WorldWideScience

Sample records for baseball

  1. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Safety Tips: Baseball KidsHealth > For Parents > Safety Tips: Baseball ... sport, and it's fun. View Survey Why Baseball Safety Is Important Baseball is by no means a ...

  2. Baseball Sans Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADAM; FEENEY

    2006-01-01

    If anyone needs a reminder that the word "fan" is merely the short form of "fanatic," they need only observe me watching baseball on the Internet. No, I'm not talking about a webcast with images of the game actually being played. My falsely advertised "DSL" Internet connection isn't fast enough for that. Instead, on balmy summer evenings

  3. Physics of Baseball & Softball

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the physics of baseball and softball, assuming that the reader has a background in both physics and mathematics at the high school level. The physics is explained in a conversational style, and illustrated with experimental results obtained both in the laboratory and in the field. Simple equations are also used in order to model the experimental results and to test whether the explanations are actually valid. The subject matter provides an excellent opportunity to explain physics in an interesting manner, given the universal popularity of baseball and softball as pastimes. There is also the interaction between a bat and ball, which is a classic problem in physics involving large forces, short time intervals, momentum, and energy transfer, vibration, rotation, and the different physical properties of the wood (or aluminum) of the bat, and the ball. The flight of the ball through the air is another fascinating example of physics in action, involving the effects of gravity, air resistance and...

  4. Baseball and Canadian Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, William

    2005-01-01

    Baseball research generally acts as a window into the game--a means as it were to understand its underlying order and disorder, its hidden beauty and historic complexity. Less common is the view from the other side of the window in which the patterns of the game are a lens as it were into the outside world, a channel for making sense of a…

  5. Real Time Baseball Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  6. Fantasy Baseball with a Statistical Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Lori; McNelis, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Fantasy baseball, a game invented in 1980, allows baseball fans to become managers of pretend baseball teams. In most fantasy baseball leagues, participants choose teams consisting of major league players who they believe will do well in five offensive categories (batting average, home runs, runs batted in, stolen bases, and runs scored) or in…

  7. Major League Baseball and Globalization: The World Baseball Classic

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Nagel; Matt, Brown; Daniel, Rascher; Chad, McEvoy

    2010-01-01

    In addition to generating initial profits, the WBC has positioned MLB to be the leader in growing the game of baseball and the commercial aspects of the sport throughout the world. As baseball grows, and more importantly as the American brand of baseball grows, it will be interesting to watch the worldwide reaction – particularly if MLB begins to generate huge profits overseas. Other prominent American brands such as Coke, Nike, Disney, and McDonalds have been both embraced and scorned as the...

  8. Baseball and American Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Elias

    2012-01-01

    While many have observed baseball’s longstanding resonance with U.S. domestic life, our national pastime has also figured prominently in how America has projected itself abroad—in its foreign, military, diplomatic and globalization policies. And vice versa: U.S. foreign policy has affected baseball, as well.For more than two centuries, baseball has shown up in surprising ways as America has emerged in the world, and then built itself into an empire. While baseball was played in America as far...

  9. The Flight of a Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The trajectory of a baseball moving through the air is very different from the one we teach in our introductory classes in which the only force is that due to gravity. In reality, the aerodynamic drag force (which retards the motion) and the Magnus force on a spinning baseball (which causes the ball to curve) play very important roles that are crucial to many of the subtleties of the game. These forces are governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools have been developed that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking (the so-called PITCHf/x and HITf/x systems), and Doppler radar tracking via the TrackMan system. In this talk, I will discuss how these new tools work, what they are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics, and how they have the potential to revolutionize the analysis of the game itself.

  10. Attendance Demand for Baseball Games in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirao, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how competitive balance in the Japanese professional baseball teams has changed over time, and estimates the effect of competitive balance on attendance demand for baseball games. Nippon Professional Baseball Organization (the ‘NPB’ hereinafter) consists of the Central League and the Pacific League, and there are six teams in each league. In 2004, a series of changes took place in the Pacific League, including the merger of the two existing teams, the entry of a new team, t...

  11. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation. PMID:11641701

  12. Magnetic field on the baseball coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expression is developed in spherical harmonics for the magnetic field of a baseball coil. A simple dipole-layer model for the coil, and the computer program, MAFCO, yield comparable expansion coefficients, and give practically identical fields near the center of the baseball. 13 refs

  13. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  14. MR imaging of the elbow in baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseball pitcher throwing biomechanics are important to understanding the pathophysiology and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of injuries in baseball pitchers. Baseball pitchers experience repetitive excessive valgus forces at the elbow. Typical injuries are secondary to medial joint distraction, lateral joint compression, and rotatory forces at the olecranon. MR imaging is useful for evaluation of the elbow in baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  15. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references f...

  16. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  17. Friendly Exchanges Between Yizheng and Japanese Youth Baseball Teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Jiangsu Provincial Baseball and Softball Association, and with the help from the Japan IBA Youth Baseball and Softball League, on March 28, the Youth Baseball Team of Kawasaki City of Saitama Prefecture played two friendly matches against the team of Yizheng Experimental School in Jiangsu Province.

  18. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  19. The Effect of Major League Baseball Rehab Assignments on Attendance in the International Baseball League

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Turner

    2013-01-01

    Prior to his return from the disabled list, a Major League Baseball (MLB) player may be given a "rehab assignment" to a Minor League Baseball (MiLB) club. One can intuitively expect that successful MLB players should positively affect attendance at the MiLB clubs that they are assigned to. This study develops a regression model to determine the effect of MLB rehab assignments on attendance in the International Baseball League. The regression model also introduces a new technique to measure th...

  20. Scattering of a Baseball by a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R; Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements are presented in this paper of the tradeoff between speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  1. EVALUATION OF PAINFUL SHOULDER IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Soares, André Lopes; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. Methods: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. Results: 14 of...

  2. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Bohn, John L.

    2008-11-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. We measure the change in diameter and weight of baseballs as a function of relative humidity in which the balls are stored. The trajectories of pitched and batted baseballs are modeled to assess the difference between those stored at 30% relative humidity versus 50% relative humidity. We find that a drier baseball will curve slightly more than a humidified one for a given pitch velocity and rotation rate. We also find that aerodynamics alone would add 2ft to the distance a wetter baseball ball is hit. This increased distance is compensated by a 6ft reduction in the batted distance due to the change in the coefficient of restitution of the ball. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% relative humidity since 2002.

  3. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  4. No Dummies: Deafness, Baseball, and American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by examining the historical and social factors that led to 1901 being the "deafest" year in major league baseball history with four deaf players. In particular, the author discusses the career of William Ellsworth "Dummy" Hoy, a deaf man from Ohio who became the most celebrated deaf player in history and explores the reasons…

  5. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. To do this, we measure the change in diameter and mass of baseballs as a function of relative humidity (RH). We then model trajectories for pitched and batted baseballs to assess the difference between those stored at 30% RH versus 50% RH. The results show that a drier baseball may be expected to curve slightly more than a humidified one, and that the drier ball will also likely travel slightly less far when batted. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% RH since 2002.

  6. Productivity, Wages, and Marriage: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Naomi E. Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of professional baseball players from 1871–2007, this paper aims at analyzing a longstanding empirical observation that married men earn significantly more than their single counterparts holding all else equal (the "marriage premium"). Baseball is a unique case study because it has a long history of statistics collection and numerous direct measurements of productivity. Our results show that the marriage premium also holds for baseball players, where married players earn up to ...

  7. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  8. Traveling Baseball Players' Problem in Korea

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Aaram J; Choi, Younguk; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We study the so-called the traveling tournament problem (TTP), to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  9. Mutually-Antagonistic Interactions in Baseball Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit interesting structural changes over time. We also find that these networks exhibit a significant network structure that is sensitive to baseball's rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions. We find that a player's position in the network does not correlate with his success in the random walker ranking but instead has a substantial effect on its sensitivity to changes in his own aggregate performance.

  10. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  11. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  12. Understanding baseball team standings and streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, C.; Redner, S.

    2009-02-01

    Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

  13. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  14. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  15. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  16. Training the Baseball Hitter: What Does Research Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Robin J.; Heefner, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Former baseball star Jim Lefebvre (1983) claimed that hitting a baseball may be the most talked about but least understood skill in all of sports. Historically, hitting instruction has been based on intuitive thinking by "hitting gurus," rather than on scientific fact, which has contributed to this lack of understanding (DeRenne, Stellar, &…

  17. Finding the Area of a Major League Baseball Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Courchaine

    2013-01-01

    Using a Major League Baseball (MLB) baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.

  18. Finding the Area of a Major League Baseball Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Courchaine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a Major League Baseball (MLB baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.

  19. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July...

  20. Relationship between performance variables and baseball ability in youth baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship of performance variables and anthropometric measurements on baseball ability in 164 youth baseball players (age: 6.4-15.7 years). To evaluate their baseball performance, ball speeds in pitching and batting were recorded and kinetic energies of the pitched and hit balls were calculated. To record anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics, height and weight were measured and a battery of physical fitness tests covering standing long jump, side steps, sit-ups, 10-m sprint, trunk flexion, back strength, and grip strengths of both hands were conducted. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed several significant predictors: age, body mass index (BMI), standing long jump, 10-m sprint, and grip strength for pitched ball kinetic energy and age, BMI, standing long jump, and back strength for hit ball kinetic energy. This study provides scientific evidence that relates certain specific physical performance tests and body characteristics with high achievement in the actual performance of pitching and batting. Youth players, their parents, coaches, and trainers would benefit by addressing these characteristics when planning training programs to improve the baseball performance of youth players. PMID:23838977

  1. Collapsing the Wavefunction of a Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, T

    2003-01-01

    The transition from microscopic to macroscopic in quantum mechanics can be seen from various points of view. It is often not merely a transition from quantum to classical mechanics in the sense of the Correspondence Principle. The fact that real macroscopic objects like baseballs are composites of an extremely large number of microscopic particles (electrons, protons etc.) is a complicating factor. Here such composite objects are studied in some detail and the Copenhagen interpretation is applied to them. A computer game model for a simplified composite object is used to illustrate some of the issues.

  2. Anthropometric and performance comparisons in professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Vazquez, Jose; Pichardo, Napoleon; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2009-11-01

    This study compared anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players and examined the relationship between these variables and baseball-specific performance (i.e., home runs, total bases, slugging percentage, and stolen bases). During a 2-year period, 343 professional baseball players were assessed for height, weight, body composition, grip strength, vertical jump power, 10-yard sprint speed, and agility. Subject population consisted of players on the rosters of one of the minor league affiliates (Rookie, A, AA, AAA) or major league team (MLB). All testing occurred at the beginning of spring training. Players in Rookie and A were significantly (p baseball-specific power performance. Anthropometric measures failed to add any additional explanation to the variance in these baseball-specific performance variables. Results indicated that both anthropometric and performance variables differed between players of different levels of competition in professional baseball. Agility, speed, and lower-body power appeared to provide the greatest predictive power of baseball-specific performance. PMID:19826310

  3. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  4. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gretchen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  5. The Impact of Atmospheric Conditions on the Baseball Totals Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney J. Paul; Weinbach, Andrew P.; Chris Weinbach

    2014-01-01

    A study of the physics of baseball has shown that air density plays a significant role in the distance a batted baseball will travel. Air density is a function of altitude, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. This paper tests if air density impacts the totals market in Major League Baseball by influencing the number of runs in a game above and beyond the betting market total. Through regression analysis and betting simulations of the 2012 season, it is shown that air density has a...

  6. Major league baseball career length in the twentieth century*

    OpenAIRE

    Witnauer, William D.; Rogers, Richard G.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2007-01-01

    Although baseball is considered “the” American pastime, little is known about the career prospects of the individuals who play the game. This study fills that void by examining the careers of baseball players over the last century. Between 1902 and 1993, 5,989 position players started their careers and played 33,272 person years of major league baseball. A rookie position player can expect to play 5.6 years; one in five position players will have only a single-year career, and at every point ...

  7. Spectrum of shoulder injuries in the baseball pitcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes a range of shoulder injuries experienced by baseball pitchers. It is estimated that more than 57% of pitchers suffer some form of shoulder injury during a playing season. Knowledge of the overhead throwing cycle is crucial for our understanding of these shoulder injuries. Baseball pitchers are prone to rotator cuff tears from tensile overload and impingement. Glenoid labrum degeneration or tears are also common, due to overuse syndrome (micro-instability), internal impingement and microtrauma. An understanding of the lesions involved in overhead throwing is crucial in baseball pitchers, as long-term disability can result from these injuries, sometimes with severe financial consequences to the player. (orig.)

  8. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player

    OpenAIRE

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.

  9. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  10. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  11. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG FEMALE BASEBALL PLAYERS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalwinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The present study was conducted to determine the emotional intelligence among Indian female baseball players. Material : For the purpose of present study, two hundred (N=200 senior national female baseball players were selected through purposive sampling technique from different regions of India. They were selected from four different regions: A (North region baseball players=50, B (East region baseball players=50, C (West region baseball players=50 and D (South region baseball players=50. To collect the required data for the present study, the questionnaire developed by Hyde et al. (2001 on emotional intelligence was administered. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was employed to compare the entire regions. Where ‘F’ values were found significant, LSD (Least Significant Difference Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results : Significant differences were observed among North, East, West and South regions female baseball players on the sub-parameters; empathy, self-development, value orientation and on the parameter Emotional Intelligence (Total. No significant differences were noticed on the sub-parameters; self-awareness, self-motivation, emotional stability, managing relations, integrity, commitment and altruistic behaviour. Conclusion: The outcome of results might be due to the fact that East region female baseball players are able to pay attention to the worries and concerns of others, can listen to someone without the urge to say something, can stay focused under pressure, are able to handle multiple demands and able to identify and separate their emotions.

  12. Baseball Digest Production System using Inductive Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Masaru Miyazaki; Masahiro Shibata; Nobuyuki Yagi

    2010-01-01

    Here, we propose a technique to acquire knowledge for baseball digest video production using an inductive inference approach. We integrated the concept of inductive logic programming (ILP) and baseball game metadata to enable learning of the highlight scene definition from digest video produced by a TV director. ILP is a learning method formed at the intersection of machine learning and logic programming, and an ILP processor can acquire the highlight scene definition by inductive learning fr...

  13. The Classic: Shoulder and Elbow Lesions Distinctive of Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, George E.

    2012-01-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by G. Bennett, Shoulder and Elbow Lesions Distinctive of Baseball Players. An accompanying biographical sketch of G. Bennett is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2334-3. The Classic Article is ©1947 and is reprinted with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health from Bennett G. Shoulder and elbow lesions distinctive of baseball players. Ann Surg. 1947;126:107–110.

  14. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  15. Study on Impact Loading and Humerus Injury for Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Jiro

    In the United States and Japan, baseball is a very popular sport played by many people. However, the ball used is hard and moves fast. A professional baseball pitcher in good form can throw a ball at speeds upwards of 41.7m/s (150km/hr). If a ball at this speed hits the batter, serious injury can occur. In this paper we will describe our investigations on the impact of a baseball with living tissues by finite element analysis. Baseballs were projected at a load cell plate using a specialized pitching machine. The dynamic properties of the baseball were determined by comparing the wall-ball collision experimentally measuring the time history of the force and the displacement using dynamic finite element analysis software (ANSYS/ LS-DYNA). The finite element model representing a human humerus and its surrounding tissue was simulated for balls pitched at variable speeds and pitch types (knuckle and fastball). In so doing, the stress distribution and stress wave in the bone and soft tissue were obtained. From the results, the peak stress of the bone nearly yielded to the stress caused by a high fast ball. If the collision position or direction is moved from the center of the upper arm, it is assumed that the stress exuded on the humerus will be reduced. Some methods to reduce the severity of the injury which can be applied in actual baseball games are also discussed.

  16. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  17. Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Faber, Warren L.; Russell, Daniel A.

    2011-06-01

    Three questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. Can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? These questions are subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment and an interpretation of the data. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes, respectively.

  18. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the opening of a national kids' baseball coin design challenge on April...

  19. Out at Home: Why the Major League Baseball Advanced Media Agreement May Violate Antitrust Law

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenvogel, Sally E.

    2013-01-01

    Major League Baseball Advanced Media (MLBAM or BAM) has created one of the most successful technology platforms for broadcasting professional baseball games online. BAM is extremely profitable, but its exclusive online broadcast of professional baseball games through MLB.tv may violate antitrust law. Conventional wisdom may sugges...

  20. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  1. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  2. Body type and performance of elite cuban baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Ríos, Andrés; Echevarría, Ivis; Martínez, Miriam; Miñoso, Julio; Rodríguez, Dialvis

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Appropriate stature and adequate somatotype are not the only attributes determining athletic performance, but they are important prerequisites for sports participation and success. However, there is scant literature on baseball players' kinanthropometric profiles and their association with performance. Given that Cuban baseball players have been among the world's top performers in recent decades, characterization of their morphological features linked to their performance may contribute to developing the evidence base in this area. Objective Describe the kinanthropometric profile related to sports performance of elite Cuban baseball players, classified by playing position. Methods Body composition, somatotype, proportionality, and performance were measured in 100 elite baseball players grouped by playing position and performance. Data from the 2002-2003 baseball season was gathered for players participating in the 43rd Cuban National Baseball Series (November 2003-May 2004). Slugging percentage (SLG) was used to measure performance of all players except pitchers, whose performance was measured as end-of-season win-loss record. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated for anthropometric and performance results, presented in tables for comparison. ANOVA and MANOVA analyses were applied to determine magnitudes of difference between the variables studied, as well as statistical significance of the differences established (p≤0.05 and p≤0.01). Results Performance and body type varied by playing position, and statistically significant differences were found in performance, body composition and somatotype variables between some positions. No significant differences in proportionality were found. First basemen and outfielders (center, left, and right fielders) were the best offensive players with the highest mean SLG, body weight and muscle mass values. Infielders (second basemen, shortstops, and third basemen) had the lowest mean body weight and

  3. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  4. Baseball Aerodynamics: What do we know and how do we know it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Baseball aerodynamics is governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools are being used that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking of pitched baseballs (the PITCHf/x system), and Doppler radar tracking. In this contribution, I will discuss what these new tools are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics.

  5. Home-run probability as a function of coefficient of restitution of baseballs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuninaka, Hiroto; Mizutani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In baseball games, the coefficient of restitution of baseballs strongly affects the flying distance of batted balls, which determines the home-run probability. In Japan, the range of the coefficient of restitution of official baseballs has changed frequently over the past five years, causing the the number of home runs to vary drastically. We analyzed data from Japanese baseball games played in 2014 to investigate the statistical properties of pitched balls. In addition, we used the analysis results to develop a baseball-batting simulator for determining the home-run probability as a function of the coefficient of restitution. Our simulation results are explained by a simple theoretical argument.

  6. Predicting Baseball Home Run Records Using Exponential Frequency Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, D J; Phillips, J A

    2006-01-01

    A new model, which uses the frequency of individuals' annual home run totals, is employed to predict future home run totals and records in Major League Baseball. Complete home run frequency data from 1903--2005 is analyzed, resulting in annual exponential distributions whose changes can be a used as a measure of progression in the sport and serve as a basis against which record-setting performances can be compared. We show that there is an 80% chance that Barry Bonds' current 73 home run record will be broken in the next 10 years, despite the longevity of previous records held by baseball legends Babe Ruth and Roger Marris.

  7. Managing the Process of Review: Playing "Baseball" in Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes using a game entitled "Baseball" to help students with special needs review test questions. Students, organized into teams, use practice test questions to quiz each other. Benefits, in addition to making practice sessions enjoyable, include learning content effectively and teaching students how to self-assess their…

  8. The Use of Ice in Baseball Injuries (Cryotherapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Cryotherapy (the use of ice and exercise to rehabilitate athletic injuries) can be an effective method of treating baseball injuries. It is generally agreed that ice is appropriate for the first 24 to 48 hours, but there is disagreement over its use beyond 72 hours. Some physicians and trainers support the use of heat with either exercise or rest,…

  9. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Major League Baseballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstman, Victoria; Raue, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In a study inspired by the famous humidor of the Colorado Rockies of Major League Baseball, we have measured the effects of temperature and humidity on the elasticity of official Major League baseballs. The elasticity, e, also referred to as the coefficient of restitution (COR), of the baseballs was determined by dropping the balls from a fixed height onto a concrete floor and determining the speed of the ball after the initial impact. Corrections for air drag were made to the measured COR. Measurements were done for baseballs stored under a wide variety of conditions that included storage in the freezer compartment of a household refrigerator, storage in an 80^rcC oven with varying humidity conditions, and storage in a crude humidor. The balls were tested over a period of several hours after removal to nominal conditions. Our results show a linear increase of the COR with increasing temperature, as well as a nearly linear decrease in the COR as water mass is increased. Using the results of our measurements, we have determined the effects of temperature and humidity on batted-ball speeds and flight distances at the Rockies' home field.

  10. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  11. Simplified Models for the Drag Coefficient of a Pitched Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David; Nathan, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The classic experiment to measure the drag coefficient involves dropping coffee filters. Wouldn't it be more fun to try something different? In fact, an experiment on the drag force is conducted nearly 4000 times a day during the baseball season and you have free access to this PITCHf/x data!

  12. Peculiarities of the Major League Baseball Posting System

    OpenAIRE

    Rockerbie, Duane

    2006-01-01

    The posting system used in major league baseball to obtain free agent players from Japan has some similarities and many differences from the transfer system used to obtain foreign free agents in European football. This paper uses auction theory to assess the efficiencies (or lack of) in the posting system and to suggest alternatives.

  13. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  14. Plasma confinement in a multi-baseball system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma confinement along the field lines in a system of serially interconnected non-adiabatic baseball-type traps with absolute minimum B is considered. It is shown that it is possible to get diffusive flow along the axis of such a system. The confinement time is proportional to N2, where 2N is the number of traps. (author)

  15. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility. PMID:26559562

  16. Playing Baseball/Playing "House": The Reproduction and Naturalization of "Separate Spheres" in Japanese High School Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although Japanese schools are generally considered to be one of the most gender-equitable social institutions in Japan, they play an important role in helping to reproduce and naturalize the notion of sex-based separate spheres, through endorsing the maintenance of such separate spheres in extracurricular sports clubs, such as baseball, where…

  17. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-01-01

    Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB) of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collap...

  18. National Pastime to Dismal Science: Using Baseball to Illustrate Economic Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Bruggink

    1993-01-01

    The game of baseball has enormous appeal to students and economists. By using baseball examples in teaching economics, the professor creates the atmosphere of fun while covering substantive topics in economics. This paper enables professors to enrich their principles course with illustrations, outlines, and annotations. The paper also provides the motivation and the suggested content of a special topics course on Baseball Economics, a sure winner in any Economics Department.

  19. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home run prowess in professional baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability de...

  20. BASEBALL THROWING MECHANICS AS THEY RELATE TO PATHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Whiteley

    2007-01-01

    It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury...

  1. The Immediate Effect of Lumbar Spine Patterns of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation in Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Takasumi; Naito, Daiki; Koiso, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other wi...

  2. Team performance and within-team salary disparity: an analysis of nippon professional baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Takuma Kamada; Hajime Katayama

    2014-01-01

    Using data from Nippon Professional Baseball, which is the Japanese professional baseball league, we examine the relationship between within-team salary disparity and team performance. We find that greater salary disparity tends to result in better team performance, which is the opposite of what prior studies have observed for Major League Baseball. Our results suggest that even within the same sport, the relationship may be partly affected by different institutional settings

  3. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cuban national baseball team reigned in amateur competitions worldwide. Sporting successes in general and those of baseball in particular, were managed by the government as a political tool; the government used to display the loyalty of the athletes as a triumph of the Cuban system. However, since the nineties there has been a growing departure of Cuban top baseball players who have had the target of entering in MLB franchises, disregarding that the Cuban migration policy had remained unwavering. On the other hand, after the enactment of changes in the Cuban migration policy in 2013, the unconventional departure of high performance baseball players has increased sharply. The relationship between the migration reform and the increased leakage of baseball players has not been studied by scholars. The relevance of this paper is that it is the first academic approach to that relationship. This paper discusses the migration reform in Cuba and focuses mainly on its impact on baseball.

  4. Corked Bats, Juiced Balls, and Humidors: The Physics of Cheating in Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Alan M; Faber, Warren L; Russell, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Three separate questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. First, can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Second, is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Third, can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? Each of these questions is subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment, an interpretation of the data, and a definitive answer. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes.

  5. Baseball Pitching Biomechanics in Relation to Injury Risk and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fortenbaugh, Dave; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Baseball pitching kinematics, kinetics, ball velocity, and injuries at the shoulder and elbow are related. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and Sport Discus were searched for original studies published between 1994 and 2008. Relevant references in these studies were retrieved. Inferential studies that tested relationships between kinematics and kinetics were included, as were studies that tested relationships between kinematics and ball velocity. Descriptive studies that simply quantifie...

  6. Biomechanical Comparison of the Interval Throwing Progression and Baseball Pitching

    OpenAIRE

    Slenker, Nicholas; Limpisvasti, Orr; Mohr, Karen; ElAttrache, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The interval throwing progression is a hallmark of the rehabilitation program designed for baseball pitchers or position players returning from shoulder or elbow injury. It typically begins with flat-ground throws at a short distance and progressively increases to 180 feet or more. For pitchers, this phase is then followed by throwing off the mound, progressing from partial-effort to full-effort pitches. Theoretically, the progression of throwing phases allows an injured athlete t...

  7. Productivity under Large Pay Increases: Evidence from Professional Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Papps, Kerry L.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of the free agency system in the 1970s resulted in large salary increases among professional baseball players. Historical data show that players have tended to perform better at early stages of their careers since free agency was introduced. Under the current salary bargaining system, players only become eligible for salary arbitration and free agency at predetermined points in their careers, resulting in sudden changes in salary growth rates at these points. Using data on o...

  8. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Hibberd EE; Brown JR; Hoffer JT

    2015-01-01

    Elizabeth E Hibberd,1 J Rodney Brown,2 Joseph T Hoffer21Department of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA; 2Department of Intercollegiate Athletics, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USAAbstract: The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching excee...

  9. Modeling Rare Baseball Events--Are They Memoryless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael; Glen, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Three sets of rare baseball events--pitching a no-hit game, hitting for the cycle, and turning a triple play--offer excellent examples of events whose occurrence may be modeled as Poisson processes. That is, the time of occurrence of one of these events doesn't affect when we see the next occurrence of such. We modeled occurrences of these three…

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling of Hitting Performance in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Shane T.; McShane, Blake; Wyner, Abraham J.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a sophisticated statistical model for predicting the hitting performance of Major League baseball players. The Bayesian paradigm provides a principled method for balancing past performance with crucial covariates, such as player age and position. We share information across time and across players by using mixture distributions to control shrinkage for improved accuracy. We compare the performance of our model to current sabermetric methods on a held-out seaso...

  11. An Econometric Analysis of the 2013 Major League Baseball Season

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Steven L.; Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Walke, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    An econometric analysis of 2013 Major League Baseball season is conducted with respect to regular season victories. Results obtained confirm many, but not all, results reported in prior research. The importance of solid team pitching, defense, and offense is underscored. Outcomes for salaries and league affiliations differ substantially from prior seasons. History may serve as a guide to what occurs on the field, but it does not always repeat in the manner indicated in bygone years. Ulti...

  12. An Exploratory Study of Minor League Baseball Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler Gabriel; Stevens Guy

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of projecting future success of Minor League baseball players at each level of the farm system. Using tree based methods, in particular random forests, we consider which statistics are most correlated with Major League success, how Major League teams use these statistics differently in handling prospects, and how prior belief in a players ability, measured through draft position, is used throughout a players Minor League career. We show that roughly the 18th round pros...

  13. The effect of spin on the flight of a baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements are presented of the Magnus force on a spinning baseball. The experiment utilizes a pitching machine to project the baseball horizontally, a high-speed motion analysis system to determine the initial velocity and angular velocity and to track the trajectory over 5m of flight, and a ruler to measure the total distance traversed. Speeds in the range v =50-110mph and spin rates ω (topspin or backspin) in the range 1500-4500rpm were utilized, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of Re =(1.1-2.4)×105 and spin factors S ≡Rω/v in the range 0.090-0.595. Least-squares fits were used to extract the initial parameters of the trajectory and to determine the lift coefficients. Comparison is made with previous measurements and parametrizations, and implications for the effect of spin on the flight of a baseball are discussed. The lift coefficient CL is found not to depend strongly on v at fixed values of S.

  14. Of Rails and Red Stockings: A Vignette on the Extension of Baseball to the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert Knight

    During its century and a half history, baseball has been given continued impetus by the development of new technologies in communication--the telegraph, the sports page, the radio and television. Perhaps the most important in the initial spread of baseball throughout America was the railroad. The completion of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1869…

  15. The Baseball Hall of Fame Is Not the Kiss of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel and M. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in…

  16. Smokeless tobacco use among professional baseball players: survey results, 1998 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Severson, H; Klein, K.; Lichtensein, E; Kaufman, N.; Orleans, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (snuff and chewing tobacco) has long been associated with baseball in the USA. This article reviews six years of survey data from major and minor league baseball players to evaluate trends in tobacco use and quitting patterns over time in order to gain insight into the effects of past interventions and to document continued intervention needs.

  17. Delving Deeper: Studying Baseball's Wild-Card Team Using Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Richard E.; Knapp, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The modern era of professional baseball playoffs began in 1903, when the champions of the American League and the National League played the first World Series. Except for one year, 1904, this playoff system was maintained until 1969. Beginning in 1969, each of the two leagues in Major League Baseball (MLB) was divided into two divisions to…

  18. Factors Affecting High School Baseball Coaches' Enforcement of School Tobacco Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Ted; Strack, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of policy bans and recommendations against spit tobacco (ST) use, baseball athletes have demonstrated ST prevalence rates ranging from 34% to 50% in high school, 42% in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and 50% in the professional ranks. To evaluate enforcement of ST bans, high school baseball coaches in North Carolina…

  19. Saved at Home: Christian Branding and Faith Nights in the "Church of Baseball"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Baseball has enjoyed its status as the "national pastime" in part because it has been associated with democracy. To the extent that baseball, as an institution of civil religion, fosters pluralism and inclusion, it can indeed be viewed in democratic terms. In recent years, the advent of conservative Christian events called "Faith Nights" threatens…

  20. Effects of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation on Baseball Pitching Velocity and Electromechanical Reaction Times of the Teres Major of Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Peng; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of the teres major of young amateur baseball players after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 8 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received ...

  1. Depth Perception Improvement in Collegiate Baseball Players with Vision Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Clark, PhD, ATC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vision training is rapidly becoming a component of sports enhancement, but quantifiable and validated improvement in visual performance has not been clearly demonstrated in high-caliber and/or collegiate athletes. We have performed vision training for the last three seasons on the University of Cincinnati baseball team’s hitters. The goal for the work was performance enhancement, and for monitoring purposes, we measured stereopsis pre- and post-vision training. Methods: From the preseason (January 2011 through to the end of the season (May 2013, all hitters in the University of Cincinnati baseball team underwent regular vision training. Out-of-season training was 20 minutes twice per week, and in-season was 20 minutes once per week. Traditional stereopsis (Stereo Fly was performed and recorded. Vision training typically consisted of: Dynavision light board, Brock string, strobe glasses, Eyeport, saccades, and near-far. Results: The players consistently came into the season with stereopsis of 23.7 ± 1.0 mm, and six weeks of training increased this stereopsis to 36.9 ± 0.49 mm (p<0.0001. Discussion: There was a consistent and significant improvement in stereopsis measured by Stereo Fly with the baseball team after 6 weeks of vision training. Equally, the stereopsis returned to baseline out of season. Temporal benefits seemed to continue post-6 weeks of vision training. We conclude that in a population of healthy and high-caliber athletes, stereopsis can improve with training and suffer from detraining effects as well. We suggest that vision training for sports that require good stereo acuity be considered.

  2. Radionuclide distribution in a nuclear test cavity: the baseball event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994 two holes were drilled into the cavity formed in 1981 by the underground nuclear test named Baseball. An extensive set of side wall samples were collected in these holes. We have analyzed the samples for tritium and for gamma-emitting radionuclides (both fission products and neutron activation products). It appears that the distribution pattern of these radioactive materials, established at the time of the detonation, have persisted even though the cavity has been under water for 13 years. These findings are discussed in the context of radionuclide migration and groundwater contamination at the Nevada Test Site. (orig.)

  3. Zeroing the Baseball Indicator and the Chirality of Triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Christopher S.; Wright, Marcus

    2004-03-01

    Starting with a common baseball umpire indicator, we consider the zeroing number for two-wheel indicators with states (a,b) and three-wheel indicators with states (a,b,c). Elementary number theory yields formulae for the zeroing number. The solution in the three-wheel case involves a curiously nontrivial minimization problem whose solution determines the chirality of the ordered triple (a,b,c) of pairwise relatively prime numbers. We prove that chirality is in fact an invariant of the unordered triple {a,b,c }. We also show that the chirality of Fibonacci triples alternates between 1 and 2.

  4. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  5. Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Eric; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Piquero, Alex R; Regoli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature in a variety of disciplines has appeared over the last 20 years examining customer racial bias in the secondary sports card market; however, consensus on the matter has yet to emerge. In this article, we explore the more subtle ways that a player's race/ethnicity may affect the value of his sports card including a player's skin tone (light- to dark-skinned). Data were obtained for 383 black, Latino, and white baseball players who had received at least one vote for induction into Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame including their career performance statistics, rookie card price, card availability, Hall of Fame status, and skin tone. Findings indicate that card availability is the primary determinant of card value while a player's skin tone has no direct effect. Subsequent analysis demonstrates that a player's race (white/non-white) rather than skin tone did have an effect as it interacts with Hall of Fame status to influence his rookie card price. PMID:21337740

  6. Anxiety and attention shifting in professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, B N; Cheong, J H; Kang, K D; Renshaw, P F

    2014-07-01

    Based on the work of both Eysenck and Nideffer, we hypothesized that higher ranking players (HRP) would have lower competitive anxiety and more flexible attention-shifting, compared to lower ranking players (LRP). In addition, different patterns of attention (low anxiety and flexible attention) would be represented by a different pattern of brain activity within the temporal lobe and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In accordance with the rookie draft ranking, the players were classified into 2 groups: HRP (top 30% of those selected in the draft) vs. LRP (bottom 30% of those selected in the draft). For assessment of executive function, a computerized version of the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test (WCST) was used. Brain activity was assessed using 1.5-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging. In response to scenes depicting baseball errors, HRP showed increased activation in the left cingulate cortex and decreased activation in right middle temporal gyrus, compared to LRP. In response to the simplified WCST in the scanner, HRP showed increased activation in left superior frontal cortex (DLPFC), compared to LRP. The present results suggest that HRP may demonstrate elevated cingulate activation and lower temporal cortex activation in response to scenes depicting baseball errors. PMID:24554554

  7. The Effect of Spin on the Flight of a Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, A M; Chong, L; Kaczmarski, H; Nathan, Alan M.; Hopkins, Joe; Chong, Lance; Kaczmarski, Hank

    2006-01-01

    New measurements are presented of the lift on a spinning baseball. The experiment utilizes a pitching machine to project the baseball horizontally; a high-speed motion capture system to measure the initial velocity and angular velocity and to track the trajectory over ~5 m of flight; and a ruler to measure the total distance traversed by the ball. Speeds in the range v=50-110 mph and spin rates (topspin or backspin)in the range omega=1500-4500 rpm were utilized, corresponding to Reynold's numbers Re=(1.1-2.4) x 10^5 and spin parameters R*omega/v=0.1-0.6. Standard least-squares fitting procedures were used to extract the initial parameters of the trajectory and to determine the lift and drag coefficients. Comparison is made with previous measurements or parametrizations of the lift and drag coefficients, and implications for the effect of spin on the flight of a long fly ball are discussed.

  8. Screening for smokeless tobacco use and presence of oral lesions in major league baseball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Amy K; Hutton, Stephen B; Munnelly, Maureen; Bay, R Curtis

    2015-01-01

    The historically disproportionate use of smokeless tobacco (ST) by baseball players is well documented. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) are associated with ST use. Prevalence of ST use and OMLs was assessed among a sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) athletes, while also assessing behavioral and demographic risk factors. ST-use prevalence and OML developmental risk was higher than natiornal averages. MLB policy intervention has not changed ST-use rates, and increased prevalence of ST use remains. PMID:25632515

  9. Distal Ulna Fracture With Delayed Ulnar Nerve Palsy in a Baseball Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasque, Charles B; Pearson, Clark; Margo, Bradley; Ethel, Robert

    2016-02-01

    We present a case report of a college baseball player who sustained a blunt-trauma, distal-third ulna fracture from a thrown ball with delayed presentation of ulnar nerve palsy. Even after his ulna fracture had healed, the nerve injury made it difficult for the athlete to control a baseball while throwing, resulting in a delayed return to full baseball activity for 3 to 4 months. He had almost complete nerve recovery by 6 months after his injury and complete nerve recovery by 1 year after his injury. PMID:26866319

  10. Efficiency of application of special exercises and exercises with the use of baseball pitching machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the approach on making up coordination capabilities and technical tactical performances in baseball is confirmed. 100 boys (age 12-14 years take part in experiment. Relative analysis of a level of development of coordination capabilities and technical tactical readiness of baseball players is carried out. The level of development of technical readiness after experiment under the program «pitch, hit and run» is taped. The frame of special exercises with usage of colour balls is featured. Dynamics of hits for baseball players on a flying ball is presented. The approach in modelling of requirements of competitive activity is developed.

  11. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  12. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  13. The view from New Haven: a physicist at Yale is helping baseball umpires make the call

    CERN Document Server

    King, C

    2002-01-01

    A particle physicist from Yale university has been asked to examine the QuesTec Umpire Information System, a machine that is being used to evaluate umpires in baseball by judging balls and strikes (1 page).

  14. Aerodynamics of knuckle ball: Flow-structure interaction problem on a pitched baseball without spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro

    2012-07-01

    In the game of baseball, the knuckleball—so-called because the baseball is gripped with the knuckles in a certain position—is pitched in a way that introduces nearly no rotation, resulting in erratic flight paths which confuse batters. The “knuckleball” effect is believed to be caused by asymmetric flow separation over the baseball, but little is known about its flow physics. In the experiment described in this paper, the flow near the seams of the baseball is visualized thoroughly and the velocity vector fields near the surface and in the wake are obtained with Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Depending on its position, the seam is found to trigger the boundary layer transition thus delaying the separation, or to cause separation itself. Three-dimensional wake patterns associated with specific ball orientations are identified and related to the force variations on the ball.

  15. Kinematic and Temporal Analysis of Overarm Throwing in Finnish Baseball Players Under Different Instructions

    OpenAIRE

    Alway, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The velocity-accuracy trade-off in overarm throwing has been well studied, but has presented conflicting results. The cause of the velocity-accuracy trade-off is poorly understood. The present study therefore aimed: to determine if a velocity-accuracy trade-off exists in Finnish baseball players, and to determine if there was any difference in kinematics, timing of movements, and intra-subject movement variability between three different throwing instructions. Eight elite Finnish baseball pl...

  16. Vibrational, thermal, and alignment considerations of the laser system for Baseball II-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designing the Baseball II-T laser system required addressing a number of mechanical parameters. Among them are low frequency floor vibrations, high acoustical noise levels, and large thermal fluctuations in the vicinity of the experiment. In addition, the 8-in. apertures from the 300-K environment of the laser system had to be compatible with the cryogenic environment of the superconducting Baseball magnet. This paper discusses these problems and describes their influence on the laser system design

  17. The Theory of Theft: An Inspection Game Model of the Stolen Base Play in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore L. Turocy

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of equilibrium in mixed strategies in an inspection game model to describe the strategic interaction in the stolen base play in baseball. A parsimonious simultaneous-move game model offers predictions about how the observable conduct of the teams on offense and defense responds as the characteristics of the players involved change. The theory organizes observations from play-by-play data from Major League Baseball, where highly-motivated, experienced professional...

  18. Major League Baseball Player Contracts: An Investigation of the Empirical Properties of Real Options

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Clayton; David Yermack

    1999-01-01

    We study contracts negotiated between professional baseball players and teams to investigate the use of real options in a commercial setting. Baseball contracts feature options in diverse forms, and we find that these options have significant effects on player compensation. As predicted by theory, players receive higher guaranteed compensation when they allow teams to take options on their future services, and lower salaries when they bargain for options to extend their own contracts. The app...

  19. A Biomechanical Model Correlating Shoulder Kinetics to Pain in Young Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Keeley, David W.; Oliver, Gretchen D.; Dougherty, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak sho...

  20. Bilateral midshaft femoral fractures in an adolescent baseball player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, D G; Mogayzel, P J; Sponseller, P D; Familiari, F; McFarland, E G

    2016-07-01

    Bone disease, specifically low bone mineral density, is a common and undertreated complication that begins during childhood in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case describes a male baseball player, aged 14years, with undiagnosed CF who sustained a left midshaft femoral fracture while running toward base; 8months later, he sustained a right midshaft femoral fracture under similar conditions. After the second fracture, further evaluation revealed low bone mineral density and CF. There is no previously published report of pathologic fractures occurring in the femoral shaft in an athlete with undiagnosed CF. Patients with CF have a higher fracture rate. Low-energy fractures of major bones in athletically active individuals should be viewed with suspicion for an underlying process. PMID:26927602

  1. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is high among individuals who have played baseball since childhood. Recently two cross-sectional studies according to prevalence of OCD have been published. In a study of 1040 baseball players aged 10 to 12 years, Matsuura et al found that 2.1% of players had OCD, with no differences in prevalence according to age or player position. Kida et al., in their study of 2433 baseball players aged 12 to 18 years, found OCD in 3.4% of subjects. Furthermore, they found that players with OCD began playing baseball at earlier ages, had played for longer periods, and had experienced more elbow pain. The player’s current baseball position may not be related to the existence of OCD lesions. Together, these findings led us to examine the longitudinal study for examining the risk factors for occurrence of OCD. Our objectives were to determine (1) cumulative incidence rates of OCD in the school child players aged 6-11 years old, (2) the relative risk of OCD by age, beginning age playing baseball, playing period, experimental hours per week, playing position, and elbow pain. Methods: A total of 1,275 players aged 6-11 years (mean, 9.4 years) belonged to youth baseball teams without OCD lesions received examination in the next year and were the subjects of this investigation. Subjects were examined by questionnaire, and ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. Questionnaire items included age, player position, beginning age of playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week and history of elbow pain. Ultrasonography of the lateral aspect of the elbow was performed. An irregularity of the subchondral bone of the capitellum was regarded as an abnormality. Radiographic examination was recommended to players who had an abnormal finding on ultrasonographic examination. We investigated the following risk factors for occurrence of OCD: age, player position, beginning age of

  2. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  3. Baseball pitching kinematics,joint loads,and injury prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakiko; Oyama

    2012-01-01

    <正>There is a need for the prevention of upper extremity injuries that affect a large number of competitive baseball players.Currently available evidence alludes to three possible ways to prevent these injuries:1) regulation of unsafe participation factors,2) implementation of exercise intervention to modify suboptimal physical characteristics,and 3) instructional intervention to correct improper pitching techniques.Of these three strategies,instruction of proper pitching technique is under-explored as a method of injury prevention.Therefore,the purpose of this review was to explore the utility of pitching technique instruction in prevention of pitching-related upper extremity injuries by presenting evidence linking pitching technique and pitching-related upper extremity injuries,as well as identifying considerations and potential barriers in pursuing this approach to prevent injuries.Various kinematic parameters measured using laboratory-based motion capture system have been linked to excessive joint loading,and thus pitching-related upper extremity injuries.As we gain more knowledge about the influence of pitching kinematics on joint loading and injury risk,it is important to start exploring ways to modify pitching technique through instruction and feedback while considering the specific skill components to address,mode of instruction,target population,duration of program,and ways to effectively collaborate with coaches and parents.

  4. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik eCheshin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from MLB World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  5. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  6. The Designated Hitter Rule and Team Defensive Strategy in Japan's Professional Baseball Leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner J. La Croix

    2005-01-01

    Economists have debated whether and why the designated hitter (DH) rule in North American major league baseball led to an increase in hit-batsmen. We use data from Japan's professional baseball leagues, the Pacific League (DH rule) and the Central League (no DH rule), to re-examine this question. Initial empirical findings reveal increases in hit-batsmen in the Pacific League after we control for the DH’s effect on team batting performance. After controlling for interactions between pitcher q...

  7. A Monte Carlo Approach to Joe DiMaggio and Streaks in Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Arbesman, S

    2008-01-01

    We examine Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak and look at its likelihood, using a number of simple models. And it turns out that, contrary to many people's expectations, an extreme streak, while unlikely in any given year, is not unlikely to have occurred about once within the history of baseball. Surprisingly, however, such a record should have occurred far earlier in baseball history: back in the late 1800's or early 1900's. But not in 1941, when it actually happened.

  8. Main design elements of the superconducting magnet for the LIN-5B baseball trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design of superconducting magnet system (SMS) is described for the LIN-5B baseball trap elaborated for the OGRA-3B experimental installation. The general layout of the trap, cross sections of the superconducting coil and load-bearing frame, the current leads arrangement and main LIN-5B SMS parameters are presented. A three-year experience in operation of the baseball LIN-5B SMS and successful tests followed by achieving critical conditions four times permit to make the conclusion that the design and SMS assembly meet the requirements

  9. BASEBALL THROWING MECHANICS AS THEY RELATE TO PATHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Whiteley

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury and performance. After a discussion of the limitations of kinematic and kinetic analyses, the individual aspects of pitching mechanics are discussed under arbitrary headings: Foot position at stride foot contact; Elbow flexion; Arm rotation; Arm horizontal abduction; Arm abduction; Lead knee position; Pelvic orientation; Deceleration-phase related issues; Curveballs; and Teaching throwing mechanics. In general, popular opinion of baseball coaching staff was found to be largely in concordance with the scientific investigations of biomechanists with several notable exceptions. Some difficulties are identified with the practical implementation of analyzing throwing mechanics in the field by pitching coaches, and with some unquantified aspects of scientific analyses

  10. Book Review: Baseball, Inc: The National Pastime as Big Business, by Frank P. Jozsa

    OpenAIRE

    E. Frank Stephenson

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, Pfeiffer University’s Frank P. Jozsa, Jr., has authored or co-authored Relocating Teams and Expanding Leagues in Professional Sports, American Sports Empire, and Sports Capitalism. In his latest book, Baseball, Inc., Jozsa examines “a number of the most important and controversial … commercial elements of organized baseball” (p. 2).

  11. Atraumatic Subclavian Vein Thrombosis in a Collegiate Baseball Player: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Wendy L.; Comins, Sonya A; Green, Richard M.; Canizzaro, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the case of a collegiate baseball player who suffered an atraumatic subclavian vein thrombosis. This case presents an opportunity to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a 22-year-old male with a thrombosis of his right subclavian vein.

  12. Women Working in the Management of Professional Baseball: Getting to First Base?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hums, Mary A.; Sutton, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 152 women administrators in professional baseball indicated that their greatest challenges and least-enjoyable job aspects were mostly gender-related issues: the need to gain respect and credibility, be taken seriously, overcome stereotypes, and deal with sexism and sexual harassment. Nearly half felt their compensation was less than…

  13. Dynamic sonography with valgus stress to assess elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Smet, Arthur A. [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiology - E3/311, University of Wisconsin Hospital, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Winter, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Best, Thomas M. [Department of Family Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bernhardt, David T. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Sonography is a valuable method for imaging superficial tendons and ligaments. The ability to obtain comparison images easily with dynamic stress allows assessment of ligament and tendon integrity. We studied the medial elbow joints of two baseball pitchers using MR imaging and dynamic sonography. Both sonography and MR imaging identified the ulnar collateral ligament tears. Dynamic sonography uniquely demonstrated the medial joint instability. (orig.)

  14. Double-Play: Using Minor League Baseball to Apply Themes and Standards in Human Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…

  15. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  16. Precocity Predicts Shorter Life for Major League Baseball Players: Confirmation of Mccann's Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…

  17. Statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in professional baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander; Stanley, H Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that that level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find universal power laws in the distributions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence of performance enhancement in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is consistent with the findings of the Mi...

  18. Estimation of Rotational Velocity of Baseball Using High-Speed Camera Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Uematsu, Yuko; Saito, Hideo

    Movies can be used to analyze a player's performance and improve his/her skills. In the case of baseball, the pitching is recorded by using a high-speed camera, and the recorded images are used to improve the pitching skills of the players. In this paper, we present a method for estimating of the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of movies recorded by high-speed cameras. Unlike in the previous methods, we consider the original seam pattern of the ball seen in the input movie and identify the corresponding image from a database of images by adopting the parametric eigenspace method. These database images are CG Images. The ball's posture can be determined on the basis of the rotational parameters. In the proposed method, the symmetric property of the ball is also taken into consideration, and the time continuity is used to determine the ball's posture. In the experiments, we use the proposed method to estimate the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of real movies and movies consisting of CG images of the baseball. The results of both the experiments prove that our method can be used to estimate the ball's rotation accurately.

  19. As Cutbacks Hit College Sports, Baseball Falls behind in the Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    For two weeks every June, the College World Series showcases one of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) most popular sports. More than 300,000 fans flock to picturesque Rosenblatt Stadium, in Omaha, with millions more tuning in on ESPN. Ticket sales, which in recent years topped $9-million, make baseball the NCAA's…

  20. Path Analysis Examining Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Performance on a Simulated Baseball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…

  1. THE ROLE OF SHOULDER MAXIMUM EXTERNAL ROTATION DURING THROWING FOR ELBOW INJURY PREVENTION IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Ida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether the passive range of shoulder external rotation (ER, the maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER during throwing, and the ratio of MER to ER are related to the incidence of the elbow injury. A mixed design with one between-factor (a history of the elbow injury and two within-factors (ER and MER was used to analyze the difference between baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain. Twenty high school baseball players who had experienced the medial elbow pain within the previous month but who were not experiencing the pain on the day of the experiment were recruited (elbow-injured group. Another twenty baseball players who had never experienced the medial elbow pain were also used for testing (control group. MER during throwing, ER, and the ratio of MER to ER were obtained in both of the group. A Mann-Whitney test was used for the group comparison (p < 0.05. The ratio of MER to ER was significantly greater in the elbow-injured group (1.52 ± 0.19 than that in the control group (1.33 ± 0.23 (p = 0.008. On the other hand, there was no statistical significance in MER and ER between two groups. The findings of the study indicate that MER/ER relation could be associated with the incidence of the elbow injury in baseball players

  2. Dynamic sonography with valgus stress to assess elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonography is a valuable method for imaging superficial tendons and ligaments. The ability to obtain comparison images easily with dynamic stress allows assessment of ligament and tendon integrity. We studied the medial elbow joints of two baseball pitchers using MR imaging and dynamic sonography. Both sonography and MR imaging identified the ulnar collateral ligament tears. Dynamic sonography uniquely demonstrated the medial joint instability. (orig.)

  3. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  4. Foul Lines: Teaching Race in Jim Crow America through Baseball History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Far more than just recreation, baseball offers social, cultural, and political insights into history. For teachers, the goals of this article are threefold. First, this narrative is designed to provide the introductory content knowledge needed to develop a colorful lecture, structure a spirited discussion, or create a student project on the topic.…

  5. A Model of Motor Inhibition for a Complex Skill: Baseball Batting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The ability to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a signal from the environment is important for many perceptual-motor actions. This paper examines a particular example of this behavior: attempting to inhibit or "check" a swing in baseball batting. A model of motor inhibition in batting is proposed. In the model there are three different…

  6. Coaches, Eying Miami's Success, Try to Turn College Baseball into a Money-Making Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    The University of Miami developed its debt-ridden intercollegiate baseball program into a source of substantial income and visibility, as better players and aggressive marketing helped with the increased attendance and support. Other institutions, even in more northern climates, are following Miami's example. (MSE)

  7. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    Bishop, SH, Herron, RL, Ryan, GA, Katica, CP, and Bishop, PA. The effect of intermittent arm and shoulder cooling on baseball pitching velocity. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1027-1032, 2016-The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game. PMID:24077378

  8. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  9. Relationship Between Grip, Pinch Strengths and Anthropometric Variables, Types of Pitch Throwing Among Japanese High School Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Okura, Chisa; Kanazawa, Saeko; Nagai, Ayako; Takagishi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip and pinch strength and anthropometric variables and types of pitch throwing for baseball pitchers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to...

  10. Relationship between Lower Extremity Tightness and Star Excursion Balance Test Performance in Junior High School Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower extremity tightness and lower extremity balance, measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), in junior high school baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-three male students belonging to baseball clubs in 2 junior high schools participated in this study. [Methods] For the SEBT, we chose to examine the anterior (ANT), posterior (POS), lateral (LAT), and medial (MED) directions. Regarding muscle tightness mea...

  11. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-09-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.

  12. Correlation of Shoulder and Elbow Injuries with Muscle Tightness, Core Stability, and Balance by Longitudinal Measurements in Junior High School Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects und...

  13. Changes in physical size among major league baseball players and its attribution to elite offensive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present. PMID:24714544

  14. Detrending career statistics in professional baseball: Accounting for the steroids era and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-01-01

    There is a long standing debate over how to objectively compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras. Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as Major League Baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional baseball players. We detrend player statistics by normalizing achievements to seasonal averages, which accounts for changes in relative player ability resulting from both exogenous and endogenous factors, such as talent dilution from expansion, equipment and training improvements, as well as performance enhancing drugs (PED). In this paper we compare the probability density function (pdf) of detrended career statistics to the pdf of raw career statistics for five statistical categories -- hits (H), home runs (HR), runs bat...

  15. Mass analysis of low-energy ions in the Baseball II plasma containment experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a magnetic mirror plasma experiment, the plasma containment time is often limited by the charge exchange of energetic plasma ions with thermal gas. The low-energy ions that result from the charge exchange are not trapped by the magnetic field, but emerge through the mirrors and follow the field lines with an energy of the order of the plasma potential. Mass identification of these ions helps in locating and eliminating the source of the charge-exchange gas. To perform this identification, a modified quadrupole mass spectrometer is operated in the fringe magnetic field of the Baseball II plasma experiment. From the resulting spectra an estimate is made of the density of each component of the thermal gas. For various experimental conditions of Baseball II, component density estimates and time-resolved mass analyses are given. The mass spectrometer and its operation are also described. (author)

  16. Glenohumeral Passive Range of Motion and the Correlation to Shoulder Injuries in Professional Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Macrina, Leonard; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Aune, Kyle; Porterfield, Ron; Harker, Paul; Andrews, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) indicates a 20 degree or greater loss of IR on the throwing shoulder compared to the non-throwing shoulder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GIRD and/or bilateral difference in total rotational motion (TRM) of the glenohumeral joint (external rotation + internal rotation) correlated with shoulder injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Methods: This study was conducted over eight competitive seasons (2005-2012). E...

  17. Glenohumeral Passive Range Of Motion And The Correlation To Elbow Injuries In Professional Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Macrina, Leonard; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Aune, Kyle; Porterfield, Ron; Harker, Paul; Andrews, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether GIRD and/or bilateral difference in total rotational motion (TRM) of the glenohumeral joint (external rotation + internal rotation) correlated with elbow injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Methods: This study was conducted over eight competitive seasons (2005-2012). Each year during spring training, the same examiners assessed passive range of motion (PROM) of both the dominant and non-dominant shoulders of professional p...

  18. The relationship between payroll and performance disparity in major league baseball: an alternative measure

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Mizak; Anthony Stair

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an alternative method of measuring competitive balance in major league baseball and employs it to assess both payroll (talent) disparity and performance (wins) disparity for 30 selected years between 1929 and 2002. Attention is devoted to the impact of two critical events in the evolution of the game: the influx of non-white players and the advent of free agency. The joint effect of these events was to increase payroll disparity while simultaneously reducing performance ...

  19. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...The United States Mint announces the opening of a national coin design competition that will culminate in the Secretary of the Treasury's selection of the image for the obverse (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which is open to all United States citizens and permanent residents ages 14 and over, begins on April 11, 2013, at 12 noon......

  20. The Epidemiology of Hip and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Struan H; Mayer, Stephanie W; Tyson, Jared J; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the hip and groin among professional baseball players can result in a significant number of disabled list days. The epidemiology of these injuries has not been delineated. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence, mechanism, type, and rehabilitation course of hip and groin injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players. The MLB injury database for hip and groin injuries from 2011-2014 was analyzed. Occurrence of injuries was assessed based on level of play, field location, activity during which the injury occurred, mechanism of injury, and days missed. The treatment was recorded as nonoperative or surgical. The subsequent rehabilitation and return to play were recorded. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of hip and groin characteristics. From 2011-2014, 1823 hip and groin injuries occurred among MLB and MiLB players, which accounted for approximately 5% of all injuries. Of these, 1514 (83%) occurred among MiLB players and 309 (17%) among MLB players; 96% of injuries were extra-articular. Among all players, a noncontact mechanism during defensive fielding was the most common activity causing injury (74%), and infielders experienced the most hip and groin injuries (34%). The majority of extra-articular injuries were treated nonoperatively (96.2%), resulting in an average of 12 days missed. Intra-articular pathology more commonly required surgery, and resulted in an average of 123 days missed. Hip and groin injuries can be debilitating and result in a significant number of days missed. Intra-articular pathology and athletic pubalgia were usually treated surgically, while the majority of extra-articular hip injuries were treated successfully with nonoperative modalities. Correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to a high rate of return to play for professional baseball players with injuries to the hip and groin. PMID:26991571

  1. Lumbopelvic control and days missed due to injury in professional baseball pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.; McKenzie, Christopher S.; Pan, Xueliang; Oñate, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injury in baseball pitchers. Hypothesis Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss 30 or more days due to injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. Study design Cohort study. Methods Three hundred forty-seven professional baseball pitchers were enrolled into the study during the last 2 weeks of spring training and stayed with the same team for the entire season. Lumbopelvic control was quantified by peak anterior-posterior deviation of the pelvis relative to starting position during a single leg raise test (APScore). Days missed due to injury through the entire season were recorded by each team's medical staff. Results Higher APScore was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of missing 30 days or more (Chi-Square, p=0.023). When divided into tertiles based on their APScore, participants in the highest tertile were 3.0 times and 2.2 times more likely to miss at least 30 days throughout the course of a baseball season relative to those in the lowest or middle tertiles, respectively. Higher APScore was also significantly associated with missing more days due to injury within participants who missed at least one day to injury (ANOVA, p=0.018), with the highest tertile missing significantly more days (mean=98.6 d) than the middle tertile (mean=45.8d, p=0.017) or the lowest tertile (mean=43.8, p=0.017). Conclusion This study found that poor lumbopelvic control in professional pitchers was associated with increased risk of missing significant time due to injury. PMID:25159541

  2. Team payroll and team performance in major league baseball: 1985-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Wiseman; Sangit Chatterjee

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between team payroll and team performance in major league baseball from 1985 to 2002. The results indicate that the relationship has changed over time. Unlike the early years, there is now a much clearer relationship between payroll and performance. Specifically, in the latter part of the 1990s and continuing into the 21st century, the greater the team payroll and the more equally this payroll is distributed among team members, the better the on-field perf...

  3. The impact of the luxury tax on competitive balance in Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Olugbenga Ajilore; Joshua Hendrickson

    2005-01-01

    There has been much discussion recently in the world of professional sports about competitive balance. As more is focused on the growing disparity between large market and small market teams, one must ask whether the luxury tax, as implemented by Major League Baseball, has had its intended effect. This paper adds to the literature on competitive balance by developing measures to quantify competitiveness at the individual team-level. We estimate a model analyzing the impact of the luxury tax o...

  4. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koya Yamashiro

    Full Text Available Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4 in 12 baseball players (baseball group and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group. The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT. Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes.

  5. Bayesball: A Bayesian hierarchical model for evaluating fielding in major league baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Shane T.; Shirley, Kenneth E.; Wyner, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of statistical modeling in baseball has received substantial attention recently in both the media and academic community. We focus on a relatively under-explored topic: the use of statistical models for the analysis of fielding based on high-resolution data consisting of on-field location of batted balls. We combine spatial modeling with a hierarchical Bayesian structure in order to evaluate the performance of individual fielders while sharing information between fielders at each posi...

  6. The Economic Impact on the Dominican Republic of Baseball Player Exports to the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper pulls together into one practical model two strands of economic theory to assess the impact of baseball player exports on the aggregate economic performance of the Dominican Republic. On one hand, foreign trade theory predicts a strong correlation between a country’s exports and economic performance measured as per capita income. On the other hand, microeconomic research finds a positive, but statistically insignificant, impact of sports activities on local economies. A...

  7. Evaluation of Talent in a Changing World: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Groothuis; Kurt W. Rotthoff; Mark C. Strazicich

    2013-01-01

    Comparing talent across time is difficult as productivity changes. To compare talent across time we utilize Major League baseball data from 1871-2010 and time series techniques to determine if the mean and standard deviation of five performance measures are stationary and if structural breaks exist. We identify two structural breaks in the mean slugging percentage: in 1921, the free swinging era of Babe Ruth, and in 1992, the steroid era. Given that productivity changes over time, we develop ...

  8. Computing muscle, ligament, and osseous contributions to the elbow varus moment during baseball pitching

    OpenAIRE

    Buffi, James H.; Werner, Katie; Kepple, Tom; Murray, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    Baseball pitching imposes a dangerous valgus load on the elbow that puts the joint at severe risk for injury. The goal of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal modeling approach to enable evaluation of muscle-tendon contributions to mitigating elbow injury risk in pitching. We implemented a forward dynamic simulation framework that used a scaled biomechanical model to reproduce a pitching motion recorded from a high school pitcher. The medial elbow muscles generated substantial, protect...

  9. Skill-specific changes in somatosensory-evoked potentials and reaction times in baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Takuya; Horiuchi, Yoko; Nakazawa, Sho; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2013-03-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in short-latency somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). The aim of this study is to clarify whether specific training in athletes affects the long-latency SEPs related to information processing of stimulation. The long-latency SEPs P100 and N140 were recorded at midline cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, and Pz) in response to stimulation of the index finger of the dominant hand in fifteen baseball players (baseball group) and in fifteen athletes in sports such as swimming, track and field events, and soccer (sports group) that do not require fine somatosensory discrimination or motor control of the hand. The long-latency SEPs were measured under a passive condition (no response required) and a reaction time (RT) condition in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The peak P100 and peak N140 latencies and RT were significantly shorter in the baseball group than the sports group. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between RT and both the peak P100 and the peak N140 latencies. Specific athletic training regimens that involve the hand may induce neuroplastic alterations in the cortical hand representation areas playing a vital role in rapid sensory processing and initiation of motor responses. PMID:23224701

  10. Curve ball baseball, statistics, and the role of chance in the game

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Jay

    2001-01-01

    In its formative years, from the 1970s through the 1990s, sabermetrics was p- marily an amateur undertaking. Publications were aimed at a relatively small audience of baseball fans. To be sure, this ever-growing group of aficionados brought a lot of sophistication to baseball analysis, and were constantly looking for statistical insights beyond the listings of the top ten batters found in popular newspapers and magazines. But their influence on the baseball profession was very limited. A few consultants like Craig Wright developed temporary relati- ships with various teams, but none were able to stay long enough to create a p- manent sabermetrician staff position. (See Rob Neyer’s November 11, 2002, arti- 1 cle on ESPN. com. ) All of this changed, however, in 2002 with the hiring of Bill James by the Boston Red Sox. With that move, we have seen the admittance of the foremost proponent of sabermetrics into the top echelon of professional ba- ball management. The art and science of careful statistical analysi...

  11. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level. PMID:27110899

  12. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel C. Perkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher’s hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball’s velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  13. On using of baseball traps for a dense hot plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variant of an open trap with the ''baseball-type'' magnetic field, which is produced by deformation and compression of a straight cylindrical liner by a profiled field, has been considered. The magnetic configuration of the ''baseball'' trap is locally stable and permits plasma injection from two plasma accelerators. In the first stage owing to the deformation of the straight liner an open ''baseball-type'' trap is produced. In the second stage two plasmoids having the directed energy above 2 keV are injected into the trap. Colliding the plasmoids stop, as a result of which the trap is filled with the plasma having a temperature of about 1 keV. In the third stage, while the configuration of the trap retains, plasma is being compressed and its temperature increases to 10 keV. The parameters of such a system have been evaluated as follows: for the field of 2 MOe and a temperature of 10 keV the plasma density will be 5 x 1018 cm-3 and the confinement time - 2 x 10-5s

  14. Method of estimation of technical preparedness level of baseballs aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of level of technical preparedness is developed for young baseballs. The scale of estimation of level of technical preparedness of sportsmen is formed on the method of sigmantion rejections. In an experiment took part 100 boys in age 12-14 years. The test of the program «Aquafina MLB Pitch was utillized, Hit & Run». The maximally attained indexes are certain on separate baseball skills. The level of development of technical preparedness is exposed after an experiment on the program: a test of «pitch» is 450 marks, a test of «hit» is 402 marks, a test of «run» is a 361 mark, indexes of general marks are 1043 marks. The comparative analysis of level of technical preparedness of baseballs of control and experimental groups is conducted. Authenticity of distinctions is proved between control and experimental groups on the followings criteria of technical preparedness: throw, blow at run.

  15. A study of static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity in 102 Japanese professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshina K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kohji Hoshina,1 Yuichi Tagami,2 Osamu Mimura,3 Hiroshi Edagawa,4 Masao Matsubara,5 Teiichi Nakayama6 1Hoshina Eye Clinic, Nishinomiya, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe Century Memorial Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan; 4Edagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 6Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan Background: It seemed that visual functions might have some effects on the performance of baseball players. We measured static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity (SVA, KVA, and DVA, respectively of Japanese professional baseball players to ascertain whether there would be any difference in SVA, KVA, and DVA among player groups stratified according to their performance level. Methods: The subjects were 102 male professional baseball players with a mean age of 26 years who were members of a Japanese professional baseball club from 2000 to 2009. They were stratified into three groups according to their performance level: A (players who were on the roster of the top-level team all the time throughout the study period, B (players who were on the roster of the top-level team sometimes but not all the time, and C (players who were never on the roster of the top-level team. They were interviewed for the use of corrective visual aids, and examined for SVA, KVA, and DVA. The measurements of these parameters were compared among groups A, B, and C. We also investigated and analyzed the association of KVA or DVA with player position (pitchers or fielders and with hand dominance for batting. KVA was compared between the pitchers and the fielders because they each require different playing skills. DVA was compared between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among groups A, B, and C. There was a statistically significant difference in

  16. Three-Tesla MR imaging of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, Filippo [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Servizio di Radiologia. Lugano, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano-TI (Switzerland); Aro, Michael; Farahani, Sahar Jalali; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wilckens, John; Cosgarea, Andrew [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-01-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative 3-T MR imaging features of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers presenting as major league draft picks or trades. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the HIPPA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived. Twenty-one professional non-symptomatic baseball pitchers (mean age 23, range 18 to 34 years old) underwent 3-T MR imaging of the pitching elbow. Two experienced readers independently performed qualitative (collateral ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bones, ulnar nerve, olecranon fossa, and joint fluid) and quantitative (collateral ligaments and posteromedial plica) evaluation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Collateral ligament thickening was seen in a high proportion, nearly half, however, without features of full thickness tearing. Tendinosis without tearing was seen in 19 % (4/21) of common extensors. Cartilage abnormalities were infrequent. Bone abnormalities manifested as edema in 24 % (5/21) and humeroulnar osteophytosis. Ulnar nerve signal and/or morphologic abnormalities were seen in a very high proportion, up to 81 % (17/21). The olceranon fat pad showed scarring features in about one third. The median ligament thicknesses in mm measured: 4.6 UCL anterior bundle, 1.8 UCL posterior bundle, 1.9 RCL, 2.5 LUCL, and 0.7 mm anular. The median plica dimensions were 5.3 by 2.2 by 2.7 mm. High-resolution 3-T MR imaging frequently shows abnormalities involving the ligaments, tendons, nerves, olecranon fat pad, and bones in non-symptomatic baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  17. MR imaging of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball players: Value for predicting rehabilitation outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To compare the MR findings of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury in baseball players between rehabilitation and reconstruction surgery. Materials and methods: Thirty nine baseball players with clinical evidence of a UCL injury based on medial elbow pain and valgus instability were included. All patients received the rehabilitation treatment for more than six weeks. The elbow MR images of 27 patients not responding to rehabilitation treatment were reviewed that consequently had reconstruction surgery; in addition to 12 patients with improved symptoms with only rehabilitation treatment. The MR imaging was compared between the two treatment groups using the Pearson's chi-square test, and linear-by-linear association for the following features: the degree, signal intensity and site of the UCL injury on fat suppressed T2-weighted images. Results: High-grade partial tears and complete tears were more commonly seen in the group that had surgery (14 out of 27 patients, 52%; 8 out of 27 patients, 30%), and low-grade partial tears and intact continuity were more common in the group that had rehabilitation only (5 out of 12 patients, 42%; 5 out of 12 patients, 42%) (p = 0.001). The injured UCL showed a fluid-like bright high or intermediate high signal intensity in the group that had surgery more frequently (14 out of 27 patients, 52%; 12 out of 27 patients, 44%), and intermediate high or low signal intensity was more frequent in the rehabilitation group (7 out of 12 patients, 58%; 3 out of 12 patients, 25%) (p = 0.013). The UCL injury at the origin site was most commonly seen in both groups (23 out of 27 patients, 85%; 11 out of 12 patients, 92%, respectively) (p = 0.496). Conclusion: Preoperative MR imaging is useful for predicting the rehabilitation outcome of UCL injuries in baseball players.

  18. Three-Tesla MR imaging of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative 3-T MR imaging features of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers presenting as major league draft picks or trades. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the HIPPA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived. Twenty-one professional non-symptomatic baseball pitchers (mean age 23, range 18 to 34 years old) underwent 3-T MR imaging of the pitching elbow. Two experienced readers independently performed qualitative (collateral ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bones, ulnar nerve, olecranon fossa, and joint fluid) and quantitative (collateral ligaments and posteromedial plica) evaluation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Collateral ligament thickening was seen in a high proportion, nearly half, however, without features of full thickness tearing. Tendinosis without tearing was seen in 19 % (4/21) of common extensors. Cartilage abnormalities were infrequent. Bone abnormalities manifested as edema in 24 % (5/21) and humeroulnar osteophytosis. Ulnar nerve signal and/or morphologic abnormalities were seen in a very high proportion, up to 81 % (17/21). The olceranon fat pad showed scarring features in about one third. The median ligament thicknesses in mm measured: 4.6 UCL anterior bundle, 1.8 UCL posterior bundle, 1.9 RCL, 2.5 LUCL, and 0.7 mm anular. The median plica dimensions were 5.3 by 2.2 by 2.7 mm. High-resolution 3-T MR imaging frequently shows abnormalities involving the ligaments, tendons, nerves, olecranon fat pad, and bones in non-symptomatic baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  19. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers. PMID:22505124

  20. Mortality of major league baseball players from Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Reynolds

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Professional baseball players have lower mortality rates than the US general population, but whether this is true of foreign-born players is not known. Using data on ballplayers from six nations, we compare mortality rates with those of US players via standardized mortality ratios. After controlling for confounders, four countries had statistically insignificant SMRs while two nations had significantly elevated SMRs. In the two nations with elevated SMRs, low average ages at death and high crime rates suggest the increased mortality may be linked to violent crime. A full understanding of the causes of disparity in mortality will require further research.

  1. Private Financing and Sports Franchise Values: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Miller

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of receiving a new stadium on team franchise values. I argue that a new stadium will increase the franchise values of teams regardless of how construction was financed. A team playing in a stadium that it owns will be able to capitalize the value of the stadium in the team’s franchise value and will thus have a higher franchise value. Using panel data for Major League Baseball teams from 1990-2002, I find that, after controlling for team quality and metro area d...

  2. Streaming-plasma measurements in the Baseball II-T mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The warm plasma from a deuterium-loaded titanium washer gun, streaming along magnetic-field lines through the steady-state magnetic well of Baseball II, has been examined for its suitability in this experimental situation as a target plasma for hot-ion buildup experiments and for microinstability control. The gun was positioned near the magnetic axis outside the mirror region. Measurements were made with gridded, end-loss detectors placed outside the opposite mirror, a microwave interferometer, a beam-attenuation detector, and other diagnostics

  3. Do Fans Matter? The Effect of Attendance on the Outcomes of Major League Baseball Games

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Erin E; Groetzinger Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the role of attendance in home-field advantage for Major League Baseball, using a dataset of all MLB games played from 1996 to 2005. Using two-stage least squares, we find that attendance has a significant effect on the home-field advantage. Our results indicate that a one standard deviation increase in attendance results in a 4% increase in the likelihood of a home team win. We also find that if attendance as a percent of stadium capacity were to increase by 48%, we would expect t...

  4. Unusual stress fracture in an adolescent baseball pitcher affecting the trochlear groove of the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress fractures of the proximal ulna are known to occur in throwing athletes. Most cases extend to involve the olecranon, and cases limited to the trochlear groove are rare. In this report we present a 17-year-old elite baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the trochlear groove of the proximal ulna. Diagnosis was made by demonstration of characteristic signal changes on MRI of the elbow. The fracture occurred at the cortical notch, also known as the pseudodefect of the trochlear groove. This case suggests that the cortical notch serves as an area of weakness predisposing pitchers to development of a stress fracture. (orig.)

  5. Contested Representations of Taiwanese Baseball: Political Interpretations and Moral Values of a National Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Soldani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, baseball is a national passion that the whole society can relate to. Appeared under Japanese rule, it was enrolled in the nationalist “physical culture” (tiyu 體育 just after WWII and became, at the turn of the 1970s, the “national sport” (guoqiu 國球 and the flagship of a state isolated on the international scene. It thus provides Taiwanese society with many symbols and references which the political elite cannot afford to ignore. Deeply involved with the education of moral values, its representations are used and claimed by the main existing political and ideological forces.

  6. Retired NASA F-18 being lowered on to pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A large crane gingerly lowers an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft onto a 28-foot-tall pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The blue-and-white F/A-18 was recently loaned to the city by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA Dryden had flown the twin-jet aircraft as a safety chase and support aircraft over the past nine years. The stadium, known as 'The Hangar,' is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  7. Developing and Implementing Major League Baseball's Health and Injury Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-03-01

    In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology. PMID:26874305

  8. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients. PMID:26991570

  9. The effects of forearm fatigue on baseball fastball pitching, with implications about elbow injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Jou, I-Ming; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Tai, Ta-Wei; Su, Fong-Chin

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the contribution of flexor muscles to the forearm through fatigue; therefore, the differences in forearm mechanisms on the pitching motion in fastball were analysed. Fifteen baseball pitchers were included in this study. Ultrasonographical examination of participants' ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel with the elbow extended and at 45°, 90° and 120° of flexion was carried. A three-dimensional motion analysis system with 14 reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles of the dominant arm. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity showed a significant difference during the acceleration phase, with a peak value during fastball post-fatigue (P = 0.02). Significant differences in the distance between ulnar nerve and medial condyle on throwing arm and non-throwing arm were observed as the distance increased with the elbow movement from 0° to 120° of flexion (P = 0.01). The significant increase of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle activity might be responsible for maintaining the stability of the wrist joint. The increased diameter might compress the ulnar nerve and cause several pathological changes. Therefore, fatigue in baseball pitchers still poses a threat to the ulnar nerve because the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis all originate from the medial side of the elbow, and the swelling tendons after fatigue might be a key point. PMID:26484578

  10. DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY COMPOSITION OF PLAYERS OF THE POLISH NATIONAL BASEBALL TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełło Marina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the differentiation of body composition among players of Polish national baseball team in comparison to persons of the same population not professionally engaged in sport. The study involved Polish baseball representatives (n=20. Competitors’ age was 18-28 years, body mass from 67.7 kg to 114 kg (85±10.3 kg, and body height 173-196 cm (185.1±4.8. The training experience was 7-14 years and it was highly differentiated. The stoutness factor is the dominant factor among "infielders" and "pitchers", and among "outfielders" - the length one. The proportions of the features within the factors show that players are characterized by a strongly muscled forearm and a shank and by a clear predominance of the elbow width with a disproportionately - to the overall size of the factor - small knee and shoulder width. In the length factor an even contribution of the upper and lower extremity length with lower sitting body height can be noted. Depending on the position on the field there is a differentiation of the internal proportions of the body.

  11. Localized vitreous adhesion to the retina after ocular contusion with a baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Masayo Kimura, Akira Nishimura, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanPurpose: To report a series of five cases of vitreous adhesions after blunt trauma caused by a baseball strike.Methods: The medical records of patients with ocular contusion after being struck by a baseball, who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy, were reviewed. An aqueous suspension of triamcinolone acetonide was used intraoperatively to facilitate visualization of the vitreous.Results: Five eyes were reviewed in this study. There were two cases of retinal detachment, two cases of traumatic macular hole, and one case of retinal detachment due to traumatic macular hole. Despite the surgical creation of posterior vitreous detachment, if not already present, the thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion to the retinal necrotic area with/without retinal hole was found between the major vascular arcades and the equator in all cases. The thin layer of the vitreous was removed with a vitreous cutter and diamond-dusted membrane scraper, but complete removal was impossible.Conclusions: A thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion at the area of retinal degeneration was observed in eyes following ocular contusion.Keywords: localized, vitreous adhesion, triamcinolone acetonide, ocular contusion, pars plana vitrectomy

  12. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  13. Forgotten Americans and the National Pastime: Bibliographical Guide to Literature on Baseball's Cultural Diversity--Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarkman, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Continues a series by presenting a representative list of fiction and nonfiction titles on the topic of baseball and cultural diversity. Sources and novels on African-American, Latin American, and Jewish ballplayers are listed, for a total of 246 references. (SLD)

  14. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  15. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  16. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology. PMID:25244553

  17. Baseball-bat collisions and the resulting trajectories of spinning balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robert G.; Baroni, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The collision between a baseball and a bat has been analyzed using the classical theory of rigid body collisions. Also computed are the ranges of batted balls for a variety of launch angles and rotation rates, accounting for both drag and lift forces. If the coefficient of friction is not too small, the batter can give the ball fairly large backspin without fouling it off by swinging under the ball by as much as 1 to 2.5 cm. The increased range resulting from backspin is large, of the order of several tens of meters. The effect of the weather on the ranges has been analyzed briefly and it is found that under extreme conditions it can be surprisingly large.

  18. Ammonia-pellet generation system for the Baseball II-T target plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of a small pellet by a pulsed laser is one method of producing a startup target plasma for plasma experiments employing neutral-beam injection. A system for generating charged, uniformly sized, solid-ammonia, 150-μm-diam, spherical pellets having a charge-to-mass ratio of 10-4 C/kg is described. These pellets are electrostatically guided at a speed of 32 m/sec (over a distance of several meters) to a laser focal zone. This complete system (pellet generation and pellet guidance) has been successfully operated on a 3-m test stand where 250-μm-diam pellets were regularly irradiated by a pulsed, 30-J CO2 laser. The system is now installed on the Baseball II-T experiment; in preliminary tests, several 150-μm-diam pellets were irradiated with the pulsed 300-J CO2 laser

  19. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence-based evaluations and intervention programs to decrease the risk of injury in baseball players.

  20. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  1. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat’s long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat’s short axis direction than in the bat’s long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001), additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat’s short axis direction (p < 0.05). The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  2. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success. PMID:26677832

  3. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Watanabe, Masakazu; Isaka, Tadao; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms) after the ball release (R+150), occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150), and a condition with no occlusion (NO). Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1). Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p direction (p directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay. PMID:26848742

  4. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Subhas, Naveen [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lynch, T.S. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Bullen, Jennifer A. [Cleveland Clinic, Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, OH (United States); Soloff, Lonnie [Cleveland Indians, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schickendantz, Mark S. [Cleveland Clinic, Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  5. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Higuchi

    Full Text Available The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms after the ball release (R+150, occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150, and a condition with no occlusion (NO. Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1. Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001, additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05. The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay.

  6. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.]. PMID:27045482

  7. The Impacts of Promotions/Marketing, Scheduling, and Economic Factors on Total Gross Revenues for Minor League Baseball Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard; Coombs, Christopher; Lawson, Luther; Foley, Maggie

    2013-01-01

    This empirical study finds that total revenues at minor league baseball games are influenced by marketing, economic factors, scheduling, and the weather. In particular, total gross revenues are an increasing function of marketing/promotions such as low value merchandise giveaways, high value merchandise giveaways, group discounts, and fireworks displays. Revenues are also an increasing function of the metropolitan area population and a decreasing function of poverty rates. Teams with higher p...

  8. Relationship between Lower Extremity Tightness and Star Excursion Balance Test Performance in Junior High School Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower extremity tightness and lower extremity balance, measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), in junior high school baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-three male students belonging to baseball clubs in 2 junior high schools participated in this study. [Methods] For the SEBT, we chose to examine the anterior (ANT), posterior (POS), lateral (LAT), and medial (MED) directions. Regarding muscle tightness measurement, the angle of each joint of the bilateral iliopsoas, quadriceps, hamstring, gastrocnemius, hip internal rotator, and hip external rotator was measured. [Results] The ANT direction of the SEBT was significantly negatively correlated with gastrocnemius tightness. The MED direction of the SEBT was significantly positively correlated with hip internal rotator tightness and hamstrings tightness and significantly negatively correlated with gastrocnemius tightness. The LAT direction of the SEBT was significantly negatively correlated with iliopsoas tightness and gastrocnemius tightness. [Conclusion] Since the rate of upper extremity injury is high in these subjects and this could be due to tightness and instability of the lower extremity from a kinetic viewpoint, the SEBT could be used as a standard evaluation test when examining upper extremity injuries in young baseball players. PMID:24926127

  9. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

  10. The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z

    2016-03-01

    Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat. PMID:26836969

  11. THE LAUNCH WINDOW HYPOTHESIS AND THE SPEED-ACCURACY TRADE-OFF IN BASEBALL THROWING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Ferdinands, Rene E D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-08-01

    The speed-accuracy trade-off in throwing has been well described, but its cause is poorly understood. The popular impulse-variability hypothesis lacks relevance to throwing, while the launch window hypothesis has explanatory potential but has not been empirically tested. The current study therefore aimed to quantify the speed-accuracy trade-off and launch window during a throwing task at two different speeds. Nine elite junior baseball players (M age=19.6 yr.; M height=1.80 m; M weight=75.5 kg) threw 10 fastballs at 80 and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a 7 cm target from a distance of 20 m. A 3D motion analysis system measured ball speed and trajectory. A speed-accuracy trade-off occurred, mediated by increased vertical error. This can be attributed to the launch window, which was significantly smaller, particularly its vertical component, during 100% MTS. Maximal throwing speed correlated negatively with launch window size. The launch window hypothesis explained the observed speed-accuracy trade-off, providing a framework within which aspects of technique can be identified and altered to improve performance. PMID:26270853

  12. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors. PMID:25809339

  13. Relation Between Lift Force and Ball Spin for Different Baseball Pitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakata, Hiroki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Although the lift force (FL) on a spinning baseball has been analyzed in previous studies, no study has analyzed such forces over a wide variety of spins. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between FL and spin for different types of pitches thrown by collegiate pitchers. Four high-speed video cameras were used to record flight trajectory and spin for 7 types of pitches. A total of 75 pitches were analyzed. The linear kinematics of the ball was determined at 0.008-s intervals during the flight, and the resultant fluid force acting on the ball was calculated with an inverse dynamics approach. The initial angular velocity of the ball was determined using a custom-made apparatus. Equations were derived to estimate the FL using the effective spin parameter (ESp), which is a spin parameter calculated using a component of angular velocity of the ball with the exception of the gyro-component. The results indicate that FL could be accurately explained from ESp and also that seam orientation (4-seam or 2-seam) did not produce a uniform effect on estimating FL from ESp. PMID:26576060

  14. Origins of superior dynamic visual acuity in baseball players: superior eye movements or superior image processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Uchida

    Full Text Available Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions, whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions. The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina.

  15. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent. PMID:26757065

  16. Rotator Interval Lesion and Damaged Subscapularis Tendon Repair in a High School Baseball Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Muto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, a 16-year-old baseball pitcher visited Nobuhara Hospital complaining of shoulder pain and limited range of motion in his throwing shoulder. High signal intensity in the rotator interval (RI area (ball sign, injured subscapularis tendon, and damage to both the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments were identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Repair of the RI lesion and partially damaged subscapularis tendon was performed in this pitcher. During surgery, an opened RI and dropping of the subscapularis tendon were observed. The RI was closed in a 90° externally rotated and abducted position. To reconfirm the exact repaired state of the patient, arthroscopic examination was performed from behind. However, suture points were not visible in the >30° externally rotated position, which indicates that the RI could not be correctly repaired with the arthroscopic procedure. One year after surgery, the patient obtained full function of the shoulder and returned to play at a national convention. Surgical repair of the RI lesion should be performed in exactly the correct position of the upper extremity.

  17. Unusual chest wall pain caused by thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kinshi; Yabuki, Shoji; Otani, Koji; Nikaido, Takuya; Otoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is clinically rare. There are few cases of disc herniation of the thoracic spine in top athletes described in the literature. We herein present a rare case of chest wall pain due to thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher. A 30-year-old, left-handed pitcher complained of left-sided chest wall pain in the region of his lower ribs during a game. Neurological examination revealed hypoesthesia of the left side of the chest at the level of the lower thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showed a left-sided paramedian disc herniation at the T9-T10 level. The player was initially prescribed rest, administration of pregabalin (150 mg twice a day), and subsequent physical rehabilitation. He was able to resume full training and pitching without medication 6 months after the onset. A follow-up MRI of the thoracic spine showed a reduction in the size of the herniated disc compared to the initial findings. Though relatively rare, thoracic disc herniation should be considered in cases of chest wall pain in athletes. PMID:26983590

  18. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity.

  19. Kinematic comparison of baseball batting off of a tee among various competition levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Brittany; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-09-01

    Determining and understanding baseball batting mechanics at various competition levels may help players and coaches identify key kinematics crucial to being a successful hitter. The purpose of this study was to compare batting kinematics across competition levels. Kinematic and temporal data were analysed for 170 male batters (youth n = 33; high school n = 69; college n = 22; professional n = 46) using 3D motion capture (480 Hz). The results showed differences in angular positions between competition levels during the five phases of the swing, with the greatest differences seen between the youth and professional batters. At the instant of ball contact, professional batters held the bat farther away from their body, with greater back shoulder abduction (35°) and less back elbow flexion (78°) compared to youth (27° and 89°, respectively). These differences were associated with greater back elbow extension velocity for professionals (1539°/s) compared to youth (1174°/s). Additionally, higher level batters had higher bat angular and linear velocities compared to the youth batters. As batters progress through their career, they should focus on their back arm by keeping their elbow up and their arm extended in front of them. PMID:27278749

  20. Do Fans Care about Compliance to Doping Regulations in Sports? The Impact of PED Suspension in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Cisyk, Jeffrey; COURTY, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence in support of the main economic rationale for regulating athletic doping: that doping reduces fan interest. The introduction of random testing for performance-enhancing drugs (PED) by Major League Baseball (MLB) offers unique data to investigate the issue. The announcement of a PED violation: (a) initially reduces home-game attendance by 8 percent, (b) has no impact on home-game attendance after 12 days, and (c) has a small negative impact on the game attendance for o...

  1. On the potential of a chemical Bonds: Possible effects of steroids on home run production in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several baseball players have hit a remarkable number of home runs, and there has been speculation that their achievements were enhanced by the use of anabolic steroids. Basic mechanics and physiology, combined with simple but reasonable models, show that steroid use by a player who is already highly skilled could produce such dramatic increases in home run production. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even modest changes in bat speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 50-100%. The possible effect of steroid use by pitchers is briefly considered.

  2. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach Jr, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  3. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-06-18

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  4. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game. PMID:20435800

  5. Social Emotional Needs: On the Social and Emotional Lives of Gifted Students: Using a Baseball Metaphor to Illustrate the Opportunities of Gifted Students from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the author uses the analogy of baseball to describe the lives of gifted children as a vehicle to think about similarities and differences. The author states that he has experienced how educators often gloss over the powerful and all-inclusive living conditions of high-ability students from financially impoverished backgrounds. In…

  6. 棒球退出奥运会比赛的现状分析%Analysis of baseball withdraw from the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2012-01-01

    From the London Olympic Games start, baseball is no longer an official Olympic sport. October 7, 2005, the International Olympic Committee should be international bar group requirements, announced the Singapore all the project Settings the vote, baseball project for 50 ticket support, 54 votes against to 4 vote short been ruled out of the London 2012 Olympics. Similarly, baseball missed the 2016 Olympics, these decided to give the world baseball sports development brought serious challenges.Why did the International Olympic Committee this decision? The author through widely data access, baseball games out reason of discussion and analysis, and carries on the induction and summary.%从伦敦奥运套开始,棒球不再是奥运会正式比赛项目。2005年10月7日,一际奥委会应国际棒联的要求,公布了新加坡全全项目设置投票结果,棒球项目因50票支持、54票反对,以4票之差被排除出2012年伦敦奥运会。同样,棒球无缘2016年奥运会,这些决定给世界棒球运动的发展带来了严峻的挑战。为什么国际奥委会做出这一决定,作者通过广泛地查阅资料,就棒球退出奥运会的原因进行探讨和分析,并进行归纳和总结。

  7. Potential Utility of a Combined Approach with US and MR Arthrography to Image Medial Elbow Pain in Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedl, Johannes B; Gonzalez, Felix M; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Nevalainen, Mika T; Ciccotti, Michael G; Nazarian, Levon N

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate a combined imaging approach with both ultrasonography (US; conventional US and valgus stress US) and magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in baseball players with medial elbow pain. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and the requirement for informed consent was waived. The study is compliant with HIPAA. Baseball players with medial elbow pain underwent US in addition to MR arthrography. Findings were assessed with each modality alone and both combined in this retrospective investigation. For the evaluation of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears with stress US, the interval gapping of the medial elbow joint was measured between rest and valgus stress both at the injured and at the uninjured (contralateral) elbow. Surgical or arthroscopic correlation was available as the so-called gold standard. McNemar tests compared the accuracies of the imaging modalities. Results In this study, 144 baseball players had 191 findings of medial elbow pain, including 53 UCL tears. With stress US, joint gapping at the injured elbow greater than 1.0 mm compared with the contralateral elbow yielded a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96%, 81%, and 87%, respectively, for diagnosing UCL tears. With MR arthrography, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for UCL tears were 81%, 91%, and 88%, respectively, and increased to 96% (P = .013, McNemar test), 99% (P = .023), and 98% (P < .001), respectively, when combined with US to a dual modality MR and US approach. For 31 patients with ulnar neuritis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy increased from 74%, 92%, and 88%, respectively, with MR arthrography alone to 90% (P = .07, McNemar test), 100% (P < .001), and 98% (P < .001) combined with US. For the 59 myotendinous and the 48 osteochondral diagnoses, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy with MR arthrography alone were 93%, 93%, and 93%, and 94%, 98%, and 97%, respectively, with no additional diagnostic value

  8. Modulation of motor area activity by the outcome for a player during observation of a baseball game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotaro Shimada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observing competitive games such as sports is a pervasive entertainment among humans. The inclination to watch others play may be based on our social-cognitive ability to understand the internal states of others. The mirror neuron system, which is activated when a subject observes the actions of others, as well as when they perform the same action themselves, seems to play a crucial role in this process. Our previous study showed that activity of the mirror neuron system was modulated by the outcome of the subject's favored player during observation of a simple competitive game (rock-paper-scissors. However, whether the mirror neuron system responds similarly in a more complex and naturalistic sports game has not yet been fully investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we measured the activity of motor areas when the subjects, who were amateur baseball field players (non-pitchers, watched short movie clips of scenes in professional baseball games. The subjects were instructed to support either a batter or a pitcher when observing the movie clip. The results showed that activity in the motor area exhibited a strong interaction between the subject's supported side (batter or pitcher and the outcome (a hit or an out. When the subject supported the batter, motor area activity was significantly higher when the batter made an out than when he made a hit. However, such modulation was not apparent when the subject supported the pitcher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This result indicates that mirror neuron system activity is modulated by the outcome for a particular player in a competitive game even when observing a complex and naturalistic sports game. We suggest that our inclination to watch competitive games is facilitated by this characteristic of the mirror neuron system.

  9. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher’s return to play: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the co...

  10. Discuss How to Develop the Beginners’ Learning Interest of Baseball%论如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜楷

    2015-01-01

    通过自身十几年的棒球教学经验,并从各类体育文献上查看相关资料,总结出如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣要点,主要包括初学者心理素质的培养、基本训练兴趣的培养、身体素质兴趣的培养、培养师生关系增加学习兴趣的、规则渗透训练培养、以大带小训练培养、全方位训练培养七个方面进行介绍,希望能为棒球教练员在如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣上提供一定参考。%Through my own teaching experience in baseball over ten years, and consulting the related materials about all kinds of sports literature. Generally speaking, there are seven key points of how to develop the beginners’ learning interest of baseball, mainly including improving beginners’ psychological quality, improving the interest in basic training, improving the interest in physical quality, cultivating the relationship between teachers and students to increase the learning interest, the training with Rules of the penetration, with big with small training, comprehensive training. I look forward to providing references for baseball coaches on how to develop the beginners’ learning interest of baseball.

  11. Correlation of shoulder and elbow injuries with muscle tightness, core stability, and balance by longitudinal measurements in junior high school baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects underwent muscle tightness testing, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and trunk endurance testing during each measurement session. [Results] Fifteen players experienced episodes of elbow or shoulder pain while throwing. Players in the pain group demonstrated a significant increase in the tightness of their shoulder internal rotators, axis-leg quadriceps, and axis-leg hamstrings. There was no clear evidence of differences of changes in core stability and dynamic standing balance between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that lower extremity muscle tightness early in a season and the subsequent decline in the flexibility of the axis-leg quadriceps and hamstrings during the season may be due to an increased upper extremity load while throwing, thus producing shoulder and elbow pain. PMID:24926133

  12. Conception season and cerebral asymmetries among American baseball players: implications for the seasonal birth effect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Giovanni; Fraser, Frank Clarke

    2009-05-30

    People with schizophrenia and children born with neural tube defects both tend to be conceived most often in May-June, about a month before the summer solstice, and least often in November-December, a month before the winter solstice. Such timings, coupled with evidence of cerebral asymmetry deficits in schizophrenia, and evidence that asymmetry development and neural tube closure represent concurrent fourth-embryonic-week processes both sensitive to oxidant stress, led us to the hypothesis that pro-oxidant sunlight actions capable of affecting the mother's blood could result in a peri-June peak of inhibition and a peri-December peak of facilitation of both processes. Here, using birth and hand preference data from baseball statistics, we tested the hypothesis's prediction that, as a group representing minimal cerebral lateralization, left-handed players would show the same conception rhythm as that observed in the above disorders. We found that not only strict left-handers (those both batting and throwing left) were most often conceived in May-June but that also strict right-handers and other players denoting more extreme levels of cerebral lateralization were most often conceived in November-December. PMID:19395089

  13. A comparison of throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Yu; Learman, Kenneth E; Tsai, Yung-Shen

    2010-06-30

    Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth PMID:21793324

  14. The relation between anthropometric and physiological variables and bat velocity of high-school baseball players before and after 12 weeks of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, David J; Szymanski, Jessica M; Schade, Ryan L; Bradford, T Jason; McIntyre, Joseph S; DeRenne, Coop; Madsen, Nels H

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the relation between anthropometric and physiological variables to linear bat swing velocity (BV) of 2 groups of high-school baseball players before and after completing a 12-week periodized resistance exercise program. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training groups using a stratified sampling technique. Group 1 (n = 24) and group 2 (n = 25) both performed a stepwise periodized resistance exercise program and took 100 swings a day, 3 d·wk-1, for 12 weeks with their normal game bat. Group 2 performed additional rotational and full-body medicine ball exercises 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Fourteen variables were measured or calculated before and after 12 weeks of training. Anthropometric and physiological variables tested were height, body mass, percent body fat, lean body mass (LBM), dominant torso rotational strength (DTRS) and nondominant torso rotational strength (NDTRS), sequential hip-torso-arm rotational strength measured by a medicine ball hitter's throw (MBHT), estimated 1 repetition maximum parallel squat (PS) and bench press (BP), vertical jump (VJ), estimated peak power, angular hip velocity (AHV), and angular shoulder velocity (ASV). The baseball-specific skill of linear BV was also measured. Statistical analysis indicated a significant moderately high positive relationship (p ≤ 0.05) between prelinear BV and pre-NDTRS for group 1, pre-LBM, DTRS, NDTRS, peak power, and ASV for group 2; moderate positive relationship between prelinear BV and preheight, LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, PS, and ASV for group 1, preheight, body mass, MBHT, BP, and PS for group 2. Significantly high positive relationships were indicated between postlinear BV and post-NDTRS for group 1, post-DTRS and NDTRS for group 2; moderately high positive relationships between postlinear BV and post-LBM, DTRS, peak power, BP, and PS for group 1, postheight, LBM, VJ, peak power for group 2; moderate positive relationships between

  15. Comparative analysis on the physique and batting records of the players in the National Summer High School Baseball Tournaments before and after the adoption of metal bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Hayato; Mino, Yoshio; Babazono, Akira; Ogawa,Takanori; Aoyama, Hideyasu

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the influence of the introduction of metal bats on the physique and batting records of the players in the National Summer High School Baseball Tournaments, a comparative analysis was conducted between height, body weight, body-weight ratio (body weight/height), batting average and home run average of the best four teams' players (n = 493) and those of the other teams' players (n = 4,590) in three periods: the period of the use of wooden bats, that of the use of both wooden and meta...

  16. Team Payroll, Competitive Balance, and Team Performance in the Japan Professional Baseball League: A Study using 1993-2004 Panel Data.

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMURA, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    This research aimed to explore how a team payroll has an effect on team performance as measured by the winning percentage using panel data of the Japan Professional Baseball League; separately for each of the Central and the Pacific Leagues. The major finding is that a team payroll has a remarkably positive impact on the outcomes of Pacific League team performance; however it has none on central League teams. The reason why such different results are brought about is that the popularity of t...

  17. You Can’t Think and Hit at the Same Time: Neural Correlates of Baseball Pitch Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eSherwin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hitting a baseball is often described as the most difficult thing to do in sports. A key aptitude of a good hitter is the ability to determine which pitch is coming. This rapid decision requires the batter to make a judgment in a fraction of a second based largely on the trajectory and spin of the ball. When does this decision occur relative to the ball’s trajectory and is it possible to identify neural correlates that represent how the decision evolves over a split second? Using single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG we address this question within the context of subjects discriminating three types of pitches (fastball, curveball, slider based on pitch trajectories. We find clear neural signatures of pitch classification and, using signal detection theory, we identify the times of discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Based on these neural signatures we estimate neural discrimination distributions as a function of the distance the ball is from the plate. We find all three pitches yield unique distributions, namely the timing of the discriminating neural signatures relative to the position of the ball in its trajectory. For instance, fastballs are discriminated at the earliest points in their trajectory, relative to the two other pitches, which is consistent with the need for some constant time to generate and execute the motor plan for the swing (or inhibition of the swing. We also find incorrect discrimination of a pitch (errors yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10, which has been implicated in prospective memory, recall and task difficulty. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative distributions of the relative point in a baseball’s trajectory when the batter makes a decision on which pitch is coming.

  18. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  19. Avaliação do ombro doloroso no jogador de beisebol Evaluation of painful shoulder in baseball players

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    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar em jogadores de beisebol a relação entre mobilidade e força do ombro e a presença de dor. MÉTODOS: Entre abril e julho de 2009 foram avaliados 55 jogadores de beisebol pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Todos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 15 e 33 anos (média de 21, média de três treinos por semana e tempo médio de prática da modalidade de 10 anos. RESULTADOS: 14 dos 55 atletas avaliados eram arremessadores, 20 referiram dor no arremesso. As médias de rotação lateral, medial e amplitude de movimento (ADM do ombro dominante foram de 110º, 61º e 171º, respectivamente, com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação ao membro não dominante. Arremessadores tiveram maior ganho de rotação lateral e déficit de rotação medial que os não arremessadores. Dor teve correlação estaticamente significante com ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes na mobilidade do ombro dominante com aumento da rotação lateral, diminuição da rotação medial e menor amplitude de movimento, em relação ao membro contralateral. Foram encontradas relações estatisticamente significantes entre maior ganho de rotação lateral e diminuição da rotação medial e a posição de arremessador. Houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre dor e ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". Existe uma tendência estatística sugerindo que os atletas com rotação medial do ombro dominante diminuída tenham relação com dor.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. METHODS: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical

  20. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  1. Reavaliação do ombro doloroso em atletas de beisebol após tratamento conservador Reassessment of painful shoulders among baseball players after conservative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os resultados da reabilitação nos jogadores de beisebol que possuíam dor e déficit de rotação medial no ombro. MÉTODOS: Dos 55 atletas avaliados no período de abril a junho de 2009, observou-se que 20 atletas tinham dor em algum momento do arremesso. Eles foram orientados a realizar um programa de reabilitação com exercícios para alongamento da cápsula posterior e reforço dos músculos da cintura escapular, especialmente os rotadores laterais. Dezoito pacientes seguiram as orientações, dois perderam o seguimento. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: dor, amplitude de movimento e força pré e pós o término do programa. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação final, em comparação com a inicial, observamos: aumento em média da elevação de 10º (p = 0,001, de três níveis vertebrais da rotação medial (p OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the rehabilitation results among baseball players who presented pain and medial rotation deficit in their shoulders. METHODS: Out of 55 baseball players assessed between April and June 2009, it was observed that 20 presented pain at some instant during throwing movements. They were advised to undergo a rehabilitation program with exercises to stretch the posterior capsule and reinforce the muscles of the scapular belt, especially the lateral rotators. Eighteen patients followed the advice, while two were lost from the follow-up. The parameters evaluated were: pain, range of motion, strength before the program and strength after the end of the program. RESULTS: Comparing the initial and final assessments, we observed mean increases as follows: 10º of elevation (p = 0.001; three vertebral levels of medial rotation (p < 0.001; 20º of medial rotation at 90º abduction (p < 0.001; and 26º of range of motion (p < 0.001. Regarding strength, elevation force increased by 3 kgf (p = 0.002 and lateral rotation force increased by 1 kgf (p = 0

  2. Analysis of Range of Motion and Isokinetic Strength of Internal and External Rotation According to Humeral Retroversion of the Dominant Shoulder in Youth Baseball Players: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Yob Rhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyze the range of motion (ROM and internal rotation (IR and external rotation (ER isokinetic strength according to humeral retroversion of the dominant shoulder.We included 40 elite baseball players in Korea (OBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning >10 years, age: 19.37±2.21 years, height: 181.00±5.41 cm, weight: 84.58±7.85 kg; BBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning 10 years had significantly higher humeral retroversion, IROM, EROM, and IR and ER isokinetic strength of the dominant shoulder than youth players with careers spanning <10 years. Furthermore, humeral retroversion and ROM were not significantly related, but IR and ER isokinetic strength were significantly positively related with retroversion in both groups.

  3. Nostalgia-Related Aspects of Professional Sport Facilities: A Facility Audit of Major League Baseball and National Football League Strategies to Evoke the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Seifried

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on documenting how Major League Baseball (MLB and the National Football League (NFL utilize nostalgia through their sport facilities to showcase the past, present and even the future. This study involved the collection and examination of several facility elements through a facility audit. Data was collected on nostalgia inducing elements by using facility and renovation documents/blueprints and announcements, archived data, published websites, facility visits, and interaction/contact with front office employees. The collected information led the researchers to determine that MLB and NFL teams use specific strategies or tactics within their facilities to create or evoke nostalgia. Furthermore, there are opportunities for each organization to attract more live and remote spectators to their venue and organizational-sponsored events in order to establish or maintain membership in their fan nation through methods which center on enhancing the nostalgic experience.

  4. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of An Athletic Trainer-Directed Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco Intervention for Collegiate Baseball Athletes: Results After 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansky, Stuart A; Ellison, James A; Rudy, Diane; Bergert, Ned; Letendre, Mark A; Nelson, Lisa; Kavanagh, Catherine; Walsh, Margaret M

    2005-06-01

    Context: Athletes in the United States are at high risk for using spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) and incurring its associated adverse health effects.Objective: To examine whether an athletic trainer-directed ST intervention could decrease initiation and promote cessation of ST use among male collegiate baseball athletes.Design: Stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial.Setting: Fifty-two California colleges.Patients or Other Participant(s): A total of 883 subjects in 27 intervention colleges and 702 subjects in 25 control colleges participated, as did 48 certified athletic trainers.Intervention(s): For college athletic trainers and associated dental professionals, a 3-hour video conference, and for collegiate athletes, an oral cancer screening with feedback and brief counseling during the preseason health screenings, athletic trainer support for cessation, and a peer-led educational baseball team meeting.Main Outcome Measure(s): The subjects' ST use over 1 year was assessed by self-report. At the end of the study, the certified athletic trainers were mailed a survey assessing their tobacco use and perceptions and behavior related to tobacco control in the athletic environment. We used multivariable logistic regression models for clustered responses (generalized estimating equations) to test the difference between groups in ST-use initiation and cessation and to identify significant overall predictors of noninitiation and cessation of ST use.Results: Of the 1585 athletes recruited, 1248 (78.7%) were followed up at 12 months. In addition, 48 of the 52 athletic trainers (92%) responded to the 1-year follow-up survey. The ST-use initiation (incidence) was 5.1% in intervention colleges and 8.4% in control colleges (generalized estimating equation odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.35-0.99). Predictors of ST noninitiation were low lifetime tobacco and monthly alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.40- 2.82) and athletic trainers

  5. 應用 Google Analytics 於數位典藏網站計量分析 A Web Metrics Study on Taiwan Baseball Wiki Using Google Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 數位典藏系統的最終目的是為了提供使用者使用,因此,必須從使用者角度評估系統的設計,以充分掌握使用者需求,發掘系統潛在問題,藉以改善系統、提升品質與增進使用者滿意度。本研究選擇以使用者到訪率極高的數位典藏網站-「台灣棒球維基館」為對象,利用著名的網站計量軟體GoogleAnalytics做為主要分析工具,再輔以問卷調查結果,希望能掌握使用者的多樣面貌,包括:誰在使用?何時使用?何地使用?使用何物?如何使用q工具,有效地分析網站營運成果,解析網站使用客群,據以調整網站未來經營方向。The ultimate purpose of digital archives is to provide users with an easy access to archived data. The assessment of the website with digital archives should be from the user’s perspectives so that users’ needs can be better understood, the potential design problems can be easily revealed, and the websites can be improved accordingly. This study analyzed Taiwan Baseball Wiki, a very popular website dedicated to baseball archives in Taiwan. Google Analytics, a well-known web metrics tool, was used as the primary research instrument. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the users’ profile. Questions such as the 5W1H (i.e., who, when, where, why, what, and how questions regarding the users and the use of the website, and the satisfaction level of the users are investigated. The results of the research provided valuable reference for future improvement of the website, especially for the areas of website management and administration. Furthermore, this study recommended web metrics tools to other websites which provide digital archives. The application of these tools can help with understanding and optimizing web usage.

  6. The Development of Training Model Based on Theory of Planned Behavior and Willingness to Behave Higienic Practices for The Food Handler at Foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handajani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Training is not always change the personal behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2005, the behavior intention is influence by three factors including the attitude, the subjective norms and the perceived behavior control (PBC. Willingness is the independent concept of the presumption behavior and influenced by intention as well. The aim of  this study was to develop training model based on the theory of planned behavior and and willingness to higienic behavior for the food handler at foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya and implementation analysis of the development of training model. The development of the training model is using preliminary investigation phase, design phase and implementation. Partial Least Square (PLS was performed. The effectiveness of training model was analyzed by using t test with two paired samples (paired t - test. The result of food handlers hygienic behavioral analisys showed: PBC had contributed the most to the intentions through the willingness to behave hygienic practices, compared to the contribution of the attitude, subjective norm and PBC directly against the intention. These results could be used to develop a model of training for food handlers at the venue. The training was significantly effective (paired t test, p <0,05 in increasing the knowledge, practicing the hygienic behavior, attitude, subjective norm, PBC, intention and willingness of hygienic behavior of food handlers. The practicality of evaluation model was obtained by instructor assessment activities in very good result (88,42, 96% of trainees could participate well, and 89% of trainees responded well to the training. This training model was effectively proven to be used in increasing the intention of hygienic behavior of food handlers.

  7. 台灣棒球維基館網站推展成效探討 Evaluating the Effectiveness of TaiwanBaseballWiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 本文旨在探討台灣棒球維基館成立兩年餘之發展成效。首先,本研究分析2005/4/14至2007/8/19期間之相關數據,發現:(一網站瀏覽量共3600多萬次,其中74%來自前20%的高流量頁面;瀏覽量月成長率平均值約15%;(二註冊使用者月成長率平均值約33%,雖已有880餘位,但編寫10次以上者僅163人,只佔18.43%,卻完成了高達91%的內容,而使用者中1.9%的17位核心使用者更貢獻了80.8%的主要內容;(三頁面月成長率平均值約6.06%,在一萬多個內容頁面中,每日平均被瀏覽10次以上的僅有915頁。其次,本研究針對使用者進行問卷調查,結果顯示:(一受訪者以年輕球迷居多,平均年齡24.8歲;(二受訪者有64%未註冊帳號,多數原因為只做短暫的查詢;(三受訪者僅有34%曾參與寫作,其動機以增進內容豐富性佔多數。此外,本文綜合多項指標,提出一個客觀的核心頁面評定準則,並建議台灣棒球維基館在進一步掌握使用者特性後,應加強內容品質之提升,並積極推展具歷史傳承、知識深化等價值之內容,以平衡目前較偏重於當代職棒明星之走向。This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TaiwanBaseballWiki, established in 2005. First, the researchers collected data and analyzed the web logs from April 14, 2005 to August 19, 2007. A number of statistical measurements were used to analyze the data. The results show that 1. The number of page views has grown by almost 15% per month on average; 74% of page views came from 20% high browsing pages; 2. The registered users has grown by nearly 33% every month on average. It is also found that only 163 users have edited more than 10 times and were accounted for 91% of all the editing. Among them, the most active 1.9% of the users did 80.8% of all the editing; 3. The pages have grown by almost 6.06% per month on average, and only 8

  8. 腹部小切口及棒球缝合在大子宫肌瘤剔除术中的应用%Evaluation of Minilaparotomy and Baseball Suture in Myomectomy for Large Hysteromyoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申爱方; 李少丛; 由卫芝; 焦盈盈

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of Minilaparotomy and Baseball suture in myomectomy for large hysteromyoma.Method:24 patients with large hysteromyoma as the research group were operated by minilaparotomy,the myoma wounds were used baseball suture to closed tumor cavity,and the hysteromyoma were taked out with electric uterus removal device;30 patients were treated by traditional method as the control group.The duration of operation,blood loss, time needed for recovery were observed.Result:The two groups showed the same time of operation and amount of bleed loss, the difference was no statistically significant(P>0.05); the research group needed shorter time for evacuation time and hospital stays than the control group, the difference was statistically significant(P0.05);而研究组术后排气时间及住院时间明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:腹部小切口及棒球缝合用于子宫肌瘤剔除术优于传统开腹手术。

  9. Sports courtyard school-operated high level baseball team training and management research%体育院校办高水平棒球队训练与管理研究--以天津体育学院棒球队为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路欢

    2013-01-01

    Along with the baseball movement in the domestic popularization, the baseball movement more and more receives takes, each provinces and cities sports colleges and universities also all invest the vision to this item have the development, has in the potential movement project, but the sports courtyard school-operated high level baseball team also has many difficulties, how handles the high level baseball Sports Team, the sports courtyard school-operated high level Sports Team's development pattern also is how, how between the training time and does the study conflict solve, these questions all are worth us considering.%  随着棒球运动在国内的普及,棒球运动越来越受到重视,各个省市的体育运动院校也都将目光投入到这项有发展,有潜力的运动项目上,但是体育运动院校办高水平棒球队还有许多的困难,如何办好高水平棒球运动队,体育院校办高水平运动队的发展模式又是怎样的,训练时间与学习之间的冲突如何解决,这些问题都是值得我们考虑的。

  10. Reducción del costo de transportación en las Series Nacionales de Béisbol empleando metaheurísticas//Metaheuristics for the reduction of transportation cost in Baseball National Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosete-Suárez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo demuestra cómo se pueden disminuir el costo de transportación en las Series Nacionales de Béisbol de Cuba reduciendo la distancia total recorrida por los equipos. Se planteó el problema de optimización correspondiente para luego enfrentar su solución usando varias metaheurísticas, en el problema de la construcción de los calendarios de las tres Series Nacionales de Béisbol más recientes. Los resultados mejores los obtuvieron las metaheurísticas RRT y Escalador de Colinas. Los calendarios obtenidos ahorran entre un 13 y un 29% de la distancia total recorrida y se obtienen en menos del 1% del tiempo empleado por los expertos humanos que diseñaron los calendarios oficiales de esascompetencias. Estos resultados muestran que el uso más eficiente de los portadores energéticos puede enfocarse desde la perspectiva de la optimización de los kilómetros recorridos usando metaheurísticas.Palabras claves: metaheurísticas, problema de optimización combinatoria, problema de la transportación en un torneo, calendario deportivo.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper shows that the transportation cost of Baseball National Series may be reduced using metaheuristics. This may be achieved by the reduction of the total distance of the itineraries of the teams. First, the corresponding optimization problem is defined. Then, the solution is faced using metaheuristics. Many metaheuristics were compared in the optimization of the schedules of the last three Baseball National Series. The best results were obtained by RRT and Hill Climbing. The schedules obtained by these metaheuristics allow to save between 13 and 29% of the overall distance travelled by teams, respect to the official schedules designed by human experts. Also, the time to obtain the schedules with metaheuristics is about 1% of the time used by human experts. These results show that a better used of combustible can

  11. INTEGRACIÓN FONÉTICA Y MORFOLÓGICA DE LOS PRESTAMOS: DATOS DEL LÉXICO DOMINICANO DEL BÉISBOL THE PHONETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL INTEGRATION OF LOANWORDS: A STUDY OF THE VOCABULARY OF BASEBALL IN DOMINICAN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO ALBA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia el proceso de adaptación fonética y de integración morfológica de que son objeto los préstamos del inglés en el campo léxico del béisbol en el español de la República Dominicana. Los datos proceden de tres fuentes de información: transmisiones radiales y televisivas; un test asociativo que recoge el léxico disponible en ese centro de interés; un cuestionario dirigido. El análisis conduce a la conclusión de que la entrada de nuevos elementos léxicos procedentes del inglés no implica ningún peligro de alteración del español porque el sistema tiene la capacidad de asimilarlos e integrarlos de acuerdo con su propia estructura. En este sentido, la llegada de los préstamos puede verse como un fenómeno natural mediante el cual la lengua amplía y enriquece su caudal léxico, sin que al hacerlo se trastornen sus estructuras fonológica y morfológicaThis article examines the processes of phonetic adaptation and morphological integration affecting baseball terms imported from English into Dominican Spanish. The data are taken from three sources: television and radio broadcasts; a word association test designed to elicit speakers' available lexicon in this semantic field; a questionnaire administered under controlled conditions. Analysis of the data indicates that the importation of new lexical items from English does not represent a threat for Spanish since the Spanish linguistic system has the ability to assimilate and integrate such items by adapting them to its own structures. In this sense, the arrival of loanwords may be viewed as a natural phenomenon that enables the language to expand and enrich its lexis without disrupting its phonological and morphological structures in the process

  12. Long-Term Contracts in Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Hakes, Jahn K.; Chad Turner

    2008-01-01

    Long-term deals are one tool that both players and franchises use to manage risk. That tool has been much discussed and empirically tested with respect to player shirking, and has more briefly, and only theoretically, discussed with respect to reducing variance in future payrolls. Our work looks at how patterns of use of long-term contracts are affected by changes in contracting rules established through collective bargaining and by expected changes in franchise revenue streams. To accomplish...

  13. Valgus torque in youth baseball pitchers: A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabick, Michelle B; Torry, Michael R; Lawton, Richard L; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical and anthropometric factors contributing to elbow valgus torque during pitching. Video data of 14 youth pitchers throwing fastballs were used to calculate shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics. Peak elbow valgus torque averaged 18 Nm and occurred just before maximal shoulder external rotation. The magnitude of valgus torque was most closely correlated with the thrower's weight. When subject weight and height were controlled for, maximum shoulder abduction torque and maximum shoulder internal rotation torque were most strongly associated with elbow valgus torque, accounting for 85% of its variance (P <.001). When only kinematic variables were considered, maximum shoulder external rotation accounted for 33% of the variance in valgus torque. Given that the biomechanical variables correlated with peak valgus torque are not easily modifiable, limiting the number of innings pitched is likely the best way to reduce elbow injury in youth pitchers. PMID:15111908

  14. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity...

  15. Hitting Is Contagious in Baseball: Evidence from Long Hitting Streaks

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Joel R.; Maewal, Akhilesh; Gough, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that “hitting is contagious”. A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates’ batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising streaks of length games, including a total observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ( ) were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter’s team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calcu...

  16. Hitting is contagious in baseball: evidence from long hitting streaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R Bock

    Full Text Available Data analysis is used to test the hypothesis that "hitting is contagious". A statistical model is described to study the effect of a hot hitter upon his teammates' batting during a consecutive game hitting streak. Box score data for entire seasons comprising [Formula: see text] streaks of length [Formula: see text] games, including a total [Formula: see text] observations were compiled. Treatment and control sample groups ([Formula: see text] were constructed from core lineups of players on the streaking batter's team. The percentile method bootstrap was used to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence intervals for statistics representing differences in the mean distributions of two batting statistics between groups. Batters in the treatment group (hot streak active showed statistically significant improvements in hitting performance, as compared against the control. Mean [Formula: see text] for the treatment group was found to be [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] percentage points higher during hot streaks (mean difference increased [Formula: see text] points, while the batting heat index [Formula: see text] introduced here was observed to increase by [Formula: see text] points. For each performance statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected at the [Formula: see text] significance level. We conclude that the evidence suggests the potential existence of a "statistical contagion effect". Psychological mechanisms essential to the empirical results are suggested, as several studies from the scientific literature lend credence to contagious phenomena in sports. Causal inference from these results is difficult, but we suggest and discuss several latent variables that may contribute to the observed results, and offer possible directions for future research.

  17. Kinematics and Kinetics of Youth Baseball Catchers and Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the throwing kinematics and kinetics of youth catchers and pitchers. It was hypothesized that catchers and pitchers would exhibit differences throughout the throwing motion. Descriptive statistics were used to investigate kinematics during the four events of throwing: foot contact (FC, maximum shoulder external rotation (MER, ball release (BR and maximum shoulder internal rotation (MIR. Additionally, kinetics were investigated within phases of the events: Phase 1 (cocking; FC to MER, Phase 2 (acceleration; MER to BR and Phase 3 (deceleration; BR to MIR. Results revealed significant difference in torso flexion, lateral flexion, pelvis lateral flexion and segment velocities between the catchers and pitchers. Based on data from the current study, it appears that the youth catchers execute their throw as they have been instructed. It is unclear if the throwing mechanics displayed by these youth are efficient for a catcher, thus further investigation is needed to determine long-term injury susceptibility.

  18. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  19. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  20. Anthropometric Measurements as Predictors of the Degree of Carrying Angle in College Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The goal of this study was to examine whether or not height, shoulder range of motion, hip width, shoulder width, and pitching experience were predictors for increased carrying angle of the throwing side. The premise of the study is based on an assumption that valgus extension overload produces tensile strain on the…

  1. Error reduction by combining strapdown inertial measurement units in a baseball stitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Leah

    A poor musical performance is rarely due to an inferior instrument. When a device is under performing, the temptation is to find a better device or a new technology to achieve performance objectives; however, another solution may be improving how existing technology is used through a better understanding of device characteristics, i.e., learning to play the instrument better. This thesis explores improving position and attitude estimates of inertial navigation systems (INS) through an understanding of inertial sensor errors, manipulating inertial measurement units (IMUs) to reduce that error and multisensor fusion of multiple IMUs to reduce error in a GPS denied environment.

  2. Subsidized Monopolists and Product Prices: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze the setting of ticket prices when teams receive subsidization from the public. I model teams as entertainment providers, where entertainment is generated by selling wins and amenities. I argue that subsidization of teams generally comes from subsidizing the amenities in and surrounding the teams’ stadiums. Subsidization of the amenities lowers the marginal cost of providing them to fans and should drive ticket prices lower. The empirical analysis suggests that this is...

  3. Radio-ulnar joint supinates around ball release during baseball fastball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Jinji, Tsutomu; Hirayama, Daisaku; Nasu, Daiki; Ozaki, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether a supination phase of the forearm exists around ball release (BRL), and, if present, to determine whether this supination is explained by a reaction force or by the body configuration required for this task. A 16-camera motion analysis system with a sampling frequency of 1,000 Hz recorded 20 healthy male semi-professional pitchers pitching from an indoor pitching mound. A short supination phase around BRL was confirmed for all participants in the current study. Correlation analyses revealed that the supination angle at BRL had significant relationships with several measurements of shoulder movement kinematics. Mechanical work analysis of the forearm's longitudinal axis revealed several variations in joint power curve and various patterns of mechanical work among the participants, suggesting that a reaction force originating from accelerating a ball might not be the main cause of supination. The raw data also were down-sampled to a sampling frequency of 250 Hz, to match previous studies and to investigate the discrepancy among previous studies concerning the existence of the supination phase. The experience of participants and methodological differences, such as the definition of BRL and the time-normalisation technique, influenced whether the supination phase was observed. PMID:27111583

  4. Dynamic Pricing Behavior in Perishable Goods Markets: Evidence from Secondary Markets for Major League Baseball Tickets

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sweeting

    2012-01-01

    Sellers of perishable goods increasingly use dynamic pricing strategies as technology makes it easier to change prices and track inventory. This paper tests how accurately theoretical models of dynamic pricing describe sellers' behavior in secondary markets for event tickets, a classic example of a perishable good. It shows that the simplest dynamic pricing models describe very accurately both the pricing problem faced by sellers and how they behave, explaining why sellers cut prices dramatic...

  5. Conceptual Continuity and the Science of Baseball: Using Informal Science Literacy to Promote Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This project explores "conceptual continuity" as a framework for understanding students' native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association. This perspective can reveal the varied relationships…

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BASEBALL BATS AND GOLF CLUBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

  7. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4 with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch, and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

  8. Sports "modernes", sports "archaïques" ? : A propos de quelques oppositions entre baseball et cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Darbon, Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    The term "sport" is, by common agreement, used to designate a number of pratices developped in the United Kingdom and in North America in the course of the 19th century, such practices being totally different to leisure activities prior to that time. However, this innovative terminology is far from describing the same activities on both sides of the Atlantic. Very early on, one finds oneself faced with two quite different ideas of sport : in the one case we might refer to "old fashioned" acti...

  9. Confessions of a Baseball Mom: The Impact of Youth Sports on Parents' Feelings and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    To explore parents' emotional investment in and behaviors in response to youth sports, the author conducted a mixed-methods investigation to answer four research questions: (1)How do parents feel about their children's participation in organized youth team sports? (2) Which situations trigger which feelings? (3) How do parents' feelings influence…

  10. Analyzing the Relationship between Baseball and Social Capital in the United States; Professional Sport as a Medium of Americanization --- رابطه سرمايه اجتماعي و بيسبال در ايالات متحده آمريکا: ورزش حرفه‌اي ابزاري براي توسعه قدرت آمريکا

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Reza Ameli, ssameli@ut.ac.ir- سعيد رضا عاملي

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available American Studies purports a wide range of issues including American civil society, social capital and its popular sports. The recent studies on social capital in the United States reveal the importance and attraction of the issue among the American scholars and policy makers. Nonetheless, social capital is the focal point of social and political critics as well. Social capital is the sum of the totality of civil society as a third form of control beside the government as the primary and the market as the secondary forms. The special indication here is on the fact that in any society popular activities are in meaningful association with voluntary participation; hence, in any given nation the civil society conglomerates the collective action along the lines of whatever ritual, norm or activity that suggests more familiar national connotations. The present survey aims to consider social capital in the United States in relation to an instance of voluntary collective activity i.e. baseball. As the American middle class sport, baseball is the American pastime. By baseball participation both playing of the game and spectatorship, either in the form of attending the field or following through the media, are intended. The findings of the survey reveal the absence of causal relationship between baseball participation and social capital. In other words, unlike the variation in social capital, the middle class activity of baseball participation maintains secure digits. Therefore, according to the findings of the survey, the second hypothesis suggesting the meaningful association between baseball participation and social capital is confirmed. Meanwhile, the role of baseball as a major American icon in the Americanization process institutionalized among other countries is another concern of the study, elaborated it is in the conclusion. ---این مقاله بخشی از نتایج یک پژوهش بوده و در پيمطالعه رابطه سرمايه

  11. 明治期における秋田県での野球受容と統制について

    OpenAIRE

    森田, 信博; MORITA, Nobuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The porpose of this study was intended to investigate the diffusion, fixation and control of baseball in Akita in the Meiji era.As the generalization of this study, I present follwing points.1) Baseball was introduced by S.Hosoi from Tokyo first in 1885 in Akita.As continually holding baseball matches, "Champion flag" (from 1899)and "Charellenge cup" (from 1900), baseball was developed specially in public middle schools.2) As result of Baseball Controversy baseball matches were discontinudeam...

  12. If you play well they will come-and vice versa: bidirectional causality in major-league baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Horowitz

    2007-01-01

    The Granger-causality test is applied to the annual attendance and win-percentage data for 29 major-league teams. It is shown that bidirectional causality exists for these teams and that there are some essential differences between the original 10 of 16 franchises that comprised the majors in 1903 and the six that relocated between 1953 and 1961. Some differences and some similarities are also seen in the parameter estimates for both blocs of teams, the relocated teams, and seven long-lived e...

  13. Analýza socioekonomického prostředí baseballu v České republice

    OpenAIRE

    Foltrová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the economic analysis of baseball environment in the Czech Republic, financing a baseball club and analysis of an international baseball event. The aim of this thesis is to determine whether baseball in the Czech Republic is financially self-sufficient and baseball activity has a positive impact on tourism in the Czech Republic. The first part of the thesis deals with theoretical approaches to tourism, sports theory and sport events. The second part, practical, analyzes...

  14. 應用 Google Analytics 於數位典藏網站計量分析 A Web Metrics Study on Taiwan Baseball Wiki Using Google Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Sinn-Cheng Lin; Ming-Chen Hong

    2010-01-01

    數位典藏系統的最終目的是為了提供使用者使用,因此,必須從使用者角度評估系統的設計,以充分掌握使用者需求,發掘系統潛在問題,藉以改善系統、提升品質與增進使用者滿意度。本研究選擇以使用者到訪率極高的數位典藏網站-「台灣棒球維基館」為對象,利用著名的網站計量軟體GoogleAnalytics做為主要分析工具,再輔以問卷調查結果,希望能掌握使用者的多樣面貌,包括:誰在使用?何時使用?何地使用?使用何物?如何使用q工具,有效地分析網站營運成果,解析網站使用客群,據以調整網站未來經營方向。The ultimate purpose of digital archives is to provide users with an easy access to archived data. The assessment of the website with digital archives should be from the user’s perspectives so that users’ needs can be better understood, the potential desig...

  15. The Development of Training Model Based on Theory of Planned Behavior and Willingness to Behave Higienic Practices for The Food Handler at Foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Handajani; Suryanto Suryanto; Soedjajadi Keman

    2015-01-01

    Training is not always change the personal behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2005), the behavior intention is influence by three factors including the attitude, the subjective norms and the perceived behavior control (PBC). Willingness is the independent concept of the presumption behavior and influenced by intention as well. The aim of  this study was to develop training model based on the theory of planned behavior and and willingness to higienic behavior for the...

  16. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lot of satisfaction from that. And my family -- they're the most important thing. And baseball -- ... since my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in my ...

  17. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Concussions [PDF 348KB] DOWNLOAD SPORT-SPECIFIC CONCUSSION INFORMATION Baseball Field Hockey Football Ice Hockey Lacrosse Rugby Soccer ... Medicine Concussion Program US Lacrosse US Soccer USA Baseball USA Football USA Rugby USA Volleyball YMCA of ...

  18. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time and there's many questions regarding throwing athletes, baseball players, tennis players. Those tend to take a ... more aggressive. We've had a few professional baseball pitchers with cuff tears and unfortunately, even though ...

  19. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anastamosis or a running stitch, just like a baseball suture. We’re going to run just a ... perineal pleasure, please. Yes. We basically run a baseball stitch, much like you would hem the bottom ...

  20. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family -- they're the most important thing. And baseball -- oh, yes, baseball! The game has always been a big thing ... my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in my life. ...

  1. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... things in life? One of them is my work. I've always gotten a lot of satisfaction from that. And my family -- they're the most important thing. And baseball -- oh, yes, baseball! The game has always ... has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in ...

  2. PREVENCE A KOMPENZACE BOLESTI BASEBALLOVÉHO RAMENE Z POHLEDU FYZIOTERAPIE

    OpenAIRE

    WINKLEROVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contais a research aimed at prevention and compensation of shoulder pain, especially for baseball players 14-16 years old. Readers get acquainted with general characteristics of baseball, shouler joint and characteristics of the target group of children. The thesis further discusses shoulder injuries, their prevention and compensation. The research part consists of the evaluation of five active baseball pitchers from the target group. First, their perfomance is measured, ...

  3. Racial and Gender Report Card, 2003: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Hiring Practices of the National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, Women's National Basketball Association, and NCAA and Its Member Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchick, Richard E.

    This is the 12th issue of the "Racial and Gender Report Card," which assesses hiring practices of women and people of color in U.S. professional and amateur sports and sporting organizations. It considers the composition of players, coaches, and front office/athletic department employees in the leading sports organizations. Each organization is…

  4. 日本野球界における職業野球と課外活動野球の相互関係の検討

    OpenAIRE

    金﨑, 泰英; Kanasaki ,Yasuhide

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the problem and its historical background in which the baseball community in Japan does not still have a domestic unification organization. The origin of the baseball in Japan goes back to the beginning of 1870s. After that, the Shinbashi Athletics club, which was the first amateur baseball club in Japan, was formed in 1878. This means that the foundation is built to develop baseball into a full-scale team sport. And it is taken over to university baseb...

  5. A Public Relations Footnote to the Pete Rose Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutlip, Scott M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes (prompted by Pete Rose's unsuccessful challenge to the authority of the Commissioner of Major League Baseball) the creation of the Commissioner's office in 1921 by Albert Lasker, an advertising and public relations genius, to deal with the public relations problem facing baseball in the wake of the 1919-20 Black Sox scandal. (SR)

  6. Learning How to Play Ball: Applying Sabermetric Thinking to Benchmarking in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the notion is certainly cliched, baseball often serves as an excellent metaphor for life. Some of the methodologies currently being used to measure, evaluate, manage, and even play baseball may serve as references for ways that higher education may be measured, evaluated, managed, and played. This chapter proposes and presents…

  7. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hem the bottom a dress. Lots of perineal pressure. Good. A baseball stitch for those of you that have seen a baseball, it’s a continuous running suture, and it brings the stump of the penis pipe, the urethra, that’s where the catheter goes through ...

  8. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Ben: The best things in life? One of them is my work. I've always gotten a lot of satisfaction from that. And my family -- they're the most important thing. And baseball -- oh, yes, baseball! ...

  9. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  10. KSC-03PD-1518

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach throws out the first pitch at a local baseball game at Manatees Stadium. KSC employees were hosted by the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. Before the game, attendees offered a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  11. Linked Min.B configuration inside high shear magnetic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrangement of the l = m baseball coils to form the toroidally linked Min.B configuration with large rotational transform is studied analytically and numerically. By an optimization the closed magnetic isobars are obtained inside the last closed magnetic surface having practical volume and high shear if l = 3 baseball coils are arranged. (auth.)

  12. Robot-Assisted Prostatectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doing here is we’re doing is a running anastamosis or a running stitch, just like a baseball suture. We’re ... that have seen a baseball, it’s a continuous running suture, and it brings the stump of the ...

  13. Getting the Swing of Surface Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C

    2012-01-01

    Sports are a popular and effective way to illustrate physics principles. Baseball in particular presents a number of opportunities to motivate student interest and teach concepts. Several articles have appeared in this journal on this topic, illustrating a wide variety of areas of physics. In addition, several websites and an entire book are available. In this paper we describe a student-designed project that illustrates the relative surface gravity on the Earth, Sun and other solar-system bodies using baseball. We describe the project and its results here as an example of a simple, fun, and student-driven use of baseball to illustrate an important physics principle.

  14. The role of children's expertise in a Strategie memory task

    OpenAIRE

    Gaultney, Jane F.; Bjorklund, David F.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In a study intended to replicate and extend the findings from a recent experiment by Schneider and Bjorklund (1992), the expert/novice paradigm was used with second- and fourth-grade children in a sort/recall task. Children were classified as experts or novices for their knowledge of baseball, then given two sort/recall tasks, with a list consisting of either baseball or nonbaseball terms. Experts recalled more than novices on the baseball list only. While both groups used organizational stra...

  15. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more time and there's many questions regarding throwing athletes, baseball players, tennis players. Those tend to take ... having tears that are tennis players and overhead athletes. They want to know if you would do ...

  16. 29 CFR 1904.5 - Determination of work-relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shot, exercise class, racquetball, or baseball. (iv) The injury or illness is solely the result of an... common cold or flu (Note: contagious diseases such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, hepatitis A, or...

  17. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on a regular basis, you should sort of act like a baseball player in spring training. You ... a small incision but give me the complete freedom of my hands as opposed to having to ...

  18. BIG PLAY. Hospitals team up with biggest names in pro sports to score brand awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2016-07-01

    Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community. PMID:27526498

  19. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issue. C While rare, permanent brain damage and death are two potential consequences of not identifying and ... of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Sports Medicine Concussion Program US Lacrosse US Soccer USA Baseball USA Football USA ...

  20. Going with the Flow of Nosebleeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by wearing protective gear, such as helmets for hockey, football, and baseball and any other sport or ... do? Well, don't pick your nose or stick anything up your nose. Also, avoid blowing your ...

  1. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-risk sports use a ball, puck, bat, stick or racquet, or they involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, fencing ...

  2. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of exercise may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms than others. Swimming is a good sport for people with EIA. The warm, moist air helps keep asthma symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports with ...

  3. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some exercises may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms. Swimming is often a good choice. The warm, moist air may keep symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports that ... symptoms. Activities that are more intense and sustained, ...

  4. Recovery After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shoulder movement (eg, as in tennis, baseball, and golf) for six to eight weeks after surgery to ... stress. ● Group skill-building exercises help patients to learn about living with stress and heart disease, including ...

  5. Head Injury in Children and Adolescents (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high speed, heavy, or sharp object (eg, baseball bat, golf club, bullet, knife) ● Inflicted injury (abuse), such ... as expressly permitted in this Agreement, any copying, distribution or modification of the Licensed Materials is strictly ...

  6. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... things in life? One of them is my work. I've always gotten a lot of satisfaction ... now since my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in ...

  7. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because obviously the surgeon is sort of the person that everybody focuses on. But minimally invasive surgery ... on a regular basis, you should sort of act like a baseball player in spring training. You ...

  8. Medial epicondylitis - golfer's elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseball elbow; Suitcase elbow ... to the bone on the inside of your elbow. When you use these muscles over and over ... when using a screwdriver) can lead to golfer's elbow. People in certain jobs may be more likely ...

  9. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These are back sprains or, you know, they twist wrong. It’s not always a degenerative disc disease ... sort of act like a baseball player in spring training. You train yourself for a while before ...

  10. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics, it is usually safe to start ... along with aerobic exercise such as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary ...

  11. Sports and Exercise Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testicles): Guys who play hockey, football, basketball, baseball, soccer, and other contact sports should use a cup. For noncontact sports that involve running, guys should wear an athletic supporter. If you' ...

  12. Impingement syndrome (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arch of the shoulder blade, it can cause shoulder pain called impingement syndrome. The tendons become compressed, damaged, and inflamed leading to rotator cuff tendonitis. This can occur ... use of the shoulder like baseball pitching, or from an injury.

  13. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hockey Football Ice Hockey Lacrosse Rugby Soccer Softball Volleyball Play Mute Back Next Participating Orginizations Amateur Athletic ... Soccer USA Baseball USA Football USA Rugby USA Volleyball YMCA of the USA Name Fancy Enter your ...

  14. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... curve is quite steep. It takes some specialized training. How important is it to go with -- go ... of act like a baseball player in spring training. You train yourself for a while before you ...

  15. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... them is my work. I've always gotten a lot of satisfaction from that. And my family -- ... oh, yes, baseball! The game has always been a big thing with me especially now since my ...

  16. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not go away 4 Weakness, numbness, or decreased coordination 5 Repeated vomiting or nausea 6 Slurred speech ... DOWNLOAD SPORT-SPECIFIC CONCUSSION INFORMATION Baseball Field Hockey Football Ice Hockey Lacrosse Rugby Soccer Softball Volleyball Play ...

  17. Rotator Cuff Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there's many questions regarding throwing athletes, baseball players, tennis players. Those tend to take a little bit ... of questions regarding people having tears that are tennis players and overhead athletes. They want to know ...

  18. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., football, soccer, tennis, etc., the requirements of paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(6) of this section shall... professional sporting events, i.e., baseball, basketball, football, soccer, tennis, etc., the requirements...

  19. Getting on Track: Physical Activity and Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheese = 4 stacked dice 1/2 cup of ice cream = 1/2 baseball 2 tablespoons of peanut butter = ... for Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Funded Grants & Grant History Funding Process Research Programs & Contacts Research Training & Career ...

  20. 明治後期における秋田県教育会の体育・運動奨励について 下

    OpenAIRE

    森田, 信博; MORITA, Nobuhiro

    1995-01-01

    Akita educational society encourages positively following kinds of sports and athletics.1. Challengecup·game of baseball for high school.After the 16th match the meeting is stopped by the chairman on account of excessiveattachment for win. But baseball is spread in Akita rapidly.2. Introduction of Bujutsu (Kendo and Judo) into school gymnastic.Traditional Bujutsu are valude highly again as nationalistic and moral education.InBujutsu meeting (Kendo and Judo) increase year after year participan...

  1. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  2. The Curveball as a Risk Factor for Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Grantham, W. Jeffrey; Iyengar, Jaicharan J.; Byram, Ian R.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The curveball is regarded by many as a potential risk factor for injury in youth baseball pitchers. Objective: To critically evaluate the scientific evidence regarding the curveball and its impact on pitching biomechanics and the overall risk of arm injuries in baseball pitchers. Study Type: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE from 1946 to 2012. Study Selection: Ten biomechanical studies on kinematic or electromyographic analysis of pitching a cu...

  3. Come and Play Baselall with a machine!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the past, mechanical pitchers wereused only for the training of professionalbaseball players in China. But now ordinaryChinese people too can have a try if they goto the Baseball Ground at the OlympicSports Center in Beijing’s Asian GamesVillage. Four mechanical pitchers areinstalled there. They serve the balls fromdifferent angles and speeds, just like ahuman pitcher. When I step into the batter’s box readyfor a hit, I feel like one of those baseball

  4. Racial Fault-lines in “Baseball’s Great Experiment:” Black Perceptions, White Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Henry D. Fetter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines three facets of the breaking of major league baseball’s color line by Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947: the perception of blacks, the response of white players (whether teammates or opponents), and the reaction of baseball fans. By so doing, the paper will illuminate the fault-lines that characterized race relations within both the sport of baseball and the larger society as each was confronted with new challenges to long established policies and practices i...

  5. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events

    CERN Document Server

    Takeichi, Yuki; Suzuki, Reji; Arita, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a good indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately show reactions to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. These findings were also confirmed in an analysis of the 2014 FIFA World Cup final. We further showed active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-fre...

  6. Quantum mechanics, by itself, implies perception of a classical world

    CERN Document Server

    Blood, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, although highly successful, has two peculiarities. First, in many situations it gives more than one potential version of reality. And second, the wave function for a macroscopic object such as a baseball can be spread out over a macroscopic distance. In the first, quantum mechanics seems to imply that the observer will perceive more than one version of reality and in the second it seems to imply we should see spread-out, blurred objects instead of sharply delineated baseballs. But neither implication is true. Quantum mechanics, by itself, implies more than one version of reality will never be reportably perceived, and it implies the perceived position of a baseball will always be sharply defined. Further, two observers will never disagree on what they perceive. Thus quantum mechanics, by itself, with no assumption of particles or collapse, always leads to the perception of a classical-appearing universe.

  7. Visual Enhancement for Sports Entertainment by Vision-Based Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Saito

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents visually enhanced sports entertainment applications: AR Baseball Presentation System and Interactive AR Bowling System. We utilize vision-based augmented reality for getting immersive feeling. First application is an observation system of a virtual baseball game on the tabletop. 3D virtual players are playing a game on a real baseball field model, so that users can observe the game from favorite view points through a handheld monitor with a web camera. Second application is a bowling system which allows users to roll a real ball down a real bowling lane model on the tabletop and knock down virtual pins. The users watch the virtual pins through the monitor. The lane and the ball are also tracked by vision-based tracking. In those applications, we utilize multiple 2D markers distributed at arbitrary positions and directions. Even though the geometrical relationship among the markers is unknown, we can track the camera in very wide area.

  8. Racial Fault-lines in “Baseball’s Great Experiment:” Black Perceptions, White Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D. Fetter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three facets of the breaking of major league baseball’s color line by Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947: the perception of blacks, the response of white players (whether teammates or opponents, and the reaction of baseball fans. By so doing, the paper will illuminate the fault-lines that characterized race relations within both the sport of baseball and the larger society as each was confronted with new challenges to long established policies and practices in the years after the Second World War.

  9. 相対的年齢(Relative Age)としての生まれ月と高度スポーツへの社会化 : 2002年のプロ野球選手の分析

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 猛; オカダ, タケシ; Okada, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The Relative Age Effect is explored in 742 Japanese baseball players on the roster of THE PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL ORGANIZATION OF JAPAN in 2002. The cut off date, April 1st in Japan, segments the birth-month distribution of players. Players born after the cut-off date are over-represented, whereas players born before the cut-off date are under-represented. The distribution decreasing from left to right after cut-off date is linear and steep. In Japan, early-births [HAYA-UMARE], whose birth date...

  10. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Ben: The best things in life? One of them is my work. I've always gotten a lot of satisfaction from that. And my family -- they're ... baseball -- those are the best things in my life. So the idea that I might never have ...

  11. Staying at the Top: Playing Position and Performance Affect Career Length in Professional Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Koz, Dan; Kungl, Ann-Marie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Schorer, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to understand the process of skill acquisition and decline, researchers have largely neglected a critical aspect of this development--maximizing time at the highest levels of achievement. This study examined length of career for professional athletes in basketball, football, ice hockey, and baseball and considers whether career length…

  12. How Much is it Going to Cost Me to Complete a Collection of Football Trading Cards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Oke

    2013-01-01

    Trading cards for various sports and a range of other subjects such as architecture, animals, hobbies, and war have been in existence since the late nineteenth century and still enjoy great popularity. Two of the most prominent examples are baseball cards in the U.S. and football cards in Europe. Three strategies for collecting European football…

  13. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

  14. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  15. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thing with me especially now since my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best ... how fortunate he was that he had come to see me when he did because left untreated his ... usually has no noticeable symptoms -- no blurring or loss of ...

  16. Violence in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Donald L.

    Increasing violence in sports is deplored, and a warning is issued on an apparent trend toward antisocial behavior. Contact sports such as hockey and football are cited as typically engendering aggression among athletes, but spectator sports (boxing, car racing, basketball, and baseball) are also singled out as eliciting increasing violence on the…

  17. Academic Moneyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Dan; Murphy, James; McDonald, Cary; Wright, Brett; Harper, Jack; Lamke, Gene

    2014-01-01

    We apply lessons from "Moneyball," Michael Lewis's (2003) best-selling account of the Oakland Athletics's use of "sabermetrics" to find undervalued baseball players to help build a cost-effective team to the context of recreation, park, and leisure studies. Specifically, we coin and apply the term…

  18. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action’s perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16) and novice (n = 24) tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT) test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual’s area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action’s perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices. PMID:27272987

  19. Physical Education for High School Students. A Book of Sports, Athletics, and Recreational Activities for Teen-Age Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, William H., Ed.

    This book about physical activity was written especially for high school students. It is divided into chapters on different physical events. Among the activities discussed are archery, badminton, baseball and softball, golf, riflery, swimming, tennis, touch football, volleyball, and wrestling. Each chapter contains discussions of the history of…

  20. Facilities Specifications Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athletic Business, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Provides line drawings of indoor and outdoor sporting fields reflecting the specifications and dimensional standards of each, including where additional information can be found. Sporting events from badminton, baseball, and basketball to lacrosse, swimming/diving, and volleyball are addressed. (GR)

  1. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  2. Policy Perspectives: No Merit in these Scholarships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Fay

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Fay Vincent, former Commissioner of Major League Baseball and Executive Vice President of The Coca Cola Company, provides a crisp, concise assessment of a trend that has worried us for quite a while: the growing trend of rewarding academically-gifted and typically-affluent students with an extra dose of merit aid, often at the expense of…

  3. Stolen Base Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting, the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The…

  4. Getting the Swing of Surface Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Quick, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Sports are a popular and effective way to illustrate physics principles. Baseball in particular presents a number of opportunities to motivate student interest and teach concepts. Several articles have appeared in this journal on this topic, illustrating a wide variety of areas of physics. In addition, several websites and an entire book are…

  5. Corrigendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Kida Y, Morihara T, Kotoura Y, Hojo T, Tachiiri H, Sukenari T, Iwata Y, Furukawa R, Oda R, Arai Y, Fujiwara H, Kubo T. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum among adolescent baseball players. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(8):1963-1971. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0363546514536843). PMID:27481824

  6. Athletics Raises a College from the Ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    For decades, the 40-acre meadow separating Adrian College from a state highway was an afterthought on the modest campus of low-slung limestone buildings. However, in less than three years, the grassy expanse, like the college itself, has undergone a transformation. The newly developed acreage--boasting an ice arena, football and baseball stadiums,…

  7. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... now since my boy has begun to play. Work, family, baseball -- those are the best things in my life. So the idea that I might never have ... what I want to be. At home, at work, on the ball field. Years of enjoying all those things that to me are the best things in life.

  8. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  9. The Dark Knight Rises: In "42" Jackie Robinson Saves the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The movie "42" shows memorable events that have faded from our view in recent years. The events are important to the evolution of a multicultural society in America because of the importance of baseball to the common national culture that all the American people have created. Jackie Robinson's significance as a cultural hero is…

  10. Gary O's Fence Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of finding the amount of fence it would require for the outfield fence of a baseball field of given dimensions. Presents different solution methods for each of the levels from grades 9-12. The different methods incorporate geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, and calculus. (MDH)

  11. A beautiful day in tennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bomina country where people are crazy about baseball and soccer,Mikami Eichi falls in love with tennis.When he was 12 years-old,his parents got interested in tennis,and he started to play tennis too.A year later.Mikami went into

  12. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activities, including going to the gym. And, you know, but I always warn them however, that if you have been in pain for months and you haven’t been functioning and you haven’t been going to the gym on a regular basis, you should sort of act like a baseball player in spring training. You ...

  13. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  14. 77 FR 34249 - Notice of Final Revision to Guidance for the Use of Binding Arbitration Under the Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... published in the Federal Register (69 FR 10288) its Guidance for the use of binding arbitration as an... its proposal to eliminate the ``Night Baseball'' format from the Guidance (76 FR 15359). Several years... Use of Binding Arbitration Under the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act of 1996 AGENCY:...

  15. Experts in Fast-Ball Sports Reduce Anticipation Timing Cost by Developing Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mori, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between expertise in movement correction and rate of movement reprogramming within limited time periods, and to clarify the specific cognitive processes regarding superior reprogramming ability in experts. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in baseball experts (n = 7) and…

  16. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  17. Design for the magnetic field requirements of the tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tandem mirror magnetic geometry is described, followed by an analysis of the magnet set designed to meet the requirements of the TMX experiment. The final magnet line-up is composed of a baseball coil with two C coils for each plug, six solenoidal coils for the central cell, and two RC coils plus one octupole coil for each transition

  18. Superconductivity for mirror fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLL and IMP at ORNL, which used multifilamentary niobium--titanium and niobium--tin tape, respectively. Now the USSR at Kurchatov is building a smaller baseball coil with a 6.5 mm square multifilamentary niobium--titanium superconductor similar to the Baseball II conductor. However, the largest advance in fusion magnets will be used in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) now under construction at LLL. Improvements in the technology of the previous LLL experiment, Baseball II, have been made using new conductor joining techniques, a ventilated wrap-around copper stabilizer, and stronger structural welding methods. The MFTF coil winding is proceeding on a separate former to allow parallel construction of the main structure. Not only does this shorten the project schedule to equal that of other conventional constructions, but a second vacuum barrier is created between the magnet helium and the plasma environment for reliable operation

  19. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  20. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  1. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, R. D.

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  2. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professiona

  3. Enhancing the Bounce of a Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2010-01-01

    In sports such as baseball, softball, golf, and tennis, a common objective is to hit the ball as fast or as far as possible. Another common objective is to hit the ball so that it spins as fast as possible, since the trajectory of the ball through the air is strongly affected by ball spin. In an attempt to enhance both the coefficient of…

  4. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Land

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action's perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16 and novice (n = 24 tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual's area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action's perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices.

  5. The Natural Origins of Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutto, Daniel; Satne, Glenda Lucila

    2015-01-01

    reconceived in terms of explaining the natural origins of content. Second, the pivotal assumption that intentionality is always and everywhere contentful must be abandoned. Reviving and updating Haugeland’s baseball analogy in the light of these changes, we propose ways of redirecting the efforts of players...

  6. Five Year Overview of Sport Injuries: The NAIRS Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, William E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from a survey of institutional members of the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) are presented and discussed. Included are tables showing injuries reported in high schools and colleges and universities for male and female athletes in baseball, basketball, football, gymnastics, soccer, wrestling, field hockey, track and…

  7. 1998 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Karin; Evelyn, Jamilah

    1998-01-01

    Announces the Sports Scholars Awards for 1998. One male and one female college athlete are profiled, and others are named for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, riflery, bowling, football, wrestling, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, swimming/diving, gymnastics, crew, tennis, golf, volleyball, track/field, cross country, downhill skiing, and…

  8. 1997 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sport Scholars Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Winners of the "Black Issues in Higher Education" Arthur Ashe Jr. 1997 athletes of the year, one male and one female, are profiled and Sport Scholars are listed for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, archery, football, handball, soccer, field hockey, crew, swimming, gymnastics, tennis, squash, golf, volleyball, lacrosse, wrestling, water…

  9. The social impact of sport: cross-cultural perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spaaij

    2011-01-01

    1. Introduction: The Social Impact of Sport: Diversities, Complexities and Contexts Ramon Spaaij Part 1: Sport development and social change: intended and unanticipated consequences 2. The Transnational View of Sport and Social Development: The Case of Dominican Baseball Alan Klein 3. The Glue that

  10. Sexual Harassment and Manly Sports: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murolo, Nancy Maurer; Schmelkin, Liora Pedhazur

    This study investigates the relationship between sexual harassment and participation in "manly" sports (i.e., football, baseball, basketball, soccer, and wrestling) at the high school level. Manly sports are defined as those sports that celebrate values of dominance, aggression, male solidarity, and female exclusion. Participants were 353 11th-…

  11. 77 FR 24301 - Revision of the Commission's Program Access Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... of carriage of programming to commercial arbitration. III. Discussion A. Exclusive Contract...: Filings can be sent by hand or messenger delivery, by commercial overnight courier, or by first-class or... imposed conditions designed to ameliorate the potential harms, including a baseball-style...

  12. Myriad reloaded and ready for the next round?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Schwartz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    such rhetorical metaphors as cleaving, baseball bats, magic microscopes, extracted kidneys, slabs of marble or marble statues, the Sistine Chapel, and whether cells were “transformed” molecules or “carriers of information". The differing evaluations of patent-eligibility and the cursory manner in which...

  13. The Best Kind of Mom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Jodi O'Donnell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Shonda Schilling, wife of retired professional baseball pitcher Curt Schilling. In addition to her role as mom, advocate, and author, Schilling is also a melanoma survivor and the Founder of Shade (http://www.shadefoundation.org), a non-profit organization dedicated to eradicating melanoma through the…

  14. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  15. Business Ethics: A View from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Diane D.; Webb, Fred L.

    2010-01-01

    The global economy has been devastated in the last year and according to Federal Reserve Chairman, Ben Bernanke, America's economy was threatened, reminiscent of the Great Depression. Our nation is also in a serious ethical and moral decline, as evidenced by steroid use in baseball, corporate scandals, accounting fraud, religious immorality within…

  16. Making a Big Deal about Everyday Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Don

    2010-01-01

    Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, who have been married over 30 years, take items from popular culture and transform them into giant sculptures that are on display all over the world. Their installations include clothespins, baseball bats, garden shovels and ice cream cones, to name a few. This transformation of everyday things is a great…

  17. Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.

    2008-02-01

    We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

  18. Physics of knuckleballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Cohen, Caroline; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Zigzag paths in sports ball trajectories are exceptional events. They have been reported in baseball (from where the word knuckleball comes from), in volleyball and in soccer. Such trajectories are associated with intermittent breaking of the lateral symmetry in the surrounding flow. The different scenarios proposed in the literature (such as the effect of seams in baseball) are first discussed and compared to existing data. We then perform experiments on zigzag trajectories and propose a new explanation based on unsteady lift forces. In a second step, we exploit wind tunnel measurements of these unsteady lift forces to solve the equations of motion for various sports and deduce the characteristics of the zigzags, pointing out the role of the drag crisis. Finally, the conditions for the observation of such trajectories in sports are discussed.

  19. Industry brief letter : Search for ideal concrete - Last lecture of Prof. Okamura; Riso no konkurito wo motomete/okamura kyoju saishu kogi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-10

    The last lecture of Dr. Okamura, a Prof. at the engineering department of Tokyo University, was held on March 27, 1999. He was a well-known baseball pitcher who won 17 victories at Tokyo 6-College baseball league. In his development of high-performance concrete (later renamed to-self compacting concrete), he thought that we should not demand fine technique for concrete application, but instead we should cover the technique by the advantages of a material. His hardship existed in expressing the properties of cement in numeric values and the establishment of numerical analysis technique starting from empirical equation. He stated that he was able to succeed in the development of an ideal concrete with high-strength, high-durability, self-compacting concrete with the suggestions from many colleagues. He will become Vice President of Kochi Univ. and Chairman of Civil Eng. Society. (translated by NEDO)

  20. What Is Right With Scully Estimates of a Player’s Marginal Revenue Product

    OpenAIRE

    John Charles Bradbury

    2013-01-01

    Krautmann contends that Scully’s method for estimating the marginal revenue products of baseball players using team revenues is flawed. Krautmann suggests an alternate method that uses free-agent salaries to impute players' revenue contributions. The Scully method has its weaknesses; however, its flaws are not as serious as Krautmann claims. Though Krautmann’s free market returns method offers a useful approach for estimating players' marginal revenue products, it suffers from deficiencie...

  1. College Physics with Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurcher, Ulrich; Kaufman, Miron; Bergen, Zakiyyha; Ferguson, Robert

    2004-10-01

    As team members of the Northeast Ohio Center of Excellence for Mathematics and Science Teachers Education [NEOCEx], we prepared some innovative lesson plans aimed in particular for students majoring in Biology and PreMed. We discuss several examples involving the high-jump, baseball, hydrostatic pressure, and swimming [buoyancy]. We find that applications from biology and medicine provide a source of context-rich problems for algebra-based introductory physics.

  2. Tilting the Playing Field: Why a sports league planner would choose less, not more, competitive balance

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Szymanski

    2006-01-01

    It has traditionally been argued that the organizer of a sports league would prefer more competitive balance to the level that emerges in a noncooperative equilibrium. This argument has been used to justify restraints on competition between teams, which also tend to raise profits at the expense of players and consumers. This paper shows that in theory a planner would prefer less, not more, competitive balance. The paper uses data from Major League Baseball to show just how unbalanced a league...

  3. Unit 6 meet my family partB let's learn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓飞

    2010-01-01

    教学目标 知识目标:能够听说认读单词doctor nurse driver farmer baseball player,并能介绍人物的职业。能力目标:能够听懂会说句型:what' syour father ? my father is a doctor.并能够替换单词造新句,应用于现实的生活之中。

  4. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in Female Professional Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Simon W.; Safran, Marc R.; Dakic, Jodie; Nguyen, Michael L.; Stroia, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent publications have highlighted the relatively poor outcome of other overhead athletes, particularly baseball players, with regard to return to sports at the same or higher level after shoulder surgery. However, true assessment of their ability when returning to sport is not as clear. Further, ability to return to other overhead sports has not been reported. Our objective was to assess outcome and time to return to previous level of function following shoulder surgery in prof...

  5. The timing and magnitude of muscular activity patterns during a field hockey hit

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The field hockey hit is one of the most important skills used in the game. However, due to the paucity of empirical research, little is known about the biomechanics of this movement. Muscular activation patterns have been shown to be major contributing factors to performance variables in similar swinging motions in golf, tennis and baseball but debate remains about which muscles are contributing to and controlling such motions. Moreover, muscle studies have typically neglected the contributio...

  6. Stress fracture of hamate's hook: case report with emphasis to the imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress fractures of the hook of the hamate are related to sports that use devices such as golf clubs, rackets and baseball bats. Because usually there is no history of obvious trauma, the diagnosis necessitates better knowledge of the lesion and high index of suspicion. The authors report a case of stress fracture of the hook of the hamate in a golf player with diagnosis and follow-up done with magnetic resonance and multislice computer tomography. (author)

  7. フィールドと学び : 広島というローカリティをグローバル文化で考える

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to present the report of the fieldwork in terms of the memories of Hiroshima and soccer. The historical narrative of soccer and furthermore baseball in Hiroshima was given with some photos taken by the author. It was clarified that sports modern global culture acquired the locality when they came down to the people, since that was the characteristic of the embodiment. As the theoretical basis of the narratology, John Dewey's empirical philosophy, Ikuya Sato's principles of the...

  8. Prilagoditvene spremembe v ramenskem sklepu športnika metalca: Adaptational changes in the shoulder of an overhead athlete: characteristics of the shoulder at risk: značilnosti ogrožene rame:

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Helena; Stražar, Klemen; Tonin, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Adaptational changes that develope due to repetitional stress placed upon the glenohumeral joint in the typical biomechanical manner can be found in the majority of the overhead athletes. The most popular overhead sports in central Europe are handball, volleyball and tennis and in lesser extent waterpolo and baseball. Typical strike or throw starts in extreme external rotation and abduction in the late cocking phase and progresses through extension of the elbow to the internal rotation and ad...

  9. The effects of coefficient of restitution variations on long fly balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David T.

    1990-02-01

    The coefficient of restitution of major league baseballs is required to be 0.546±0.032. These allowed variations affect the launch velocity and ultimately the range of fly balls. The variations in the range for well-hit balls are calculated here to be on the order of 15 ft. These calculations provide an interesting collection of mechanics problems that might be of interest for undergraduate students.

  10. Performance-Enhancing Drugs: Where Should the Line be Drawn and by Whom?

    OpenAIRE

    Lardon, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The integrity of sport is predicated on the assumption that all athletes compete on a level playing field. Unfortunately, the use and abuse of performance-enhancing drugs has become ubiquitous, creating complex challenges for the governing bodies of individual sports. This article examines the complexity of these issues within the world of professional golf, major league baseball, and Olympic competition. Integral concepts like, “What is a therapeutic exemption?” and “When does restorative fu...

  11. Performance Enhancement with Low Stress and Anxiety Modulated by Cognitive Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Doug Hyun; Park, Hyung Woo; Kee, Baik Seok; Na, Churl; Na, Do-Hyun E.; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive flexibility abilities, stress, and anxiety between starters and non-starter athletes. Methods A total of 30 male professional-soccer and 40 professional-baseball athletes were recruited. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B) were administered to assess cognitive flexibility during competition. The Korean version of the STAI form Y (STAI-KY) and Visual analogue scale for anxiety and stress were us...

  12. 中国体育,“强体”迎“瘦身”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Baseball, softball and modern pentathlon are expected to stay in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games following the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) decision on November 29, 2002 to postpone a vote on dropping the three sports.After debating on a controversial report on slimming the Olympic Program for the 2008 Games, the IOC Session held in Mexico City decided to put off any final decision until after the 2004 Athens Olympics.

  13. A Standardized Procedure and Normative Values for Measuring Binocular Dynamic Visual Acuity

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Miskewicz-Zastrow, OD; Eric Bishop, OD; Alan Zastrow, OD; Dan Mark Cuevas, OD; Bill B. Rainey, OD, MS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Binocular dynamic visual acuity (BDVA) is the ability to differentiate fine details in a moving object such as seams on a pitched baseball or the rotation of a tennis ball, both of which can travel up to speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour. BDVA is one of many binocular visual measurements to examine binocular function. This study was designed to provide a standardized procedure for measuring BDVA and normal values for a sample population. Previous studies have used different t...

  14. In South Africa, what is small is wonderful ' small is beautiful'. The project of the nuclear power operators is safe, economical and tiny; En Afrique du Sud, ce qui est petit est magnifique ''Small is beautiful''. Le projet des producteurs d'electricite nucleaire est sur, economique et miniscule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In South Africa, the nuclear operator Eskom has decide to study the pebble bed reactor called like that because of the fuel constituted of pebble,size of a base-ball ball including micro spheres of uranium oxide. This small nuclear is competitive with the big thermal power plants. The economic factors are good, the public acceptance is good and this reactor has the capacity to resist to an accident susceptible to release radioactivity in environment. (N.C.)

  15. 身体活動のタイプの違いはどのように気分に影響するのか?

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 信二; 坂入, 洋右; 吉田, 雄大; 木塚, 朝博

    2012-01-01

    Generally, typical physical activities (e.g. walking and cycling) increase positive affect and decrease negative affect. However, few studies have investigated the effects on mood of activities that are frequently pursued during leisure time (e.g. dynamic stretching and video games). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influences of different types of physical activity on mood. We selected 16 activities (kendama, active video games ["Wii Sports" tennis, baseball, boxing], ...

  16. SHOULDER MUSCLE IMBALANCE AND SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME IN OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Subacromial impingement is a frequent and painful condition among athletes, particularly those involved in overhead sports such as baseball and swimming. There are generally two types of subacromial impingement: structural and functional. While structural impingement is caused by a physical loss of area in the subacromial space due to bony growth or inflammation, functional impingement is a relative loss of subacromial space secondary to altered scapulohumeral mechanics resulting from glenohu...

  17. Cultivate Successors to Sino-Japanese Friendship in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan; You

    2013-01-01

    <正>Invited by Cel Corporation of Japan,the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(SIFA)sent a delegation consisting of students and SIFA staff to Tokyo to take part in the 2013 Kizuna Koshien Baseball Exchange from August 2 to 5.The four students in the delegation came from Beichuan and Wenchuan counties,the worst-hit areas in the catastrophic earthquake that shook

  18. In South Africa, what is small is wonderful ' small is beautiful'. The project of the nuclear power operators is safe, economical and tiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South Africa, the nuclear operator Eskom has decide to study the pebble bed reactor called like that because of the fuel constituted of pebble,size of a base-ball ball including micro spheres of uranium oxide. This small nuclear is competitive with the big thermal power plants. The economic factors are good, the public acceptance is good and this reactor has the capacity to resist to an accident susceptible to release radioactivity in environment. (N.C.)

  19. Sports medicine across Missouri: interviews with Dr. Paul Meyer and Dr. Stanley London. Interview by Thomas D. Eppright, Shane Bradley, Maureen Alwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P; London, S

    1998-12-01

    Paul Meyer and Stanley London are two Missourians who have led the way for many in the field of Sports Medicine. The careers of many professional athletes have been extended due to the clinical expertise of these exemplary physicians who both began their medical careers in the 1940s. Through this interview, they offer a historical perspective of Sports Medicine and baseball. They also share their life experiences, as well as their formulas for successful careers and long-lasting marriages. PMID:9863341

  20. スポーツ種別による女性観客の服飾の色嗜好について

    OpenAIRE

    小西, 久美子; 小原, 怜子

    2000-01-01

    This study is to observe colors of jackets being worn by young women spectators at various sporting events (American football, professional baseball, soccer and horse races) and to examine them. As a result, it is recognized that each sport indicates a lopsided distribution of the color of young women spectator's jackets and that the color frequency concentrates on comparatively a few colors. Irrespective of each sporting event, the color most frequently used is white followed by black. The i...

  1. Home advantage in professional tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professional tennis. Match-level data are used to measure home advantage. The test used is based on logit models, and consistent specification is addressed explicitly. Depending on the interpretation of home ...

  2. Left-Handedness in Professional and Amateur Tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Loffing; Norbert Hagemann; Bernd Strauss

    2012-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependent effects rather than innate predispositions may provide left-handers with an advantage in one-on-one fighting situations. Support mainly comes from cross-sectional studies which found significantly enhanced left-hander frequencies among elite athletes exclusively in interactive sports such as baseball, cricket, fencing and tennis. Since professional athletes' training regimes continuously improve, however, an important unsolved question is whether the left-handers'...

  3. テニスラケットのスイートスッポト

    OpenAIRE

    谷内, 雄太; Taniuchi, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    Hitting with sweet spot, a spot which can hit most effective ball, is important for sports such as golf, baseball, and tennis. Generally, players can tell where it is using feelings, it is not determined theoretically. This study focuses on racket-ball collision phenomena and vibration characteristics to solve this problem using collision analysis and experimental modal analysis. This study also challenges to determine relationships between vibrational characteristics and racket performance s...

  4. Thinking About Competitive Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Allen R. Sanderson; John J. Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators and fans, Major League Baseball itself, and even some economists have expressed growing concern about the widening disparities among team expenditures and the growing concentrations of postseason contenders and championships. In this article we compare different concepts of competitive balance, r...

  5. Radiographic follow-up study of Little Leaguer's shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Yoshiji; Iwase, Takenobu [Tokushima National Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima (Japan); Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi [University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Bioscience, Tokushima (Japan); Kashiwaguchi, Shinji [Japan Community Health Care Organization, Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Iwame, Toshiyuki [Tokushima Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokushima (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Little Leaguer's shoulder is a syndrome involving the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. Conservative treatment usually resolves the symptoms. However, there are no reports of a radiographic follow-up study of this disease. The purpose of this study was to show the radiographic healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder. A total of 19 male baseball players diagnosed as having Little Leaguer's shoulder were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age at first presentation was 12.7 years. External rotation anteroposterior radiographs of the shoulder were taken. All patients were treated with rest from throwing, and no throwing was recommended until remodeling was confirmed. Follow-up radiographs were taken at 1-month intervals to assess healing. All patients were observed until healing was confirmed radiographically, after which they returned to baseball. The mean follow-up period was 8.5 months. In addition to radiography, patients were asked whether they had any symptoms and whether they had been able to return to baseball. At the first examination, radiographs showed a wider epiphyseal plate of the throwing side compared with the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder. Healing was observed in all cases. Healing occurred first along the medial side and was then extended laterally. The mean time required for healing was 4.7 months. All patients were able to return to playing baseball at their pre-injury level of play and were asymptomatic when examined at the final follow-up. The healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder advanced from medial to lateral, and healing was achieved about 5 months after initial examination. (orig.)

  6. The Envelope of Projectile Trajectories in Midair

    CERN Document Server

    Chudinov, P

    2005-01-01

    A classic problem of the motion of a point mass (projectile) thrown at an angle to the horizon is reviewed. The air drag force is taken into account with the drag factor assumed to be constant. Analytic approach is used for investigation. Simple analytical formulas are used for the constructing the envelope of the family of the point mass trajectories. The equation of envelope is applied for determination of maximum range of flight. The motion of a baseball is presented as an example.

  7. Isolated Multiple Fragmented Cricoid Fracture Associated with External Blunt Neck Trauma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Seo, Jung Wook; Cho, Hyeon Je; Kim, Yeon Soo [Inje University School of Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Blunt laryngeal trauma is a relatively uncommon but possibly life-threatening injury. An isolated cricoid fracture associated with blunt trauma is rare. We report a case of an isolated multiple fragmented cricoid cartilage fracture that developed in a 20-year-old man after a blunt neck trauma that occurred during a baseball game and was diagnosed by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

  8. SAVING THE PITCHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Carroll

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This hardcover book introduces and updates the average fan as well as coaches, trainers, pitchers, biomechanical experts and such people to the theory and practice of analyzing the mechanics of pitching and preventing the possible injuries as a result. The book addresses different aspects of pitcher conditioning, mechanics, workload, abuse and avoiding injury. It also brings some controversial ideas into the world of baseball.

  9. Quantum Thought Experiments Can Define Nature

    CERN Document Server

    McCartor, D

    2004-01-01

    One would not think that thought experiments could matter to nature, for they are a humble human device. Yet quantum mechanics very naturally frames thought experiments (as distinct from precisely defining what exists). They exemplify the informing powers of radiation. Though based on wave functions that have time symmetry, these tableaux inevitably tell of irreversible behavior by nature. The paper sketches how John von Neumann's measurement theory fits into this and retells N. David Mermin's baseball story.

  10. American dream or American obsession? The economic benefits and costs of homeownership

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Li; Fang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Homeownership, like baseball and hotdogs, is an integral part of the American culture. Over the past 70 years, the U.S. government has devoted significant public resources to encouraging and promoting homeownership. The recent financial crisis has prompted the government to spend even more on preserving homeownership, despite the fact that the financial crisis itself was led by the meltdown of the U.S. housing market. Now, an increasing number of academicians and media reporters are questioni...

  11. Radiographic follow-up study of Little Leaguer's shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little Leaguer's shoulder is a syndrome involving the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. Conservative treatment usually resolves the symptoms. However, there are no reports of a radiographic follow-up study of this disease. The purpose of this study was to show the radiographic healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder. A total of 19 male baseball players diagnosed as having Little Leaguer's shoulder were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age at first presentation was 12.7 years. External rotation anteroposterior radiographs of the shoulder were taken. All patients were treated with rest from throwing, and no throwing was recommended until remodeling was confirmed. Follow-up radiographs were taken at 1-month intervals to assess healing. All patients were observed until healing was confirmed radiographically, after which they returned to baseball. The mean follow-up period was 8.5 months. In addition to radiography, patients were asked whether they had any symptoms and whether they had been able to return to baseball. At the first examination, radiographs showed a wider epiphyseal plate of the throwing side compared with the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder. Healing was observed in all cases. Healing occurred first along the medial side and was then extended laterally. The mean time required for healing was 4.7 months. All patients were able to return to playing baseball at their pre-injury level of play and were asymptomatic when examined at the final follow-up. The healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder advanced from medial to lateral, and healing was achieved about 5 months after initial examination. (orig.)

  12. Muscular imbalance and shoulder pain in volleyball attackers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, A.; Krüger-Franke, M; Reininger, S; Trouillier, H H; Rosemeyer, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In overhead sports such as volleyball, baseball, or tennis shoulder problems are very common. The aim of this study was to identify features which may correlate with shoulder problems in volleyball attackers. METHODS: 30 competitive volleyball attackers (mean age 25 years) were included in the study; 15 were suffering from shoulder pain and 15 had no history of shoulder pain. The results were compared with those of a control group of 15 recreational athletes without any overhead sp...

  13. What are the benefits of hosting a major league sports franchise?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Rappaport; Chad Wilkerson

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few decades the number of U.S. metropolitan areas large enough to host a franchise from one of the four major professional sports leagues has soared. Even as major league baseball, football, basketball and hockey have expanded to include more franchises, demand by metro areas continues to exceed supply. Metro areas have thus been forced to compete with each other to retain and attract franchises. ; The resulting large public spending on new sports facilities has been quite contr...

  14. Aerodynamics in the classroom and at the ball park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-04-01

    Experiments suitable for classroom projects or demonstrations are described concerning the aerodynamics of polystyrene balls. A light ball with sufficient backspin can curve vertically upward through the air, defying gravity and providing a dramatic visual demonstration of the Magnus effect. A ball projected with backspin can also curve downward with a vertical acceleration greater than that due to gravity if the Magnus force is negative. These effects were investigated by filming the flight of balls projected in an approximately horizontal direction so that the lift and drag forces could be easily measured. The balls were also fitted with artificial raised seams and projected with backspin toward a vertical target in order to measure the sideways deflection over a known horizontal distance. It was found that (a) a ball with a seam on one side can deflect either left or right depending on its launch speed and (b) a ball with a baseball seam can also deflect sideways even when there is no sideways component of the drag or lift forces acting on the ball. Depending on the orientations of the seam and the spin axis, a sideways force on a baseball can arise either if there is rough patch on one side of the ball or if there is a smooth patch. A scuff ball with a rough patch on one side is illegal in baseball. The effect of a smooth patch is a surprising new observation.

  15. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  16. « Penser base-ball »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marquis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vers 1900, les grandes villes américaines se dotèrent d’associations caritatives qui firent du sport l’instrument d’une revitalisation de la nation. Fruit de divers courants intellectuels, cette sportisation des œuvres de bienfaisance toucha directement Brooklyn et « ses » Dodgers. Dès l’inauguration du stade Ebbets Field en 1913 et plus encore à partir de 1943 durant la présidence de Branch Rickey, le club des Dodgers tissa des relations intimes avec les associations caritatives du borough, notamment via sa « Fondation pour le base-ball amateur ». Les œuvres qu’elle supervisait vantaient la pratique du base-ball pour ses bénéfices physiques, mais surtout pour la socialisation qu’elle offrait, perçue comme un antidote aux inquiétudes de l’époque. « Penser base-ball » signifiait bien plus que se concentrer sur les subtilités du jeu. Arme contre la « délinquance juvénile » et le communisme, le base-ball formait l’esprit de futurs citoyens et portait les valeurs que le pays, en recomposition après 1945, célébrait alors. Cette croyance, partagée par un entre-soi d’experts brooklynois de la jeunesse, reflétait et façonnait tout à la fois les attitudes et les représentations, notamment à l’égard des jeunes Africains-Américains, premiers oubliés de l’action caritative du club.Around 1900, large American cities saw the rise of charity organizations that instrumentalized sports to revitalize the nation. An outgrowth of various intellectual movements, the sportization of voluntary organizations directly affected Brooklyn and “its” Dodgers. From the opening of Ebbets Field in 1913, but especially from 1943 during the presidency of Branch Rickey, the Dodgers front-office cultivated strong ties with the borough’s charities via its own Brooklyn Amateur Baseball Foundation. The organizations it supervised lauded baseball for its physical benefits but especially for the socialization it

  17. A multilevel perspective on faultlines: Differentiating the effects between group- and organizational-level faultlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed. PMID:26167645

  18. Testing the Accuracy of a Projectile Motion Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bret; Martell, Eric

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to predict where a ball would land given initial velocity, angular velocity, and atmospheric conditions. A spinning spherical object flying through air is affected by gravity, quadratic drag forces, and the Magnus force. Mathematica was used to numerically solve predictions for the equations of motion. These predictions were compared with experimental data gathered by launching tennis balls, baseballs, and/or soccer balls from a machine we designed to propel the balls with a pre-determined initial velocity and initial angular velocity.

  19. Assessing physical activity preferences in Latino and white preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; McCarley, Kendall E; Leung, Patrick; McLeod, Jessica; Rodriguez, Augusto X

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity preferences (PAP) in preadolescent children. 191 Latino and White children (M = 11.9, SD = +/- 0.7) participated. Demographic, anthropometric, and PAP measures were employed. Both Latino and White children reported water play, basketball, and bicycling as their most preferred activities while indoor chores were least preferred. Compared with Latino, White children reported a higher preference for baseball/softball. Exploratory factor analysis of PAP measure indicated a three-factor solution: free play, sports, and exercise. Multiple linear regression models revealed that PAP varied as a function of ethnicity, gender, age, and body mass index. PMID:20128360

  20. 2006 National Caring Awards. Cal Ripken Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    You can tell a lot about baseball legend Cal Ripken from his office in Baltimore. It's full of mahogany furniture that bespeaks his new role as businessman and philanthropist. Books are piled on the windowsill. Above the sofa are two pictures, one of the All-Century players--he and Ernie Banks are the only shortstops--and another of himself in 1995 after he broke Lou Gehrig's record for consecutive games played. Looming above it all is a huge pencil drawing of Mr. Ripken's dad, the person who shaped him as a player and a man. PMID:17153680

  1. Pathologies of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon and its investments in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    Those who have dedicated significant time to the study and care of stick-and-ball athletes have an appreciation for the unique anatomy, unusual forces, and proclivity for injury. It is imperative that hand surgeons involved in the care of baseball, hockey, tennis, and golf athletes appreciate the anatomic and mechanical elements of extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) pathology. It is necessary to maintain a high level of suspicion for ECU problems, among other ulnar wrist pathologies, as well as acute diagnostic skill and a portfolio of therapeutic alternatives for their treatment. PMID:22883879

  2. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.H.; Hodges, A.J.; Van Sant, J.H.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Hintz, R.E.; Dalder, E.; Baldi, R.; Tatro, R.

    1979-11-13

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is the largest of the mirror program experiments for magnetic fusion energy. It seeks to combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with the most advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from the 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime. Design specifics of the magnet are given. (MOW)

  3. Manufacturing the MFTF magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Hinkle, R.E.; Hodges, A.J.

    1980-10-13

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a large mirror program experiment for magnetic fusion energy. It will combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime.

  4. InN nanorods prepared with CrN nanoislands by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Young Sheng-Joue; Wu Ya-Ling; Chen Yue-Zhang; Hung Hung; Wang Shih-Ming; Chen Kuan-Jen; Liu Kuang-Wei; Chang Shoou-Jinn; Hsueh Tao-Hung; Mai Yu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The authors report the influence of CrN nanoisland inserted on growth of baseball-bat InN nanorods by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under In-rich conditions. By inserting CrN nanoislands between AlN nucleation layer and the Si (111) substrate, it was found that we could reduce strain form Si by inserting CrN nanoisland, FWHM of the x-ray rocking curve measured from InN nanorods from 3,299 reduced to 2,115 arcsec. It is due to the larger strain from lattice miss-match of the ...

  5. Racial and Ethnic Employment Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fred A. Bellemore

    2001-01-01

    Employment discrimination is studied by examining the performance of baseball players at the highest minor league level in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1990s. Both Blacks and Hispanics face discrimination in promotion to the major leagues. Blacks faced it in the 1960s and 1970s and still did in the 1990s, but it subsided in years when jobs were created through expansion in the number of teams. Hispanics faced discrimination in the 1960s and 1970s that abated in years of expansion, but there is no si...

  6. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Ann M.; Johansson, Fredrik R; Dorien Borms; Annelies Maenhout

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variab...

  7. Single-impulse magnetic focusing of launched cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have theoretically investigated the focusing of a launched cloud of cold atoms. Time-dependent spatially-varying magnetic fields are used to impart impulses leading to a three-dimensional focus of the launched cloud. We discuss possible coil arrangements for a new focusing regime: isotropic 3D focusing of atoms with a single-impulse magnetic lens. We investigate focusing aberrations and find that, for typical experimental parameters, the widely used assumption of a purely harmonic lens is often inaccurate. The baseball lens offers the best possibility for isotropically focusing a cloud of weak-field-seeking atoms in 3D

  8. Single-impulse magnetic focusing of launched cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Matthew J.; Arnold, Aidan S.; Smith, David A.; Hughes, Ifan G.

    2004-11-01

    We have theoretically investigated the focusing of a launched cloud of cold atoms. Time-dependent spatially-varying magnetic fields are used to impart impulses leading to a three-dimensional focus of the launched cloud. We discuss possible coil arrangements for a new focusing regime: isotropic 3D focusing of atoms with a single-impulse magnetic lens. We investigate focusing aberrations and find that, for typical experimental parameters, the widely used assumption of a purely harmonic lens is often inaccurate. The baseball lens offers the best possibility for isotropically focusing a cloud of weak-field-seeking atoms in 3D.

  9. STS-33 crewmembers receive post landing greeting at EAFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 crewmembers are greeted by NASA-JSC manager Donald R. Puddy and former astronaut William B. Lenoir after egressing Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Standing on dark runway are (left to right) Puddy, Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn C. Thornton, Lenoir, Commander Frederick D. Gregory, Pilot John E. Blaha, MS F. Story Musgrave, and MS Manley L. Carter, Jr. Blaha, pointing to OV-103 in the background, tells Musgrave to get back onboard. The astronauts are wearing their orange launch and entry suits (LESs) with mission baseball caps. The landing occurred at 16:31:02 pm Pacific Standard Time (PST) on concrete runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California.

  10. Albert Siepert Points Out Highlights of Apollo 10 Liftoff to Belgium King and Queen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center Deputy Director for Administration, Albert Siepert, seated at left on third row, points out highlights of Apollo 10 liftoff to Belgiums King Baudouin and Queen Fabiola. Next to the queen is Mrs. Siepert. Former Vice President Hubert Humphrey, in baseball cap at right, talks with Mr. And Mrs. Emil Mosbacher, seated next to him. Mr. Mosbacher is the Chief of U.S. Protocol. The Apollo 10 astronauts were launched by an Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle at 12:49 pm EDT, May 18, 1969, from KSC launch complex 39B.

  11. Wood-Plastic Composites in the Wood-Carving Industry in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the Philippines have shown interest in the use of WPC for wood-carving purposes. Japan and Korea, however, are interested in the possibilities of WPC for the manufacture of such specialized items as shuttles (used in weaving), musical instruments, furniture and sporting goods (such as tennis rackets, baseball bats, skis, etc.). Viet Nam, Korea and Thailand have at present little or no experience with WPC, but they intend to start work in this area. Generally speaking, these countries possess abundant hard and soft woods and are interested in using soft woods for WPC. The main problem concerns the high cost and the availability of monomers

  12. Performance Enhancing Drugs: History, Medical Effects & Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu-Hsuan

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to serve as a general treatise on the vast topic of use of performance enhancing drugs in athletic competition. It begins by laying out the extensive history of doping in sports, from the ancient Romans to the East German Olympic swim team to the steroids scandal in baseball. The paper moves on to describe and discuss the many medical effects that use of performance enhancing drugs might trigger. The paper concludes by discussing the appropriateness of anti-doping po...

  13. Private Financing and Sports Franchise Values

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Miller

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the impact of receiving a new stadium on team franchise values. The author argues that a new stadium will increase the franchise values of teams regardless of how construction was financed. A team playing in a stadium that it owns will be able to capitalize the value of the stadium in the team's franchise value and will thus have a higher franchise value. Using panel data for Major League Baseball teams from 1990-2002, the author finds that after controlling for team qua...

  14. Manufacturing the MFTF magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a large mirror program experiment for magnetic fusion energy. It will combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime

  15. Examining the effect of dynamic strenght trainıig on dribbling and passing performance versus ısometric strenght training on young basketball playersGenç basketbolcularda izometrik kuvvet antrenmanına karşın dinamik kuvvet antrenmanının top sürme ve pas performansına etkisinin incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Bayram Burak; Sert, Volkan; Gül, Gazanfer Kemal; Gelen, Ertuğrul

    2016-01-01

    Propose of this study is evaluation of effect on ball driving and passing applied isometric strength with dynamic strength training in young baseball players. This study participated 14 male (mean age: 16.75 ± 0.4, height: 176.0 ± 5.6 cm, weight: 71.6 ± 14.4 kg, fitness age: 3.5 ± 0.8 years) was separated homogeneous 7 person group. Both groups was trained 3 days a week 2 hours throughout 8 weeks. While one of the groups doing isometric strenght training, other performed training with dynamic...

  16. Electron bounce modes in mirror plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron bounce modes can occur in mirror plasmas when the spread in the bounce frequency is small. This condition is satisfied in mirror devices when electrons are principally confined by an approximately quadratic electrostatic potential. These modes are examined by numerically solving an integral equation for the perturbed wave potential in a mirror plasma. A long wavelength mode is found that can be destabilized by ions because of the loss-cone nature of their distribution. Threshold densities and maximum growth rates are calculated using a perturbation method. The theoretical stability threshold predictions agree closely with Baseball II measurements

  17. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is the largest of the mirror program experiments for magnetic fusion energy. It seeks to combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with the most advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from the 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime. Design specifics of the magnet are given

  18. MRI findings in little leaguer's shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little leaguer's shoulder, a stress injury of the proximal humeral physis, should be considered in the differential diagnosis for an adolescent baseball player with shoulder pain, especially if the player is pitching regularly in a competitive environment. While roentgenographs may or may not be helpful, depending on the duration and severity of the injury, we report the MRI appearance of a case of little leaguer's shoulder. We found MRI helpful in diagnosing injury to the growth plate that was radiographically occult; furthermore, we were able to document the patient's progress with a follow-up MRI examination, which showed improvement with treatment. (orig.)

  19. How much are Harry Potter’s glasses worth? Children’s monetary evaluation of authentic objects

    OpenAIRE

    Gelman, Susan A.; Frazier, Brandy N.; Noles, Nicholaus S.; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Adults attach special value to objects that link to notable people or events – authentic objects. We examined children’s monetary evaluation of authentic objects, focusing on four kinds: celebrity possessions (e.g., Harry Potter’s glasses), original creations (e.g., the very first teddy bear), personal possessions (e.g., your grandfather’s baseball glove), and merely old items (e.g., an old chair). Children ages 4–12 years and adults (N= 151) were asked how much people would pay for authentic...

  20. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  1. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England’s football, America’s national pastime, baseball, Japan’s Judo, and Korea’s Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world’s most popular sports and has served its f...

  2. Irreducible open dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Shizuka; Furue, Yukihiro; Kawashima, Mahito

    2010-01-01

    We report a rare case of open dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint which needed operative reduction. A 39-year-old man injured his right middle finger while playing baseball. There was a laceration on the proximal interphalangeal crease, and the condyles of the proximal phalanx protruded through the wound. The flexor tendons had slipped behind the radial condyle, and made reduction impossible. After the flexor tendons and volar plate were replaced back into their normal position, the reduction was successful. Finally, the patient had full and painless motion of the digit. We review the reported cases of this injury in the relevant literature. PMID:20422730

  3. Olecranon Stress Injury in an Adolescent Overhand Pitcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Jason; Sahu, Novneet; Sandella, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity stress fractures, which are relatively rare, have become increasingly common, with olecranon stress injuries representing a subset primarily affecting throwing athletes. Olecranon stress fractures have been classified to fit specific radiographic patterns, with most of these injuries typified by a fracture line. Only a handful of olecranon stress injury cases report magnetic resonance imaging findings of osseous edema within the olecranon, as in our case of a 17-year-old competitive overhand baseball pitcher with elbow pain. The patient was treated conservatively and had resolution of pain after 6 weeks of rest, followed by a 6-week throwing progression with full return to pitching. PMID:26137175

  4. Did Jose Canseco Really Improve the Performance of His Teammates by Spreading Steroids? A Critique of Gould and Kaplan

    OpenAIRE

    John Charles Bradbury

    2013-01-01

    In an article titled “Learning Unethical Practices from a Co-worker: The Peer Effect of Jose Canseco,” published in Labour Economics in 2011, Eric Gould and Todd Kaplan use baseball player Jose Canseco to study peer effects among co-workers. Their analysis focuses on Canseco spreading knowledge of performance-enhancing drugs to teammates. The authors claim to find evidence of Canseco’s influence through the improved performance of his former teammates. This paper reexamines the performance of...

  5. Unity of CP and T Violation in Neutrino Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, Martin; Minakata, Hisakazu

    2004-01-01

    In a previous work a simultaneous P- CP[P] and P- T[P] bi-probability plot was proposed as a useful tool for unified graphical description of CP and T violation in neutrino oscillation. The ``baseball diamond'' structure of the plot is understood as a consequence of the approximate CP-CP and the T-CP relations obeyed by the oscillation probabilities. In this paper, we make a step forward toward deeper understanding of the unified graphical representation by showing that these two relations ar...

  6. Early activation of object names in visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, A.; Belke, E.; Telling, A; Humphreys, G

    2007-01-01

    In a visual search experiment, participants had to decide whether or not a target object was present in a four-object search array. One of these objects could be a semantically related competitor (e.g., shirt for the target trousers) or a conceptually unrelated object with the same name as the target-for example, bat (baseball) for the target bat (animal). In the control condition, the related competitor was replaced by an unrelated object. The participants' response latencies and eye movemen...

  7. The Split-Apply-Combine Strategy for Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley Wickham

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many data analysis problems involve the application of a split-apply-combine strategy, where you break up a big problem into manageable pieces, operate on each piece independently and then put all the pieces back together. This insight gives rise to a new R package that allows you to smoothly apply this strategy, without having to worry about the type of structure in which your data is stored.The paper includes two case studies showing how these insights make it easier to work with batting records for veteran baseball players and a large 3d array of spatio-temporal ozone measurements.

  8. Numerical-analytical Algorithm for Constructing the Envelope of the Projectile Trajectories in Midair

    CERN Document Server

    Chudinov, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    A classic problem of the motion of a point mass (projectile) thrown at an angle to the horizon is reviewed. The air drag force is taken into account with the drag factor assumed to be constant. An analytic approach is mainly used for the investigation. Simple analytical formulas are used for the constructing the envelope of the family of the point mass trajectories. The equation of envelope is applied for the determination of the maximum range of flight. The motion of a baseball is presented as an example.

  9. PAY BALL: ESTIMATING THE PROFITABILITY OF THE NEW YORK YANKEES 1915-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haupert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a data set containing a near complete set of account books for the New York Yankees for the years 1915-37, we look at several issues, including an analysis of the profitability of owning a professional baseball team during this time period. We look at returns to capital and investments in the team, sources of revenue and expenses faced by the team, and relative salaries. This type of analysis gives us a fascinating insight into the operation of a professional sports team in the early 20th century.

  10. Sport et société aux États-Unis : bibliographie sélective, 1981-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marquis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilans historiographiques et critiquesDEARDOFF II, Donald L., Sports, A Reference Guide and Critical Commentary, 1980-1999, Westport, Greenwood Press, 2000.GERLACH, Larry R., « Not Quite Ready for Prime Time: Baseball History, 1983-1993 », Journal of Sport History, vol. 21, n°2, été 1994, 103-37.HARDY, Stephen et Alan INGHAM, « Games, Structures, and Agency: Historians of the American Play Movement », Journal of Social History, vol. 17, hiver 1983, 285-301.POPE, Steven W., « Sport History: In...

  11. Single-impulse magnetic focusing of launched cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Pritchard, M J; Smith, D A; Hughes, I G; Pritchard, Matthew J; Arnold, Aidan S; Smith, David A; Hughes, Ifan G

    2004-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the focusing of a launched cloud of cold atoms. Time-dependent spatially-varying magnetic fields are used to impart impulses leading to a three-dimensional focus of the launched cloud. We discuss possible coil arrangements for a new focusing regime: isotropic 3D focusing of atoms with a single-impulse magnetic lens. We investigate focusing aberrations and find that, for typical experimental parameters, the widely used assumption of a purely harmonic lens is often inaccurate. The baseball lens offers the best possibility for isotropically focusing a cloud of weak-field-seeking atoms in 3D.

  12. How to think what no one has ever thought before

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin, William H.

    1995-01-01

    The short answer is to take a nap and dream about something. Our dreams are full of originality. Their elements are all old things, our memories of the past, but the combinations are original. Combinations make up in variety what they lack in quality, as when we dream about Socrates driving a bus in Brooklyn and talking to Joan of Arc about baseball. Our dreams get time, place, and people all mixed up. Awake, we have a stream of consciousness, also containing a lot of mistakes. But we can...

  13. An Event Study of the Economic Impact of Professional Sport Franchises on Local U.S. Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveephong Lertwachara; James J. Cochran

    2007-01-01

    It is common for a city to use expensive incentives such as a state-of-the-art stadium or tax exemptions to induce a major professional sport team to relocate to or remain in its area. A city does so because it expects a professional sport team to enhance the local economy. In this article, the authors use an event study approach to evaluate the advisability of this strategy. Their results suggest that major league sports franchises from the four major U.S. team sports (baseball, football, ba...

  14. Statistical laws for career longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-03-01

    Career length distinguishes successful long tenures from unsuccessful short stints, and partially reflects the contributions of an employee to the goals of the employer. In some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, prowess, and productivity, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. In this talk, I motivate a stochastic model for career development that relies on two key ingredients, random progress within the career and random stopping times terminating the career. This model is exactly solvable, predicting the probability density function (pdf) of career longevity, characterized by two parameters, α and xc. The parameter α quantifies the power-law scaling of the pdf, which is terminated by an exponential cutoff after a crossover value xc, representing the mean career lifetime. We test the model with the large quantity of empirical data available for several professional sports leagues, American baseball, Korean baseball, American basketball, and English soccer, finding excellent agreement with the model's predictions. In all, the generality of the model suggests that there may be common stochastic forces that underly progress, success, and longevity in various professions.

  15. Overuse injuries of the upper extremity in the competitive athlete: magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with repetitive trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kevin P; Ly, Justin Q; Beall, Douglas P; Grayson, David E; Bancroft, Laura W; Tall, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Overuse injuries are a very common cause of pain in athletes, accounting for a significant loss of training time and missed competitions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasing role in facilitating the expeditious and safe return of these individuals to their preinjury level of physical performance by allowing accurate diagnosis. Sports physicians are increasingly relying on the exquisite anatomic detail afforded by this technique to formulate diagnoses that assist with the optimal management of these athletic injuries. Some upper extremity overuse entities are well recognized; two examples are medial epicondylitis, classically appearing in baseball pitchers, and lateral epicondylitis, in tennis players. Other less well-known injuries of the upper extremity, such as intersection syndrome in rowers and distal clavicular stress fractures in weightlifters, are frequent occurrences in certain circles of athletes. The following article is a pictorial review of the MRI findings of upper extremity overuse injuries encountered in the competitive athlete, with an emphasis on the sports scenarios in which they occur. We will depict mechanisms of injury and applicable anatomy and show characteristic imaging findings. A wide range of entities are addressed, including but not limited to overuse injuries occurring in baseball, swimming, gymnastics, weightlifting, bowling, and cycling. PMID:16012484

  16. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-04-29

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057

  17. Wendell Richard Garner (1921-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhead, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Wendell Richard Garner was born on January 21, 1921, in Buffalo, New York, and died quietly on August 14, 2008, in Redding, Connecticut. He was an experimental psychologist who changed the way researchers study human perception and cognition. He provided new knowledge about how people process information and structure and about how to ask scientific questions. Three classes of his contributions are particularly noteworthy. His concept of converging operations, that outcomes of different studies converge on a common concept, paved the way to powerful analytic techniques, such as additive factors modeling. His information and structure ideas shaped research in perception and cognition and pattern recognition. His perceptual independence notions set the stage for hundreds of studies of dimensional independence and interaction, of perceptual integrality and separability, and of dimensional attention that are still actively pursued. Life for Tex was not all science and administration. He collaborated on Earnshaw Cook's Percentage Baseball (1964) and briefly consulted with the Baltimore Orioles baseball club. I asked why he did not similarly analyze football for the Baltimore Colts. He said it might spoil his love for that game. After his death, nonsolicited kudos circulating on the Internet included such comments as "I wish I had known him" and "I didn't know him, but I did know his elegant and insightful work." PMID:19203147

  18. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERAMENT AND ANXIETY ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug H. Han

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed to conduct basic descriptions of temperamental traits and the level of state and trait anxiety of young male athletes, and to compare them by type of sports. Study participants were 277 athletes and 152 non-athletes who were all high school boys. The Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI was used for checking temperamental traits while the Korean version of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y (STAI-KY was used to estimate anxiety levels. Harm Avoidance score of athletes was higher than that of non-athletes. Harm Avoidance score of golfers was lowest and that of swimmers was highest. The state anxiety score of baseball players was lowest and that of Taekwondo players was highest. The trait anxiety score of baseball players was also lowest and that of golfers was highest. Both trait and state anxieties of the 'winner' group were lower than those of the 'no winner' group. While prior research mainly focused on athletes' environment and phenotypic characteristics, we studied the pattern of temperaments in athletes along with its potential influence on athletic performance

  19. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws. PMID:9167819

  20. Heterogeneous performances of conceptual dis/continuity: a dialectic reading of Brown and Kloser's article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sungwon; Kim, Mijung

    2009-12-01

    We review Brown and Kloser's article, "Conceptual continuity and the science of baseball: using informal science literacy to promote students science learning" from a Vygotskian cultural-historical and dialectic perspective. Brown and Kloser interpret interview data with student baseball players and claim that students' conceptual understanding articulated in vernacular genres involves continuities (similarities) with the canonical scientific explanations. In this commentary, we suggest that the authors' approach presupposes the dichotomy of the formal and the informal, which brings the authors' attention to continuity into the separation of cognition from language. We propose a Vygotskian approach that points out the problem of theorizing cognition (conceptual understanding) by depending on specific forms of representation (e.g., scientific terms). As alternative, we envision a Vygotskian cultural-historical approach to language, which considers different, irreducible modes of communication as an integrated whole and therefore allows theorizing cognition without dichotomizing it from the concrete ways by which human being communicates. We provide an exemplary analysis of a lecture talk in a university physics classroom and exemplify dialectic theories that explain the development of conceptual understanding. We discuss that this Vygotskian dialectic approach shows that people communicate scientific concepts through hybridization, which does not reproduce a genre self-identically; the continuity of conceptual understanding involves dis/continuity.

  1. A softball event in the Higgs field…

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN’s two softball teams, the Quarks and the Leptons, held their annual tournament in the "Higgs field" at the Prévessin site on 19 and 20 July. Here, the Bulletin shines a spotlight on a little known sport in Switzerland. Leptons vs Quarks on the ‘Higgs field’ at the Prévessin site, in 2007.With summer in full swing, the Bulletin takes a look at some of CERN’s clubs. We invite you to discover the Organization from the point of view of the individuals eager to share their passions and achieve the best performances.Softball, a direct descendant of baseball invented in the US, was originally intended to be played indoors but soon took off as an outdoor sport and the women’s version is now an Olympic event. More tactical than baseball, softball - a somewhat misleading term as the ball is not especially soft - requires the active participation of a coach who advises the players during play. The coach’s role is to estimate t...

  2. A study on the birth and globalization of sports originated from each continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jin; Kim, Tae Young

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to see how continent specific sports rose to its modern-day status through globalization. This research focuses on the historical background of how England's football, America's national pastime, baseball, Japan's Judo, and Korea's Taekwondo developed into sports in addition to the reasoning behind its globalization. Promoted by England and the rest of the European continent, Soccer is considered to be one of the world's most popular sports and has served its function as a form of cultural imperialism. It has also advanced alongside commerce, missionary work and other types of cultural clashes. In America, baseball was used to integrate its multicultural society and developed so that the team captain leads the rest of his team. The sports of Oriental countries were reborn through modernization that was influenced by the modern rationality, education etc. of its Western counterparts. Judo and Taekwondo were introduced globally through the Olympic Games. As mentioned above the birth of sporting events has a close connection to a nation's cultural background and globalization has taken different forms depending on which continent it originated from. PMID:26933653

  3. Relative age and birthplace effect in Japanese professional sports: a quantitative evaluation using a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Relative age effect (RAE) in sports has been well documented. Recent studies investigate the effect of birthplace in addition to the RAE. The first objective of this study was to show the magnitude of the RAE in two major professional sports in Japan, baseball and soccer. Second, we examined the birthplace effect and compared its magnitude with that of the RAE. The effect sizes were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with the number of players as dependent variable. The RAEs were 9.0% and 7.7% per month for soccer and baseball, respectively. These estimates imply that children born in the first month of a school year have about three times greater chance of becoming a professional player than those born in the last month of the year. Over half of the difference in likelihoods of becoming a professional player between birthplaces was accounted for by weather conditions, with the likelihood decreasing by 1% per snow day. An effect of population size was not detected in the data. By investigating different samples, we demonstrated that using quarterly data leads to underestimation and that the age range of sampled athletes should be set carefully. PMID:25917193

  4. Coaches' implicit associations between size and giftedness: implications for the relative age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-established phenomenon in education and sports. Coaches have been assumed to be important social agents of RAE via biased selection decisions in favour of children with maturation advantages. In the present research, we used the Implicit Association Test to investigate automatic associations between body size and a player's domain-specific giftedness amongst youth baseball (N = 18) and youth soccer coaches (N = 34). We found medium to strong automatic associations between body size and player giftedness (baseball: MD = 0.62; soccer: MD = 0.51). Specifically, taller players were associated with positive performance-related attributes, whereas smaller players were associated with negative attributes. The results are in line with theories of grounded cognition by showing that the abstract concept of "sport giftedness" is partly grounded in the perception of physical height amongst youth sports coaches. We argue that this grounded cognition has the potential to influence coaches' selection decisions and in turn account for RAE as coaches are biased towards physically more matured players, even when no apparent performance advantage is evident. PMID:26096053

  5. Side-to-side comparisons of bone mineral density in upper and lower limbs of collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Barbara S; Harmon-Clayton, Karen; Ward, Kenneth D; Klesges, Robert C; Vukadinovich, Christopher M; Cantler, Edwin D

    2002-11-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of participation in various sports on side-to-side (contralateral) differences in bone mineral density (BMD) of the upper and lower limbs. The BMD of the arms and legs was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The subjects were 184 collegiate athletes, both men and women, who participated in NCAA Division I-A baseball, basketball, football, golf, soccer, tennis, cross-country, indoor/outdoor track, and volleyball. Results revealed greater BMD of the right arms compared with the left arms for all teams, with the most pronounced differences observed in men's and women's tennis and men's baseball. Differences in the lower limbs were less common. No significant differences in lower limb BMD were found in the women. In men, differences in lower limb BMD were found in the football and tennis teams, with the nondominant leg having greater bone mass. Recognition of contralateral differences in bone density may be of particular interest to strength and conditioning professionals as they consider the need to include bilateral and unilateral training programs in an effort to maximize performance and minimize stress-related injuries. PMID:12423190

  6. Academic characteristics of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with high school, collegiate, and professional teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine the academic involvement and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians at high school, college, and professional levels of sport. Through Internet and telephone queries, we identified 1054 team physicians from 362 institutions, including 120 randomly selected high schools and colleges and 122 professional teams (baseball, basketball, football, hockey). For all physicians included in the study, we performed a comprehensive search of the Internet and of a citation database to determine academic affiliations, number of publications, and h-index values. Of the 1054 physicians, 678 (64%) were orthopedic surgeons. Percentage of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with an academic medical center was highest in professional sports (64%; 173/270) followed by collegiate sports (36%; 98/275) and high school sports (20%; 27/133). Median number of publications per orthopedic team physician was significantly higher in professional sports (30.6) than in collegiate sports (10.7) or high school sports (6). Median number of publications by orthopedic physicians also varied by sport, with the highest number in Major League Baseball (37.9; range, 0-225) followed by the National Basketball Association (32.0; range, 0-227) and the National Football League (30.4; range, 0-460), with the lowest number within the National Hockey League (20.7; range, 0-144). Academic affiliation and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians vary by competition level and professional sporting league. PMID:26566551

  7. InN nanorods prepared with CrN nanoislands by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sheng-Joue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the influence of CrN nanoisland inserted on growth of baseball-bat InN nanorods by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under In-rich conditions. By inserting CrN nanoislands between AlN nucleation layer and the Si (111 substrate, it was found that we could reduce strain form Si by inserting CrN nanoisland, FWHM of the x-ray rocking curve measured from InN nanorods from 3,299 reduced to 2,115 arcsec. It is due to the larger strain from lattice miss-match of the film-like InN structure; however, the strain from lattice miss-match was obvious reduced owing to CrN nanoisland inserted. The TEM images confirmed the CrN structures and In droplets dissociation from InN, by these results, we can speculate the growth mechanism of baseball-bat-like InN nanorods.

  8. Fun Times with Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Who would have thought cosmic rays could be so hip? Although discovered 90 years ago on death-defying manned balloon flights hip even by twenty-first-century extremesport standards cosmic rays quickly lost popularity as way-cool telescopes were finding way-too-cool phenomena across the electromagnetic spectrum. Yet cosmic rays are back in vogue, boasting their own set of superlatives. Scientists are tracking them down with new resolve from the Arctic to Antarctica and even on the high western plains of Argentina. Theorists, too, now see cosmic rays as harbingers of funky physics. Cosmic rays are atomic and subatomic particles - the fastest moving bits of matter in the universe and the only sample of matter we have from outside the solar system (with the exception of interstellar dust grains). Lower-energy cosmic rays come from the Sun. Mid-energy particles come from stellar explosions - either spewed directly from the star like shrapnel, or perhaps accelerated to nearly the speed of light by shock waves. The highest-energy cosmic rays, whose unequivocal existence remains one of astronomy's greatest mysteries, clock in at a staggering 10(exp 19) to 10(exp 22) electron volts. This is the energy carried in a baseball pitch; seeing as how there are as many atomic particles in a baseball as there are baseballs in the Moon, that s one powerful toss. No simple stellar explosion could produce them. At a recent conference in Albuquerque, scientists presented the first observational evidence of a possible origin for the highest-energy variety. A team led by Elihu Boldt at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center found that five of these very rare cosmic rays (there are only a few dozen confirmed events) come from the direction of four 'retired' quasar host galaxies just above the arm of the Big Dipper, all visible with backyard telescopes: NGC 3610, NGC 3613, NGC 4589, and NGC 5322. These galaxies are billions of years past their glory days as the brightest beacons in the universe

  9. Estadio Candlestick Park, San Francisco (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Amico, D. A.

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the job is the enlargement of an existing base-ball stadium in order to increase by 50% its seating capacity and at the same time use the resulting larger field area to include an american foot-ball field. The adoption of a prefab concrete structure not only permitted to carry out the work at a faster pace, also the gradual opening to the public of the sections as they were being completed. The mounting of the structural elements by means of high capacity cranes permitted the construction work to proceed without interfering with the sports activities in the stadium during the three years that took to build the new area. Prefab concrete structure served also the purpose of giving the flnished work a sober feeling, yet lively, whiles at the same time allowing a high degree of functionality and a beauty hard to find in this type of buildings.

    Se trata de la ampliación de un estadio de baseball ya existente con el fin de aumentar en un 50% su capacidad de asientos y permitir, por otra parte, su conversión en estadio de rugby, aprovechando la superficie sobrante de la cancha de baseball, de mayor extensión. La adopción de una estructura prefabricada de hormigón posibilitó no sólo una aceleración notable de las obras, sino una habilitación progresiva de los tramos terminados para uso público. El procedimiento de montaje de los elementos estructurales mediante grúas de gran capacidad facilitó la no interferencia de las obras en el funcionamiento del estadio a lo largo de los 3 años que duró su construcción. El hormigón prefabricado fue utilizado, además, para la obtención de un acabado sobrio y, a la vez, rico en movimientos, dotando al estadio, simultáneamente, de un alto grado de funcionalidad y una categoría estética difícil de encontrar en este tipo de edificios.

  10. Echolocating bats use a nearly time-optimal strategy to intercept prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Ghose

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of food in many animal species depends on the pursuit and capture of moving prey. Among modern humans, the pursuit and interception of moving targets plays a central role in a variety of sports, such as tennis, football, Frisbee, and baseball. Studies of target pursuit in animals, ranging from dragonflies to fish and dogs to humans, have suggested that they all use a constant bearing (CB strategy to pursue prey or other moving targets. CB is best known as the interception strategy employed by baseball outfielders to catch ballistic fly balls. CB is a time-optimal solution to catch targets moving along a straight line, or in a predictable fashion--such as a ballistic baseball, or a piece of food sinking in water. Many animals, however, have to capture prey that may make evasive and unpredictable maneuvers. Is CB an optimum solution to pursuing erratically moving targets? Do animals faced with such erratic prey also use CB? In this paper, we address these questions by studying prey capture in an insectivorous echolocating bat. Echolocating bats rely on sonar to pursue and capture flying insects. The bat's prey may emerge from foliage for a brief time, fly in erratic three-dimensional paths before returning to cover. Bats typically take less than one second to detect, localize and capture such insects. We used high speed stereo infra-red videography to study the three dimensional flight paths of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, as it chased erratically moving insects in a dark laboratory flight room. We quantified the bat's complex pursuit trajectories using a simple delay differential equation. Our analysis of the pursuit trajectories suggests that bats use a constant absolute target direction strategy during pursuit. We show mathematically that, unlike CB, this approach minimizes the time it takes for a pursuer to intercept an unpredictably moving target. Interestingly, the bat's behavior is similar to the interception strategy

  11. Effect of compensatory acceleration training in combination with accommodating resistance on upper body strength in collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones MT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Margaret T Jones Sports Medicine Assessment, Rehabilitation, and Testing Laboratory, School of Recreation, Health, and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA Purpose: To determine the impact of inclusion of a band or chain compensatory acceleration training (CAT, in a 5-week training phase, on maximal upper body strength during a 14-week off-season strength and conditioning program for collegiate male athletes. Patients and methods: Twenty-four National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA collegiate baseball players, who were familiar with the current strength and conditioning program and had a minimum of 1 year of formal collegiate strength and conditioning experience, participated in this off-season training study. None of the men had participated in CAT before. Subjects were matched following a maximal effort (1-repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press test in week 1, then were randomly assigned into a band-based CAT group or a chain-based CAT group and participated in a 5-week training phase that included bench pressing twice per week. Upper body strength was measured by 1-RM bench press again at week 6. A 2 × 2 mixed factorial (method × time analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences across groups. The alpha level was set at P<0.05. Results: No difference (F1,22=0.04, P=0.84 existed between the band-based CAT and chain-based CAT groups. A significant difference was observed between pre- and posttests of 1-RM bench (F1,22=88.46, P=0.001. Conclusion: A 5-week band CAT or chain CAT training program used in conjunction with an off-season strength and conditioning program can increase maximal upper body strength in collegiate baseball athletes. Using band CAT and/or chain CAT as a training modality in the off-season will vary the training stimulus from the traditional and likely help to maintain the athlete's interest. Keywords: variable resistance, band, baseball, chain, resistance training

  12. Development of a 300,000-pixel ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, H.; Hayashida, T.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Yonai, J.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Poggemann, D.; Ruckelshausen, A.; van Kuijk, H.; Bosiers, Jan T.

    2006-02-01

    We are developing an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity broadcast camera that is capable of capturing clear, smooth slow-motion videos even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. In earlier work, we developed an ultrahigh-speed broadcast color camera1) using three 80,000-pixel ultrahigh-speed, highsensitivity CCDs2). This camera had about ten times the sensitivity of standard high-speed cameras, and enabled an entirely new style of presentation for sports broadcasts and science programs. Most notably, increasing the pixel count is crucially important for applying ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs to HDTV broadcasting. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at improving the resolution of CCD even further: a new ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD that increases the pixel count four-fold to 300,000 pixels.

  13. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale 15-17.12.2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand: in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Monday 15 to Wednesday 17 December from 10:30 to 16:00 hrs. CERN Sweat-shirts (M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt, (M, L, XL) 20.- CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 20.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- Swiss Duo Pack with CERN logo 30.- CERN/Atlas watch 40.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15,- Mouse mat 10,- CERN Calendar 5,- Books: - "Antimatter" (English) 35.- - "How the web was born" (English, Italian) 30,- - "The Search for Infinity" (French, Italian, English, German) 40.- - "World of Particles/le monde de particules" 6,- - "Facts and Mysteries" (English) 28,- - "Nucleus" (English) 50,- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Buildin...

  14. Soccer Specific Stadiums and Designated Players: Exploring the Major League Soccer Attendance Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Parrish

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature focusing on sport spectator behavior is abundant. The North American based literature on sports spectator consumption patterns is situated within the context of the mainstream sports of gridiron football, basketball, and baseball. Soccer (association football, among other niche sports, is often marginalized in part due to its comparatively limited appeal to consumers in the region. International scholars have thoroughly explored the topic of soccer spectator attendance however these findings are contextual and specific to the region or locale under investigation. The following study is a contribution to both the global and domestic literature base on soccer spectators in the United States. Specifically, it explores the relationship between Major League Soccer (MLS attendance figures and two conspicuous trends permeating the league: 1 the finance and construction of soccer specific stadiums and 2 paying market value for “designated players” (DPs. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. [Three cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kashin; Tachikawa, Soichi; Horiguchi, Takahiko; Kondo, Rieko; Shiga, Mamoru; Hirose, Masahiro; Sasaki, Yasushi; Torigoe, Hiroshi

    2006-04-01

    We encountered 3 male patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum. The patients were a 16-year old and a 17-year old and a 24-year old. Predisposing episodes for the development of spontaneous pneumomediastinum could be identified in all 3 patients: throwing a ball during a baseball game in 1, lifting a heavy load during work in 2. However, they were healthy and suddenly developed symptoms in the absence of any underlying disease. The presenting complaint was chest pain in all 3 patients. Chest X-ray films and chest CT images revealed pneumomediastinum. A diagnosis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum was made based on chest X-ray films and chest CT images. After conservative treatment, all 3 patients recovered. PMID:16681254

  16. Experimental single-impulse magnetic focusing of launched cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D A; Hughes, I G; Pritchard, M J; Arnold, Aidan S.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Pritchard, Matthew J.; Smith, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional magnetic focusing of cold atoms with a single magnetic impulse has been observed for the first time. We load 7x10^7 85-Rb atoms into a magneto-optical trap, precool the atoms with optical molasses, then use moving molasses to launch them vertically through 20.5cm to the apex of flight. In transit the atoms are optically pumped, prior to the single magnetic lens impulse that occurs 16.5cm above the MOT. Fluorescence images at the apex of flight characterise the widths of the focussed cloud. Results were obtained for four different configurations of the baseball lens, which tuned the relationship between the axial and radial frequencies of the lens. Compact focused clouds were seen for all four configurations.

  17. Understanding Student Computational Thinking with Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Burk, John B; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian D; Schatz, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the National Research Council's framework for next generation science standards highlighted "computational thinking" as one of its "fundamental practices". Students taking a physics course that employed the Arizona State University's Modeling Instruction curriculum were taught to construct computational models of physical systems. Student computational thinking was assessed using a proctored programming assignment, written essay, and a series of think-aloud interviews, where the students produced and discussed a computational model of a baseball in motion via a high-level programming environment (VPython). Roughly a third of the students in the study were successful in completing the programming assignment. Student success on this assessment was tied to how students synthesized their knowledge of physics and computation. On the essay and interview assessments, students displayed unique views of the relationship between force and motion; those who spoke of this relationship in causal (rather than obs...

  18. Understanding performance-enhancing drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David

    2012-09-01

    Performance-enhancing drug use is a prevalent problem in sports. It is a problem that has captured the world's attention as the media highlights story after story of athletes who have transformed their bodies over a short period of time, those who have simply defied the aging process in an attempt to prolong a career and those whose careers have been tarnished because of drug use. The baseball investigations and the Mitchell Report of 2007 opened our eyes and gave us a glimpse of a secretive underground world. This "world" is much more intelligent and sophisticated than it is given credit for. It is the goal of this article to increase the awareness of the medical provider about the types of steroids and other medications used, the influence these substances have on the athletes, and how and why they use them. PMID:23061215

  19. The bright-side and the dark-side of CEO personality: examining core self-evaluations, narcissism, transformational leadership, and strategic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Christian J; Whitman, Daniel S; Weingarden, Steven M; Hiller, Nathan J

    2009-11-01

    This article reports on an examination of the relationships between chief executive officer (CEO) personality, transformational and transactional leadership, and multiple strategic outcomes in a sample of 75 CEOs of Major League Baseball organizations over a 100-year period. CEO bright-side personality characteristics (core self-evaluations) were positively related to transformational leadership, whereas dark-side personality characteristics (narcissism) of CEOs were negatively related to contingent reward leadership. In turn, CEO transformational and contingent reward leadership were related to 4 different strategic outcomes, including manager turnover, team winning percentage, fan attendance, and an independent rating of influence. CEO transformational leadership was positively related to ratings of influence, team winning percentage, and fan attendance, whereas contingent reward leadership was negatively related to manager turnover and ratings of influence. PMID:19916649

  20. Enhancement of children's self-esteem through social support training for youth sport coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoll, F L; Smith, R E; Barnett, N P; Everett, J J

    1993-08-01

    The authors examined the impact of coaching behaviors on players' self-enhancement processes. Eight baseball coaches attended a preseason workshop designed to increase their supportiveness and instructional effectiveness. Behavioral guidelines were presented and modeled. A no-treatment control group had 10 coaches. Boys (N = 152) in both groups were interviewed pre- and postseason. Trained coaches differed from controls in player-perceived behaviors in accordance with the guidelines. They were evaluated more positively by their players, their players had more fun, and their teams exhibited a higher level of attraction among players, despite the fact that their teams did not differ from controls in won-lost records. Consistent with a self-esteem enhancement model, findings showed that boys with low self-esteem who played for the trained coaches exhibited significant increases in general self-esteem; low self-esteem youngsters in the control group did not. PMID:8407704

  1. Participants in school-sponsored and independent sports: perceptions of self and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, B A; Francis, S K

    1993-01-01

    Sports are believed to contribute to physical well-being, social adjustment, and self-esteem. In this study, perceptions of social competence and family dynamics were examined among adolescent participants in school-sponsored and independent sports (baseball and skateboarding). Subjects, aged 12 to 19 years, completed a questionnaire consisting of FACES III, a social competence scale, and miscellaneous items concerning school performance, sports commitment, and perceptions of adult attitudes. Perceptions of social competence were differentially related to degree of sports involvement and perceived skill but were not related to the social acceptability of the sport. Adolescents in both groups depicted their families as demonstrating low levels of cohesion but high adaptability. PMID:8317284

  2. Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doping has become one of the most important and high-profile issues in contemporary sport. Shocking cases such as that of Lance Armstrong and the US Postal cycling team have exposed the complicated relationships between athletes, teams, physicians, sports governing bodies, drugs providers, and......, baseball and soccer - In-depth analysis of four of the most prominent doping scandals in history, namely Ben Johnson, institutionalized doping in the former GDR, the 1998 Tour de France and Lance Armstrong - WADA and the national anti-doping organizations - Key contemporary debates around strict liability......, problems, ideas, concepts and cases across seven thematic sections, which include chapters addressing: - The history of doping in sport - Philosophical approaches to understanding doping - The development of anti-doping policy - Studies of doping in seven major sports, including athletics, cycling...

  3. TMX Upgrade magnet-set geometry design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnet set, consisting of 24 coils, has been designed for the TMX Upgrade. Like the coil set designed for the TMX experiment, the coils for TMX Upgrade consist of a central-cell set with a minimum-B plug set on each end. Between the central cell and each end plug, there is a flux bundle recircularizing transition set. Physics considerations require that the TMX Upgrade magnet set be almost twice as long as the TMX magnet set (14 m between the outer mirrors). The central circular coils are the only coils used from TMX. The TMX transition set of two C-coils and an octupole is replaced by a C-coil and an Ioffe coil. The TMX plug composed of a baseball coil and two C-coils is replaced by an Ioffe coil, two C-coils and two circular coils. A comparison between the TMX and TMX Upgrade magnet sets is shown

  4. What Is the Best Launch Angle To Hit a Home Run?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David

    2010-04-01

    Your students will proudly raise their hands and answer, "45 degrees!" They are, however, answering a different question. It is true that in the absence of air resistance, for a given initial speed, the launch angle that maximizes the range is 45°. For a real homer, there are many complicating factors that make the question far more challenging to answer. Here is a partial list: 1. The initial speed off the bat is not fixed. Garvey's law, "The harder you hit it, the further it goes" is definitely at play; 2. Air resistance is a substantial influence on the flight of the ball. ; 3. The backspin on a well-hit ball creates lift due to the Magnus effect.2; 4. Atmospheric conditions such as humidity, temperature, air density, and the wind affect the motion as well.3; 5. Baseball parks are unique in size and shape. So, a home run in one park may not be a home run in another.

  5. Project-based introduction to aerospace engineering course: A model rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Sanjay; Boyer, Lawrence; George, John; Ravindra, K.; Mitchell, Kyle

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a model rocket project suitable for sophomore aerospace engineering students is described. This project encompasses elements of drag estimation, thrust determination and analysis using digital data acquisition, statistical analysis of data, computer aided drafting, programming, team work and written communication skills. The student built rockets are launched in the university baseball field with the objective of carrying a specific amount of payload so that the rocket achieves a specific altitude before the parachute is deployed. During the course of the project, the students are introduced to real-world engineering practice through written report submission of their designs. Over the years, the project has proven to enhance the learning objectives, yet cost effective and has provided good outcome measures.

  6. Detrapping of hot electrons from magnetic well under ECR heating with parallel HF power launching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population of hot electrons with the energy of about 100 keV is often generated in magnetic traps under plasma ECRH. The results of an experimental study of this phenomenon at the OGRA-4 facility (baseball-type trap) under a microwave power launch (36 GHz, 200 kW) along the magnetic field are given in this paper. The ECR at the fundamental frequency was used for heating. It has been found out that a hard x-ray radiation gets out mainly of the vacuum chamber wall to which the gyrotron radiation is directed. This confirms the dominant yield of hot electrons towards the microwave propagation. The x-ray radiation was correlated with the gyrotron operation, it instantaneously disappeared, when the gyrotron was switched off. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs

  7. Some features of ECRH in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results obtained unde ECRH in the plasmas of open traps OGRA-4 (single superconduction baseball) and OGRA-4K (single superconducting cusp) are discussed. Two gyrotrons with the total power up to 150 kW were used for heating in OGRA-4. The power of the first gyrotron (wavelength 8 mm, the fundamental harmonic) was launched into plasma along the magnetic axis. The power of the second gyrotron (wavelength 5 mm) was launched at the angle of 60o respective the axis at the first and at the second (as a rule) harmonics. In OGRA-4K cusp device 8 mm gyrotron launched mainly along the cusp axis was used. Experimental results given below have no adequate theoretical description at present. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  8. Sudden Death Caused by Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Artery During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Akira; Kuroyanagi, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Omura, Kazunobu; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Anomalous origin of the coronary artery (AOCA) is a rare, but important cause of sudden cardiac death among young athletes. Nine autopsy cases (8 male, 1 female; mean age, 17.9 years; age range, 11-31 years) of sudden death during or just after exercise caused by AOCA were reviewed. The exercises performed at the time of death were running (4 cases), soccer (2 cases), and baseball, swimming and kendo (Japanese swordsmanship) (1 case each). In 6 cases, the left coronary artery arose from the right sinus of Valsalva, and in 3, the right coronary artery from the left sinus. The coronary arteries passed between the pulmonary artery and the aorta with an acute angle takeoff from the orifice. Three cases had cardiovascular manifestations prior to death. In cases with cardiovascular manifestations, novel imaging methods should be considered to prevent sudden death. PMID:27404630

  9. Structural materials for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of major technical and cost impact to Magnetic Fusion Energy development are the materials for the magnet structure. Likened to gas pressure, the magnetic field lines try to expand the structure with equivalent pressures up to 1000 atm. Not only are large tensile forces produced, but significant bending forces may also be present. To withstand these forces in the restricted spaces available, materials of exceptional strength and toughness are required. In this regard, the low-temperature environment of superconducting magnets can be an advantage because many materials exhibit enhanced properties at reduced temperatures. Those materials and fabrication techniques that are attractive to fusion magnets are discussed and relative comparisons made. Considerations such as strength, toughness, and joining techniques are balanced agains recommended design criteria to reach an optimum design. Several examples of material selection are cited for large fusion magnets such as Baseball II, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility, the Toroidal Fusion Test Facility, and the Large Coil Project. (orig.)

  10. Negotiating for more: the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    Whether a doctor, professional baseball manager, or a politician, having successful negotiation skills is a critical part of being a leader. Building upon prior journal articles on negotiation strategy, the author presents the concept of the multiple equivalent simultaneous offer (MESO). The concept of a MESO is straightforward: as opposed to making a single offer, make multiple offers with several variables. Each offer alters the different variables, such that the end result of each offer is equivalent from the perspective of the party making the offer. Research has found several advantages to the use of MESOs. For example, using MESOs, an offer was more likely to be accepted, and the counterparty was more likely to be satisfied with the negotiated deal. Additional benefits have been documented as well, underscoring why a prepared radiology business leader should understand the theory and practice of MESO. PMID:24042029

  11. B-Mode Sonographic Assessment of the Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery: The SPI-US Protocol-A Technical Procedure in 4 Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Planken, R Nils

    2016-05-01

    Elite overhead athletes are at risk of vascular injury due to repetitive abduction and external rotation of the dominant arm. The posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) is prone to degeneration, aneurysm formation, and thrombosis in elite volleyball players and baseball pitchers. The prevalence of PCHA-related thromboembolic complications is unknown in this population. However, the prevalence of symptoms associated with digital ischemia is 31% in elite volleyball players. A standardized noninvasive imaging tool will aid in early detection of PCHA injury, prevention of thromboembolic complications, and measurement reproducibility. A standardized vascular sonographic protocol for assessment of the proximal PCHA (SPI-US protocol [Shoulder PCHA Pathology and Digital Ischemia-Ultrasound protocol]) is presented. PMID:27072158

  12. Common conditions in the overhead athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Eric W; Dengerink, Douglas D

    2014-04-01

    The overhead athlete is at unique risk for injury because of the mechanics associated with rapid shoulder elevation, abduction, and external rotation. Angulation of the humeral head against the posterosuperior glenoid can cause rotator cuff tendon and labral impingement. The throwing or striking motion of baseball, softball, water polo, tennis, racquetball, and volleyball may result in scapular dyskinesis, partial articular-sided supraspinatus avulsions, and posterosuperior labral tears. The SICK scapula syndrome (scapular malposition, inferior medial border prominence, coracoid pain and malposition, and dyskinesis of scapular movement) is thought to increase the risk of injury in the overhead athlete. Special physical examination maneuvers and magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful in diagnosing intra-articular pathology. Rehabilitation of injuries associated with internal impingement of the shoulder should include three basic components: strengthening, stretching, and sport-specific exercises. Arthroscopic surgery may be considered if symptoms do not improve after three months of conservative management. PMID:24695599

  13. Magnetic systems for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 Tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 Tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France

  14. Spinning Flight Dynamics of Frisbees, Boomerangs, Samaras, and Skipping Stones

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenz, Ralph D

    2006-01-01

    More frisbees are sold each year than baseballs, basketballs, and footballs combined. Yet these familiar flying objects have subtle and clever aerodynamic and gyrodynamic properties which are only recently being documented by wind tunnel and other studies. In common with other rotating bodies discussed in this readily accessible book, they are typically not treated in textbooks of aeronautics and the literature is scattered in a variety of places. This book develops the theme of disc-wings and spinning aerospace vehicles in parallel. Many readers will have enjoyed these vehicles and their dynamics in recreational settings, so this book will be of wide interest. In addition to spinning objects of various shapes, several exotic manned aircraft with disc platforms have been proposed and prototypes built - these include a Nazi ‘secret weapon’ and the De Havilland Avrocar, also discussed in the book. Boomerangs represent another category of spinning aerodynamic body whose behavior can only be understood by cou...

  15. A Billiard-Theoretic Approach to Elementary 1d Elastic Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Redner, S

    2004-01-01

    A simple relation is developed between elastic collisions of freely-moving point particles in one dimension and a corresponding billiard system. For two particles with masses m_1 and m_2 on the half-line x>0 that approach an elastic barrier at x=0, the corresponding billiard system is an infinite wedge. The collision history of the two particles can be easily inferred from the corresponding billiard trajectory. This connection nicely explains the classic demonstrations of the ``dime on the superball'' and the ``baseball on the basketball'' that are a staple in elementary physics courses. It is also shown that three elastic particles on an infinite line and three particles on a finite ring correspond, respectively, to the motion of a billiard ball in an infinite wedge and on on a triangular billiard table. It is shown how to determine the angles of these two sets in terms of the particle masses.

  16. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates the...

  17. Size does matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Hollander, Jason

    2009-01-01

    For some kids, age 10 is when they start to memorize players on their favorite baseball team or grow obsessed with a certain cartoon or video game. For David W. Hogg, 10 is when he first became aware that "We live on an absolutely, microscopically insignifiant fleck of dust in the middle of nowhere in this ginormous universe." It might sound like the setup for a Woody Allen protagonist, but the realization cast a lingering spell on him. No one - not his parents, teachers, or friends - could provide relief from the utter fear brought on by it. Out of necessity, young Hogg finally settled on a creed: "The facts is, we are completely insignificant. Suck it up."

  18. A unique problem of muscle adaptation from weightlessness: The deceleration deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, William T.

    1989-01-01

    Decelerator problems of the knee are emphasized since the lower leg musculature is known to atrophy in response to weightlessness. However, other important decelerator functions are served by the shoulder muscles, in particular the rotator cuff muscles. Problems in these muscles often result in tears and dislocations as seen in baseball pitchers. It is noteworthy that at least one device currently exists that can measure concentric and eccentric muscle loading including a submaximal simulated free weight exercise (i.e., force-controlled) and simultaneously record integrated EMG analysis appropriate for assessment of all muscle functional activities. Studies should be undertaken to provide information as to the performance of maximal and submaximal exercise in space travelers to define potential problems and provide rationale for prevention.

  19. DT-burning upgrade to MFTF-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve MFTF-B, one must raise the ion energy and the electrostatic confining potential. This requires higher beam energy (200 keV in this case) and, to preserve end-plug adiabaticity and hold higher plasma density in the central cell, a higher level of magnetic field. In the MFTF Upgrade we also want to incorporate the new end plug configuration first invented for the MARS reactor. This new magnet design is compared with the present MFTF-B magnet set. The differences include the addition of a pair of recircularizing coils on the ends to be used in conjunction with the end region pumping and direct converter schemes, the use of a yin-yang pair rather than a baseball-type coil in the transition, and the elimination of the axicell in favor of the simple choke coil. Also, as noted earlier, an axisymmetric mirror cell is imbedded in the central cell

  20. La balle et la plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marquis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fin octobre 2008, la nouvelle fit l’effet d’une bombe : Barack Obama, alors candidat à la présidence américaine, demanda à la chaîne câblée Fox News de retarder le début du sixième match de la World Series de base-ball afin de diffuser un spot de campagne. Son adversaire, John McCain, soutenu par le camp républicain et une partie de la population, monta aussitôt au créneau pour dénoncer l’hérésie : s’arroger le droit de perturber cette grande finale du championnat au déroulement immuable reve...