WorldWideScience

Sample records for baseball

  1. [Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, John, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This student newsletter issue speaks to the subject of baseball. The first article, on who rules baseball, discusses the problems that the developing sport had with gambling, and the struggle between the owners and gangsters for control of the game. The article describes the scandal involving the Chicago White Sox in the 1919 World Series and the…

  2. Carthage High School Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfin, Samantha, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This is the third issue of the magazine to focus on baseball in Panola County (Texas). The issue salutes the Carthage High School baseball program during two periods of its history. The first period was the early 1940's under Coach E. B. Morrison, whose teams were State Finalists in 1941 and 1942. The second period covered is the era of Coach…

  3. Baseball and softball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stephen G; Congeni, Joseph A

    2012-03-01

    Baseball and softball are among the most popular and safest sports in which children and adolescents participate. Nevertheless, traumatic and overuse injuries occur regularly, including occasional catastrophic injury and even death. Safety of the athlete is a constant focus of attention among those responsible for modifying rules. Understanding the stresses placed on the arm, especially while pitching, led to the institution of rules controlling the quantity of pitches thrown in youth baseball and established rest periods between pitching assignments. Similarly, field maintenance and awareness of environmental conditions as well as equipment maintenance and creative prevention strategies are critically important in minimizing the risk of injury. This statement serves as a basis for encouraging safe participation in baseball and softball. This statement has been endorsed by the Canadian Paediatric Society.

  4. Baseball Sans Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADAM; FEENEY

    2006-01-01

    If anyone needs a reminder that the word "fan" is merely the short form of "fanatic," they need only observe me watching baseball on the Internet. No, I'm not talking about a webcast with images of the game actually being played. My falsely advertised "DSL" Internet connection isn't fast enough for that. Instead, on balmy summer evenings

  5. Physics of Baseball & Softball

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the physics of baseball and softball, assuming that the reader has a background in both physics and mathematics at the high school level. The physics is explained in a conversational style, and illustrated with experimental results obtained both in the laboratory and in the field. Simple equations are also used in order to model the experimental results and to test whether the explanations are actually valid. The subject matter provides an excellent opportunity to explain physics in an interesting manner, given the universal popularity of baseball and softball as pastimes. There is also the interaction between a bat and ball, which is a classic problem in physics involving large forces, short time intervals, momentum, and energy transfer, vibration, rotation, and the different physical properties of the wood (or aluminum) of the bat, and the ball. The flight of the ball through the air is another fascinating example of physics in action, involving the effects of gravity, air resistance and...

  6. Baseball and Canadian Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, William

    2005-01-01

    Baseball research generally acts as a window into the game--a means as it were to understand its underlying order and disorder, its hidden beauty and historic complexity. Less common is the view from the other side of the window in which the patterns of the game are a lens as it were into the outside world, a channel for making sense of a…

  7. Mahjong and Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AARON; A.VESSUP

    2009-01-01

    My television screen flicked on, and the crowd’s excitement with sports action seemed so familiar, yet momentarily strange. An announcer’s voice described the game with infectious enthusiasm. The crowd of over 70,000 in the stands was going wild, and the players were moving with precision and speed. The pitching, the batting, runners racing around the bases, and acrobatic fielding. Yes, this was baseball, a

  8. Real Time Baseball Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  9. Fantasy Baseball with a Statistical Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Lori; McNelis, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Fantasy baseball, a game invented in 1980, allows baseball fans to become managers of pretend baseball teams. In most fantasy baseball leagues, participants choose teams consisting of major league players who they believe will do well in five offensive categories (batting average, home runs, runs batted in, stolen bases, and runs scored) or in…

  10. Baseball and American Cultural Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan exploring social values and historical periods as it is reflected in the sport of baseball. Suggests that teachers start with an overview of the game's history and rules in the nineteenth century. Includes four sets of quotes relating to baseball and race, capitalism, community, and cultural context. (DK)

  11. The Flight of a Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The trajectory of a baseball moving through the air is very different from the one we teach in our introductory classes in which the only force is that due to gravity. In reality, the aerodynamic drag force (which retards the motion) and the Magnus force on a spinning baseball (which causes the ball to curve) play very important roles that are crucial to many of the subtleties of the game. These forces are governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools have been developed that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking (the so-called PITCHf/x and HITf/x systems), and Doppler radar tracking via the TrackMan system. In this talk, I will discuss how these new tools work, what they are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics, and how they have the potential to revolutionize the analysis of the game itself.

  12. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particularly pitchers and infielders, should wear protective cups. Rules regarding which players must wear cups vary from league to league. Additional gear that some players like includes sliding pants, which are meant to go under baseball pants to protect against scrapes and cuts; batting ...

  13. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Exercise Safety Sports Center Choosing the Right Sport for You Safety Tips: Baseball Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About KidsHealth Nemours.org Reading ...

  14. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation.

  15. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  16. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references f...

  17. Jet Lag a Drag on Pro Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163187.html Jet Lag a Drag on Pro Baseball Players Study found traveling across time zones linked ... might be more than just tiring for pro baseball players: The resulting jet lag may actually harm ...

  18. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  19. The Dream and Realities of Japanese High School Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    橋本, 和孝

    2007-01-01

    Japanese are excited by high school baseball every summer. The local high school baseball tournaments take place every July. The winners of the championships can participate in the Koshien Championship in August. The newspapers and local TV stations report the local games everyday. Hoping to win the local high school baseball tournaments, people cheer a high school baseball team, among them students, alumni and hometown representatives.

  20. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  1. Baseball, Popular Music, and Twentieth-Century American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. Lee; Walker, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that using popular recordings that feature baseball imagery is an innovative way to introduce students to the pluralistic nature of U.S. life. Outlines a variety of themes that use baseball history to develop concepts about social change, cultural values, and individual achievement. Lists audio recordings that have baseball themes. (DB)

  2. Friendly Exchanges Between Yizheng and Japanese Youth Baseball Teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Jiangsu Provincial Baseball and Softball Association, and with the help from the Japan IBA Youth Baseball and Softball League, on March 28, the Youth Baseball Team of Kawasaki City of Saitama Prefecture played two friendly matches against the team of Yizheng Experimental School in Jiangsu Province.

  3. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Bohn, John L.

    2008-11-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. We measure the change in diameter and weight of baseballs as a function of relative humidity in which the balls are stored. The trajectories of pitched and batted baseballs are modeled to assess the difference between those stored at 30% relative humidity versus 50% relative humidity. We find that a drier baseball will curve slightly more than a humidified one for a given pitch velocity and rotation rate. We also find that aerodynamics alone would add 2ft to the distance a wetter baseball ball is hit. This increased distance is compensated by a 6ft reduction in the batted distance due to the change in the coefficient of restitution of the ball. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% relative humidity since 2002.

  4. Batter Up: Baseball for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Dorothy K.; Fredericks, H. D. Bud

    1980-01-01

    The parents of a 13-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation (due to Down's syndrome) describe their experiences with their son's participation in Little League baseball. With much parental coaching and practice, he was able to play on a team with children one year younger and was accepted by players and coaches alike. (PHR)

  5. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  6. No Dummies: Deafness, Baseball, and American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by examining the historical and social factors that led to 1901 being the "deafest" year in major league baseball history with four deaf players. In particular, the author discusses the career of William Ellsworth "Dummy" Hoy, a deaf man from Ohio who became the most celebrated deaf player in history and explores the reasons…

  7. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  8. Challenger Baseball and TOPSoccer: Sports Success Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Lupe; Sherrill, Claudine

    1997-01-01

    Describes how two disability sports programs, Little League Baseball's Challenger Division and TOPSoccer (The Outreach Program for Soccer), are being implemented in Arlington, Texas. Both programs are intended to include children and youth with physical or mental disabilities and to increase family involvement. Summarized are game rules, outcomes…

  9. No Dummies: Deafness, Baseball, and American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by examining the historical and social factors that led to 1901 being the "deafest" year in major league baseball history with four deaf players. In particular, the author discusses the career of William Ellsworth "Dummy" Hoy, a deaf man from Ohio who became the most celebrated deaf player in history and…

  10. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  11. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. To do this, we measure the change in diameter and mass of baseballs as a function of relative humidity (RH). We then model trajectories for pitched and batted baseballs to assess the difference between those stored at 30% RH versus 50% RH. The results show that a drier baseball may be expected to curve slightly more than a humidified one, and that the drier ball will also likely travel slightly less far when batted. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% RH since 2002.

  12. Productivity, Wages and Marriage: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Naomi E. Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of professional baseball players from 1871–2007, this paper aims at analyzing a longstanding empirical observation that married men earn significantly more than their single counterparts holding all else equal (the "marriage premium"). Baseball is a unique case study because it has a long history of statistics collection and numerous direct measurements of productivity. Our results show that the marriage premium also holds for baseball players, where married players earn up to ...

  13. Temperamental Predictive Factors for Success in Korean Professional Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Han, Doug Hyun; Hannon, James C.; Hall, Morgan S.; Choi, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this five-year cohort study, we hypothesize that factors of temperament and character in professional baseball players predict the speed of obtaining success and the quality of success as well as anxiety control. Methods Participants included 120 male rookie players from the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) and 107 male non-players with no history of playing baseball. The personality/characters and state/trait anxieties of participants were assessed with the Temperament and Char...

  14. Data-Based Interval Throwing Programs for Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Axe, Michael; Hurd, Wendy; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Context: Baseball throwing injuries are common. Emphasis on injury prevention and rehabilitation is made in an attempt to keep athletes on the field of competition. Interval throwing programs are an integral part of training, conditioning, and returning an injured baseball player to the game. Evidence Acquisition: Development of data-driven programs was based on the number, type, distance, and intensity of throws during games, across the spectrum of ages and positions for baseball athletes at...

  15. Mutually-Antagonistic Interactions in Baseball Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit interesting structural changes over time. We also find that these networks exhibit a significant network structure that is sensitive to baseball's rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions. We find that a player's position in the network does not correlate with his success in the random walker ranking but instead has a substantial effect on its sensitivity to changes in his own aggregate performance.

  16. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  17. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  18. Traveling Baseball Players' Problem in Korea

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Aaram J; Choi, Younguk; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We study the so-called the traveling tournament problem (TTP), to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  19. Pearl Harbor: A Failure for Baseball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepeau, Richard C.

    The history of sports is closely tied to the larger history of the society in which they are played. Baseball in the United States in the 1920's and l930's assumed a major role in spreading the ideals of fair play, sportsmanship, and democracy to the Far East, with tours by amateur athletes and professionals such as Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth. Even…

  20. Valgus Extension Overload in Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Franklin E; Villacis, Diego C; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive throwing, such as in baseball pitching, applies massive stress on the elbow. This can often lead to a predictable constellation of elbow injuries, such as valgus extension overload syndrome (VEO). The following review of VEO provides an understanding of relevant anatomy, explanation of pathomechanics, key aspects to clinical evaluation, effective treatment options, and indications for surgery. In addition, we provide the senior author's (CSA) preferred arthroscopic technique for cases of VEO refractory to conservative management.

  1. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  2. Traveling Baseball Players' Problem in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Aaram J.; Choi, Younguk; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We study the so-called the traveling tournament problem (TTP), to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the sim...

  3. Understanding baseball team standings and streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, C.; Redner, S.

    2009-02-01

    Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

  4. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July...

  5. Finding the Area of a Major League Baseball Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Courchaine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a Major League Baseball (MLB baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.

  6. "Chief": The American Indian Integration of Baseball, 1897-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Beck, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Beginning in 1897, American Indians endured their own integration experience in professional baseball. The experience was propelled by government boarding schools, which used baseball as a tool for assimilation and for prestige and profit. But the players on boarding-school teams often found in the sport their own means of cultural resistance and…

  7. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  8. Teaching with Documents. It's in the Cards: Archives and Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history of baseball cards and their use in the classroom as historical documents. Includes five exercises which deal with trading cards and the game itself. Provides a blown-up version of a 1950's Minnie Minoso baseball card to be used with one of the exercises. (GEA)

  9. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  10. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  11. Sports-specific concerns in the young athlete: baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, K L; Metzl, J D

    2000-06-01

    The sport of baseball is played by millions of children across America and around the world. Although generally considered a safe activity, it is estimated that there are over 100,000 acute baseball injuries yearly in the 5- to 14-year age range in the United States, many of which present to the emergency department. Acute injuries often involve ball impact to the face and hands; baseball is the leading cause of sport-related eye injury. Ball impact particularly to the chest results in a small but steady number of fatalities each year, many of which are widely publicized events. In addition to acute injury, many young baseball players are affected by chronic and acute conditions of the elbow. In this article, we review the history, epidemiology, and common injury patterns that are specific to baseball. Case reports are included, as well as a section on the physical examination of the elbow.

  12. Relationship between performance variables and baseball ability in youth baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship of performance variables and anthropometric measurements on baseball ability in 164 youth baseball players (age: 6.4-15.7 years). To evaluate their baseball performance, ball speeds in pitching and batting were recorded and kinetic energies of the pitched and hit balls were calculated. To record anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics, height and weight were measured and a battery of physical fitness tests covering standing long jump, side steps, sit-ups, 10-m sprint, trunk flexion, back strength, and grip strengths of both hands were conducted. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed several significant predictors: age, body mass index (BMI), standing long jump, 10-m sprint, and grip strength for pitched ball kinetic energy and age, BMI, standing long jump, and back strength for hit ball kinetic energy. This study provides scientific evidence that relates certain specific physical performance tests and body characteristics with high achievement in the actual performance of pitching and batting. Youth players, their parents, coaches, and trainers would benefit by addressing these characteristics when planning training programs to improve the baseball performance of youth players.

  13. Collapsing the Wavefunction of a Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, T

    2003-01-01

    The transition from microscopic to macroscopic in quantum mechanics can be seen from various points of view. It is often not merely a transition from quantum to classical mechanics in the sense of the Correspondence Principle. The fact that real macroscopic objects like baseballs are composites of an extremely large number of microscopic particles (electrons, protons etc.) is a complicating factor. Here such composite objects are studied in some detail and the Copenhagen interpretation is applied to them. A computer game model for a simplified composite object is used to illustrate some of the issues.

  14. Throwing speed and accuracy in baseball and cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Rooney, Kieron

    2014-06-01

    Throwing speed and accuracy are both critical to sports performance but cannot be optimized simultaneously. This speed-accuracy trade-off (SATO) is evident across a number of throwing groups but remains poorly understood. The goal was to describe the SATO in baseball and cricket players and determine the speed that optimizes accuracy. 20 grade-level baseball and cricket players performed 10 throws at 80% and 100% of maximal throwing speed (MTS) toward a cricket stump. Baseball players then performed a further 10 throws at 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of MTS toward a circular target. Baseball players threw faster with greater accuracy than cricket players at both speeds. Both groups demonstrated a significant SATO as vertical error increased with increases in speed; the trade-off was worse for cricketers than baseball players. Accuracy was optimized at 70% of MTS for baseballers. Throwing athletes should decrease speed when accuracy is critical. Cricket players could adopt baseball-training practices to improve throwing performance.

  15. A real options approach to the baseball game betting

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shin-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Applications of real options can be found in real assets, but not in sports. This article proposes the real options model and applies it to baseball games, allowing the option to switch between the two teams during the game. We believe this is the first attempt to apply the switching options to the baseball game scheme. To do so, we first design some rules in our assumptions and define variables that are relevant to the baseball options. We combine features of the wager volatility and options...

  16. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  17. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gretchen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  18. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  19. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  20. Pitching Emotions : The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Baseball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheshin, A.; Heerdink, M.W.; Kossakowski, J.J.; van Kleef, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers’ facial displays influence how p

  1. Medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Matthew; Ray, Tracy R

    2013-01-01

    The medical management of youth baseball and softball tournaments requires both proper planning and a basic awareness of commonly seen sport-specific injuries. While youth sporting events are designed to be a fun experience for all, injuries and emergencies will occur. With proper planning, and supplies, the impact of these issues can be minimized. This article will outline some basic principles for the medical personnel that may be involved in youth baseball and softball events.

  2. Study on Impact Loading and Humerus Injury for Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Jiro

    In the United States and Japan, baseball is a very popular sport played by many people. However, the ball used is hard and moves fast. A professional baseball pitcher in good form can throw a ball at speeds upwards of 41.7m/s (150km/hr). If a ball at this speed hits the batter, serious injury can occur. In this paper we will describe our investigations on the impact of a baseball with living tissues by finite element analysis. Baseballs were projected at a load cell plate using a specialized pitching machine. The dynamic properties of the baseball were determined by comparing the wall-ball collision experimentally measuring the time history of the force and the displacement using dynamic finite element analysis software (ANSYS/ LS-DYNA). The finite element model representing a human humerus and its surrounding tissue was simulated for balls pitched at variable speeds and pitch types (knuckle and fastball). In so doing, the stress distribution and stress wave in the bone and soft tissue were obtained. From the results, the peak stress of the bone nearly yielded to the stress caused by a high fast ball. If the collision position or direction is moved from the center of the upper arm, it is assumed that the stress exuded on the humerus will be reduced. Some methods to reduce the severity of the injury which can be applied in actual baseball games are also discussed.

  3. Injury reduction and bounce characteristics of safety baseballs and acceptability by youth leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, L G; Inaba, A S; Okamura, D M; Yamamoto, J A; Yamamoto, J B

    2001-04-01

    The only reasonable way to reduce the potential for ball-related youth baseball injuries sustained by the defensive players (the majority of ball-related injuries) is to make the ball less injurious. The American Academy of Pediatrics' 1994 statement on youth baseball injuries in this regard reads, "Consideration should be given to utilizing low-impact NOCSAE-approved baseballs and softballs for children 5 to 14 years of age, if these balls demonstrate satisfactory playing characteristics and reduce injury risk. A variety of studies should be undertaken to determine the efficacy of low-impact balls in reducing serious impact injuries." The purpose of this study, in accordance with this AAP policy, is to investigate the following: A) injury reduction potential of softer baseballs, B) their bounce characteristics, and C) their acceptability by youth leagues. Six simple injury models were studied, baseball bounce characteristics were analyzed, and attitudes of safety baseballs among statewide Little League district presidents were surveyed. Injury models demonstrated less injury potential with safety baseballs compared to that with standard hard baseballs. Safety baseballs bounced higher after vertical drops and slow throws, but during fast throws (with the greatest injury potential), the bounce heights were similar for all ball types. Of 27 survey cards sent out, 13 were returned. While 9 respondents indicated that they were already using safety baseballs for the younger players, none of the 13 respondents indicated that they were planning to expand the use of safety baseballs in their leagues. In conclusion, safety baseballs are less injurious in these models. The bounce characteristics of safety baseballs are satisfactory. Youth baseball league officials are not very willing to expand the use of safety baseballs. We recommend using safety baseballs as a standard for all youth baseball leagues because these balls are safer.

  4. Experimental determination of baseball spin and lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaways, L W; Hubbard, M

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method for the determination of lift on spinning baseballs. Inertial trajectories of (a) ball surface markers during the first metre of flight and (b) the centre of mass trajectory near home-plate were measured in a pitch using high-speed video. A theoretical model was developed, incorporating aerodynamic Magnus-Robins lift, drag and cross forces, which predicts the centre of mass and marker trajectories. Parameters including initial conditions and aerodynamic coefficients were estimated iteratively by minimizing the error between predicted and measured trajectories. We compare the resulting lift coefficients and spin parameter values with those of previous studies. Lift on four-seam pitches can be as much as three times that of two-seam pitches, although this disparity is reduced for spin parameters greater than 0.4.

  5. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  6. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Ionno, Michele; deMahy, M Scott; Fleisig, Glenn S; Wilk, Kevin E; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-07-01

    Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14-17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk(-1) for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5-10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5-10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity.

  7. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  8. Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Faber, Warren L.; Russell, Daniel A.

    2011-06-01

    Three questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. Can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? These questions are subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment and an interpretation of the data. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes, respectively.

  9. Assessment of Humeral Retroversion Angle in Baseball Players: A Chronological Study

    OpenAIRE

    MAKIUCHI Daisuke:筆頭著者:責任著者; Tsutsui, Hiroaki; MIHARA Kenichi; SUZUKI Kazuhide; NISHINAKA Naoya; Atsumi, Takashi; INAGAKI Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the humeral retroversion angles (HRA) between baseball players, including children, and those without a history of playing baseball, clarify the characteristics of the HRA in baseball players, and to determine whether or not chronological changes of the HRA are affected by a throwing motion. We studied 32 young baseball players (Group A), 10 elementary and junior high school students who had never played competitive overhead throwing sports (Group B)...

  10. Hip and Shoulder Range of Motion in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H

    2016-10-01

    Oliver, GD and Weimar, WH. Hip and shoulder range of motion in youth baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2823-2827, 2016-Lack of range of motion (ROM) has long been suspected as contributing to injury in baseball pitchers. However, all previous ROM research has focused on collegiate and professional pitchers. It was thus the purpose of this study to measure and evaluate bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational passive range of motion (PROM) in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty-six youth baseball pitchers (11.3 ± 1.0 years; 152.4 ± 9.0 cm; 47.5 ± 11.3 kg) with no history of injury participated. Bilateral hip and throwing shoulder rotational PROM was measured. There were no significant side-to-side differences for the hip variables (p ≥ 0.05). Shoulder external rotation (ER) was significantly greater than shoulder internal rotation (IR). And the lead leg hip had significantly greater ER than IR. Shoulder ER revealed significant correlations with both lead and stance hip IR (r = 0.45, p = 0.02 and r = 0.48, p = 0.01, respectively). The youth baseball pitchers in this study displayed similar PROM patterns as collegiate and professional baseball pitchers. Additionally, our youth baseball pitchers also presented strong relationships between hip and shoulder PROM. This study reveals that the PROM patterns displayed by these youth may indicate that their available ROM could survive maturation. It is therefore suggested that clinical focus be directed to maintaining hip and shoulder rotational ROM throughout maturation in attempt to determine a possible relations between injurious mechanisms and performance enhancement.

  11. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the opening of a national kids' baseball coin design challenge on April...

  12. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition... (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which...

  13. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  14. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  15. Home-run probability as a function of coefficient of restitution of baseballs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuninaka, Hiroto; Mizutani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In baseball games, the coefficient of restitution of baseballs strongly affects the flying distance of batted balls, which determines the home-run probability. In Japan, the range of the coefficient of restitution of official baseballs has changed frequently over the past five years, causing the the number of home runs to vary drastically. We analyzed data from Japanese baseball games played in 2014 to investigate the statistical properties of pitched balls. In addition, we used the analysis results to develop a baseball-batting simulator for determining the home-run probability as a function of the coefficient of restitution. Our simulation results are explained by a simple theoretical argument.

  16. Baseball Aerodynamics: What do we know and how do we know it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Baseball aerodynamics is governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools are being used that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking of pitched baseballs (the PITCHf/x system), and Doppler radar tracking. In this contribution, I will discuss what these new tools are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics.

  17. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  18. Popliteal artery occlusion in a young baseball athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Chuech, Leonard Shun-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Guo, Gary Bih-Fang

    2007-02-01

    Popliteal artery occlusion is a rare vascular complication in athletes and has not been previously documented in baseball players. A 21-year-old male baseball player presented with a 10-month history of progressive claudication because of repeated trauma-induced popliteal artery occlusion from frequently practicing stealing bases by sliding down onto his right leg. He was found to have a transient deficiency in both protein C and protein S. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal recanalization angioplasty followed by anticoagulation therapy, with good results. This case illustrates the importance of awareness of this potential complication in baseball athletes, work-up for a hypercoagulable state and the feasibility of angioplasty therapy in the management of ischemic limbs after trauma.

  19. Performance enhancement among adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate baseball weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Wen; Liu, Ya-Chen; Lu, Lee-Chang; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi; Liu, Chiang

    2013-12-01

    Compared with regulation-weight baseballs, lightweight baseballs generate lower torque on the shoulder and elbow joints without altering the pitching movement and timing. This study investigates the throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and maximum shoulder external rotation (MSER) of adolescent players after 10 weeks of pitching training with appropriate lightweight baseballs. We assigned 24 adolescent players to a lightweight baseball group (group L) and a regulation-weight baseball group (group R) based on their pretraining throwing velocity. Both groups received pitching training 3 times per week for 10 weeks with 4.4- and 5-oz baseballs. The players' throwing accuracy, throwing velocity, arm swing velocity, and MSER were measured from 10 maximum efforts throws using a regulation-weight baseball before and after undergoing the pitching training. The results showed that the players in group L significantly increased their throwing velocity and arm swing velocity (p baseball, whereas group R did not (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the percentage change in the throwing velocity and arm swing velocity of group L was significantly superior to that of group R (p baseball substantially enhanced the arm swing velocity and throwing velocity of the adolescent baseball players. These findings suggest that using a lightweight baseball, which can reduce the risk of injury without altering pitching patterns, has positive training effects on players in the rapid physical growth and technique development stage.

  20. Managing the Process of Review: Playing "Baseball" in Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes using a game entitled "Baseball" to help students with special needs review test questions. Students, organized into teams, use practice test questions to quiz each other. Benefits, in addition to making practice sessions enjoyable, include learning content effectively and teaching students how to self-assess their…

  1. Simplified Models for the Drag Coefficient of a Pitched Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David; Nathan, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The classic experiment to measure the drag coefficient involves dropping coffee filters. Wouldn't it be more fun to try something different? In fact, an experiment on the drag force is conducted nearly 4000 times a day during the baseball season and you have free access to this PITCHf/x data!

  2. The All-American Girls' Baseball League, 1943-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Merrie A.

    This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…

  3. A Field Study of Traditional and Nontraditional Children's Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Younger children often have problems playing baseball using adult rules because pitchers lack ability to throw consistently and batters have trouble hitting erratically thrown balls. A modification of adult rules allowed the team coach to pitch to batters. More offensive and defensive activity occurred in the nontraditional games than in…

  4. Leadership styles of elite Dixie youth baseball coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G; Maneval, M

    1998-12-01

    Chelladurai and Saleh's Leadership Scale for Sports was administered to 52 elite Dixie Youth baseball coaches. Analyses indicated that subjects scored high in positive feedback, training and instruction, and social support, moderate in democratic behavior, and low in autocratic behavior. These results seem to support the validity of using the scale to compare coaching behavior.

  5. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  6. The Use of Ice in Baseball Injuries (Cryotherapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Cryotherapy (the use of ice and exercise to rehabilitate athletic injuries) can be an effective method of treating baseball injuries. It is generally agreed that ice is appropriate for the first 24 to 48 hours, but there is disagreement over its use beyond 72 hours. Some physicians and trainers support the use of heat with either exercise or rest,…

  7. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  8. Playing Baseball/Playing "House": The Reproduction and Naturalization of "Separate Spheres" in Japanese High School Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although Japanese schools are generally considered to be one of the most gender-equitable social institutions in Japan, they play an important role in helping to reproduce and naturalize the notion of sex-based separate spheres, through endorsing the maintenance of such separate spheres in extracurricular sports clubs, such as baseball, where…

  9. Prevalence and proposed mechanisms of chronic low back pain in baseball: part i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Joseph G; Zaremski, Jason L; Herman, Daniel C; Vincent, Heather K

    2017-01-27

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among active baseball players ranges between 3 and 15%. The execution of baseball-specific manoeuvres, such as pitching or batting, may be related to the onset of LBP. These baseball motions are complex and require appropriate activation of the core musculature to produce a well-timed motion with forces minimized at the extremities. The spine, core and back musculature are involved with acceleration and deceleration of rotational motions. This narrative review synopsizes the available evidence of the prevalence of and mechanical factors underlying LBP in the baseball population. Possible mechanical mechanisms linking baseball play to LBP include aberrant motion, improper timing, high lumbar stress due to mechanical loading and lumbopelvic strength deficits. Potential clinical implications relating to these possible mechanical mechanisms will also be highlighted. The state of the evidence suggests that there are deficits in understanding the role of baseball motion and playing history in the development of spine conditions.

  10. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home run prowess in professional baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability de...

  11. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-01-01

    Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB) of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collap...

  12. Corked Bats, Juiced Balls, and Humidors: The Physics of Cheating in Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Alan M; Faber, Warren L; Russell, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Three separate questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. First, can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Second, is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Third, can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? Each of these questions is subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment, an interpretation of the data, and a definitive answer. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes.

  13. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cuban national baseball team reigned in amateur competitions worldwide. Sporting successes in general and those of baseball in particular, were managed by the government as a political tool; the government used to display the loyalty of the athletes as a triumph of the Cuban system. However, since the nineties there has been a growing departure of Cuban top baseball players who have had the target of entering in MLB franchises, disregarding that the Cuban migration policy had remained unwavering. On the other hand, after the enactment of changes in the Cuban migration policy in 2013, the unconventional departure of high performance baseball players has increased sharply. The relationship between the migration reform and the increased leakage of baseball players has not been studied by scholars. The relevance of this paper is that it is the first academic approach to that relationship. This paper discusses the migration reform in Cuba and focuses mainly on its impact on baseball.

  14. Behavior of college baseball players in a virtual batting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2002-10-01

    A baseball batting simulation was used to investigate the information used to hit a baseball. Measures of spatial and temporal swing accuracy were used to test whether batters (a) use speed to estimate pitch height, (b) initiate a constant swing duration at a fixed time to contact, (c) are influenced by the history of previous pitches and pitch count, and (d) use rotation direction. Batters were experienced college players. Pitch speed variance led to predictable spatial errors, and spatial accuracy was worse than temporal accuracy. Swing duration was generally variable. The history of the previous 3 pitches and the pitch count had significant effects on accuracy, and performance improved when rotation cues were added. There were significant effects of expertise on hitting strategy.

  15. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks.

  16. Modeling Rare Baseball Events--Are They Memoryless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael; Glen, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Three sets of rare baseball events--pitching a no-hit game, hitting for the cycle, and turning a triple play--offer excellent examples of events whose occurrence may be modeled as Poisson processes. That is, the time of occurrence of one of these events doesn't affect when we see the next occurrence of such. We modeled occurrences of these three…

  17. Gluteus medius and scapula muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Plummer, Hillary A

    2015-06-01

    The baseball pitching motion is a total kinetic chain activity that must efficiently use both the upper and lower extremity. Of particular importance is the scapular motion, which is critical for humeral positioning and proper alignment of shoulder musculature. It was hypothesized that scapular stability is enhanced by pelvic girdle stability. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to determine the muscle activations of selected pelvic and scapular stabilizing muscles during a fastball pitch in youth baseball pitchers. Twenty youth baseball pitchers (age: 11.3 + 1.0 years; height: 152.4 + 9.0 cm; weight: 47.5 + 11.3 kg) were recorded throwing 4-seam fastballs for strikes. Data revealed moderate (20-39% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) to moderately strong (>40% MVIC) activation of the ipsilateral (throwing arm side) gluteus medius, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior throughout phases 2 (maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release) and 3 (ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Moderately strong activation (>40% MVIC) of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior was noted during phases 2 and 3 of the pitching motion. Pearson's product-moment correlation revealed significant relationships between bilateral gluteus medius and the force couples about the scapula during all 3 phases of the pitching motion. The results of this study provide important data that improve the understanding of the muscular relationship between the pelvic and scapular stabilizers during the fastball pitch. Training and rehabilitation programs should consider focusing on lumbopelvic-hip and scapular muscle strengthening as well as coordinated strengthening of the pelvic and scapular stabilizers, in baseball pitchers.

  18. An Econometric Analysis of the 2013 Major League Baseball Season

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Steven L.; Thomas M. Fullerton; Adam G. Walke

    2014-01-01

    An econometric analysis of 2013 Major League Baseball season is conducted with respect to regular season victories. Results obtained confirm many, but not all, results reported in prior research. The importance of solid team pitching, defense, and offense is underscored. Outcomes for salaries and league affiliations differ substantially from prior seasons. History may serve as a guide to what occurs on the field, but it does not always repeat in the manner indicated in bygone years. Ulti...

  19. Oblique Collisions of Baseballs and Softballs with a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Kensrud, Jeffrey R; Smith, Lloyd V

    2016-01-01

    Experiments are done by colliding a swinging bat with a stationary baseball or softball. Each collision was recorded with high-speed cameras, from which the post-impact speed, launch angle, and spin of the ball could be determined. Initial bat speeds were in the range 63-88 mph, producing launch angles in the range 0$^\\circ$-30$^\\circ$ and spins in the range 0-3500 rpm. The results are analyzed in the context of a ball-bat collision model and the parameters of that model are determined. For both baseballs and softballs, the data are consistent with a mechanism whereby the ball grips the surface of the bat, stretching the ball in the transverse direction and resulting in a spin that was up to 40\\% greater than would be obtained by rolling contact of rigid bodies. Using a lumped parameter contact model, baseballs are shown to be less compliant tangentially than softballs. Implications of our results for batted balls in game situations are presented.

  20. The effect of spin on the flight of a baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements are presented of the Magnus force on a spinning baseball. The experiment utilizes a pitching machine to project the baseball horizontally, a high-speed motion analysis system to determine the initial velocity and angular velocity and to track the trajectory over 5m of flight, and a ruler to measure the total distance traversed. Speeds in the range v =50-110mph and spin rates ω (topspin or backspin) in the range 1500-4500rpm were utilized, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of Re =(1.1-2.4)×105 and spin factors S ≡Rω/v in the range 0.090-0.595. Least-squares fits were used to extract the initial parameters of the trajectory and to determine the lift coefficients. Comparison is made with previous measurements and parametrizations, and implications for the effect of spin on the flight of a baseball are discussed. The lift coefficient CL is found not to depend strongly on v at fixed values of S.

  1. Major League Baseball pace-of-play rules and their influence on predicted muscle fatigue during simulated baseball games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Michael W L; Keir, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) has proposed rule changes to speed up baseball games. Reducing the time between pitches may impair recovery from fatigue. Fatigue is a known precursor to injury and may jeopardise joint stability. This study examined how fatigue accumulated during baseball games and how different pace of play initiatives may influence fatigue. Pitcher data were retrieved from a public database. A predictive model of muscle fatigue estimated muscle fatigue in 8 arm muscles. A self-selected pace (22.7 s), 12 s pace (Rule 8.04 from the MLB) and a 20 s rest (a pitch clock examined in the 2014 Arizona Fall League (AFL)) were examined. Significantly more muscle fatigue existed in both the AFL and Rule 8.04 conditions, when compared to the self-selected pace condition (5.01 ± 1.73%, 3.95 ± 1.20% and 3.70 ± 1.10% MVC force lost, respectively). Elevated levels of muscle fatigue are predicted in the flexor-pronator mass, which is responsible for providing elbow stability. Reduced effectiveness of the flexor-pronator mass may reduce the active contributions to joint rotational stiffness, increasing strain on the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and possibly increasing injury risk.

  2. Factors Affecting High School Baseball Coaches' Enforcement of School Tobacco Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Ted; Strack, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of policy bans and recommendations against spit tobacco (ST) use, baseball athletes have demonstrated ST prevalence rates ranging from 34% to 50% in high school, 42% in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and 50% in the professional ranks. To evaluate enforcement of ST bans, high school baseball coaches in North Carolina…

  3. The Baseball Hall of Fame Is Not the Kiss of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel and M. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in…

  4. Of Rails and Red Stockings: A Vignette on the Extension of Baseball to the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert Knight

    During its century and a half history, baseball has been given continued impetus by the development of new technologies in communication--the telegraph, the sports page, the radio and television. Perhaps the most important in the initial spread of baseball throughout America was the railroad. The completion of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1869…

  5. Diamond in the Rough: Baseball and the Study of American Sports History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Using baseball as its focus, this article demonstrates the importance of sport in helping students understand certain central themes of United States history. Provides a brief history of baseball and reviews scholarly works on its influence in United States culture. (JDH)

  6. Baseball and World War II: A Study of the Landis-Roosevelt Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percoco, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan using original documents of the wartime correspondence between President Franklin Roosevelt and baseball commissioner Kenesaw Landis. Explores the status of baseball during World War II to determine the importance of sports in U.S. culture. Includes background information and copies of the correspondence. (DK)

  7. Saved at Home: Christian Branding and Faith Nights in the "Church of Baseball"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Baseball has enjoyed its status as the "national pastime" in part because it has been associated with democracy. To the extent that baseball, as an institution of civil religion, fosters pluralism and inclusion, it can indeed be viewed in democratic terms. In recent years, the advent of conservative Christian events called "Faith Nights" threatens…

  8. Delving Deeper: Studying Baseball's Wild-Card Team Using Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Richard E.; Knapp, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The modern era of professional baseball playoffs began in 1903, when the champions of the American League and the National League played the first World Series. Except for one year, 1904, this playoff system was maintained until 1969. Beginning in 1969, each of the two leagues in Major League Baseball (MLB) was divided into two divisions to…

  9. Depth Perception Improvement in Collegiate Baseball Players with Vision Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Clark, PhD, ATC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vision training is rapidly becoming a component of sports enhancement, but quantifiable and validated improvement in visual performance has not been clearly demonstrated in high-caliber and/or collegiate athletes. We have performed vision training for the last three seasons on the University of Cincinnati baseball team’s hitters. The goal for the work was performance enhancement, and for monitoring purposes, we measured stereopsis pre- and post-vision training. Methods: From the preseason (January 2011 through to the end of the season (May 2013, all hitters in the University of Cincinnati baseball team underwent regular vision training. Out-of-season training was 20 minutes twice per week, and in-season was 20 minutes once per week. Traditional stereopsis (Stereo Fly was performed and recorded. Vision training typically consisted of: Dynavision light board, Brock string, strobe glasses, Eyeport, saccades, and near-far. Results: The players consistently came into the season with stereopsis of 23.7 ± 1.0 mm, and six weeks of training increased this stereopsis to 36.9 ± 0.49 mm (p<0.0001. Discussion: There was a consistent and significant improvement in stereopsis measured by Stereo Fly with the baseball team after 6 weeks of vision training. Equally, the stereopsis returned to baseline out of season. Temporal benefits seemed to continue post-6 weeks of vision training. We conclude that in a population of healthy and high-caliber athletes, stereopsis can improve with training and suffer from detraining effects as well. We suggest that vision training for sports that require good stereo acuity be considered.

  10. Hamstring Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachazewski, James; Silvers, Holly J.; Li, Bernard; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Insler, Stephanie; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of a hamstring injury prevention program designed to address the high incidence of acute and chronic hamstring injuries and re-injuries that occur in the sport of professional baseball. Methods: This was a prospective cluster cohort study assessing the efficacy of an injury prevention intervention designed to address hamstring injury in rookie and professional baseball players participating in Minor and Major League Baseball (N = 213). Each athlete was asked to participate and consented (Johns Hopkins Internal Review Board, Baltimore, Maryland). Those athletes who agreed to participate completed a questionnaire detailing their hamstring injury history. The hamstring injury prevention program was disseminated to each medical staff (team physician, certified athletic trainer and strength and conditioning coach) and they were instructed on how to implement the program. Weekly individual compliance with the program and injury data was collected. At the end of the season, the data were analyzed for program compliance and hamstring (HS) injury rates (both acute and reoccurrence) compared to the control data in the MLB HITS database. All data were stripped of individual and team identifiers prior to analysis. Results: For the major and minor league intervention study, one Major and Minor League organization served as the intervention (INT) team, which encompassed Rookie League, Fall Ball, Class A, AA, AAA and major league rosters (6 total teams). A total of 213 athletes consented to participate: Minor League: N = 173 players and Majors League: N = 40. Weekly compliance, injury incidence and time loss due to injury was compared to the HITS database (age, skill matched control group). The average weighted utilization of the injury prevention program was 25.30 utilizations for the uninjured group compared to 13.53 in the injured group (p=0.09). In the majors, there were 2 HS injuries in the INT vs. 79 in the CON

  11. The Designated Hitter Rule in Baseball as a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner La Croix

    2010-01-01

    All but two professional baseball leagues have adopted the “designated hitter” (DH) rule, which allows a team’s manager to designate a player to bat at the plate and run the bases in place of another player, usually the team’s pitcher. Unlike the team’s other players, the designated hitter does not take the field to play defense. This paper provides a survey of a large literature investigating the DH rule’s effect on the incentives of pitchers to hit batters and on changes in the number of hi...

  12. Describing baseball pitch movement with right-hand rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahill, A Terry; Baldwin, David G

    2007-07-01

    The right-hand rules show the direction of the spin-induced deflection of baseball pitches: thus, they explain the movement of the fastball, curveball, slider and screwball. The direction of deflection is described by a pair of right-hand rules commonly used in science and engineering. Our new model for the magnitude of the lateral spin-induced deflection of the ball considers the orientation of the axis of rotation of the ball relative to the direction in which the ball is moving. This paper also describes how models based on somatic metaphors might provide variability in a pitcher's repertoire.

  13. Interval Throwing and Hitting Programs in Baseball: Biomechanics and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward S; Bishop, Meghan E; Baker, Dylan; West, Robin V

    2016-01-01

    Baseball injuries from throwing and hitting generally occur as a consequence of the repetitive and high-energy motions inherent to the sport. Biomechanical studies have contributed to understanding the pathomechanics leading to injury and to the development of rehabilitation programs. Interval-based throwing and hitting programs are designed to return an athlete to competition through a gradual progression of sport-specific exercises. Proper warm-up and strict adherence to the program allows the athlete to return as quickly and safely as possible.

  14. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L

    2005-03-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of shoulder mobility in professional baseball players in order to examine differences between the throwing and the nonthrowing shoulders and to describe chronic adaptations to throwing.Design: Descriptive.Setting: The athletic training room at Maryvale Baseball Park, Phoenix, AZ.Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven professional baseball players (20 pitchers, 7 position players; age = 20 +/- 1.6 years, height = 190.5 +/- 4.8 cm, mass = 91.6 +/- 9.6 kg) with no previous history of shoulder or elbow injury.Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded scapular upward rotation at 4 levels of humeral elevation in the scapular plane (rest, 60 degrees , 90 degrees , 120 degrees ); posterior shoulder tightness; and passive, isolated glenohumeral joint internal and external range of motion.Results: Scapular upward rotation was significantly greater in the throwing shoulder (14.2 +/- 6.5 degrees ) than in the nonthrowing shoulder (10.6 +/- 6.1 degrees ) at 90 degrees of humeral elevation (P = .04). We observed no statistically significant difference in posterior shoulder tightness between the throwing (30.2 +/- 4.6 cm) and the nonthrowing (28.0 +/- 4.8 cm) shoulder (P = .09). In addition, the throwing shoulder exhibited a statistically significant decrease in isolated glenohumeral internal rotation (56.6 +/- 12.5 degrees ) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder (68.6 +/- 12.6 degrees ) (P = .001), with a concomitant increase in isolated glenohumeral external rotation (throwing = 108.9 +/- 9.0 degrees , nonthrowing = 101.9 +/- 5.9 degrees , P = .0014). An analysis of the total arc of motion (internal rotation + external rotation) revealed no statistically significant

  15. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention.

  16. Efficiency of application of special exercises and exercises with the use of baseball pitching machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the approach on making up coordination capabilities and technical tactical performances in baseball is confirmed. 100 boys (age 12-14 years take part in experiment. Relative analysis of a level of development of coordination capabilities and technical tactical readiness of baseball players is carried out. The level of development of technical readiness after experiment under the program «pitch, hit and run» is taped. The frame of special exercises with usage of colour balls is featured. Dynamics of hits for baseball players on a flying ball is presented. The approach in modelling of requirements of competitive activity is developed.

  17. Distal Ulna Fracture With Delayed Ulnar Nerve Palsy in a Baseball Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasque, Charles B; Pearson, Clark; Margo, Bradley; Ethel, Robert

    2016-02-01

    We present a case report of a college baseball player who sustained a blunt-trauma, distal-third ulna fracture from a thrown ball with delayed presentation of ulnar nerve palsy. Even after his ulna fracture had healed, the nerve injury made it difficult for the athlete to control a baseball while throwing, resulting in a delayed return to full baseball activity for 3 to 4 months. He had almost complete nerve recovery by 6 months after his injury and complete nerve recovery by 1 year after his injury.

  18. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is high among individuals who have played baseball since childhood. Recently two cross-sectional studies according to prevalence of OCD have been published. In a study of 1040 baseball players aged 10 to 12 years, Matsuura et al found that 2.1% of players had OCD, with no differences in prevalence according to age or player position. Kida et al., in their study of 2433 baseball players aged 12 to 18 years, found OCD i...

  19. Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Eric; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Piquero, Alex R; Regoli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature in a variety of disciplines has appeared over the last 20 years examining customer racial bias in the secondary sports card market; however, consensus on the matter has yet to emerge. In this article, we explore the more subtle ways that a player's race/ethnicity may affect the value of his sports card including a player's skin tone (light- to dark-skinned). Data were obtained for 383 black, Latino, and white baseball players who had received at least one vote for induction into Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame including their career performance statistics, rookie card price, card availability, Hall of Fame status, and skin tone. Findings indicate that card availability is the primary determinant of card value while a player's skin tone has no direct effect. Subsequent analysis demonstrates that a player's race (white/non-white) rather than skin tone did have an effect as it interacts with Hall of Fame status to influence his rookie card price.

  20. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomito, Matthew J; Ferreria, Joel V; Nissen, Carl W

    2016-06-02

    Left-handed baseball pitchers are thought to have a number of theoretical advantages compared to right-handed pitchers; however, there is limited scientific research detailing differences in the pitching mechanics of right- and left-handed pitchers. Therefore, this study sought to understand whether any kinematic and kinetic differences existed between right- and left-handed baseball pitchers. A total of 52 collegiate pitchers were included in this study; 26 left-handed pitchers were compared to 26 age-, height-, weight- and ball velocity-matched right-handed pitchers. Demographic information, passive shoulder range of motion and kinematic and kinetic data were obtained for each pitcher participating in the study. Results indicated that left-handed pitchers did not have a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit as compared to right-handed pitchers. Kinematic analysis indicated that elbow flexion, horizontal glenohumeral abduction and wrist coronal plane motion were significantly different between the two study cohorts. It was also noted that left-handed pitchers had increased elbow varus moments. The findings of this study suggest that pitching coaches should be aware that there are biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed pitchers.

  1. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  2. Type of structure of men body engaged in baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiello Wladyslaw.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to define the features of structure of sportsmen body - members of collapsible command of Poland on baseball is in-process undertaken (n=20. Age of sportsmen was in a range 18-25 years, and training experience - 7-14 years. Five coefficients (Rohrera, Queteleta II, Manouvrier, growing-gravimetric, pelvic-humeral, and also general surface of body, are certain. Specific gravity of body is expected on the basis of measurings dermic-fatty folds by the use of prognostic equalization of Piechaczka. General fat in a percentage ratio to mass of body is expected on the formula of Brozka i Keys. 20 indexes are in general complication certain. On the basis of their setting of norms the type of structure of body of examinee is set. A comparative group was made by the students of the Warsaw polytechnic institute. The members of masculine collapsible command of Poland differ on baseball, foremost, by the high indexes of diameter of forearm, widths of elbow, surface and mass of body, diameter of shin.

  3. The view from New Haven: a physicist at Yale is helping baseball umpires make the call

    CERN Multimedia

    King, C

    2002-01-01

    A particle physicist from Yale university has been asked to examine the QuesTec Umpire Information System, a machine that is being used to evaluate umpires in baseball by judging balls and strikes (1 page).

  4. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  5. Aerodynamics of knuckle ball: Flow-structure interaction problem on a pitched baseball without spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro

    2012-07-01

    In the game of baseball, the knuckleball—so-called because the baseball is gripped with the knuckles in a certain position—is pitched in a way that introduces nearly no rotation, resulting in erratic flight paths which confuse batters. The “knuckleball” effect is believed to be caused by asymmetric flow separation over the baseball, but little is known about its flow physics. In the experiment described in this paper, the flow near the seams of the baseball is visualized thoroughly and the velocity vector fields near the surface and in the wake are obtained with Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Depending on its position, the seam is found to trigger the boundary layer transition thus delaying the separation, or to cause separation itself. Three-dimensional wake patterns associated with specific ball orientations are identified and related to the force variations on the ball.

  6. Major League Baseball Anti-Trust Immunity: Examining the Legal and Financial Implications of Relocation Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, Mark S.; Brown, Matt T.; Rascher, Daniel A.; McEvoy, Chad D.

    2006-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) rules restrict the movement of any franchise into another’s territory. These territorial rules are designed to protect each team’s potential local revenue sources as well as to provide stability throughout the league. Recently, Major League Baseball approved financial compensation for the Washington Nationals’ move into the Baltimore Orioles’ territory – primarily because it was in the best interest of MLB even though it hurt the Orioles. However, the Oakland Athle...

  7. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  8. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  9. Change in pitching biomechanics in the late-inning in Taiwanese high school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei-Hsi Chou, Paul; Huang, Yen-Po; Gu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Chiang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session. The mean Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion index was found to have a value of 14.14, indicating a medium-to-large degree of perceived tiredness. The results showed that the ball velocity and horizontal abduction angle decreased significantly as the pitchers became tired. Moreover, the upper torso forward tilt and knee flexion angle both increased significantly at the moment of ball release. Finally, the muscle strength of the upper extremity remained decreased 2 days after the bullpen throwing session. Overall, the results suggest that an adequate amount of rest and specific strengthening programs for the shoulder external rotator, shoulder internal rotator, shoulder flexor, shoulder extensor, shoulder adductor, and shoulder abductor muscles are recommended to the coaches and for adolescent baseball pitchers. In addition, the changes in pitching mechanics noted in this study should be carefully monitored during the course of a baseball game to minimize the risk for overuse injuries.

  10. Abner Doubleday, Marc Bloch, and the cultural significance of baseball in rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, David

    2011-01-01

    In 1907 baseball's promoters decreed that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday created the game in the village of Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. Baseball thus acquired a distinctly rural American origin and a romantic pastoral appeal. Skeptics have since presented irrefutable evidence that America's pastime was neither born in the United States nor was a product of rural life. But in their zeal to debunk the myth of baseball's rural beginnings, historians have fallen prey to what Annales School founder Marc Bloch famously called the "idol of origins," and all but neglected the very real phenomenon of rural baseball itself. The claim that baseball has always been "a city game for city men" does not stand up to empirical scrutiny anymore than the Doubleday myth itself, as this address demonstrates with three case studies -- Cooperstown in the 1830s, Davisville, California, in the 1880s, and Milroy, Minnesota, in the 1950s. Baseball may have been a source of rural nostalgia for city people, but it was the sport of choice for farmers and a powerful cultural agent.

  11. StatCast Dashboard: Exploration of Spatiotemporal Baseball Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Marcos; Ono, Jorge Piazentin; Cervone, Daniel; Chiang, Justin; Dietrich, Carlos; Silva, Claudio T

    2016-01-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) has a long history of providing detailed, high-quality data, leading to a tremendous surge in sports analytics research in recent years. In 2015, MLB.com released the StatCast spatiotemporal data-tracking system, which has been used in approximately 2,500 games since its inception to capture player and ball locations as well as semantically meaningful game events. This article presents a visualization and analytics infrastructure to help query and facilitate the analysis of this new tracking data. The goal is to go beyond descriptive statistics of individual plays, allowing analysts to study diverse collections of games and game events. The proposed system enables the exploration of the data using a simple querying interface and a set of flexible interactive visualization tools.

  12. Changes in baseball batters' brain activity with increased pitch choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangmin; Kim, Jingu; Ali, Asif; Kim, Woojong; Radlo, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    In baseball, one factor necessary for batters to decide whether to swing or not depends on what type of pitch is thrown. Oftentimes batters will look for their pitch (i.e., waiting for a fastball). In general, when a pitcher has many types of pitches in his arsenal, batters will have greater difficulty deciding upon the pitch thrown. Little research has been investigated the psychophysiology of a batters decision-making processes. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine how brain activation changes according to an increase in the number of alternatives (NA) available. A total of 15 male college baseball players participated in this study. The stimuli used in this experiment were video clips of a right-handed pitcher throwing fastball, curve, and slider pitches. The task was to press a button after selecting the fastball as the target stimulus from two pitch choices (fastball and curve), and then from three possibilities (fastball, curve, and slider). Functional and anatomic image scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) runs took 4 and 5[Formula: see text]min, respectively. According to our analysis, the right precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were activated when the NA was one. The supplementary motor areas (SMA) and primary motor cortex were activated when there were two alternatives to choose from and the inferior orbitofrontal gyrus was specifically activated with three alternatives. Contrary to our expectations, the NA was not a critical factor influencing the activation of related decision making areas when the NA was compared against one another. These findings highlight that specific brain areas related to decision making were activated as the NA increased.

  13. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is high among individuals who have played baseball since childhood. Recently two cross-sectional studies according to prevalence of OCD have been published. In a study of 1040 baseball players aged 10 to 12 years, Matsuura et al found that 2.1% of players had OCD, with no differences in prevalence according to age or player position. Kida et al., in their study of 2433 baseball players aged 12 to 18 years, found OCD in 3.4% of subjects. Furthermore, they found that players with OCD began playing baseball at earlier ages, had played for longer periods, and had experienced more elbow pain. The player’s current baseball position may not be related to the existence of OCD lesions. Together, these findings led us to examine the longitudinal study for examining the risk factors for occurrence of OCD. Our objectives were to determine (1) cumulative incidence rates of OCD in the school child players aged 6-11 years old, (2) the relative risk of OCD by age, beginning age playing baseball, playing period, experimental hours per week, playing position, and elbow pain. Methods: A total of 1,275 players aged 6-11 years (mean, 9.4 years) belonged to youth baseball teams without OCD lesions received examination in the next year and were the subjects of this investigation. Subjects were examined by questionnaire, and ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. Questionnaire items included age, player position, beginning age of playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week and history of elbow pain. Ultrasonography of the lateral aspect of the elbow was performed. An irregularity of the subchondral bone of the capitellum was regarded as an abnormality. Radiographic examination was recommended to players who had an abnormal finding on ultrasonographic examination. We investigated the following risk factors for occurrence of OCD: age, player position, beginning age of

  14. Forgotten Americans and the National Pastime: Literature on Baseball's Ethnic, Racial, and Religious Diversity--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarkman, Peter C.

    1992-01-01

    Continues the discussion of the contributions of racial and ethnic minorities to baseball history, focusing on African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Jews. Nonfiction and fiction works dealing with minority groups in baseball are briefly reviewed for their portrayal of the American experience. (SLD)

  15. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  16. Color perception is impaired in baseball batters while performing an interceptive action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Manami; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ikudome, Sachi; Unenaka, Satoshi; Mori, Shiro

    2015-08-01

    In order to test the theoretical idea that experts rely more on the dorsal stream than the ventral stream during interceptive action for the interception of a moving target, the present study investigates the perception of color (dominant in ventral processing) during interceptive action in fast-ball sports. Twelve college baseball players and 12 non-baseball players performed a coincident-timing task with target color changes (from white to red, blue, or white) at various time points (at 100, 200, or 300 ms before target arrival). In this task, participants swung a bat and/or pressed a button in response to the target's arrival at a prespecified location. Participants were then asked to state the final color of the target. Baseball players, but not non-baseball players, were significantly less proficient at identifying color changes during the bat-swing condition relative to the button-press condition, irrespective of the time points of color change. These results are consistent with the idea that baseball players rely more on the dorsal stream during bat swinging for the interception of a moving target than do novices.

  17. Assessment of professional baseball players aerobic exercise performance depending on their positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Won

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the average and SD of professional baseball players' cardiorespiratory endurance, maximum oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption during anaerobic threshold, maximum oxygen consumption of anaerobic threshold %, maximum heart rate, and heart rate of anaerobic threshold. We also report the comparison between pitchers and fielders. Considering the total number of results, percentile was used and results were classified into 5 grades. One professional baseball players' organization with more than 14 years of experience participated in this study. First, we observed that the average pitchers' V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was 53.64 ml·kg·min, whereas the average fielders' was 52.30 ml·kg·min. These values were lower than other sports players. Second, in case of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT, pitchers showed 39.35 ml·kg·min and fielders showed 39.96 ml·kg·min. %V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT showed a significant difference of 71.13% between pitchers and fielders-pitchers, whereas fielders showed 73.89% (p baseball players and higher than other sports players. In conclusion, both professional baseball pitchers and fielders should be aware of the necessity of systematic cardiorespiratory endurance data analysis. Moreover, baseball teams, athletic trainers, and coaches should also be aware of the importance of cardiorespiratory endurance.

  18. Hand Blisters in Major League Baseball Pitchers: Current Concepts and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Andrew R; Ensell, Scott; Farley, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Friction blisters are a common sequela of many athletic activities. Their significance can range from minor annoyance to major performance disruptions. The latter is particularly true in baseball pitchers, who sustain repeated trauma between the baseball seams and the fingers of the pitching hand, predominately at the tips of the index and long fingers. Since 2010, 6 Major League Baseball (MLB) players accounted for 7 stints on the disabled list (DL) due to blisters. These injuries resulted in a total of 151 days spent on the DL. Since 2012, 8 minor league players spent time on the DL due to blisters. Moreover, there have been several documented and publicized instances of professional baseball pitchers suffering blisters that did not require placement on the DL but did result in injury time and missed starts. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and pathophysiology of friction blisters with particular reference to baseball pitchers; provide an overview of past and current prevention methods; and discuss our experience in treating friction blisters in MLB pitchers.

  19. Subscapularis strain from swinging a baseball bat in an adolescent with closed physis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Brendan T; Teixeira, Rafael P; Johnson, Alan R; Carrino, John A; McFarland, Edward G

    2011-05-01

    A healthy 16-year-old female baseball player was referred by her pediatrician for evaluation of pain in her right, dominant shoulder. The pain had begun insidiously 4 weeks previously after several sessions of batting practice and had worsened until she could not participate in baseball, even with low doses of ibuprofen. She was not participating in any other sports or weight lifting and had had no previous incidents of shoulder pain, but she did have a history of being able to voluntarily subluxate the right shoulder since she was a child. Her voluntary shoulder subluxation and reduction did not reproduce or worsen her pain. Results from her physical examination and radiographs were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed edema in the subscapularis muscle consistent with acute muscle strain. She was treated with 6 weeks of rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medication as needed. She returned to baseball and hitting during the following 6 weeks with no limitations.

  20. "Markov at the bat": a model of cognitive processing in baseball batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2002-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence from players and coaches indicates that cognitive processing (e.g., expectations about the upcoming pitch) plays an important role in successful baseball batting, yet this aspect of hitting has not been investigated in detail. The present study provides experimental evidence that prior expectations significantly influence the timing of a baseball swing. A two-state Markov model was used to predict the effects of pitch sequence and pitch count on batting performance. The model is a hitting strategy of switching between expectancy states using a simple set of transition rules. In a simulated batting experiment, the model provided a good fit to the hitting performance of 6 experienced college baseball players, and the estimated model parameters were highly correlated with playing level.

  1. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  2. How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alex; Severini, Thomas; Allada, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that circadian clocks align physiology and behavior to 24-h environmental cycles. Examination of athletic performance has been used to discern the functions of these clocks in humans outside of controlled settings. Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment of 24-h environmental cycles relative to the endogenous circadian clock, on specific performance metrics in Major League Baseball. Accounting for potential differences in home and away performance, travel direction, and team confounding variables, we observed that jet-lag effects were largely evident after eastward travel with very limited effects after westward travel, consistent with the >24-h period length of the human circadian clock. Surprisingly, we found that jet lag impaired major parameters of home-team offensive performance, for example, slugging percentage, but did not similarly affect away-team offensive performance. On the other hand, jet lag impacted both home and away defensive performance. Remarkably, the vast majority of these effects for both home and away teams could be explained by a single measure, home runs allowed. Rather than uniform effects, these results reveal surprisingly specific effects of circadian misalignment on athletic performance under natural conditions. PMID:28115724

  3. Glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchetti, E T; Weidner, Z; Lawrence, J T R; Sennett, B J; Huffman, G R

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about outcomes of glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We hypothesized that following repair, pitching performance would not be significantly different from an uninjured cohort. Fifty-one pitchers were identified who pitched in at least one MLB game prior to undergoing isolated glenoid labral repair. For the three years prior to and following surgery, demographic and performance variables were analyzed for an association with labral injury and repair, and compared to a control cohort of MLB pitchers without history of repair. Following surgery, 72.5% of pitchers returned to MLB at a mean of 13.1 months with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers had a higher risk of labral injury requiring repair (p< or =0.05). Pitchers that returned to play averaged more innings pitched in the seasons prior to surgery and had a higher body mass index than those that did not return to play (p< or =0.05). Approximately 70% of MLB pitchers undergoing labral repair can be expected to return to competition postoperatively with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers are more likely to undergo repair, but pitchers with greater preoperative innings pitched per season have a greater likelihood of returning to play.

  4. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik eCheshin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from MLB World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  5. How jet lag impairs Major League Baseball performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alex; Severini, Thomas; Allada, Ravi

    2017-02-07

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that circadian clocks align physiology and behavior to 24-h environmental cycles. Examination of athletic performance has been used to discern the functions of these clocks in humans outside of controlled settings. Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment of 24-h environmental cycles relative to the endogenous circadian clock, on specific performance metrics in Major League Baseball. Accounting for potential differences in home and away performance, travel direction, and team confounding variables, we observed that jet-lag effects were largely evident after eastward travel with very limited effects after westward travel, consistent with the >24-h period length of the human circadian clock. Surprisingly, we found that jet lag impaired major parameters of home-team offensive performance, for example, slugging percentage, but did not similarly affect away-team offensive performance. On the other hand, jet lag impacted both home and away defensive performance. Remarkably, the vast majority of these effects for both home and away teams could be explained by a single measure, home runs allowed. Rather than uniform effects, these results reveal surprisingly specific effects of circadian misalignment on athletic performance under natural conditions.

  6. A Monte Carlo Approach to Joe DiMaggio and Streaks in Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Arbesman, S

    2008-01-01

    We examine Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak and look at its likelihood, using a number of simple models. And it turns out that, contrary to many people's expectations, an extreme streak, while unlikely in any given year, is not unlikely to have occurred about once within the history of baseball. Surprisingly, however, such a record should have occurred far earlier in baseball history: back in the late 1800's or early 1900's. But not in 1941, when it actually happened.

  7. Double-Play: Using Minor League Baseball to Apply Themes and Standards in Human Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…

  8. A Model of Motor Inhibition for a Complex Skill: Baseball Batting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The ability to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a signal from the environment is important for many perceptual-motor actions. This paper examines a particular example of this behavior: attempting to inhibit or "check" a swing in baseball batting. A model of motor inhibition in batting is proposed. In the model there are three different…

  9. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game.

  10. Path Analysis Examining Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Performance on a Simulated Baseball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…

  11. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  12. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  13. THE ROLE OF SHOULDER MAXIMUM EXTERNAL ROTATION DURING THROWING FOR ELBOW INJURY PREVENTION IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Ida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether the passive range of shoulder external rotation (ER, the maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER during throwing, and the ratio of MER to ER are related to the incidence of the elbow injury. A mixed design with one between-factor (a history of the elbow injury and two within-factors (ER and MER was used to analyze the difference between baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain. Twenty high school baseball players who had experienced the medial elbow pain within the previous month but who were not experiencing the pain on the day of the experiment were recruited (elbow-injured group. Another twenty baseball players who had never experienced the medial elbow pain were also used for testing (control group. MER during throwing, ER, and the ratio of MER to ER were obtained in both of the group. A Mann-Whitney test was used for the group comparison (p < 0.05. The ratio of MER to ER was significantly greater in the elbow-injured group (1.52 ± 0.19 than that in the control group (1.33 ± 0.23 (p = 0.008. On the other hand, there was no statistical significance in MER and ER between two groups. The findings of the study indicate that MER/ER relation could be associated with the incidence of the elbow injury in baseball players

  14. Estimation of Rotational Velocity of Baseball Using High-Speed Camera Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Uematsu, Yuko; Saito, Hideo

    Movies can be used to analyze a player's performance and improve his/her skills. In the case of baseball, the pitching is recorded by using a high-speed camera, and the recorded images are used to improve the pitching skills of the players. In this paper, we present a method for estimating of the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of movies recorded by high-speed cameras. Unlike in the previous methods, we consider the original seam pattern of the ball seen in the input movie and identify the corresponding image from a database of images by adopting the parametric eigenspace method. These database images are CG Images. The ball's posture can be determined on the basis of the rotational parameters. In the proposed method, the symmetric property of the ball is also taken into consideration, and the time continuity is used to determine the ball's posture. In the experiments, we use the proposed method to estimate the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of real movies and movies consisting of CG images of the baseball. The results of both the experiments prove that our method can be used to estimate the ball's rotation accurately.

  15. Foul Lines: Teaching Race in Jim Crow America through Baseball History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Far more than just recreation, baseball offers social, cultural, and political insights into history. For teachers, the goals of this article are threefold. First, this narrative is designed to provide the introductory content knowledge needed to develop a colorful lecture, structure a spirited discussion, or create a student project on the topic.…

  16. As Cutbacks Hit College Sports, Baseball Falls behind in the Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    For two weeks every June, the College World Series showcases one of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) most popular sports. More than 300,000 fans flock to picturesque Rosenblatt Stadium, in Omaha, with millions more tuning in on ESPN. Ticket sales, which in recent years topped $9-million, make baseball the NCAA's…

  17. Goal Directed Inquiry via Exhibit Design: Engaging with History through the Lens of Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Zirkel-Rubin, Jessica

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an instructional framework called Virtual Galleries that situates learning within an exhibit development context in which a student assumes the role of a museum curator. Describes the Abner project, a Web-based application for teaching middle- and high-school students about United States history through professional baseball, and…

  18. A Comparison of Selected Kinematic Factors in Male Baseball and Female Fast Pitch Softball Batting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spragg, Carolyn; Noble, Larry

    Six female intercollegiate varsity softball players and six male intercollegiate varsity baseball players were filmed from overhead while batting a wiffle ball off a batting tee at hip height. Movements of the hips, trunk, upper body segments, and bat were analyzed. Group comparisons indicated that males had higher peak linear and, angular…

  19. Statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in professional baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander; Stanley, H Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that that level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find universal power laws in the distributions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence of performance enhancement in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is consistent with the findings of the Mi...

  20. Precocity Predicts Shorter Life for Major League Baseball Players: Confirmation of Mccann's Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…

  1. BASEBALL THROWING MECHANICS AS THEY RELATE TO PATHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Whiteley

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury and performance. After a discussion of the limitations of kinematic and kinetic analyses, the individual aspects of pitching mechanics are discussed under arbitrary headings: Foot position at stride foot contact; Elbow flexion; Arm rotation; Arm horizontal abduction; Arm abduction; Lead knee position; Pelvic orientation; Deceleration-phase related issues; Curveballs; and Teaching throwing mechanics. In general, popular opinion of baseball coaching staff was found to be largely in concordance with the scientific investigations of biomechanists with several notable exceptions. Some difficulties are identified with the practical implementation of analyzing throwing mechanics in the field by pitching coaches, and with some unquantified aspects of scientific analyses

  2. A Pedagogical Note on Baseball Stadium Economics: "Show Me the Money!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, William L.; Kroncke, Charles O.

    2003-01-01

    For some time now, it has been the posture of major league baseball that taxpayers should bear some or all of the cost of new stadiums. They argue that the community will benefit both economically and psychologically from such an investment. A stadium, they claim, will bring new jobs, increased land values, enhanced tax collections, and perhaps…

  3. Risk of Fragments in Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries Of Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furushima, Kozo; Itoh, Yoshiyasu; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Kusano, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Many baseball players with UCL injuries have avulsed persistent fragments by throwing disorder in the youth. The presence of fragments results in discontinuity of the medial elbow joint support structures; therefore, a ligament with fragments is considered more fragile than the normal ligament. This study compared three types (fragment, malunion, and normal) of throwing-related UCL injuries and prospectively examined the risk of surgical treatment. Methods: The total subjects were 439 baseball players (age 14-30 years; mean age, 17.5 years) diagnosed with UCL injuries at our hospital between November 2009 and June 2013. At the time of the initial examination, the medial epicondyle was assessed on plain frontal radiographs with the elbow flexed at 45°. Based on this assessment, subjects were divided into three groups: group with persistent fragments (fragment [F] group), group with complete union following avulsion fracture (malunion [M] group), and a group with no history of avulsion fracture (normal [N] group). Each patient’s ability to return to playing baseball was assessed after at least 3 months of systematic rehabilitation. Subjects who failed to comply with rehabilitation, played only recreationally, or with pain in sites other than the elbow were excluded. In this series, 220 cases were left for investigation. The Conway-Jobe scale was used as a standard to assess the return to playing after conservative therapy; subjects with excellent or good ratings were deemed able to return to playing baseball, whereas those with fair or poor ratings were deemed unable to return to playing baseball. The return rates were calculated for the F, M, and N groups respectively. The Magnetic resonance (MR) images consisted of three slices along the long axis of the anterior oblique ligament; these images were used to classify injuries as severe or mild, which were then compared with each other. SPSS 20.0 was used to perform the statistical analysis. Results: A

  4. Direction of spin axis and spin rate of the pitched baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinji, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Shinji

    2006-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate of pitched baseballs and to estimate the associated aerodynamic forces. In addition, the effects of the spin axis direction and spin rate on the trajectory of a pitched baseball were evaluated. The trajectories of baseballs pitched by both a pitcher and a pitching machine were recorded using four synchronized video cameras (60 Hz) and were analyzed using direct linear transform (DLT) procedures. A polynomial function using the least squares method was used to derive the time-displacement relationship of the ball coordinates during flight for each pitch. The baseball was filmed immediately after ball release using a high-speed video camera (250 Hz), and the direction of the spin axis and the spin rate (omega) were calculated based on the positional changes of the marks on the ball. The lift coefficient was correlated closely with omegasinalpha (r = 0.860), where alpha is the angle between the spin axis and the pitching direction. The term omegasinalpha represents the vertical component of the velocity vector. The lift force, which is a result of the Magnus effect occurring because of the rotation of the ball, acts perpendicularly to the axis of rotation. The Magnus effect was found to be greatest when the angular and translational velocity vectors were perpendicular to each other, and the break of the pitched baseball became smaller as the angle between these vectors approached 0 degrees. Balls delivered from a pitching machine broke more than actual pitcher's balls. It is necessary to consider the differences when we use pitching machines in batting practice.

  5. Epidemiology and Impact of Knee Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives.

  6. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  7. The role of shoulder maximum external rotation during throwing for elbow injury prevention in baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Koji; Urabe, Yukio; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yokoe, Kiyoshi; Koshida, Sentaro; Kawamura, Morio; Ida, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether the passive range of shoulder external rotation (ER), the maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER) during throwing, and the ratio of MER to ER are related to the incidence of the elbow injury. A mixed design with one between-factor (a history of the elbow injury) and two within-factors (ER and MER) was used to analyze the difference between baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain. Twenty high school baseball players who had experienced the medial elbow pain within the previous month but who were not experiencing the pain on the day of the experiment were recruited (elbow-injured group). Another twenty baseball players who had never experienced the medial elbow pain were also used for testing (control group). MER during throwing, ER, and the ratio of MER to ER were obtained in both of the group. A Mann-Whitney test was used for the group comparison (p baseball players. Key pointsIt is accepted that the greatest elbow valgus stress appears at the position of shoulder maximum external rotation (MER) in the acceleration phase of the throwing movement. As a consequence, shoulders with restricted range of motion of external rotation (ER) compensate with a valgus stress on their elbow joints.In this study, we evaluated the relation between MER and ER of shoulder in players with/without elbow injuries.The result of this study demonstrated that the elbow injured group showed significantly greater MER/ER relation than the control group.The current finding suggests that great MER combined with the ROM restriction may be one of the risk factors to cause medial elbow pain in baseball players.

  8. In-Game Heart Rate Responses Among Professional Baseball Starting Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, David J; Paxson, Jeffrey L; Caplinger, Roger A; Seligman, Joshua R; Davis, Nicholas A; Flees, Robert J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2017-01-01

    Cornell, DJ, Paxson, JL, Caplinger, RA, Seligman, JR, Davis, NA, Flees, RJ, and Ebersole, KT. In-game heart rate responses among professional baseball starting pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 24-29, 2017-The purpose of the current study was to characterize the in-game heart rate (HR) responses of baseball pitching. In-game HR was recorded from 16 professional baseball starting pitchers (mean ± SD, age = 22.1 ± 1.3 years; height = 187.9 ± 4.4 cm; weight = 90.5 ± 9.5 kg) for a total of 682 innings (home = 381, away = 301). All analyzed HR data were then normalized to each pitcher's age-predicted maximal HR (%HRmax). The group mean ± SD in-game %HRmax among all pitchers was 84.8 ± 3.9%, suggesting that baseball pitching is predominantly an anaerobic task. A split-plot mixed-model repeated measures analysis of variance identified a significant interaction effect between inning and game location (p = 0.042). Follow-up simple effects indicated that the in-game %HRmax was significantly different across innings, but only during home starts (p game %HRmax during home starts were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the first and second innings than in all other innings. In addition, follow-up simple effects indicated that the in-game %HRmax was significantly (p = 0.017) higher during home starts than away starts in the first inning (87.3 ± 3.6% vs. 85.8 vs. 3.8%, respectively). Thus, it is possible that inning-dependent psychological factors may have contributed to the observed changes in in-game physiological intensity across innings and that these factors are specific to game location. Consequently, strength and conditioning practitioners should prescribe high-intensity exercises when developing conditioning programs for professional baseball starting pitchers.

  9. Disturbance in hitting accuracy by professional and collegiate baseball players due to intentional change of target position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nagami, Tomoyuki; Morohoshi, Jun; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated bat control of skilled baseball batters during tee batting, faced with an intentional change in target position. Twelve, skilled, male baseball players (M age = 24 yr., SD = 4) participated in the study. Participants were instructed to hit a baseball off a tee 0.8 m from the ground (Hitting condition), and also to deliberately swing just above the ball (Air Swing condition). The task for the participants was to perform, in alternate order, 15 swings at a real baseball on a stationary tee and 15 swings at an imaginary ball that was said to be on top of the real baseball. The participants were instructed to hit the ball toward center field just as they would hit in a game. While most participants could hit the real ball in the sweet area of the bat, only one participant did so in the Air Swing condition. Average distances from the center of the sweet area to ball center at the moment of ball-bat contact in the Air Swing condition (85 mm) were significantly greater than the distance in the Hitting condition (38 mm). The larger error in hitting an imaginary ball in the sweet area could be due to perceptual changes following the batter's altered focus, expectation of a lack of contact, and/or lack of feedback from the swing. It was suggested that baseball batters should be aware of the possible error in hitting accurately when they intentionally shifted the target.

  10. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-09-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.

  11. The "baseball cap orthosis": a simple solution for dropped head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Avital; Thomas, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a well-recognized condition characterized by gradual sagging of the head. At the extreme, the condition may lead to a "chin on chest deformity" where the chin rests on the chest wall and the patient is unable to look straight ahead. Dropped head syndrome tends to develop in patients with severe weakness of the neck extensors. Various neuromuscular disorders and surgical procedures may compromise the stability of the cervical spine and lead to this disorder. The condition may severely compromise the patient's quality of life and result in significant disability. A simple device-the "baseball cap orthosis"-was developed to help patients maintain their head in the upright position. Two patients with DHS who were provided with the baseball cap orthosis are presented.

  12. Changes in physical size among major league baseball players and its attribution to elite offensive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present.

  13. Detrending career statistics in professional baseball: Accounting for the steroids era and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-01-01

    There is a long standing debate over how to objectively compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras. Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as Major League Baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional baseball players. We detrend player statistics by normalizing achievements to seasonal averages, which accounts for changes in relative player ability resulting from both exogenous and endogenous factors, such as talent dilution from expansion, equipment and training improvements, as well as performance enhancing drugs (PED). In this paper we compare the probability density function (pdf) of detrended career statistics to the pdf of raw career statistics for five statistical categories -- hits (H), home runs (HR), runs bat...

  14. Differences in muscle power between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs of baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Takanori; Demura, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kenji; Demura, Gou; Mori, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    We examined the differences in muscle power between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs of 33 healthy, right-handed, university baseball players (mean age, 20.4 ± 1.1 years) with an average baseball experience >11 years. After measuring maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of hand grip, elbow flexion, and shoulder internal rotation in both upper limbs, the muscle power of each joint was measured at 40%, 50%, and 60% MVC. No significant differences were observed in the main factors affecting MVC and elbow flexion power loads between dominant and nondominant upper limbs. For handgrip power, load factors at 40% MVC in the dominant hand were lower than those at 60% MVC in the same hand and those at 50% and 60% MVC in the nondominant hand. Significant differences were observed in shoulder internal rotation power between dominant and nondominant upper limbs, with the dominant limb having greater power at all loads. Correlations between muscle power of both upper limbs for handgrip and elbow flexion were significant and moderately high at all loads. For shoulder internal rotation power, the degree of correlation was significant and moderately high at 40% MVC but low to moderate at 50% and 60% MVC. Therefore, baseball players have marked lateral dominance in shoulder internal rotation power unlike handgrip and elbow flexion power, although the relationship between shoulder internal rotation muscle powers of both upper limbs becomes lower with increasing load. The dominance of muscle power of each joint varied even in the same upper limb. It is thus beneficial for baseball players to train with even loads on both arms or adopt simultaneous workout of both arms after adjusting for strength differences.

  15. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Akatsuka, Kosuke; Nakata, Hiroki; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4) in 12 baseball players (baseball group) and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group). The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs) were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT). Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes.

  16. The Epidemiology of Hip and Groin Injuries in Professional Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Struan H; Mayer, Stephanie W; Tyson, Jared J; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the hip and groin among professional baseball players can result in a significant number of disabled list days. The epidemiology of these injuries has not been delineated. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence, mechanism, type, and rehabilitation course of hip and groin injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players. The MLB injury database for hip and groin injuries from 2011-2014 was analyzed. Occurrence of injuries was assessed based on level of play, field location, activity during which the injury occurred, mechanism of injury, and days missed. The treatment was recorded as nonoperative or surgical. The subsequent rehabilitation and return to play were recorded. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of hip and groin characteristics. From 2011-2014, 1823 hip and groin injuries occurred among MLB and MiLB players, which accounted for approximately 5% of all injuries. Of these, 1514 (83%) occurred among MiLB players and 309 (17%) among MLB players; 96% of injuries were extra-articular. Among all players, a noncontact mechanism during defensive fielding was the most common activity causing injury (74%), and infielders experienced the most hip and groin injuries (34%). The majority of extra-articular injuries were treated nonoperatively (96.2%), resulting in an average of 12 days missed. Intra-articular pathology more commonly required surgery, and resulted in an average of 123 days missed. Hip and groin injuries can be debilitating and result in a significant number of days missed. Intra-articular pathology and athletic pubalgia were usually treated surgically, while the majority of extra-articular hip injuries were treated successfully with nonoperative modalities. Correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to a high rate of return to play for professional baseball players with injuries to the hip and groin.

  17. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koya Yamashiro

    Full Text Available Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4 in 12 baseball players (baseball group and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group. The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT. Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes.

  18. Observational learning of a baseball-pitch: the effect of different model demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effects of observing different model demonstrations inclusive video, stick-figure and point-light models on observational learning of a Baseball pitch. 41 young adults performed 5 pretest trials, three blocks of 10 acquisition trials, and two retention tests of 5 trials in 10 min and one week after the last acquisition block. Kinematic pattern, movement form, and movement time of overall movement and movement phases were measured as depen...

  19. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel C. Perkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher’s hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball’s velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  20. Accuracy of qualitative analysis for assessment of skilled baseball pitching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Rochelle; Fleisig, Glenn; Elliott, Bruce; Lyman, Stephen; Osinski, Edmund

    2003-07-01

    Baseball pitching must be performed with correct technique if injuries are to be avoided and performance maximized. High-speed video analysis is accepted as the most accurate and objective method for evaluation of baseball pitching mechanics. The aim of this research was to develop an equivalent qualitative analysis method for use with standard video equipment. A qualitative analysis protocol (QAP) was developed for 24 kinematic variables identified as important to pitching performance. Twenty male baseball pitchers were videotaped using 60 Hz camcorders, and their technique evaluated using the QAP, by two independent raters. Each pitcher was also assessed using a 6-camera 200 Hz Motion Analysis system (MAS). Four QAP variables (22%) showed significant similarity with MAS results. Inter-rater reliability showed agreement on 33% of QAP variables. It was concluded that a complete and accurate profile of an athlete's pitching mechanics cannot be made using the QAP in its current form, but it is possible such simple forms of biomechanical analysis could yield accurate results before 3-D methods become obligatory.

  1. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level.

  2. Method of estimation of technical preparedness level of baseballs aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of level of technical preparedness is developed for young baseballs. The scale of estimation of level of technical preparedness of sportsmen is formed on the method of sigmantion rejections. In an experiment took part 100 boys in age 12-14 years. The test of the program «Aquafina MLB Pitch was utillized, Hit & Run». The maximally attained indexes are certain on separate baseball skills. The level of development of technical preparedness is exposed after an experiment on the program: a test of «pitch» is 450 marks, a test of «hit» is 402 marks, a test of «run» is a 361 mark, indexes of general marks are 1043 marks. The comparative analysis of level of technical preparedness of baseballs of control and experimental groups is conducted. Authenticity of distinctions is proved between control and experimental groups on the followings criteria of technical preparedness: throw, blow at run.

  3. Playing level achieved, throwing history, and humeral torsion in Masters baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Rod; Adams, Roger; Ginn, Karen; Nicholson, Leslie

    2010-09-01

    Humeral torsion is thought to be beneficial for throwing. To examine this hypothesis, the throwing and non-throwing arms of 84 Masters baseball players over 35 years of age were measured for humeral torsion, and the highest playing level they achieved and their playing history were recorded. Regression analyses were used to obtain predictors of the highest playing level achieved, throwing arm humeral torsion, and side-to-side difference in humeral torsion. Equations accounting for 36%, 46%, and 12% of the variance respectively were produced. Achieving representative level playing status was associated with the number of seasons played under 16 years of age and having greater throwing arm humeral retrotorsion. Throwing arm humeral retrotorsion was associated with non-throwing arm humeral retrotorsion and an increased number of seasons played before the age of 16 years. A model in which repeated throwing develops an adaptive unilateral bone torsion along with growth in baseball expertise is proposed. Thus dominant arm humeral retrotorsion is a predictor of highest baseball playing level achieved, which in turn is influenced by genetic endowment (as seen in the torsion of the non-throwing arm) and amount of throwing activity, particularly prior to the age of 16.

  4. Batting last as a home advantage factor in men's NCAA tournament baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Steven R; Obara, Jeff; Kwan, Matt

    2005-07-01

    In baseball and softball, there is a rule that allows the home team to have the last at-bat and thus the final opportunity to win the game. However, in tournament play, this rule is often set aside and, instead, batting order is decided by other means (e.g. tournament rules, the flip of a coin). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the batting last rule on game outcome in NCAA men's regional tournament baseball. It was hypothesized that host (i.e. home) teams would win a greater percentage of the games in which they batted last compared with when they batted first. This hypothesis was not supported. Closer examination of the last inning of play showed home teams were no more likely to have won the game during their last bat than visitors playing other visitors. The results suggest that the batting last rule contributes minimally, if at all, to home advantage in NCAA tournament baseball.

  5. Curve ball baseball, statistics, and the role of chance in the game

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Jay

    2001-01-01

    In its formative years, from the 1970s through the 1990s, sabermetrics was p- marily an amateur undertaking. Publications were aimed at a relatively small audience of baseball fans. To be sure, this ever-growing group of aficionados brought a lot of sophistication to baseball analysis, and were constantly looking for statistical insights beyond the listings of the top ten batters found in popular newspapers and magazines. But their influence on the baseball profession was very limited. A few consultants like Craig Wright developed temporary relati- ships with various teams, but none were able to stay long enough to create a p- manent sabermetrician staff position. (See Rob Neyer’s November 11, 2002, arti- 1 cle on ESPN. com. ) All of this changed, however, in 2002 with the hiring of Bill James by the Boston Red Sox. With that move, we have seen the admittance of the foremost proponent of sabermetrics into the top echelon of professional ba- ball management. The art and science of careful statistical analysi...

  6. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes.

  7. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd; Casey E. Shutt; Sakiko Oyama; J. Troy Blackburn; Joseph B. Myers

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a risk factor for shoulder and elbow injury in baseball players. Although this evidence forms a basis for recommending stretching, clinical measures of internal rotation range of motion (ROM) do not differentiate if GIRD is due to muscular, capsuloligamentous, or osseous factors. Understanding the contributions of these structures to GIRD is important for the development of targeted interventions. We hypothesize that the osseous component will have the greatest relative contribution to GIRD, followed by muscle stiffness and posterior capsule thickness. Methods:Internal rotation ROM, muscle stiffness (teres minor, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid), posterior capsule thickness, and humeral retrotorsion were evaluated on 156 baseball players. A side-to-side difference was calculated for each variable. Variables were entered into a multivariable linear regression to determine the significant predictors of GIRD. Results:The regression model was statistically significant (R2=0.134, F(1, 156)=24.0, p<0.01) with only humeral retrotorsion difference remaining as a significant predictor (β=-0.243, t156=-4.9, p<0.01). A greater humeral retrotorsion side-to-side difference was associated with more GIRD. Conclusion:Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3%of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence

  8. Effects of a Simulated Game on Muscle Activation in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Weimar, Wendi H; Henning, Lisa E

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that playing with fatigue is a primary predictor of injury in youth baseball because muscular fatigue is believed to alter mechanics during the arm cocking and acceleration phases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe gluteal and upper extremity muscle activations in youth baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-three youth baseball players (11.2 ± 0.8 years; 151.4 ± 8.7 cm; 47.5 ± 10.8 kg) participated. Data were collected through a Delsys Bagnoli-8-channel electromyography system. Single differential electrodes (interelectrode distance: 10 mm) were attached to the bilateral gluteus maximus and medius and throwing side latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior and upper trapezius. After warm-up, participants were instructed to throw randomly provided game situations over a regulation distance (46 feet; 14.02 meters) to a catcher. Three, 4-seam fastballs for strikes, thrown in the first and last innings of the simulated game were selected for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in muscle activity at the 3 phases of the throw, between first and last innings of the simulated game with an observed power of 0.274 (phase 1: foot contact to maximum shoulder external rotation), 0.297 (phase 2: maximum shoulder external rotation to ball release), and 0.226 (phase 3: ball release to maximum shoulder internal rotation). Examining muscle activations as a pitcher approaches fatigue provides information on how long a pitcher can perform before mechanical alterations occur. Although this study did not reveal significant changes, it did reiterate the fact that pitch counts may be working in possibly preventing a youth pitcher throwing to fatigue.

  9. Three-Tesla MR imaging of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, Filippo [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Servizio di Radiologia. Lugano, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano-TI (Switzerland); Aro, Michael; Farahani, Sahar Jalali; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wilckens, John; Cosgarea, Andrew [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-01-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative 3-T MR imaging features of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers presenting as major league draft picks or trades. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the HIPPA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived. Twenty-one professional non-symptomatic baseball pitchers (mean age 23, range 18 to 34 years old) underwent 3-T MR imaging of the pitching elbow. Two experienced readers independently performed qualitative (collateral ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bones, ulnar nerve, olecranon fossa, and joint fluid) and quantitative (collateral ligaments and posteromedial plica) evaluation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Collateral ligament thickening was seen in a high proportion, nearly half, however, without features of full thickness tearing. Tendinosis without tearing was seen in 19 % (4/21) of common extensors. Cartilage abnormalities were infrequent. Bone abnormalities manifested as edema in 24 % (5/21) and humeroulnar osteophytosis. Ulnar nerve signal and/or morphologic abnormalities were seen in a very high proportion, up to 81 % (17/21). The olceranon fat pad showed scarring features in about one third. The median ligament thicknesses in mm measured: 4.6 UCL anterior bundle, 1.8 UCL posterior bundle, 1.9 RCL, 2.5 LUCL, and 0.7 mm anular. The median plica dimensions were 5.3 by 2.2 by 2.7 mm. High-resolution 3-T MR imaging frequently shows abnormalities involving the ligaments, tendons, nerves, olecranon fat pad, and bones in non-symptomatic baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  10. 棒球棒动力学分析%DYNAMICS OF BASEBALL BAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤陆明; 水小平; 沈振兴

    2011-01-01

    通过建立有限元模型,寻找棒球的击球最佳点与棒球棒固有频率、模态振型之间的联系.假定棒球棒模型采用的是线弹性材料,并且边界条件为两端自由,这与实际是相符合的.接着讨论了给球棒“软木化”(在球棒头部掏出一个圆柱空腔,在里面塞入软木或橡胶,然后盖上木帽),或者采用金属球棒都能增加“最佳点”的效果.最后又通过实验验证了该模型的正确性.%In this paper, a relationship is obtained between the best hitting point of the baseball and the natural frequency and the modal shape of the baseball bat through a finite element model. Assume that the material of the baseball bat model is linear elastic, and both ends of the bat are traction free, as is consistent with the actual situation, then we may discuss the 'corking' of the bat (digging a cylindrical cavity at the head of the bat, putting a cork or rubber into it, and then covering it with a wood cap) or the use of metal bats. Both methods can increase the effect of 'the sweet point'. The validity of the model is verified by experiments.

  11. Mortality of major league baseball players from Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Reynolds

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Professional baseball players have lower mortality rates than the US general population, but whether this is true of foreign-born players is not known. Using data on ballplayers from six nations, we compare mortality rates with those of US players via standardized mortality ratios. After controlling for confounders, four countries had statistically insignificant SMRs while two nations had significantly elevated SMRs. In the two nations with elevated SMRs, low average ages at death and high crime rates suggest the increased mortality may be linked to violent crime. A full understanding of the causes of disparity in mortality will require further research.

  12. Comparison of dominant hand range of motion among throwing types in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Shih, Sheng-Wen; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Su, Fong-Chin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research on baseball pitchers' wrists, elbows, and should joints contributes to our understanding of pitchers' control over delicate joint motion and ball release. However, limited research on forearm, wrist, and hand joints prevents full comprehension of the throwing mechanism. The present descriptive laboratory study quantifies angular performances of hand and wrist joints while pitching breaking balls, including fastballs, curveballs and sliders, among pitchers with different skill levels. Nineteen baseball pitchers performed required pitching tasks (10 from university and 9 from high school). A three-dimensional motion analysis system collected pitching motion data. The range of joint motion in the wrist and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the index and middle fingers were compared among fastballs, curveballs and sliders. Thirteen reflective markers were placed on selected anatomic landmarks of the wrist, middle and index fingers of the hand. Wrist flexion angle in the pitching acceleration phase was larger in fastballs (20.58±4.07°) and sliders (22.48±5.45°) than in curveballs (9.08±3.03°) (p = .001). The flexion angle of the PIP joint was significantly larger in curveballs (38.5±3.8°) than in fastballs (30.3±4.8°) and sliders (30.2±4.5°) (p=.004) of the middle finger. Abduction angle of MP joint on the middle finger was significantly larger in curveballs (15.4 ±3.6°) than in fastballs (8.9±1.2°) and sliders (6.9±2.9°) (p=.001) of the middle finger, and the abduction angle of index finger was significantly larger in sliders (13.5±15.0°) than in fastballs (7.2 ±2.8°) (p=.007). Hand and wrist motion and grip types affect the relative position between fingers and ball, which produces different types of baseball pitches. A larger extension angle of the wrist joint and the coordination of middle and index fingers are crucial when pitching a fastball. Abduction and flexion movement on the MP joint

  13. Andrew D. Morris, Colonial Project, National Game: A History of Baseball in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Soldani, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    American historian Andrew D. Morris, who has already published a thesis on physical culture(tiyu) under the Republic of China, now offers us the first social science work in a non-Chinese text specifically focusing on Taiwan’s “national sport” (guoqiu) – baseball. Colonial Project, National Game (2010), was preceded in 2007 by Taiwanese scholar Yu Jun-wei’s Playing in Isolation. But Yu’s approach was more that of a chronicler. He was strongest in denouncing the tricks and tactics worn threadb...

  14. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers.

  15. Contested Representations of Taiwanese Baseball: Political Interpretations and Moral Values of a National Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Soldani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, baseball is a national passion that the whole society can relate to. Appeared under Japanese rule, it was enrolled in the nationalist “physical culture” (tiyu 體育 just after WWII and became, at the turn of the 1970s, the “national sport” (guoqiu 國球 and the flagship of a state isolated on the international scene. It thus provides Taiwanese society with many symbols and references which the political elite cannot afford to ignore. Deeply involved with the education of moral values, its representations are used and claimed by the main existing political and ideological forces.

  16. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  17. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  18. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology.

  19. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  20. Anconeus epitrochlearis as a source of medial elbow pain in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinning; Dines, Joshua S; Gorman, Matthew; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph; Yocum, Lou

    2012-07-01

    Medial elbow pain is reported in 18% to 69% of baseball players aged of 9 and 19 years. This is due to the large valgus stresses focused on the medial side of the elbow during overhead activities. In overhead throwers and pitchers, pain can be attributed to valgus extension overload with resultant posteromedial impingement, overuse of the flexor-pronator musculature resulting in medial epicondylitis, or occasional muscle tears or ruptures. The anconeus epitrochlearis is a known cause of cubital tunnel syndrome and has been postulated as a source of medial elbow pain in overhead athletes. This article describes the cases of 3 right-handed baseball pitchers with persistent right-sided medial elbow pain during throwing despite a prolonged period of rest, physical therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Two patients had symptoms of cubital tunnel syndrome as diagnosed by electromyogram and nerve conduction studies and the presence of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle per magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent isolated release of the anconeus muscle without ulnar nerve transposition and returned to their previous levels of activity. The diagnosis and treatment of pitchers who present with medial-sided elbow pain can be complex. The differential should include an enlarged or inflamed anconeus epitrochlearis muscle as a possible cause. Conservative management should be the first modality. However, surgical excision with isolated release of the muscle can be successful in returning patients with persistent pain despite a trial of conservative management to their previous levels of function.

  1. Shoulder proprioception is not related to throwing speed or accuracy in elite adolescent male baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeston, Jonathan; Adams, Roger D; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence throwing speed and accuracy is critical to performance in baseball. Shoulder proprioception has been implicated in the injury risk of throwing athletes, but no such link has been established with performance outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe any relationship between shoulder proprioception acuity and throwing speed or accuracy. Twenty healthy elite adolescent male baseball players (age, 19.6 ± 2.6 years), who had represented the state of New South Wales in the past 18 months, were assessed for bilateral active shoulder proprioception (shoulder rotation in 90° of arm abduction moving toward external rotation using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus), maximal throwing speed (MTS, meters per second measured via a radar gun), and accuracy (total error in centimeters determined by video analysis) at 80 and 100% of MTS. Although proprioception in the dominant and nondominant arms was significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.54, p proprioception and performance. Shoulder proprioception was not a significant determinant of throwing performance such that high levels of speed and accuracy were achieved without a high degree of proprioception. There is no evidence to suggest therefore that this particular method of shoulder proprioception measurement should be implemented in clinical practice. Consequently, clinicians are encouraged to consider proprioception throughout the entire kinetic chain rather than the shoulder joint in isolation as a determining factor of performance in throwing athletes.

  2. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers.

  3. DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY COMPOSITION OF PLAYERS OF THE POLISH NATIONAL BASEBALL TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełło Marina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the differentiation of body composition among players of Polish national baseball team in comparison to persons of the same population not professionally engaged in sport. The study involved Polish baseball representatives (n=20. Competitors’ age was 18-28 years, body mass from 67.7 kg to 114 kg (85±10.3 kg, and body height 173-196 cm (185.1±4.8. The training experience was 7-14 years and it was highly differentiated. The stoutness factor is the dominant factor among "infielders" and "pitchers", and among "outfielders" - the length one. The proportions of the features within the factors show that players are characterized by a strongly muscled forearm and a shank and by a clear predominance of the elbow width with a disproportionately - to the overall size of the factor - small knee and shoulder width. In the length factor an even contribution of the upper and lower extremity length with lower sitting body height can be noted. Depending on the position on the field there is a differentiation of the internal proportions of the body.

  4. Localized vitreous adhesion to the retina after ocular contusion with a baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Masayo Kimura, Akira Nishimura, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanPurpose: To report a series of five cases of vitreous adhesions after blunt trauma caused by a baseball strike.Methods: The medical records of patients with ocular contusion after being struck by a baseball, who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy, were reviewed. An aqueous suspension of triamcinolone acetonide was used intraoperatively to facilitate visualization of the vitreous.Results: Five eyes were reviewed in this study. There were two cases of retinal detachment, two cases of traumatic macular hole, and one case of retinal detachment due to traumatic macular hole. Despite the surgical creation of posterior vitreous detachment, if not already present, the thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion to the retinal necrotic area with/without retinal hole was found between the major vascular arcades and the equator in all cases. The thin layer of the vitreous was removed with a vitreous cutter and diamond-dusted membrane scraper, but complete removal was impossible.Conclusions: A thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion at the area of retinal degeneration was observed in eyes following ocular contusion.Keywords: localized, vitreous adhesion, triamcinolone acetonide, ocular contusion, pars plana vitrectomy

  5. A biomechanical model correlating shoulder kinetics to pain in young baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, David W; Oliver, Gretchen D; Dougherty, Christopher P

    2012-10-01

    Previous work has postulated that shoulder pain may be associated with increases in both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. Unfortunately these relationships have yet to be quantified. Thus, the purpose of this study was to associate these kinetic values with reported shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Nineteen healthy baseball pitchers participated in this study. Segment based reference systems and established calculations were utilized to identify peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force. A medical history questionnaire was utilized to identify shoulder pain. Following collection of these data, the strength of the relationships between both peak shoulder anterior force and peak shoulder proximal force and shoulder pain were analyzed. Although peak anterior force was not significantly correlated to shoulder pain, peak proximal force was. These results lead to the development of a single variable logistic regression model able to accurately predict 84.2% of all cases and 71.4% of shoulder pain cases. This model indicated that for every 1 N increase in peak proximal force, there was a corresponding 4.6% increase in the likelihood of shoulder pain. The magnitude of peak proximal force is both correlated to reported shoulder pain and capable of being used to accurately predict the likelihood of experiencing shoulder pain. It appears that those pitchers exhibiting high magnitudes of peak proximal force are significantly more likely to report experiencing shoulder pain than those who generate lower magnitudes of peak proximal force.

  6. Hip range of motion and scapula position in youth baseball pitching pre and post simulated game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen Dawn; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-01-01

    Lower to upper extremity sequencing of energy and force is linked by virtue of the scapula. It was the purpose of this study to examine the relationship between passive hip rotational range of motion and scapular kinematics during baseball pitching. Nineteen youth baseball players (11.3 ± 0.6 years; 151.8 ± 8.8 cm; 45.9 ± 10.9 kg) with no history of injury participated. Bilateral hip passive rotational range of motion was measured pre and post pitching a simulated game. Scapular kinematics at the position of shoulder maximum external rotation during the pitching cycle were recorded in the first and last innings of the simulated game. Post simulated game, stance leg hip passive internal rotation revealed significant correlations (r = -0.57, P = 0.01) with scapula anterior/posterior tilt at the pitching event of maximum humeral external rotation. The current study reveals that pitching a simulated game results in alterations throughout the kinetic chain. Specifically, this study strengthens the notion that lumbopelvic-hip complex parameters play a significant role in shoulder motion. With this link identified, it is suggested that clinical focus be directed musculature about the lumbopelvic-hip complex as well as muscles that work to stabilise the scapula during dynamic movement.

  7. A rare cause of chronic elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylynko, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of chronic elbow pain as a result of a hidden underlying osteochondral defect. Clinical Features: A 17-year old baseball player presented with chronic lateral elbow pain. Examination revealed swelling of the elbow with signs of possible ligament, muscle, and tendon injury. Diagnosis and Treatment: Although there was apparent soft-tissue injury, the elbow swelling created immediate suspicion of a more serious underlying condition. Examination revealed a swollen and tender elbow, with plain x-ray confirming a subchondral bone disorder (osteochondral defect) of the capitellum. Surgical repair was performed by an orthopedic surgeon using DeNovo NT Natural Tissue Grafts: the implantation of small pieces of juvenile joint cartilage into the affected area, using glue-like fibrin. Rehabilitation of the elbow began immediately following surgery. Summary: Examination and imaging indicated that elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player could be from multiple sources, however, the chronic swelling raised suspicion of a condition requiring immediate and further investigation. PMID:27713578

  8. Effects of Varying Recovery Periods on Muscle Enzymes, Soreness, and Performance in Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A.; Blessing, Daniel L.; Wilson, G. Dennis

    1992-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of varied recovery time on serum creatine kinase (CK), serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), muscle soreness, and pitch velocity in baseball pitchers. Ten males who had pitching experience participated in the study. After an 18-day training period, subjects pitched three simulated games. Game A and Game B were separated by four days of rest, while Game B and Game C were separated by two days of rest. CK, LDH, and muscle soreness were evaluated at the following times: before and immediately after exercise, and six, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. Muscle performance was evaluated by measuring pitch velocity during the games. The CK level was elevated after each game (Game A - 249 U/l; Game B - 243 U/l; and Game C - 240 U/l); then it dropped toward baseline (p≤0.01). CK post-exercise values were not different among games A, B, and C. LDH displayed a response similar to CK; however, there was a reduction over the span of the games (p≤0.05). Muscle soreness was significantly elevated immediately after exercise (p≤0.01) compared to all other measurement times. Pitch velocity was not different among games A, B, and C. Results indicate that muscle damage, as evidenced by CK release, occurs in response to baseball pitching. However CK values, muscle soreness, and pitch velocity are not significantly affected by changes in the amount of recovery time typically scheduled between games. PMID:16558126

  9. Round numbers as goals: evidence from baseball, SAT takers, and the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Devin; Simonsohn, Uri

    2011-01-01

    Where do people's reference points come from? We conjectured that round numbers in performance scales act as reference points and that individuals exert effort to perform just above rather than just below such numbers. In Study 1, we found that professional baseball players modify their behavior as the season is about to end, seeking to finish with a batting average just above rather than below .300. In Study 2, we found that high school students are more likely to retake the SAT after obtaining a score just below rather than above a round number. In Study 3, we conducted an experiment employing hypothetical scenarios and found that participants reported a greater desire to exert more effort when their performance was just short of rather than just above a round number.

  10. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence-based evaluations and intervention programs to decrease the risk of injury in baseball players.

  11. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success.

  12. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.].

  13. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Higuchi

    Full Text Available The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms after the ball release (R+150, occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150, and a condition with no occlusion (NO. Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1. Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001, additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05. The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay.

  14. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

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    Polster, Joshua M.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Subhas, Naveen [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lynch, T.S. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Bullen, Jennifer A. [Cleveland Clinic, Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, OH (United States); Soloff, Lonnie [Cleveland Indians, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schickendantz, Mark S. [Cleveland Clinic, Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  15. Reliability and Validity of Kinetic and Kinematic Parameters Determined With Force Plates Embedded Under Soil-Filled Baseball Mound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Toshimasa; Matsuo, Akifumi; Maeda, Akira; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Mizutani, Mirai; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2017-01-13

    We developed a force measurement system in a soil-filled mound for measuring ground reaction forces (GRFs) acting on baseball pitchers and examined the reliability and validity of kinetic and kinematic parameters determined from the GRFs. Three soil-filled trays of dimensions that satisfied the official baseball rules were fixed onto three force platforms. Eight collegiate pitchers wearing baseball shoes with metal cleats were asked to throw 5 fastballs with maximum effort from the mound toward a catcher. The reliability of each parameter was determined for each subject as the coefficient of variation across the 5 pitches. The validity of the measurements was tested by comparing the outcomes either with the true values or the corresponding values computed from a motion capture system. The coefficients of variation in the repeated measurements of the peak forces ranged from 0.00 to 0.17, and were smaller for the pivot foot than the stride foot. The mean absolute errors in the impulses determined over entire duration of pitching motion were 5.3 N·s, 1.9 N·s, and 8.2 N·s for the X-, Y-, and Z-directions, respectively. These results suggest that the present method is reliable and valid for determining selected kinetic and kinematic parameters for analyzing pitching performance.

  16. Performance and Return-to-Sport after Tommy John Surgery in Major League Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anil Kumar; Erickson, Brandon J.; Harris, Joshua David; Bach, Bernard R.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Juan, Angielyn San; Cole, Brian J.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is a common procedure performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers with symptomatic UCL deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the rate of return to pitching in the MLB following UCLR, 2) performance after return to pitching, and 3) the difference in return to pitching and performance between pitchers who underwent UCLR and matched controls who did not. Methods: MLB pitchers with symptomatic UCL deficiency that underwent UCLR between 1986 and 2012 were evaluated. Players' data was extracted from MLB team websites, injury reports, player profiles/biographies, press releases and cross-referenced with the MLB injury database (MLB411). All player, elbow, and surgical demographic data were analyzed. Age, body mass index (BMI), position, handedness, and MLB experience-matched controls were selected from the MLB during the same years as those undergoing UCLR. An "index year" was designated for controls, analogous to UCLR year in cases. Return to pitching and performance measures in MLB was compared between cases and controls. Student's t-tests were performed for analysis of within-group and between-group variables, respectively. Results: One hundred forty-eight pitchers (83%) were able to return to pitching in MLB. Length of career in MLB following UCLR was 3.9 +/- 2.84 years. Revision rate was 3.9%. In the year prior to UCLR (or index year in controls), cases were significantly (p<0.05) worse than controls with regard to number of innings pitched, games played, wins, and winning percentage and were not significantly different than controls in all remaining parameters. Pitchers undergoing UCLR had significantly (p<0.05) fewer losses, a lower losing percentage, and lower earned run average (ERA) following surgery (versus pre-surgery). In addition, cases threw significantly (p<0.05) fewer walks and allowed fewer hits, runs, and home runs following surgery. Comparisons between cases and

  17. Evaluation of the peak torque, total work, average power of flexor-estensor and prono-supinator muscles of the elbow in baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Cosimo; Vaienti, Enrico; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    The Authors, after a short analysis on biomechanics of the elbow during throwing in baseball, show the movements of the elbow during the different phases of the throw and the stabilizing action of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor-pronator muscles of the wrist, anconeus and brachial triceps muscles. Aim of this study is the evaluation of the peak torque, total work and average power of the flexor-extensor and pronator-supinator muscles of the elbows in professional baseball players. Isokinetic test data show that a mayor peak torque in flexo-extension at power and resistance test in the pitchers compared to the strikers. Whereas the strikers show a higher peak torque in pronation at the resistance test. This may happen because during a baseball match the ball is hit many times by the bat and the pronator muscle of the wrist are notably stimulated and reinforced.

  18. FIRST RIB STRESS FRACTURE IN A SIDEARM BASEBALL PITCHER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the first rib in athletes are rare. A 14-year-old male, a baseball pitcher who changed from an overhand to a sidearm style, with a stress fracture of the first rib, was reported. Most Stress fractures in the first rib occur at the subclavian groove, between the attachments of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius muscles, which is the thinnest and weakest portion of the rib. However, in this case the stress fracture occurred at the uncommon region, posterior to the insertion of the scalenus medius muscle, in the first rib. The motion analysis of the pitching in this case demonstrated that the sidearm style induced much more horizontal abduction in the shoulder at the top position than did the overhand style. The findings of electromyography in the serratus anterior muscle, one of the muscles which insert on the first rib, through the pitching motion did not demonstrate any significant differences between the two styles. In this case, the repetition of horizontal over-abduction of the shoulder when sidearm pitching appears to have been the cause of the unusual stress fracture of the first rib at this site

  19. Reliability and Validity of Quantitative Video Analysis of Baseball Pitching Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Sakiko; Sosa, Araceli; Campbell, Rebekah; Correa, Alexandra

    2017-02-01

    Video recordings are used to quantitatively analyze pitchers' techniques. However, reliability and validity of such analysis is unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of joint and segment angles identified during a pitching motion using video analysis. Thirty high school baseball pitchers participated. The pitching motion was captured using 2 high-speed video cameras and a motion capture system. Two raters reviewed the videos to digitize the body segments to calculate 2-dimensional angles. The corresponding 3-dimensional angles were calculated from the motion capture data. Intrarater reliability, interrater reliability, and validity of the 2-dimensional angles were determined. The intrarater and interrater reliability of the 2-dimensional angles were high for most variables. The trunk contralateral flexion at maximum external rotation was the only variable with high validity. Trunk contralateral flexion at ball release, trunk forward flexion at foot contact and ball release, shoulder elevation angle at foot contact, and maximum shoulder external rotation had moderate validity. Two-dimensional angles at the shoulder, elbow, and trunk could be measured with high reliability. However, the angles are not necessarily anatomically correct, and thus use of quantitative video analysis should be limited to angles that can be measured with good validity.

  20. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity.

  1. Rotator Interval Lesion and Damaged Subscapularis Tendon Repair in a High School Baseball Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Muto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, a 16-year-old baseball pitcher visited Nobuhara Hospital complaining of shoulder pain and limited range of motion in his throwing shoulder. High signal intensity in the rotator interval (RI area (ball sign, injured subscapularis tendon, and damage to both the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments were identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Repair of the RI lesion and partially damaged subscapularis tendon was performed in this pitcher. During surgery, an opened RI and dropping of the subscapularis tendon were observed. The RI was closed in a 90° externally rotated and abducted position. To reconfirm the exact repaired state of the patient, arthroscopic examination was performed from behind. However, suture points were not visible in the >30° externally rotated position, which indicates that the RI could not be correctly repaired with the arthroscopic procedure. One year after surgery, the patient obtained full function of the shoulder and returned to play at a national convention. Surgical repair of the RI lesion should be performed in exactly the correct position of the upper extremity.

  2. Overweight and obesity among Major League Baseball players: 1871-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Carnethon, Mercedes R

    Professional athletes provide high-profile role models of health and human performance. Increased body mass can be adaptive for human performance but also presents a health threat. This paper examines 145 years of data on body mass in 17,918 male professional baseball players in the United States at the time of their professional debut. Both height and weight at debut have increased over time. Controlling for age at debut, players debuting in the current decade were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese than at any time in history. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased to approximately 70% and 10%, respectively, while normal weight prevalence decreased from approximately 60% to 20% during that time. The causes of these changes over the past 25 years are not clear although they coincide with the steroid era. These trends warrant further attention because of the potential for adverse long-term health consequences in this population and those who perceive them as role models for health and human performance.

  3. Origins of superior dynamic visual acuity in baseball players: superior eye movements or superior image processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Uchida

    Full Text Available Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions, whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions. The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina.

  4. Research on the Development of Baseball Pitching Machine Controlling Pitch Type using Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Kawata, Kengo; Horikawa, Saburo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    The most common commercial pitching machines for baseball are the "arm" type and the "two rollers" type. These machines tend to have certain limitations. In particular, it is very difficult to simultaneously change both ball speed and direction. In addition, some types of pitches, such as the curveball or screwball, are not easily achieved. In this study, we will explain the hardware and software design of a new "intelligent" pitching machine which can pitch repeatedly with selectable speed, direction and ball rotation. The machine has three rollers and the motion of each is independently controlled by a hierarchical neural network. If the ball speed, direction and rotation are given as input data to this network, signals for controlling the three rollers are produced as output data. The results of a throw experiment with the machine that we developed are shown, which has the ability to pitch assorted breaking balls with a wide range of speeds, from 19.4 to 44.4 m/s. The machine has a speed error of less than about 3%, and a distance error of about 0.15m (twice the length of a ball's diameter).

  5. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors.

  6. Mouthguard BITES (behavior, impulsivity, theory evaluation study): what drives mouthguard use among high school basketball and baseball/softball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes' use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific behavioral and social factors influencing each athlete's decision making regarding use of mouthguards.

  7. Developing a Performance Brain Training™ approach for baseball: a process analysis with descriptive data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlin, Leslie H; Larson, Noel C; Sherlin, Rebecca M

    2013-03-01

    Neurofeedback may be useful for improving sports performance but few studies have examined this potential. Here we present data of five development players from a major league baseball team. The aims were to evaluate the feasibility of conducting sessions within a professional organization, assess changes in quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG), NeuroPerformance Profile™, and report qualitative self-report data before and after brain training. The EEG was recorded with 19 electrodes for 20 min of baseline conditions and approximately 21 min of a continuous performance test. The fast Fourier transform analysis provided average cross-spectral matrices for bands delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), low beta (13-16 Hz), beta 1 (13-21 Hz), beta 2 (22-32 Hz), and gamma (32-45 Hz) from the pre and post intervention evaluations in the baseline condition of eyes open. The continuous performance test metrics included the errors of omission, errors of commission, response time and response time variability. The 9 scales of the NeuroPerformance Profile™ were examined. The QEEG data, CPT data and NeuroPerformance Profile™ data were all compared between the pre and post 15 sessions of brain training using a within subject paired t test design corrected for multiple comparisons using false discovery rate method. Following brain training, comparative QEEG, CPT and NeuroPerformance Profile™ analyses illustrated significant differences. The QEEG findings of all participants illustrated significant changes within the training parameters but also across other frequency bands and electrode sites. Overall, the positive findings in both objective and subjective measures suggest further inquiry into the utility of brain training for performance enhancement with the specific application of sport is warranted. Particularly QEEG and CPT gains were noted in the areas that correspond to client self-report data demonstrating improvement in attention, decreased

  8. Injury Trends in Major League Baseball Over 18 Seasons: 1998-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Stan; Camp, Christopher L; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Since Major League Baseball (MLB) expanded to its current size of 30 teams in 1998, a comprehensive and longitudinal study of injury trends has not been performed. The purpose of this work is to report the epidemiology of injuries in MLB over that time utilizing disabled list (DL) data. Additionally, we sought to determine the financial impact of these injuries for MLB teams. During this analysis, we focused special attention on injuries of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) and conducted a comprehensive review of all MUCL reconstructions ever performed on MLB players. Over the study period, there were a total of 8357 DL designations (mean of 464 annually). Players lost a total of 460,432 days (25,186 days annually) due to injury. Both the number of DL assignments and number of DL days increased from year to year (P < .001 and P = .003, respectively). Average length of DL assignments remained steady over time at 55.1 days (P = .647). Although shoulder injuries decreased (P = .023), this was met with a reciprocal increase in elbow injuries (P = .015). The average annual cost of designating players to the DL was $423,267,634 and a total of $7,618,817,407 was spent over the entire 18 seasons. Regarding MUCL injuries, a total of 400 MUCL reconstructions were performed in MLB players between 1974 and 2015, and the mean time to return to MLB competition was 17.1 months. The annual incidence of MUCL reconstructions increased dramatically from year to year (P < .001) and nearly one-third (n = 131, 32.8%) of all procedures performed over the 42-year period occurred in the last 5 years (2011 to 2015). In summary, overall injury rates and DL assignments continue to rise. Although shoulder injuries are declining, this improvement is countered by increasing elbow injuries, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of lost revenue.

  9. 粤、台两地棒球运动发展的差异及其启示%Differences in baseball development between Guangdong and Taiwan and inspirations therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洪

    2014-01-01

    Baseball exiting the Olympic Games has brought serious challenges to baseball development worldwide, while Guangdong baseball faces a choice of its development direction. In order to learning something beneficial from Taiwan’s experience of success in baseball development, and to boost baseball development in Guangdong, the author carried out a comparative analysis on the courses and current situations of baseball development in Guang-dong and Taiwan, and via comparison revealed that with a weak mass foundation, inadequate field construction, fund shortage, as well as incomplete organization and management system, competition system and talent cultiva-tion system, Guangdong baseball had fallen far behind Taiwan. Opportunities should be brought to baseball devel-opment in Guangdong by learning from the experience of baseball development in Taiwan, dialectically looking at the influence brought to Guangdong baseball by baseball exiting the Olympic Games, utilizing existing conditions, and basing the key on university baseball development.%棒球运动退出奥运会给棒球运动在世界范围的发展带来了严峻的挑战,广东棒球运动也面临着发展方向的选择。为了借鉴台湾地区棒垒球运动开展的成功经验,以便取长补短,促进广东地区棒垒球运动的发展,对粤、台两地棒球运动发展历程、开展现状进行对比分析。通过对比看到:广东棒球运动群众基础薄弱,场地建设不足,资金短缺,组织管理制度、竞赛制度、人才培养制度不完善,远远落后于台湾地区。借鉴台湾棒球的发展经验,辨证地看待棒球运动退出奥运会给广东棒球运动带来的影响,借助现有条件,以高校棒球运动发展作为关键点,给广东的棒球运动发展带来机遇。

  10. Social Emotional Needs: On the Social and Emotional Lives of Gifted Students: Using a Baseball Metaphor to Illustrate the Opportunities of Gifted Students from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the author uses the analogy of baseball to describe the lives of gifted children as a vehicle to think about similarities and differences. The author states that he has experienced how educators often gloss over the powerful and all-inclusive living conditions of high-ability students from financially impoverished backgrounds. In…

  11. Try to Talk about Baseball Players' Primary Materials and Related Technology%论棒球运动员初级选材与相关技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜楷

    2015-01-01

    通过文献资料法、结合实际棒球教学经验,总结出少年儿童棒球传统选材法、科学选材法及选材标准,棒球的相关进攻、防守技术知识,以及棒球运动相关技术知识,希望能对棒球运动员初级选材及相关技术有一定的帮助,同时对中国棒球事业的发展有一定的参考价值.%Through the literature material methods, combining with the practical teaching experience in baseball, I have summed up the young children's traditional material selection methods and scientific selection methods, selection standards, relative offense, defensive technical knowledge of defense, and related to the technical knowledge of baseball, I hope that will help a lot on baseball players' primary materials and related skills. Meanwhile,I hope that will have a certain reference value for the development of China's baseball career.

  12. Effects of 16-week functional movement screen training program on strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Sun; Woo, Seung-Seok; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Joo-Young

    2014-04-01

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a way to pretest functional movement. This study examined the effects of the FMS training program on the strength and flexibility of 62 elite male high school baseball players (31 in the training group, 31 in the control group). All players who received less than two points on each FMS test item had to join the 16-week, three times weekly FMS training program. To analyze results among the FMS participants, measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repeated measure ANOVA were utilized. The Kappa coefficient was 0.805 when the intraclass correlation coefficient of the three participants was inspected. Strength showed a significant interaction depending on time and group (hand grip strength: P=0.011, bench press and squat both for one-repetition maximum (1RM): P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). Back muscle strength did not show a significant difference (P=0.660). Trunk forward flexion showed no interaction depending on time and groups (P=0.983) but trunk extension backward showed significant differences depending on groups (P=0.004) and time (P=0.001). Splits showed a significant difference depending on time and groups (P=0.004). The FMS training program improved the strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

  13. Concurrent little leaguer's elbow and shoulder in a 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam

    2012-01-16

    Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.

  14. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game.

  15. 棒球退出奥运会比赛的现状分析%Analysis of baseball withdraw from the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2012-01-01

    From the London Olympic Games start, baseball is no longer an official Olympic sport. October 7, 2005, the International Olympic Committee should be international bar group requirements, announced the Singapore all the project Settings the vote, baseball project for 50 ticket support, 54 votes against to 4 vote short been ruled out of the London 2012 Olympics. Similarly, baseball missed the 2016 Olympics, these decided to give the world baseball sports development brought serious challenges.Why did the International Olympic Committee this decision? The author through widely data access, baseball games out reason of discussion and analysis, and carries on the induction and summary.%从伦敦奥运套开始,棒球不再是奥运会正式比赛项目。2005年10月7日,一际奥委会应国际棒联的要求,公布了新加坡全全项目设置投票结果,棒球项目因50票支持、54票反对,以4票之差被排除出2012年伦敦奥运会。同样,棒球无缘2016年奥运会,这些决定给世界棒球运动的发展带来了严峻的挑战。为什么国际奥委会做出这一决定,作者通过广泛地查阅资料,就棒球退出奥运会的原因进行探讨和分析,并进行归纳和总结。

  16. Potential Utility of a Combined Approach with US and MR Arthrography to Image Medial Elbow Pain in Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedl, Johannes B; Gonzalez, Felix M; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Nevalainen, Mika T; Ciccotti, Michael G; Nazarian, Levon N

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate a combined imaging approach with both ultrasonography (US; conventional US and valgus stress US) and magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in baseball players with medial elbow pain. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and the requirement for informed consent was waived. The study is compliant with HIPAA. Baseball players with medial elbow pain underwent US in addition to MR arthrography. Findings were assessed with each modality alone and both combined in this retrospective investigation. For the evaluation of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears with stress US, the interval gapping of the medial elbow joint was measured between rest and valgus stress both at the injured and at the uninjured (contralateral) elbow. Surgical or arthroscopic correlation was available as the so-called gold standard. McNemar tests compared the accuracies of the imaging modalities. Results In this study, 144 baseball players had 191 findings of medial elbow pain, including 53 UCL tears. With stress US, joint gapping at the injured elbow greater than 1.0 mm compared with the contralateral elbow yielded a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96%, 81%, and 87%, respectively, for diagnosing UCL tears. With MR arthrography, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for UCL tears were 81%, 91%, and 88%, respectively, and increased to 96% (P = .013, McNemar test), 99% (P = .023), and 98% (P < .001), respectively, when combined with US to a dual modality MR and US approach. For 31 patients with ulnar neuritis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy increased from 74%, 92%, and 88%, respectively, with MR arthrography alone to 90% (P = .07, McNemar test), 100% (P < .001), and 98% (P < .001) combined with US. For the 59 myotendinous and the 48 osteochondral diagnoses, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy with MR arthrography alone were 93%, 93%, and 93%, and 94%, 98%, and 97%, respectively, with no additional diagnostic value

  17. 中国普通高校棒球队的发展现状与对策研究%Development Status and the Countermeasures of Chinese College Baseball Teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐花明

    2012-01-01

    The level of Chinese University Baseball and Softball League, far from expectations, develops at a slow pace. On the basis of leadership interviews in the opening ceremony of Chinese Baseball and Softball Tournament, and questionnaires completed by all the coasts and athletes, who participated General Group of Chinese Baseball and Softball Tournament in July, 2010. Analyzing the constraints, such as match funding, personnel, space and equipments, in Chinese college baseball teams, this thesis tries to put forward countermeasures to improve the development of Chinese university baseball teams, which has profound influence on training, match and the development of Chinese college baseball teams.%通过对出席2010年7月“全国棒垒球联赛”开幕式领导的访谈和对参加全国棒垒球联赛所有普通高校教练员及运动员调研,分析了中国普通高校棒球队经费、人才、场地与器材等因素,对制约中国普通高校棒球队发展的因素提出相应的对策。

  18. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  19. Biceps tendinitis caused by an osteochondroma in the bicipital groove: a rare cause of shoulder pain in a baseball player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onga, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Akisue, Toshihiro; Marui, Takashi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2005-02-01

    Tendinitis of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle is commonly seen in athletes who do repetitive overhead motions. Common causes of biceps tendinitis include impingement syndrome, subluxation of the biceps tendon, and attrition tendinitis, whereas biceps tendinitis secondary to a bone neoplasm is rare. A case of biceps tendinitis caused by an osteochondroma arising in the left humeral bicipital groove in a 25-year-old male baseball player is reported. The tumor was hook-shaped, originated from the inferomedial portion of the humeral lesser tubercle, and surrounded the biceps tendon. Symptoms of increasing pain and inability to throw resulted from direct irritation of the biceps tendon by the tumor. Total excision of the tumor relieved the symptoms within 3 weeks. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases in the English-language literature of biceps tendinitis caused by an osteochondroma.

  20. Modulation of motor area activity by the outcome for a player during observation of a baseball game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotaro Shimada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observing competitive games such as sports is a pervasive entertainment among humans. The inclination to watch others play may be based on our social-cognitive ability to understand the internal states of others. The mirror neuron system, which is activated when a subject observes the actions of others, as well as when they perform the same action themselves, seems to play a crucial role in this process. Our previous study showed that activity of the mirror neuron system was modulated by the outcome of the subject's favored player during observation of a simple competitive game (rock-paper-scissors. However, whether the mirror neuron system responds similarly in a more complex and naturalistic sports game has not yet been fully investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we measured the activity of motor areas when the subjects, who were amateur baseball field players (non-pitchers, watched short movie clips of scenes in professional baseball games. The subjects were instructed to support either a batter or a pitcher when observing the movie clip. The results showed that activity in the motor area exhibited a strong interaction between the subject's supported side (batter or pitcher and the outcome (a hit or an out. When the subject supported the batter, motor area activity was significantly higher when the batter made an out than when he made a hit. However, such modulation was not apparent when the subject supported the pitcher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This result indicates that mirror neuron system activity is modulated by the outcome for a particular player in a competitive game even when observing a complex and naturalistic sports game. We suggest that our inclination to watch competitive games is facilitated by this characteristic of the mirror neuron system.

  1. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery.

  2. 论如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣%Discuss How to Develop the Beginners’ Learning Interest of Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜楷

    2015-01-01

    通过自身十几年的棒球教学经验,并从各类体育文献上查看相关资料,总结出如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣要点,主要包括初学者心理素质的培养、基本训练兴趣的培养、身体素质兴趣的培养、培养师生关系增加学习兴趣的、规则渗透训练培养、以大带小训练培养、全方位训练培养七个方面进行介绍,希望能为棒球教练员在如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣上提供一定参考。%Through my own teaching experience in baseball over ten years, and consulting the related materials about all kinds of sports literature. Generally speaking, there are seven key points of how to develop the beginners’ learning interest of baseball, mainly including improving beginners’ psychological quality, improving the interest in basic training, improving the interest in physical quality, cultivating the relationship between teachers and students to increase the learning interest, the training with Rules of the penetration, with big with small training, comprehensive training. I look forward to providing references for baseball coaches on how to develop the beginners’ learning interest of baseball.

  3. A longitudinal study on the effects of team building for university baseball team in Japan: from the view point of team-vitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kitamura, Kaoru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect in the experience of TB among university baseball team from the view point of team-vitalization. We carry out one university baseball team (102 males, 6 female). The average age of the participants was 19.99 years (SD = 1.41). Then, using Check List of Team- Vitalization that was developed by consulting firm in Japan, we examined the degrees of team-vitalization. The answers of this investigation were collected from the participants at fifth times (before intervention of TB, immediately after TB, after three months of TB, before intervention of follow-up training of TB, and immediately after follow-up training of TB). This study for eight months provided the following three conclusions; 1) University baseball team was vitalized through the experience of TB. 2) Team-vitalization was higher than before TB experience, but this effect of the TB did not seem to be permanent. 3) To keep intervention of TB was very important.

  4. Analysis of Baseball Swing Technical in the Fight Against Technology%棒球运动打击技术中挥棒技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松波

    2011-01-01

    笔者在长时间的专业棒球训练中发现大部分安打和本垒打往往都是靠力量比较大的击球员来完成的。这说明了打击技术在棒球运动中起着至关重要的作用。在当今日益激烈的棒球竞赛中,面对集速度、力量于一身具有高超防守技术的队员,要想突破得分,就必须不断完善自身的打击技术,以加强进攻能力。最终达到最佳训练效果。%In long-term professional baseball training,the author observes that most safety hit and home run are done by the hitter with great strength.So,hitting skill plays an important role in baseball.Nowadays,in the increasingly fierce baseball competitions,hitting skill ought to be improved to strengthen the attack ability for breaking through and scoring against the player with high speed,great strength and superb defensive technique.Consequently,the ultimate training effect is awesome.

  5. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man.

  6. « Nous sommes tous frères ». Les valeurs des Elephants de Brother, club de baseball professionnel à Taiwan “We are all Brothers”. The Values of Brother Elephants, professional baseball club in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Soldani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available À Taiwan, où le baseball est considéré comme le « sport national », les équipes professionnelles sont la propriété de grandes firmes locales et ne sont pas formellement attachées à une municipalité. Ce sont elles-mêmes de petites entreprises qui proposent, en archétype de société, un mode de fonctionnement interne qui repose sur des valeurs autour desquelles se fédèrent leurs supporters. Basée sur une enquête ethnographique de douze mois, notamment au sein de la formation professionnelle des Elephants de Brother, cette contribution montrera comment celle-ci se donne à voir comme une entreprise structurée autour de valeurs morales entendues comme « traditionnelles » et dont les joueurs de l’équipe sont érigés en parangons. Le modèle d’une famille unie et strictement hiérarchisée est mis en exergue par les propriétaires du club et son iconographie. Mais ces représentations se heurtent à la réalité de la pratique quotidienne et aux affaires de corruption qui sapent régulièrement l’image de la ligue professionnelle taiwanaise.In Taiwan, where baseball is considered as the national sport, professional teams are owned by large local firms and are not formally attached to a municipality. They are themselves small companies offering an archetypal society, whose mode of internal operations are based on values around which to unite their fans. Based on an ethnographic study of twelve months, particularly among the professional team of Brother Elephants, this contribution will show how it is to be seen as an enterprise structured around moral values understood as traditional and whose players are established as paragons. The model of a united family and strictly hierarchical is highlighted by the owners of the club and its iconography. But these representations are faced with the reality of daily practice and corruption that regularly undermine the image of the Taiwanese professional league.

  7. A comparison of base running and sliding techniques in collegiate baseball with implications for sliding into first base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Travis Ficklin; Jesus Dapena; Alexander Brunfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare 4 techniques for arrival at a base after sprinting maximally to reach it:sliding head-first, sliding feet-first, running through the base without slowing, and stopping on the base. A secondary purpose of the study was to determine any advantage there may be to diving into first base to arrive sooner than running through the base. Methods: Two high-definition video cameras were used to capture 3-dimensional kinematics of sliding techniques of 9 intercollegiate baseball players. Another video camera was used to time runs from first base to second in 4 counterbalanced conditions:running through the base, sliding head-first, sliding feet-first, and running to a stop. Mathematical modeling was used to simulate diving to first base such that the slide would begin when the hand touches the base. Results: Based upon overall results, the quickest way to the base is by running through it, followed by head-first, feet-first, and running to a stop. Conclusion: There was a non-significant trend toward an advantage for diving into first base over running through it, but more research is needed, and even if the advantage is real, the risks of executing this technique probably outweigh the miniscule gain.

  8. Chronic pain due to Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in an adolescent baseball pitcher: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylynko, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of chronic Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in reference to pain presentation, physical capabilities, and recovery time. Clinical Features: A 17-year-old, junior baseball pitcher presented with shoulder pain when performing high velocity pitching. Conservative treatment for an assumed soft tissue injury failed to resolve the pain, which was regularly aggravated by pitching, and which subsequently prompted further evaluation, and eventual confirmation of Little Leaguer’s Shoulder on subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Intervention and Outcome: Prior to proper diagnosis, conservative treatment had consisted of activity modification, spinal adjusting, laser therapy, shockwave therapy, Active Release Techniques®, Kinesiotape,® and rehabilitation. Later, rehabilitation, consisting of general muscle and core strengthening, continued for a further six months under the supervision of college athletic trainers. The athlete was able to return to normal pitching duties approximately 12 months later. Summary: In this case, a potentially damaging bone injury masquerading as a simple musculo-tendinous injury created a diagnostic challenge. The patient eventually recovered with rest, time, strengthening, and eventual compliance to prescribed activity modification. PMID:26815884

  9. A comparison of throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Yu; Learman, Kenneth E; Tsai, Yung-Shen

    2010-06-30

    Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth

  10. Differences in hip range of motion among collegiate pitchers when compared to youth and professional baseball pitcher data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W.; Shimamura, Kathryn Kumagai; Kolber, Morey J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure passive hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM) in collegiate baseball pitchers and compare to published youth and professional values. Measures were taken on the bilateral hips of 29 participants (mean age 20.0±1.4, range 18–22 years). Results identified no significant differences between the stance and stride hip in collegiate right handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.22, ES 0.23) and ER (p=.08, ES= 0.25). There was no significant difference in left handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.80, ES= 0.11) and ER (p= 0.56, ES= 0.15). When comparing youth to collegiate, IR increased in the stance (2º) and stride (5º) hip and an increase in the stance (5º) and stride (5º) hip were present for ER as well. From collegiate to professional, IR increased in the stance (4º) and stride (3º) hip whereas a decrease in the stance (9º) and stride (12º) hip was present for ER. The data suggests an increase in passive ROM from youth to collegiate and a decrease from collegiate to professional. Understanding passive hip ROM values among the different levels of pitchers may assist clinicians in developing time dependent interventions to prevent future injury and enhance performance. PMID:27713579

  11. 谈中国棒球与日本、韩国和中国台湾的差距%The gap between China baseball team and Japan, South Korea,China Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秋革

    2014-01-01

    Through the analysis of the baseball’s development condition and level about China ,Japan , South Korea and Chinese Taiwan, find out the reason Chinese baseball behind, in order to provide reference for the development of Chinese baseball.%通过对中国与日本、韩国和中国台湾棒球的开展状况及发展水平的对比分析,找出中国棒球落后的原因,以期为中国棒球更好的发展提供参考。

  12. You Can’t Think and Hit at the Same Time: Neural Correlates of Baseball Pitch Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eSherwin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hitting a baseball is often described as the most difficult thing to do in sports. A key aptitude of a good hitter is the ability to determine which pitch is coming. This rapid decision requires the batter to make a judgment in a fraction of a second based largely on the trajectory and spin of the ball. When does this decision occur relative to the ball’s trajectory and is it possible to identify neural correlates that represent how the decision evolves over a split second? Using single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG we address this question within the context of subjects discriminating three types of pitches (fastball, curveball, slider based on pitch trajectories. We find clear neural signatures of pitch classification and, using signal detection theory, we identify the times of discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Based on these neural signatures we estimate neural discrimination distributions as a function of the distance the ball is from the plate. We find all three pitches yield unique distributions, namely the timing of the discriminating neural signatures relative to the position of the ball in its trajectory. For instance, fastballs are discriminated at the earliest points in their trajectory, relative to the two other pitches, which is consistent with the need for some constant time to generate and execute the motor plan for the swing (or inhibition of the swing. We also find incorrect discrimination of a pitch (errors yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10, which has been implicated in prospective memory, recall and task difficulty. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative distributions of the relative point in a baseball’s trajectory when the batter makes a decision on which pitch is coming.

  13. The status quo of baseball in high school and primary school of our country%我国中小学棒球运动开展现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪波

    2015-01-01

    通过文献资料法、比较分析法、专家访谈法等研究方法,对棒球运动在我国中小学的发展现状进行了调查分析,了解到我国中小学棒球运动开展特征现状、制约我国中小学棒球运动发展的原因等.针对这些问题及时制定相应措施推动我国中小学棒球运动积极健康发展.%Through the literature material law, comparative analysis, expert interviews and other research methods, the game of baseball in our country development present situation has carried on the investigation and analysis of primary and secondary schools, learned baseball in high school and primary school of our country to carry out the characteristics of the present situation, the reasons which restrict the development of the game of baseball in high school and primary school of our country, etc. To solve these problems in a timely manner, formulate corresponding measures to promote positive and healthy development of the game of baseball in high school and primary school of our country.

  14. Shoulder Stretching Intervention Reduces the Incidence of Shoulder and Elbow Injuries in High School Baseball Players: a Time-to-Event Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Shimoyama, Daisuke; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Hamano, Noritaka; Ueno, Akira; Endo, Fumitaka; Oshima, Atsufumi; Sakane, Hideo; Tachibana, Masahiro; Tomomatsu, Yusuke; Tajika, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Osawa, Toshihisa; Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the effects of a prevention program on the incidence of shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. Ninety-two pitchers participated in this study and were taught to perform stretching and strength exercises aimed at improving shoulder external rotation strength in the preseason. The pitchers freely chose to participate in one of four groups [SM-group: performed both exercises, S-group: performed stretching exercise only, M-group: performed strength training only, and N-group: performed neither intervention]. Injury was defined as inability to play for ≥8 days because of shoulder/elbow symptoms. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and hazard ratios (HRs) for injury occurrence were calculated using multivariate Cox regression. Log-rank test was used for between-group comparisons of survival distributions. The injuries occurred in 25, 35, and 57% of participants and median times to injury were 89, 92, and 29.5 days in the S- (n = 32), SM- (n = 46), and N- (n = 14) group, respectively. Nobody chose M-group. HRs were 0.36 and 0.47 for the S- and SM-group, respectively, based on the N-group. The incidence of injury was significantly lower in the S-group than in the N-group (p = 0.04). Daily posterior shoulder stretching may reduce the incidence of the injuries in high school baseball pitchers. PMID:28345616

  15. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  16. 高校普通学生棒垒球运动的实践探索%Practice of Baseball/Softballs in college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱壮志

    2012-01-01

    Based on the practice methods, literature study, expert interview and questionnaire for college students Baseballs/Softballs opened the situation was summarized, and through the jiangsu province 17 games for the first time slow shots of Baseballs/Softballs game, found college sport interesting great many, NUST commencement of 6 years experience in colleges and universities should show as soon as possible, and to open this class to class notices and must change statements, for reference in other schools.%本文通过实践总结法、文献资料法、专家访谈法、学生问卷调查法对高校开设棒垒球的情况进行总结,并通过江苏省十七届运动会的慢投垒球第一次比赛,发现高校对此项运动颇感兴趣并投入很多;南京理工大学六年来的开课经验表明,高校应该尽快开设此课,并对开课所要注意的事项和必须的改变进行陈述,以供其他学校借鉴交流;指出课内外相结合是今后学校体育的发展方向。

  17. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players. Key points Sport nutrition education intervention increased nutritional knowledge and nutritional status. Sport nutrition education intervention reduced body fat percentage, total fat mass, 5-10-5 shuttle times, and trended towards greater increases in lean mass compared to controls. Both groups increased strength and jump ability similarly. PMID:28344452

  18. Avaliação do ombro doloroso no jogador de beisebol Evaluation of painful shoulder in baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar em jogadores de beisebol a relação entre mobilidade e força do ombro e a presença de dor. MÉTODOS: Entre abril e julho de 2009 foram avaliados 55 jogadores de beisebol pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Todos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 15 e 33 anos (média de 21, média de três treinos por semana e tempo médio de prática da modalidade de 10 anos. RESULTADOS: 14 dos 55 atletas avaliados eram arremessadores, 20 referiram dor no arremesso. As médias de rotação lateral, medial e amplitude de movimento (ADM do ombro dominante foram de 110º, 61º e 171º, respectivamente, com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação ao membro não dominante. Arremessadores tiveram maior ganho de rotação lateral e déficit de rotação medial que os não arremessadores. Dor teve correlação estaticamente significante com ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes na mobilidade do ombro dominante com aumento da rotação lateral, diminuição da rotação medial e menor amplitude de movimento, em relação ao membro contralateral. Foram encontradas relações estatisticamente significantes entre maior ganho de rotação lateral e diminuição da rotação medial e a posição de arremessador. Houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre dor e ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". Existe uma tendência estatística sugerindo que os atletas com rotação medial do ombro dominante diminuída tenham relação com dor.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. METHODS: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical

  19. Reavaliação do ombro doloroso em atletas de beisebol após tratamento conservador Reassessment of painful shoulders among baseball players after conservative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os resultados da reabilitação nos jogadores de beisebol que possuíam dor e déficit de rotação medial no ombro. MÉTODOS: Dos 55 atletas avaliados no período de abril a junho de 2009, observou-se que 20 atletas tinham dor em algum momento do arremesso. Eles foram orientados a realizar um programa de reabilitação com exercícios para alongamento da cápsula posterior e reforço dos músculos da cintura escapular, especialmente os rotadores laterais. Dezoito pacientes seguiram as orientações, dois perderam o seguimento. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: dor, amplitude de movimento e força pré e pós o término do programa. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação final, em comparação com a inicial, observamos: aumento em média da elevação de 10º (p = 0,001, de três níveis vertebrais da rotação medial (p OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the rehabilitation results among baseball players who presented pain and medial rotation deficit in their shoulders. METHODS: Out of 55 baseball players assessed between April and June 2009, it was observed that 20 presented pain at some instant during throwing movements. They were advised to undergo a rehabilitation program with exercises to stretch the posterior capsule and reinforce the muscles of the scapular belt, especially the lateral rotators. Eighteen patients followed the advice, while two were lost from the follow-up. The parameters evaluated were: pain, range of motion, strength before the program and strength after the end of the program. RESULTS: Comparing the initial and final assessments, we observed mean increases as follows: 10º of elevation (p = 0.001; three vertebral levels of medial rotation (p < 0.001; 20º of medial rotation at 90º abduction (p < 0.001; and 26º of range of motion (p < 0.001. Regarding strength, elevation force increased by 3 kgf (p = 0.002 and lateral rotation force increased by 1 kgf (p = 0

  20. Nostalgia-Related Aspects of Professional Sport Facilities: A Facility Audit of Major League Baseball and National Football League Strategies to Evoke the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Seifried

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on documenting how Major League Baseball (MLB and the National Football League (NFL utilize nostalgia through their sport facilities to showcase the past, present and even the future. This study involved the collection and examination of several facility elements through a facility audit. Data was collected on nostalgia inducing elements by using facility and renovation documents/blueprints and announcements, archived data, published websites, facility visits, and interaction/contact with front office employees. The collected information led the researchers to determine that MLB and NFL teams use specific strategies or tactics within their facilities to create or evoke nostalgia. Furthermore, there are opportunities for each organization to attract more live and remote spectators to their venue and organizational-sponsored events in order to establish or maintain membership in their fan nation through methods which center on enhancing the nostalgic experience.

  1. Analysis of Range of Motion and Isokinetic Strength of Internal and External Rotation According to Humeral Retroversion of the Dominant Shoulder in Youth Baseball Players: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Yob Rhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyze the range of motion (ROM and internal rotation (IR and external rotation (ER isokinetic strength according to humeral retroversion of the dominant shoulder.We included 40 elite baseball players in Korea (OBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning >10 years, age: 19.37±2.21 years, height: 181.00±5.41 cm, weight: 84.58±7.85 kg; BBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning 10 years had significantly higher humeral retroversion, IROM, EROM, and IR and ER isokinetic strength of the dominant shoulder than youth players with careers spanning <10 years. Furthermore, humeral retroversion and ROM were not significantly related, but IR and ER isokinetic strength were significantly positively related with retroversion in both groups.

  2. Ballistic resistance training in the power development for baseball pitchers%弹震式阻力训练在发展棒球投手爆发力上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕

    2012-01-01

    通过对弹震式阻力训练的生理机制进行分析,发现棒球投手的投掷动作具备弹震式动作的特性.进而提出弹震式阻力训练是一种发展棒球投手爆发力及提升球速的优势训练方式.%An analysis is conducted of physiological mechanisms involved in the ballistic resistance training, it is pointed out that the pitch movement of a baseball pitcher has the characteristics of ballistic movement, and that ballistic resistance training is an ideal training targeted for developing baseball pitchers' power and speed.

  3. Baseball and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    byJillMoss; 朱汉昌

    2004-01-01

    棒球在传统上被称之为美国的国家娱乐活动。那私,农业经济是如何起源和发展的呢?为什么美国人对棒球的兴趣没有以前浓了呢?Basball and American Culture一支将告诉你这一切。

  4. 我国高校棒球运动开展现状调查研究%Investigation on the Current Situation of Baseball in Chinese Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝彬

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法、数理统计法对2014年全国大学生棒球联赛各参赛队运动员、教练员及部分领导进行调研访谈,分析我国高校棒球队伍建设、赛事结构、课程设置、师资情况、场地设施、经费构成等因素,对制约我国高校棒球运动发展的因素提出相应的对策。%Adopting literature review, questionnaire, expert interview and mathematical statistics, the author interviewed the athletes, coaches and some leaders of the national baseball league in 2014, analyzing the factors that consist of college baseball as team building, competition structure, curriculum, teaching resources, space fa-cilities and cost component.The author proposes the countermeasures to handle constraints on the development of baseball in higher education.

  5. The Research on Baseball Special Skills Training in the Model of Kintyre’s Dichotomy%金泰尔二维分类法模式下棒球专项技能训练研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝彬

    2014-01-01

    A research on baseball sports has been made in the model of Kintyre’s dichotomy in this paper. The research results re⁃veal that the baseball sports characterize the following four points. 1)The environmental background is moving. 2)The environmental di⁃mension exist an inconstant state. 3)The acts function features body movements. 4)And acts dimension have operability. Based on such four dimensions and dichotomy by Kintyre’s theory,this paper analyzes the special skills training for baseball,and proposes correspond⁃ing training strategies anticipating for an improvement.%运用金泰尔二维分类法模式分析棒球运动的技能结构特征认为,棒球运动的环境背景是运动的,环境背景维度存在变化,动作功能表现为身体移动,动作功能维度具有操作性。以这四个方面为切入点,对棒球专项技术进行分析,提出相应的训练策略,为提高棒球专项技能训练提供理论参考。

  6. 我国棒球运动员年龄与成绩的关系研究%Study on the Relationship Between Performance and Age of Baseball Players in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路欢

    2013-01-01

      我国于2002年正式启用棒球联赛赛制。至此,中国棒球比赛从专业队模式正式进入到联赛模式。期间,各队涌现出许多各项指标突出,运动成绩优秀的棒球运动员,其年龄有一定的优势,对各种赛事有着相当丰富的经验。这些队员无形中成为各队最宝贵的财富,他们的发挥将直接影响到各队的比赛成绩。%  Our country is enabled formally in 2002, Major league baseball. So far, China Baseball Games from professional team officially entered into a league mode. During the period, The emergence of many outstanding athletic performance indicators, Best baseball player, Its age has certain advantages, has a very rich experience on a variety of events. These players has virtually become the most precious wealth, They play will directly affect the race result.

  7. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  8. 應用 Google Analytics 於數位典藏網站計量分析 A Web Metrics Study on Taiwan Baseball Wiki Using Google Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 數位典藏系統的最終目的是為了提供使用者使用,因此,必須從使用者角度評估系統的設計,以充分掌握使用者需求,發掘系統潛在問題,藉以改善系統、提升品質與增進使用者滿意度。本研究選擇以使用者到訪率極高的數位典藏網站-「台灣棒球維基館」為對象,利用著名的網站計量軟體GoogleAnalytics做為主要分析工具,再輔以問卷調查結果,希望能掌握使用者的多樣面貌,包括:誰在使用?何時使用?何地使用?使用何物?如何使用q工具,有效地分析網站營運成果,解析網站使用客群,據以調整網站未來經營方向。The ultimate purpose of digital archives is to provide users with an easy access to archived data. The assessment of the website with digital archives should be from the user’s perspectives so that users’ needs can be better understood, the potential design problems can be easily revealed, and the websites can be improved accordingly. This study analyzed Taiwan Baseball Wiki, a very popular website dedicated to baseball archives in Taiwan. Google Analytics, a well-known web metrics tool, was used as the primary research instrument. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the users’ profile. Questions such as the 5W1H (i.e., who, when, where, why, what, and how questions regarding the users and the use of the website, and the satisfaction level of the users are investigated. The results of the research provided valuable reference for future improvement of the website, especially for the areas of website management and administration. Furthermore, this study recommended web metrics tools to other websites which provide digital archives. The application of these tools can help with understanding and optimizing web usage.

  9. 全国青少年棒球锦标赛投手技术分析与研究--以2014年全国少年棒球锦标赛为例%Study on Technical Analysis of Pitchers in National Youth Baseball Championship---Taking 2014 National Junior Baseball Championship as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝彬

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to find out the existing problems of young pitchers in the game , and provide a theoretical basis for the coaches to guide training pitcher with the research methods of questionnaire , on-the-spot investigation, statistical analysis, comparative analysis of technical pitcher the 2014 National Youth Baseball Championship.%通过问卷调查法、实地考察法、数理分析法等研究方法,对2014年全国青少年棒球锦标赛投手技术进行比较分析,找出青少年投手比赛中存在的问题,为教练员指导训练投手提供理论依据。

  10. 普通高校棒球队的建设与管理研究--以桂林旅游高等专科学校棒球队为例%Study on the Construction and Management of Baseball Team in Higher Education---Taking Baseball Team in Guilin Institute of Tourism as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝彬

    2015-01-01

    The thesis shows that the team gained great achievements in the construction and management on the investigation of baseball team building and training management in Guilin Institute of Tourism,by using the methods of literature,questionnaires,on -the -spot investigations,expert interviews and other research methods. There are still some deficiencies in this study.The paper tries to provide some reference data for the colleges and universities in China baseball team construction and management,from the construction of teacher team,team management,the athletes training and selection,funds management,venue construction,and school mechanism.%通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、实地考察法、专家访谈法等研究方法,对桂林旅游高等专科学校棒球队建设和训练管理进行调查研究,研究表明该队在建设与管理取得可喜成绩的同时,仍然存在一些不足;本文从师资队伍建设、球队管理、运动员选拔、运动员培养、经费管理、场馆建设、学校机制进行探讨,为我国普通高校棒球队建设和管理提供一些参考借鉴资料。

  11. 一种棒球发球机的永磁直流电机开发%A Baseball Pitching Machine Permanent Magnet DC Motor Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锦添

    2014-01-01

    The permanent magnet DC motor development process on baseball pitching machine,introduced the production of permanent magnetic DC motor is the key equipment and instrument, sums up the manufacturing process of each component of permanent magnetic DC motor armature, stator and assembly, the motor manufacturing technology and production site management personnel to grasp the current permanent magnetic DC motor manufacturing technology.%通过阐述棒球发球机的永磁直流电机开发过程,介绍了生产永磁直流电机所需关键设备及仪器,总结了永磁直流电机电枢、定子、总装等各个部件的制造工艺,帮助电机制造工艺人员和生产现场管理人员掌握最新的永磁直流电机制造技术。

  12. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher's return to play: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-12-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the common extensor region of the right elbow and PIN, was achieved by employing the use of myofascial release and augmented soft tissue mobilization techniques. Neurodynamic mobilization technique was also administered to improve neural function. Implementation of a sport specific protocol for the purposes of maintaining throwing mechanics and overall conditioning was utilized. Successful resolution of symptomatology and return to pre-injury status was achieved in 5 weeks. A review of literature and an evidence-based discussion for the differential diagnoses, clinical examination, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of PIN is presented.

  13. Design and implementation of a baseball measurement system%棒球测速系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卓

    2014-01-01

    本文应用芯片技术设计了棒球测速系统,首先阐述了该系统的工作原理,并对系统需求进行了分析,然后设计了硬件系统和软件系统,硬件系统的加速度传感器采用ADXL345,单片机采用ST7LITE49M,软件系统主要设计了1COSMIC C编译器,最后对该系统进行了系统测试,结果较满意。%In this paper,chip technology designed baseball speed system,first elaborated the working principle of the system,and the system requirements are analyzed, and then design the hardware and software systems,hardware acceleration sensor system uses ADXL345, SCM ST7LITE49M,software system designed 1COSMIC C compiler,and finally the system were systematically tested with satisfactory results.

  14. The Study of Methods of Psychological Control of Baseball Shou Field%棒球守场员比赛时心理调控方法的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星; 冯飞

    2012-01-01

    This text purpose adjusrs some methods for controls for the sake of the study our country mental state for excellent baseball to guard a member match,understanding the mental character to guard the influence of a member to the baseball.While it guarding a member to face the other party aggression in the baseball game,do to the different situation a correspond of defend the processing,not only the technique wants up hard,and more important offend to break mental this close,particularly is a baseball this sport,the situation on the field is volatile,such as can not compare with the hour regulates own mental state good to make the situation on the field lose control very easily,resulting in this brigade lose cent or bening placed in disadvantageous of situation.The This text main sdoption cultural heritage data method to the national baseball.match the each troops guards the study that a member carries on the mental problem.As a result discover that the all beyond control oneself oneself of a lot of players attains the best appearance of the game under the condition of have mentall a lot of,cause the game result not good.This research thinks the strong or weak of mental ability to guard a member to the baseball at match of develop and have extremely important position.%本文目的为了探讨我国优秀棒球守场员赛时心理调控的一些方法,了解心理素质对棒球守场员的影响。棒球比赛中守场员面对对方进攻时,对不同局面做出相应的防守处理时,不仅技术上过硬,而且更重的是攻破心理这一关,尤其是棒球这项运动场上的局面瞬息万变,如不及时把自己的心理调节好很容易使场上的局面失控,造成本队失分或处于不利局面。本文主采用文献资料法对全国棒球联赛中一些队伍的守场员进行心理问题上的探讨。结果发现很多球员在比赛中的心理上有很多情况都无法控制自己,达不到比赛的最佳状态,导致比赛成绩不佳。

  15. The Development of Training Model Based on Theory of Planned Behavior and Willingness to Behave Higienic Practices for The Food Handler at Foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handajani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Training is not always change the personal behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2005, the behavior intention is influence by three factors including the attitude, the subjective norms and the perceived behavior control (PBC. Willingness is the independent concept of the presumption behavior and influenced by intention as well. The aim of  this study was to develop training model based on the theory of planned behavior and and willingness to higienic behavior for the food handler at foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya and implementation analysis of the development of training model. The development of the training model is using preliminary investigation phase, design phase and implementation. Partial Least Square (PLS was performed. The effectiveness of training model was analyzed by using t test with two paired samples (paired t - test. The result of food handlers hygienic behavioral analisys showed: PBC had contributed the most to the intentions through the willingness to behave hygienic practices, compared to the contribution of the attitude, subjective norm and PBC directly against the intention. These results could be used to develop a model of training for food handlers at the venue. The training was significantly effective (paired t test, p <0,05 in increasing the knowledge, practicing the hygienic behavior, attitude, subjective norm, PBC, intention and willingness of hygienic behavior of food handlers. The practicality of evaluation model was obtained by instructor assessment activities in very good result (88,42, 96% of trainees could participate well, and 89% of trainees responded well to the training. This training model was effectively proven to be used in increasing the intention of hygienic behavior of food handlers.

  16. 台灣棒球維基館網站推展成效探討 Evaluating the Effectiveness of TaiwanBaseballWiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 本文旨在探討台灣棒球維基館成立兩年餘之發展成效。首先,本研究分析2005/4/14至2007/8/19期間之相關數據,發現:(一網站瀏覽量共3600多萬次,其中74%來自前20%的高流量頁面;瀏覽量月成長率平均值約15%;(二註冊使用者月成長率平均值約33%,雖已有880餘位,但編寫10次以上者僅163人,只佔18.43%,卻完成了高達91%的內容,而使用者中1.9%的17位核心使用者更貢獻了80.8%的主要內容;(三頁面月成長率平均值約6.06%,在一萬多個內容頁面中,每日平均被瀏覽10次以上的僅有915頁。其次,本研究針對使用者進行問卷調查,結果顯示:(一受訪者以年輕球迷居多,平均年齡24.8歲;(二受訪者有64%未註冊帳號,多數原因為只做短暫的查詢;(三受訪者僅有34%曾參與寫作,其動機以增進內容豐富性佔多數。此外,本文綜合多項指標,提出一個客觀的核心頁面評定準則,並建議台灣棒球維基館在進一步掌握使用者特性後,應加強內容品質之提升,並積極推展具歷史傳承、知識深化等價值之內容,以平衡目前較偏重於當代職棒明星之走向。This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TaiwanBaseballWiki, established in 2005. First, the researchers collected data and analyzed the web logs from April 14, 2005 to August 19, 2007. A number of statistical measurements were used to analyze the data. The results show that 1. The number of page views has grown by almost 15% per month on average; 74% of page views came from 20% high browsing pages; 2. The registered users has grown by nearly 33% every month on average. It is also found that only 163 users have edited more than 10 times and were accounted for 91% of all the editing. Among them, the most active 1.9% of the users did 80.8% of all the editing; 3. The pages have grown by almost 6.06% per month on average, and only 8

  17. Sports courtyard school-operated high level baseball team training and management research%体育院校办高水平棒球队训练与管理研究--以天津体育学院棒球队为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路欢

    2013-01-01

    Along with the baseball movement in the domestic popularization, the baseball movement more and more receives takes, each provinces and cities sports colleges and universities also all invest the vision to this item have the development, has in the potential movement project, but the sports courtyard school-operated high level baseball team also has many difficulties, how handles the high level baseball Sports Team, the sports courtyard school-operated high level Sports Team's development pattern also is how, how between the training time and does the study conflict solve, these questions all are worth us considering.%  随着棒球运动在国内的普及,棒球运动越来越受到重视,各个省市的体育运动院校也都将目光投入到这项有发展,有潜力的运动项目上,但是体育运动院校办高水平棒球队还有许多的困难,如何办好高水平棒球运动队,体育院校办高水平运动队的发展模式又是怎样的,训练时间与学习之间的冲突如何解决,这些问题都是值得我们考虑的。

  18. Evaluation of Minilaparotomy and Baseball Suture in Myomectomy for Large Hysteromyoma%腹部小切口及棒球缝合在大子宫肌瘤剔除术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申爱方; 李少丛; 由卫芝; 焦盈盈

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of Minilaparotomy and Baseball suture in myomectomy for large hysteromyoma.Method:24 patients with large hysteromyoma as the research group were operated by minilaparotomy,the myoma wounds were used baseball suture to closed tumor cavity,and the hysteromyoma were taked out with electric uterus removal device;30 patients were treated by traditional method as the control group.The duration of operation,blood loss, time needed for recovery were observed.Result:The two groups showed the same time of operation and amount of bleed loss, the difference was no statistically significant(P>0.05); the research group needed shorter time for evacuation time and hospital stays than the control group, the difference was statistically significant(P0.05);而研究组术后排气时间及住院时间明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:腹部小切口及棒球缝合用于子宫肌瘤剔除术优于传统开腹手术。

  19. Analysis of Somatotype Technical Structure of Contemporary Elite Male Players in Baseball and Softball%情感教学法对体育院校本科生棒垒球教学的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洪

    2013-01-01

      采用调查法、教学实验法、数理统计等研究方法,对广州体育学院棒垒球任选课中的学生进行教学应用研究,结果表明,情感教学法提高了棒垒球教学质量、提高学生掌握基本技术能力;激发学生学习兴趣,满足现实社会对体育人才的需求有重要意义。%The investigation, teaching experiments and mathematical statistics, such as research methods, baseball and softball on my university any classes for teaching students in applied research, results showed that affective teaching methods enhance the baseball and softball the quality of teaching and improve students master the basic skills capacity; stimulate students interest in learning to meet the realities of society to the demand for sports has important significance.

  20. 棒球式缝合在腹腔镜子宫肌瘤核除术中的应用效果%Evaluation of baseball type suture in the laparoscopic myomectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一子; 欧阳玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨棒球式缝合在腹腔镜子宫肌瘤核除术中的应用效果及优势评价。方法:回顾性分析2013年至2015年,因子宫肌瘤行腹腔镜子宫肌瘤核除术的患者,分为实验组(棒球式缝合组)45例,对照组(单纯连续缝合组)50例,对比分析两种方式缝合方法的患者临床资料,包括人口统计学资料、手术相关指标及术后相关指标,进行统计学分析。结果:术中情况,在手术时间方面,实验组短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),在术中出血量方面,实验组少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);术后情况,在术后引流量方面,实验组少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),拔除引流管时间,实验组短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),在术后排气时间方面,实验组短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:腹腔镜子宫肌瘤核除术患者,充分评估子宫肌瘤大小及与子宫肌壁的关系,对于子宫肌瘤核除后,符合棒球式缝合条件的患者,应用棒球式缝合可能效果更好。%Objective:To discuss the effect and advantage of baseball type suturein the laparoscopic myomectomy. Methods:Retrospectively analyzing the clinical data of patients undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy from 2013 -2015. The experimental group contained 45 patients with baseball type suture,and the control group included 50 pa-tients with simple continuous suture. Results:The operation time of the experimental group was shorter than that of the control group,difference was statistically significant(P < 0. 05). Intraoperative blood loss in the experimental group was less than the control group(P < 0. 05). The amount of postoperative drainage in the experimental group was less than the control group(P < 0. 05). Time for drainage tube removal in the experimental group was less than the control group(P < 0. 05

  1. 棒球缝合法在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中的应用%Application of baseball suture in laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromyoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干晓琴; 刘江; 林海; 张凌; 张强; 黄利琼; 张家佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of the baseball suture in laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromy-oma.Methods Ninety-six patients with gigantic hysteromyoma undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy at our department from January, 2013 to December,2015 were randomly divided into research group ( using Lin's baseball suture) and control group ( with classical con-tinuous suture) ,48 cases in each group.The suture time,whole operation time,intraoperative blood loss,postoperative complications and hospital stay were compared between the two groups.Results The average intraoperative blood loss in the research group was signifi-cantly lower than that in the control group (P0.05).No postoperative complications happened in the both groups.Conclusion In laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromyoma,baseball suture can reduce the intraoperative blood loss.Therefore,it is a very good method for clinical application.%目的:观察棒球缝合法在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中的应用效果。方法将2013年01月至2015年12月在成都市妇女儿童中心医院妇科接受腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术的患者96例,采用随机数字表法分为研究组(采用棒球缝合法)和对照组(采用传统连续扣锁缝合法),每组48例,比较两组子宫肌瘤剥除创面缝合时间、手术总时间、术中出血量、住院天数及术后并发症情况。结果研究组患者术中出血量明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);两组术中缝合肌瘤剥除创面时间、手术总时间、术后住院天数比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。两组患者均无术中术后并发症发生。结论在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中采用棒球缝合法可以减少术中出血量,是一种值得临床应用的好方法。

  2. Reducción del costo de transportación en las Series Nacionales de Béisbol empleando metaheurísticas//Metaheuristics for the reduction of transportation cost in Baseball National Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosete-Suárez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo demuestra cómo se pueden disminuir el costo de transportación en las Series Nacionales de Béisbol de Cuba reduciendo la distancia total recorrida por los equipos. Se planteó el problema de optimización correspondiente para luego enfrentar su solución usando varias metaheurísticas, en el problema de la construcción de los calendarios de las tres Series Nacionales de Béisbol más recientes. Los resultados mejores los obtuvieron las metaheurísticas RRT y Escalador de Colinas. Los calendarios obtenidos ahorran entre un 13 y un 29% de la distancia total recorrida y se obtienen en menos del 1% del tiempo empleado por los expertos humanos que diseñaron los calendarios oficiales de esascompetencias. Estos resultados muestran que el uso más eficiente de los portadores energéticos puede enfocarse desde la perspectiva de la optimización de los kilómetros recorridos usando metaheurísticas.Palabras claves: metaheurísticas, problema de optimización combinatoria, problema de la transportación en un torneo, calendario deportivo.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper shows that the transportation cost of Baseball National Series may be reduced using metaheuristics. This may be achieved by the reduction of the total distance of the itineraries of the teams. First, the corresponding optimization problem is defined. Then, the solution is faced using metaheuristics. Many metaheuristics were compared in the optimization of the schedules of the last three Baseball National Series. The best results were obtained by RRT and Hill Climbing. The schedules obtained by these metaheuristics allow to save between 13 and 29% of the overall distance travelled by teams, respect to the official schedules designed by human experts. Also, the time to obtain the schedules with metaheuristics is about 1% of the time used by human experts. These results show that a better used of combustible can

  3. Experimental Research on How Baseball Teaching Model in Colleges Affects Students’ Physical Health%高校棒垒球教学模式改革对学生体质健康影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国胜

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore how different baseball teach-ing models affect college students’ physical health,this re-search group takes two different teaching models, which are Regular Teaching and Competitive Teaching. We have carried out 1 15 - week teaching experiment on 166 students from the Baseball Club in our institute. The final result demonstrates that the performances of the students from Regular Team in force, speed as well as flexibility have been improved greatly ( P<0. 05 ) , while students’ performance from Experimental Group have been even better(P<0. 001). Moreover,boy students’ chin-ups have been improved sharply. Thus, we can make a conclusion that the two teaching models mentioned above both have a positive effect on boys’ upper limp,as well as their speed, endurance, flexibility, and so on. Competitive Teaching model has an obvious advantage over students’ physical health.%为了探索在不同教学模式下实施棒垒球教学对学生体质健康促进的影响,课题组采用常规教学和竞赛法教学两种模式、对166名棒垒球俱乐部学生、实施了为期15周的教学实验。结果显示:实验前、后在力量、速度、耐力和柔韧等身体素质达标成绩方面,常规组学生成绩提高显著( P<0.05);竞赛组学生成绩提高非常显著( P<0.001);且两组男生引体向上成绩提高特别显著。结论是两种模式棒垒球教学,均对男生上肢力量发展有非常显著促进作用;均对学生速度、耐力、柔韧等身体素质提高有明显促进作用;竞赛法教学模式在提高学生身体素质方面具有明显优势。

  4. Clinical Observation of Pituitary Vasopressin Combined With Baseball Suture in the Treatment of Uterine Myoma%子宫肌瘤剔除术中应用垂体后叶素联合棒球式缝合法的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of the use of pituitary vasopressin combined with baseball suture in the treatment of uterine incision hemorrhage, and to explore the value of the application. Methods from June 2013 to January 2015 in our hospital myomectomy by baseball suture in patients 60 cases, were randomly divided to observation group 30 cases, (intraoperative posterior pituitrin myometrium injection) and control group 30 cases (simple baseball joint legal) of two groups in the amount of bleeding and operation time. Results There was significant difference in the amount of bleeding and operation time in the observation group (P<0.05). Conclusion The use of pituitary vasopressin combined with baseball suture can reduce the amount of bleeding, the incidence of adverse reactions is less, and the safety and effectiveness is high.%目的:探讨子宫肌瘤剔除术中应用垂体后叶素联合棒球式缝合减少子宫切口出血的临床效果,探讨其应用价值。方法将2013年6月~2015年1月在我院子宫肌瘤剔除术采用棒球式缝合的患者60例,随机分为观察组30例(术中垂体后叶素子宫肌层注射)和对照组30例(单纯棒球式缝合法),分析两组术中出血量及手术时间等。结果观察组术中出血量、手术时间方面比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论子宫肌瘤剔除术中应用垂体后叶素联合棒球式缝合能够减少出血量,发生不良反应的情况少,安全及有效性高。

  5. 第十二届全运会棒球预赛技术能力分析%An Analysis of Technical Capabilities of Preliminary Baseball Contest in the 12th National Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蓉

    2015-01-01

    采用数据统计、对比分析的方法,对第十二届全国运动会棒球预赛各队主要技术数据的积分排位与最终名次进行比较分析,认为一般情况下比赛中主要技术能力越强,成功率则越高,取得的名次越好,但是显型因子综合技术能力的强弱不是比赛名次的唯一决胜因子,在高水平竞技比赛中的隐型因子,即心理状态、临场战机的把握和利用战机的能力则成为更重要的胜因。%By adopting the methods of mathematical statistics and comparative analysis, this paper makes a comparative analysis of the scores ranking in terms of technical data and final performance standing of each of the baseball teams in the 12th National Games. The result shows that, in general circumstance, the stronger technical capability a team has, the higher success rate the team and the better performance standing the team will achieve. However, the phenotype factor of comprehensive technical capability is not the only decisive factor to determine the performance standing of contest. What’s more, the stealth factors in athletic contest at a high level, namely athletes’ psychological states, capability of grasping winning chances and capability of taking advantage of winning chances, are the more important factors to determine winning or losing.

  6. Baseball sport adapts college students ability of the orientation society%棒垒球运动对大学生社会适应能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晨

    2013-01-01

    Baseball is an aspect of education of school, not only can strengthen the high school student's physical endowment, but also contribute to the brave and stubborn personality of the student in the development high school, surmounting the quality of the ego, greeting the will of the challenge and undertaking the ability of the risk, helping and developping the high school student's competition consciousness and cooperating the ability of the spirit and the human relations association, to adapt the society. Along with the progress of the society, civilized development of mankind, society the competition is gradually vigorous. Therefore, for adapting the demand of the social development, the modern athletics teaching should pay attention to foster the high school student's ability of the orientation society.%  棒垒球运动作为学校教育的一个方面,不仅可以增强大学生的体质,而且有助于培养大学学生勇敢顽强的性格,超越自我的品质,迎接挑战的意志和承担风险的能力,有助与培养大学生的竞争意识、合作精神和人际交往的能力,以适应社会。随着社会的进步,人类文明的发展,社会竞争日趋激烈。因此,为了适应社会发展的需要,现代棒垒球运动应注重培养大学生适应社会的能力。

  7. Sport: The Liveliest Art. Diamonds Are a Publisher's Best Friend: The Baseball Mystique and Scholarly Publishing; "Take Me Out to the Ball Game...." The Importance of Archiving Sporting Activities; Telling the Story: Museums and Libraries Partner To Make Sport History Live; "I'm Not Surfing. This is My Job"; Sideline: Webliography of General Sports Sites: The Big Four; Public Libraries Step Up to the Plate: Knowing and Responding to the Needs of Our Rapidly Changing Communities; Sideline: Sports Fiction; Ten Best Sport Titles...in My Public Library, in My Media Center, in My High School Library, in My Academic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve; Wise, Suzanne; Koonts, Russell S.; Sumner, Jim; Meier, James R.; Gonzalez, Lena; Ruszczyk, James R.; Fiedler, Stephanie; Mayo, Kim P.; Holmes, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Eight articles in this section focus on sports: the baseball mystique and scholarly publishing; importance of archiving sporting activities; museums and libraries partner to make sport history live; online resources for sports information; Webliography of general sports sites; public libraries responding to changing needs; sports fiction; and "ten…

  8. Sport: The Liveliest Art. Diamonds Are a Publisher's Best Friend: The Baseball Mystique and Scholarly Publishing; "Take Me Out to the Ball Game...." The Importance of Archiving Sporting Activities; Telling the Story: Museums and Libraries Partner To Make Sport History Live; "I'm Not Surfing. This is My Job"; Sideline: Webliography of General Sports Sites: The Big Four; Public Libraries Step Up to the Plate: Knowing and Responding to the Needs of Our Rapidly Changing Communities; Sideline: Sports Fiction; Ten Best Sport Titles...in My Public Library, in My Media Center, in My High School Library, in My Academic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve; Wise, Suzanne; Koonts, Russell S.; Sumner, Jim; Meier, James R.; Gonzalez, Lena; Ruszczyk, James R.; Fiedler, Stephanie; Mayo, Kim P.; Holmes, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Eight articles in this section focus on sports: the baseball mystique and scholarly publishing; importance of archiving sporting activities; museums and libraries partner to make sport history live; online resources for sports information; Webliography of general sports sites; public libraries responding to changing needs; sports fiction; and…

  9. 棒垒球运动在我国高校开展现状的研究--以北京市15所高校为例%Baseball Softball Sports Colleges and Universities in Our Country Carrying out a Research Into the Status quo---15 colleges and universities of Beijing as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡效芳; 张佳佳

    2016-01-01

    通过调查分析棒垒球运动在我国高校开展的现状及影响因素,在此基础上探索并提出符合我国实际情况的普通高校棒垒球运动发展的建议,为发展、丰富高校体育教学内容,满足大学生多层次的运动需求,提供建议和策略。%Studied in this paper through investigating and analyzing the current situation of the baseball and softball sports colleges and universities in our country to carry out and influence factors, on the basis of the exploration and put forward with the actual situation in our country ordinary university's Suggestions to the development of baseball and softball movement, for the development, enriching the content of sports teaching in colleges and universities, and meet the demand of college students multi-level movement, provide advice and strategies.

  10. Investigation and Study on the Sustainable Development of Non-Olympic Sports in China:A Case Study of Baseball%我国非奥运项目可持续发展的调查与研究--以棒球为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝彬

    2014-01-01

    受“奥运争光计划”影响,我国很多省份放弃了一些水平落后的奥运项目以及非奥运项目。2020年东京奥运会,棒球再次无缘奥运会舞台,作为非奥运项目更是无法得到足够重视。通过对我国棒球运动开展的状况进行调查研究,为我国其他非奥运项目可持续发展提供一定理论参考。%Influenced by the“Olympic Glory Plan”,many provinces in China have to give up some level-behind Olympic sports and non-Olympic projects. In 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games,baseball again will miss the Olympic stage,as the non-Olympic sport,it is not giv⁃en enough attention. Through the investigation on the situation of the development of the Chinese baseball,this article hopes to provide a reference to the theory of sustainable development on other non Olympic Games.

  11. INTEGRACIÓN FONÉTICA Y MORFOLÓGICA DE LOS PRESTAMOS: DATOS DEL LÉXICO DOMINICANO DEL BÉISBOL THE PHONETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL INTEGRATION OF LOANWORDS: A STUDY OF THE VOCABULARY OF BASEBALL IN DOMINICAN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORLANDO ALBA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia el proceso de adaptación fonética y de integración morfológica de que son objeto los préstamos del inglés en el campo léxico del béisbol en el español de la República Dominicana. Los datos proceden de tres fuentes de información: transmisiones radiales y televisivas; un test asociativo que recoge el léxico disponible en ese centro de interés; un cuestionario dirigido. El análisis conduce a la conclusión de que la entrada de nuevos elementos léxicos procedentes del inglés no implica ningún peligro de alteración del español porque el sistema tiene la capacidad de asimilarlos e integrarlos de acuerdo con su propia estructura. En este sentido, la llegada de los préstamos puede verse como un fenómeno natural mediante el cual la lengua amplía y enriquece su caudal léxico, sin que al hacerlo se trastornen sus estructuras fonológica y morfológicaThis article examines the processes of phonetic adaptation and morphological integration affecting baseball terms imported from English into Dominican Spanish. The data are taken from three sources: television and radio broadcasts; a word association test designed to elicit speakers' available lexicon in this semantic field; a questionnaire administered under controlled conditions. Analysis of the data indicates that the importation of new lexical items from English does not represent a threat for Spanish since the Spanish linguistic system has the ability to assimilate and integrate such items by adapting them to its own structures. In this sense, the arrival of loanwords may be viewed as a natural phenomenon that enables the language to expand and enrich its lexis without disrupting its phonological and morphological structures in the process

  12. Illustrations of Price Discrimination in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Rascher; Andrew, Schwarz

    2010-01-01

    Price discrimination of this nature, focused on differing degrees of quality, bundled goods, volume discounts, and other forms of second-degree price discrimination, is commonplace in MLB. Indeed, it is safe to say that every single MLB ticket is sold under some form of price discrimination. As teams grow increasingly sophisticated in their pricing strategies, price discrimination is becoming more precise, more wide-spread, and more profitable, while at the same time providing for more oppo...

  13. Comparative study on attack and defense technique and ability between Chinese baseball team and the top Asian teams in A%广州亚运会中国棒球队与亚洲强队攻防技术能力的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 李玉禄

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料、观察统计、对比分析,对我国棒球队与亚洲棒球强队在第16届广州亚运会比赛中的攻防技术能力进行对比分析。研究表明:1)中国棒球队整体技术水平与亚洲强队相比还存在着一定的差距;2)中国棒球队整体防守能力要好于进攻能力;3)中国棒球队在投手这一重要环节上实力比较薄弱。%Based on the research methods of literature,observational statistics and comparative analysis,it made a contrast analysis on attack and defense technique and ability between our baseball team and the top Asian teams in competitions of the 16th Asian Games

  14. Presumed Testicular Rupture During a College Baseball Game

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Freehill; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D.; Davis, Ronald L.; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to ...

  15. Adolescent baseball pitching technique: lower extremity biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Matthew D; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Solomito, Matthew; Westwell, Melany; Nissen, Carl W

    2012-11-01

    Documentation of the lower extremity motion patterns of adolescent pitchers is an important part of understanding the pitching motion and the implication of lower extremity technique on upper extremity loads, injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to take the initial step in this process by documenting the biomechanics of the lower extremities during the pitching cycle in adolescent pitchers and to compare these findings with the published data for older pitchers. Three-dimensional motion analysis using a comprehensive lower extremity model was used to evaluate the fast ball pitch technique in adolescent pitchers. Thirty-two pitchers with a mean age of 12.4 years (range 10.5-14.7 years) and at least 2 years of experience were included in this study. The pitchers showed a mean of 49 ± 12° of knee flexion of the lead leg at foot contact. They tended to maintain this position through ball release, and then extended their knee during the follow through phase (ball release to maximal internal glenohumeral rotation). The lead leg hip rapidly progressed into adduction and flexion during the arm cocking phase with a range of motion of 40 ± 10° adduction and 30 ± 13° flexion. The lead hip mean peak adduction velocity was 434 ± 83°/s and flexion velocity was 456 ± 156°/s. Simultaneously, the trailing leg hip rapidly extended approaching to a mean peak extension of -8 ± 5° at 39% of the pitch cycle, which is close to passive range of motion constraints. Peak hip abduction of the trailing leg at foot contact was -31 ± 12°, which also approached passive range of motion constraints. Differences and similarities were also noted between the adolescent lower extremity kinematics and adult pitchers; however, a more comprehensive analysis using similar methods is needed for a complete comparison.

  16. Kinematics and Kinetics of Youth Baseball Catchers and Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the throwing kinematics and kinetics of youth catchers and pitchers. It was hypothesized that catchers and pitchers would exhibit differences throughout the throwing motion. Descriptive statistics were used to investigate kinematics during the four events of throwing: foot contact (FC, maximum shoulder external rotation (MER, ball release (BR and maximum shoulder internal rotation (MIR. Additionally, kinetics were investigated within phases of the events: Phase 1 (cocking; FC to MER, Phase 2 (acceleration; MER to BR and Phase 3 (deceleration; BR to MIR. Results revealed significant difference in torso flexion, lateral flexion, pelvis lateral flexion and segment velocities between the catchers and pitchers. Based on data from the current study, it appears that the youth catchers execute their throw as they have been instructed. It is unclear if the throwing mechanics displayed by these youth are efficient for a catcher, thus further investigation is needed to determine long-term injury susceptibility.

  17. Schooling Taiwan's Aboriginal Baseball Players for the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junwei; Bairner, Alan

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges that faces nation-builders in postcolonial societies is the incorporation of subaltern groups, particularly aboriginal peoples, into a collective national project. One vehicle for addressing this challenge is sport with schools being amongst the most important venues. This article offers an empirical study of the role…

  18. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  19. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  20. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity...

  1. Examining spectator motivations in Major League Baseball: A Comparison between senior and non-senior consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwan Park

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the differences in the motives between senior and non-senior sport consumers who attend sport events and to compare the effect of spectator motivation on sport consumption behaviors between senior and non-senior consumers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between motivation factors and sport consumption variables for senior and non- senior spectator groups. The results showed that both senior and non-senior spectators were commonly motivated by the following specific motives of escape, social interaction, physical skill and drama for attending a MLB game.

  2. Equal Opportunity Employers: The Department of Defense and Major League Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    address at the 1991 USMA graduation: Martin Luther King dreamed of an America in which one day our children would-and to quote- "not be judged by the...about the qualities of such significant "movers" as President Truman? According to various publications, President Truman also was a racist : Harry Truman...who made civil rights a federal priority for the first time since Reconstruction, expressed strong racist sentiments before, during, and after his

  3. Radio-ulnar joint supinates around ball release during baseball fastball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Jinji, Tsutomu; Hirayama, Daisaku; Nasu, Daiki; Ozaki, Hiroki

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether a supination phase of the forearm exists around ball release (BRL), and, if present, to determine whether this supination is explained by a reaction force or by the body configuration required for this task. A 16-camera motion analysis system with a sampling frequency of 1,000 Hz recorded 20 healthy male semi-professional pitchers pitching from an indoor pitching mound. A short supination phase around BRL was confirmed for all participants in the current study. Correlation analyses revealed that the supination angle at BRL had significant relationships with several measurements of shoulder movement kinematics. Mechanical work analysis of the forearm's longitudinal axis revealed several variations in joint power curve and various patterns of mechanical work among the participants, suggesting that a reaction force originating from accelerating a ball might not be the main cause of supination. The raw data also were down-sampled to a sampling frequency of 250 Hz, to match previous studies and to investigate the discrepancy among previous studies concerning the existence of the supination phase. The experience of participants and methodological differences, such as the definition of BRL and the time-normalisation technique, influenced whether the supination phase was observed.

  4. 感受《棒球少年》%Reading Baseball Boys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章柏青

    2002-01-01

    鲜明的韵律,明朗的色彩,抒情而昂扬的音乐和音响设计,大量的活泼的极富动感的镜头,使影片《棒球少年》呈现在我们面前的是一个具有极强冲击力的、既赏心悦目又富有内在张力的影像世界。

  5. Error reduction by combining strapdown inertial measurement units in a baseball stitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Leah

    A poor musical performance is rarely due to an inferior instrument. When a device is under performing, the temptation is to find a better device or a new technology to achieve performance objectives; however, another solution may be improving how existing technology is used through a better understanding of device characteristics, i.e., learning to play the instrument better. This thesis explores improving position and attitude estimates of inertial navigation systems (INS) through an understanding of inertial sensor errors, manipulating inertial measurement units (IMUs) to reduce that error and multisensor fusion of multiple IMUs to reduce error in a GPS denied environment.

  6. Baseball 棒球、歌唱与“机轮刹车”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    一言; 飞飞

    2005-01-01

    棒球、歌唱和“机轮刹车”?猛一看,这三样东西放在一起显得风马牛不相及,但它们放在厦航机务部顾大春身上却十分准确的体现了他的生活态度、做人原则和对自己工作的热爱和奉献精神。

  7. Conceptual Continuity and the Science of Baseball: Using Informal Science Literacy to Promote Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This project explores "conceptual continuity" as a framework for understanding students' native ways of understanding and describing. Conceptual continuity suggests that the relationship between the use of words in one genre and the scientific genre can exist at varying levels of association. This perspective can reveal the varied relationships…

  8. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4 with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch, and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

  9. EEC 4A Lesson Six Can You Play Baseball?第一课时

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾邑

    2013-01-01

    本课为小学EEC教材四年级上第六单元的第一课时,本课教学设计充分的体现了以学生为本的教学理念,教学目标设计合理,符合学生的学情.,教师通过Warming up、Presentation、Practice、Homework四个环节的设计完成了本课的教学目标,同时教师通过本课的教学设计,从听、说、读、写四个方面培养学生的综合语言运用能力以及帮助学生了解了国外的文化.

  10. Mock Arbitration--Conflict Resolution in Major League Baseball: Sports and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degelman, Charles; Hayes, Bill

    This lesson plan uses students' interest in sports to teach good citizenship. With its focus on rules, responsibility, conflict resolution, and teamwork, the unit emphasizes the development of critical thinking, decision-making, and citizenship skills in young people. This lesson plan is part of a series of fully prepared, interactive classroom…

  11. Inside baseball and ethics consultation: a comment on "ethics been very good to us".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Norman

    2012-01-01

    In response to the article by Scofield, I consider the that, how, and why of ethics consultation, moral expertise, and the rules of the game. The question still to be engaged is, how does all of this work out for patients and families?

  12. Baseball bats and chocolate chip cookies: the judicial treatment of DNA in the myriad genetics litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Ian; Park-Thompson, Vanessa

    2014-12-18

    In June 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a controversial ruling that naturally occurring DNA segments are "products of nature" and therefore not patentable subject matter. At this intersection between science and law, in litigation of crucial importance to patients, science, and multibillion-dollar biotech enterprises, the appellate judges sidestepped genetics and engaged in a war of metaphors from diamonds to chocolate chip cookies. This case is not an outlier. Apprehensive judges and juries in both Canada and the United States find many convenient excuses to avoid coming to grips with the underlying science in patent cases. But this is simply not acceptable. Legal rulings must be, and must seem to be, well grounded, as a matter of both law and science. The legitimacy of court decisions in the eyes of the stakeholders and the broader public depends on it.

  13. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael; Harveson, Lanisa; Melton, Jason; Delobel, Ashley; Puentedura, Emilio J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4) with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch), and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

  14. Base-ball: imposition impériale ou affirmation du sentiment national?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans un livre consacré à la figure de l’actuel président du Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, le journaliste britannique Richard Gott, spécialiste reconnu de l’Amérique Latine, exprime un grand étonnement au sujet de la passion que les deux paladins de l’anti-impérialisme, Fidel Castro et Hugo Chávez, partagent avec les Etats-Unis. Mais pour le journaliste britannique les choses ne s’arrêtent pas là car il constate que cette passion – qu’il considère comme un « accident de l’histoire » - est également ...

  15. Anthropometric Measurements as Predictors of the Degree of Carrying Angle in College Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The goal of this study was to examine whether or not height, shoulder range of motion, hip width, shoulder width, and pitching experience were predictors for increased carrying angle of the throwing side. The premise of the study is based on an assumption that valgus extension overload produces tensile strain on the…

  16. Mathematics in Baseball. Topical Module for Use in a Mathematics Laboratory Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Mary; Ostrom, Nat

    The objectives of this module include: (1) improving general arithmetic skills including whole numbers, fractions, and decimal fractions; (2) learning to compute averages; (3) strengthening knowledge of percent; (4) learning to locate needed information or statistical data; (5) reviewing or learning the use of the Pythagorean Theorem; (6)…

  17. 棒球投手投球动作的运动生物力学研究综述%Sport Biomechanical Research Summary of Baseball Pitching of Baseball Pitcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀杰; 韩志磊; 梁占锁

    2010-01-01

    通过对近20多年来国内、外学者对棒球投手的运动生物力学研究成果进行整理分析研究,研究认为,目前对棒球投手的生物力学研究主要运用高速摄影、等速肌力测试、肌电图、三维测力台等科研手段,从运动学、动力学、肌电学方面对影响棒球投球动作质量及投球速度的关键部位和因素进行了深入研究,并在此基础上对优化投球动作以减少运动损伤等方面进行了探讨.

  18. A comparison of base running and sliding techniques in collegiate baseball with implications for sliding into first base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Ficklin

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: There was a non-significant trend toward an advantage for diving into first base over running through it, but more research is needed, and even if the advantage is real, the risks of executing this technique probably outweigh the miniscule gain.

  19. Baseball and American Foreign Policy%棒球运动与美国对外政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 陈世阳

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法与逻辑分析法,系统梳理棒球运动与美国社会主流文化价值观及意识形态密不可分的关系.在全球化时代背景下,棒球运动充分发挥其在美国外交、经济、价值观输出等方面的巨大作用,成为“推销”美国民主方式、克服军事政治藩篱、扩大资本市场的重要推手,在美国的政治层面、经济全球化战略、冷战后意识形态整合、后9·11时代的军事策略等诸多对外政策方面均发挥了外交均衡器的重要作用.

  20. 棒球投手上肢肌力研究%Study on Upper Extremity Strength in Baseball Pitchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正利; 张胜年

    2005-01-01

    在查阅国外大量相关文献资料的基础上,了解棒球投手上肢肌力的研究现状,从投手上肢肌力与球速的关系、投手两侧上肢肌力对比研究、上肢主动肌/对抗肌比值研究等几个方面进行了归纳分析,并对研究中存在的问题及今后的发展提出了看法.今后应加强对肘关节屈和伸肌群肌力的研究,进一步探索不同投手前臂旋前肌群和旋后肌群的肌力变化情况.

  1. Sunday Sport Comes to Pennsylvania: Professional Baseball and Football Triumph over the Commonwealth's Archaic Blue Laws, 1919-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jable, J. Thomas

    Following World War I, many Americans plunged into sport, and found the Sabbath a convenient and popular day for engaging in sporting events, especially since Sunday activities had become commonplace during the War and acceptable in many areas. However, when Pennsylvanians turned to sport on the Sabbath, they were confronted by the state's archaic…

  2. 日本の野球とアメリカ合衆国のベースボールの相違についての一考察

    OpenAIRE

    綿田, 博人

    2003-01-01

    An early type of baseball was thought up by Abner Doubleday in the United States of America in 1839, and it was first played in Cooperstown, New York State. Later, Alexander Cartwright invented the same diagram as we see now and thus the basic baseball style was established. Since then, baseball became popular as a town sport and spread across the country, which led to the birth of professional baseball. Especially after the Major Leagues were established, baseball has become growing popular,...

  3. Improved curveball hitting through the enhancement of visual cues.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, K; Rudrud, E; Zezoney, F

    1990-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using visual cues to highlight the seams of baseballs to improve the hitting of curveballs. Five undergraduate varsity baseball team candidates served as subjects. Behavior change was assessed through an alternating treatments design involving unmarked balls and two treatment conditions that included baseballs with 1/4-in. and 1/8-in. orange stripes marking the seams of the baseballs. Results indicated that subjects hit a greater percentage of mark...

  4. Los Rizos y el Beisbol. Septimo Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Curls and Baseball. Seventh Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines how assigned sex roles affect grade school girls in competitive sports, simple games, pastimes, and other extracurricular activities. A pre-test and post-test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotypes. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) myths that…

  5. 论中国棒球职业化的发展对策%Discussion on the development countermeasures of baseball vocationat at home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥茂

    2002-01-01

    通过具有职业性质的首届中国棒球新联赛的举办目的任务、基本概貌、组织形式、市场运作、职业特征、球员转会选秀等方面进行探索,剖析中国棒球职业化的发展对策,促使我国棒球事业快速、持续、健康发展.

  6. 棒球运动在中国——美国职业棒球追随NBA的中国之路%Baseball in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 外籍球员在美国职业棒球大联盟的成功,提升了球员本国的棒球运动水平,松井秀喜2009年秋天在纽约洋基队的全垒打让日本球迷拍手叫好,同是纽约洋基队的台湾地区投手王建民在台湾地区的人气指数甚至超过马英九.

  7. 美国棒球与板球发展消长之谜%A Theoretical Reflection on the Interaction of Cricket and Baseball in American Sporting History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世强; 张世泽

    2012-01-01

    多年以来,运动史学家都在争论,何以棒球能在曾为大英帝国殖民属地的美国取得凌驾于板球的发展.板球在美国的迅速式微,无论对于棒球或板球研究来说,都堪称最令人困惑的问题之一.及至今日,棒球与板球关系背后仍然存在许多难解的问题.既有文献指出,板球在美国的发展不仅可以上溯至17世纪,直到1860年代,板球也仍为美国非常普及的运动;但吊诡的是,就在内战之后,当美国社会进入“镀金时代”之后,板球却逐渐式微,甚至沦为美国边缘运动.透过检视美国棒球与板球发展的历史,本文企图指出主流理论的问题,尝试针对美国棒球与板球发展消长的关系提供不同的解释.

  8. 中国棒球职业联赛管理制度的研究%Research on administrant rule of China baseball league matches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松

    2006-01-01

    运用文献资料、逻辑推理等研究方法,以探索棒球职业化的管理制度为切入点,从管理方面对目前我国棒球运动现状进行客观分析,对中国棒球联赛中存在的若干问题进行了较深入的研究,并就建立适应我国棒球联赛职业化可持续发展的管理体制提出了设想.

  9. Exploration of shoulder rotation characteristics in baseball pitchers%棒球投手肩关节旋转运动特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇

    2006-01-01

    应用超声波动力学测量仪和CYBEX-6000等速仪器分别对26名棒球投手和22名自愿者肩关节内、外旋活动范围(range of motion,ROM)、内外旋肌力进行测量,以探讨棒球投手肩关节旋转运动特征.结果表明:棒球投手优势臂的外旋活动范围明显大于非优势臂,而其优势臂的内旋活动范围则显著小于非优势臂,优势臂的整个旋转活动范围也明显比非优势臂小;对照组的优势臂和非优势臂旋转活动范围无显著差异.测试还发现:棒球投手肩关节存在内、外旋肌力不平衡,实验组优势臂内旋IR(210°/s)、IR(300°/s)相对峰力矩明显大于非优势臂(WTBX()P<0.001),优势臂外旋ER(210°/s)、ER(300°/s)峰力矩与非优势臂相比,无明显差异(P>0.05),实验组优势臂外旋/内旋峰力矩比值(ER/IR)明显小于非优势臂.

  10. Creation Myth of Baseball and American Exceptionalism%棒球起源神话与美国例外主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世强; 张世泽

    2012-01-01

    对于许多美国人来说,棒球不仅是一项单纯的球赛而已.棒球始终被美国人标志为专属于美国的运动,一方面,导因于其无分族群、宗教或政治立场,深受所有美国人的热爱.另一方面,则导因于其被视作美国精神的象征;然而,很少美国人能够真正知道,在棒球起源神话故事的建构过程背后,其实存在许多复杂的问题.透过美国倒外主义的切入讨论,分析虚构棒球起源神话背后的驱动力量,并讨论主流棒球起源神话,即杜博戴与库柏镇神话对于美国大众棒球理解的重要影响.

  11. 棒球运动项目一般特征分析与研究%Analysis and research on the common characteristics of baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨至刚

    2011-01-01

    棒球运动是智慧与竞技的运动,是时间与距离的运动,具有很强的欣赏性和刺激性.棒球运动项目的一般特征包括:竞赛特征、技术特征、战术特征、文化特征、价值特征.通过对棒球运动项目一般特征的重新认识、概括与分析,旨在为更好地认识棒球的专项特征以及更好地开展和认识棒球运动提供理论参考依据.

  12. The sell tactics of profession baseball in the future in China%中国职业棒球未来门票销售策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥茂

    2004-01-01

    中国已开展具有职业性质的棒球新联赛,由于借鉴国外的先进经验和对自身赛制的不断完善,逐步成为体育迷关注焦点,球市也越采越旺.本文试图在2004年新赛季开战之际,剖析中国职业棒球未来门票销售策略,为中国棒球走向职业化、商业化、社会化提供有益借鉴.

  13. 试论借助新旧媒体推广中国棒球的可行性%Outlook of Chinese Baseball in the New Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斯筠

    2015-01-01

    关于中国棒球的发展,笔者在分析总结了既有文献的基础上,拟从文化符号建构、新媒体传播、推进事业化三个维度,来探讨推动棒球运动在中国民众特别是青少年中认识率和接受度的方式.认为只有宏观上把我国棒球事业发展的方向找准,微观上的举措才会富有针对性与可行性.

  14. A Biomechanical Analysis on Baseball Pitching Techniques%棒球投手投球技术生物力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜年; 张年娥; 王正利

    2008-01-01

    以2004年全国棒球联赛上场一线投手为研究对象,选取两名外援及三名优秀国手为优秀组,上海队投手的五名队员为一级组.用JVC L9800高速摄像机选取100格/s的拍摄速度对投手前三局投球动作进行平面定机拍摄.用SBCAS2图像解析系统对投手投快球动作进行动作技术分析.旨在探讨我国棒球投手投球技术特点,为提高投手的投球技能提供参考.

  15. 梁诚与近代中美“棒球外交”%Liang Cheng and Modern China-America Baseball Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪京帅

    2014-01-01

    运用文献资料法和逻辑分析法,系统梳理了清末驻美公使梁诚在美国运用“棒球外交”,争取美国庚子退款的历史.从梁诚幼年留美的经历,留关幼童在美国的体育参与,梁诚在美国的棒球运动经历等历史情节入手,描述了“棒球外交”发生的台前幕后.指出“棒球外交”改写了“弱国无外交”的历史,开启了中关体育外交模式的先河,促进了中美体育文化的交流,同时也客观评价了“棒球外交”的历史作用.

  16. The Feasible Analysis on Chinese Professional Baseball Industrialized Management%中国职业棒球产业化经营的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小敏; 谭先明

    2003-01-01

    本文运用文献资料和专家访谈等研究方法,对中国棒球运动发展的现状进行分析,指出中国职业棒球已进入了起步阶段,并且中国职业棒球走产业化道路是我国竞技体育改革与发展的必然趋势,提出发展中国职业棒球的对策.

  17. Kinematic Analysis of the Stretch step Technology of Woman Baseball Pitchers%女子垒球投手伸踏技术的运动学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀全; 邵滨

    2013-01-01

    一支垒球队的核心是投手,在很大程度上决定着比赛的胜负.通过对女子垒球投手投球动作的图像解析,选择与下肢伸踏技术相关性较强的技术指标,对其伸踏技术进行了理论分析.以期对教练员提高投手下肢技术的运动学认知、投球技术改进、提高投球球速等方面提供参考.

  18. Influences of Baseball on English Language Development%论棒球运动对英语语言发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅进丽

    2013-01-01

    棒球源起和发展于英语国家,起初人们通过借用基本生活词汇来定义和解释棒球术语和比赛规则,从而使英语词汇的意义得以扩展和延伸;之后随着棒球运动的普及,棒球术语和惯用表达式又以新的语义回归于日常生活用语中,成为习语的重要源泉,进一步丰富和充实了英语语言.日常生活用语与棒球专门用语之间的这种双向渗透和转化充分体现出棒球这一运动形式对英语语言发展的影响.

  19. Presumed testicular rupture during a college baseball game: a case report and review of the literature for on-field recognition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freehill, Michael T; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D; Davis, Ronald L; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to palpation after blunt trauma, testicular rupture should be suspected and prompt ultrasound and urologic assessment should be undertaken, as early operative intervention is necessary for testicular preservation. This report reviews testicular trauma during athletic competition.

  20. 77 FR 34249 - Notice of Final Revision to Guidance for the Use of Binding Arbitration Under the Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...: Under existing guidance, FMCSA must use a form of arbitration known as ``Night Baseball'' for its civil... revise the Guidance to eliminate the ``Night Baseball'' format, and to replace it with a format in which... therefore revising the Guidance by eliminating the ``Night Baseball'' format. The Agency is also...

  1. Technical Analysis on Junior Baseball Team of Yizheng City Participating in International Junior Soft Baseball Championship%仪征市少年棒球队参加国际少年软式棒球锦标赛技术分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭峻; 盛飞; 王俊

    2009-01-01

    本文采取现场统计与借阅棒球比赛记录表的办法,对我市少年棒球队参加第七届泛太平洋国际少年软式棒球锦标赛的比赛情况进行分析,以期找出我市少年棒球队存在的问题,为教练员、运动员在以后的训练中提供依据,为今后的训练工作找出方向.

  2. The effects of domain knowledge on metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas D; Jee, Benjamin D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    In the present research, we examined the relationship between readers' domain knowledge and their ability to judge their comprehension of novel domain-related material. Participants with varying degrees of baseball knowledge read five texts on baseball-related topics and five texts on non-baseball-related topics, predicted their performance, and completed tests for each text. Baseball knowledge was positively related to absolute accuracy within the baseball domain but was unrelated to relative accuracy within the baseball domain. Also, the readers showed a general underconfidence bias, but the bias was less extreme for higher knowledge readers. The results challenge common assumptions that experts' metacognitive judgments are less accurate than novices'. Results involving topic familiarity ratings and a no-reading control group suggest that higher knowledge readers are not more likely to ignore text-specific cues in favor of a domain familiarity heuristic, but they do appear to make more effective use of domain familiarity in predicting absolute performance levels.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of shoulder joint injury in baseball game%应用生物力学分析棒球运动中的肩关节损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令劼; 韦志辉; 刘卫国

    2009-01-01

    棒球投掷运动常可导致不同类型及程度的肩关节损伤.基于此,采用绘图的方式描述棒球运动导致肩关节损伤的力学机制,并从动作技术方面简单形象地说明多种肩关节损伤的形成原因,以及发生这些问题的影响因素.

  4. Effective Integration Through the Use of Social Influence Tactics: What the Military Can Learn from Racial Integration of Baseball in Ending Don’t Ask Don’t Tell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    homosexuals are not allowed to serve openly in the armed services. The framing that the military uses is that gays and lesbians will decrease the...in the military because of their non-masculine nature. “We would argue that exclusion of gay men and lesbians is also based on factors unrelated to...the capacity of African Americans to perform their job. “We would argue that the exclusion of gay men and lesbians is also based on factors

  5. Research on Structural Model of Athletic Ability of Topnotch Chinese Baseball Players%中国优秀棒球运动员竞技能力结构模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一兵; 席翼; 谭思洁; 和平; 姜达维; 严丽; 孙延林; 孟凡林; 刘松波

    2007-01-01

    研究选择了代表中国最优秀棒球运动水平的国家队、省市一级队主力队员123人.经过专家访谈和教练员经验筛选,得到优秀棒球运动员的竞技能力结构组成,在经过对组成中各项指标的测试和统计学处理,最终确定了中国最优秀棒球运动员的竞技能力结构模型.此模型一方面将为优秀棒球运动员运动能力的发展提供训练的目标系统,另一方面为优秀棒球运动员选材指标体系的确立提供理论与实践依据.

  6. 棒球比赛投手与击球手零和对策的全解%A Complete Solution to the Zero-sum Game Between Pitchers and Batters On the Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 盛立人

    2009-01-01

    棒球赛最重要也是最激烈的环节发生在击球手与投手之间的较量.本文根据美国棒球大联盟部分统计资料,通过投手与击球手的对策局势表,用优化方法与图解法即期望值的计算出投手和击球手之间的最佳对策.

  7. 对棒球运动员接地滚球技术训练方法的探析%Analysis of the Training Method of Picking up Bowls Technology of Baseball Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明胜

    2013-01-01

    采用文献资料法,问卷调查法和观察法等方法进行研究.通过对棒球运动员和教练员进行访问与调查,对棒球运动员的接地滚球技术的训练,提出了一系列的建议和方法,以期能对棒球运动员的水平的提高,做出一些有益的尝试.

  8. 美国职业棒球反垄断豁免制度的历史演进—基于案例分析%History and Analysis of American Professional Baseball's Antitrust Exemptions:Case—based Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜熙; 谭小勇

    2010-01-01

    美国的反垄断实践有着悠久的历史,而在职业体育领域,职业棒球在美国反垄断历史进程中是一个重要例子,也是一个特例,涉及到职业体育反垄断问题的诸多方面,至今在美国的反垄断发展过程中有着特殊的地位.主要采用案例分析法、比较分析法和逻辑分析法,从美国职业棒球的产生、发展轨迹研究出发,通过详细的案例分析对美国职业棒球反垄断法豁免制度的历史演进过程进行研究.旨在通过对美国职业棒球反垄断关键性案例的研究为我国对我国职业体育的豁免以及职业体育反垄断司法分析提供有价值的参考.

  9. 中学生棒球练习者眼动特征的实验研究%Experimental Study on Characteristics of Eye-movement of High School Baseball Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森; 李京诚

    2008-01-01

    利用先进的仪器对中学生棒球练习者的眼动特征进行研究,为相关研究和运动实践提供理论指导.实验采用三因素被试内设计,应用 iView X 头盔式眼动仪对中学生棒球练习者与普通中学生注视棒球投球视频的眼动特征进行比较.结果发现,2组被试的注视时间、注视次数、出手追球差及主要注视位置等均存在显著差异,而投球方式对各指标的影响则没有显著性差异.经分析得出以下结论:运动水平是影响被试对各个位置注视时间和次数的主要因素,专业组的注视过程较为全面、细致,且注视轨迹比较紧凑,专业组在球出手后开始视觉追踪球的启动时间明显快于非专业组被试;2组被试注视位置的最大差异是对"球出手附近"的注视,专业组对球出手的动作有一个预判的过程.

  10. An Investigation and Analysis of Sports lnj uries of High-level Baseball Players in China%我国高水平棒球运动员运动损伤调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史清钊; 王廉; 陈佑学

    2009-01-01

    通过对参加中国棒球联赛6个队中的88名棒球运动员运动损伤的调查,显示出棒球运动员损伤发生丰较高,以肩、肘、腰、膝、踝、手腕部位为多,其中肩关节和肘关节损伤与本项目运动特点关系最为密切;损伤原因中以疲劳性运动损伤最突出.建议在训练中应重视医务监督,保证充分合理的准备活动,发生损伤后予以及时治疗.主要对棒球运动员损伤部位中的损伤最为突出的肩关节和肘关节的损伤原因进行分析,提出相应的建议与预防措施,以便在今后的棒球训练与比赛中,预防和减少棒球运动员运动损伤的发生,提高运动成绩.

  11. Analyzing on the Factors and Countermeasures of Influencing the Baseball Development in Universities and Colleges in China%影响我国高校棒球运动开展的因素与对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳建军; 李可可; 李生智

    2005-01-01

    运用文献资料、专家访谈、比较分析等研究方法,对我国高校开展棒球运动的现状进行分析.研究发现:正在开展棒球运动的高校在全国各地区分布不均衡,大部分集中在沿海和中部地区;而且各个高校开展棒球运动目的、组织形式等也不相同;导致这种现象的主要原因是全国大部分高校开展棒球运动的资金匮乏、全国性棒球比赛少而且缺乏影响力等;针对这些问题,提出了几点建议,以便促进我国棒球运动的开展与普及.

  12. 美国职业棒球契约规范的层级结构及制度变迁%Hierarchical Structures of Contract Conventions of America's Professional Baseball and the Changes of their System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕

    2014-01-01

    通过对美国职业棒球契约规范层级结构的分析,对职业棒球选秀制度、自由球员制度、自由经纪人制度、仲裁制度等契约规范变迁的探讨,旨在为我国未来职业棒球运动的发展提供理论借鉴.

  13. 我国高校棒球运动的发展现状及对策研究%Study on Current Situation and Countermeasures of Baseball Athletics Development in Universities and Colleges of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵恒忠; 王祥茂; 陈文

    2006-01-01

    目前我国高校棒球运动进入历史最好的发展机遇;尤其是教育部近期批准部分高校建立高水平棒球队以及中国大学生棒垒球训练基地的建立,对推动我国高校棒球事业发展起到积极作用.运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、问卷调查法对中国大学生棒球运动发展的现状进行调查和分析,提出相应的发展对策,为我国大学生棒球运动的发展提供有益的借鉴.

  14. The Current Situation and the Counter Measures of Cultivating Reserve Talents of Baseball and Softball in Jiangsu Province%江苏省棒、垒球后备人才培养的现状与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天峰

    2004-01-01

    采用问卷调查法、数理统计法、逻辑分析法和专家访谈法,从后备人才的总量、梯队情况,教练员队伍现状,经费情况,竞赛体制等方面,对江苏省棒、垒球后备人才培养现状进行分析,并提出以高校为"龙头",扩大培养规模,加快提高教练员水平,坚持体教结合多渠道办队等若干建议.

  15. Research on the Present Situation of Baseball Techique of Chinese National Team and the Way To Improve the Technique%中国棒球技术现状与对策的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥茂

    2002-01-01

    在中国开展职业棒球之际,本文对中国棒球队近10年的重大洲际比赛进行追踪和分析,并与世界一流强队,亚洲三强(日本、中国台北、韩国)作对比研究,发现90年代初期我国成年棒球仍落后于亚洲三强的主要原因是击球技术较落后,多垒打率低.以投促击,以"多垒打"为主的击球技术,是我国成年棒球在2008年奥运会取得突破的关键之一.

  16. 浅析棒球运动在中国的发展之路%A Brief Research on the Development Road of the Baseball in P. R. C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋校能; 陈静霞

    2005-01-01

    中国棒球队直接进入2008年北京奥运会,2002年第1届中国棒球职业联赛和2003年首届中国大学生棒球联赛成功举办,预示着中国棒球运动正在蓬勃发展.采用文献法和历史调查法,通过对棒球发展史以及棒球在中国的开展情况进行调查研究,发现目前中国棒球运动存在"两头大,中间小"的状态--小学覆盖面广、职业棒球队得到大力发展,中学队伍却很少的瓶颈问题,人才培养存在断档现象,针对这一问题提出:要使棒球运动在中国得到普及性的开展,必须搞职业棒球联赛和高校棒球.

  17. 中国棒球运动与亚洲职业棒球发展差距的研究%Reseach on the Difference of Chinese win Asia Professional Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏日光

    2008-01-01

    棒球在日本、韩国和中国的台湾省有着悠久的历史和很高的竞技水平,与其职业棒球的发展有着紧密的联系.中国棒球联赛称不上真正意义的中国职棒联赛,只是看到了中国职棒的雏形,成为真正意义的职棒联赛,还需要有一定的时间进行棒球市场的培育与开发,只有队伍规模的壮大,球员水平的提高和拥有一定数量的球迷.真正气候的职业棒球才会实现,竞技水平才能赶超日本、韩国和中国台湾.

  18. The Function of Baseball and Softball in Putting College Sunshine Sports into Practice%论棒垒球在高校实践阳光体育运动中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭坚

    2012-01-01

    通过对高校阳光体育运动现状和棒垒球特点与价值的研究分析,棒垒球项目作为新兴体育教育措施,逐步进入高校并践行阳光体育运动.有利于弥补高校阳光体育运动新兴项目的不足.是高校阳光体育运动在形式上的创新,是内容上的双赢,建议高校将棒垒球项目列为体育教育的重要内容,丰富大学生体育锻炼的内容.

  19. Restrict to the Basic Question and Countermeasure of Athletics Level Enhancement of Baseball in China%制约我国棒球竞技水平提高的基本问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志钢

    2009-01-01

    通过对文献资料的分析,结合当前我国棒球运动的开展状况,从群众的普及性、青少年运动员的培养、职业运动员的训练以及教练员的执教水平等制约我国棒球竞技水平的基本问题进行了分析,并提出相关的解决方法和措施,为我国棒球竞技水平的提高提供有益的建议.

  20. 试析棒球前扑滑垒技术的运用及训练%Elementary Study on the Key Point of Movement and Training Methods of the Sit-sliding Technique in the Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋校能; 杨建祥

    2006-01-01

    前扑滑垒是棒球运动的一项重要技术,能否正确运用该技术会对棒球比赛的攻守行为产生直接的影响.在全国十运会棒球比赛中,前扑滑垒技术被各运动队广泛运用,进攻上收到了良好的效果,降低了被触杀的风险.但同时存在前扑滑垒动作不规范、技术失误过多、上垒率下降等不足,给运动员埋下了损伤的隐患.在查阅文献资料、采访知名教练的基础上,利用技术统计资料,结合自身运动和裁判实践的经验,对前扑滑垒技术进行分析研究,归纳和总结其动作要点及训练方法.

  1. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Casting Baseball Bat 6061 Aluminium Alloy%6061铝合金棒球棒铸造成形微观组织和力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莺歌; 潘太军

    2014-01-01

    以6061铝合金棒球棒为研究对象,研究了铸造成形工艺过程中合金力学性能与微观组织.结果表明:合金在温度较低时其组织主要为动态回复组织,晶粒沿变形方向明显被拉长,表现为宏观上纤维状,随温度升高,在拉长的晶粒旁边不断出现极少量的细小再结晶晶粒,在高温时部分晶粒在晶界部位出现锯齿化现象;典型的单峰型动态再结晶曲线为合金的应力应变曲线的特征,且合金的稳态和峰值应力都随应变速率增加和实验温度降低而增加,对应的最小值分别为26、23 MPa,最大值分别达到104、86MPa;动态再结晶晶粒尺寸和动态再结晶体积分数随温度的升高和应变速率的降低而增加.

  2. Learning How to Play Ball: Applying Sabermetric Thinking to Benchmarking in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the notion is certainly cliched, baseball often serves as an excellent metaphor for life. Some of the methodologies currently being used to measure, evaluate, manage, and even play baseball may serve as references for ways that higher education may be measured, evaluated, managed, and played. This chapter proposes and presents…

  3. A Classroom Note on: Building on Errors in Numerical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    In both baseball and mathematics education, the conventional wisdom is to avoid errors at all costs. That advice might be on target in baseball, but in mathematics, it is not always the best strategy. Sometimes an analysis of errors provides much deeper insights into mathematical ideas and, rather than something to eschew, certain types of errors…

  4. Hispanic Community College Students and the Transfer Game: Strikes, Misses, and Grand Slam Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Lester, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    Like baseball, community colleges are an American invention. This article employs a baseball metaphor to analyze and to explain success of Latino students in the Los Angeles Community College District. Specifically, a sample of 5,000 students were participants in the Transfer Game, where progress was measured by passing the courses specified by…

  5. The Negro Leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tygiel, Jules

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of the black baseball experience. Describes formation of the black leagues, the players, and the discrimination they faced in baseball in the United States. Explains how the early black players introduced new aspects to the major leagues that transformed and improved the quality of play. (DK)

  6. 75 FR 81675 - Approval of Exemption From the Bond/Escrow Requirement Relating to the Sale of Assets by an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Act of 1974, as amended, with respect to the Major League Baseball Players Pension Plan. A notice of... history of section 4204 indicates a Congressional intent that the sales rules be administered in a manner... Baseball Players Pension Plan (the ``Plan'') was established and is maintained pursuant to a...

  7. Everyday Curators: Collecting as Literate Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Liz

    2010-01-01

    In Mary Louise Pratt's oft-cited essay, "Arts of the Contact Zone," she argues that her son Sam's extracurricular hobby as a baseball card collector taught him about economics, racism, and American history, constituting literate activity that enabled him to hold his own in conversations with adults. Sam was also playing baseball at the time in…

  8. 77 FR 16928 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Miami River, Miami, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... congestion during Miami Marlins home baseball games poses a safety concern. This 90 day test deviation will... of Miami Marlins home baseball games. Tugs and tugs with tows, public vessels of the United States...: If you have questions on this rule, call or email Michael Lieberum, Seventh District Bridge...

  9. Data as the Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechler, Kent L.

    2013-01-01

    In the book "Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game," author Michael Lewis describes how the Oakland Athletics, one of the poorest teams in Major League Baseball, became one of the most successful teams by using simple analytical methods that had existed for years but had been largely ignored by the baseball executives. "Moneyball"…

  10. Pediatric Ocular Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and even baseball require protective goggles or full face mask wear at all times. Do fireworks still cause eye injuries? Each year hundreds of individuals (often children) sustain ...

  11. 人間子規における文学とベースボール(英語英米文学専攻)

    OpenAIRE

    依藤, 道夫; YORIFUJI, Michio

    2007-01-01

    Shiki Masaoka (1867-1902) was born in Matsuyama, Shikoku. He studied in Matsuyama and Tokyo. He became a famous modern Haiku reformer. His leadership gathered a great number of friends and followers, and made the "Shiki Mountains". Shiki was very much interested in baseball which was brought from the United States. He was a good player of baseball and taught his friend and followers how to play it. He also enjoyed a baseball game with them all. Shiki was a great reformer of modern Haiku and a...

  12. Getting the Swing of Surface Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C

    2012-01-01

    Sports are a popular and effective way to illustrate physics principles. Baseball in particular presents a number of opportunities to motivate student interest and teach concepts. Several articles have appeared in this journal on this topic, illustrating a wide variety of areas of physics. In addition, several websites and an entire book are available. In this paper we describe a student-designed project that illustrates the relative surface gravity on the Earth, Sun and other solar-system bodies using baseball. We describe the project and its results here as an example of a simple, fun, and student-driven use of baseball to illustrate an important physics principle.

  13. Glossary of ALS-Related Medical and Scientific Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional baseball player, also known as the Iron Horse because he established a record for the most ... pressure upon standing; may result in fainting. oxidative stress Accumulation of destructive molecules called free radicals can ...

  14. 76 FR 34750 - United States et al. v. Comcast Corp., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... cable network groups (including News Corporation, Time Warner, Inc., Viacom, Inc., and The Walt Disney... America, Time Warner, and Disney). \\3\\ ``Baseball-style'' arbitration is a method of alternative...

  15. How to Identify Drug Paraphernalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... packages Electronic-cigarettes (also called E-cigarettes) Small glass vials Pill bottles Candy or gum wrappers Baseball ... to make a blunt Pipes (metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, ceramic) Bongs (a filtration device to ...

  16. From Telluric (Earth) To Tectonic (Sky)

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Christopher Taylor

    2008-01-01

    My graduate thesis is a study of telluric and tectonic architecture. These two ideas inspired me to design a baseball stadium for the town of Blacksburg, Virginia that portrayed the contrasting concepts "of the earth" and "of the sky."

  17. Sports and Exercise Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you from tripping and falling: You know that sports like football, baseball , softball , and soccer require cleats. But you may not realize that sports like skateboarding and biking need special types of ...

  18. Biomechanics of the elbow in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftice, Jeremy; Fleisig, Glenn S; Zheng, Nigel; Andrews, James R

    2004-10-01

    In throwing activities, the elbow is sometimes stressed to its biomechanical limits. In this article, forces, torques, angular velocities, and muscle activity about the elbow are reviewed for the baseball pitch, the football pass, the javelin throw, the windmill softball pitch, the tennis serve, and the golf swing. The elbow goes through rapid extension in baseball pitching (about 2400 degrees/s) and rapid flexion in the javelin throw (about 1900 degrees/s). During baseball pitching, the elbow joint is subject to a valgus torque reaching 64 Nm, and requires proximal forces as high as 1000 N to prevent elbow distraction. The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) rupture in baseball pitching, lateral epicondylitis in the tennis backhand, and other injury mechanisms are also discussed.

  19. Shoulder Impingement/Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... athletes who use their arms overhead for swimming, baseball, and tennis are particularly vulnerable. Those who do ... may be limited and painful. Doctor Examination Medical History and Physical Examination A er discussing your symptoms ...

  20. It's Nolan Ryan: A Historiography Teaching Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Presents a plan for teaching historiography through analysis of baseball cards. Explains that students can learn about society, culture, discrimination, and inference. Reports that the lesson increased student interest, motivation, and sensitivity to the importance of historical sources. (DK)

  1. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Playground Safety Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Safety Tips: Baseball Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Hockey Safety Tips: ... it a Medical Emergency? Knowing Your Child's Medical History Nosebleeds Seizures Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Teaching Your ...

  2. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: Baseball Concussions Concussions: Getting Better Sports and Concussions Dealing ...

  3. Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical condition to play the sport. Follow the rules of the sport. Wear appropriate protective gear (for example, shin guards for soccer, a hard-shell helmet when facing a baseball or softball pitcher, a helmet and body padding ...

  4. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gear should be worn at all times for: • Baseball and Softball (when batting) • Cycling • Football • Hockey • Horseback ... use playgrounds with hard surface grounds. • Follow all rules and warning signs at water parks, swimming pools, ...

  5. Motivating Kids to Be Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doing. These can range from traditional sports like baseball and basketball to martial arts, biking, hiking, and playing outside. As kids learn basic skills and simple rules in the early school-age years, there might ...

  6. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hockey Football Ice Hockey Lacrosse Rugby Soccer Softball Volleyball Play Mute Back Next Participating Orginizations Amateur Athletic ... Soccer USA Baseball USA Football USA Rugby USA Volleyball YMCA of the USA Name Fancy Enter your ...

  7. BIG PLAY. Hospitals team up with biggest names in pro sports to score brand awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeznieks, Andis

    2016-07-01

    Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community.

  8. Elbow pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many problems. A common cause in adults is tendinitis . This is inflammation and injury to the tendons, ... of the elbow . Other common causes of elbow tendinitis are gardening, playing baseball, using a screwdriver, or ...

  9. 38 CFR 21.4252 - Courses precluded; erroneous, deceptive, or misleading practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., instrumental or vocal, public speaking course, or course in dancing, sports or athletics, such as horseback riding, swimming, fishing, skiing, golf, baseball, tennis, bowling, sports officiating, or other sport...

  10. Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... require short outputs of energy, like baseball, football, gymnastics, golf, and shorter track and field events. What ... too small for the basketball team may enjoy gymnastics or wrestling. Remember that some kids will prefer ...

  11. Preventing head injuries in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when they are in a car or other motor vehicle. Use a child safety seat or booster seat that is best ... Helmet Helmets help to ... baseball or softball games Riding a horse Riding a bike Sledding, skiing, ...

  12. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... running bases in baseball or softball; Riding a horse; or Skiing or snowboarding. Making living areas safer ... or sand. 4 Related Pages TBI: Get the Facts Signs and Symptoms Response Recovery Potential Effects Prevention ...

  13. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Xpert Opinion Activity Calendar Activity Cards Ballet Baseball ... Disaster - Are You at Risk? Disaster - Helping Hands Physical Activity - Questions Physical Activity - Active or Not, Here it ...

  14. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... español ¿Compensa tomar esteroides, a pesar de sus riesgos? Dominic has baseball on the brain. Just being ... higher risk for using other drugs, such as alcohol or cocaine, often to counteract some of the ...

  15. 大邱商業学校について : 在朝鮮「内地人」学校の事例研究

    OpenAIRE

    稲葉, 継雄

    2010-01-01

    Taegu (J. Taikyu) Commercial School, with the ethnic composition of its student body being one-half Japanese and one-half Korean, was founded in 1923 as a model of the coeducation of the Japanese and the Koreans in colonial Korea (naisen Kyogaku). By 1930, when its baseball team participated in the national middle school baseball tournament as the representative of colonial Korea, its reputation as the “ideal achiever of harmony between Japanese and Koreans (naisen yuwa) through its emphasis ...

  16. Come and Play Baselall with a machine!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the past, mechanical pitchers wereused only for the training of professionalbaseball players in China. But now ordinaryChinese people too can have a try if they goto the Baseball Ground at the OlympicSports Center in Beijing’s Asian GamesVillage. Four mechanical pitchers areinstalled there. They serve the balls fromdifferent angles and speeds, just like ahuman pitcher. When I step into the batter’s box readyfor a hit, I feel like one of those baseball

  17. Play Ball!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CORRIE; DOSH

    2008-01-01

    Major league baseball revives a century-old sport in China On the weekend of March 15,two American major league baseball teams met in Beijing for two ex- hibition games to show Chinese crowds just how exciting America’s favorite pastime can be.The San Diego Padres faced the Los Angeles Dodgers,in front of a near sellout crowd of 12,224 at the new Olympic venue.Vendors plied the crowd with hot

  18. 「野球統制令」と学生野球の自治 : 1930年代における東京六大学野球を中心に

    OpenAIRE

    中村, 哲也

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the historical meaning of Student Baseball Control Regulations (YAKYU TOSEI REI, SBCR), which was established by Ministry of Education (MOE) to make political adjustment to the modernization of sports in Japan at that time and to "guide" students' thought in the "right" direction (SHISO ZENDO, moral guidance). To do so, relationships between SBCR and two kinds of autonomy in student baseball, one is mainly organized by managers, coaches and alumni of st...

  19. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  20. Tie Goes to the Runner: The Physics and Psychology of a Close Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, David J.; Starling, Sarah J.

    2017-04-01

    Since physics is often a service course for college students, it is important to incorporate everyday examples in the curriculum that inspire students of diverse backgrounds and interests. In this regard, baseball has been a workhorse for the physics classroom for a long time, taking the form of demonstrations and example problems. Here, we discuss how baseball can help bridge the physical and social sciences in an introductory physics course by analyzing a close play at first base.

  1. Une balle blanche dans un roman noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Vallas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En 1982, Paul Auster fit paraître, sous le pseudonyme de Paul Benjamin, un roman noir intitulé Squeeze Play. Ce roman présente la particularité d’appartenir également au genre du baseball novel, l’intrigue se déroulant en partie dans le monde du base-ball et sa résolution intervenant grâce à une manœuvre rare et spectaculaire (un double suicide squeeze qui éclaire l’enquête sous un jour nouveau. Cet article se propose d’analyser la place du base-ball dans Squeeze Play : élément essentiel de la structuration du roman, le base-ball permet également à Auster d’étudier le mythe du héros américain déchu dans une société dont toutes les dimensions (sportive, politique, privée sont gangrenées par la corruption et la perversion. La relation particulière qu’Auster tisse entre roman noir et baseball novel est également étudiée.In 1982 Paul Auster published a roman noir entitled Squeeze Play under the pseudonym of Paul Benjamin. The novel is also a “baseball novel”: its plot essentially deals with a baseball New York team and its former, fallen star, and the final resolution of the mystery intervenes thanks to a revelation brought by a baseball game in which a rather rare and spectacular maneuver (the double suicide squeeze is used by one of the teams to turn the tables and win the game. This paper analyzes the place of baseball in Squeeze Play: it first appears as an essential element in the very structure of the plot, but it is also, for Auster, a way of questioning the myth of the hero in an American society whose main aspects (sports, politics, private life are eaten up by corruption and perversion. The links Auster establishes between roman noir and baseball novel are also dealt with.

  2. Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Humeral Capitellum in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Shiro; Muroi, Satoshi; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Norimasa; Matsuki, Keisuke; Kawai, Nobuaki; Osaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions are often observed in the humeral capitellum both in young baseball players and gymnasts. It is generally believed that capitellar OCD in baseball players can be seen on an anteroposterior (AP) radiograph with the elbow in 45° of flexion. However, the mechanism of injury seems to be different in baseball players and gymnasts. Repetitive valgus overload with the elbow in flexion is believed to be the cause of capitellar OCD lesions in baseball players, whereas weightbearing with the elbow in extension may be the cause of OCD in gymnasts. Purpose: To determine the difference in capitellar OCD location between baseball players and gymnasts and to propose the optimal AP radiographic angle of the elbow for visualization of early-stage OCD lesions in adolescent gymnasts. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Subjects consisted of 95 baseball players (95 elbows) and 21 gymnasts (24 elbows) with a mean age of 13.7 years (range, 11-18 years). To localize the lesion, inclination of the affected area in the humeral capitellum against the humeral axis was investigated using sagittal computed tomography images of the elbow. The inclination angle was defined as the angle between the long axis of the humerus and the line perpendicular to a line that connected the anterior and posterior margin of the lesion. The inclination angle in each group was compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean inclination angle was 57.6° ± 10.7° in baseball players and 28.0° ± 10.7° in gymnasts. Capitellar OCD lesions were located more anterior in baseball players when compared with gymnasts (P < .01). Conclusion: Due to differences in applied stress, capitellar OCD lesions in baseball players were located more anteriorly compared with those seen in gymnasts. Therefore, although AP radiographs with the elbow in 45° of flexion are optimal for detecting OCD lesions in baseball players, radiographs with

  3. Comparative study of Chinese baseball team and its opponents' offensive and defensive abilities in the 29th Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运会中国棒球队与对手攻防能力的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 李玉禄

    2010-01-01

    采用文献资料、逻辑分析和比较研究等方法,对第29届奥运会中国棒球队全部比赛场次的技术数据进行统计研究,分析了中国棒球队的整体攻防技术能力存在的不足,以为中国队今后训练、比赛提供参考.

  4. The Investigation and Analysis of Slow -pitch Softball Game in Promoting the Popularization and Enhancement of Baseball and Softball in Colleges and Universities%慢速垒球运动在高校开展的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭炎林

    2010-01-01

    在棒垒球运动中慢速垒球简化了规则,降低了技术难度,是一种适合大众开展的健身性运动休闲项目.通过调查发现高校学生掌握棒垒球知识很少,但是通过简单易学的慢速垒球运动,可以尽快地使学生体验到棒垒球运动的魅力,了解到棒垒球运动的文化内涵.同时,从高校目前场地建设与教师队伍的实际出发,慢速垒球更加适合推广与发展.另外,慢速垒球适合在高校开展竞赛活动,通过竞赛的杠杆作用可促进棒垒球运动在高校的普及与提高.

  5. Analysis on the Strength of the Top Four Teams in Group B Participating in the 7th Chinese College Baseball and Softball Championship%第7届中国大学生棒垒球锦标赛棒球乙组小组四强实力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幸堂; 贾宝童; 赵婉转

    2012-01-01

    以第7届中国大学生棒垒球锦标赛棒球乙组小组前4名为研究对象,对其在本次比赛中的各项能力指标进行统计分析,研究结果表明:桂林旅专具有较强的的进攻能力和非常强的防守能力,但是投手投杀率最低,投手能力不是太强,有待提高加强;厦门大学的垒打率最高,队员力量较强,属于力量型打法;深圳大学队员的击打能力较弱,但是偷垒成功率最高;四支队伍总体的防守能力实力相当.

  6. 广州体院与市体委合办棒球队新途径探讨%On the New Way to Co-Operation of Guangzhou Institute of Physical Education and Sports Committee of Guangzhou to Run a Baseball Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥茂

    2002-01-01

    通过对广州体院与广州市体委合办高水平棒球队过程的组织管理、队伍建设、训练体制、培养目标、队员出路、办学经费、成果等问题的研究,认为广州体院与市体委合作办队新途径在国内高校竞技体制中具有较好的示范作用,适合在我国高校推广和应用.

  7. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events

    CERN Document Server

    Takeichi, Yuki; Suzuki, Reji; Arita, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a good indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately show reactions to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. These findings were also confirmed in an analysis of the 2014 FIFA World Cup final. We further showed active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-fre...

  8. Visual Enhancement for Sports Entertainment by Vision-Based Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Saito

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents visually enhanced sports entertainment applications: AR Baseball Presentation System and Interactive AR Bowling System. We utilize vision-based augmented reality for getting immersive feeling. First application is an observation system of a virtual baseball game on the tabletop. 3D virtual players are playing a game on a real baseball field model, so that users can observe the game from favorite view points through a handheld monitor with a web camera. Second application is a bowling system which allows users to roll a real ball down a real bowling lane model on the tabletop and knock down virtual pins. The users watch the virtual pins through the monitor. The lane and the ball are also tracked by vision-based tracking. In those applications, we utilize multiple 2D markers distributed at arbitrary positions and directions. Even though the geometrical relationship among the markers is unknown, we can track the camera in very wide area.

  9. Calculating proper transfer prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  10. Quantum mechanics, by itself, implies perception of a classical world

    CERN Document Server

    Blood, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, although highly successful, has two peculiarities. First, in many situations it gives more than one potential version of reality. And second, the wave function for a macroscopic object such as a baseball can be spread out over a macroscopic distance. In the first, quantum mechanics seems to imply that the observer will perceive more than one version of reality and in the second it seems to imply we should see spread-out, blurred objects instead of sharply delineated baseballs. But neither implication is true. Quantum mechanics, by itself, implies more than one version of reality will never be reportably perceived, and it implies the perceived position of a baseball will always be sharply defined. Further, two observers will never disagree on what they perceive. Thus quantum mechanics, by itself, with no assumption of particles or collapse, always leads to the perception of a classical-appearing universe.

  11. Humeral shaft fracture treatment in the elite throwing athlete: a unique application of flexible intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher S; Davis, Shane M; Ho, Hoang-Anh; Fronek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data.

  12. Racial Fault-lines in “Baseball’s Great Experiment:” Black Perceptions, White Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D. Fetter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three facets of the breaking of major league baseball’s color line by Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947: the perception of blacks, the response of white players (whether teammates or opponents, and the reaction of baseball fans. By so doing, the paper will illuminate the fault-lines that characterized race relations within both the sport of baseball and the larger society as each was confronted with new challenges to long established policies and practices in the years after the Second World War.

  13. Class Trips in Cyberspace: No Passports Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes examples of electronic field trips for elementary and secondary school students taking place during the 1996-97 school year. Topics include Mayan civilization, wildlife migration, geothermal hot spots, Antarctica, sailboat voyages, baseball and math, viruses, Hong Kong, and offerings from National Geographic. (LRW)

  14. Getting the Swing of Surface Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Quick, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Sports are a popular and effective way to illustrate physics principles. Baseball in particular presents a number of opportunities to motivate student interest and teach concepts. Several articles have appeared in this journal on this topic, illustrating a wide variety of areas of physics. In addition, several websites and an entire book are…

  15. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  16. Business Ethics: A View from the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Diane D.; Webb, Fred L.

    2010-01-01

    The global economy has been devastated in the last year and according to Federal Reserve Chairman, Ben Bernanke, America's economy was threatened, reminiscent of the Great Depression. Our nation is also in a serious ethical and moral decline, as evidenced by steroid use in baseball, corporate scandals, accounting fraud, religious immorality within…

  17. Displaced Pride: Attacking Cynicism at the United States Air Force Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    especially doesn‘t work for work‘s sake. We demand satisfaction, fulfillment, enjoyment , and sense of purpose from life. USAFA squashes all those...stupid and violent jock 41 get drunk , take a baseball bat to the terrazzo T-38 canopy, and only getting his wrist slapped. If I had pulled that, I

  18. Should Colleges Be Sued for Harboring Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Gregory A. Love, then a student at Morehouse College, in Atlanta, was beaten in 2002 with a baseball bat by a fellow student in a dormitory shower after Love made what his attacker perceived as a homosexual advance. The attacker was later convicted of aggravated assault and battery. Love sued Morehouse, arguing that the institution was liable for…

  19. From University Heights to Cooperstown: Halls of Fame and American Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friss, Evan J.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the development and function of American halls of fame as cultural memory institutions. By comparing the Hall of Fame for Great Americans with the National Baseball Hall of Fame, the author posits that halls of fame illuminate the ways in which cultural memory institutions can, through an archival process, preserve, instill,…

  20. Staying at the Top: Playing Position and Performance Affect Career Length in Professional Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Koz, Dan; Kungl, Ann-Marie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Schorer, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to understand the process of skill acquisition and decline, researchers have largely neglected a critical aspect of this development--maximizing time at the highest levels of achievement. This study examined length of career for professional athletes in basketball, football, ice hockey, and baseball and considers whether career length…

  1. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professiona

  2. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part D. Institutional Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    AT DWGNRA WITH AND WITHOUT TILP XVII-80 1. Market Demand XVII-80 2. Facilities Provided XVII-85 3. Rationing Techniques XVII-87 4. Programmed...basketball off road driving tennis baseball bicycling horseback riding football boating hiking and nature walks hockey birdwatching snowmobiling...determinants of the actual patronage for alternative concepts of DWGNRA: market demand, facilities provided, rationing techniques and programmed activities

  3. A Laboratory/Field Study of Television Violence and Aggression in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ann E.; Moriarty, Richard J.

    A study on the effect of viewing violence on television on childrens' behavior was conducted within the context of sport activity. Three sports--baseball, hockey, and lacrosse--were chosen. Teams of children from three different age groups were the subjects. Within each of the age levels in each sport, teams were selected and assigned to…

  4. The social impact of sport: cross-cultural perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2011-01-01

    1. Introduction: The Social Impact of Sport: Diversities, Complexities and Contexts Ramon Spaaij Part 1: Sport development and social change: intended and unanticipated consequences 2. The Transnational View of Sport and Social Development: The Case of Dominican Baseball Alan Klein 3. The Glue that

  5. Concussions More Likely in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a higher risk of concussions. For women, the sports included field hockey, soccer, basketball, softball and lacrosse, said study lead author ... that have shown that women participating in similar sports as men -- like soccer, basketball, baseball/softball -- report concussions at a higher ...

  6. Meniscus Tears (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slowing or stopping quickly, as can happen in sports like soccer, baseball, basketball, tennis, and racquetball taking a direct ... Story Knee Injuries Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Safety Tips: Soccer Dealing With Sports Injuries Stress Fractures Sports Center ...

  7. 阅读理解三则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    (A)American Students' Hobbies All American students have at least one major hobby. A large number of high school students take part in sports activities after school. They must practice every day. The most popular sports are basketball, American football, soccer and baseball.

  8. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  9. A beautiful day in tennis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bomina country where people are crazy about baseball and soccer,Mikami Eichi falls in love with tennis.When he was 12 years-old,his parents got interested in tennis,and he started to play tennis too.A year later.Mikami went into

  10. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  11. Play Ball!--The Scheduling of Sports Officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses use of the computer to solve the specific scheduling problems in assigning umpires to American League baseball games and assigning crews of officials to Atlantic Coast Conference football and basketball games. Scheduling variables that complicate the process and make manual scheduling almost impossible are described. (MBR)

  12. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  13. Action Effects and Task Knowledge: The Influence of Anticipatory Priming on the Identification of Task-Related Stimuli in Experts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Land

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which anticipation of an action's perceptual effect primes identification of task-related stimuli. Specifically, skilled (n = 16 and novice (n = 24 tennis players performed a choice-reaction time (CRT test in which they identified whether the presented stimulus was a picture of a baseball bat or tennis racket. Following their response, auditory feedback associated with either baseball or tennis was presented. The CRT test was performed in blocks in which participants predictably received the baseball sound or tennis sound irrespective of which stimulus picture was displayed. Results indicated that skilled tennis players responded quicker to tennis stimuli when the response was predictably followed by the tennis auditory effect compared to the baseball auditory effect. These findings imply that, within an individual's area of expertise, domain-relevant knowledge is primed by anticipation of an action's perceptual effect, thus allowing the cognitive system to more quickly identify environmental information. This finding provides a more complete picture of the influence that anticipation can have on the cognitive-motor system. No differences existed for novices.

  14. Home advantage in speed skating : Evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RH

    2005-01-01

    Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home advantag

  15. Spirituality in Sport – Athletes’ Experiences and Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkainen, Noora; Nesti, Mark; Tikkanen, Olli

    their athletic careers, including both difficult and rewarding moments, meanings assigned to the practice, and on personal worldviews and values. Participants’ sports included golf, football, Nordic combined skiing, Finnish baseball and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Preliminary analysis of the athletes’ stories revealed...

  16. Home advantage in speed skating : evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2003-01-01

    Home advantage is a well documented phenomena in many types of sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home

  17. Rediscovering a Kunqu Classic——Interview with Yip Kam Tim, stage and costume designer for The Palace of Eternal Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    OSCAR-WINNING art designer Yip Kam Tim, dressed in his trademark blackand-white T-shirt and baseball cap,greets me with a welcoming smile. He is keen to talk about his latest and probably most challenging project.

  18. Hunting Down Lethal DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛勤

    1994-01-01

    It’s only May, but 1993 has already seen the discovery of genes forHuntington’s chorea and for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, often calledLou Gehrig’s disease after the American baseball player who became itsbest-known victim. Last week a team of 14 researchers announced the

  19. The contract of language: John Searle’s philosophy of society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    In Making the Social World, John Searle develops what he calls a "philosophy of society", which explores the ontological status and logical structure of institutional facts like universities and baseball games. This philosophy of society crucially depends on Searle's earlier work in the philosophy o

  20. 男女有别%Diffference between Men and Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先富

    2003-01-01

    @@ Maturity 成熟 Women mature much faster than men. Most 17- year-old females can function as adults. Most 17-year-old males are still trading baseball cards and giving each other wedgies after gym class. This is why high school romances rarely work out.

  1. 拉拉队名人榜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    George W.Bush乔治·W·布什It was while attending a boys’ boarding school in Massachusetts that George W.Bush discovered his talent for cheerleading. Having continually failed in his attempts to play baseball,Bush,who already owned shares in his father’s company and was the

  2. The Trouble with the Other N-Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. Quentin

    2012-01-01

    When Jackie Robinson broke through to the (white) major leagues, "Negro" was the agreed-upon term to designate African-Americans. In fact, he broke through from "the Negro leagues." It would be a historical distortion to say that Robinson had once played in the "black baseball leagues" or the "African-American…

  3. Physical Education for High School Students. A Book of Sports, Athletics, and Recreational Activities for Teen-Age Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, William H., Ed.

    This book about physical activity was written especially for high school students. It is divided into chapters on different physical events. Among the activities discussed are archery, badminton, baseball and softball, golf, riflery, swimming, tennis, touch football, volleyball, and wrestling. Each chapter contains discussions of the history of…

  4. Jackie Steals Home. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulda, Arnold

    In this lesson, students draw on their previous studies of American history and culture as they analyze primary sources from "Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights, 1860s-1960s" in the American Memory collection. A close reading of two documents relating to Jackie Robinson's breaking of the racial barrier in professional baseball…

  5. Intercollegiate Athletics in the Roaring Twenties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Robert J.

    College sports were started by students in the post Civil War period of the 1860's and 1870's. By the 1880's football, baseball, crew, and track and field were popular intercollegiate sports. The desire of the nation as a whole for diversion after World War I provided an impetus for sports in general and intercollegiate athletics in particular.…

  6. Sport in History: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a sampling of eight entries from the ERIC database that deal with the history of sport. Includes works discussing baseball as a representation of societal value, lesson plans, and works dealing with race and cultural themes. Provides instructions for obtaining the documents listed. (DK)

  7. Classroom Teacher's Idea Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Alfred J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    "Using Geography to Teach Comparative Values: Japan and the United States" (H. Flater) uses baseball to introduce junior high students to basic differences in the way various cultures view similar events. "Defining Directionality: Early Learning Experiences that Teach Concepts in a Pragmatic and Engaging Format" (C. Grace ; M.…

  8. 75 FR 54191 - Pendency of Request for Exemption From the Bond/Escrow Requirement Relating to the Sale of Assets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, with respect to the Major League Baseball... requirement of section 4204(a)(1)(B) when warranted. The legislative history of section 4204 indicates a... represents, among other things, that: 1. The Seller was obligated to contribute to the Major League...

  9. "In Defence of Cricket": The Imperial Games Ethic in Victorian English Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates how societies can be judged by the athletic games they play through presentation of an exchange of letters appearing in the 1872 issues of the Upper Canada College newspaper. Shows how cricket, representing imperial society and muscular Christianity, was threatened by the Yankees and "American baseball." (LS)

  10. New Resources for Black History Month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews eight children's books, three books for teachers, and a set of posters that focus on African American history. The books focus on rhymes, poetry, the negro baseball leagues, the African American family, the civil rights movement, the Coretta Scott King Awards, multicultural education, and black innovators. (MDM)

  11. From Fob to Noc: A Pathway to a Cyber Career for Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    full-time job at the department and coaching every baseball team my children desired to be on. And, finally, I wish to thank the source of...military history in America. Veterans have had ingrained into them a concept of security that literally kept them alive. This concept of security is

  12. New York Newspaper Coverage of Jackie Robinson in His First Major League Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Pat

    Sports articles appearing in three New York City newspapers in Jackie Robinson's first season as a major league baseball player were examined to determine if there was biased reporting based on racial prejudice. The sports pages of the New York "Times," the "Herald Tribune," and the "Daily News" for 44 days in 1947…

  13. AccesSports: A Model for Adapting Mainstream Sports Activities for Individuals with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchilla, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    The AccesSports Model allows professionals with basic knowledge of visual impairments and mainstream sports to analyze any sports activity and design adaptations needed for targets or goals, boundaries, and rules to enable individuals with visual impairments to participate. Suggestions for modifying baseball, table tennis, swim racing, wrestling,…

  14. Student Learning through Hands-On Industry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Lingma Lu

    2014-01-01

    Learning is most effective when accompanied by doing. If someone desires to become a baseball player, being told how to play the game, watching others play and even understanding the rules of the game are mostly ineffective if the individual never "swings the bat". This paper outlines the implementation of this method (swinging the bat)…

  15. Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

    1984-01-01

    Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

  16. Aerodynamics of sports balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research data on the aerodynamic behavior of baseballs and cricket and golf balls are summarized. Cricket balls and baseballs are roughly the same size and mass but have different stitch patterns. Both are thrown to follow paths that avoid a batter's swing, paths that can curve if aerodynamic forces on the balls' surfaces are asymmetric. Smoke tracer wind tunnel tests and pressure taps have revealed that the unbalanced side forces are induced by tripping the boundary layer on the seam side and producing turbulence. More particularly, the greater pressures are perpendicular to the seam plane and only appear when the balls travel at velocities high enough so that the roughness length matches the seam heigh. The side forces, once tripped, will increase with spin velocity up to a cut-off point. The enhanced lift coefficient is produced by the Magnus effect. The more complex stitching on a baseball permits greater variations in the flight path curve and, in the case of a knuckleball, the unsteady flow effects. For golf balls, the dimples trip the boundary layer and the high spin rate produces a lift coefficient maximum of 0.5, compared to a baseball's maximum of 0.3. Thus, a golf ball travels far enough for gravitational forces to become important.

  17. Gary O's Fence Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of finding the amount of fence it would require for the outfield fence of a baseball field of given dimensions. Presents different solution methods for each of the levels from grades 9-12. The different methods incorporate geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, and calculus. (MDH)

  18. Superhero School Reform Heading Your Way: Now Playing in Newark, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Watching the rise to fame of Michelle Rhee, the former Washington, D.C., schools chancellor who is one of the heroes of director Davis Guggenheim's "Waiting for 'Superman'," the author was struck by how the targets had changed. Clark's baseball bat was aimed at the young black males who were demonized as a criminal element in the schoolyard.…

  19. NCI and Leidos Play Ball | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The ping of an aluminum bat off a ball or the thump of a pop-up fly ball caught in a glove are two sounds familiar to baseball fans. Slow-pitch softball sounds—like those in the August game between mixed teams of NCI and Leidos Biomedical Research (formerly SAIC-Frederick) players—are similar.

  20. Sports in the U.S.A.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In many parts of the world, there are four seasons:spring. summer,fall and winter.In the U.S., there are only three: football,basketball and baseball.That's not completely true.but almost.In every season,Americans have a ball.

  1. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  2. Surviving Brain Damage After Assault Wilson Barbara A Dhamapurkar Samira Kashinath and Rose Anita Surviving Brain Damage After Assault 154pp £19.99 Psychology Press/Routledge 9781138824584 1138824585 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This book documents the journey of Gary, a young man who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury in an attack by a gang armed with hammers and baseball bats. Gary spent 19 months with minimal awareness of his surroundings before showing signs of recovery and, after nearly three years of rehabilitation, a return to independence.

  3. BDM-KAT; Report of Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-31

    I Football - Basketball Table Tennis Soccer Tennis Rugby Racquetball - Baseball - Handball FIGURE 10 SIMPLE TAXONOMY OF GAMES Temporal Organization of... Handball FIGURE 5 SIMPLE TAXONOMY OF GA’MES Control Panel/ / A /7 User _ _ _ _ _ _ _.__ Interface Tools 7, // / Relational Database FIGURE 6 CURRENT

  4. Girls Are Not Dodo Birds! Exploring Gender Equity Issues in the Language Arts Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett-Simpson, Mary; Masland, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Examines what children's own stories reveal about the attributes they assign to females. Discusses the different ways elementary school boys and girls orally completed an unfinished story about a girl wanting to play baseball. Proposes how teachers can help move their students toward a more gender-fair classroom environment by using instructional…

  5. 38 CFR 21.7120 - Courses included in programs of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (ii) Any music course, instrumental or vocal, public speaking course or courses in dancing, sports or athletics, such as horseback riding, swimming, fishing, skiing, golf, baseball, tennis, bowling, sports officiating, or other sport or athletic courses, except courses of applied music, physical education,...

  6. Beat the Smokeless Habit. Game Plan for Success. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This guide was originally designed for professional baseball players but it is now distributed to college athletes. The facts and strategies apply to any athlete in any sport. Use of smokeless tobacco or snuff greatly increases the risk of developing oral cancer and other serious medical conditions. The first part of this guide explains the health…

  7. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  8. Invited Lectures from a Spatial Orientation Symposium in Honor of Frederick Guedry, Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-10

    just telling you, that’s the way they were referred to. [Correia] That may be legend , but that wasn’t the case. They were very sophisticated and...game 7-6. That may not seem too impressive but LSU was a powerhouse at the time. LSU, just a couple weeks before, had beaten a major league baseball

  9. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  10. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  11. Superhero School Reform Heading Your Way: Now Playing in Newark, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Watching the rise to fame of Michelle Rhee, the former Washington, D.C., schools chancellor who is one of the heroes of director Davis Guggenheim's "Waiting for 'Superman'," the author was struck by how the targets had changed. Clark's baseball bat was aimed at the young black males who were demonized as a criminal element in the…

  12. Kids' Quest: Tourette

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... model to young people with TS; at baseball games, he visits with children with TS, letting them see that he is ... in America, it’s likely that at least one child has Tourette Syndrome (TS), ... involuntary vocal and motor tics that persist over time. Many parents and ...

  13. Applying Multiculturalism to a High School American Literature Course: Changing Lenses and Crossing Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskin, David; Marshalek, Angela

    1995-01-01

    Describes a nine-week, secondary-school, language arts unit on the American dream with an emphasis on multicultural issues, particularly as they concern those students who are apathetic about or resistant to the multicultural program. Reviews specific lesson approaches to "The Great Gatsby,""Baseball in April,""Justin and the Best Biscuits in the…

  14. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  15. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and shooting require protective goggles or full face mask wear at all times. Do fireworks still cause eye injuries? Each year hundreds of individuals (often children) sustain ...

  16. Eye Health in Sports and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer ... protection. High-Risk Sports For all age groups, sports-related eye injuries occur most frequently in baseball, basketball and racquet ...

  17. Do People Whose Names Begin with "D" Really Die Young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more…

  18. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  19. Simulation in Sport Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Joris; Rascher, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low risk environment. The OAKLAND A'S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry, in which sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of experiences provided…

  20. Wounded Warriors (AW2), 5th Anniversary Report, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    kayaking , a visit to the zoo, and a Family night at a baseball game—as well as counseling sessions where they worked to identify their own issues for...With the evolving nature of warrior care, this is a move that just made sense. From the battlefield to the home front, MEDCOM has the oversight and

  1. LJ Best Audiobooks 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a list of the best audiobooks of 2010. Among the past year's most memorable audiobooks, all recipients of starred "Library Journal" reviews, are four "LJ" Best Books, two postapocalyptic trilogy starters, two nonfiction tracts on marriage, a baseball novella, an adult/YA crossover novel, and an Obama biography.

  2. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Physiotherapy Canada, 31, 28-31. Eggeman, G. W. and Noble, M. L. (1985). "Design and testing a baseball-bat transducer," Experimental Techniques, 9, 20-23...Technology, 1, 95-97, 110. Minns, R. J. and Craxford A. D. (1984). Pressure under the forefoot in rheumatoid arthritis . Clinical Orthopaedics and

  3. How Much is it Going to Cost Me to Complete a Collection of Football Trading Cards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Oke

    2013-01-01

    Trading cards for various sports and a range of other subjects such as architecture, animals, hobbies, and war have been in existence since the late nineteenth century and still enjoy great popularity. Two of the most prominent examples are baseball cards in the U.S. and football cards in Europe. Three strategies for collecting European football…

  4. Modeling gunshot bruises in soft body armor with an adaptive fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ian; Kosko, Bart; Anderson, W French

    2005-12-01

    Gunshots produce bruise patterns on persons who wear soft body armor when shot even though the armor stops the bullets. An adaptive fuzzy system modeled these bruise patterns based on the depth and width of the deformed armor given a projectile's mass and momentum. The fuzzy system used rules with sinc-shaped if-part fuzzy sets and was robust against random rule pruning: Median and mean test errors remained low even after removing up to one fifth of the rules. Handguns shot different caliber bullets at armor that had a 10%-ordnance gelatin backing. The gelatin blocks were tissue simulants. The gunshot data tuned the additive fuzzy function approximator. The fuzzy system's conditional variance V[Y/X = x] described the second-order uncertainty of the function approximation. Handguns with different barrel lengths shot bullets over a fixed distance at armor-clad gelatin blocks that we made with Type 250 A Ordnance Gelatin. The bullet-armor experiments found that a bullet's weight and momentum correlated with the depth of its impact on armor-clad gelatin (R2 = 0.881 and p-value baseball impacts compared well to bullet-armor impacts for large-caliber handguns. A baseball's momentum correlated with its impact depth in putty (R2 = 0.93 and p-value Baseball impact depths were comparable to bullet-armor impact depths: Getting shot with a .22 caliber bullet when wearing soft body armor resembles getting hit in the chest with a 40-mph baseball. Getting shot with a .45 caliber bullet resembles getting hit with a 90-mph baseball.

  5. Long-term working memory in text production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, R T

    2001-01-01

    In reading and other high-level cognitive tasks, Ericsson and Kintsch (1995) proposed that the limited capacity of short-term working memory (STWM) is supplemented by long- term working memory (LTWM) for individuals with a high degree of domain-specific knowledge. In Experiment 1, college students (N = 80) wrote persuasive and narrative texts concerning baseball; domain-specific knowledge about baseball and verbal ability was assessed. The results showed that verbal ability and domain-specific knowledge independently affected writing skill, supporting the view that literacy depends on both knowledge sources and refuting one argument raised in support of the LTWM hypothesis. Experiment 2 (N = 42) replicated this outcome and tested the prediction that a high degree of domain-specific knowledge would lessen interference on a secondary task. The data supported the interference prediction, offering evidence that LTWM plays a role in the production of text.

  6. How Far Would a Home Run Really Have Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, W. G.; Cheng, Y. C.; Chunko, J. D.; Eagan, T. P.; Brown, R. W.

    2002-04-01

    A controversial issue in professional baseball arises from attempts to estimate how far home run balls would have traveled if they had not hit some obstruction, such as a scoreboard or bleacher seating. A Runge-Kutta numerical simulation model is developed for baseball trajectories including the effects of velocity-dependent drag forces, velocity-dependent Magnus spin forces (including a model for the decrease of the spin rate over the trajectory), and the wind. The computational model is used to build a numerical catalog for the combination of initial ball speeds and angles that give rise to a set of trajectories that have the same final impact point (e.g., on the scoreboard). The data required by an observer to estimate the actual home run range are discussed. A homerun hit by Mark McGwire against the Cleveland Indians on 30 April 1997 that dented the Jacobs Field scoreboard is analyzed.

  7. Physics of knuckleballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Cohen, Caroline; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Zigzag paths in sports ball trajectories are exceptional events. They have been reported in baseball (from where the word knuckleball comes from), in volleyball and in soccer. Such trajectories are associated with intermittent breaking of the lateral symmetry in the surrounding flow. The different scenarios proposed in the literature (such as the effect of seams in baseball) are first discussed and compared to existing data. We then perform experiments on zigzag trajectories and propose a new explanation based on unsteady lift forces. In a second step, we exploit wind tunnel measurements of these unsteady lift forces to solve the equations of motion for various sports and deduce the characteristics of the zigzags, pointing out the role of the drag crisis. Finally, the conditions for the observation of such trajectories in sports are discussed.

  8. Differences in Attentional Focus Associated With Recovery From Sports Injury: Does Injury Induce an Internal Focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2015-12-01

    Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls.

  9. Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns and related biomechanics during upper extremity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Andrews, James R

    2009-01-01

    Understanding when and how much shoulder muscles are active during upper extremity sports is helpful to physicians, therapists, trainers and coaches in providing appropriate treatment, training and rehabilitation protocols to these athletes. This review focuses on shoulder muscle activity (rotator cuff, deltoids, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, triceps and biceps brachii, and scapular muscles) during the baseball pitch, the American football throw, the windmill softball pitch, the volleyball serve and spike, the tennis serve and volley, baseball hitting, and the golf swing. Because shoulder electromyography (EMG) data are far more extensive for overhead throwing activities compared with non-throwing upper extremity sports, much of this review focuses on shoulder EMG during the overhead throwing motion. Throughout this review shoulder kinematic and kinetic data (when available) are integrated with shoulder EMG data to help better understand why certain muscles are active during different phases of an activity, what type of muscle action (eccentric or concentric) occurs, and to provide insight into the shoulder injury mechanism. Kinematic, kinetic and EMG data have been reported extensively during overhead throwing, such as baseball pitching and football passing. Because shoulder forces, torques and muscle activity are generally greatest during the arm cocking and arm deceleration phases of overhead throwing, it is believed that most shoulder injuries occur during these phases. During overhead throwing, high rotator cuff muscle activity is generated to help resist the high shoulder distractive forces approximately 80-120% bodyweight during the arm cocking and deceleration phases. During arm cocking, peak rotator cuff activity is 49-99% of a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in baseball pitching and 41-67% MVIC in football throwing. During arm deceleration, peak rotator cuff activity is 37-84% MVIC in baseball pitching and 86-95% MVIC in football

  10. Industry brief letter : Search for ideal concrete - Last lecture of Prof. Okamura; Riso no konkurito wo motomete/okamura kyoju saishu kogi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-10

    The last lecture of Dr. Okamura, a Prof. at the engineering department of Tokyo University, was held on March 27, 1999. He was a well-known baseball pitcher who won 17 victories at Tokyo 6-College baseball league. In his development of high-performance concrete (later renamed to-self compacting concrete), he thought that we should not demand fine technique for concrete application, but instead we should cover the technique by the advantages of a material. His hardship existed in expressing the properties of cement in numeric values and the establishment of numerical analysis technique starting from empirical equation. He stated that he was able to succeed in the development of an ideal concrete with high-strength, high-durability, self-compacting concrete with the suggestions from many colleagues. He will become Vice President of Kochi Univ. and Chairman of Civil Eng. Society. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Trial, Adoption, Usage and Diffusion of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    respondents: a) mavenism, b) susceptibility to interpersonal influence, c) social desirability bias, and five factors of the Neuroticism Extroversion...88ABW-2012-1754 5.0 REFERENCES Agarwal, R. and Prasad, J., 1998, ―A Conceptual and Operational Definition of Personal Innovativeness in the Domain...Baseball CNN Cable News Network NPR National Public Radio NGB National Guard Bureau NEO-PPI Neuroticism Extroversion Openness-Psychological Personality Inventory

  12. Laser Energy Transmission to a Small-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuya; Kawashima, Nobuki; Yabe, Kyoichi

    A laser energy transmission system for a small-unmanned airplane(Kite-plane) has been developed and a long-time flight demonstration was done successfully in Osaka dome stadium (baseball stadium) at an altitude of 50 m. This test flight shows that it can be practically applied for the surveillance flight in natural disaster such as earthquakes, floods etc. In order to increase the horizontal range keeping the low altitude, an application to a helicopter flight is undertaken.

  13. An investigation of home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F; Steinroeder, William; Bonnica, Corrine; Loignon, Andrew C

    2009-10-01

    Occurrence of the home disadvantage in Davis Cup tennis matches was examined by analyzing the outcome of Davis Cup finals matches from 1900 to 2007. There was no significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Matches 4 and 5. However, there was a significant home disadvantage when Matches 1 and 2 were compared with Match 5. These findings are compared with those from earlier studies in which data from professional basketball and baseball were examined.

  14. Muscular imbalance and shoulder pain in volleyball attackers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, A.; Krüger-Franke, M; Reininger, S; Trouillier, H H; Rosemeyer, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In overhead sports such as volleyball, baseball, or tennis shoulder problems are very common. The aim of this study was to identify features which may correlate with shoulder problems in volleyball attackers. METHODS: 30 competitive volleyball attackers (mean age 25 years) were included in the study; 15 were suffering from shoulder pain and 15 had no history of shoulder pain. The results were compared with those of a control group of 15 recreational athletes without any overhead sp...

  15. Concerns on Little League Elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    Little League elbow is a common overuse injury that will become more prevalent as more youths participate in baseball programs and other sports that involve overhead arm activities. The condition is highly treatable if diagnosed early in its development. Symptoms such as swelling and limited range of motion usually indicate an advanced overuse condition. Prevention and treatment should emphasize education of athletes, parents, and coaches about coaches about its etiology. Factors involved are...

  16. SHOULDER MUSCLE IMBALANCE AND SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME IN OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Subacromial impingement is a frequent and painful condition among athletes, particularly those involved in overhead sports such as baseball and swimming. There are generally two types of subacromial impingement: structural and functional. While structural impingement is caused by a physical loss of area in the subacromial space due to bony growth or inflammation, functional impingement is a relative loss of subacromial space secondary to altered scapulohumeral mechanics resulting from glenohu...

  17. Imaging quiz: perplexing shin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, E G; Kraus, E H

    1997-04-01

    A 19-year-old minor league baseball pitcher from South America felt pain in his left shin while pitching and presented to the trainer right after the game. He had suffered no injury to the shin, but over a period of 6 weeks, the pain became progressively worse. He had considerable nocturnal discomfort, but no fevers or night sweats. Anti-inflammatories, rest, and ice did not reduce the pain. The patient was otherwise healthy, with no other symptoms or notable history.

  18. The Grog: A Journal of Navy Medical History and Culture. Issue 39, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    mark this centenary we look back at the origin of this important textbook . Finally, few names in Navy Medicine are big- ger than World War I... Textbook , and an Experiment in Formalized Training............. John "Doc" Lavan: Major League Baseball’s Only Navy Physician...liberal arts and load up on the science courses that I had never taken. That first semester back at Northeastern I was doing physics and organic chemistry

  19. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 26, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    and which they attack by massive and costly iterations. c. Lower risk: the program split into these phases automati- cally assures healthy milestones...required to make any software modification on their end as required to conduct the automated test. The VTE in this example can spawn an instance of ATRT...minutes from Salt Lake City �Utah Jazz Basketball �Three Minor League Baseball Teams �One Hour from 12 Ski Resorts �Minutes from Hunting, Fishing

  20. Elbow Joint Active Replication in College Pitchers Following Simulated Game Throwing

    OpenAIRE

    Manske, Robert; Stovak, Mark; Cox, Kara; Smith, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elbow injuries are common in college baseball players. Pitching creates stress and fatigue in and around the elbow. Lack of joint proprioception can contribute to nonphysiological joint loading and injury. Hypothesis: There will be no difference in elbow joint active reproduction sense following a simulated 3-inning pitching sequence. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Seventeen collegiate pitchers participated. Each pitcher was bilaterally tested for active elbow range...