。随着社会的进步,人类文明的发展,社会竞争日趋激烈。因此,为了适应社会发展的需要,现代棒垒球运动应注重培养大学生适应社会的能力。

  13. Sport: The Liveliest Art. Diamonds Are a Publisher's Best Friend: The Baseball Mystique and Scholarly Publishing; "Take Me Out to the Ball Game...." The Importance of Archiving Sporting Activities; Telling the Story: Museums and Libraries Partner To Make Sport History Live; "I'm Not Surfing. This is My Job"; Sideline: Webliography of General Sports Sites: The Big Four; Public Libraries Step Up to the Plate: Knowing and Responding to the Needs of Our Rapidly Changing Communities; Sideline: Sports Fiction; Ten Best Sport Titles...in My Public Library, in My Media Center, in My High School Library, in My Academic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve; Wise, Suzanne; Koonts, Russell S.; Sumner, Jim; Meier, James R.; Gonzalez, Lena; Ruszczyk, James R.; Fiedler, Stephanie; Mayo, Kim P.; Holmes, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Eight articles in this section focus on sports: the baseball mystique and scholarly publishing; importance of archiving sporting activities; museums and libraries partner to make sport history live; online resources for sports information; Webliography of general sports sites; public libraries responding to changing needs; sports fiction; and "ten…

  14. INTEGRACIÓN FONÉTICA Y MORFOLÓGICA DE LOS PRESTAMOS: DATOS DEL LÉXICO DOMINICANO DEL BÉISBOL THE PHONETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL INTEGRATION OF LOANWORDS: A STUDY OF THE VOCABULARY OF BASEBALL IN DOMINICAN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO ALBA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia el proceso de adaptación fonética y de integración morfológica de que son objeto los préstamos del inglés en el campo léxico del béisbol en el español de la República Dominicana. Los datos proceden de tres fuentes de información: transmisiones radiales y televisivas; un test asociativo que recoge el léxico disponible en ese centro de interés; un cuestionario dirigido. El análisis conduce a la conclusión de que la entrada de nuevos elementos léxicos procedentes del inglés no implica ningún peligro de alteración del español porque el sistema tiene la capacidad de asimilarlos e integrarlos de acuerdo con su propia estructura. En este sentido, la llegada de los préstamos puede verse como un fenómeno natural mediante el cual la lengua amplía y enriquece su caudal léxico, sin que al hacerlo se trastornen sus estructuras fonológica y morfológicaThis article examines the processes of phonetic adaptation and morphological integration affecting baseball terms imported from English into Dominican Spanish. The data are taken from three sources: television and radio broadcasts; a word association test designed to elicit speakers' available lexicon in this semantic field; a questionnaire administered under controlled conditions. Analysis of the data indicates that the importation of new lexical items from English does not represent a threat for Spanish since the Spanish linguistic system has the ability to assimilate and integrate such items by adapting them to its own structures. In this sense, the arrival of loanwords may be viewed as a natural phenomenon that enables the language to expand and enrich its lexis without disrupting its phonological and morphological structures in the process

  15. Long-Term Contracts in Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Hakes, Jahn K.; Chad Turner

    2008-01-01

    Long-term deals are one tool that both players and franchises use to manage risk. That tool has been much discussed and empirically tested with respect to player shirking, and has more briefly, and only theoretically, discussed with respect to reducing variance in future payrolls. Our work looks at how patterns of use of long-term contracts are affected by changes in contracting rules established through collective bargaining and by expected changes in franchise revenue streams. To accomplish...

  16. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Joel R; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text]) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active) showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points), while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research. PMID:23251507

  17. Kinematics and Kinetics of Youth Baseball Catchers and Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the throwing kinematics and kinetics of youth catchers and pitchers. It was hypothesized that catchers and pitchers would exhibit differences throughout the throwing motion. Descriptive statistics were used to investigate kinematics during the four events of throwing: foot contact (FC, maximum shoulder external rotation (MER, ball release (BR and maximum shoulder internal rotation (MIR. Additionally, kinetics were investigated within phases of the events: Phase 1 (cocking; FC to MER, Phase 2 (acceleration; MER to BR and Phase 3 (deceleration; BR to MIR. Results revealed significant difference in torso flexion, lateral flexion, pelvis lateral flexion and segment velocities between the catchers and pitchers. Based on data from the current study, it appears that the youth catchers execute their throw as they have been instructed. It is unclear if the throwing mechanics displayed by these youth are efficient for a catcher, thus further investigation is needed to determine long-term injury susceptibility.

  18. Combining clustering and time series for baseball forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Fernández de Lezeta, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    El mundo de las apuestas deportivas ha crecido como uno de los mayores negocios en los últimos años. Las compañías de apuestas generan enormes cantidades de dinero con la ayuda de las nuevas tecnologías, que acercan los deportes profesionales a gente de todo el mundo, interesados tanto en esos deportes como en las apuestas. Los sistemas de predicción son una de las principales herramientas requeridas por dichas compañías de apuestas para establecer las cuotas. El análisis estadístico de los e...

  19. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R Bock

    Full Text Available Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text] were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points, while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

  20. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  1. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  2. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity...

  3. Dynamic Pricing Behavior in Perishable Goods Markets: Evidence from Secondary Markets for Major League Baseball Tickets

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sweeting

    2012-01-01

    Sellers of perishable goods increasingly use dynamic pricing strategies as technology makes it easier to change prices and track inventory. This paper tests how accurately theoretical models of dynamic pricing describe sellers' behavior in secondary markets for event tickets, a classic example of a perishable good. It shows that the simplest dynamic pricing models describe very accurately both the pricing problem faced by sellers and how they behave, explaining why sellers cut prices dramatic...

  4. Mock Arbitration--Conflict Resolution in Major League Baseball: Sports and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degelman, Charles; Hayes, Bill

    This lesson plan uses students' interest in sports to teach good citizenship. With its focus on rules, responsibility, conflict resolution, and teamwork, the unit emphasizes the development of critical thinking, decision-making, and citizenship skills in young people. This lesson plan is part of a series of fully prepared, interactive classroom…

  5. Paper Towels, Baseball, Puzzles, Nuts & Bolts & the TI-83Plus STAT Tests Menu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Barbara

    This collection of activities is designed to show how graphing calculators can be used to explore statistics. The activities address such topics as data representation, distributions, and statistical tests. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

  6. Subsidized Monopolists and Product Prices: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze the setting of ticket prices when teams receive subsidization from the public. I model teams as entertainment providers, where entertainment is generated by selling wins and amenities. I argue that subsidization of teams generally comes from subsidizing the amenities in and surrounding the teams’ stadiums. Subsidization of the amenities lowers the marginal cost of providing them to fans and should drive ticket prices lower. The empirical analysis suggests that this is...

  7. Conceptual Continuity and the Science of Baseball: Using Informal Science Literacy to Promote Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This project explores "conceptual continuity" as a framework for understanding students' native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association. This perspective can reveal the varied relationships…

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BASEBALL BATS AND GOLF CLUBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

  9. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4 with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch, and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

  10. Sports "modernes", sports "archaïques" ? : A propos de quelques oppositions entre baseball et cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Darbon, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    The term "sport" is, by common agreement, used to designate a number of pratices developped in the United Kingdom and in North America in the course of the 19th century, such practices being totally different to leisure activities prior to that time. However, this innovative terminology is far from describing the same activities on both sides of the Atlantic. Very early on, one finds oneself faced with two quite different ideas of sport : in the one case we might refer to "old fashioned" acti...

  11. Error reduction by combining strapdown inertial measurement units in a baseball stitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Leah

    A poor musical performance is rarely due to an inferior instrument. When a device is under performing, the temptation is to find a better device or a new technology to achieve performance objectives; however, another solution may be improving how existing technology is used through a better understanding of device characteristics, i.e., learning to play the instrument better. This thesis explores improving position and attitude estimates of inertial navigation systems (INS) through an understanding of inertial sensor errors, manipulating inertial measurement units (IMUs) to reduce that error and multisensor fusion of multiple IMUs to reduce error in a GPS denied environment.

  12. Radio-ulnar joint supinates around ball release during baseball fastball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Jinji, Tsutomu; Hirayama, Daisaku; Nasu, Daiki; Ozaki, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether a supination phase of the forearm exists around ball release (BRL), and, if present, to determine whether this supination is explained by a reaction force or by the body configuration required for this task. A 16-camera motion analysis system with a sampling frequency of 1,000 Hz recorded 20 healthy male semi-professional pitchers pitching from an indoor pitching mound. A short supination phase around BRL was confirmed for all participants in the current study. Correlation analyses revealed that the supination angle at BRL had significant relationships with several measurements of shoulder movement kinematics. Mechanical work analysis of the forearm's longitudinal axis revealed several variations in joint power curve and various patterns of mechanical work among the participants, suggesting that a reaction force originating from accelerating a ball might not be the main cause of supination. The raw data also were down-sampled to a sampling frequency of 250 Hz, to match previous studies and to investigate the discrepancy among previous studies concerning the existence of the supination phase. The experience of participants and methodological differences, such as the definition of BRL and the time-normalisation technique, influenced whether the supination phase was observed. PMID:27111583

  13. Analyzing the Relationship between Baseball and Social Capital in the United States; Professional Sport as a Medium of Americanization --- رابطه سرمايه اجتماعي و بيسبال در ايالات متحده آمريکا: ورزش حرفه‌اي ابزاري براي توسعه قدرت آمريکا

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Reza Ameli, ssameli@ut.ac.ir- سعيد رضا عاملي

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available American Studies purports a wide range of issues including American civil society, social capital and its popular sports. The recent studies on social capital in the United States reveal the importance and attraction of the issue among the American scholars and policy makers. Nonetheless, social capital is the focal point of social and political critics as well. Social capital is the sum of the totality of civil society as a third form of control beside the government as the primary and the market as the secondary forms. The special indication here is on the fact that in any society popular activities are in meaningful association with voluntary participation; hence, in any given nation the civil society conglomerates the collective action along the lines of whatever ritual, norm or activity that suggests more familiar national connotations. The present survey aims to consider social capital in the United States in relation to an instance of voluntary collective activity i.e. baseball. As the American middle class sport, baseball is the American pastime. By baseball participation both playing of the game and spectatorship, either in the form of attending the field or following through the media, are intended. The findings of the survey reveal the absence of causal relationship between baseball participation and social capital. In other words, unlike the variation in social capital, the middle class activity of baseball participation maintains secure digits. Therefore, according to the findings of the survey, the second hypothesis suggesting the meaningful association between baseball participation and social capital is confirmed. Meanwhile, the role of baseball as a major American icon in the Americanization process institutionalized among other countries is another concern of the study, elaborated it is in the conclusion. ---این مقاله بخشی از نتایج یک پژوهش بوده و در پيمطالعه رابطه سرمايه

  14. 明治期における秋田県での野球受容と統制について

    OpenAIRE

    森田, 信博; MORITA, Nobuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The porpose of this study was intended to investigate the diffusion, fixation and control of baseball in Akita in the Meiji era.As the generalization of this study, I present follwing points.1) Baseball was introduced by S.Hosoi from Tokyo first in 1885 in Akita.As continually holding baseball matches, "Champion flag" (from 1899)and "Charellenge cup" (from 1900), baseball was developed specially in public middle schools.2) As result of Baseball Controversy baseball matches were discontinudeam...

  15. A comparison of base running and sliding techniques in collegiate baseball with implications for sliding into first base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Ficklin

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: There was a non-significant trend toward an advantage for diving into first base over running through it, but more research is needed, and even if the advantage is real, the risks of executing this technique probably outweigh the miniscule gain.

  16. Baseball and American Foreign Policy%棒球运动与美国对外政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 陈世阳

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法与逻辑分析法,系统梳理棒球运动与美国社会主流文化价值观及意识形态密不可分的关系.在全球化时代背景下,棒球运动充分发挥其在美国外交、经济、价值观输出等方面的巨大作用,成为“推销”美国民主方式、克服军事政治藩篱、扩大资本市场的重要推手,在美国的政治层面、经济全球化战略、冷战后意识形态整合、后9·11时代的军事策略等诸多对外政策方面均发挥了外交均衡器的重要作用.

  17. 棒球投手上肢肌力研究%Study on Upper Extremity Strength in Baseball Pitchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正利; 张胜年

    2005-01-01

    在查阅国外大量相关文献资料的基础上,了解棒球投手上肢肌力的研究现状,从投手上肢肌力与球速的关系、投手两侧上肢肌力对比研究、上肢主动肌/对抗肌比值研究等几个方面进行了归纳分析,并对研究中存在的问题及今后的发展提出了看法.今后应加强对肘关节屈和伸肌群肌力的研究,进一步探索不同投手前臂旋前肌群和旋后肌群的肌力变化情况.

  18. Sunday Sport Comes to Pennsylvania: Professional Baseball and Football Triumph over the Commonwealth's Archaic Blue Laws, 1919-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jable, J. Thomas

    Following World War I, many Americans plunged into sport, and found the Sabbath a convenient and popular day for engaging in sporting events, especially since Sunday activities had become commonplace during the War and acceptable in many areas. However, when Pennsylvanians turned to sport on the Sabbath, they were confronted by the state's archaic…

  19. Analýza socioekonomického prostředí baseballu v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Foltrová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the economic analysis of baseball environment in the Czech Republic, financing a baseball club and analysis of an international baseball event. The aim of this thesis is to determine whether baseball in the Czech Republic is financially self-sufficient and baseball activity has a positive impact on tourism in the Czech Republic. The first part of the thesis deals with theoretical approaches to tourism, sports theory and sport events. The second part, practical, analyzes...

  20. The Development of Training Model Based on Theory of Planned Behavior and Willingness to Behave Higienic Practices for The Food Handler at Foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Handajani; Suryanto Suryanto; Soedjajadi Keman

    2015-01-01

    Training is not always change the personal behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2005), the behavior intention is influence by three factors including the attitude, the subjective norms and the perceived behavior control (PBC). Willingness is the independent concept of the presumption behavior and influenced by intention as well. The aim of  this study was to develop training model based on the theory of planned behavior and and willingness to higienic behavior for the...

  1. 應用 Google Analytics 於數位典藏網站計量分析 A Web Metrics Study on Taiwan Baseball Wiki Using Google Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Sinn-Cheng Lin; Ming-Chen Hong

    2010-01-01

    數位典藏系統的最終目的是為了提供使用者使用,因此,必須從使用者角度評估系統的設計,以充分掌握使用者需求,發掘系統潛在問題,藉以改善系統、提升品質與增進使用者滿意度。本研究選擇以使用者到訪率極高的數位典藏網站-「台灣棒球維基館」為對象,利用著名的網站計量軟體GoogleAnalytics做為主要分析工具,再輔以問卷調查結果,希望能掌握使用者的多樣面貌,包括:誰在使用?何時使用?何地使用?使用何物?如何使用q工具,有效地分析網站營運成果,解析網站使用客群,據以調整網站未來經營方向。The ultimate purpose of digital archives is to provide users with an easy access to archived data. The assessment of the website with digital archives should be from the user’s perspectives so that users’ needs can be better understood, the potential desig...

  2. 棒球投手投球的运动生物力学研究进展%Sport Biomechanical Research Advancement of Baseball Pitching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈严; 邓京捷; 李吉如

    2009-01-01

    综述近年来国内、外学者对棒球投手的运动生物力学研究成果.研究认为,目前对棒球投手的生物力学研究主要运用高速摄影、等速肌力测试、表面肌电图、三维测力台等科研手段,对影响棒球投球球速技术动作的关键因素以及优化投球动作以减少运动损伤等方面进行研究,提示我国学者对此方向可进行深入研究与探讨.

  3. Exploration of shoulder rotation characteristics in baseball pitchers%棒球投手肩关节旋转运动特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇

    2006-01-01

    应用超声波动力学测量仪和CYBEX-6000等速仪器分别对26名棒球投手和22名自愿者肩关节内、外旋活动范围(range of motion,ROM)、内外旋肌力进行测量,以探讨棒球投手肩关节旋转运动特征.结果表明:棒球投手优势臂的外旋活动范围明显大于非优势臂,而其优势臂的内旋活动范围则显著小于非优势臂,优势臂的整个旋转活动范围也明显比非优势臂小;对照组的优势臂和非优势臂旋转活动范围无显著差异.测试还发现:棒球投手肩关节存在内、外旋肌力不平衡,实验组优势臂内旋IR(210°/s)、IR(300°/s)相对峰力矩明显大于非优势臂(WTBX()P<0.001),优势臂外旋ER(210°/s)、ER(300°/s)峰力矩与非优势臂相比,无明显差异(P>0.05),实验组优势臂外旋/内旋峰力矩比值(ER/IR)明显小于非优势臂.

  4. Creation Myth of Baseball and American Exceptionalism%棒球起源神话与美国例外主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世强; 张世泽

    2012-01-01

    对于许多美国人来说,棒球不仅是一项单纯的球赛而已.棒球始终被美国人标志为专属于美国的运动,一方面,导因于其无分族群、宗教或政治立场,深受所有美国人的热爱.另一方面,则导因于其被视作美国精神的象征;然而,很少美国人能够真正知道,在棒球起源神话故事的建构过程背后,其实存在许多复杂的问题.透过美国倒外主义的切入讨论,分析虚构棒球起源神话背后的驱动力量,并讨论主流棒球起源神话,即杜博戴与库柏镇神话对于美国大众棒球理解的重要影响.

  5. 棒球运动项目一般特征分析与研究%Analysis and research on the common characteristics of baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨至刚

    2011-01-01

    棒球运动是智慧与竞技的运动,是时间与距离的运动,具有很强的欣赏性和刺激性.棒球运动项目的一般特征包括:竞赛特征、技术特征、战术特征、文化特征、价值特征.通过对棒球运动项目一般特征的重新认识、概括与分析,旨在为更好地认识棒球的专项特征以及更好地开展和认识棒球运动提供理论参考依据.

  6. The sell tactics of profession baseball in the future in China%中国职业棒球未来门票销售策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥茂

    2004-01-01

    中国已开展具有职业性质的棒球新联赛,由于借鉴国外的先进经验和对自身赛制的不断完善,逐步成为体育迷关注焦点,球市也越采越旺.本文试图在2004年新赛季开战之际,剖析中国职业棒球未来门票销售策略,为中国棒球走向职业化、商业化、社会化提供有益借鉴.

  7. 试论借助新旧媒体推广中国棒球的可行性%Outlook of Chinese Baseball in the New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斯筠

    2015-01-01

    关于中国棒球的发展,笔者在分析总结了既有文献的基础上,拟从文化符号建构、新媒体传播、推进事业化三个维度,来探讨推动棒球运动在中国民众特别是青少年中认识率和接受度的方式.认为只有宏观上把我国棒球事业发展的方向找准,微观上的举措才会富有针对性与可行性.

  8. A Biomechanical Analysis on Baseball Pitching Techniques%棒球投手投球技术生物力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜年; 张年娥; 王正利

    2008-01-01

    以2004年全国棒球联赛上场一线投手为研究对象,选取两名外援及三名优秀国手为优秀组,上海队投手的五名队员为一级组.用JVC L9800高速摄像机选取100格/s的拍摄速度对投手前三局投球动作进行平面定机拍摄.用SBCAS2图像解析系统对投手投快球动作进行动作技术分析.旨在探讨我国棒球投手投球技术特点,为提高投手的投球技能提供参考.

  9. 中国棒球职业联赛管理制度的研究%Research on administrant rule of China baseball league matches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松

    2006-01-01

    运用文献资料、逻辑推理等研究方法,以探索棒球职业化的管理制度为切入点,从管理方面对目前我国棒球运动现状进行客观分析,对中国棒球联赛中存在的若干问题进行了较深入的研究,并就建立适应我国棒球联赛职业化可持续发展的管理体制提出了设想.

  10. 梁诚与近代中美“棒球外交”%Liang Cheng and Modern China-America Baseball Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪京帅

    2014-01-01

    运用文献资料法和逻辑分析法,系统梳理了清末驻美公使梁诚在美国运用“棒球外交”,争取美国庚子退款的历史.从梁诚幼年留美的经历,留关幼童在美国的体育参与,梁诚在美国的棒球运动经历等历史情节入手,描述了“棒球外交”发生的台前幕后.指出“棒球外交”改写了“弱国无外交”的历史,开启了中关体育外交模式的先河,促进了中美体育文化的交流,同时也客观评价了“棒球外交”的历史作用.

  11. The Feasible Analysis on Chinese Professional Baseball Industrialized Management%中国职业棒球产业化经营的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小敏; 谭先明

    2003-01-01

    本文运用文献资料和专家访谈等研究方法,对中国棒球运动发展的现状进行分析,指出中国职业棒球已进入了起步阶段,并且中国职业棒球走产业化道路是我国竞技体育改革与发展的必然趋势,提出发展中国职业棒球的对策.

  12. 论中国棒球职业化的发展对策%Discussion on the development countermeasures of baseball vocationat at home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥茂

    2002-01-01

    通过具有职业性质的首届中国棒球新联赛的举办目的任务、基本概貌、组织形式、市场运作、职业特征、球员转会选秀等方面进行探索,剖析中国棒球职业化的发展对策,促使我国棒球事业快速、持续、健康发展.

  13. Kinematic Analysis of the Stretch step Technology of Woman Baseball Pitchers%女子垒球投手伸踏技术的运动学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀全; 邵滨

    2013-01-01

    一支垒球队的核心是投手,在很大程度上决定着比赛的胜负.通过对女子垒球投手投球动作的图像解析,选择与下肢伸踏技术相关性较强的技术指标,对其伸踏技术进行了理论分析.以期对教练员提高投手下肢技术的运动学认知、投球技术改进、提高投球球速等方面提供参考.

  14. Influences of Baseball on English Language Development%论棒球运动对英语语言发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅进丽

    2013-01-01

    棒球源起和发展于英语国家,起初人们通过借用基本生活词汇来定义和解释棒球术语和比赛规则,从而使英语词汇的意义得以扩展和延伸;之后随着棒球运动的普及,棒球术语和惯用表达式又以新的语义回归于日常生活用语中,成为习语的重要源泉,进一步丰富和充实了英语语言.日常生活用语与棒球专门用语之间的这种双向渗透和转化充分体现出棒球这一运动形式对英语语言发展的影响.

  15. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to perform sports-attending services at professional sporting events, i.e., baseball, basketball... professional sporting events, i.e., baseball, basketball, football, soccer, tennis, etc., the requirements...

  16. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Concussions [PDF 348KB] DOWNLOAD SPORT-SPECIFIC CONCUSSION INFORMATION Baseball Field Hockey Football Ice Hockey Lacrosse Rugby Soccer ... Medicine Concussion Program US Lacrosse US Soccer USA Baseball USA Football USA Rugby USA Volleyball YMCA of ...

  17. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time and there's many questions regarding throwing athletes, baseball players, tennis players. Those tend to take a ... more aggressive. We've had a few professional baseball pitchers with cuff tears and unfortunately, even though ...

  18. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anastamosis or a running stitch, just like a baseball suture. We’re going to run just a ... perineal pleasure, please. Yes. We basically run a baseball stitch, much like you would hem the bottom ...

  19. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lot of satisfaction from that. And my family -- they're the most important thing. And baseball -- ... since my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in my ...

  20. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family -- they're the most important thing. And baseball -- oh, yes, baseball! The game has always been a big thing ... my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in my life. ...

  1. PREVENCE A KOMPENZACE BOLESTI BASEBALLOVÉHO RAMENE Z POHLEDU FYZIOTERAPIE

    OpenAIRE

    WINKLEROVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contais a research aimed at prevention and compensation of shoulder pain, especially for baseball players 14-16 years old. Readers get acquainted with general characteristics of baseball, shouler joint and characteristics of the target group of children. The thesis further discusses shoulder injuries, their prevention and compensation. The research part consists of the evaluation of five active baseball pitchers from the target group. First, their perfomance is measured, ...

  2. Novelty Effects of New Facilities on Attendance at Professional Sporting Events

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that new facilities affect attendance - the "novelty effect" - in professional baseball, basketball, and football from 1969-2001 by estimating the parameters of a reduced form attendance model. Our results indicate a strong, persistent novelty effect in baseball and basketball and little or no novelty effect in football. Our estimates of size and duration of the novelty effect imply that, in a new facility, at a minimum, a baseball team would sell an additional ...

  3. 日本野球界における職業野球と課外活動野球の相互関係の検討

    OpenAIRE

    金﨑, 泰英; Kanasaki ,Yasuhide

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the problem and its historical background in which the baseball community in Japan does not still have a domestic unification organization. The origin of the baseball in Japan goes back to the beginning of 1870s. After that, the Shinbashi Athletics club, which was the first amateur baseball club in Japan, was formed in 1878. This means that the foundation is built to develop baseball into a full-scale team sport. And it is taken over to university baseb...

  4. 中学生棒球练习者眼动特征的实验研究%Experimental Study on Characteristics of Eye-movement of High School Baseball Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森; 李京诚

    2008-01-01

    利用先进的仪器对中学生棒球练习者的眼动特征进行研究,为相关研究和运动实践提供理论指导.实验采用三因素被试内设计,应用 iView X 头盔式眼动仪对中学生棒球练习者与普通中学生注视棒球投球视频的眼动特征进行比较.结果发现,2组被试的注视时间、注视次数、出手追球差及主要注视位置等均存在显著差异,而投球方式对各指标的影响则没有显著性差异.经分析得出以下结论:运动水平是影响被试对各个位置注视时间和次数的主要因素,专业组的注视过程较为全面、细致,且注视轨迹比较紧凑,专业组在球出手后开始视觉追踪球的启动时间明显快于非专业组被试;2组被试注视位置的最大差异是对"球出手附近"的注视,专业组对球出手的动作有一个预判的过程.

  5. An Investigation and Analysis of Sports lnj uries of High-level Baseball Players in China%我国高水平棒球运动员运动损伤调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史清钊; 王廉; 陈佑学

    2009-01-01

    通过对参加中国棒球联赛6个队中的88名棒球运动员运动损伤的调查,显示出棒球运动员损伤发生丰较高,以肩、肘、腰、膝、踝、手腕部位为多,其中肩关节和肘关节损伤与本项目运动特点关系最为密切;损伤原因中以疲劳性运动损伤最突出.建议在训练中应重视医务监督,保证充分合理的准备活动,发生损伤后予以及时治疗.主要对棒球运动员损伤部位中的损伤最为突出的肩关节和肘关节的损伤原因进行分析,提出相应的建议与预防措施,以便在今后的棒球训练与比赛中,预防和减少棒球运动员运动损伤的发生,提高运动成绩.

  6. Analyzing on the Factors and Countermeasures of Influencing the Baseball Development in Universities and Colleges in China%影响我国高校棒球运动开展的因素与对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳建军; 李可可; 李生智

    2005-01-01

    运用文献资料、专家访谈、比较分析等研究方法,对我国高校开展棒球运动的现状进行分析.研究发现:正在开展棒球运动的高校在全国各地区分布不均衡,大部分集中在沿海和中部地区;而且各个高校开展棒球运动目的、组织形式等也不相同;导致这种现象的主要原因是全国大部分高校开展棒球运动的资金匮乏、全国性棒球比赛少而且缺乏影响力等;针对这些问题,提出了几点建议,以便促进我国棒球运动的开展与普及.

  7. 美国职业棒球契约规范的层级结构及制度变迁%Hierarchical Structures of Contract Conventions of America's Professional Baseball and the Changes of their System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕

    2014-01-01

    通过对美国职业棒球契约规范层级结构的分析,对职业棒球选秀制度、自由球员制度、自由经纪人制度、仲裁制度等契约规范变迁的探讨,旨在为我国未来职业棒球运动的发展提供理论借鉴.

  8. 我国高校棒球运动的发展现状及对策研究%Study on Current Situation and Countermeasures of Baseball Athletics Development in Universities and Colleges of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵恒忠; 王祥茂; 陈文

    2006-01-01

    目前我国高校棒球运动进入历史最好的发展机遇;尤其是教育部近期批准部分高校建立高水平棒球队以及中国大学生棒垒球训练基地的建立,对推动我国高校棒球事业发展起到积极作用.运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、问卷调查法对中国大学生棒球运动发展的现状进行调查和分析,提出相应的发展对策,为我国大学生棒球运动的发展提供有益的借鉴.

  9. The Current Situation and the Counter Measures of Cultivating Reserve Talents of Baseball and Softball in Jiangsu Province%江苏省棒、垒球后备人才培养的现状与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天峰

    2004-01-01

    采用问卷调查法、数理统计法、逻辑分析法和专家访谈法,从后备人才的总量、梯队情况,教练员队伍现状,经费情况,竞赛体制等方面,对江苏省棒、垒球后备人才培养现状进行分析,并提出以高校为"龙头",扩大培养规模,加快提高教练员水平,坚持体教结合多渠道办队等若干建议.

  10. Research on the Present Situation of Baseball Techique of Chinese National Team and the Way To Improve the Technique%中国棒球技术现状与对策的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥茂

    2002-01-01

    在中国开展职业棒球之际,本文对中国棒球队近10年的重大洲际比赛进行追踪和分析,并与世界一流强队,亚洲三强(日本、中国台北、韩国)作对比研究,发现90年代初期我国成年棒球仍落后于亚洲三强的主要原因是击球技术较落后,多垒打率低.以投促击,以"多垒打"为主的击球技术,是我国成年棒球在2008年奥运会取得突破的关键之一.

  11. 浅析棒球运动在中国的发展之路%A Brief Research on the Development Road of the Baseball in P. R. C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋校能; 陈静霞

    2005-01-01

    中国棒球队直接进入2008年北京奥运会,2002年第1届中国棒球职业联赛和2003年首届中国大学生棒球联赛成功举办,预示着中国棒球运动正在蓬勃发展.采用文献法和历史调查法,通过对棒球发展史以及棒球在中国的开展情况进行调查研究,发现目前中国棒球运动存在"两头大,中间小"的状态--小学覆盖面广、职业棒球队得到大力发展,中学队伍却很少的瓶颈问题,人才培养存在断档现象,针对这一问题提出:要使棒球运动在中国得到普及性的开展,必须搞职业棒球联赛和高校棒球.

  12. 中国棒球运动与亚洲职业棒球发展差距的研究%Reseach on the Difference of Chinese win Asia Professional Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏日光

    2008-01-01

    棒球在日本、韩国和中国的台湾省有着悠久的历史和很高的竞技水平,与其职业棒球的发展有着紧密的联系.中国棒球联赛称不上真正意义的中国职棒联赛,只是看到了中国职棒的雏形,成为真正意义的职棒联赛,还需要有一定的时间进行棒球市场的培育与开发,只有队伍规模的壮大,球员水平的提高和拥有一定数量的球迷.真正气候的职业棒球才会实现,竞技水平才能赶超日本、韩国和中国台湾.

  13. Research on Structural Model of Athletic Ability of Topnotch Chinese Baseball Players%中国优秀棒球运动员竞技能力结构模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一兵; 席翼; 谭思洁; 和平; 姜达维; 严丽; 孙延林; 孟凡林; 刘松波

    2007-01-01

    研究选择了代表中国最优秀棒球运动水平的国家队、省市一级队主力队员123人.经过专家访谈和教练员经验筛选,得到优秀棒球运动员的竞技能力结构组成,在经过对组成中各项指标的测试和统计学处理,最终确定了中国最优秀棒球运动员的竞技能力结构模型.此模型一方面将为优秀棒球运动员运动能力的发展提供训练的目标系统,另一方面为优秀棒球运动员选材指标体系的确立提供理论与实践依据.

  14. 对棒球运动员接地滚球技术训练方法的探析%Analysis of the Training Method of Picking up Bowls Technology of Baseball Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明胜

    2013-01-01

    采用文献资料法,问卷调查法和观察法等方法进行研究.通过对棒球运动员和教练员进行访问与调查,对棒球运动员的接地滚球技术的训练,提出了一系列的建议和方法,以期能对棒球运动员的水平的提高,做出一些有益的尝试.

  15. The Function of Baseball and Softball in Putting College Sunshine Sports into Practice%论棒垒球在高校实践阳光体育运动中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭坚

    2012-01-01

    通过对高校阳光体育运动现状和棒垒球特点与价值的研究分析,棒垒球项目作为新兴体育教育措施,逐步进入高校并践行阳光体育运动.有利于弥补高校阳光体育运动新兴项目的不足.是高校阳光体育运动在形式上的创新,是内容上的双赢,建议高校将棒垒球项目列为体育教育的重要内容,丰富大学生体育锻炼的内容.

  16. Restrict to the Basic Question and Countermeasure of Athletics Level Enhancement of Baseball in China%制约我国棒球竞技水平提高的基本问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志钢

    2009-01-01

    通过对文献资料的分析,结合当前我国棒球运动的开展状况,从群众的普及性、青少年运动员的培养、职业运动员的训练以及教练员的执教水平等制约我国棒球竞技水平的基本问题进行了分析,并提出相关的解决方法和措施,为我国棒球竞技水平的提高提供有益的建议.

  17. 试析棒球前扑滑垒技术的运用及训练%Elementary Study on the Key Point of Movement and Training Methods of the Sit-sliding Technique in the Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋校能; 杨建祥

    2006-01-01

    前扑滑垒是棒球运动的一项重要技术,能否正确运用该技术会对棒球比赛的攻守行为产生直接的影响.在全国十运会棒球比赛中,前扑滑垒技术被各运动队广泛运用,进攻上收到了良好的效果,降低了被触杀的风险.但同时存在前扑滑垒动作不规范、技术失误过多、上垒率下降等不足,给运动员埋下了损伤的隐患.在查阅文献资料、采访知名教练的基础上,利用技术统计资料,结合自身运动和裁判实践的经验,对前扑滑垒技术进行分析研究,归纳和总结其动作要点及训练方法.

  18. Racial and Gender Report Card, 2003: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Hiring Practices of the National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, Women's National Basketball Association, and NCAA and Its Member Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchick, Richard E.

    This is the 12th issue of the "Racial and Gender Report Card," which assesses hiring practices of women and people of color in U.S. professional and amateur sports and sporting organizations. It considers the composition of players, coaches, and front office/athletic department employees in the leading sports organizations. Each organization is…

  19. A Classroom Note on: Building on Errors in Numerical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    In both baseball and mathematics education, the conventional wisdom is to avoid errors at all costs. That advice might be on target in baseball, but in mathematics, it is not always the best strategy. Sometimes an analysis of errors provides much deeper insights into mathematical ideas and, rather than something to eschew, certain types of errors…

  20. A Public Relations Footnote to the Pete Rose Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutlip, Scott M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes (prompted by Pete Rose's unsuccessful challenge to the authority of the Commissioner of Major League Baseball) the creation of the Commissioner's office in 1921 by Albert Lasker, an advertising and public relations genius, to deal with the public relations problem facing baseball in the wake of the 1919-20 Black Sox scandal. (SR)

  1. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hem the bottom a dress. Lots of perineal pressure. Good. A baseball stitch for those of you that have seen a baseball, it’s a continuous running suture, and it brings the stump of the penis pipe, the urethra, that’s where the catheter goes through ...

  2. Linked Min.B configuration inside high shear magnetic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrangement of the l = m baseball coils to form the toroidally linked Min.B configuration with large rotational transform is studied analytically and numerically. By an optimization the closed magnetic isobars are obtained inside the last closed magnetic surface having practical volume and high shear if l = 3 baseball coils are arranged. (auth.)

  3. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  4. Data as the Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Kent L.

    2013-01-01

    In the book "Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game," author Michael Lewis describes how the Oakland Athletics, one of the poorest teams in Major League Baseball, became one of the most successful teams by using simple analytical methods that had existed for years but had been largely ignored by the baseball executives. "Moneyball"…

  5. The role of children's expertise in a Strategie memory task

    OpenAIRE

    Gaultney, Jane F.; Bjorklund, David F.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In a study intended to replicate and extend the findings from a recent experiment by Schneider and Bjorklund (1992), the expert/novice paradigm was used with second- and fourth-grade children in a sort/recall task. Children were classified as experts or novices for their knowledge of baseball, then given two sort/recall tasks, with a list consisting of either baseball or nonbaseball terms. Experts recalled more than novices on the baseball list only. While both groups used organizational stra...

  6. Getting the Swing of Surface Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C

    2012-01-01

    Sports are a popular and effective way to illustrate physics principles. Baseball in particular presents a number of opportunities to motivate student interest and teach concepts. Several articles have appeared in this journal on this topic, illustrating a wide variety of areas of physics. In addition, several websites and an entire book are available. In this paper we describe a student-designed project that illustrates the relative surface gravity on the Earth, Sun and other solar-system bodies using baseball. We describe the project and its results here as an example of a simple, fun, and student-driven use of baseball to illustrate an important physics principle.

  7. BIG PLAY. Hospitals team up with biggest names in pro sports to score brand awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2016-07-01

    Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community. PMID:27526498

  8. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issue. C While rare, permanent brain damage and death are two potential consequences of not identifying and ... of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Sports Medicine Concussion Program US Lacrosse US Soccer USA Baseball USA Football USA ...

  9. Recovery After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shoulder movement (eg, as in tennis, baseball, and golf) for six to eight weeks after surgery to ... stress. ● Group skill-building exercises help patients to learn about living with stress and heart disease, including ...

  10. Hitting a Home Run with Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Gene

    1996-01-01

    Offers problems involving baseball to give students the opportunity to utilize the technology of a graphing calculator such as the TI-82 to work on the area of statistics. Gives step-by-step instructions as well as explanations. (AIM)

  11. Better Detection Key to Rising ALS Cases in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as Lou Gehrig's disease, named after the legendary baseball player who died from it -- is actually increasing, ... More Health News on: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Health Statistics Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Amyotrophic ...

  12. Head Injury in Children and Adolescents (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high speed, heavy, or sharp object (eg, baseball bat, golf club, bullet, knife) ● Inflicted injury (abuse), such ... as expressly permitted in this Agreement, any copying, distribution or modification of the Licensed Materials is strictly ...

  13. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... things in life? One of them is my work. I've always gotten a lot of satisfaction ... now since my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in ...

  14. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some exercises may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms. Swimming is often a good choice. The warm, moist air may keep symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports that ... symptoms. Activities that are more intense and sustained, ...

  15. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there's many questions regarding throwing athletes, baseball players, tennis players. Those tend to take a little bit ... of questions regarding people having tears that are tennis players and overhead athletes. They want to know ...

  16. Going with the Flow of Nosebleeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by wearing protective gear, such as helmets for hockey, football, and baseball and any other sport or ... do? Well, don't pick your nose or stick anything up your nose. Also, avoid blowing your ...

  17. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-risk sports use a ball, puck, bat, stick or racquet, or they involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, fencing ...

  18. 26 CFR 44.4421-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... series of numbers in the payoff prices of a series of horse races at a certain race track, or in the..., boxing and wrestling matches and exhibitions, baseball, football, and basketball games, tennis and...

  19. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics, it is usually safe to start ... along with aerobic exercise such as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary ...

  20. Sports and Exercise Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testicles): Guys who play hockey, football, basketball, baseball, soccer, and other contact sports should use a cup. For noncontact sports that involve running, guys should wear an athletic supporter. If you' ...

  1. Impingement syndrome (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arch of the shoulder blade, it can cause shoulder pain called impingement syndrome. The tendons become compressed, damaged, and inflamed leading to rotator cuff tendonitis. This can occur ... use of the shoulder like baseball pitching, or from an injury.

  2. Getting on Track: Physical Activity and Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheese = 4 stacked dice 1/2 cup of ice cream = 1/2 baseball 2 tablespoons of peanut butter = ... for Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Funded Grants & Grant History Funding Process Research Programs & Contacts Research Training & Career ...

  3. 明治後期における秋田県教育会の体育・運動奨励について 下

    OpenAIRE

    森田, 信博; MORITA, Nobuhiro

    1995-01-01

    Akita educational society encourages positively following kinds of sports and athletics.1. Challengecup·game of baseball for high school.After the 16th match the meeting is stopped by the chairman on account of excessiveattachment for win. But baseball is spread in Akita rapidly.2. Introduction of Bujutsu (Kendo and Judo) into school gymnastic.Traditional Bujutsu are valude highly again as nationalistic and moral education.InBujutsu meeting (Kendo and Judo) increase year after year participan...

  4. Effects of Cover Stories on Problem Solving in a Statistics Course

    OpenAIRE

    Ricks, Travis Rex; Jennifer WILEY

    2014-01-01

    Does having more knowledge or interest in the topics used in example problems facilitate or hinder learning in statistics? Undergraduates enrolled in Introductory Psychology received a lesson on central tendency. Following the lesson, half of the students completed a worksheet with a baseball cover story while the other half received a weather cover story. Learning was assessed using a quiz that contained two kinds of items: computation and explanation. Measures of baseball knowledge and inte...

  5. Play Ball!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    Major league baseball revives a century-old sport in China On the weekend of March 15,two American major league baseball teams met in Beijing for two ex- hibition games to show Chinese crowds just how exciting America’s favorite pastime can be.The San Diego Padres faced the Los Angeles Dodgers,in front of a near sellout crowd of 12,224 at the new Olympic venue.Vendors plied the crowd with hot

  6. Racial Fault-lines in “Baseball’s Great Experiment:” Black Perceptions, White Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Henry D. Fetter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines three facets of the breaking of major league baseball’s color line by Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947: the perception of blacks, the response of white players (whether teammates or opponents), and the reaction of baseball fans. By so doing, the paper will illuminate the fault-lines that characterized race relations within both the sport of baseball and the larger society as each was confronted with new challenges to long established policies and practices i...

  7. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  8. Come and Play Baselall with a machine!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the past, mechanical pitchers wereused only for the training of professionalbaseball players in China. But now ordinaryChinese people too can have a try if they goto the Baseball Ground at the OlympicSports Center in Beijing’s Asian GamesVillage. Four mechanical pitchers areinstalled there. They serve the balls fromdifferent angles and speeds, just like ahuman pitcher. When I step into the batter’s box readyfor a hit, I feel like one of those baseball

  9. Comparative study of Chinese baseball team and its opponents' offensive and defensive abilities in the 29th Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运会中国棒球队与对手攻防能力的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 李玉禄

    2010-01-01

    采用文献资料、逻辑分析和比较研究等方法,对第29届奥运会中国棒球队全部比赛场次的技术数据进行统计研究,分析了中国棒球队的整体攻防技术能力存在的不足,以为中国队今后训练、比赛提供参考.

  10. The Investigation and Analysis of Slow -pitch Softball Game in Promoting the Popularization and Enhancement of Baseball and Softball in Colleges and Universities%慢速垒球运动在高校开展的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭炎林

    2010-01-01

    在棒垒球运动中慢速垒球简化了规则,降低了技术难度,是一种适合大众开展的健身性运动休闲项目.通过调查发现高校学生掌握棒垒球知识很少,但是通过简单易学的慢速垒球运动,可以尽快地使学生体验到棒垒球运动的魅力,了解到棒垒球运动的文化内涵.同时,从高校目前场地建设与教师队伍的实际出发,慢速垒球更加适合推广与发展.另外,慢速垒球适合在高校开展竞赛活动,通过竞赛的杠杆作用可促进棒垒球运动在高校的普及与提高.

  11. Analysis on the Strength of the Top Four Teams in Group B Participating in the 7th Chinese College Baseball and Softball Championship%第7届中国大学生棒垒球锦标赛棒球乙组小组四强实力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幸堂; 贾宝童; 赵婉转

    2012-01-01

    以第7届中国大学生棒垒球锦标赛棒球乙组小组前4名为研究对象,对其在本次比赛中的各项能力指标进行统计分析,研究结果表明:桂林旅专具有较强的的进攻能力和非常强的防守能力,但是投手投杀率最低,投手能力不是太强,有待提高加强;厦门大学的垒打率最高,队员力量较强,属于力量型打法;深圳大学队员的击打能力较弱,但是偷垒成功率最高;四支队伍总体的防守能力实力相当.

  12. 广州体院与市体委合办棒球队新途径探讨%On the New Way to Co-Operation of Guangzhou Institute of Physical Education and Sports Committee of Guangzhou to Run a Baseball Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥茂

    2002-01-01

    通过对广州体院与广州市体委合办高水平棒球队过程的组织管理、队伍建设、训练体制、培养目标、队员出路、办学经费、成果等问题的研究,认为广州体院与市体委合作办队新途径在国内高校竞技体制中具有较好的示范作用,适合在我国高校推广和应用.

  13. Quantum mechanics, by itself, implies perception of a classical world

    CERN Document Server

    Blood, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, although highly successful, has two peculiarities. First, in many situations it gives more than one potential version of reality. And second, the wave function for a macroscopic object such as a baseball can be spread out over a macroscopic distance. In the first, quantum mechanics seems to imply that the observer will perceive more than one version of reality and in the second it seems to imply we should see spread-out, blurred objects instead of sharply delineated baseballs. But neither implication is true. Quantum mechanics, by itself, implies more than one version of reality will never be reportably perceived, and it implies the perceived position of a baseball will always be sharply defined. Further, two observers will never disagree on what they perceive. Thus quantum mechanics, by itself, with no assumption of particles or collapse, always leads to the perception of a classical-appearing universe.

  14. Visual Enhancement for Sports Entertainment by Vision-Based Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Saito

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents visually enhanced sports entertainment applications: AR Baseball Presentation System and Interactive AR Bowling System. We utilize vision-based augmented reality for getting immersive feeling. First application is an observation system of a virtual baseball game on the tabletop. 3D virtual players are playing a game on a real baseball field model, so that users can observe the game from favorite view points through a handheld monitor with a web camera. Second application is a bowling system which allows users to roll a real ball down a real bowling lane model on the tabletop and knock down virtual pins. The users watch the virtual pins through the monitor. The lane and the ball are also tracked by vision-based tracking. In those applications, we utilize multiple 2D markers distributed at arbitrary positions and directions. Even though the geometrical relationship among the markers is unknown, we can track the camera in very wide area.

  15. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events

    CERN Document Server

    Takeichi, Yuki; Suzuki, Reji; Arita, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a good indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately show reactions to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. These findings were also confirmed in an analysis of the 2014 FIFA World Cup final. We further showed active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-fre...

  16. Statistics-Free Sports Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Dubbs, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We use a simple machine learning model, logistically-weighted regularized linear least squares regression, in order to predict baseball, basketball, football, and hockey games. We do so using only the thirty-year record of which visiting teams played which home teams, on what date, and what the final score was. No real "statistics" are used. The method works best in basketball, likely because it is high-scoring and has long seasons. It works better in football and hockey than in baseball, but...

  17. 相対的年齢(Relative Age)としての生まれ月と高度スポーツへの社会化 : 2002年のプロ野球選手の分析

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 猛; オカダ, タケシ; Okada, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The Relative Age Effect is explored in 742 Japanese baseball players on the roster of THE PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL ORGANIZATION OF JAPAN in 2002. The cut off date, April 1st in Japan, segments the birth-month distribution of players. Players born after the cut-off date are over-represented, whereas players born before the cut-off date are under-represented. The distribution decreasing from left to right after cut-off date is linear and steep. In Japan, early-births [HAYA-UMARE], whose birth date...

  18. Racial Fault-lines in “Baseball’s Great Experiment:” Black Perceptions, White Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D. Fetter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three facets of the breaking of major league baseball’s color line by Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947: the perception of blacks, the response of white players (whether teammates or opponents, and the reaction of baseball fans. By so doing, the paper will illuminate the fault-lines that characterized race relations within both the sport of baseball and the larger society as each was confronted with new challenges to long established policies and practices in the years after the Second World War.

  19. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  20. Facilities Specifications Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athletic Business, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides line drawings of indoor and outdoor sporting fields reflecting the specifications and dimensional standards of each, including where additional information can be found. Sporting events from badminton, baseball, and basketball to lacrosse, swimming/diving, and volleyball are addressed. (GR)

  1. 76 FR 37360 - Notice of Regulatory Waiver Requests Granted for the First Quarter of Calendar Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... construction of the following: Multi use trails, baseball fields, splash station, basketball court, playground... April 22, 1991 (56 FR 16337). In accordance with those procedures and with the requirements of section... 3, 2011 (76 FR 6149), HUD announced the extension of the availability of the temporary waiver of...

  2. Greener Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    For many years, the only way to have a playing field was to grow it out of the ground. However, natural turf is difficult and expensive to maintain. The 1960s saw the advent of synthetic turf. The material made it easier to stage football and baseball games at indoor venues. The most prominent example was the Astrodome in Houston, which gave the…

  3. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Ben: The best things in life? One of them is my work. I've always gotten a lot of satisfaction from that. And my family -- they're ... baseball -- those are the best things in my life. So the idea that I might never have ...

  4. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  5. Superhero School Reform Heading Your Way: Now Playing in Newark, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Watching the rise to fame of Michelle Rhee, the former Washington, D.C., schools chancellor who is one of the heroes of director Davis Guggenheim's "Waiting for 'Superman'," the author was struck by how the targets had changed. Clark's baseball bat was aimed at the young black males who were demonized as a criminal element in the schoolyard.…

  6. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  7. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action’s perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16) and novice (n = 24) tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT) test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual’s area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action’s perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices. PMID:27272987

  8. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  9. Physical Education for High School Students. A Book of Sports, Athletics, and Recreational Activities for Teen-Age Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, William H., Ed.

    This book about physical activity was written especially for high school students. It is divided into chapters on different physical events. Among the activities discussed are archery, badminton, baseball and softball, golf, riflery, swimming, tennis, touch football, volleyball, and wrestling. Each chapter contains discussions of the history of…

  10. Applying Multiculturalism to a High School American Literature Course: Changing Lenses and Crossing Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskin, David; Marshalek, Angela

    1995-01-01

    Describes a nine-week, secondary-school, language arts unit on the American dream with an emphasis on multicultural issues, particularly as they concern those students who are apathetic about or resistant to the multicultural program. Reviews specific lesson approaches to "The Great Gatsby,""Baseball in April,""Justin and the Best Biscuits in the…

  11. Getting the Swing of Surface Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Quick, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Sports are a popular and effective way to illustrate physics principles. Baseball in particular presents a number of opportunities to motivate student interest and teach concepts. Several articles have appeared in this journal on this topic, illustrating a wide variety of areas of physics. In addition, several websites and an entire book are…

  12. Five Year Overview of Sport Injuries: The NAIRS Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from a survey of institutional members of the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) are presented and discussed. Included are tables showing injuries reported in high schools and colleges and universities for male and female athletes in baseball, basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, wrestling, field hockey, track and…

  13. 1998 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Karin; Evelyn, Jamilah

    1998-01-01

    Announces the Sports Scholars Awards for 1998. One male and one female college athlete are profiled, and others are named for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, riflery, bowling, football, wrestling, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, swimming/diving, gymnastics, crew, tennis, golf, volleyball, track/field, cross country, downhill skiing, and…

  14. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  15. Sexual Harassment and Manly Sports: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murolo, Nancy Maurer; Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur

    This study investigates the relationship between sexual harassment and participation in "manly" sports (i.e., football, baseball, basketball, soccer, and wrestling) at the high school level. Manly sports are defined as those sports that celebrate values of dominance, aggression, male solidarity, and female exclusion. Participants were 353 11th-…

  16. Base-Matics. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Laurence

    This teacher's guide contains the following sections: Teacher Objectives; Student Objectives; Teacher Aid Suggestions; Objectives Overview; Teacher's Guide; Drawing Page; American League Team Addresses; National League Team Addresses; Student Activities; Baseball Field Dimensions; Age Problems; Statistics from a Newspaper; Time Problems; Height…

  17. Physical size associations to offensive performance among major league leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam

    2014-09-01

    Minimal work has studied physical size effects on statistical performance among Major League players. In this study, longitudinal, bivariate, and regression analyses studied the impact of physical size on offensive baseball statistics within a homogeneous talent sample of Major League batting leaders. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from heights and weights that were publicly available to form a statistical database of 4,360 offense leaders from 1950 to 2010. Repeated-measures analysis of variances examined differences in anthropometrics and baseball statistics between each decade from 1950 to 2010. Bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses evaluated BMI as an independent variable of influence, where all tests applied an a priori significance level (p ≤ 0.05). After 1980, offensive performance increased (p ≤ 0.05) concurrent to body mass and BMI growth (p statistically decreased (p ≤ 0.05). All baseball statistics were positively correlated and predicted by BMI (p statistics. Over the 60-year period, greater body weight-to-height proportions owed to improved competitive performance, which suggests greater emphasis on hypertrophic stimuli in training and nutrition, as well as selection of larger professional baseball prospects. PMID:24875425

  18. Effects of Cover Stories on Problem Solving in a Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Travis Rex; Wiley, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Does having more knowledge or interest in the topics used in example problems facilitate or hinder learning in statistics? Undergraduates enrolled in Introductory Psychology received a lesson on central tendency. Following the lesson, half of the students completed a worksheet with a baseball cover story while the other half received a weather…

  19. A Variance Explanation Paradox: When a Little Is a Lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Robert P.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that percent variance explanation is a misleading index of the influence of systematic factors in cases where there are processes by which individually tiny influences cumulate to produce meaningful outcomes. An example is the computation of percentage of variance in batting performance among major league baseball players. (Author/CB)

  20. Curriculum Boosters. Social Studies, Math, Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissman, Rose; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents three curriculum boosting activities for elementary classes. A social studies activity builds bridges to other cultures via literature. A math activity teaches students about percentages using baseball card statistics. A language arts activity helps students learn to appreciate the language of Shakespeare. A student page presents a…

  1. Business Ethics: A View from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Diane D.; Webb, Fred L.

    2010-01-01

    The global economy has been devastated in the last year and according to Federal Reserve Chairman, Ben Bernanke, America's economy was threatened, reminiscent of the Great Depression. Our nation is also in a serious ethical and moral decline, as evidenced by steroid use in baseball, corporate scandals, accounting fraud, religious immorality within…

  2. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  3. Corrigendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Kida Y, Morihara T, Kotoura Y, Hojo T, Tachiiri H, Sukenari T, Iwata Y, Furukawa R, Oda R, Arai Y, Fujiwara H, Kubo T. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum among adolescent baseball players. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(8):1963-1971. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0363546514536843). PMID:27481824

  4. 77 FR 34249 - Notice of Final Revision to Guidance for the Use of Binding Arbitration Under the Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... published in the Federal Register (69 FR 10288) its Guidance for the use of binding arbitration as an... its proposal to eliminate the ``Night Baseball'' format from the Guidance (76 FR 15359). Several years... Use of Binding Arbitration Under the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act of 1996 AGENCY:...

  5. Athletics Raises a College from the Ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    For decades, the 40-acre meadow separating Adrian College from a state highway was an afterthought on the modest campus of low-slung limestone buildings. However, in less than three years, the grassy expanse, like the college itself, has undergone a transformation. The newly developed acreage--boasting an ice arena, football and baseball stadiums,…

  6. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... now since my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in my life. So the idea that I might never have ... what I want to be. At home, at work, on the ball field. Years of enjoying all those things that to me are the best things in life.

  7. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  8. Studies of Television and Youth Sports: Laboratory/Field Research on the Effects of Pro-Social and Anti-Social TV Models on Children/Youth in Sport/Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This study investigates the question of whether or not exposure to televised professional sports affects the social behavior of young people who themselves actively engage in those sports. Lacrosse, hockey, baseball were monitored on television, with students questioned about the impact the behavior of the players (pro-social and anti-social) has…

  9. A Laboratory/Field Study of Television Violence and Aggression in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ann E.; Moriarty, Richard J.

    A study on the effect of viewing violence on television on childrens' behavior was conducted within the context of sport activity. Three sports--baseball, hockey, and lacrosse--were chosen. Teams of children from three different age groups were the subjects. Within each of the age levels in each sport, teams were selected and assigned to…

  10. Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

    1984-01-01

    Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

  11. The social impact of sport: cross-cultural perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spaaij

    2011-01-01

    1. Introduction: The Social Impact of Sport: Diversities, Complexities and Contexts Ramon Spaaij Part 1: Sport development and social change: intended and unanticipated consequences 2. The Transnational View of Sport and Social Development: The Case of Dominican Baseball Alan Klein 3. The Glue that

  12. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  13. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  14. Enhancing the Bounce of a Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2010-01-01

    In sports such as baseball, softball, golf, and tennis, a common objective is to hit the ball as fast or as far as possible. Another common objective is to hit the ball so that it spins as fast as possible, since the trajectory of the ball through the air is strongly affected by ball spin. In an attempt to enhance both the coefficient of…

  15. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  16. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Land

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action's perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16 and novice (n = 24 tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual's area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action's perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Titanium is hip - at least when it comes to airplanes and jewelry. Known for its high strength-to weight ratio and its resistance to corrosion, titanium and its alloys can also be found in everything from knee replacements to eyeglass frames to baseball bats to fighter planes.

  18. Stolen Base Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting, the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The…

  19. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  20. Home advantage in speed skating : Evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RH

    2005-01-01

    Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home advantag

  1. Home advantage in speed skating : evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2003-01-01

    Home advantage is a well documented phenomena in many types of sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home

  2. 78 FR 42930 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 114-Peoria, Illinois; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... safety helmets, baby seats for bicycles and bicycle car carrier racks. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ..., football and baseball helmets; bicycle baby seats; and, bicycle car carrier racks (duty rate ranges from... include: tape, stickers, plastic bags, stoppers, water bottles, plastic helmet parts, rubber...

  3. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  4. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  5. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  6. Beat the Smokeless Habit. Game Plan for Success. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This guide was originally designed for professional baseball players but it is now distributed to college athletes. The facts and strategies apply to any athlete in any sport. Use of smokeless tobacco or snuff greatly increases the risk of developing oral cancer and other serious medical conditions. The first part of this guide explains the health…

  7. Policy Perspectives: No Merit in these Scholarships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Fay

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Fay Vincent, former Commissioner of Major League Baseball and Executive Vice President of The Coca Cola Company, provides a crisp, concise assessment of a trend that has worried us for quite a while: the growing trend of rewarding academically-gifted and typically-affluent students with an extra dose of merit aid, often at the expense of…

  8. From University Heights to Cooperstown: Halls of Fame and American Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friss, Evan J.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the development and function of American halls of fame as cultural memory institutions. By comparing the Hall of Fame for Great Americans with the National Baseball Hall of Fame, the author posits that halls of fame illuminate the ways in which cultural memory institutions can, through an archival process, preserve, instill,…

  9. 男女有别%Diffference between Men and Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先富

    2003-01-01

    @@ Maturity 成熟 Women mature much faster than men. Most 17- year-old females can function as adults. Most 17-year-old males are still trading baseball cards and giving each other wedgies after gym class. This is why high school romances rarely work out.

  10. Surviving Brain Damage After Assault Wilson Barbara A Dhamapurkar Samira Kashinath and Rose Anita Surviving Brain Damage After Assault 154pp £19.99 Psychology Press/Routledge 9781138824584 1138824585 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This book documents the journey of Gary, a young man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury in an attack by a gang armed with hammers and baseball bats. Gary spent 19 months with minimal awareness of his surroundings before showing signs of recovery and, after nearly three years of rehabilitation, a return to independence.

  11. A beautiful day in tennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bomina country where people are crazy about baseball and soccer,Mikami Eichi falls in love with tennis.When he was 12 years-old,his parents got interested in tennis,and he started to play tennis too.A year later.Mikami went into

  12. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professiona

  13. How Much is it Going to Cost Me to Complete a Collection of Football Trading Cards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Oke

    2013-01-01

    Trading cards for various sports and a range of other subjects such as architecture, animals, hobbies, and war have been in existence since the late nineteenth century and still enjoy great popularity. Two of the most prominent examples are baseball cards in the U.S. and football cards in Europe. Three strategies for collecting European football…

  14. Staying at the Top: Playing Position and Performance Affect Career Length in Professional Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Koz, Dan; Kungl, Ann-Marie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Schorer, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to understand the process of skill acquisition and decline, researchers have largely neglected a critical aspect of this development--maximizing time at the highest levels of achievement. This study examined length of career for professional athletes in basketball, football, ice hockey, and baseball and considers whether career length…

  15. The Natural Origins of Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutto, Daniel; Satne, Glenda Lucila

    2015-01-01

    to be reconceived in terms of explaining the natural origins of content. Second, the pivotal assumption that intentionality is always and everywhere contentful must be abandoned. Reviving and updating Haugeland’s baseball analogy in the light of these changes, we propose ways of redirecting the efforts of players...

  16. 21 CFR 1140.16 - Conditions of manufacture, sale, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... display on its exterior: (1) Any tobacco product advertising; (2) A brand name other than in conjunction... sponsorship that would violate § 1140.34(c). (iv) Distribution of samples of smokeless tobacco under paragraph... team or entertainment group; or (ii) At any football, basketball, baseball, soccer, or hockey event...

  17. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  18. Design for the magnetic field requirements of the tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tandem mirror magnetic geometry is described, followed by an analysis of the magnet set designed to meet the requirements of the TMX experiment. The final magnet line-up is composed of a baseball coil with two C coils for each plug, six solenoidal coils for the central cell, and two RC coils plus one octupole coil for each transition

  19. Superconductivity for mirror fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLL and IMP at ORNL, which used multifilamentary niobium--titanium and niobium--tin tape, respectively. Now the USSR at Kurchatov is building a smaller baseball coil with a 6.5 mm square multifilamentary niobium--titanium superconductor similar to the Baseball II conductor. However, the largest advance in fusion magnets will be used in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) now under construction at LLL. Improvements in the technology of the previous LLL experiment, Baseball II, have been made using new conductor joining techniques, a ventilated wrap-around copper stabilizer, and stronger structural welding methods. The MFTF coil winding is proceeding on a separate former to allow parallel construction of the main structure. Not only does this shorten the project schedule to equal that of other conventional constructions, but a second vacuum barrier is created between the magnet helium and the plasma environment for reliable operation

  20. Do People Whose Names Begin with "D" Really Die Young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more…

  1. Electrostatic bounce modes in mirror plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.

    1977-03-03

    Electrostatic bounce modes are standing waves that occur in a mirror plasma when the relative spread in electron bounce frequencies is small. The modes can be destabilized by an ion distribution with a peaked perpendicular energy, and experimental data suggest that this mechanism was the principal cause of instability in certain low-density mirror experiments. After a review of theoretical work on electrostatic waves in mirror plasmas, a general matrix eigenvalue equation for the wave potential is derived which accounts accurately for electron histories and which includes the ion response. A computer program for calculating the plasma eigenmodes and the associated threshold densities for instability and maximum growth rates is then described. The threshold densities for unstable bounce modes expected in the Baseball I and Baseball II devices are compared with experimental values. The good agreement between theoretical and experimental thresholds in Baseball II makes bounce modes the most likely cause of instabilities in that device. In Baseball I, the most unstable modes expected from the theory have threshold densities consistently below observed values. The discrepancy probably results from idealizations in the model that reduce wave damping.

  2. The Best Kind of Mom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Jodi O'Donnell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Shonda Schilling, wife of retired professional baseball pitcher Curt Schilling. In addition to her role as mom, advocate, and author, Schilling is also a melanoma survivor and the Founder of Shade (http://www.shadefoundation.org), a non-profit organization dedicated to eradicating melanoma through the…

  3. Making a Big Deal about Everyday Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Don

    2010-01-01

    Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a great…

  4. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

  5. Industry brief letter : Search for ideal concrete - Last lecture of Prof. Okamura; Riso no konkurito wo motomete/okamura kyoju saishu kogi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-10

    The last lecture of Dr. Okamura, a Prof. at the engineering department of Tokyo University, was held on March 27, 1999. He was a well-known baseball pitcher who won 17 victories at Tokyo 6-College baseball league. In his development of high-performance concrete (later renamed to-self compacting concrete), he thought that we should not demand fine technique for concrete application, but instead we should cover the technique by the advantages of a material. His hardship existed in expressing the properties of cement in numeric values and the establishment of numerical analysis technique starting from empirical equation. He stated that he was able to succeed in the development of an ideal concrete with high-strength, high-durability, self-compacting concrete with the suggestions from many colleagues. He will become Vice President of Kochi Univ. and Chairman of Civil Eng. Society. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Physics of knuckleballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Cohen, Caroline; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Zigzag paths in sports ball trajectories are exceptional events. They have been reported in baseball (from where the word knuckleball comes from), in volleyball and in soccer. Such trajectories are associated with intermittent breaking of the lateral symmetry in the surrounding flow. The different scenarios proposed in the literature (such as the effect of seams in baseball) are first discussed and compared to existing data. We then perform experiments on zigzag trajectories and propose a new explanation based on unsteady lift forces. In a second step, we exploit wind tunnel measurements of these unsteady lift forces to solve the equations of motion for various sports and deduce the characteristics of the zigzags, pointing out the role of the drag crisis. Finally, the conditions for the observation of such trajectories in sports are discussed.

  7. Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.

    2008-02-01

    We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

  8. Unit 6 meet my family partB let's learn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓飞

    2010-01-01

    教学目标 知识目标:能够听说认读单词doctor nurse driver farmer baseball player,并能介绍人物的职业。能力目标:能够听懂会说句型:what' syour father ? my father is a doctor.并能够替换单词造新句,应用于现实的生活之中。

  9. American dream or American obsession? The economic benefits and costs of homeownership

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Li; Fang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Homeownership, like baseball and hotdogs, is an integral part of the American culture. Over the past 70 years, the U.S. government has devoted significant public resources to encouraging and promoting homeownership. The recent financial crisis has prompted the government to spend even more on preserving homeownership, despite the fact that the financial crisis itself was led by the meltdown of the U.S. housing market. Now, an increasing number of academicians and media reporters are questioni...

  10. フィールドと学び : 広島というローカリティをグローバル文化で考える

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present the report of the fieldwork in terms of the memories of Hiroshima and soccer. The historical narrative of soccer and furthermore baseball in Hiroshima was given with some photos taken by the author. It was clarified that sports modern global culture acquired the locality when they came down to the people, since that was the characteristic of the embodiment. As the theoretical basis of the narratology, John Dewey's empirical philosophy, Ikuya Sato's principles of the...

  11. Thinking About Competitive Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Allen R. Sanderson; John J. Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators and fans, Major League Baseball itself, and even some economists have expressed growing concern about the widening disparities among team expenditures and the growing concentrations of postseason contenders and championships. In this article we compare different concepts of competitive balance, r...

  12. Radiographic follow-up study of Little Leaguer's shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Yoshiji; Iwase, Takenobu [Tokushima National Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima (Japan); Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi [University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Bioscience, Tokushima (Japan); Kashiwaguchi, Shinji [Japan Community Health Care Organization, Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Iwame, Toshiyuki [Tokushima Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Little Leaguer's shoulder is a syndrome involving the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. Conservative treatment usually resolves the symptoms. However, there are no reports of a radiographic follow-up study of this disease. The purpose of this study was to show the radiographic healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder. A total of 19 male baseball players diagnosed as having Little Leaguer's shoulder were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age at first presentation was 12.7 years. External rotation anteroposterior radiographs of the shoulder were taken. All patients were treated with rest from throwing, and no throwing was recommended until remodeling was confirmed. Follow-up radiographs were taken at 1-month intervals to assess healing. All patients were observed until healing was confirmed radiographically, after which they returned to baseball. The mean follow-up period was 8.5 months. In addition to radiography, patients were asked whether they had any symptoms and whether they had been able to return to baseball. At the first examination, radiographs showed a wider epiphyseal plate of the throwing side compared with the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder. Healing was observed in all cases. Healing occurred first along the medial side and was then extended laterally. The mean time required for healing was 4.7 months. All patients were able to return to playing baseball at their pre-injury level of play and were asymptomatic when examined at the final follow-up. The healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder advanced from medial to lateral, and healing was achieved about 5 months after initial examination. (orig.)

  13. The Envelope of Projectile Trajectories in Midair

    CERN Document Server

    Chudinov, P

    2005-01-01

    A classic problem of the motion of a point mass (projectile) thrown at an angle to the horizon is reviewed. The air drag force is taken into account with the drag factor assumed to be constant. Analytic approach is used for investigation. Simple analytical formulas are used for the constructing the envelope of the family of the point mass trajectories. The equation of envelope is applied for determination of maximum range of flight. The motion of a baseball is presented as an example.

  14. Isolated Multiple Fragmented Cricoid Fracture Associated with External Blunt Neck Trauma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Seo, Jung Wook; Cho, Hyeon Je; Kim, Yeon Soo [Inje University School of Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Blunt laryngeal trauma is a relatively uncommon but possibly life-threatening injury. An isolated cricoid fracture associated with blunt trauma is rare. We report a case of an isolated multiple fragmented cricoid cartilage fracture that developed in a 20-year-old man after a blunt neck trauma that occurred during a baseball game and was diagnosed by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

  15. SAVING THE PITCHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Carroll

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This hardcover book introduces and updates the average fan as well as coaches, trainers, pitchers, biomechanical experts and such people to the theory and practice of analyzing the mechanics of pitching and preventing the possible injuries as a result. The book addresses different aspects of pitcher conditioning, mechanics, workload, abuse and avoiding injury. It also brings some controversial ideas into the world of baseball.

  16. Quantum Thought Experiments Can Define Nature

    CERN Document Server

    McCartor, D

    2004-01-01

    One would not think that thought experiments could matter to nature, for they are a humble human device. Yet quantum mechanics very naturally frames thought experiments (as distinct from precisely defining what exists). They exemplify the informing powers of radiation. Though based on wave functions that have time symmetry, these tableaux inevitably tell of irreversible behavior by nature. The paper sketches how John von Neumann's measurement theory fits into this and retells N. David Mermin's baseball story.

  17. Prilagoditvene spremembe v ramenskem sklepu športnika metalca: Adaptational changes in the shoulder of an overhead athlete: characteristics of the shoulder at risk: značilnosti ogrožene rame:

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Helena; Stražar, Klemen; Tonin, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Adaptational changes that develope due to repetitional stress placed upon the glenohumeral joint in the typical biomechanical manner can be found in the majority of the overhead athletes. The most popular overhead sports in central Europe are handball, volleyball and tennis and in lesser extent waterpolo and baseball. Typical strike or throw starts in extreme external rotation and abduction in the late cocking phase and progresses through extension of the elbow to the internal rotation and ad...

  18. 中国体育,“强体”迎“瘦身”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Baseball, softball and modern pentathlon are expected to stay in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games following the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) decision on November 29, 2002 to postpone a vote on dropping the three sports.After debating on a controversial report on slimming the Olympic Program for the 2008 Games, the IOC Session held in Mexico City decided to put off any final decision until after the 2004 Athens Olympics.

  19. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in Female Professional Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Simon W.; Safran, Marc R.; Dakic, Jodie; Nguyen, Michael L.; Stroia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent publications have highlighted the relatively poor outcome of other overhead athletes, particularly baseball players, with regard to return to sports at the same or higher level after shoulder surgery. However, true assessment of their ability when returning to sport is not as clear. Further, ability to return to other overhead sports has not been reported. Our objective was to assess outcome and time to return to previous level of function following shoulder surgery in prof...

  20. Cultivate Successors to Sino-Japanese Friendship in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan; You

    2013-01-01

    <正>Invited by Cel Corporation of Japan,the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(SIFA)sent a delegation consisting of students and SIFA staff to Tokyo to take part in the 2013 Kizuna Koshien Baseball Exchange from August 2 to 5.The four students in the delegation came from Beichuan and Wenchuan counties,the worst-hit areas in the catastrophic earthquake that shook

  1. Simulation in Sport Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Joris, Drayer; Daniel, Rascher

    2010-01-01

    Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low-risk environment. The OAKLAND A’S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry where sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of an experience provided to fans. The simulator asks students to make decisions about prices for concessions, parking, and merchandise, player payroll expenses, funding for...

  2. The timing and magnitude of muscular activity patterns during a field hockey hit

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The field hockey hit is one of the most important skills used in the game. However, due to the paucity of empirical research, little is known about the biomechanics of this movement. Muscular activation patterns have been shown to be major contributing factors to performance variables in similar swinging motions in golf, tennis and baseball but debate remains about which muscles are contributing to and controlling such motions. Moreover, muscle studies have typically neglected the contributio...

  3. スポーツ種別による女性観客の服飾の色嗜好について

    OpenAIRE

    小西, 久美子; 小原, 怜子

    2000-01-01

    This study is to observe colors of jackets being worn by young women spectators at various sporting events (American football, professional baseball, soccer and horse races) and to examine them. As a result, it is recognized that each sport indicates a lopsided distribution of the color of young women spectator's jackets and that the color frequency concentrates on comparatively a few colors. Irrespective of each sporting event, the color most frequently used is white followed by black. The i...

  4. Home advantage in professional tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home ...

  5. Left-Handedness in Professional and Amateur Tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Loffing; Norbert Hagemann; Bernd Strauss

    2012-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependent effects rather than innate predispositions may provide left-handers with an advantage in one-on-one fighting situations. Support mainly comes from cross-sectional studies which found significantly enhanced left-hander frequencies among elite athletes exclusively in interactive sports such as baseball, cricket, fencing and tennis. Since professional athletes' training regimes continuously improve, however, an important unsolved question is whether the left-handers'...

  6. テニスラケットのスイートスッポト

    OpenAIRE

    谷内, 雄太; Taniuchi, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    Hitting with sweet spot, a spot which can hit most effective ball, is important for sports such as golf, baseball, and tennis. Generally, players can tell where it is using feelings, it is not determined theoretically. This study focuses on racket-ball collision phenomena and vibration characteristics to solve this problem using collision analysis and experimental modal analysis. This study also challenges to determine relationships between vibrational characteristics and racket performance s...

  7. Performance-Enhancing Drugs: Where Should the Line be Drawn and by Whom?

    OpenAIRE

    Lardon, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The integrity of sport is predicated on the assumption that all athletes compete on a level playing field. Unfortunately, the use and abuse of performance-enhancing drugs has become ubiquitous, creating complex challenges for the governing bodies of individual sports. This article examines the complexity of these issues within the world of professional golf, major league baseball, and Olympic competition. Integral concepts like, “What is a therapeutic exemption?” and “When does restorative fu...

  8. Performance Enhancement with Low Stress and Anxiety Modulated by Cognitive Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Doug Hyun; Park, Hyung Woo; Kee, Baik Seok; Na, Churl; Na, Do-Hyun E.; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive flexibility abilities, stress, and anxiety between starters and non-starter athletes. Methods A total of 30 male professional-soccer and 40 professional-baseball athletes were recruited. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B) were administered to assess cognitive flexibility during competition. The Korean version of the STAI form Y (STAI-KY) and Visual analogue scale for anxiety and stress were us...

  9. College Physics with Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurcher, Ulrich; Kaufman, Miron; Bergen, Zakiyyha; Ferguson, Robert

    2004-10-01

    As team members of the Northeast Ohio Center of Excellence for Mathematics and Science Teachers Education [NEOCEx], we prepared some innovative lesson plans aimed in particular for students majoring in Biology and PreMed. We discuss several examples involving the high-jump, baseball, hydrostatic pressure, and swimming [buoyancy]. We find that applications from biology and medicine provide a source of context-rich problems for algebra-based introductory physics.

  10. A Standardized Procedure and Normative Values for Measuring Binocular Dynamic Visual Acuity

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Miskewicz-Zastrow, OD; Eric Bishop, OD; Alan Zastrow, OD; Dan Mark Cuevas, OD; Bill B. Rainey, OD, MS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Binocular dynamic visual acuity (BDVA) is the ability to differentiate fine details in a moving object such as seams on a pitched baseball or the rotation of a tennis ball, both of which can travel up to speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour. BDVA is one of many binocular visual measurements to examine binocular function. This study was designed to provide a standardized procedure for measuring BDVA and normal values for a sample population. Previous studies have used different t...

  11. In South Africa, what is small is wonderful ' small is beautiful'. The project of the nuclear power operators is safe, economical and tiny; En Afrique du Sud, ce qui est petit est magnifique ''Small is beautiful''. Le projet des producteurs d'electricite nucleaire est sur, economique et miniscule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In South Africa, the nuclear operator Eskom has decide to study the pebble bed reactor called like that because of the fuel constituted of pebble,size of a base-ball ball including micro spheres of uranium oxide. This small nuclear is competitive with the big thermal power plants. The economic factors are good, the public acceptance is good and this reactor has the capacity to resist to an accident susceptible to release radioactivity in environment. (N.C.)

  12. 身体活動のタイプの違いはどのように気分に影響するのか?

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 信二; 坂入, 洋右; 吉田, 雄大; 木塚, 朝博

    2012-01-01

    Generally, typical physical activities (e.g. walking and cycling) increase positive affect and decrease negative affect. However, few studies have investigated the effects on mood of activities that are frequently pursued during leisure time (e.g. dynamic stretching and video games). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influences of different types of physical activity on mood. We selected 16 activities (kendama, active video games ["Wii Sports" tennis, baseball, boxing], ...

  13. SHOULDER MUSCLE IMBALANCE AND SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME IN OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Subacromial impingement is a frequent and painful condition among athletes, particularly those involved in overhead sports such as baseball and swimming. There are generally two types of subacromial impingement: structural and functional. While structural impingement is caused by a physical loss of area in the subacromial space due to bony growth or inflammation, functional impingement is a relative loss of subacromial space secondary to altered scapulohumeral mechanics resulting from glenohu...

  14. Predicting outcomes: Sports and stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G

    1992-06-01

    Many gamblers and most fans, players, and coaches offer causal explanations for long runs of good or bad performance in sports and financial analysts are quick to offer explanations for the daily performance of the stock market. The records of professional basketball and baseball teams and the Dow Jones daily closing average for a ten year period were evaluated for trends (streaks). The records of teams were also evaluated to assess whether the record against opponents, the home court or home field advantage, and-for baseball teams-the record of the winning and losing pitcher (excluding the current game) predicted the outcome of individual games. Recent performance is, at best, a very weak predictor of current performance and the three best predictors for baseball (pitching, home field, and record against opponent) together accounted for only 1.7% of the variance in the outcomes of individual games. We overestimate our ability to predict. This overconfidence is likely to play a role in maintaining gambling behaviors. PMID:24241784

  15. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD.

  16. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  17. « Penser base-ball »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marquis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vers 1900, les grandes villes américaines se dotèrent d’associations caritatives qui firent du sport l’instrument d’une revitalisation de la nation. Fruit de divers courants intellectuels, cette sportisation des œuvres de bienfaisance toucha directement Brooklyn et « ses » Dodgers. Dès l’inauguration du stade Ebbets Field en 1913 et plus encore à partir de 1943 durant la présidence de Branch Rickey, le club des Dodgers tissa des relations intimes avec les associations caritatives du borough, notamment via sa « Fondation pour le base-ball amateur ». Les œuvres qu’elle supervisait vantaient la pratique du base-ball pour ses bénéfices physiques, mais surtout pour la socialisation qu’elle offrait, perçue comme un antidote aux inquiétudes de l’époque. « Penser base-ball » signifiait bien plus que se concentrer sur les subtilités du jeu. Arme contre la « délinquance juvénile » et le communisme, le base-ball formait l’esprit de futurs citoyens et portait les valeurs que le pays, en recomposition après 1945, célébrait alors. Cette croyance, partagée par un entre-soi d’experts brooklynois de la jeunesse, reflétait et façonnait tout à la fois les attitudes et les représentations, notamment à l’égard des jeunes Africains-Américains, premiers oubliés de l’action caritative du club.Around 1900, large American cities saw the rise of charity organizations that instrumentalized sports to revitalize the nation. An outgrowth of various intellectual movements, the sportization of voluntary organizations directly affected Brooklyn and “its” Dodgers. From the opening of Ebbets Field in 1913, but especially from 1943 during the presidency of Branch Rickey, the Dodgers front-office cultivated strong ties with the borough’s charities via its own Brooklyn Amateur Baseball Foundation. The organizations it supervised lauded baseball for its physical benefits but especially for the socialization it

  18. MRI Abnormalities Are Common In Little League Player’s Elbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Andrew T.; Roocroft, Joanna Helena; Bastrom, Tracey P.; Kruk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Youth baseball is extremely popular, but it has been associated with elbow pain and pathology. The purpose of this study was to examine pre- and post-season Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) changes in Little League baseball players and correlate these findings with the players’ throwing history and physical exams. Methods: A prospective study of Little League players age 10 -13 years was performed. Players were recruited prior to the start of the season and underwent bilateral elbow MRI. All players underwent a physical exam and responded to a questionnaire addressing their playing history and arm pain. At the end of the season, the players underwent repeat physical exam and MRI of their throwing arm. MRIs were read by two blinded radiologists. During the season, player statistics including innings played and pitch counts were recorded. Physical exam findings and players statistics were compared between subjects with and without MRI changes utilizing chi-square and ANOVA techniques. Results: Twenty-six players were enrolled. On pre-season MRI, nine players (35%) had 12 positive MRI findings; edema of the medial epicondyle (ME) apophysis (7), fragmentation of ME (2), and edema of the sublime tubercle (3). The two factors associated with a positive MRI were year round play (47% vs 11%, p0.10). Descriptively, 60% of self-reported pitchers/catchers had post season MRI findings versus 40% of other field positions (p=0.3). Conclusion: Pre-season and post-season MRI abnormalities of the medial elbow are common in Little League baseball players. While Little League pitching guidelines are intended to decrease overuse injuries, our data indicate that further refinement of these guidelines addressing year round play, pain and private coaching should be considered.

  19. Testing the Accuracy of a Projectile Motion Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bret; Martell, Eric

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to predict where a ball would land given initial velocity, angular velocity, and atmospheric conditions. A spinning spherical object flying through air is affected by gravity, quadratic drag forces, and the Magnus force. Mathematica was used to numerically solve predictions for the equations of motion. These predictions were compared with experimental data gathered by launching tennis balls, baseballs, and/or soccer balls from a machine we designed to propel the balls with a pre-determined initial velocity and initial angular velocity.

  20. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  1. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England’s football, America’s national pastime, baseball, Japan’s Judo, and Korea’s Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world’s most popular sports and has served its f...

  2. Irreducible open dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Shizuka; Furue, Yukihiro; Kawashima, Mahito

    2010-01-01

    We report a rare case of open dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint which needed operative reduction. A 39-year-old man injured his right middle finger while playing baseball. There was a laceration on the proximal interphalangeal crease, and the condyles of the proximal phalanx protruded through the wound. The flexor tendons had slipped behind the radial condyle, and made reduction impossible. After the flexor tendons and volar plate were replaced back into their normal position, the reduction was successful. Finally, the patient had full and painless motion of the digit. We review the reported cases of this injury in the relevant literature. PMID:20422730

  3. Olecranon Stress Injury in an Adolescent Overhand Pitcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Jason; Sahu, Novneet; Sandella, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity stress fractures, which are relatively rare, have become increasingly common, with olecranon stress injuries representing a subset primarily affecting throwing athletes. Olecranon stress fractures have been classified to fit specific radiographic patterns, with most of these injuries typified by a fracture line. Only a handful of olecranon stress injury cases report magnetic resonance imaging findings of osseous edema within the olecranon, as in our case of a 17-year-old competitive overhand baseball pitcher with elbow pain. The patient was treated conservatively and had resolution of pain after 6 weeks of rest, followed by a 6-week throwing progression with full return to pitching. PMID:26137175

  4. Did Jose Canseco Really Improve the Performance of His Teammates by Spreading Steroids? A Critique of Gould and Kaplan

    OpenAIRE

    John Charles Bradbury

    2013-01-01

    In an article titled “Learning Unethical Practices from a Co-worker: The Peer Effect of Jose Canseco,” published in Labour Economics in 2011, Eric Gould and Todd Kaplan use baseball player Jose Canseco to study peer effects among co-workers. Their analysis focuses on Canseco spreading knowledge of performance-enhancing drugs to teammates. The authors claim to find evidence of Canseco’s influence through the improved performance of his former teammates. This paper reexamines the performance of...

  5. Sport et société aux États-Unis : bibliographie sélective, 1981-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marquis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilans historiographiques et critiquesDEARDOFF II, Donald L., Sports, A Reference Guide and Critical Commentary, 1980-1999, Westport, Greenwood Press, 2000.GERLACH, Larry R., « Not Quite Ready for Prime Time: Baseball History, 1983-1993 », Journal of Sport History, vol. 21, n°2, été 1994, 103-37.HARDY, Stephen et Alan INGHAM, « Games, Structures, and Agency: Historians of the American Play Movement », Journal of Social History, vol. 17, hiver 1983, 285-301.POPE, Steven W., « Sport History: In...

  6. Does Divisional Play Lead to More Pennant Races?

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Winston; Ashok Soni

    1982-01-01

    A "pennant race" occurs in a sports league if the top two teams in a league finish within m\\bar games of each other. We develop an analytical model that can be used to predict the probability that a sports league will have a pennant race. The model is then tested on data from the last 50 major league baseball seasons and is shown to do a remarkable job of predicting the number of pennant races that actually occurred. Finally, we give conditions which ensure that dividing a league of 2n teams ...

  7. How much are Harry Potter’s glasses worth? Children’s monetary evaluation of authentic objects

    OpenAIRE

    Gelman, Susan A.; Frazier, Brandy N.; Noles, Nicholaus S.; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Adults attach special value to objects that link to notable people or events – authentic objects. We examined children’s monetary evaluation of authentic objects, focusing on four kinds: celebrity possessions (e.g., Harry Potter’s glasses), original creations (e.g., the very first teddy bear), personal possessions (e.g., your grandfather’s baseball glove), and merely old items (e.g., an old chair). Children ages 4–12 years and adults (N= 151) were asked how much people would pay for authentic...

  8. What is the most interesting team sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Federico; Ben-Naim, Eli; Redner, Sidney

    2006-03-01

    What is the most interesting team sport? We answer this question via an extensive statistical survey of game scores, consisting of more than 1/4 million games in over a century. We propose the likelihood of upsets as a measure of competitiveness. We demonstrate the utility of this measure via a comparative analysis of several popular team sports including soccer, baseball, hockey, basketball, and football. We also develop a mathematical model, in which the stronger team is favored to win a game. This model allows to us conveniently estimate the likelihood of upsets from the more easily-accessible standings data.

  9. Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco

    2015-06-01

    We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA). PMID:24327066

  10. Do people whose names begin with "D" really die young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more comprehensive data from the same source does not show a statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity. In addition, data for the years 1960 through 2004 for 6.7 million White, non-Hispanic California decedents do not replicate the claim that D's die young. PMID:24567987

  11. The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley Wickham

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many data analysis problems involve the application of a split-apply-combine strategy, where you break up a big problem into manageable pieces, operate on each piece independently and then put all the pieces back together. This insight gives rise to a new R package that allows you to smoothly apply this strategy, without having to worry about the type of structure in which your data is stored.The paper includes two case studies showing how these insights make it easier to work with batting records for veteran baseball players and a large 3d array of spatio-temporal ozone measurements.

  12. A multilevel perspective on faultlines: Differentiating the effects between group- and organizational-level faultlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed. PMID:26167645

  13. Wood-Plastic Composites in the Wood-Carving Industry in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the Philippines have shown interest in the use of WPC for wood-carving purposes. Japan and Korea, however, are interested in the possibilities of WPC for the manufacture of such specialized items as shuttles (used in weaving), musical instruments, furniture and sporting goods (such as tennis rackets, baseball bats, skis, etc.). Viet Nam, Korea and Thailand have at present little or no experience with WPC, but they intend to start work in this area. Generally speaking, these countries possess abundant hard and soft woods and are interested in using soft woods for WPC. The main problem concerns the high cost and the availability of monomers

  14. 2006 National Caring Awards. Cal Ripken Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    You can tell a lot about baseball legend Cal Ripken from his office in Baltimore. It's full of mahogany furniture that bespeaks his new role as businessman and philanthropist. Books are piled on the windowsill. Above the sofa are two pictures, one of the All-Century players--he and Ernie Banks are the only shortstops--and another of himself in 1995 after he broke Lou Gehrig's record for consecutive games played. Looming above it all is a huge pencil drawing of Mr. Ripken's dad, the person who shaped him as a player and a man. PMID:17153680

  15. Numerical-analytical Algorithm for Constructing the Envelope of the Projectile Trajectories in Midair

    CERN Document Server

    Chudinov, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    A classic problem of the motion of a point mass (projectile) thrown at an angle to the horizon is reviewed. The air drag force is taken into account with the drag factor assumed to be constant. An analytic approach is mainly used for the investigation. Simple analytical formulas are used for the constructing the envelope of the family of the point mass trajectories. The equation of envelope is applied for the determination of the maximum range of flight. The motion of a baseball is presented as an example.

  16. Single-impulse magnetic focusing of launched cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Pritchard, M J; Smith, D A; Hughes, I G; Pritchard, Matthew J; Arnold, Aidan S; Smith, David A; Hughes, Ifan G

    2004-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the focusing of a launched cloud of cold atoms. Time-dependent spatially-varying magnetic fields are used to impart impulses leading to a three-dimensional focus of the launched cloud. We discuss possible coil arrangements for a new focusing regime: isotropic 3D focusing of atoms with a single-impulse magnetic lens. We investigate focusing aberrations and find that, for typical experimental parameters, the widely used assumption of a purely harmonic lens is often inaccurate. The baseball lens offers the best possibility for isotropically focusing a cloud of weak-field-seeking atoms in 3D.

  17. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.H.; Hodges, A.J.; Van Sant, J.H.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Hintz, R.E.; Dalder, E.; Baldi, R.; Tatro, R.

    1979-11-13

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is the largest of the mirror program experiments for magnetic fusion energy. It seeks to combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with the most advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from the 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime. Design specifics of the magnet are given. (MOW)

  18. Manufacturing the MFTF magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Hinkle, R.E.; Hodges, A.J.

    1980-10-13

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a large mirror program experiment for magnetic fusion energy. It will combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime.

  19. PAY BALL: ESTIMATING THE PROFITABILITY OF THE NEW YORK YANKEES 1915-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haupert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a data set containing a near complete set of account books for the New York Yankees for the years 1915-37, we look at several issues, including an analysis of the profitability of owning a professional baseball team during this time period. We look at returns to capital and investments in the team, sources of revenue and expenses faced by the team, and relative salaries. This type of analysis gives us a fascinating insight into the operation of a professional sports team in the early 20th century.

  20. Pathologies of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon and its investments in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    Those who have dedicated significant time to the study and care of stick-and-ball athletes have an appreciation for the unique anatomy, unusual forces, and proclivity for injury. It is imperative that hand surgeons involved in the care of baseball, hockey, tennis, and golf athletes appreciate the anatomic and mechanical elements of extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) pathology. It is necessary to maintain a high level of suspicion for ECU problems, among other ulnar wrist pathologies, as well as acute diagnostic skill and a portfolio of therapeutic alternatives for their treatment. PMID:22883879

  1. Early activation of object names in visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, A.; Belke, E.; Telling, A; Humphreys, G

    2007-01-01

    In a visual search experiment, participants had to decide whether or not a target object was present in a four-object search array. One of these objects could be a semantically related competitor (e.g., shirt for the target trousers) or a conceptually unrelated object with the same name as the target-for example, bat (baseball) for the target bat (animal). In the control condition, the related competitor was replaced by an unrelated object. The participants' response latencies and eye movemen...

  2. Performance Enhancing Drugs: History, Medical Effects & Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu-Hsuan

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to serve as a general treatise on the vast topic of use of performance enhancing drugs in athletic competition. It begins by laying out the extensive history of doping in sports, from the ancient Romans to the East German Olympic swim team to the steroids scandal in baseball. The paper moves on to describe and discuss the many medical effects that use of performance enhancing drugs might trigger. The paper concludes by discussing the appropriateness of anti-doping po...

  3. Manufacturing the MFTF magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a large mirror program experiment for magnetic fusion energy. It will combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime

  4. Examining the effect of dynamic strenght trainıig on dribbling and passing performance versus ısometric strenght training on young basketball playersGenç basketbolcularda izometrik kuvvet antrenmanına karşın dinamik kuvvet antrenmanının top sürme ve pas performansına etkisinin incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Bayram Burak; Sert, Volkan; Gül, Gazanfer Kemal; Gelen, Ertuğrul

    2016-01-01

    Propose of this study is evaluation of effect on ball driving and passing applied isometric strength with dynamic strength training in young baseball players. This study participated 14 male (mean age: 16.75 ± 0.4, height: 176.0 ± 5.6 cm, weight: 71.6 ± 14.4 kg, fitness age: 3.5 ± 0.8 years) was separated homogeneous 7 person group. Both groups was trained 3 days a week 2 hours throughout 8 weeks. While one of the groups doing isometric strenght training, other performed training with dynamic...

  5. Electron bounce modes in mirror plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron bounce modes can occur in mirror plasmas when the spread in the bounce frequency is small. This condition is satisfied in mirror devices when electrons are principally confined by an approximately quadratic electrostatic potential. These modes are examined by numerically solving an integral equation for the perturbed wave potential in a mirror plasma. A long wavelength mode is found that can be destabilized by ions because of the loss-cone nature of their distribution. Threshold densities and maximum growth rates are calculated using a perturbation method. The theoretical stability threshold predictions agree closely with Baseball II measurements

  6. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is the largest of the mirror program experiments for magnetic fusion energy. It seeks to combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with the most advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from the 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime. Design specifics of the magnet are given

  7. MRI findings in little leaguer's shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress injury of the proximal humeral physis, should be considered in the differential diagnosis for an adolescent baseball player with shoulder pain, especially if the player is pitching regularly in a competitive environment. While roentgenographs may or may not be helpful, depending on the duration and severity of the injury, we report the MRI appearance of a case of little leaguer's shoulder. We found MRI helpful in diagnosing injury to the growth plate that was radiographically occult; furthermore, we were able to document the patient's progress with a follow-up MRI examination, which showed improvement with treatment. (orig.)

  8. A multilevel perspective on faultlines: Differentiating the effects between group- and organizational-level faultlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed.

  9. How to think what no one has ever thought before

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin, William H.

    1995-01-01

    The short answer is to take a nap and dream about something. Our dreams are full of originality. Their elements are all old things, our memories of the past, but the combinations are original. Combinations make up in variety what they lack in quality, as when we dream about Socrates driving a bus in Brooklyn and talking to Joan of Arc about baseball. Our dreams get time, place, and people all mixed up. Awake, we have a stream of consciousness, also containing a lot of mistakes. But we can...

  10. Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kevin P; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P; Grayson, David E; Bancroft, Laura W; Tall, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a very common cause of pain in athletes, accounting for a significant loss of training time and missed competitions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in facilitating the expeditious and safe return of these individuals to their preinjury level of physical performance by allowing accurate diagnosis. Sports physicians are increasingly relying on the exquisite anatomic detail afforded by this technique to formulate diagnoses that assist with the optimal management of these athletic injuries. Some upper extremity overuse entities are well recognized; two examples are medial epicondylitis, classically appearing in baseball pitchers, and lateral epicondylitis, in tennis players. Other less well-known injuries of the upper extremity, such as intersection syndrome in rowers and distal clavicular stress fractures in weightlifters, are frequent occurrences in certain circles of athletes. The following article is a pictorial review of the MRI findings of upper extremity overuse injuries encountered in the competitive athlete, with an emphasis on the sports scenarios in which they occur. We will depict mechanisms of injury and applicable anatomy and show characteristic imaging findings. A wide range of entities are addressed, including but not limited to overuse injuries occurring in baseball, swimming, gymnastics, weightlifting, bowling, and cycling. PMID:16012484

  11. Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Y

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players.

  12. Wendell Richard Garner (1921-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhead, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Wendell Richard Garner was born on January 21, 1921, in Buffalo, New York, and died quietly on August 14, 2008, in Redding, Connecticut. He was an experimental psychologist who changed the way researchers study human perception and cognition. He provided new knowledge about how people process information and structure and about how to ask scientific questions. Three classes of his contributions are particularly noteworthy. His concept of converging operations, that outcomes of different studies converge on a common concept, paved the way to powerful analytic techniques, such as additive factors modeling. His information and structure ideas shaped research in perception and cognition and pattern recognition. His perceptual independence notions set the stage for hundreds of studies of dimensional independence and interaction, of perceptual integrality and separability, and of dimensional attention that are still actively pursued. Life for Tex was not all science and administration. He collaborated on Earnshaw Cook's Percentage Baseball (1964) and briefly consulted with the Baltimore Orioles baseball club. I asked why he did not similarly analyze football for the Baltimore Colts. He said it might spoil his love for that game. After his death, nonsolicited kudos circulating on the Internet included such comments as "I wish I had known him" and "I didn't know him, but I did know his elegant and insightful work." PMID:19203147

  13. Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE): a methodology for anticipating future user needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Muneo

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE), a new study methodology for understanding people's in situ behavior selections in daily life. People select their next behavior to maximize their satisfaction for a given behavioral needs. They appropriately coordinate available cognitive resources to make the best decisions by using their knowledge of past experiences and by processing input from the environment and individual intrinsic state. When a study field is specified, CCE starts by defining critical parameters for understanding people's behavior by considering the nature of behavior selection processes in the field in question, and then designing ethnographical field observations by taking into account the fact that their results will be described in terms of the specified critical parameters. The participants' behavior is recorded, followed by a series of structured retrospective interviews for the purpose of describing their present behavior and obtaining their history of behavioral development. Analysis of the interview results aid in developing models of present behavior selections and their chronological changes in the past. These models serve as defining future needs of persons who follow the same developing paths with a certain amount of delay, e.g., a few years of delay. This paper describes a CCE study of spectators of professional baseball games at a ballpark who have become frequent visitors to a baseball stadium in 5 years.

  14. The brain uses adaptive internal models of scene statistics for sensorimotor estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Sang; Knill, David C

    2013-03-12

    Because of uncertainty and noise, the brain should use accurate internal models of the statistics of objects in scenes to interpret sensory signals. Moreover, the brain should adapt its internal models to the statistics within local stimulus contexts. Consider the problem of hitting a baseball. The impoverished nature of the visual information available makes it imperative that batters use knowledge of the temporal statistics and history of previous pitches to accurately estimate pitch speed. Using a laboratory analog of hitting a baseball, we tested the hypothesis that the brain uses adaptive internal models of the statistics of object speeds to plan hand movements to intercept moving objects. We fit Bayesian observer models to subjects' performance to estimate the statistical environments in which subjects' performance would be ideal and compared the estimated statistics with the true statistics of stimuli in an experiment. A first experiment showed that subjects accurately estimated and used the variance of object speeds in a stimulus set to time hitting behavior but also showed serial biases that are suboptimal for stimuli that were uncorrelated over time. A second experiment showed that the strength of the serial biases depended on the temporal correlations within a stimulus set, even when the biases were estimated from uncorrelated stimulus pairs subsampled from the larger set. Taken together, the results show that subjects adapted their internal models of the variance and covariance of object speeds within a stimulus set to plan interceptive movements but retained a bias to positive correlations. PMID:23440185

  15. Statistical laws for career longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-03-01

    Career length distinguishes successful long tenures from unsuccessful short stints, and partially reflects the contributions of an employee to the goals of the employer. In some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, prowess, and productivity, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. In this talk, I motivate a stochastic model for career development that relies on two key ingredients, random progress within the career and random stopping times terminating the career. This model is exactly solvable, predicting the probability density function (pdf) of career longevity, characterized by two parameters, α and xc. The parameter α quantifies the power-law scaling of the pdf, which is terminated by an exponential cutoff after a crossover value xc, representing the mean career lifetime. We test the model with the large quantity of empirical data available for several professional sports leagues, American baseball, Korean baseball, American basketball, and English soccer, finding excellent agreement with the model's predictions. In all, the generality of the model suggests that there may be common stochastic forces that underly progress, success, and longevity in various professions.

  16. Motor variability arises from a slow random walk in neural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisanguanthum, Kris S; Shen, Helen H; Sabes, Philip N

    2014-09-01

    Even well practiced movements cannot be repeated without variability. This variability is thought to reflect "noise" in movement preparation or execution. However, we show that, for both professional baseball pitchers and macaque monkeys making reaching movements, motor variability can be decomposed into two statistical components, a slowly drifting mean and fast trial-by-trial fluctuations about the mean. The preparatory activity of dorsal premotor cortex/primary motor cortex neurons in monkey exhibits similar statistics. Although the neural and behavioral drifts appear to be correlated, neural activity does not account for trial-by-trial fluctuations in movement, which must arise elsewhere, likely downstream. The statistics of this drift are well modeled by a double-exponential autocorrelation function, with time constants similar across the neural and behavioral drifts in two monkeys, as well as the drifts observed in baseball pitching. These time constants can be explained by an error-corrective learning processes and agree with learning rates measured directly in previous experiments. Together, these results suggest that the central contributions to movement variability are not simply trial-by-trial fluctuations but are rather the result of longer-timescale processes that may arise from motor learning. PMID:25186752

  17. Coaches' implicit associations between size and giftedness: implications for the relative age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-established phenomenon in education and sports. Coaches have been assumed to be important social agents of RAE via biased selection decisions in favour of children with maturation advantages. In the present research, we used the Implicit Association Test to investigate automatic associations between body size and a player's domain-specific giftedness amongst youth baseball (N = 18) and youth soccer coaches (N = 34). We found medium to strong automatic associations between body size and player giftedness (baseball: MD = 0.62; soccer: MD = 0.51). Specifically, taller players were associated with positive performance-related attributes, whereas smaller players were associated with negative attributes. The results are in line with theories of grounded cognition by showing that the abstract concept of "sport giftedness" is partly grounded in the perception of physical height amongst youth sports coaches. We argue that this grounded cognition has the potential to influence coaches' selection decisions and in turn account for RAE as coaches are biased towards physically more matured players, even when no apparent performance advantage is evident.

  18. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERAMENT AND ANXIETY ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug H. Han

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to conduct basic descriptions of temperamental traits and the level of state and trait anxiety of young male athletes, and to compare them by type of sports. Study participants were 277 athletes and 152 non-athletes who were all high school boys. The Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was used for checking temperamental traits while the Korean version of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI-KY was used to estimate anxiety levels. Harm Avoidance score of athletes was higher than that of non-athletes. Harm Avoidance score of golfers was lowest and that of swimmers was highest. The state anxiety score of baseball players was lowest and that of Taekwondo players was highest. The trait anxiety score of baseball players was also lowest and that of golfers was highest. Both trait and state anxieties of the 'winner' group were lower than those of the 'no winner' group. While prior research mainly focused on athletes' environment and phenotypic characteristics, we studied the pattern of temperaments in athletes along with its potential influence on athletic performance

  19. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England’s football, America’s national pastime, baseball, Japan’s Judo, and Korea’s Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world’s most popular sports and has served its function as a form of cultural imperialism. It has also advanced alongside commerce, missionary work and other types of cultural clashes. In America, baseball was used to integrate its multicultural society and developed so that the team captain leads the rest of his team. The sports of Oriental countries were reborn through modernization that was influenced by the modern rationality, education etc. of its Western counterparts. Judo and Taekwondo were introduced globally through the Olympic Games. As mentioned above the birth of sporting events has a close connection to a nation’s cultural background and globalization has taken different forms depending on which continent it originated from. PMID:26933653

  20. InN nanorods prepared with CrN nanoislands by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sheng-Joue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the influence of CrN nanoisland inserted on growth of baseball-bat InN nanorods by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under In-rich conditions. By inserting CrN nanoislands between AlN nucleation layer and the Si (111 substrate, it was found that we could reduce strain form Si by inserting CrN nanoisland, FWHM of the x-ray rocking curve measured from InN nanorods from 3,299 reduced to 2,115 arcsec. It is due to the larger strain from lattice miss-match of the film-like InN structure; however, the strain from lattice miss-match was obvious reduced owing to CrN nanoisland inserted. The TEM images confirmed the CrN structures and In droplets dissociation from InN, by these results, we can speculate the growth mechanism of baseball-bat-like InN nanorods.