WorldWideScience

Sample records for baseball devices

  1. Quantum Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ivars

    1989-01-01

    An analogy from the game of baseball can be used to examine the philosophy involved in statistics surrounding quantum mechanical events. The "Strong Baseball Principle" is proposed and discussed. (CW)

  2. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Safety Tips: Baseball KidsHealth > For Parents > Safety Tips: Baseball ... sport, and it's fun. View Survey Why Baseball Safety Is Important Baseball is by no means a ...

  3. Shoulder proprioception in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, M R; Borsa, P A; Lephart, S M; Fu, F H; Warner, J J

    2001-01-01

    We examined proprioceptive differences between the dominant and nondominant shoulders of 21 collegiate baseball pitchers without a history of shoulder instability or surgery. A proprioceptive testing device was used to measure kinesthesia and joint position sense. Joint position sense was significantly (P =.05) more accurate in the nondominant shoulder than in the dominant shoulder when starting at 75% of maximal external rotation and moving into internal rotation. There were no significant differences for proprioception in the other measured positions or with kinesthesia testing. Six pitchers with recent shoulder pain had a significant (P =.04) kinesthetic deficit in the symptomatic dominant shoulder compared with the asymptomatic shoulder, as measured in neutral rotation moving into internal rotation. The net effect of training, exercise-induced laxity, and increased external rotation in baseball pitchers does not affect proprioception, although shoulder pain, possibly due to rotator cuff inflammation or tendinitis, is associated with reduced kinesthetic sensation. PMID:11641701

  4. Mathematics in Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of 13 activities to explore the mathematics of baseball. Activities examine the numerical measures of player statistics and team standings and the geometry of baseball. Discusses the use of computer spreadsheets and LOGO computer simulations to study the concepts embodied in the activities. (MDH)

  5. Baseball Sans Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADAM; FEENEY

    2006-01-01

    If anyone needs a reminder that the word "fan" is merely the short form of "fanatic," they need only observe me watching baseball on the Internet. No, I'm not talking about a webcast with images of the game actually being played. My falsely advertised "DSL" Internet connection isn't fast enough for that. Instead, on balmy summer evenings

  6. Physics of Baseball & Softball

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the physics of baseball and softball, assuming that the reader has a background in both physics and mathematics at the high school level. The physics is explained in a conversational style, and illustrated with experimental results obtained both in the laboratory and in the field. Simple equations are also used in order to model the experimental results and to test whether the explanations are actually valid. The subject matter provides an excellent opportunity to explain physics in an interesting manner, given the universal popularity of baseball and softball as pastimes. There is also the interaction between a bat and ball, which is a classic problem in physics involving large forces, short time intervals, momentum, and energy transfer, vibration, rotation, and the different physical properties of the wood (or aluminum) of the bat, and the ball. The flight of the ball through the air is another fascinating example of physics in action, involving the effects of gravity, air resistance and...

  7. Baseball and Canadian Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, William

    2005-01-01

    Baseball research generally acts as a window into the game--a means as it were to understand its underlying order and disorder, its hidden beauty and historic complexity. Less common is the view from the other side of the window in which the patterns of the game are a lens as it were into the outside world, a channel for making sense of a…

  8. Real Time Baseball Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  9. Mahjong and Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AARON; A.VESSUP

    2009-01-01

    My television screen flicked on, and the crowd’s excitement with sports action seemed so familiar, yet momentarily strange. An announcer’s voice described the game with infectious enthusiasm. The crowd of over 70,000 in the stands was going wild, and the players were moving with precision and speed. The pitching, the batting, runners racing around the bases, and acrobatic fielding. Yes, this was baseball, a

  10. Fantasy Baseball with a Statistical Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Lori; McNelis, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Fantasy baseball, a game invented in 1980, allows baseball fans to become managers of pretend baseball teams. In most fantasy baseball leagues, participants choose teams consisting of major league players who they believe will do well in five offensive categories (batting average, home runs, runs batted in, stolen bases, and runs scored) or in…

  11. Major League Baseball and Globalization: The World Baseball Classic

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, Nagel; Matt, Brown; Daniel, Rascher; Chad, McEvoy

    2010-01-01

    In addition to generating initial profits, the WBC has positioned MLB to be the leader in growing the game of baseball and the commercial aspects of the sport throughout the world. As baseball grows, and more importantly as the American brand of baseball grows, it will be interesting to watch the worldwide reaction – particularly if MLB begins to generate huge profits overseas. Other prominent American brands such as Coke, Nike, Disney, and McDonalds have been both embraced and scorned as the...

  12. Baseball and American Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Elias

    2012-01-01

    While many have observed baseball’s longstanding resonance with U.S. domestic life, our national pastime has also figured prominently in how America has projected itself abroad—in its foreign, military, diplomatic and globalization policies. And vice versa: U.S. foreign policy has affected baseball, as well.For more than two centuries, baseball has shown up in surprising ways as America has emerged in the world, and then built itself into an empire. While baseball was played in America as far...

  13. The Flight of a Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    The trajectory of a baseball moving through the air is very different from the one we teach in our introductory classes in which the only force is that due to gravity. In reality, the aerodynamic drag force (which retards the motion) and the Magnus force on a spinning baseball (which causes the ball to curve) play very important roles that are crucial to many of the subtleties of the game. These forces are governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools have been developed that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking (the so-called PITCHf/x and HITf/x systems), and Doppler radar tracking via the TrackMan system. In this talk, I will discuss how these new tools work, what they are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics, and how they have the potential to revolutionize the analysis of the game itself.

  14. Attendance Demand for Baseball Games in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hirao, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how competitive balance in the Japanese professional baseball teams has changed over time, and estimates the effect of competitive balance on attendance demand for baseball games. Nippon Professional Baseball Organization (the ‘NPB’ hereinafter) consists of the Central League and the Pacific League, and there are six teams in each league. In 2004, a series of changes took place in the Pacific League, including the merger of the two existing teams, the entry of a new team, t...

  15. Magnetic field on the baseball coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expression is developed in spherical harmonics for the magnetic field of a baseball coil. A simple dipole-layer model for the coil, and the computer program, MAFCO, yield comparable expansion coefficients, and give practically identical fields near the center of the baseball. 13 refs

  16. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  17. MR imaging of the elbow in baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseball pitcher throwing biomechanics are important to understanding the pathophysiology and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of injuries in baseball pitchers. Baseball pitchers experience repetitive excessive valgus forces at the elbow. Typical injuries are secondary to medial joint distraction, lateral joint compression, and rotatory forces at the olecranon. MR imaging is useful for evaluation of the elbow in baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  18. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references f...

  19. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  20. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  1. Friendly Exchanges Between Yizheng and Japanese Youth Baseball Teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Jiangsu Provincial Baseball and Softball Association, and with the help from the Japan IBA Youth Baseball and Softball League, on March 28, the Youth Baseball Team of Kawasaki City of Saitama Prefecture played two friendly matches against the team of Yizheng Experimental School in Jiangsu Province.

  2. The Effect of Major League Baseball Rehab Assignments on Attendance in the International Baseball League

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Turner

    2013-01-01

    Prior to his return from the disabled list, a Major League Baseball (MLB) player may be given a "rehab assignment" to a Minor League Baseball (MiLB) club. One can intuitively expect that successful MLB players should positively affect attendance at the MiLB clubs that they are assigned to. This study develops a regression model to determine the effect of MLB rehab assignments on attendance in the International Baseball League. The regression model also introduces a new technique to measure th...

  3. Scattering of a Baseball by a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R; Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements are presented in this paper of the tradeoff between speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  4. EVALUATION OF PAINFUL SHOULDER IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Junior, Adriano Fernando Mendes; Soares, André Lopes; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. Methods: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years. Results: 14 of...

  5. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Bohn, John L.

    2008-11-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. We measure the change in diameter and weight of baseballs as a function of relative humidity in which the balls are stored. The trajectories of pitched and batted baseballs are modeled to assess the difference between those stored at 30% relative humidity versus 50% relative humidity. We find that a drier baseball will curve slightly more than a humidified one for a given pitch velocity and rotation rate. We also find that aerodynamics alone would add 2ft to the distance a wetter baseball ball is hit. This increased distance is compensated by a 6ft reduction in the batted distance due to the change in the coefficient of restitution of the ball. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% relative humidity since 2002.

  6. No Dummies: Deafness, Baseball, and American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article begins by examining the historical and social factors that led to 1901 being the "deafest" year in major league baseball history with four deaf players. In particular, the author discusses the career of William Ellsworth "Dummy" Hoy, a deaf man from Ohio who became the most celebrated deaf player in history and explores the reasons…

  7. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  8. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  9. Batter Up: Baseball for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Dorothy K.; Fredericks, H. D. Bud

    1980-01-01

    The parents of a 13-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation (due to Down's syndrome) describe their experiences with their son's participation in Little League baseball. With much parental coaching and practice, he was able to play on a team with children one year younger and was accepted by players and coaches alike. (PHR)

  10. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  11. Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseballs

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    We investigate whether storing baseballs in a controlled humidity environment significantly affects their aerodynamic properties. To do this, we measure the change in diameter and mass of baseballs as a function of relative humidity (RH). We then model trajectories for pitched and batted baseballs to assess the difference between those stored at 30% RH versus 50% RH. The results show that a drier baseball may be expected to curve slightly more than a humidified one, and that the drier ball will also likely travel slightly less far when batted. We discuss consequences of these results for baseball played at Coors Field in Denver, where baseballs have been stored in a humidor at 50% RH since 2002.

  12. Productivity, wages, and marriage: The case of major league baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Feldman, Naomi E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of professional baseball players from 1871–2007, this paper aims at analyzing a longstanding empirical observation that married men earn significantly more than their single counterparts holding all else equal (the "marriage premium"). Baseball is a unique case study because it has a long history of statistics collection and numerous direct measurements of productivity. Our results show that the marriage premium also holds for baseball players, where married players earn up to ...

  13. Traveling Baseball Players' Problem in Korea

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Aaram J; Choi, Younguk; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We study the so-called the traveling tournament problem (TTP), to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  14. Traveling baseball players' problem in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyang Min; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Younguk; Kim, Aaram J.; Eun, Jonghyoun; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-08-01

    We study the so-called traveling tournament problem (TTP) to find an optimal tournament schedule. Differently from the original TTP, in which the total travel distance of all the participants is the objective function to minimize, we instead seek to maximize the fairness of the round robin tournament schedule of the Korean Baseball League. The standard deviation of the travel distances of teams is defined as the energy function, and the Metropolis Monte-Carlo method combined with the simulated annealing technique is applied to find the ground-state configuration. The resulting tournament schedule is found to satisfy all the constraint rules set by the Korean Baseball Organization, but with drastically increased fairness in traveling distances.

  15. Mutually-Antagonistic Interactions in Baseball Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit interesting structural changes over time. We also find that these networks exhibit a significant network structure that is sensitive to baseball's rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions. We find that a player's position in the network does not correlate with his success in the random walker ranking but instead has a substantial effect on its sensitivity to changes in his own aggregate performance.

  16. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  17. Understanding baseball team standings and streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, C.; Redner, S.

    2009-02-01

    Can one understand the statistics of wins and losses of baseball teams? Are their consecutive-game winning and losing streaks self-reinforcing or can they be described statistically? We apply the Bradley-Terry model, which incorporates the heterogeneity of team strengths in a minimalist way, to answer these questions. Excellent agreement is found between the predictions of the Bradley-Terry model and the rank dependence of the average number team wins and losses in major-league baseball over the past century when the distribution of team strengths is taken to be uniformly distributed over a finite range. Using this uniform strength distribution, we also find very good agreement between model predictions and the observed distribution of consecutive-game team winning and losing streaks over the last half-century; however, the agreement is less good for the previous half-century. The behavior of the last half-century supports the hypothesis that long streaks are primarily statistical in origin with little self-reinforcing component. The data further show that the past half-century of baseball has been more competitive than the preceding half-century.

  18. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  19. Training the Baseball Hitter: What Does Research Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Robin J.; Heefner, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Former baseball star Jim Lefebvre (1983) claimed that hitting a baseball may be the most talked about but least understood skill in all of sports. Historically, hitting instruction has been based on intuitive thinking by "hitting gurus," rather than on scientific fact, which has contributed to this lack of understanding (DeRenne, Stellar, &…

  20. Finding the Area of a Major League Baseball Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Courchaine

    2013-01-01

    Using a Major League Baseball (MLB) baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.

  1. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  2. Finding the Area of a Major League Baseball Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Courchaine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a Major League Baseball (MLB baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.

  3. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  4. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  5. 76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club Fourth of July...

  6. Collapsing the Wavefunction of a Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, T

    2003-01-01

    The transition from microscopic to macroscopic in quantum mechanics can be seen from various points of view. It is often not merely a transition from quantum to classical mechanics in the sense of the Correspondence Principle. The fact that real macroscopic objects like baseballs are composites of an extremely large number of microscopic particles (electrons, protons etc.) is a complicating factor. Here such composite objects are studied in some detail and the Copenhagen interpretation is applied to them. A computer game model for a simplified composite object is used to illustrate some of the issues.

  7. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  8. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gretchen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  9. Major league baseball career length in the twentieth century*

    OpenAIRE

    Witnauer, William D.; Rogers, Richard G.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2007-01-01

    Although baseball is considered “the” American pastime, little is known about the career prospects of the individuals who play the game. This study fills that void by examining the careers of baseball players over the last century. Between 1902 and 1993, 5,989 position players started their careers and played 33,272 person years of major league baseball. A rookie position player can expect to play 5.6 years; one in five position players will have only a single-year career, and at every point ...

  10. Spectrum of shoulder injuries in the baseball pitcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes a range of shoulder injuries experienced by baseball pitchers. It is estimated that more than 57% of pitchers suffer some form of shoulder injury during a playing season. Knowledge of the overhead throwing cycle is crucial for our understanding of these shoulder injuries. Baseball pitchers are prone to rotator cuff tears from tensile overload and impingement. Glenoid labrum degeneration or tears are also common, due to overuse syndrome (micro-instability), internal impingement and microtrauma. An understanding of the lesions involved in overhead throwing is crucial in baseball pitchers, as long-term disability can result from these injuries, sometimes with severe financial consequences to the player. (orig.)

  11. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player

    OpenAIRE

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.

  12. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  13. Motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using forearm electrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takao; Kusuhara, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Yoshitake

    2013-04-01

    The extroversion or hyperextension of elbow joint cause disorders of elbow joint in throwing a baseball. A method, which is easy handling and to measure motion objectively, can be useful for evaluation of throwing motion. We investigated a possibility of motion discrimination of throwing a baseball using electrical impedance method. The parameters of frequency characteristics (Cole-Cole arc) of forearm electrical impedance were measured during four types of throwing a baseball. Multiple discriminant analysis was used and the independent variables were change ratios of 11 parameters of forearm electrical impedance. As results of 120 data with four types of throwing motion in three subjects, hitting ratio was very high and 95.8%. We can expect to discriminate throwing a baseball using multiple discriminant analysis of impedance parameters.

  14. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG FEMALE BASEBALL PLAYERS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalwinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The present study was conducted to determine the emotional intelligence among Indian female baseball players. Material : For the purpose of present study, two hundred (N=200 senior national female baseball players were selected through purposive sampling technique from different regions of India. They were selected from four different regions: A (North region baseball players=50, B (East region baseball players=50, C (West region baseball players=50 and D (South region baseball players=50. To collect the required data for the present study, the questionnaire developed by Hyde et al. (2001 on emotional intelligence was administered. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was employed to compare the entire regions. Where ‘F’ values were found significant, LSD (Least Significant Difference Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results : Significant differences were observed among North, East, West and South regions female baseball players on the sub-parameters; empathy, self-development, value orientation and on the parameter Emotional Intelligence (Total. No significant differences were noticed on the sub-parameters; self-awareness, self-motivation, emotional stability, managing relations, integrity, commitment and altruistic behaviour. Conclusion: The outcome of results might be due to the fact that East region female baseball players are able to pay attention to the worries and concerns of others, can listen to someone without the urge to say something, can stay focused under pressure, are able to handle multiple demands and able to identify and separate their emotions.

  15. The Classic: Shoulder and Elbow Lesions Distinctive of Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, George E.

    2012-01-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by G. Bennett, Shoulder and Elbow Lesions Distinctive of Baseball Players. An accompanying biographical sketch of G. Bennett is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2334-3. The Classic Article is ©1947 and is reprinted with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health from Bennett G. Shoulder and elbow lesions distinctive of baseball players. Ann Surg. 1947;126:107–110.

  16. Study on Impact Loading and Humerus Injury for Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Jiro

    In the United States and Japan, baseball is a very popular sport played by many people. However, the ball used is hard and moves fast. A professional baseball pitcher in good form can throw a ball at speeds upwards of 41.7m/s (150km/hr). If a ball at this speed hits the batter, serious injury can occur. In this paper we will describe our investigations on the impact of a baseball with living tissues by finite element analysis. Baseballs were projected at a load cell plate using a specialized pitching machine. The dynamic properties of the baseball were determined by comparing the wall-ball collision experimentally measuring the time history of the force and the displacement using dynamic finite element analysis software (ANSYS/ LS-DYNA). The finite element model representing a human humerus and its surrounding tissue was simulated for balls pitched at variable speeds and pitch types (knuckle and fastball). In so doing, the stress distribution and stress wave in the bone and soft tissue were obtained. From the results, the peak stress of the bone nearly yielded to the stress caused by a high fast ball. If the collision position or direction is moved from the center of the upper arm, it is assumed that the stress exuded on the humerus will be reduced. Some methods to reduce the severity of the injury which can be applied in actual baseball games are also discussed.

  17. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  18. Lesson Plan for "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Provides discussion questions, activity suggestions and sample quotes to provoke further examination of the Cold War era values evidenced in the baseball subculture (see SO 515 377, "Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values). (JDH)

  19. Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.; Smith, Lloyd V.; Faber, Warren L.; Russell, Daniel A.

    2011-06-01

    Three questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. Can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? These questions are subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment and an interpretation of the data. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes, respectively.

  20. Anthropometric Characteristics of Columbia, South Carolina, Youth Baseball Players and Dixie Youth World Series Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Karen E.; Spurgeon, John H.; Nevett, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare measures of body size in two samples of youth baseball players with normative data from the United States National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts. One sample of youth baseball players participated in a local little league. The second sample of youth baseball players were members of eight…

  1. 78 FR 19799 - United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the United States Mint Kids' Baseball Coin Design Challenge on April 11, 2013. SUMMARY: The United States Mint announces the opening of a national kids' baseball coin design challenge on April...

  2. Out at Home: Why the Major League Baseball Advanced Media Agreement May Violate Antitrust Law

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenvogel, Sally E.

    2013-01-01

    Major League Baseball Advanced Media (MLBAM or BAM) has created one of the most successful technology platforms for broadcasting professional baseball games online. BAM is extremely profitable, but its exclusive online broadcast of professional baseball games through MLB.tv may violate antitrust law. Conventional wisdom may sugges...

  3. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  4. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  5. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  6. Baseball Aerodynamics: What do we know and how do we know it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Baseball aerodynamics is governed by three phenomenological quantities: the coefficients of drag, lift, and moment, the latter determining the spin decay time constant. In past years, these quantities were studied mainly in wind tunnel experiments, whereby the forces on the baseball are measured directly. More recently, new tools are being used that focus on measuring accurate baseball trajectories, from which the forces can be inferred. These tools include high-speed motion analysis, video tracking of pitched baseballs (the PITCHf/x system), and Doppler radar tracking. In this contribution, I will discuss what these new tools are teaching us about baseball aerodynamics.

  7. Home-run probability as a function of coefficient of restitution of baseballs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuninaka, Hiroto; Mizutani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In baseball games, the coefficient of restitution of baseballs strongly affects the flying distance of batted balls, which determines the home-run probability. In Japan, the range of the coefficient of restitution of official baseballs has changed frequently over the past five years, causing the the number of home runs to vary drastically. We analyzed data from Japanese baseball games played in 2014 to investigate the statistical properties of pitched balls. In addition, we used the analysis results to develop a baseball-batting simulator for determining the home-run probability as a function of the coefficient of restitution. Our simulation results are explained by a simple theoretical argument.

  8. Another look at baseball player initials and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Abel and Kruger (2007) reported that Major League Baseball players whose names have positive initials (such as ACE or GOD) live an average of 13 years longer than do players with negative initials (such as ASS or BAD) or players with neutral initials (such as GHR or TSW). However, this conclusion is based on a very small sample, selective initials, and a flawed statistical test. There is no statistically significant relationship between initials and longevity for Major League Baseball players when a correct test is applied to independently selected initials. PMID:21466094

  9. Predicting Baseball Home Run Records Using Exponential Frequency Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, D J; Phillips, J A

    2006-01-01

    A new model, which uses the frequency of individuals' annual home run totals, is employed to predict future home run totals and records in Major League Baseball. Complete home run frequency data from 1903--2005 is analyzed, resulting in annual exponential distributions whose changes can be a used as a measure of progression in the sport and serve as a basis against which record-setting performances can be compared. We show that there is an 80% chance that Barry Bonds' current 73 home run record will be broken in the next 10 years, despite the longevity of previous records held by baseball legends Babe Ruth and Roger Marris.

  10. Teacher to Teacher: Learn about Statistics--Math League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Presents an introductory activity in statistics in which a mathematics class is divided into groups to "draft" teams of major league baseball players. Describes the drafting procedure, charting the team, scoring, roster changes, and gathering and evaluating data. Includes draft list, daily box scores, and cumulative box scores. (MKR)

  11. Empirical Bayes in-season prediction of baseball batting averages

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wenhua; Zhang, Cun-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a number of empirical Bayes methods are examined for the in-season prediction of batting averages with the 2005 Major League baseball data. Among the methodologies considered are new general empirical Bayes estimators in homoscedastic and heteroscedastic partial linear models.

  12. The Economics of the Duration of the Baseball World Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassuto, Alexander E.; Lowenthal, Franklin

    2007-01-01

    This note examines some statistical features of the major league baseball World Series. We show that, based upon actual historical data, we cannot reject the hypothesis that the two World Series teams are evenly matched. Yet, we can also calculate the relative strengths of the teams that would best match the actual outcomes, and we find that those…

  13. Simplified Models for the Drag Coefficient of a Pitched Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David; Nathan, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The classic experiment to measure the drag coefficient involves dropping coffee filters. Wouldn't it be more fun to try something different? In fact, an experiment on the drag force is conducted nearly 4000 times a day during the baseball season and you have free access to this PITCHf/x data!

  14. Peculiarities of the Major League Baseball Posting System

    OpenAIRE

    Rockerbie, Duane

    2006-01-01

    The posting system used in major league baseball to obtain free agent players from Japan has some similarities and many differences from the transfer system used to obtain foreign free agents in European football. This paper uses auction theory to assess the efficiencies (or lack of) in the posting system and to suggest alternatives.

  15. Plasma confinement in a multi-baseball system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma confinement along the field lines in a system of serially interconnected non-adiabatic baseball-type traps with absolute minimum B is considered. It is shown that it is possible to get diffusive flow along the axis of such a system. The confinement time is proportional to N2, where 2N is the number of traps. (author)

  16. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  17. Does Education Matter? Major League Baseball Players and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei

    2007-01-01

    The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…

  18. The Use of Ice in Baseball Injuries (Cryotherapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Cryotherapy (the use of ice and exercise to rehabilitate athletic injuries) can be an effective method of treating baseball injuries. It is generally agreed that ice is appropriate for the first 24 to 48 hours, but there is disagreement over its use beyond 72 hours. Some physicians and trainers support the use of heat with either exercise or rest,…

  19. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Major League Baseballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstman, Victoria; Raue, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In a study inspired by the famous humidor of the Colorado Rockies of Major League Baseball, we have measured the effects of temperature and humidity on the elasticity of official Major League baseballs. The elasticity, e, also referred to as the coefficient of restitution (COR), of the baseballs was determined by dropping the balls from a fixed height onto a concrete floor and determining the speed of the ball after the initial impact. Corrections for air drag were made to the measured COR. Measurements were done for baseballs stored under a wide variety of conditions that included storage in the freezer compartment of a household refrigerator, storage in an 80^rcC oven with varying humidity conditions, and storage in a crude humidor. The balls were tested over a period of several hours after removal to nominal conditions. Our results show a linear increase of the COR with increasing temperature, as well as a nearly linear decrease in the COR as water mass is increased. Using the results of our measurements, we have determined the effects of temperature and humidity on batted-ball speeds and flight distances at the Rockies' home field.

  20. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility. PMID:26559562

  1. Playing Baseball/Playing "House": The Reproduction and Naturalization of "Separate Spheres" in Japanese High School Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although Japanese schools are generally considered to be one of the most gender-equitable social institutions in Japan, they play an important role in helping to reproduce and naturalize the notion of sex-based separate spheres, through endorsing the maintenance of such separate spheres in extracurricular sports clubs, such as baseball, where…

  2. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-01-01

    Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB) of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collap...

  3. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home run prowess in professional baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Alexander; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability de...

  4. National Pastime to Dismal Science: Using Baseball to Illustrate Economic Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Bruggink

    1993-01-01

    The game of baseball has enormous appeal to students and economists. By using baseball examples in teaching economics, the professor creates the atmosphere of fun while covering substantive topics in economics. This paper enables professors to enrich their principles course with illustrations, outlines, and annotations. The paper also provides the motivation and the suggested content of a special topics course on Baseball Economics, a sure winner in any Economics Department.

  5. BASEBALL THROWING MECHANICS AS THEY RELATE TO PATHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE - A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Whiteley

    2007-01-01

    It is a commonly held perception amongst biomechanists, sports medicine practitioners, baseball coaches and players, that an individual baseball player's style of throwing or pitching influences their performance and susceptibility to injury. With the results of a series of focus groups with baseball managers and pitching coaches in mind, the available scientific literature was reviewed regarding the contribution of individual aspects of pitching and throwing mechanics to potential for injury...

  6. The Immediate Effect of Lumbar Spine Patterns of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation in Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Takasumi; Naito, Daiki; Koiso, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other wi...

  7. Team performance and within-team salary disparity: an analysis of nippon professional baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Takuma Kamada; Hajime Katayama

    2014-01-01

    Using data from Nippon Professional Baseball, which is the Japanese professional baseball league, we examine the relationship between within-team salary disparity and team performance. We find that greater salary disparity tends to result in better team performance, which is the opposite of what prior studies have observed for Major League Baseball. Our results suggest that even within the same sport, the relationship may be partly affected by different institutional settings

  8. Corked Bats, Juiced Balls, and Humidors: The Physics of Cheating in Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Alan M; Faber, Warren L; Russell, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Three separate questions of relevance to Major League Baseball are investigated from a physics perspective. First, can a baseball be hit farther with a corked bat? Second, is there evidence that the baseball is more lively today than in earlier years? Third, can storing baseballs in a temperature- or humidity-controlled environment significantly affect home run production? Each of these questions is subjected to a physics analysis, including an experiment, an interpretation of the data, and a definitive answer. The answers to the three questions are no, no, and yes.

  9. Changes in Cuba’s Migration Policy and Its Impact on Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Baseball is an essential constituent of the Cuban national identity. For nearly a century, Cuban baseball players had joined high-ranking international leagues, including the Negro Leagues and Major League Baseball (MLB of the United States. After the triumph of the Revolution in 1959, the professional practice of sport was banned in the country. On the other hand, the revolutionary government instituted migration rules that disallowed Cuban citizens to travel abroad freely. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cuban national baseball team reigned in amateur competitions worldwide. Sporting successes in general and those of baseball in particular, were managed by the government as a political tool; the government used to display the loyalty of the athletes as a triumph of the Cuban system. However, since the nineties there has been a growing departure of Cuban top baseball players who have had the target of entering in MLB franchises, disregarding that the Cuban migration policy had remained unwavering. On the other hand, after the enactment of changes in the Cuban migration policy in 2013, the unconventional departure of high performance baseball players has increased sharply. The relationship between the migration reform and the increased leakage of baseball players has not been studied by scholars. The relevance of this paper is that it is the first academic approach to that relationship. This paper discusses the migration reform in Cuba and focuses mainly on its impact on baseball.

  10. Modeling Rare Baseball Events--Are They Memoryless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Michael; Glen, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Three sets of rare baseball events--pitching a no-hit game, hitting for the cycle, and turning a triple play--offer excellent examples of events whose occurrence may be modeled as Poisson processes. That is, the time of occurrence of one of these events doesn't affect when we see the next occurrence of such. We modeled occurrences of these three…

  11. Productivity under Large Pay Increases: Evidence from Professional Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Papps, Kerry L.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of the free agency system in the 1970s resulted in large salary increases among professional baseball players. Historical data show that players have tended to perform better at early stages of their careers since free agency was introduced. Under the current salary bargaining system, players only become eligible for salary arbitration and free agency at predetermined points in their careers, resulting in sudden changes in salary growth rates at these points. Using data on o...

  12. Optimal management of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    OpenAIRE

    Hibberd EE; Brown JR; Hoffer JT

    2015-01-01

    Elizabeth E Hibberd,1 J Rodney Brown,2 Joseph T Hoffer21Department of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA; 2Department of Intercollegiate Athletics, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USAAbstract: The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching excee...

  13. Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling of Hitting Performance in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Shane T.; McShane, Blake; Wyner, Abraham J.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a sophisticated statistical model for predicting the hitting performance of Major League baseball players. The Bayesian paradigm provides a principled method for balancing past performance with crucial covariates, such as player age and position. We share information across time and across players by using mixture distributions to control shrinkage for improved accuracy. We compare the performance of our model to current sabermetric methods on a held-out seaso...

  14. An Econometric Analysis of the 2013 Major League Baseball Season

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Steven L.; Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Walke, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    An econometric analysis of 2013 Major League Baseball season is conducted with respect to regular season victories. Results obtained confirm many, but not all, results reported in prior research. The importance of solid team pitching, defense, and offense is underscored. Outcomes for salaries and league affiliations differ substantially from prior seasons. History may serve as a guide to what occurs on the field, but it does not always repeat in the manner indicated in bygone years. Ulti...

  15. Biomechanical Comparison of the Interval Throwing Progression and Baseball Pitching

    OpenAIRE

    Slenker, Nicholas; Limpisvasti, Orr; Mohr, Karen; ElAttrache, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The interval throwing progression is a hallmark of the rehabilitation program designed for baseball pitchers or position players returning from shoulder or elbow injury. It typically begins with flat-ground throws at a short distance and progressively increases to 180 feet or more. For pitchers, this phase is then followed by throwing off the mound, progressing from partial-effort to full-effort pitches. Theoretically, the progression of throwing phases allows an injured athlete t...

  16. Baseball Pitching Biomechanics in Relation to Injury Risk and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fortenbaugh, Dave; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Baseball pitching kinematics, kinetics, ball velocity, and injuries at the shoulder and elbow are related. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and Sport Discus were searched for original studies published between 1994 and 2008. Relevant references in these studies were retrieved. Inferential studies that tested relationships between kinematics and kinetics were included, as were studies that tested relationships between kinematics and ball velocity. Descriptive studies that simply quantifie...

  17. Oblique Collisions of Baseballs and Softballs with a Bat

    CERN Document Server

    Kensrud, Jeffrey R; Smith, Lloyd V

    2016-01-01

    Experiments are done by colliding a swinging bat with a stationary baseball or softball. Each collision was recorded with high-speed cameras, from which the post-impact speed, launch angle, and spin of the ball could be determined. Initial bat speeds were in the range 63-88 mph, producing launch angles in the range 0$^\\circ$-30$^\\circ$ and spins in the range 0-3500 rpm. The results are analyzed in the context of a ball-bat collision model and the parameters of that model are determined. For both baseballs and softballs, the data are consistent with a mechanism whereby the ball grips the surface of the bat, stretching the ball in the transverse direction and resulting in a spin that was up to 40\\% greater than would be obtained by rolling contact of rigid bodies. Using a lumped parameter contact model, baseballs are shown to be less compliant tangentially than softballs. Implications of our results for batted balls in game situations are presented.

  18. The effect of spin on the flight of a baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements are presented of the Magnus force on a spinning baseball. The experiment utilizes a pitching machine to project the baseball horizontally, a high-speed motion analysis system to determine the initial velocity and angular velocity and to track the trajectory over 5m of flight, and a ruler to measure the total distance traversed. Speeds in the range v =50-110mph and spin rates ω (topspin or backspin) in the range 1500-4500rpm were utilized, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of Re =(1.1-2.4)×105 and spin factors S ≡Rω/v in the range 0.090-0.595. Least-squares fits were used to extract the initial parameters of the trajectory and to determine the lift coefficients. Comparison is made with previous measurements and parametrizations, and implications for the effect of spin on the flight of a baseball are discussed. The lift coefficient CL is found not to depend strongly on v at fixed values of S.

  19. Saved at Home: Christian Branding and Faith Nights in the "Church of Baseball"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Baseball has enjoyed its status as the "national pastime" in part because it has been associated with democracy. To the extent that baseball, as an institution of civil religion, fosters pluralism and inclusion, it can indeed be viewed in democratic terms. In recent years, the advent of conservative Christian events called "Faith Nights" threatens…

  20. Smokeless tobacco use among professional baseball players: survey results, 1998 to 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Severson, H; Klein, K.; Lichtensein, E; Kaufman, N.; Orleans, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (snuff and chewing tobacco) has long been associated with baseball in the USA. This article reviews six years of survey data from major and minor league baseball players to evaluate trends in tobacco use and quitting patterns over time in order to gain insight into the effects of past interventions and to document continued intervention needs.

  1. Delving Deeper: Studying Baseball's Wild-Card Team Using Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Richard E.; Knapp, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The modern era of professional baseball playoffs began in 1903, when the champions of the American League and the National League played the first World Series. Except for one year, 1904, this playoff system was maintained until 1969. Beginning in 1969, each of the two leagues in Major League Baseball (MLB) was divided into two divisions to…

  2. Factors Affecting High School Baseball Coaches' Enforcement of School Tobacco Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Ted; Strack, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of policy bans and recommendations against spit tobacco (ST) use, baseball athletes have demonstrated ST prevalence rates ranging from 34% to 50% in high school, 42% in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and 50% in the professional ranks. To evaluate enforcement of ST bans, high school baseball coaches in North Carolina…

  3. The Baseball Hall of Fame Is Not the Kiss of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel and M. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in…

  4. An analysis of an optimal selection process for characteristics and technical performance of baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Bin; Tung, I-Wu; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Selection of a qualified pitcher has relied previously on qualitative indices; here, both quantitative and qualitative indices including pitching statistics, defense, mental skills, experience, and managers' recognition were collected, and an analytic hierarchy process was used to rank baseball pitchers. The participants were 8 experts who ranked characteristics and statistics of 15 baseball pitchers who comprised the first round of potential representatives for the Chinese Taipei National Baseball team. The results indicated a selection rate that was 91% consistent with the official national team roster, as 11 pitchers with the highest scores who were recommended as optimal choices to be official members of the Chinese Tai-pei National Baseball team actually participated in the 2009 Baseball World Cup. An analytic hierarchy can aid in selection of qualified pitchers, depending on situational and practical needs; the method could be extended to other sports and team-selection situations. PMID:21987928

  5. Effects of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation on Baseball Pitching Velocity and Electromechanical Reaction Times of the Teres Major of Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Peng; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of the teres major of young amateur baseball players after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 8 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received ...

  6. Depth Perception Improvement in Collegiate Baseball Players with Vision Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Clark, PhD, ATC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vision training is rapidly becoming a component of sports enhancement, but quantifiable and validated improvement in visual performance has not been clearly demonstrated in high-caliber and/or collegiate athletes. We have performed vision training for the last three seasons on the University of Cincinnati baseball team’s hitters. The goal for the work was performance enhancement, and for monitoring purposes, we measured stereopsis pre- and post-vision training. Methods: From the preseason (January 2011 through to the end of the season (May 2013, all hitters in the University of Cincinnati baseball team underwent regular vision training. Out-of-season training was 20 minutes twice per week, and in-season was 20 minutes once per week. Traditional stereopsis (Stereo Fly was performed and recorded. Vision training typically consisted of: Dynavision light board, Brock string, strobe glasses, Eyeport, saccades, and near-far. Results: The players consistently came into the season with stereopsis of 23.7 ± 1.0 mm, and six weeks of training increased this stereopsis to 36.9 ± 0.49 mm (p<0.0001. Discussion: There was a consistent and significant improvement in stereopsis measured by Stereo Fly with the baseball team after 6 weeks of vision training. Equally, the stereopsis returned to baseline out of season. Temporal benefits seemed to continue post-6 weeks of vision training. We conclude that in a population of healthy and high-caliber athletes, stereopsis can improve with training and suffer from detraining effects as well. We suggest that vision training for sports that require good stereo acuity be considered.

  7. Zeroing the Baseball Indicator and the Chirality of Triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Christopher S.; Wright, Marcus

    2004-03-01

    Starting with a common baseball umpire indicator, we consider the zeroing number for two-wheel indicators with states (a,b) and three-wheel indicators with states (a,b,c). Elementary number theory yields formulae for the zeroing number. The solution in the three-wheel case involves a curiously nontrivial minimization problem whose solution determines the chirality of the ordered triple (a,b,c) of pairwise relatively prime numbers. We prove that chirality is in fact an invariant of the unordered triple {a,b,c }. We also show that the chirality of Fibonacci triples alternates between 1 and 2.

  8. Radionuclide distribution in a nuclear test cavity: the baseball event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994 two holes were drilled into the cavity formed in 1981 by the underground nuclear test named Baseball. An extensive set of side wall samples were collected in these holes. We have analyzed the samples for tritium and for gamma-emitting radionuclides (both fission products and neutron activation products). It appears that the distribution pattern of these radioactive materials, established at the time of the detonation, have persisted even though the cavity has been under water for 13 years. These findings are discussed in the context of radionuclide migration and groundwater contamination at the Nevada Test Site. (orig.)

  9. Clinical Measures of Shoulder Mobility in the Professional Baseball Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downar, Jacquelyn M; Sauers, Eric L

    2005-03-01

    Context: Professional baseball players must achieve a delicate balance between shoulder mobility and stability to attain optimal sports performance. The sport-specific demands of repetitive overhead throwing may result in an altered mobility-stability relationship.Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of shoulder mobility in professional baseball players in order to examine differences between the throwing and the nonthrowing shoulders and to describe chronic adaptations to throwing.Design: Descriptive.Setting: The athletic training room at Maryvale Baseball Park, Phoenix, AZ.Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven professional baseball players (20 pitchers, 7 position players; age = 20 +/- 1.6 years, height = 190.5 +/- 4.8 cm, mass = 91.6 +/- 9.6 kg) with no previous history of shoulder or elbow injury.Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded scapular upward rotation at 4 levels of humeral elevation in the scapular plane (rest, 60 degrees , 90 degrees , 120 degrees ); posterior shoulder tightness; and passive, isolated glenohumeral joint internal and external range of motion.Results: Scapular upward rotation was significantly greater in the throwing shoulder (14.2 +/- 6.5 degrees ) than in the nonthrowing shoulder (10.6 +/- 6.1 degrees ) at 90 degrees of humeral elevation (P = .04). We observed no statistically significant difference in posterior shoulder tightness between the throwing (30.2 +/- 4.6 cm) and the nonthrowing (28.0 +/- 4.8 cm) shoulder (P = .09). In addition, the throwing shoulder exhibited a statistically significant decrease in isolated glenohumeral internal rotation (56.6 +/- 12.5 degrees ) compared with the nonthrowing shoulder (68.6 +/- 12.6 degrees ) (P = .001), with a concomitant increase in isolated glenohumeral external rotation (throwing = 108.9 +/- 9.0 degrees , nonthrowing = 101.9 +/- 5.9 degrees , P = .0014). An analysis of the total arc of motion (internal rotation + external rotation) revealed no statistically significant

  10. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  11. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshin, Arik; Heerdink, Marc W; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Van Kleef, Gerben A

    2016-01-01

    Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from the Major League Baseball World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing) when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports. PMID:26909062

  12. Investigating customer racial discrimination in the secondary baseball card market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Eric; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Piquero, Alex R; Regoli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature in a variety of disciplines has appeared over the last 20 years examining customer racial bias in the secondary sports card market; however, consensus on the matter has yet to emerge. In this article, we explore the more subtle ways that a player's race/ethnicity may affect the value of his sports card including a player's skin tone (light- to dark-skinned). Data were obtained for 383 black, Latino, and white baseball players who had received at least one vote for induction into Major League Baseball's Hall of Fame including their career performance statistics, rookie card price, card availability, Hall of Fame status, and skin tone. Findings indicate that card availability is the primary determinant of card value while a player's skin tone has no direct effect. Subsequent analysis demonstrates that a player's race (white/non-white) rather than skin tone did have an effect as it interacts with Hall of Fame status to influence his rookie card price. PMID:21337740

  13. The Effect of Spin on the Flight of a Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, A M; Chong, L; Kaczmarski, H; Nathan, Alan M.; Hopkins, Joe; Chong, Lance; Kaczmarski, Hank

    2006-01-01

    New measurements are presented of the lift on a spinning baseball. The experiment utilizes a pitching machine to project the baseball horizontally; a high-speed motion capture system to measure the initial velocity and angular velocity and to track the trajectory over ~5 m of flight; and a ruler to measure the total distance traversed by the ball. Speeds in the range v=50-110 mph and spin rates (topspin or backspin)in the range omega=1500-4500 rpm were utilized, corresponding to Reynold's numbers Re=(1.1-2.4) x 10^5 and spin parameters R*omega/v=0.1-0.6. Standard least-squares fitting procedures were used to extract the initial parameters of the trajectory and to determine the lift and drag coefficients. Comparison is made with previous measurements or parametrizations of the lift and drag coefficients, and implications for the effect of spin on the flight of a long fly ball are discussed.

  14. Efficiency of application of special exercises and exercises with the use of baseball pitching machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the approach on making up coordination capabilities and technical tactical performances in baseball is confirmed. 100 boys (age 12-14 years take part in experiment. Relative analysis of a level of development of coordination capabilities and technical tactical readiness of baseball players is carried out. The level of development of technical readiness after experiment under the program «pitch, hit and run» is taped. The frame of special exercises with usage of colour balls is featured. Dynamics of hits for baseball players on a flying ball is presented. The approach in modelling of requirements of competitive activity is developed.

  15. Effects of lumbar disk herniation on the careers of professional baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Jeffrey S; Roberts, David; Roc, Gilbert; Gryzlo, Stephen; Hsu, Wellington

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes after lumbar disk herniation in baseball athletes are currently unknown. It has been postulated that the repetitive torque-producing motions of a baseball player may have negative implications after a disk injury. Sixty-nine lumbar disk herniations (40 treated operatively, 29 nonoperatively) in 64 professional baseball players were identified, and important outcome measures including successful return to play, time to recovery, career longevity, and performance based on vital statistics to each position were documented. Ninety-seven percent of baseball athletes successfully returned to play at an average of 6.6 months after diagnosis. Athletes treated operatively required significantly more time to return to play than those managed nonoperatively (8.7 vs 3.6 months, respectively; P<.0001). PMID:22229920

  16. The view from New Haven: a physicist at Yale is helping baseball umpires make the call

    CERN Document Server

    King, C

    2002-01-01

    A particle physicist from Yale university has been asked to examine the QuesTec Umpire Information System, a machine that is being used to evaluate umpires in baseball by judging balls and strikes (1 page).

  17. Aerodynamics of knuckle ball: Flow-structure interaction problem on a pitched baseball without spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kiura, Toshiro

    2012-07-01

    In the game of baseball, the knuckleball—so-called because the baseball is gripped with the knuckles in a certain position—is pitched in a way that introduces nearly no rotation, resulting in erratic flight paths which confuse batters. The “knuckleball” effect is believed to be caused by asymmetric flow separation over the baseball, but little is known about its flow physics. In the experiment described in this paper, the flow near the seams of the baseball is visualized thoroughly and the velocity vector fields near the surface and in the wake are obtained with Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Depending on its position, the seam is found to trigger the boundary layer transition thus delaying the separation, or to cause separation itself. Three-dimensional wake patterns associated with specific ball orientations are identified and related to the force variations on the ball.

  18. The neurosurgeon as baseball fan and inventor: Walter Dandy and the batter's helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan; Bi, Wenya Linda; Smith, Timothy R; Gormley, William B; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2015-07-01

    Baseball maintains one of the highest impact injury rates in all athletics. A principal causative factor is the "beanball," referring to a pitch thrown directly at a batter's head. Frequent morbidities elicited demand for the development of protective gear development in the 20th century. In this setting, Dr. Walter Dandy was commissioned to design a "protective cap" in 1941. His invention became widely adopted by professional baseball and inspired subsequent generations of batting helmets. As a baseball aficionado since his youth, Walter Dandy identified a natural partnership between baseball and medical practice for the reduction of beaning-related brain injuries. This history further supports the unique position of neurosurgeons to leverage clinical insights, inform innovation, and expand service to society.

  19. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  20. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  1. Correlation between shoulder muscle strength and shoulder impingement in baseball players

    OpenAIRE

    嘉手川, 啓; 上里, 智美; 高良,宏明; 金谷, 文則; Kadekawa, Kei; Uesato, Tomomi; TAKARA,HIROAKI; Kanaya, Fuminori; 琉球大学医学部整形外科学講座; 浦添総合病院整形外科; 琉球大学保健管理センター

    1998-01-01

    The shoulder impingement syndrome may occur through the imbalance of the muscle strength around the shoulder of baseball players. Our previous study suggested that latissimus dorsi (LD), the back muscle which is the adductor and internal rotator of the shoulder, would possibly prevent shoulder impingement. The purposes of this study were to clarify the correlation between the muscle strength around shoulder and impingement signs in baseball players and to identify the influence of LD on impin...

  2. The Theory of Theft: An Inspection Game Model of the Stolen Base Play in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore L. Turocy

    2004-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of equilibrium in mixed strategies in an inspection game model to describe the strategic interaction in the stolen base play in baseball. A parsimonious simultaneous-move game model offers predictions about how the observable conduct of the teams on offense and defense responds as the characteristics of the players involved change. The theory organizes observations from play-by-play data from Major League Baseball, where highly-motivated, experienced professional...

  3. Major League Baseball Player Contracts: An Investigation of the Empirical Properties of Real Options

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Clayton; David Yermack

    1999-01-01

    We study contracts negotiated between professional baseball players and teams to investigate the use of real options in a commercial setting. Baseball contracts feature options in diverse forms, and we find that these options have significant effects on player compensation. As predicted by theory, players receive higher guaranteed compensation when they allow teams to take options on their future services, and lower salaries when they bargain for options to extend their own contracts. The app...

  4. Vibrational, thermal, and alignment considerations of the laser system for Baseball II-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designing the Baseball II-T laser system required addressing a number of mechanical parameters. Among them are low frequency floor vibrations, high acoustical noise levels, and large thermal fluctuations in the vicinity of the experiment. In addition, the 8-in. apertures from the 300-K environment of the laser system had to be compatible with the cryogenic environment of the superconducting Baseball magnet. This paper discusses these problems and describes their influence on the laser system design

  5. Bilateral midshaft femoral fractures in an adolescent baseball player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, D G; Mogayzel, P J; Sponseller, P D; Familiari, F; McFarland, E G

    2016-07-01

    Bone disease, specifically low bone mineral density, is a common and undertreated complication that begins during childhood in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This case describes a male baseball player, aged 14years, with undiagnosed CF who sustained a left midshaft femoral fracture while running toward base; 8months later, he sustained a right midshaft femoral fracture under similar conditions. After the second fracture, further evaluation revealed low bone mineral density and CF. There is no previously published report of pathologic fractures occurring in the femoral shaft in an athlete with undiagnosed CF. Patients with CF have a higher fracture rate. Low-energy fractures of major bones in athletically active individuals should be viewed with suspicion for an underlying process. PMID:26927602

  6. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is high among individuals who have played baseball since childhood. Recently two cross-sectional studies according to prevalence of OCD have been published. In a study of 1040 baseball players aged 10 to 12 years, Matsuura et al found that 2.1% of players had OCD, with no differences in prevalence according to age or player position. Kida et al., in their study of 2433 baseball players aged 12 to 18 years, found OCD in 3.4% of subjects. Furthermore, they found that players with OCD began playing baseball at earlier ages, had played for longer periods, and had experienced more elbow pain. The player’s current baseball position may not be related to the existence of OCD lesions. Together, these findings led us to examine the longitudinal study for examining the risk factors for occurrence of OCD. Our objectives were to determine (1) cumulative incidence rates of OCD in the school child players aged 6-11 years old, (2) the relative risk of OCD by age, beginning age playing baseball, playing period, experimental hours per week, playing position, and elbow pain. Methods: A total of 1,275 players aged 6-11 years (mean, 9.4 years) belonged to youth baseball teams without OCD lesions received examination in the next year and were the subjects of this investigation. Subjects were examined by questionnaire, and ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. Questionnaire items included age, player position, beginning age of playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week and history of elbow pain. Ultrasonography of the lateral aspect of the elbow was performed. An irregularity of the subchondral bone of the capitellum was regarded as an abnormality. Radiographic examination was recommended to players who had an abnormal finding on ultrasonographic examination. We investigated the following risk factors for occurrence of OCD: age, player position, beginning age of

  7. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  8. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  9. Influence of Combinations of Shoulder, Elbow and Trunk Orientation on Elbow Joint Loads in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Inui, Hiroaki; Ninomiya, Hiroki; Muto, Tomoyuki; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers is a well-recognized phenomenon. Common problems in pitching mechanics that can lead to injury begin with stride foot contact. The purpose of this study was to address the relationships between the combinations of shoulder, elbow and trunk orientation at the instant of stride foot contact and elbow joint loads in youth baseball pitchers. Methods: A total of 143 Japanese male youth baseball pitchers participated in this study after providing written informed consents approved by the hospital’s institutional review board. The procedures to be performed were also explained to their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Each participant was not currently injured or recovering from an injury at time of testing. For data collection of baseball pitching, a set of 14-mm spherical reflective markers was placed on the skin overlying 34 anatomical landmarks determined. Subsequently, a motion capture three-dimensional automatic digitizing system was used to collect 500-Hz from 7 charge-coupled-device synchronized cameras was set up around the regulation pitching mound in an indoor laboratory. After performing a preparation routine of stretching and warm-up pitching, each player pitch to 5 fastball pitches off the pitching mound to a catcher at the regulation distance of 16 m for youth pitchers. The best pitch thrown for a strike was chosen for kinematic and kinetic analysis. The local coordinate systems were used to calculate 3-dimesional rotation at the trunk, shoulder and elbow using the typical Eulerian sequence. Afterward, the standard inverse dynamic equation was used to estimate resultant joint forces and torques at throwing shoulder and elbow. In order to normalize data between subjects, forces and torques were expressed as percent using body weight and height. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to assess the combined effects of shoulder (external rotation, abduction and horizontal adduction), elbow

  10. Baseball pitching kinematics,joint loads,and injury prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakiko; Oyama

    2012-01-01

    <正>There is a need for the prevention of upper extremity injuries that affect a large number of competitive baseball players.Currently available evidence alludes to three possible ways to prevent these injuries:1) regulation of unsafe participation factors,2) implementation of exercise intervention to modify suboptimal physical characteristics,and 3) instructional intervention to correct improper pitching techniques.Of these three strategies,instruction of proper pitching technique is under-explored as a method of injury prevention.Therefore,the purpose of this review was to explore the utility of pitching technique instruction in prevention of pitching-related upper extremity injuries by presenting evidence linking pitching technique and pitching-related upper extremity injuries,as well as identifying considerations and potential barriers in pursuing this approach to prevent injuries.Various kinematic parameters measured using laboratory-based motion capture system have been linked to excessive joint loading,and thus pitching-related upper extremity injuries.As we gain more knowledge about the influence of pitching kinematics on joint loading and injury risk,it is important to start exploring ways to modify pitching technique through instruction and feedback while considering the specific skill components to address,mode of instruction,target population,duration of program,and ways to effectively collaborate with coaches and parents.

  11. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik eCheshin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from MLB World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  12. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  13. EMG analysis of the lower extremities during pitching in high-school baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, T

    1998-01-01

    I evaluated the contractions of the muscles of the lower extremities during baseball pitching using video imaging and simultaneous surface EMG. The subjects were 10 members of a high school baseball club and, for contrast, 10 students without any baseball club experience. I divided their pitching movements into two phases determined with respect to the landing of the non-pivot leg. The EMG signal intensities over the 2 seconds prior to landing, and over the 2 seconds after landing, were then integrated to give an EMG value to each phase. I then computed this value as the % MMT. The abductor and adductor of the hip muscles of both lower extremities in the players were strongly contracted, especially the adductor. This finding was consistent with the observation that pitching tends to lead to adductor muscle disorders. Strengthening the adductor and its antagonist abductor can therefore directly influence the capability for pitching, and can reduce the risk for the adductor disorders. PMID:9658746

  14. Change in pitching biomechanics in the late-inning in Taiwanese high school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei-Hsi Chou, Paul; Huang, Yen-Po; Gu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Chiang; Chen, Shen-Kai; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Lin, Hwai-Ting

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive overhead throwing may result in overuse injuries and a change in the pitching mechanics of a baseball pitcher. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in the muscle strength and pitching motion kinematics in the late-innings stage of a baseball game. Sixteen healthy baseball pitchers (16.77 ± 0.73 years) recruited from a high school, which won the National High School Baseball Championship in Taiwan in 2011; each performed 100 pitches in a bullpen throwing session. Isometric muscle strength measurements and joint kinematic data were obtained before and after the throwing session. The mean Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion index was found to have a value of 14.14, indicating a medium-to-large degree of perceived tiredness. The results showed that the ball velocity and horizontal abduction angle decreased significantly as the pitchers became tired. Moreover, the upper torso forward tilt and knee flexion angle both increased significantly at the moment of ball release. Finally, the muscle strength of the upper extremity remained decreased 2 days after the bullpen throwing session. Overall, the results suggest that an adequate amount of rest and specific strengthening programs for the shoulder external rotator, shoulder internal rotator, shoulder flexor, shoulder extensor, shoulder adductor, and shoulder abductor muscles are recommended to the coaches and for adolescent baseball pitchers. In addition, the changes in pitching mechanics noted in this study should be carefully monitored during the course of a baseball game to minimize the risk for overuse injuries. PMID:25474340

  15. Building a model for scoring 20 or more runs in a baseball game

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Michael R.; Sturdivant, Rodney X.

    2010-01-01

    How often can we expect a Major League Baseball team to score at least 20 runs in a single game? Considered a rare event in baseball, the outcome of scoring at least 20 runs in a game has occurred 224 times during regular season games since 1901 in the American and National Leagues. Each outcome is modeled as a Poisson process; the time of occurrence of one of these events does not affect the next future occurrence. Using various distributions, probabilities of events are generated, goodness-...

  16. The Baseball Hall of Fame is not the kiss of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gary

    2011-01-01

    E. Abel andM. Kruger (2005) reported that the median life expectancy of Major League Baseball players after election to the Baseball Hall of Fame is 5 years shorter than that of players of the same age who are not elected to the Hall of Fame. This conclusion is surprising because there is no compelling explanation for such a dramatic reduction in life expectancy. However, the data used in that study are incorrect. A robust test applied to correct data shows that there is no statistically persuasive difference in the life expectancy of players elected to the Hall of Fame and their peers. PMID:24501860

  17. A Monte Carlo Approach to Joe DiMaggio and Streaks in Baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Arbesman, S

    2008-01-01

    We examine Joe DiMaggio's 56-game hitting streak and look at its likelihood, using a number of simple models. And it turns out that, contrary to many people's expectations, an extreme streak, while unlikely in any given year, is not unlikely to have occurred about once within the history of baseball. Surprisingly, however, such a record should have occurred far earlier in baseball history: back in the late 1800's or early 1900's. But not in 1941, when it actually happened.

  18. Main design elements of the superconducting magnet for the LIN-5B baseball trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design of superconducting magnet system (SMS) is described for the LIN-5B baseball trap elaborated for the OGRA-3B experimental installation. The general layout of the trap, cross sections of the superconducting coil and load-bearing frame, the current leads arrangement and main LIN-5B SMS parameters are presented. A three-year experience in operation of the baseball LIN-5B SMS and successful tests followed by achieving critical conditions four times permit to make the conclusion that the design and SMS assembly meet the requirements

  19. Challenges to Cognitive Bases for an Especial Motor Skill at the Regulation Baseball Pitching Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffery P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Theall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We tested expert baseball pitchers for evidence of especial skills at the regulation pitching distance. Seven college pitchers threw indoors to a target placed at 60.5 feet (18.44 m) and four closer and four further distances away. Accuracy at the regulation distance was significantly better than predicted by regression on the nonregulation…

  20. Foul Lines: Teaching Race in Jim Crow America through Baseball History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Far more than just recreation, baseball offers social, cultural, and political insights into history. For teachers, the goals of this article are threefold. First, this narrative is designed to provide the introductory content knowledge needed to develop a colorful lecture, structure a spirited discussion, or create a student project on the topic.…

  1. Coaches, Eying Miami's Success, Try to Turn College Baseball into a Money-Making Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    The University of Miami developed its debt-ridden intercollegiate baseball program into a source of substantial income and visibility, as better players and aggressive marketing helped with the increased attendance and support. Other institutions, even in more northern climates, are following Miami's example. (MSE)

  2. Double-Play: Using Minor League Baseball to Apply Themes and Standards in Human Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…

  3. Estimation of Rotational Velocity of Baseball Using High-Speed Camera Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Uematsu, Yuko; Saito, Hideo

    Movies can be used to analyze a player's performance and improve his/her skills. In the case of baseball, the pitching is recorded by using a high-speed camera, and the recorded images are used to improve the pitching skills of the players. In this paper, we present a method for estimating of the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of movies recorded by high-speed cameras. Unlike in the previous methods, we consider the original seam pattern of the ball seen in the input movie and identify the corresponding image from a database of images by adopting the parametric eigenspace method. These database images are CG Images. The ball's posture can be determined on the basis of the rotational parameters. In the proposed method, the symmetric property of the ball is also taken into consideration, and the time continuity is used to determine the ball's posture. In the experiments, we use the proposed method to estimate the rotational velocity of a baseball on the basis of real movies and movies consisting of CG images of the baseball. The results of both the experiments prove that our method can be used to estimate the ball's rotation accurately.

  4. As Cutbacks Hit College Sports, Baseball Falls behind in the Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Brad

    2009-01-01

    For two weeks every June, the College World Series showcases one of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) most popular sports. More than 300,000 fans flock to picturesque Rosenblatt Stadium, in Omaha, with millions more tuning in on ESPN. Ticket sales, which in recent years topped $9-million, make baseball the NCAA's…

  5. Path Analysis Examining Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Performance on a Simulated Baseball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…

  6. THE ROLE OF SHOULDER MAXIMUM EXTERNAL ROTATION DURING THROWING FOR ELBOW INJURY PREVENTION IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Ida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether the passive range of shoulder external rotation (ER, the maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER during throwing, and the ratio of MER to ER are related to the incidence of the elbow injury. A mixed design with one between-factor (a history of the elbow injury and two within-factors (ER and MER was used to analyze the difference between baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain. Twenty high school baseball players who had experienced the medial elbow pain within the previous month but who were not experiencing the pain on the day of the experiment were recruited (elbow-injured group. Another twenty baseball players who had never experienced the medial elbow pain were also used for testing (control group. MER during throwing, ER, and the ratio of MER to ER were obtained in both of the group. A Mann-Whitney test was used for the group comparison (p < 0.05. The ratio of MER to ER was significantly greater in the elbow-injured group (1.52 ± 0.19 than that in the control group (1.33 ± 0.23 (p = 0.008. On the other hand, there was no statistical significance in MER and ER between two groups. The findings of the study indicate that MER/ER relation could be associated with the incidence of the elbow injury in baseball players

  7. Dynamic sonography with valgus stress to assess elbow ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonography is a valuable method for imaging superficial tendons and ligaments. The ability to obtain comparison images easily with dynamic stress allows assessment of ligament and tendon integrity. We studied the medial elbow joints of two baseball pitchers using MR imaging and dynamic sonography. Both sonography and MR imaging identified the ulnar collateral ligament tears. Dynamic sonography uniquely demonstrated the medial joint instability. (orig.)

  8. A Model of Motor Inhibition for a Complex Skill: Baseball Batting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The ability to inhibit an ongoing action in response to a signal from the environment is important for many perceptual-motor actions. This paper examines a particular example of this behavior: attempting to inhibit or "check" a swing in baseball batting. A model of motor inhibition in batting is proposed. In the model there are three different…

  9. Precocity Predicts Shorter Life for Major League Baseball Players: Confirmation of Mccann's Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…

  10. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  11. Statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in professional baseball

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander; Stanley, H Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that that level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power-law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find universal power laws in the distributions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence of performance enhancement in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is consistent with the findings of the Mi...

  12. Epidemiology and Impact of Knee Injuries in Major and Minor League Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives. PMID:26991584

  13. The Effect of Intermittent Arm and Shoulder Cooling on Baseball Pitching Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Ryan, Gregory A; Katica, Charles P; Bishop, Phillip A

    2016-04-01

    Bishop, SH, Herron, RL, Ryan, GA, Katica, CP, and Bishop, PA. The effect of intermittent arm and shoulder cooling on baseball pitching velocity. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1027-1032, 2016-The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start. Between each inning, pitchers received shoulder and arm cooling (AC) or, on a separate occasion, no cooling (NC). All sessions took place in a temperate environment (18.3 ± 2.8° C; 49 ± 4% relative humidity). Pitch speeds were averaged for each participant each inning and overall for 5 innings. Perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) was recorded at the end of each simulated inning. Perceived recovery (perceived recovery scale [PRS]) was recorded after treatment between each inning. Mean pitching velocity for all-innings combined was higher (p = 0.04) for shoulder and elbow cooling (AC) (31.2 ± 2.1 m·s) than for no cooling (NC) (30.6 ± 2.1 m·s). Average pitch speed was significantly higher in the fourth (p = baseball pitching, decreased RPE, and facilitated subjective recovery during a 5-inning simulated game. PMID:24077378

  14. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s-1 and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s-1. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. Furthermore, Fy, Fz, and resultant forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05. These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching.

  15. On the distribution of career longevity and the evolution of home-run prowess in professional baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2008-09-01

    Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.

  16. Kinematic and Kinetic Profiles of Trunk and Lower Limbs during Baseball Pitching in Collegiate Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify differences in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower extremities during baseball pitching in collegiate baseball pitchers, in relation to differences in the pitched ball velocity. The subjects were 30 collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18 to 22 yrs, who were assigned to high- (HG, 37.4 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)) and low-pitched-ball-velocity groups (LG, 33.3 ± 0.8 m·s(-1)). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground-reaction forces (GRF) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated using inverse-dynamics computation of a musculoskeletal human model. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRF data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The maxima and minima of GRF (Fy, Fz, and resultant forces) on the pivot and stride leg were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p forces on the stride leg at maximum shoulder external rotation and ball release were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). The hip abduction, hip internal rotation and knee extension torques of the pivot leg and the hip adduction torque of the stride leg when it contacted the ground were significantly greater in the HG than in the LG (p < 0.05). These results indicate that, compared with low-ball-velocity pitchers, high-ball-velocity pitchers can generate greater momentum of the lower limbs during baseball pitching. Key pointsHigh-ball-velocity pitchers are characterized by greater momentum of the lower limbs during pitching motion.For high-pitched-ball velocity, stabilizing lower limbs during pitching plays an important role in order to increase the rotation and forward motion of the trunk.Computation of the lower-extremity kinetics and measurement of lower

  17. Detrending career statistics in professional baseball: Accounting for the steroids era and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-01-01

    There is a long standing debate over how to objectively compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras. Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as Major League Baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional baseball players. We detrend player statistics by normalizing achievements to seasonal averages, which accounts for changes in relative player ability resulting from both exogenous and endogenous factors, such as talent dilution from expansion, equipment and training improvements, as well as performance enhancing drugs (PED). In this paper we compare the probability density function (pdf) of detrended career statistics to the pdf of raw career statistics for five statistical categories -- hits (H), home runs (HR), runs bat...

  18. Mass analysis of low-energy ions in the Baseball II plasma containment experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a magnetic mirror plasma experiment, the plasma containment time is often limited by the charge exchange of energetic plasma ions with thermal gas. The low-energy ions that result from the charge exchange are not trapped by the magnetic field, but emerge through the mirrors and follow the field lines with an energy of the order of the plasma potential. Mass identification of these ions helps in locating and eliminating the source of the charge-exchange gas. To perform this identification, a modified quadrupole mass spectrometer is operated in the fringe magnetic field of the Baseball II plasma experiment. From the resulting spectra an estimate is made of the density of each component of the thermal gas. For various experimental conditions of Baseball II, component density estimates and time-resolved mass analyses are given. The mass spectrometer and its operation are also described. (author)

  19. Detrending career statistics in professional baseball: Accounting for the steroids era and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Penner, Orion; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-01-01

    There is a long standing debate over how to objectively compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras. Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as Major League Baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional b...

  20. Bayesball: A Bayesian hierarchical model for evaluating fielding in major league baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Shane T.; Shirley, Kenneth E.; Wyner, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of statistical modeling in baseball has received substantial attention recently in both the media and academic community. We focus on a relatively under-explored topic: the use of statistical models for the analysis of fielding based on high-resolution data consisting of on-field location of batted balls. We combine spatial modeling with a hierarchical Bayesian structure in order to evaluate the performance of individual fielders while sharing information between fielders at each posi...

  1. Offensive Performance, Omitted Variables, and the Value of Speed in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Turocy, Theodore L.

    2003-01-01

    This note considers the problem of estimating the marginal products of offensive events towards a baseball team's objective of scoring runs. Regression techniques on official statistics give a positive marginal product for a stolen base attempt, which is inconsistent with the theory of mixed strategy Nash equilibrium. Augmenting the specification of the production function to include other productive qualities of footspeed restores estimates consistent with equilibrium theory.

  2. Team payroll and team performance in major league baseball: 1985-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Wiseman; Sangit Chatterjee

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between team payroll and team performance in major league baseball from 1985 to 2002. The results indicate that the relationship has changed over time. Unlike the early years, there is now a much clearer relationship between payroll and performance. Specifically, in the latter part of the 1990s and continuing into the 21st century, the greater the team payroll and the more equally this payroll is distributed among team members, the better the on-field perf...

  3. The impact of the luxury tax on competitive balance in Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Olugbenga Ajilore; Joshua Hendrickson

    2005-01-01

    There has been much discussion recently in the world of professional sports about competitive balance. As more is focused on the growing disparity between large market and small market teams, one must ask whether the luxury tax, as implemented by Major League Baseball, has had its intended effect. This paper adds to the literature on competitive balance by developing measures to quantify competitiveness at the individual team-level. We estimate a model analyzing the impact of the luxury tax o...

  4. Skill-Specific Changes in Somatosensory Nogo Potentials in Baseball Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koya Yamashiro

    Full Text Available Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in somatosensory evoked potentials and event-related potentials. The aim of this study was to clarify whether specific athletic training also affects somatosensory Nogo potentials related to the inhibition of movements. The Nogo potentials were recorded at nine cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, Pz, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3 and P4 in 12 baseball players (baseball group and in 12 athletes in sports, such as track and field events and swimming, that do not require response inhibition, such as batting for training or performance (sports group. The Nogo potentials and Go/Nogo reaction times (Go/Nogo RTs were measured under a somatosensory Go/Nogo paradigm in which subjects were instructed to rapidly push a button in response to stimulus presentation. The Nogo potentials were obtained by subtracting the Go trial from the Nogo trial. The peak Nogo-N2 was significantly shorter in the baseball group than that in the sports group. In addition, the amplitude of Nogo-N2 in the frontal area was significantly larger in the baseball group than that in the sports group. There was a significant positive correlation between the latency of Nogo-N2 and Go/Nogo RT. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the Go/Nogo RT and both the amplitude of Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 (i.e., amplitude of the Nogo-potentials increases with shorter RT. Specific athletic training regimens may induce neuroplastic alterations in sensorimotor inhibitory processes.

  5. The Economic Impact on the Dominican Republic of Baseball Player Exports to the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper pulls together into one practical model two strands of economic theory to assess the impact of baseball player exports on the aggregate economic performance of the Dominican Republic. On one hand, foreign trade theory predicts a strong correlation between a country’s exports and economic performance measured as per capita income. On the other hand, microeconomic research finds a positive, but statistically insignificant, impact of sports activities on local economies. A...

  6. Evaluation of Talent in a Changing World: The Case of Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Groothuis; Kurt W. Rotthoff; Mark C. Strazicich

    2013-01-01

    Comparing talent across time is difficult as productivity changes. To compare talent across time we utilize Major League baseball data from 1871-2010 and time series techniques to determine if the mean and standard deviation of five performance measures are stationary and if structural breaks exist. We identify two structural breaks in the mean slugging percentage: in 1921, the free swinging era of Babe Ruth, and in 1992, the steroid era. Given that productivity changes over time, we develop ...

  7. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...The United States Mint announces the opening of a national coin design competition that will culminate in the Secretary of the Treasury's selection of the image for the obverse (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which is open to all United States citizens and permanent residents ages 14 and over, begins on April 11, 2013, at 12 noon......

  8. Lumbopelvic control and days missed due to injury in professional baseball pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.; McKenzie, Christopher S.; Pan, Xueliang; Oñate, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injury in baseball pitchers. Hypothesis Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss 30 or more days due to injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. Study design Cohort study. Methods Three hundred forty-seven professional baseball pitchers were enrolled into the study during the last 2 weeks of spring training and stayed with the same team for the entire season. Lumbopelvic control was quantified by peak anterior-posterior deviation of the pelvis relative to starting position during a single leg raise test (APScore). Days missed due to injury through the entire season were recorded by each team's medical staff. Results Higher APScore was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of missing 30 days or more (Chi-Square, p=0.023). When divided into tertiles based on their APScore, participants in the highest tertile were 3.0 times and 2.2 times more likely to miss at least 30 days throughout the course of a baseball season relative to those in the lowest or middle tertiles, respectively. Higher APScore was also significantly associated with missing more days due to injury within participants who missed at least one day to injury (ANOVA, p=0.018), with the highest tertile missing significantly more days (mean=98.6 d) than the middle tertile (mean=45.8d, p=0.017) or the lowest tertile (mean=43.8, p=0.017). Conclusion This study found that poor lumbopelvic control in professional pitchers was associated with increased risk of missing significant time due to injury. PMID:25159541

  9. Differences among fastball, curveball, and change-up pitching biomechanics across various levels of baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisig, Glenn S; Laughlin, Walter A; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R; Andrews, James R

    2016-06-01

    Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system. Differences between pitch types and between competition levels were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA. Shoulder and elbow kinetics were greater in fastballs than in change-ups, while curveball kinetics were not different from the other two types of pitches. Kinematic angles at the instant of ball release varied between pitch types, while kinematic angles at the instant of lead foot contact varied between competition levels. There were no significant interactions between pitch type and competition level, meaning that kinetic and kinematic differences between pitch types did not vary by competition level. Like previous investigations, this study did not support the theory that curveballs are relatively more stressful for young pitchers. Although pitchers desire consistent kinematics, there were differences between pitch types, independent of competition level. PMID:27110899

  10. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel C. Perkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher’s hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball’s velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  11. On using of baseball traps for a dense hot plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variant of an open trap with the ''baseball-type'' magnetic field, which is produced by deformation and compression of a straight cylindrical liner by a profiled field, has been considered. The magnetic configuration of the ''baseball'' trap is locally stable and permits plasma injection from two plasma accelerators. In the first stage owing to the deformation of the straight liner an open ''baseball-type'' trap is produced. In the second stage two plasmoids having the directed energy above 2 keV are injected into the trap. Colliding the plasmoids stop, as a result of which the trap is filled with the plasma having a temperature of about 1 keV. In the third stage, while the configuration of the trap retains, plasma is being compressed and its temperature increases to 10 keV. The parameters of such a system have been evaluated as follows: for the field of 2 MOe and a temperature of 10 keV the plasma density will be 5 x 1018 cm-3 and the confinement time - 2 x 10-5s

  12. Method of estimation of technical preparedness level of baseballs aged 12-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapov D.V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of estimation of level of technical preparedness is developed for young baseballs. The scale of estimation of level of technical preparedness of sportsmen is formed on the method of sigmantion rejections. In an experiment took part 100 boys in age 12-14 years. The test of the program «Aquafina MLB Pitch was utillized, Hit & Run». The maximally attained indexes are certain on separate baseball skills. The level of development of technical preparedness is exposed after an experiment on the program: a test of «pitch» is 450 marks, a test of «hit» is 402 marks, a test of «run» is a 361 mark, indexes of general marks are 1043 marks. The comparative analysis of level of technical preparedness of baseballs of control and experimental groups is conducted. Authenticity of distinctions is proved between control and experimental groups on the followings criteria of technical preparedness: throw, blow at run.

  13. Curve ball baseball, statistics, and the role of chance in the game

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Jay

    2001-01-01

    In its formative years, from the 1970s through the 1990s, sabermetrics was p- marily an amateur undertaking. Publications were aimed at a relatively small audience of baseball fans. To be sure, this ever-growing group of aficionados brought a lot of sophistication to baseball analysis, and were constantly looking for statistical insights beyond the listings of the top ten batters found in popular newspapers and magazines. But their influence on the baseball profession was very limited. A few consultants like Craig Wright developed temporary relati- ships with various teams, but none were able to stay long enough to create a p- manent sabermetrician staff position. (See Rob Neyer’s November 11, 2002, arti- 1 cle on ESPN. com. ) All of this changed, however, in 2002 with the hiring of Bill James by the Boston Red Sox. With that move, we have seen the admittance of the foremost proponent of sabermetrics into the top echelon of professional ba- ball management. The art and science of careful statistical analysi...

  14. A study of static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity in 102 Japanese professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshina K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kohji Hoshina,1 Yuichi Tagami,2 Osamu Mimura,3 Hiroshi Edagawa,4 Masao Matsubara,5 Teiichi Nakayama6 1Hoshina Eye Clinic, Nishinomiya, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe Century Memorial Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan; 4Edagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 6Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan Background: It seemed that visual functions might have some effects on the performance of baseball players. We measured static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity (SVA, KVA, and DVA, respectively of Japanese professional baseball players to ascertain whether there would be any difference in SVA, KVA, and DVA among player groups stratified according to their performance level. Methods: The subjects were 102 male professional baseball players with a mean age of 26 years who were members of a Japanese professional baseball club from 2000 to 2009. They were stratified into three groups according to their performance level: A (players who were on the roster of the top-level team all the time throughout the study period, B (players who were on the roster of the top-level team sometimes but not all the time, and C (players who were never on the roster of the top-level team. They were interviewed for the use of corrective visual aids, and examined for SVA, KVA, and DVA. The measurements of these parameters were compared among groups A, B, and C. We also investigated and analyzed the association of KVA or DVA with player position (pitchers or fielders and with hand dominance for batting. KVA was compared between the pitchers and the fielders because they each require different playing skills. DVA was compared between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among groups A, B, and C. There was a statistically significant difference in

  15. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes.

  16. 腹部小切口及棒球缝合在大子宫肌瘤剔除术中的应用%Evaluation of Minilaparotomy and Baseball Suture in Myomectomy for Large Hysteromyoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申爱方; 李少丛; 由卫芝; 焦盈盈

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of Minilaparotomy and Baseball suture in myomectomy for large hysteromyoma.Method:24 patients with large hysteromyoma as the research group were operated by minilaparotomy,the myoma wounds were used baseball suture to closed tumor cavity,and the hysteromyoma were taked out with electric uterus removal device;30 patients were treated by traditional method as the control group.The duration of operation,blood loss, time needed for recovery were observed.Result:The two groups showed the same time of operation and amount of bleed loss, the difference was no statistically significant(P>0.05); the research group needed shorter time for evacuation time and hospital stays than the control group, the difference was statistically significant(P0.05);而研究组术后排气时间及住院时间明显少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:腹部小切口及棒球缝合用于子宫肌瘤剔除术优于传统开腹手术。

  17. Three-Tesla MR imaging of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Grande, Filippo [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Servizio di Radiologia. Lugano, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano-TI (Switzerland); Aro, Michael; Farahani, Sahar Jalali; Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wilckens, John; Cosgarea, Andrew [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-01-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative 3-T MR imaging features of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers presenting as major league draft picks or trades. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the HIPPA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived. Twenty-one professional non-symptomatic baseball pitchers (mean age 23, range 18 to 34 years old) underwent 3-T MR imaging of the pitching elbow. Two experienced readers independently performed qualitative (collateral ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bones, ulnar nerve, olecranon fossa, and joint fluid) and quantitative (collateral ligaments and posteromedial plica) evaluation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Collateral ligament thickening was seen in a high proportion, nearly half, however, without features of full thickness tearing. Tendinosis without tearing was seen in 19 % (4/21) of common extensors. Cartilage abnormalities were infrequent. Bone abnormalities manifested as edema in 24 % (5/21) and humeroulnar osteophytosis. Ulnar nerve signal and/or morphologic abnormalities were seen in a very high proportion, up to 81 % (17/21). The olceranon fat pad showed scarring features in about one third. The median ligament thicknesses in mm measured: 4.6 UCL anterior bundle, 1.8 UCL posterior bundle, 1.9 RCL, 2.5 LUCL, and 0.7 mm anular. The median plica dimensions were 5.3 by 2.2 by 2.7 mm. High-resolution 3-T MR imaging frequently shows abnormalities involving the ligaments, tendons, nerves, olecranon fat pad, and bones in non-symptomatic baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  18. MR imaging of ulnar collateral ligament injury in baseball players: Value for predicting rehabilitation outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To compare the MR findings of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury in baseball players between rehabilitation and reconstruction surgery. Materials and methods: Thirty nine baseball players with clinical evidence of a UCL injury based on medial elbow pain and valgus instability were included. All patients received the rehabilitation treatment for more than six weeks. The elbow MR images of 27 patients not responding to rehabilitation treatment were reviewed that consequently had reconstruction surgery; in addition to 12 patients with improved symptoms with only rehabilitation treatment. The MR imaging was compared between the two treatment groups using the Pearson's chi-square test, and linear-by-linear association for the following features: the degree, signal intensity and site of the UCL injury on fat suppressed T2-weighted images. Results: High-grade partial tears and complete tears were more commonly seen in the group that had surgery (14 out of 27 patients, 52%; 8 out of 27 patients, 30%), and low-grade partial tears and intact continuity were more common in the group that had rehabilitation only (5 out of 12 patients, 42%; 5 out of 12 patients, 42%) (p = 0.001). The injured UCL showed a fluid-like bright high or intermediate high signal intensity in the group that had surgery more frequently (14 out of 27 patients, 52%; 12 out of 27 patients, 44%), and intermediate high or low signal intensity was more frequent in the rehabilitation group (7 out of 12 patients, 58%; 3 out of 12 patients, 25%) (p = 0.013). The UCL injury at the origin site was most commonly seen in both groups (23 out of 27 patients, 85%; 11 out of 12 patients, 92%, respectively) (p = 0.496). Conclusion: Preoperative MR imaging is useful for predicting the rehabilitation outcome of UCL injuries in baseball players.

  19. Three-Tesla MR imaging of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively evaluate the qualitative and quantitative 3-T MR imaging features of the elbow in non-symptomatic professional baseball pitchers presenting as major league draft picks or trades. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the HIPPA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived. Twenty-one professional non-symptomatic baseball pitchers (mean age 23, range 18 to 34 years old) underwent 3-T MR imaging of the pitching elbow. Two experienced readers independently performed qualitative (collateral ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bones, ulnar nerve, olecranon fossa, and joint fluid) and quantitative (collateral ligaments and posteromedial plica) evaluation. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Collateral ligament thickening was seen in a high proportion, nearly half, however, without features of full thickness tearing. Tendinosis without tearing was seen in 19 % (4/21) of common extensors. Cartilage abnormalities were infrequent. Bone abnormalities manifested as edema in 24 % (5/21) and humeroulnar osteophytosis. Ulnar nerve signal and/or morphologic abnormalities were seen in a very high proportion, up to 81 % (17/21). The olceranon fat pad showed scarring features in about one third. The median ligament thicknesses in mm measured: 4.6 UCL anterior bundle, 1.8 UCL posterior bundle, 1.9 RCL, 2.5 LUCL, and 0.7 mm anular. The median plica dimensions were 5.3 by 2.2 by 2.7 mm. High-resolution 3-T MR imaging frequently shows abnormalities involving the ligaments, tendons, nerves, olecranon fat pad, and bones in non-symptomatic baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  20. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd; Casey E. Shutt; Sakiko Oyama; J. Troy Blackburn; Joseph B. Myers

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a risk factor for shoulder and elbow injury in baseball players. Although this evidence forms a basis for recommending stretching, clinical measures of internal rotation range of motion (ROM) do not differentiate if GIRD is due to muscular, capsuloligamentous, or osseous factors. Understanding the contributions of these structures to GIRD is important for the development of targeted interventions. We hypothesize that the osseous component will have the greatest relative contribution to GIRD, followed by muscle stiffness and posterior capsule thickness. Methods:Internal rotation ROM, muscle stiffness (teres minor, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid), posterior capsule thickness, and humeral retrotorsion were evaluated on 156 baseball players. A side-to-side difference was calculated for each variable. Variables were entered into a multivariable linear regression to determine the significant predictors of GIRD. Results:The regression model was statistically significant (R2=0.134, F(1, 156)=24.0, p<0.01) with only humeral retrotorsion difference remaining as a significant predictor (β=-0.243, t156=-4.9, p<0.01). A greater humeral retrotorsion side-to-side difference was associated with more GIRD. Conclusion:Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3%of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence

  1. Mortality of major league baseball players from Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Reynolds

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Professional baseball players have lower mortality rates than the US general population, but whether this is true of foreign-born players is not known. Using data on ballplayers from six nations, we compare mortality rates with those of US players via standardized mortality ratios. After controlling for confounders, four countries had statistically insignificant SMRs while two nations had significantly elevated SMRs. In the two nations with elevated SMRs, low average ages at death and high crime rates suggest the increased mortality may be linked to violent crime. A full understanding of the causes of disparity in mortality will require further research.

  2. Unusual stress fracture in an adolescent baseball pitcher affecting the trochlear groove of the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress fractures of the proximal ulna are known to occur in throwing athletes. Most cases extend to involve the olecranon, and cases limited to the trochlear groove are rare. In this report we present a 17-year-old elite baseball pitcher with a stress fracture of the trochlear groove of the proximal ulna. Diagnosis was made by demonstration of characteristic signal changes on MRI of the elbow. The fracture occurred at the cortical notch, also known as the pseudodefect of the trochlear groove. This case suggests that the cortical notch serves as an area of weakness predisposing pitchers to development of a stress fracture. (orig.)

  3. Contested Representations of Taiwanese Baseball: Political Interpretations and Moral Values of a National Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Soldani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, baseball is a national passion that the whole society can relate to. Appeared under Japanese rule, it was enrolled in the nationalist “physical culture” (tiyu 體育 just after WWII and became, at the turn of the 1970s, the “national sport” (guoqiu 國球 and the flagship of a state isolated on the international scene. It thus provides Taiwanese society with many symbols and references which the political elite cannot afford to ignore. Deeply involved with the education of moral values, its representations are used and claimed by the main existing political and ideological forces.

  4. Retired NASA F-18 being lowered on to pedestal mount at Lancaster California Municipal Baseball Stad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A large crane gingerly lowers an F/A-18 Hornet aircraft onto a 28-foot-tall pedestal in front of the municipal baseball stadium in the city of Lancaster, California. The blue-and-white F/A-18 was recently loaned to the city by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA Dryden had flown the twin-jet aircraft as a safety chase and support aircraft over the past nine years. The stadium, known as 'The Hangar,' is the home field of the Lancaster Jethawks, a Class-A farm team of the Seattle Mariners.

  5. Streaming-plasma measurements in the Baseball II-T mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The warm plasma from a deuterium-loaded titanium washer gun, streaming along magnetic-field lines through the steady-state magnetic well of Baseball II, has been examined for its suitability in this experimental situation as a target plasma for hot-ion buildup experiments and for microinstability control. The gun was positioned near the magnetic axis outside the mirror region. Measurements were made with gridded, end-loss detectors placed outside the opposite mirror, a microwave interferometer, a beam-attenuation detector, and other diagnostics

  6. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers. PMID:25303496

  7. Localized vitreous adhesion to the retina after ocular contusion with a baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Masayo Kimura, Akira Nishimura, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanPurpose: To report a series of five cases of vitreous adhesions after blunt trauma caused by a baseball strike.Methods: The medical records of patients with ocular contusion after being struck by a baseball, who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy, were reviewed. An aqueous suspension of triamcinolone acetonide was used intraoperatively to facilitate visualization of the vitreous.Results: Five eyes were reviewed in this study. There were two cases of retinal detachment, two cases of traumatic macular hole, and one case of retinal detachment due to traumatic macular hole. Despite the surgical creation of posterior vitreous detachment, if not already present, the thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion to the retinal necrotic area with/without retinal hole was found between the major vascular arcades and the equator in all cases. The thin layer of the vitreous was removed with a vitreous cutter and diamond-dusted membrane scraper, but complete removal was impossible.Conclusions: A thin layer of localized vitreous adhesion at the area of retinal degeneration was observed in eyes following ocular contusion.Keywords: localized, vitreous adhesion, triamcinolone acetonide, ocular contusion, pars plana vitrectomy

  8. A rare cause of chronic elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylynko, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of chronic elbow pain as a result of a hidden underlying osteochondral defect. Clinical Features: A 17-year old baseball player presented with chronic lateral elbow pain. Examination revealed swelling of the elbow with signs of possible ligament, muscle, and tendon injury. Diagnosis and Treatment: Although there was apparent soft-tissue injury, the elbow swelling created immediate suspicion of a more serious underlying condition. Examination revealed a swollen and tender elbow, with plain x-ray confirming a subchondral bone disorder (osteochondral defect) of the capitellum. Surgical repair was performed by an orthopedic surgeon using DeNovo NT Natural Tissue Grafts: the implantation of small pieces of juvenile joint cartilage into the affected area, using glue-like fibrin. Rehabilitation of the elbow began immediately following surgery. Summary: Examination and imaging indicated that elbow pain in an adolescent baseball player could be from multiple sources, however, the chronic swelling raised suspicion of a condition requiring immediate and further investigation. PMID:27713578

  9. DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY COMPOSITION OF PLAYERS OF THE POLISH NATIONAL BASEBALL TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełło Marina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the differentiation of body composition among players of Polish national baseball team in comparison to persons of the same population not professionally engaged in sport. The study involved Polish baseball representatives (n=20. Competitors’ age was 18-28 years, body mass from 67.7 kg to 114 kg (85±10.3 kg, and body height 173-196 cm (185.1±4.8. The training experience was 7-14 years and it was highly differentiated. The stoutness factor is the dominant factor among "infielders" and "pitchers", and among "outfielders" - the length one. The proportions of the features within the factors show that players are characterized by a strongly muscled forearm and a shank and by a clear predominance of the elbow width with a disproportionately - to the overall size of the factor - small knee and shoulder width. In the length factor an even contribution of the upper and lower extremity length with lower sitting body height can be noted. Depending on the position on the field there is a differentiation of the internal proportions of the body.

  10. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  11. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  12. The Impact of Baseball Participation on the Educational Experiences of Black Student-Athletes at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak, Edward Joseph; Cooper, Joseph N.; Hawkins, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of baseball participation on the educational experiences of black student-athletes at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the southeastern United States (US). HBCUs were selected for this study because of the limited amount of research on student-athletes at these…

  13. Pick-up of early visual information to guide kinetics and kinematics within a group of highly skilled baseball batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MüLler, Sean; Lalović, Alex; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Rosalie, Simon M; Harbaugh, Allen G

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study integrated sport expertise and biomechanics methodologies within a baseball batting task. Purpose was to examine differences within a highly skilled group of baseball batters to use visual information to guide weight transfer and bat movements. One batter who played at Major League Baseball (MLB) level was compared to five batters who played at Australian Baseball League (ABL) level in a case-control design. Batters faced pitchers in a simulated competition and attempted to hit pitches, while vision was temporally occluded during ball flight or not occluded. Time of weight transfer (kinetics), as well as bat downswing initiation and duration (kinematics) from the point of ball release, were compared between the MLB batter and ABL batters. Results indicated that the MLB batter coordinated his striking pattern by completing his weight transfer earlier than the ABL batters. His bat downswing was also initiated earlier than some ABL batters, but there was no difference in duration of bat downswing between batters. All batters initiated bat downswing prior to completion of weight transfer. Understanding of motor expertise is furthered using a novel methodology.

  14. Ammonia-pellet generation system for the Baseball II-T target plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of a small pellet by a pulsed laser is one method of producing a startup target plasma for plasma experiments employing neutral-beam injection. A system for generating charged, uniformly sized, solid-ammonia, 150-μm-diam, spherical pellets having a charge-to-mass ratio of 10-4 C/kg is described. These pellets are electrostatically guided at a speed of 32 m/sec (over a distance of several meters) to a laser focal zone. This complete system (pellet generation and pellet guidance) has been successfully operated on a 3-m test stand where 250-μm-diam pellets were regularly irradiated by a pulsed, 30-J CO2 laser. The system is now installed on the Baseball II-T experiment; in preliminary tests, several 150-μm-diam pellets were irradiated with the pulsed 300-J CO2 laser

  15. Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Hibberd

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Humeral retrotorsion accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD. The stiffness of the superficial shoulder muscles and capsular thickness, as measured in this study, were not predictors of GIRD. Factors not assessed in this study, such as deeper muscle stiffness, capsule/ligament laxity, and neuromuscular regulation of muscle stiffness may also contribute to GIRD. Since it is the largest contributor to GIRD, causes of changes in humeral retrotorsion need to be identified. The osseous component only accounted for 13.3% of the variance in GIRD, indicating a large contribution from soft tissues factors that were not addressed in this study. These factors need to be identified to develop evidence-based evaluations and intervention programs to decrease the risk of injury in baseball players.

  16. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, Joshua M.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Subhas, Naveen [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lynch, T.S. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Bullen, Jennifer A. [Cleveland Clinic, Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, OH (United States); Soloff, Lonnie [Cleveland Indians, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schickendantz, Mark S. [Cleveland Clinic, Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  17. Throwing-related injuries of the subscapularis in professional baseball players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)

  18. High-performance vision training improves batting statistics for University of Cincinnati baseball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Clark

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Baseball requires an incredible amount of visual acuity and eye-hand coordination, especially for the batters. The learning objective of this work is to observe that traditional vision training as part of injury prevention or conditioning can be added to a team's training schedule to improve some performance parameters such as batting and hitting. METHODS: All players for the 2010 to 2011 season underwent normal preseason physicals and baseline testing that is standard for the University of Cincinnati Athletics Department. Standard vision training exercises were implemented 6 weeks before the start of the season. Results are reported as compared to the 2009 to 2010 season. Pre season conditioning was followed by a maintenance program during the season of vision training. RESULTS: The University of Cincinnati team batting average increased from 0.251 in 2010 to 0.285 in 2011 and the slugging percentage increased by 0.033. The rest of the Big East's slugging percentage fell over that same time frame 0.082. This produces a difference of 0.115 with 95% confidence interval (0.024, 0.206. As with the batting average, the change for University of Cincinnati is significantly different from the rest of the Big East (p = 0.02. Essentially all batting parameters improved by 10% or more. Similar differences were seen when restricting the analysis to games within the Big East conference. CONCLUSION: Vision training can combine traditional and technological methodologies to train the athletes' eyes and improve batting. Vision training as part of conditioning or injury prevention can be applied and may improve batting performance in college baseball players. High performance vision training can be instituted in the pre-season and maintained throughout the season to improve batting parameters.

  19. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.]. PMID:27045482

  20. Contribution of Visual Information about Ball Trajectory to Baseball Hitting Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Higuchi

    Full Text Available The contribution of visual information about a pitched ball to the accuracy of baseball-bat contact may vary depending on the part of trajectory seen. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between hitting accuracy and the segment of the trajectory of the flying ball that can be seen by the batter. Ten college baseball field players participated in the study. The systematic error and standardized variability of ball-bat contact on the bat coordinate system and pitcher-to-catcher direction when hitting a ball launched from a pitching machine were measured with or without visual occlusion and analyzed using analysis of variance. The visual occlusion timing included occlusion from 150 milliseconds (ms after the ball release (R+150, occlusion from 150 ms before the expected arrival of the launched ball at the home plate (A-150, and a condition with no occlusion (NO. Twelve trials in each condition were performed using two ball speeds (31.9 m·s-1 and 40.3 m·s-1. Visual occlusion did not affect the mean location of ball-bat contact in the bat's long axis, short axis, and pitcher-to-catcher directions. Although the magnitude of standardized variability was significantly smaller in the bat's short axis direction than in the bat's long axis and pitcher-to-catcher directions (p < 0.001, additional visible time from the R+150 condition to the A-150 and NO conditions resulted in a further decrease in standardized variability only in the bat's short axis direction (p < 0.05. The results suggested that there is directional specificity in the magnitude of standardized variability with different visible time. The present study also confirmed the limitation to visual information is the later part of the ball trajectory for improving hitting accuracy, which is likely due to visuo-motor delay.

  1. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success. PMID:26677832

  2. Why are Americans Addicted to Baseball? An Empirical Analysis of Fandom in Korea and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Trenton Smith; Lee, Young H.

    2006-01-01

    Theories of rational addiction posit that certain habit -forming goods "characterized by an increasing marginal utility of consumption "generate predictable dynamic patterns of consumer behavior. It has been suggested that attendance at sporting events represents an example of such a good, as evidenced by the pricing strategies of commercial sports interests. In this essay, we provide new evidence in support of rational addiction for the case of Major League Baseball, but fail to find such su...

  3. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  4. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  5. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors.

  6. Pelvis and torso kinematics and their relationship to shoulder kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Keeley, David W

    2010-12-01

    It was the purpose of our study to examine the kinematics of the pelvis and torso and determine their relationship to the kinematics of the shoulder in high-school baseball pitchers. A single group, repeated-measures design was used to collect pelvis, torso, and shoulder kinematics throughout the pitching motion. Subjects threw a series of maximal effort fastballs to a catcher located the regulation distance (18.44m) from the pitching mound, and those data from the fastest pitch passing through the strike zone were analyzed. After test trials, kinematic data were analyzed using a series of descriptive statistics to identify outliers and determine the nature of the distribution before testing for the presence of relationships between the various parameters. Results indicated that for several parameters, the actions at and about the shoulder are strongly related to the actions of the pelvis and torso throughout the pitching motion. However, although pelvis and torso kinematics throughout the pitching motion were inversely related to both shoulder elevation and the plane of shoulder elevation, only the rate of axial torso rotation was significantly related to these shoulder parameters. More importantly, the rate of axial torso rotation is significantly related to these shoulder parameters in a way that may help explain the high rate of shoulder injury in high-school pitchers. Therefore, strength training should focus on developing a strong stable core including the gluteal musculature in an attempt to control the rate of torso rotation during the pitch. PMID:20703168

  7. Relation Between Lift Force and Ball Spin for Different Baseball Pitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Nakata, Hiroki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Although the lift force (FL) on a spinning baseball has been analyzed in previous studies, no study has analyzed such forces over a wide variety of spins. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between FL and spin for different types of pitches thrown by collegiate pitchers. Four high-speed video cameras were used to record flight trajectory and spin for 7 types of pitches. A total of 75 pitches were analyzed. The linear kinematics of the ball was determined at 0.008-s intervals during the flight, and the resultant fluid force acting on the ball was calculated with an inverse dynamics approach. The initial angular velocity of the ball was determined using a custom-made apparatus. Equations were derived to estimate the FL using the effective spin parameter (ESp), which is a spin parameter calculated using a component of angular velocity of the ball with the exception of the gyro-component. The results indicate that FL could be accurately explained from ESp and also that seam orientation (4-seam or 2-seam) did not produce a uniform effect on estimating FL from ESp. PMID:26576060

  8. Origins of superior dynamic visual acuity in baseball players: superior eye movements or superior image processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Uchida

    Full Text Available Dynamic visual acuity (DVA is defined as the ability to discriminate the fine parts of a moving object. DVA is generally better in athletes than in non-athletes, and the better DVA of athletes has been attributed to a better ability to track moving objects. In the present study, we hypothesized that the better DVA of athletes is partly derived from better perception of moving images on the retina through some kind of perceptual learning. To test this hypothesis, we quantitatively measured DVA in baseball players and non-athletes using moving Landolt rings in two conditions. In the first experiment, the participants were allowed to move their eyes (free-eye-movement conditions, whereas in the second they were required to fixate on a fixation target (fixation conditions. The athletes displayed significantly better DVA than the non-athletes in the free-eye-movement conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the fixation conditions. These results suggest that the better DVA of athletes is primarily due to an improved ability to track moving targets with their eyes, rather than to improved perception of moving images on the retina.

  9. Coordination pattern of baseball pitching among young pitchers of various ages and velocity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the whole-body movement coordination of pitching among 72 baseball players of various ages and velocity levels. Participants were classified as senior, junior, and little according to their age, with each group comprising 24 players. The velocity levels of the high-velocity (the top eight) and low-velocity (the lowest eight) groups were classified according to their pitching velocity. During pitching, the coordinates of 15 markers attached to the major joints of the whole-body movement system were collected for analysis. Sixteen kinematic parameters were calculated to compare the groups and velocity levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to quantify the coordination pattern of pitching movement. The results were as follows: (1) five position and two velocity parameters significantly differed among the age groups, and two position and one velocity parameters significantly differed between the high- and low-velocity groups. (2) The coordination patterns of pitching movement could be described using three components, of which the eigenvalues and contents varied according to age and velocity level. In conclusion, the senior and junior players showed greater elbow angular velocity, whereas the little players exhibited a wider shoulder angle only at the beginning of pitching. The players with high velocity exhibited higher trunk and shoulder rotation velocity. The variations among groups found using PCA and kinematics parameter analyses were consistent. PMID:26757065

  10. Rotator Interval Lesion and Damaged Subscapularis Tendon Repair in a High School Baseball Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Muto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, a 16-year-old baseball pitcher visited Nobuhara Hospital complaining of shoulder pain and limited range of motion in his throwing shoulder. High signal intensity in the rotator interval (RI area (ball sign, injured subscapularis tendon, and damage to both the superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments were identified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Repair of the RI lesion and partially damaged subscapularis tendon was performed in this pitcher. During surgery, an opened RI and dropping of the subscapularis tendon were observed. The RI was closed in a 90° externally rotated and abducted position. To reconfirm the exact repaired state of the patient, arthroscopic examination was performed from behind. However, suture points were not visible in the >30° externally rotated position, which indicates that the RI could not be correctly repaired with the arthroscopic procedure. One year after surgery, the patient obtained full function of the shoulder and returned to play at a national convention. Surgical repair of the RI lesion should be performed in exactly the correct position of the upper extremity.

  11. Unusual chest wall pain caused by thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kinshi; Yabuki, Shoji; Otani, Koji; Nikaido, Takuya; Otoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Symptomatic thoracic disc herniation is clinically rare. There are few cases of disc herniation of the thoracic spine in top athletes described in the literature. We herein present a rare case of chest wall pain due to thoracic disc herniation in a professional baseball pitcher. A 30-year-old, left-handed pitcher complained of left-sided chest wall pain in the region of his lower ribs during a game. Neurological examination revealed hypoesthesia of the left side of the chest at the level of the lower thoracic spine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showed a left-sided paramedian disc herniation at the T9-T10 level. The player was initially prescribed rest, administration of pregabalin (150 mg twice a day), and subsequent physical rehabilitation. He was able to resume full training and pitching without medication 6 months after the onset. A follow-up MRI of the thoracic spine showed a reduction in the size of the herniated disc compared to the initial findings. Though relatively rare, thoracic disc herniation should be considered in cases of chest wall pain in athletes. PMID:26983590

  12. Biologic Augmentation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in the Elbow of a Professional Baseball Pitcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hoffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL of the elbow are common injuries in overhead athletes. Although surgical reconstruction of the UCL has improved outcomes, not all athletes return to their previous level of competition and when this goal is achieved, the time required averages one to two years. Therefore, additional techniques are needed to further improve return to play and the rate of return to play in overhead athletes. A construct comprising a dermal allograft, platelet rich plasma (PRP, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been shown to successfully improve healing in the rotator cuff. Given the promising provisional findings, we postulated that this construct could also improve healing if applied to the UCL. Therefore, the purpose of the present report was to examine the feasibility of utilizing a dermal allograft, PRP, and MSC construct to augment UCL reconstruction in a professional baseball pitcher. No complications were encountered. Although limited to minimal follow-up, the patient has demonstrated excellent progress and has returned to activity.

  13. Kinematic comparison of baseball batting off of a tee among various competition levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Brittany; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-09-01

    Determining and understanding baseball batting mechanics at various competition levels may help players and coaches identify key kinematics crucial to being a successful hitter. The purpose of this study was to compare batting kinematics across competition levels. Kinematic and temporal data were analysed for 170 male batters (youth n = 33; high school n = 69; college n = 22; professional n = 46) using 3D motion capture (480 Hz). The results showed differences in angular positions between competition levels during the five phases of the swing, with the greatest differences seen between the youth and professional batters. At the instant of ball contact, professional batters held the bat farther away from their body, with greater back shoulder abduction (35°) and less back elbow flexion (78°) compared to youth (27° and 89°, respectively). These differences were associated with greater back elbow extension velocity for professionals (1539°/s) compared to youth (1174°/s). Additionally, higher level batters had higher bat angular and linear velocities compared to the youth batters. As batters progress through their career, they should focus on their back arm by keeping their elbow up and their arm extended in front of them. PMID:27278749

  14. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

  15. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  16. Aerodynamics of the curve-ball: An investigation of the effects of angular velocity on baseball trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaways, Leroy Ward

    In this dissertation the aerodynamic force and initial conditions of pitched baseballs are estimated from high-speed video data. Fifteen parameters are estimated including the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and the angular velocity vector using a parameter estimation technique that minimizes the residual error between measured and estimated trajectories of markers on the ball's surface and the center of mass of pitched baseballs. Studies are carried out using trajectory data acquired from human pitchers and, in a more controlled environment, with a pitching machine. In all 58 pitch trajectories from human pitchers and 20 pitching machine pitches with spin information are analyzed. In the pitching machine trials four markers on the ball are tracked over the first 4 ft (1.22 m) and the center of mass of the ball is tracked over the last 13 ft (3.96 m) of flight. The estimated lift coefficients are compared to previous measured lift coefficients of Sikorsky (Alaways & Lightfoot, 1998) and Watts & Ferrer (1987) and show that significant differences exists in the lift coefficients of two- and four-seam curve balls at lower values of spin parameter, S. As S increased the two- and four-seam lift coefficients merge becoming statistically insignificant. The estimated drag coefficients are compared to drag coefficients of smooth spheres and golf-balls and show that these data sets bound the drag-coefficient of the baseball. Finally, it is shown that asymmetries of the ball associated with the knuckleball can influence the trajectory of the more common curve and fastball.

  17. Mouthguard BITES (behavior, impulsivity, theory evaluation study): what drives mouthguard use among high school basketball and baseball/softball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Although mouthguards are effective, inexpensive, easy to use, and readily available, this form of protective equipment has been underutilized. "Impulsive delay discounting" (an index of impulsive behavior) among high school athletes may help explain their decision making regarding use of protective equipment such as mouthguards. We investigated the relationship between high school baseball, softball, and basketball players' mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and the precaution adoption process model (a behavior change theory). A convenience sample of boys' and girls' basketball and baseball/softball players at 21 high schools in the Greater Columbus, Ohio, metro area completed a self-administered survey that captured their demographic information, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mouthguard use, impulsive delay discounting, and precaution adoption process model stage. We surveyed a total of 1636 students (55.9 % male, 43.8 % female, 0.3 % unknown). Only 12.3 % reported using a mouthguard either every time or sometimes during practice or competition. The primary reasons reported for not wearing mouthguards were they were not required to (65.3 %) and that the athletes could not breathe or talk while wearing one (61.5 %). These reasons were consistent across sex and sport. Most athletes reported that their coaches (87.3 %) and parents (64.5 %) had never talked to them about wearing a mouthguard. Lower precaution adoption process model stage was significantly associated with higher impulsivity (p basketball and baseball/softball remains low despite the risk of dental injury in these sports. Effective, evidence-based, targeted, and tailored interventions to improve adolescent athletes' use of mouthguards to prevent sports-related dental injuries should be based on the specific behavioral and social factors influencing each athlete's decision making regarding use of mouthguards.

  18. On the potential of a chemical Bonds: Possible effects of steroids on home run production in baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years several baseball players have hit a remarkable number of home runs, and there has been speculation that their achievements were enhanced by the use of anabolic steroids. Basic mechanics and physiology, combined with simple but reasonable models, show that steroid use by a player who is already highly skilled could produce such dramatic increases in home run production. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even modest changes in bat speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 50-100%. The possible effect of steroid use by pitchers is briefly considered.

  19. Do Fans Care about Compliance to Doping Regulations in Sports? The Impact of PED Suspension in Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Cisyk, Jeffrey; COURTY, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence in support of the main economic rationale for regulating athletic doping: that doping reduces fan interest. The introduction of random testing for performance-enhancing drugs (PED) by Major League Baseball (MLB) offers unique data to investigate the issue. The announcement of a PED violation: (a) initially reduces home-game attendance by 8 percent, (b) has no impact on home-game attendance after 12 days, and (c) has a small negative impact on the game attendance for o...

  20. Risk Stratification for Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury in Major League Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, Steven F.; Kriz, Peter K.; Hall, Amber M.; Zurakowski, David; Fadale, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury has become increasingly common in Major League Baseball (MLB) players in recent years. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in preinjury fastball velocity between MLB pitchers with tears and matched controls without UCL injury. Pitchers with injuries are throwing harder and getting injured earlier in their MLB careers. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From 2007 to 2014, a total of 170 documented UCL injuries (156 pitchers, 14 position players) occurred in MLB. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of any player who tore his UCL in MLB during this time frame. There were 130 regular-season tears (April-September). From this group, 118 players who pitched more than 100 innings prior to tear were matched to subjects with no tear and were compared using a logistic regression analysis. A subgroup of “early tear” players who threw less than 100 career innings (n = 37) was also identified and compared with the larger tear group using a logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 130 tears that occurred during the regular season, a significantly larger number (62%) occurred in the first 3 months (P = .011). The rate of UCL tears per MLB player (P = .001) was statistically significant. In the group of 118 matched tears, the mean fastball velocity was greater in the tear group (91.7 mph) compared with the control group (91.0 mph; P = .014). Furthermore, relief pitchers made up a greater percentage of the early tear group (statistically significant difference in the mean fastball velocity of pitchers who injure their UCL. Small increases in pitcher fastball velocity are a main contribution to the increased rate of tear in MLB. In addition, there has been an increased incidence of injury in the first 3 months of the season. Finally, early tears are more likely to occur in relief pitchers than starters. PMID:26848482

  1. Injury Trends in Major League Baseball Over 18 Seasons: 1998-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Stan; Camp, Christopher L; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Since Major League Baseball (MLB) expanded to its current size of 30 teams in 1998, a comprehensive and longitudinal study of injury trends has not been performed. The purpose of this work is to report the epidemiology of injuries in MLB over that time utilizing disabled list (DL) data. Additionally, we sought to determine the financial impact of these injuries for MLB teams. During this analysis, we focused special attention on injuries of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) and conducted a comprehensive review of all MUCL reconstructions ever performed on MLB players. Over the study period, there were a total of 8357 DL designations (mean of 464 annually). Players lost a total of 460,432 days (25,186 days annually) due to injury. Both the number of DL assignments and number of DL days increased from year to year (P cost of designating players to the DL was $423,267,634 and a total of $7,618,817,407 was spent over the entire 18 seasons. Regarding MUCL injuries, a total of 400 MUCL reconstructions were performed in MLB players between 1974 and 2015, and the mean time to return to MLB competition was 17.1 months. The annual incidence of MUCL reconstructions increased dramatically from year to year (P < .001) and nearly one-third (n = 131, 32.8%) of all procedures performed over the 42-year period occurred in the last 5 years (2011 to 2015). In summary, overall injury rates and DL assignments continue to rise. Although shoulder injuries are declining, this improvement is countered by increasing elbow injuries, and these injuries continue to represent a significant source of lost revenue. PMID:26991562

  2. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  3. Medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow in major league baseball players: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-06-18

    The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is a vital structure to the overhead athlete, especially the baseball pitcher. For reasons not completely understood, UCL injuries have become increasingly more common in major league baseball (MLB) pitchers over the past 10 years. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the current gold standard of treatment for these injuries in MLB pitchers who wish to return to sport (RTS) at a high level and who have failed a course of non-operative treatment. Results following UCLR in MLB pitchers have been encouraging, with multiple RTS rates now cited at greater than 80%. Unfortunately, with the rising number of UCLR, there has also been a spike in the number of revision UCLR in MLB pitchers. Similar to primary UCLR, the etiology of the increase in revision UCLR, aside from an increase in the number of pitchers who have undergone a primary UCLR, remains elusive. The current literature has attempted to address several questions including those surrounding surgical technique (method of exposure, graft choice, management of the ulnar nerve, concomitant elbow arthroscopy, etc.), post-operative rehabilitation strategies, and timing of RTS following UCLR. While some questions have been answered, many remain unknown. The literature surrounding UCLR in MLB pitchers will be reviewed, and future directions regarding this injury in these high level athletes will be discussed. PMID:27335810

  4. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game.

  5. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L

    2010-11-01

    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game. PMID:20435800

  6. Social Emotional Needs: On the Social and Emotional Lives of Gifted Students: Using a Baseball Metaphor to Illustrate the Opportunities of Gifted Students from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the author uses the analogy of baseball to describe the lives of gifted children as a vehicle to think about similarities and differences. The author states that he has experienced how educators often gloss over the powerful and all-inclusive living conditions of high-ability students from financially impoverished backgrounds. In…

  7. 粤、台两地棒球运动发展的差异及其启示%Differences in baseball development between Guangdong and Taiwan and inspirations therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洪

    2014-01-01

    Baseball exiting the Olympic Games has brought serious challenges to baseball development worldwide, while Guangdong baseball faces a choice of its development direction. In order to learning something beneficial from Taiwan’s experience of success in baseball development, and to boost baseball development in Guangdong, the author carried out a comparative analysis on the courses and current situations of baseball development in Guang-dong and Taiwan, and via comparison revealed that with a weak mass foundation, inadequate field construction, fund shortage, as well as incomplete organization and management system, competition system and talent cultiva-tion system, Guangdong baseball had fallen far behind Taiwan. Opportunities should be brought to baseball devel-opment in Guangdong by learning from the experience of baseball development in Taiwan, dialectically looking at the influence brought to Guangdong baseball by baseball exiting the Olympic Games, utilizing existing conditions, and basing the key on university baseball development.%棒球运动退出奥运会给棒球运动在世界范围的发展带来了严峻的挑战,广东棒球运动也面临着发展方向的选择。为了借鉴台湾地区棒垒球运动开展的成功经验,以便取长补短,促进广东地区棒垒球运动的发展,对粤、台两地棒球运动发展历程、开展现状进行对比分析。通过对比看到:广东棒球运动群众基础薄弱,场地建设不足,资金短缺,组织管理制度、竞赛制度、人才培养制度不完善,远远落后于台湾地区。借鉴台湾棒球的发展经验,辨证地看待棒球运动退出奥运会给广东棒球运动带来的影响,借助现有条件,以高校棒球运动发展作为关键点,给广东的棒球运动发展带来机遇。

  8. Difference Between Adolescent and Collegiate Baseball Pitchers in the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Lower Limbs and Trunk During Pitching Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kageyama, Takashi Sugiyama, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Akira Maeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs during the pitching motion. The subjects were thirty-two adolescent baseball pitchers aged 12-15 years (APG and thirty collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years (CPG. Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground reaction forces (GRFs of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by the inverse-dynamics computation of musculoskeletal human models using motion-capture data. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRFs data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The velocity of a pitched ball was significantly higher (p < 0.01 in CPG (35.2 ± 1.9 m·s-1 than in the APG (30.7 ± 2.7 m·s-1. Most kinematic parameters for the lower limbs were similar between the CPG and the APG. Maximum Fy (toward the throwing direction on the pivot leg and Fy and resultant forces on the stride leg at ball release were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05. Hip and knee joint torques on the lower limbs were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05. The present study indicates that the kinematics of lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered.

  9. 棒球退出奥运会比赛的现状分析%Analysis of baseball withdraw from the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2012-01-01

    From the London Olympic Games start, baseball is no longer an official Olympic sport. October 7, 2005, the International Olympic Committee should be international bar group requirements, announced the Singapore all the project Settings the vote, baseball project for 50 ticket support, 54 votes against to 4 vote short been ruled out of the London 2012 Olympics. Similarly, baseball missed the 2016 Olympics, these decided to give the world baseball sports development brought serious challenges.Why did the International Olympic Committee this decision? The author through widely data access, baseball games out reason of discussion and analysis, and carries on the induction and summary.%从伦敦奥运套开始,棒球不再是奥运会正式比赛项目。2005年10月7日,一际奥委会应国际棒联的要求,公布了新加坡全全项目设置投票结果,棒球项目因50票支持、54票反对,以4票之差被排除出2012年伦敦奥运会。同样,棒球无缘2016年奥运会,这些决定给世界棒球运动的发展带来了严峻的挑战。为什么国际奥委会做出这一决定,作者通过广泛地查阅资料,就棒球退出奥运会的原因进行探讨和分析,并进行归纳和总结。

  10. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  11. Separating device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A sorting device (1) suitable for sorting wire from a waste stream, comprising a body (2) that moves when in use, and provided with spikes or similar projections. The body is embodied as a rotatable roll (2), which oscillates axially during its rotation. The roll is coupled to an oscillation engine

  12. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure cha

  13. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  14. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet...

  15. Error reduction by combining strapdown inertial measurement units in a baseball stitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Leah

    A poor musical performance is rarely due to an inferior instrument. When a device is under performing, the temptation is to find a better device or a new technology to achieve performance objectives; however, another solution may be improving how existing technology is used through a better understanding of device characteristics, i.e., learning to play the instrument better. This thesis explores improving position and attitude estimates of inertial navigation systems (INS) through an understanding of inertial sensor errors, manipulating inertial measurement units (IMUs) to reduce that error and multisensor fusion of multiple IMUs to reduce error in a GPS denied environment.

  16. Modulation of motor area activity by the outcome for a player during observation of a baseball game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotaro Shimada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observing competitive games such as sports is a pervasive entertainment among humans. The inclination to watch others play may be based on our social-cognitive ability to understand the internal states of others. The mirror neuron system, which is activated when a subject observes the actions of others, as well as when they perform the same action themselves, seems to play a crucial role in this process. Our previous study showed that activity of the mirror neuron system was modulated by the outcome of the subject's favored player during observation of a simple competitive game (rock-paper-scissors. However, whether the mirror neuron system responds similarly in a more complex and naturalistic sports game has not yet been fully investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we measured the activity of motor areas when the subjects, who were amateur baseball field players (non-pitchers, watched short movie clips of scenes in professional baseball games. The subjects were instructed to support either a batter or a pitcher when observing the movie clip. The results showed that activity in the motor area exhibited a strong interaction between the subject's supported side (batter or pitcher and the outcome (a hit or an out. When the subject supported the batter, motor area activity was significantly higher when the batter made an out than when he made a hit. However, such modulation was not apparent when the subject supported the pitcher. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This result indicates that mirror neuron system activity is modulated by the outcome for a particular player in a competitive game even when observing a complex and naturalistic sports game. We suggest that our inclination to watch competitive games is facilitated by this characteristic of the mirror neuron system.

  17. Arthroscopic Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Major League Baseball Pitchers: The Lateralized Footprint Repair Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Joshua S; Jones, Kristofer; Maher, Patrick; Altchek, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of surgical management of full-thickness rotator cuff tears in professional baseball players have been uniformly poor. We conducted a study to investigate return-to-play data and functional performance using a novel arthroscopic repair technique. We hypothesized that arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would result in a high rate of return to professional pitching and favorable functional outcomes. We identified 6 consecutive Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who underwent surgical repair of full-thickness rotator cuff injuries using the lateralized footprint repair technique. At most recent follow-up, patients were evaluated to determine their ability to return to athletic activity. Functional outcomes were also assessed using player performance statistics. By mean follow-up of 66.7 months (range, 23.2-94.6 months), 5 (83%) of the 6 pitchers had returned to their preinjury level of competition for at least 1 full season. Despite the high rate of return to MLB play, few pitchers resumed pitching productivity at their preoperative level; mean number of innings pitched decreased from 1806.5 to 183.7. A slight performance reduction was also found in a comparison of preoperative and postoperative pitching statistics. Of note, the return rate was higher for players over age 30 years than for those under 30 years. Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability to meet functional demands. Anatomical adaptations at the glenohumeral joint should be considered when performing rotator cuff repair in these patients in order to preserve peak functional performance. This novel repair technique affords a high rate of return to MLB play, though elite overhead throwers should be counseled that pitching productivity might decrease after surgery. PMID:26991564

  18. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  19. Electrooptical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    This report covers work carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1979 through 31 March 1980. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. CW operation at temperatures up to 55 C has been achieved for GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting at 1.5 micrometers, which were grown without a GaInAsP buffer layer. These devices are of interest for use as sources in fiber-optics communications systems, since the lowest transmission loss reported for fused-silica optical fibers occurs at 1.55 micrometers. Surface passivation techniques developed for InP and GaInAsP avalanche photodiodes have resulted in reductions of dark current as large as four orders of magnitude, to values as low as .0000016 A/sq cm at 0.9 V(b) where V(b) is the breakdown voltage. Devices consisting entirely of InP have been passivated with plasma-deposited Si3N4, and those with a GaInAsP layer but with the p-n junction in InP have been passivated with polyimide. Neither of these techniques successfully reduces dark currents in devices with the p-n junction in the GaInAsP, but a film of photoresist sprayed with SF6 as the propellant has given excellent results. The electrical characteristics in InP ion implanted with Sn, Ge, Si, and C have been investigated. All of these column IV elements yielded n-type conductivity and Sn, Ge, and Si showed high electrical activation; however, implanted C was found to have a net electrical activation of only about 5 percent.

  20. 论如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣%Discuss How to Develop the Beginners’ Learning Interest of Baseball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜楷

    2015-01-01

    通过自身十几年的棒球教学经验,并从各类体育文献上查看相关资料,总结出如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣要点,主要包括初学者心理素质的培养、基本训练兴趣的培养、身体素质兴趣的培养、培养师生关系增加学习兴趣的、规则渗透训练培养、以大带小训练培养、全方位训练培养七个方面进行介绍,希望能为棒球教练员在如何培养初学棒球者的学习兴趣上提供一定参考。%Through my own teaching experience in baseball over ten years, and consulting the related materials about all kinds of sports literature. Generally speaking, there are seven key points of how to develop the beginners’ learning interest of baseball, mainly including improving beginners’ psychological quality, improving the interest in basic training, improving the interest in physical quality, cultivating the relationship between teachers and students to increase the learning interest, the training with Rules of the penetration, with big with small training, comprehensive training. I look forward to providing references for baseball coaches on how to develop the beginners’ learning interest of baseball.

  1. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  2. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To absorb fabrication errors in radial toroidal coils and a spacer and completely fill the gap between them by the provision of an expansion device between the coils and the supporting spacer by injecting fillers of a predetermined composition. Constitution: An expansion device comprising an expansion plate, packings inserted into grooves formed in the outer circumference of the expansion plate and a recessed pressure receiving plate is inserted between the wall surface of radial toroidal coils and a spacer for maintaining the gap between the toroidal coils. Then, filler comprising polyester resin and glass beads incorporated therein is injected from an injection aperture of the recessed pressure receiving plate having an exhaust aperture at the upper part. The filler is solidified and enables the fabrication error in the coils and the spacer to be absorbed. Since the gap between the coils and the spacer is completely filled, the tumbling force of the coils can surely be transmitted by way of the spacer to upper and lower racks. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  4. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  5. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  6. Chronic pain due to Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in an adolescent baseball pitcher: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylynko, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of chronic Little Leaguer’s Shoulder in reference to pain presentation, physical capabilities, and recovery time. Clinical Features: A 17-year-old, junior baseball pitcher presented with shoulder pain when performing high velocity pitching. Conservative treatment for an assumed soft tissue injury failed to resolve the pain, which was regularly aggravated by pitching, and which subsequently prompted further evaluation, and eventual confirmation of Little Leaguer’s Shoulder on subsequent computerized tomography (CT) imaging. Intervention and Outcome: Prior to proper diagnosis, conservative treatment had consisted of activity modification, spinal adjusting, laser therapy, shockwave therapy, Active Release Techniques®, Kinesiotape,® and rehabilitation. Later, rehabilitation, consisting of general muscle and core strengthening, continued for a further six months under the supervision of college athletic trainers. The athlete was able to return to normal pitching duties approximately 12 months later. Summary: In this case, a potentially damaging bone injury masquerading as a simple musculo-tendinous injury created a diagnostic challenge. The patient eventually recovered with rest, time, strengthening, and eventual compliance to prescribed activity modification. PMID:26815884

  7. Conception season and cerebral asymmetries among American baseball players: implications for the seasonal birth effect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Giovanni; Fraser, Frank Clarke

    2009-05-30

    People with schizophrenia and children born with neural tube defects both tend to be conceived most often in May-June, about a month before the summer solstice, and least often in November-December, a month before the winter solstice. Such timings, coupled with evidence of cerebral asymmetry deficits in schizophrenia, and evidence that asymmetry development and neural tube closure represent concurrent fourth-embryonic-week processes both sensitive to oxidant stress, led us to the hypothesis that pro-oxidant sunlight actions capable of affecting the mother's blood could result in a peri-June peak of inhibition and a peri-December peak of facilitation of both processes. Here, using birth and hand preference data from baseball statistics, we tested the hypothesis's prediction that, as a group representing minimal cerebral lateralization, left-handed players would show the same conception rhythm as that observed in the above disorders. We found that not only strict left-handers (those both batting and throwing left) were most often conceived in May-June but that also strict right-handers and other players denoting more extreme levels of cerebral lateralization were most often conceived in November-December. PMID:19395089

  8. An inferential and descriptive statistical examination of the relationship between cumulative work metrics and injury in Major League Baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L

    2013-08-01

    In Major League Baseball (MLB), games pitched, total innings pitched, total pitches thrown, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game are used to measure cumulative work. Often, pitchers are allocated limits, based on pitches thrown per game and total innings pitched in a season, in an attempt to prevent future injuries. To date, the efficacy in predicting injuries from these cumulative work metrics remains in question. It was hypothesized that the cumulative work metrics would be a significant predictor for future injury in MLB pitchers. Correlations between cumulative work for pitchers during 2002-07 and injury days in the following seasons were examined using regression analyses to test this hypothesis. Each metric was then "binned" into smaller cohorts to examine trends in the associated risk of injury for each cohort. During the study time period, 27% of pitchers were injured after a season in which they pitched. Although some interesting trends were noticed during the binning process, based on the regression analyses, it was found that no cumulative work metric was a significant predictor for future injury. It was concluded that management of a pitcher's playing schedule based on these cumulative work metrics alone could not be an effective means of preventing injury. These findings indicate that an integrated approach to injury prevention is required. This approach will likely involve advanced cumulative work metrics and biomechanical assessment. PMID:23090322

  9. A comparison of throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsien; Wu, Ting-Yu; Learman, Kenneth E; Tsai, Yung-Shen

    2010-06-30

    Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth PMID:21793324

  10. Team Payroll, Competitive Balance, and Team Performance in the Japan Professional Baseball League: A Study using 1993-2004 Panel Data.

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMURA, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    This research aimed to explore how a team payroll has an effect on team performance as measured by the winning percentage using panel data of the Japan Professional Baseball League; separately for each of the Central and the Pacific Leagues. The major finding is that a team payroll has a remarkably positive impact on the outcomes of Pacific League team performance; however it has none on central League teams. The reason why such different results are brought about is that the popularity of t...

  11. Comparative analysis on the physique and batting records of the players in the National Summer High School Baseball Tournaments before and after the adoption of metal bats.

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Hayato; Mino, Yoshio; Babazono, Akira; Ogawa,Takanori; Aoyama, Hideyasu

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the influence of the introduction of metal bats on the physique and batting records of the players in the National Summer High School Baseball Tournaments, a comparative analysis was conducted between height, body weight, body-weight ratio (body weight/height), batting average and home run average of the best four teams' players (n = 493) and those of the other teams' players (n = 4,590) in three periods: the period of the use of wooden bats, that of the use of both wooden and meta...

  12. Infrared criminalistic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Savkov, E. V.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.

  13. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007635.htm Intrauterine devices (IUD) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device used ...

  14. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  15. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  16. You Can’t Think and Hit at the Same Time: Neural Correlates of Baseball Pitch Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eSherwin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hitting a baseball is often described as the most difficult thing to do in sports. A key aptitude of a good hitter is the ability to determine which pitch is coming. This rapid decision requires the batter to make a judgment in a fraction of a second based largely on the trajectory and spin of the ball. When does this decision occur relative to the ball’s trajectory and is it possible to identify neural correlates that represent how the decision evolves over a split second? Using single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG we address this question within the context of subjects discriminating three types of pitches (fastball, curveball, slider based on pitch trajectories. We find clear neural signatures of pitch classification and, using signal detection theory, we identify the times of discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Based on these neural signatures we estimate neural discrimination distributions as a function of the distance the ball is from the plate. We find all three pitches yield unique distributions, namely the timing of the discriminating neural signatures relative to the position of the ball in its trajectory. For instance, fastballs are discriminated at the earliest points in their trajectory, relative to the two other pitches, which is consistent with the need for some constant time to generate and execute the motor plan for the swing (or inhibition of the swing. We also find incorrect discrimination of a pitch (errors yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10, which has been implicated in prospective memory, recall and task difficulty. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative distributions of the relative point in a baseball’s trajectory when the batter makes a decision on which pitch is coming.

  17. Ultraefficient Themoelectric Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermoelectric (TE) devices already found a wide range of commercial, military and aerospace applications. However, at present commercially available TE devices...

  18. Sistema para el Manejo de un Tablero Electrónico de Béisbol Control System for an Electronic Baseball Scoreboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un sistema controlador para un tablero electrónico de béisbol. El sistema permite la captura de las anotaciones durante un partido de béisbol, las cuales serán utilizadas para realizar las estadísticas. También permite almacenar un listado de los equipos y jugadores participantes dentro de la liga. A través de un puerto paralelo el sistema controla remotamente el tablero electrónico que se encuentra en el fondo del estadio. Los datos del marcador también pueden ser consultados desde una página web. La página web es útil para mantener informado al público interesado ya que permite ver las estadísticas de los juegos y el seguimiento del partido en tiempo real.The aim of this paper is to present a controller system for an electronic baseball scoreboard. The system allows capturing baseball games scores, which will be used for statistical purposes. It also allows storing a list of teams and players who are league members. The system remotely controls the electronic board located at the end of the stadium, through the parallel port. The score data can be also consulted from a web page. The web page is useful to keep the users informed since all statistics of a game can be followed in real time.

  19. Evaluation of hip internal and external rotation range of motion as an injury risk factor for hip, abdominal and groin injuries in professional baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinning Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.

  20. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Noda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented.

  1. Hip supporting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for limiting movements in one or more anatomical joints, such as a device for limiting movement in the human hip joint after hip replacement surgery. This is provided by a device for limiting movement in the human hip joint, said device comprising: at least...

  2. Superconducting (radiation hardened) magnets for mirror fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting magnets for mirror fusion have evolved considerably since the Baseball II magnet in 1970. Recently, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) yin-yang has been tested to a full field of 7.7 T with radial dimensions representative of a full scale reactor. Now the emphasis has turned to the manufacture of very high field solenoids (choke coils) that are placed between the tandem mirror central cell and the yin-yang anchor-plug set. For MFTF-B the choke coil field reaches 12 T, while in future devices like the MFTF-Upgrade, Fusion Power Demonstration and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) reactor the fields are doubled. Besides developing high fields, the magnets must be radiation hardened. Otherwise, thick neutron shields increase the magnet size to an unacceptable weight and cost. Neutron fluences in superconducting magnets must be increased by an order of magnitude or more. Insulators must withstand 1010 to 1011 rads, while magnet stability must be retained after the copper has been exposed to fluence above 1019 neutrons/cm2

  3. Rhetorical Devices in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芃

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve persuasive and convincing effects,rhetorical devices are frequently applied in English advertisements.The paper classifies rhetorical devices into four basic categories: phonetic devices,lexical devices,syntactic devices and figures of

  4. Avaliação do ombro doloroso no jogador de beisebol Evaluation of painful shoulder in baseball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar em jogadores de beisebol a relação entre mobilidade e força do ombro e a presença de dor. MÉTODOS: Entre abril e julho de 2009 foram avaliados 55 jogadores de beisebol pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Todos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 15 e 33 anos (média de 21, média de três treinos por semana e tempo médio de prática da modalidade de 10 anos. RESULTADOS: 14 dos 55 atletas avaliados eram arremessadores, 20 referiram dor no arremesso. As médias de rotação lateral, medial e amplitude de movimento (ADM do ombro dominante foram de 110º, 61º e 171º, respectivamente, com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação ao membro não dominante. Arremessadores tiveram maior ganho de rotação lateral e déficit de rotação medial que os não arremessadores. Dor teve correlação estaticamente significante com ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". CONCLUSÃO: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes na mobilidade do ombro dominante com aumento da rotação lateral, diminuição da rotação medial e menor amplitude de movimento, em relação ao membro contralateral. Foram encontradas relações estatisticamente significantes entre maior ganho de rotação lateral e diminuição da rotação medial e a posição de arremessador. Houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre dor e ADM diminuída, maior tempo de prática da modalidade e situação de "ombro em risco". Existe uma tendência estatística sugerindo que os atletas com rotação medial do ombro dominante diminuída tenham relação com dor.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. METHODS: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical

  5. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  6. Alerts and Notices (Devices)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... powered, Hand-held Lasers Used for Pointing or Entertainment 12/16/10 Medical Device Safety Archive The ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting ...

  7. Development of Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Limaye, Dnyanesh

    2016-01-01

    The medical devices sector helps save lives by providing innovative health care solutions regarding diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment, and alleviation. Medical devices are classified into 1 of 3 categories in the order of increasing risk: Class I, Class II, and Class III.1 Medical devices are distinguished from drugs for regulatory purposes based on mechanism of action. Unlike drugs, medical devices operate via physical or mechanical means and are not dependent on metabolism to acc...

  8. Smart devices are different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Allan; Blunck, Henrik; Bhattacharya, Sourav;

    2015-01-01

    research results. This is due to variations in training and test device hardware and their operating system characteristics among others. In this paper, we systematically investigate sensor-, device- and workload-specific heterogeneities using 36 smartphones and smartwatches, consisting of 13 different...... device models from four manufacturers. Furthermore, we conduct experiments with nine users and investigate popular feature representation and classification techniques in HAR research. Our results indicate that on-device sensor and sensor handling heterogeneities impair HAR performances significantly...

  9. Heterostructures and quantum devices

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1994-01-01

    Heterostructure and quantum-mechanical devices promise significant improvement in the performance of electronic and optoelectronic integrated circuits (ICs). Though these devices are the subject of a vigorous research effort, the current literature is often either highly technical or narrowly focused. This book presents heterostructure and quantum devices to the nonspecialist, especially electrical engineers working with high-performance semiconductor devices. It focuses on a broad base of technical applications using semiconductor physics theory to develop the next generation of electrical en

  10. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  11. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  12. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  13. Reavaliação do ombro doloroso em atletas de beisebol após tratamento conservador Reassessment of painful shoulders among baseball players after conservative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os resultados da reabilitação nos jogadores de beisebol que possuíam dor e déficit de rotação medial no ombro. MÉTODOS: Dos 55 atletas avaliados no período de abril a junho de 2009, observou-se que 20 atletas tinham dor em algum momento do arremesso. Eles foram orientados a realizar um programa de reabilitação com exercícios para alongamento da cápsula posterior e reforço dos músculos da cintura escapular, especialmente os rotadores laterais. Dezoito pacientes seguiram as orientações, dois perderam o seguimento. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: dor, amplitude de movimento e força pré e pós o término do programa. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação final, em comparação com a inicial, observamos: aumento em média da elevação de 10º (p = 0,001, de três níveis vertebrais da rotação medial (p OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the rehabilitation results among baseball players who presented pain and medial rotation deficit in their shoulders. METHODS: Out of 55 baseball players assessed between April and June 2009, it was observed that 20 presented pain at some instant during throwing movements. They were advised to undergo a rehabilitation program with exercises to stretch the posterior capsule and reinforce the muscles of the scapular belt, especially the lateral rotators. Eighteen patients followed the advice, while two were lost from the follow-up. The parameters evaluated were: pain, range of motion, strength before the program and strength after the end of the program. RESULTS: Comparing the initial and final assessments, we observed mean increases as follows: 10º of elevation (p = 0.001; three vertebral levels of medial rotation (p < 0.001; 20º of medial rotation at 90º abduction (p < 0.001; and 26º of range of motion (p < 0.001. Regarding strength, elevation force increased by 3 kgf (p = 0.002 and lateral rotation force increased by 1 kgf (p = 0

  14. Analysis of Range of Motion and Isokinetic Strength of Internal and External Rotation According to Humeral Retroversion of the Dominant Shoulder in Youth Baseball Players: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Yob Rhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to analyze the range of motion (ROM and internal rotation (IR and external rotation (ER isokinetic strength according to humeral retroversion of the dominant shoulder.We included 40 elite baseball players in Korea (OBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning >10 years, age: 19.37±2.21 years, height: 181.00±5.41 cm, weight: 84.58±7.85 kg; BBP group: n=20 players with careers spanning 10 years had significantly higher humeral retroversion, IROM, EROM, and IR and ER isokinetic strength of the dominant shoulder than youth players with careers spanning <10 years. Furthermore, humeral retroversion and ROM were not significantly related, but IR and ER isokinetic strength were significantly positively related with retroversion in both groups.

  15. Nostalgia-Related Aspects of Professional Sport Facilities: A Facility Audit of Major League Baseball and National Football League Strategies to Evoke the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Seifried

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on documenting how Major League Baseball (MLB and the National Football League (NFL utilize nostalgia through their sport facilities to showcase the past, present and even the future. This study involved the collection and examination of several facility elements through a facility audit. Data was collected on nostalgia inducing elements by using facility and renovation documents/blueprints and announcements, archived data, published websites, facility visits, and interaction/contact with front office employees. The collected information led the researchers to determine that MLB and NFL teams use specific strategies or tactics within their facilities to create or evoke nostalgia. Furthermore, there are opportunities for each organization to attract more live and remote spectators to their venue and organizational-sponsored events in order to establish or maintain membership in their fan nation through methods which center on enhancing the nostalgic experience.

  16. Thermography of electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilova S. P.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example of the thermographic method for checking the electronic devices is provided. The main features of software used in thermography and its significance are described.

  17. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  18. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  19. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  20. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  1. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  2. Mechanical CPR devices

    OpenAIRE

    Halperin, Henry; Carver, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It is recognized that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important predictor of outcome from cardiac arrest. Mechanical chest-compression devices provide an alternative to manual CPR. Physiological and animal data suggest that mechanical chest-compression devices are more effective than manual CPR. Consequently, there has been much interest in the development of new techniques and devices to improve the efficacy of CPR. This review will consider the evidence ...

  3. Optical fibre nanowire devices

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei

    2008-01-01

    The Optical Fibre Nanowire (OFN) is a potential building block in future micro- and nano-photonic device since it offers a number of unique optical and mechanical properties. In this thesis, the background and fundamental features of nanowires are introduced; the theory, design and demonstration of novel nanowire devices are discussed. At first, a short adiabatic taper tip is manufactured, and it is used as optical tweezers for trapping 1?m microspheres. Then, the most important devic...

  4. Sensor sentinel computing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  5. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  6. New Medical Device Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, as a member of the Harmonization by Doing (HBD) project, I discuss the significance of regulatory science in global medical device development and our experience in the international collaboration process for medical devices. In Japan, most innovative medical therapeutic devices were previously developed and exported by foreign-based companies. Due to this device lag, Japanese had minimal opportunities for receiving treatment with innovative medical devices. To address this issue, the Japanese government has actively accepted foreign clinical trial results and promoted global clinical trials in projects such as HBD. HBD is a project with stakeholders from academia, regulatory authorities, and industry in the US and Japan to promote global clinical trials and reduce device lags. When the project started, medical device clinical trials were not actively conducted in Japan at not just hospitals but also at medical device companies. We started to identify issues under the concept of HBD. After 10 years, we have now become key members in global clinical trials and able to obtain approvals without delay. Recently, HBD has started promoting international convergence. Physicians and regulatory authorities play central roles in compiling guidelines for the clinical evaluation of medical device development, which will be a more active field in the near future. The guidelines compiled will be confirmed with members of academia and regulatory authorities in the United Sates. PMID:27040333

  7. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  8. Cataphoric Devices in Spoken Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Jescheniak, Jörg D.

    1995-01-01

    We propose that speakers mark key words with cataphoric devices. Cataphoric devices are counterparts to anaphoric devices: Just as anaphoric devices enable backward reference, cataphoric devices enable forward reference. And just as anaphoric devices mark concepts that have been mentioned before, cataphoric devices mark concepts that are likely to be mentioned again. We investigated two cataphoric devices: spoken stress and the indefinite this. Our experiments demonstrated three ways that con...

  9. Vaginal mechanical contraceptive devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M.; Barwin, B. N.

    1983-01-01

    The alleged adverse effects of oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices have led to increased consumer and physician demand for vaginal contraceptive devices. The efficacy and the advantages and disadvantages of vaginal sponges, cervical caps and diaphragms are discussed and compared in this article.

  10. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  11. Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Seth

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.

  12. Digital communication device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The invention concerns a digital communication device like a hearing aid or a headset. The hearing aid or headset has a power supply, a signal processing device, means for receiving a wireless signal and a receiver or loudspeaker, which produces an audio signal based on a modulated pulsed signal...

  13. Metallic spintronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Metallic Spintronic Devices provides a balanced view of the present state of the art of metallic spintronic devices, addressing both mainstream and emerging applications from magnetic tunneling junction sensors and spin torque oscillators to spin torque memory and logic. Featuring contributions from well-known and respected industrial and academic experts, this cutting-edge work not only presents the latest research and developments but also: Describes spintronic applications in current and future magnetic recording devicesDiscusses spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device architectures and modelingExplores prospects of STT-MRAM scaling, such as detailed multilevel cell structure analysisInvestigates spintronic device write and read optimization in light of spintronic memristive effectsConsiders spintronic research directions based on yttrium iron garnet thin films, including spin pumping, magnetic proximity, spin hall, and spin Seebeck effectsProposes unique solutions for ...

  14. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  15. Positioning devices for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that it is very important to position patients reproducibly at different stages of radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment, or similar procedures. Devices have been described for positioning a patient's upper and lower thorax. This invention provides reproducible positioning for a female patient's breasts, for example in planning treatment of and treating breast tumours. The patient is placed prone, using for example an upper thorax device. A support device is placed central to and beneath her breasts to partially displace them outwards. The device may be triangular in section with one apex contacting the chest wall at the sternum. Restraining straps may be provided to hold the breasts against the support device. Means may be provided to take a healthy breast from the path of radiation through the tumour. (author)

  16. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-06-19

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  17. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  18. Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial of An Athletic Trainer-Directed Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco Intervention for Collegiate Baseball Athletes: Results After 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansky, Stuart A; Ellison, James A; Rudy, Diane; Bergert, Ned; Letendre, Mark A; Nelson, Lisa; Kavanagh, Catherine; Walsh, Margaret M

    2005-06-01

    Context: Athletes in the United States are at high risk for using spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) and incurring its associated adverse health effects.Objective: To examine whether an athletic trainer-directed ST intervention could decrease initiation and promote cessation of ST use among male collegiate baseball athletes.Design: Stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial.Setting: Fifty-two California colleges.Patients or Other Participant(s): A total of 883 subjects in 27 intervention colleges and 702 subjects in 25 control colleges participated, as did 48 certified athletic trainers.Intervention(s): For college athletic trainers and associated dental professionals, a 3-hour video conference, and for collegiate athletes, an oral cancer screening with feedback and brief counseling during the preseason health screenings, athletic trainer support for cessation, and a peer-led educational baseball team meeting.Main Outcome Measure(s): The subjects' ST use over 1 year was assessed by self-report. At the end of the study, the certified athletic trainers were mailed a survey assessing their tobacco use and perceptions and behavior related to tobacco control in the athletic environment. We used multivariable logistic regression models for clustered responses (generalized estimating equations) to test the difference between groups in ST-use initiation and cessation and to identify significant overall predictors of noninitiation and cessation of ST use.Results: Of the 1585 athletes recruited, 1248 (78.7%) were followed up at 12 months. In addition, 48 of the 52 athletic trainers (92%) responded to the 1-year follow-up survey. The ST-use initiation (incidence) was 5.1% in intervention colleges and 8.4% in control colleges (generalized estimating equation odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval = 0.35-0.99). Predictors of ST noninitiation were low lifetime tobacco and monthly alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.40- 2.82) and athletic trainers

  19. Effects of Three Recovery Protocols on Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Blood Lactate in Baseball Pitchers During a Simulated Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Courtney D; Szymanski, David J; Landers, Merrill R

    2015-11-01

    Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game. Twenty-one Division I intercollegiate baseball pitchers (age = 20.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 185.9 ± 8.4 cm; weight = 86.5 ± 8.9 kg; percent body fat = 11.2 ± 2.6) volunteered to pitch 3 simulated 5-inning games, with a maximum of 70 fastballs thrown per game while wearing an HR monitor. Range of motion was measured pre, post, and 24 hours postpitching for shoulder internal and external rotation at 90° and elbow flexion and extension. Heart rate was recorded after each pitch and after every 30 seconds of the 6-minute recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded after the last pitch of each inning and after completing each 6-minute recovery period. Immediately after throwing the last pitch of each inning, postpitching blood lactate concentration (PPLa-) was measured. At the end of the 6-minute recovery period, before the next inning started, postrecovery blood lactate concentration (PRLa-) was measured. Pitchers were instructed to throw each pitch at or above 95% of their best-pitched fastball. This was enforced to ensure that each pitcher was throwing close to maximal effort for all 3 simulated games. All data presented represent group mean values. Results revealed that the method of recovery protocol did not significantly influence ROM (p > 0

  20. 應用 Google Analytics 於數位典藏網站計量分析 A Web Metrics Study on Taiwan Baseball Wiki Using Google Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 數位典藏系統的最終目的是為了提供使用者使用,因此,必須從使用者角度評估系統的設計,以充分掌握使用者需求,發掘系統潛在問題,藉以改善系統、提升品質與增進使用者滿意度。本研究選擇以使用者到訪率極高的數位典藏網站-「台灣棒球維基館」為對象,利用著名的網站計量軟體GoogleAnalytics做為主要分析工具,再輔以問卷調查結果,希望能掌握使用者的多樣面貌,包括:誰在使用?何時使用?何地使用?使用何物?如何使用q工具,有效地分析網站營運成果,解析網站使用客群,據以調整網站未來經營方向。The ultimate purpose of digital archives is to provide users with an easy access to archived data. The assessment of the website with digital archives should be from the user’s perspectives so that users’ needs can be better understood, the potential design problems can be easily revealed, and the websites can be improved accordingly. This study analyzed Taiwan Baseball Wiki, a very popular website dedicated to baseball archives in Taiwan. Google Analytics, a well-known web metrics tool, was used as the primary research instrument. In addition, a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the users’ profile. Questions such as the 5W1H (i.e., who, when, where, why, what, and how questions regarding the users and the use of the website, and the satisfaction level of the users are investigated. The results of the research provided valuable reference for future improvement of the website, especially for the areas of website management and administration. Furthermore, this study recommended web metrics tools to other websites which provide digital archives. The application of these tools can help with understanding and optimizing web usage.

  1. Nanoelectronic device applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, James E

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world.These include: Nanoscale advance

  2. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  3. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  4. Radiations from display devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    45 display devices have been analyzed for X-ray emmission and for electrostatic - and low-frequency magnetic fields. 3 have been further analyzed for UV and visible light emmission. No emmissions above established risk levels have been found. For low-frequency magnetic fields very little is known of risks, so the levels have been compared with other commonly used devices. The measured levels correspond roughly to that which occur in the use of an electrical egg-beater, or a small hand electrical drill. Data are presented for the tested devices.(author)

  5. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  6. Emission rate measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckat, S.

    1980-09-01

    The development and application of an emission rate measuring device for gaseous components is explored. The device contains absorption fluid from a supply container that moistens a cylindrical paper sleeve. A newer model is provided with a direct current motor requiring less electricity than an older model. The hose pump is modified to avoid changing it and the filter sleeve is fastened more securely to the distributor head. Application of the measuring devices is discussed, particularly at the Cologne Cathedral, where damage to the stone is observed.

  7. Physics of photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Shun Lien

    2009-01-01

    The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:

  8. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  9. Microreactor Array Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Peter; Brunner, Al; Kahn, Peter; Qiu, Ji; Magee, Mitch; Bian, Xiaofang; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Labaer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    We report a device to fill an array of small chemical reaction chambers (microreactors) with reagent and then seal them using pressurized viscous liquid acting through a flexible membrane. The device enables multiple, independent chemical reactions involving free floating intermediate molecules without interference from neighboring reactions or external environments. The device is validated by protein expressed in situ directly from DNA in a microarray of ~10,000 spots with no diffusion during three hours incubation. Using the device to probe for an autoantibody cancer biomarker in blood serum sample gave five times higher signal to background ratio compared to standard protein microarray expressed on a flat microscope slide. Physical design principles to effectively fill the array of microreactors with reagent and experimental results of alternate methods for sealing the microreactors are presented.

  10. Advanced underwater lift device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  11. Dielectrophoretically tunable optofluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su; Ren, Hongwen; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-12-01

    Tunable optofluidic devices exhibit some unique characteristics that are not achievable in conventional solid-state photonic devices. They provide exciting opportunities for emerging applications in imaging, information processing, sensing, optical communication, lab-on-a-chip and biomedical engineering. A dielectrophoresis effect is an important physical mechanism to realize tunable optofluidic devices. Via balancing the voltage-induced dielectric force and interfacial tension, the liquid interface can be dynamically manipulated and the optical output reconfigured or adaptively tuned in real time. Dielectrophoretically tunable optofluidic devices offer several attractive features, such as rapid prototyping, miniaturization, easy integration and low power consumption. In this review paper, we first explain the underlying operation principles and then review some recent progress in this field, covering the topics of adaptive lens, beam steering, iris, grating, optical switch/attenuator and single pixel display. Finally, the future perspectives are discussed.

  12. Thermoelectric materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Talcott, Noel A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    New thermoelectric materials comprise highly [111]-oriented twinned group IV alloys on the basal plane of trigonal substrates, which exhibit a high thermoelectric figure of merit and good material performance, and devices made with these materials.

  13. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  14. Authenticated sensor interface device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Poland, Richard W.

    2016-10-18

    A system and method for the secure storage and transmission of data is provided. A data aggregate device can be configured to receive secure data from a data source, such as a sensor, and encrypt the secure data using a suitable encryption technique, such as a shared private key technique, a public key encryption technique, a Diffie-Hellman key exchange technique, or other suitable encryption technique. The encrypted secure data can be provided from the data aggregate device to different remote devices over a plurality of segregated or isolated data paths. Each of the isolated data paths can include an optoisolator that is configured to provide one-way transmission of the encrypted secure data from the data aggregate device over the isolated data path. External data can be received through a secure data filter which, by validating the external data, allows for key exchange and other various adjustments from an external source.

  15. Halo traction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, D E

    1994-08-01

    A thorough understanding of the underlying diseases and of the halo pin traction device will allow for appropriate treatment of complications. Consultation or referral to the neurosurgeon is advised to prevent serious sequelae. The following points should be remembered: 1. Pins should only be tightened during the first 24-hour period after application. 2. Pin infection is treated by local wound care in most cases. 3. CT scan cannot completely exclude the presence of an abscess secondary to artifact, but MRI may be compatible with the newer devices. 4. Pin penetration of the inner table of the skull requires admission. 5. Any suspected loss of alignment or reduction of the cervical spine requires C-spine immobilization. 5. Nasotracheal or fiberoptic intubation or emergent cricothyroidotomy should be used if orotracheal intubation proves difficult due to the device. 7. The anterior portion of the vest is removable for cardiopulmonary resuscitation without compromising the stability of the device. PMID:8062799

  16. MDR (Medical Device Reporting)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database allows you to search the CDRH's database information on medical devices which may have malfunctioned or caused a death or serious injury during the...

  17. Resources: Handheld Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Denson, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The article features a valuable resource to aid teachers in their effort to satisfy the need to implement modern instructional technology and their students' need to access green technology. It states that handheld computing devices are currently being widely used in many classrooms and technology savvy educators can manifest to the benefits of these data-collection systems. It believes that handheld units can offer students with an all-inclusive technological device that caters to all learners.

  18. Nanoplasmonics advanced device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, James W M

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on control and manipulation of plasmons at nanometer dimensions, nanoplasmonics combines the strength of electronics and photonics, and is predicted to replace existing integrated circuits and photonic devices. It is one of the fastest growing fields of science, with applications in telecommunication, consumer electronics, data storage, medical diagnostics, and energy.Nanoplasmonics: Advanced Device Applications provides a scientific and technological background of a particular nanoplasmonic application and outlines the progress and challenges of the application. It reviews the latest

  19. Inverted organic photosensitive device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Tong, Xiaoran; Lee, Jun Yeob; Cho, Yong Joo

    2015-09-08

    There is disclosed a method for preparing the surface of a metal substrate. The present disclosure also relates to an organic photovoltaic device including a metal substrate made by such method. Also disclosed herein is an inverted photosensitive device including a stainless steel foil reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode over the donor-acceptor heterojunction.

  20. Holographic liquid crystal devices

    OpenAIRE

    Pavani, Kotakonda, (Thesis)

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystals have become natural candidates for use in electro-optic devices for their ability to change the orientation of the director with the application of an electric field, and exhibiting large range of refractive index. The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to fabricate liquid crystal optoelectronic devices such as electrically switchable liquid crystal diffraction gratings and polarization rotators by exploiting the holographic surface relief effect in photopolymer and b...

  1. Projection and registration device

    OpenAIRE

    Verlinden, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A projection and recording device, provided with a processing and control unit, a memory for recording images and other data, an input/output interface, a controllable camera, a touch screen for the input and display of data and images, a position determining system for determining the position of at least one object in relation to the projection and recording device, with images recorded by the camera being storable in the memory and displayable on the touch screen, and a projector for proje...

  2. Electronic security device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs

  3. Synthetic nanoscale motion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyshevski, M.A. [Microsystems and Nanotechnologies, Webster, NY (United States); Lyshevski, S.E. [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This study examined biomolecular axial and radial topology rotational machines, as well as translational motion devices made from proteins. In particular, it documented the integrated topological, structural and analytic design of synthetic nanoscale motion devices in an effort to promote high performance and meet specifications. Control, analysis and design problems were solved for electromagnetic motion devices. A systematic synthesis resulted in a radial topology permanent-magnetic device with noncontact electrostatic bearings for use in microrobotics. Such nanoscale motion devices can be made from carbon nanotubes using molecular nanotechnology and surface chemistry. Structures, magnets and windings were formed by depositing polymers and organic/inorganic molecules on the noncontact electrostatic bearings. The electromagnetic torque was studied to analyze the electromagnetics and nonuniform field. The electromagnetic torque was varied in order to control the phase voltages applied to the windings. The closed-loop systems were designed for stability, controllability and optimal performance. The proposed machines can be used as nanoscale generators to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The permanent-magnet synthetic motion devices may have practical use in nano- and micro robots, assemblers and propulsors. Practical control laws were derived from electromagnetic and electromechanical analyses. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB). Alternate Language URL Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Page Content On this page: What alternative devices ... the skin. [ Top ] What alternative devices for taking insulin are available? Insulin pens provide a convenient, easy- ...

  5. Cataphoric devices in spoken discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, M A; Jescheniak, J D

    1995-08-01

    We propose that speakers mark key words with cataphoric devices. Cataphoric devices are counterparts to anaphoric devices: Just as anaphoric devices enable backward reference, cataphoric devices enable forward reference. And just as anaphoric devices mark concepts that have been mentioned before, cataphoric devices mark concepts that are likely to be mentioned again. We investigated two cataphoric devices: spoken stress and the indefinite this. Our experiments demonstrated three ways that concepts marked by cataphoric devices gain a privileged status in listeners' mental representations: Cataphoric devices enhance the activation of the concepts that they mark; cataphoric devices suppress the activation of previously mentioned concepts; and cataphoric devices protect the concepts that they mark from being suppressed by subsequently mentioned concepts. PMID:7641525

  6. Diamond Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberg, J.

    2010-11-01

    For high-power and high-voltage applications, silicon is by far the dominant semiconductor material. However, silicon has many limitations, e.g. a relatively low thermal conductivity, electric breakdown occurs at relatively low fields and the bandgap is 1.1 eV which effectively limits operation to temperatures below 175° C. Wide-bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and power handling limitations of silicon. Diamond is the most extreme in this class of materials. By the fundamental material properties alone, diamond offers the largest benefits as a semiconductor material for power electronic applications. On the other hand, diamond has a problem with a large carrier activation energy of available dopants which necessitates specialised device concepts to allow room temperature (RT) operation. In addition, the role of common defects on the charge transport properties of diamond is poorly understood. Notwithstanding this, many proof-of-principle two-terminal and three-terminal devices have been made and tested. Two-terminal electronic diamond devices described in the literature include: p-n diodes, p-i-n diodes, various types of radiation detectors, Schottky diodes and photoconductive or electron beam triggered switches. Three terminal devices include e.g. MISFETs and JFETs. However, the development of diamond devices poses great challenges for the future. A particularly interesting way to overcome the doping problem, for which there has been some recent progress, is to make so-called delta doped (or pulse-doped) devices. Such devices utilise very thin (˜1 nm) doped layers in order to achieve high RT activation.

  7. Diamond Electronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high-power and high-voltage applications, silicon is by far the dominant semiconductor material. However, silicon has many limitations, e.g. a relatively low thermal conductivity, electric breakdown occurs at relatively low fields and the bandgap is 1.1 eV which effectively limits operation to temperatures below 175 deg.n C. Wide-bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and power handling limitations of silicon. Diamond is the most extreme in this class of materials. By the fundamental material properties alone, diamond offers the largest benefits as a semiconductor material for power electronic applications. On the other hand, diamond has a problem with a large carrier activation energy of available dopants which necessitates specialised device concepts to allow room temperature (RT) operation. In addition, the role of common defects on the charge transport properties of diamond is poorly understood. Notwithstanding this, many proof-of-principle two-terminal and three-terminal devices have been made and tested. Two-terminal electronic diamond devices described in the literature include: p-n diodes, p-i-n diodes, various types of radiation detectors, Schottky diodes and photoconductive or electron beam triggered switches. Three terminal devices include e.g. MISFETs and JFETs. However, the development of diamond devices poses great challenges for the future. A particularly interesting way to overcome the doping problem, for which there has been some recent progress, is to make so-called delta doped (or pulse-doped) devices. Such devices utilise very thin (∼1 nm) doped layers in order to achieve high RT activation.

  8. Physics of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rudan, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic physics of semiconductors, including the hierarchy of transport models, and connects the theory with the functioning of actual semiconductor devices.  Details are worked out carefully and derived from the basic physics, while keeping the internal coherence of the concepts and explaining various levels of approximation. Examples are based on silicon due to its industrial importance. Several chapters are included that provide the reader with the quantum-mechanical concepts necessary for understanding the transport properties of crystals. The behavior of crystals incorporating a position-dependent impurity distribution is described, and the different hierarchical transport models for semiconductor devices are derived (from the Boltzmann transport equation to the hydrodynamic and drift-diffusion models). The transport models are then applied to a detailed description of the main semiconductor-device architectures (bipolar, MOS). The final chapters are devoted to the description of s...

  9. Condensate filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a condensate filtering device of a nuclear power plant, a water collecting pipe is disposed over the entire length, an end of a hollow thread is in communication with the water collecting pipe and secured. If the length of the water collecting pipe is extended, a filtering device of an optional length can be obtained irrespective of the length of the hollow thread. Therefore, since there is no need to connect units upon constituting a module, flow of cleaning gases is not restricted at connection portions. Accordingly, even if the volume of the device is increased by the extension of the module, the working life of the module is not degraded. (T.M.)

  10. Pendulum detector testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs

  11. Ion manipulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

    2014-09-16

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  12. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Evolution of Growth Hormone Devices: Matching Devices with Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimer-Hall, Dawn; Shea, Heidi Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    Self-injection of growth hormone (GH) by children with GH deficiency can be problematic. They may have difficulty manipulating injection devices or preparing medication, and injections can be painful and create anxiety. Adherence to daily GH injections optimizes treatment benefit. Studies indicate that injection pens or needle-free devices enable easy self-injection by children, minimize medication reconstitution and storage requirements, and reduce injection pain. Newer GH delivery devices potentially encourage improved patient adherence. Reviewing features of GH devices will help nurses decide which GH device best fits the needs and abilities of pediatric patients. We searched recent medical literature about GH device development, about device-associated patient preferences and treatment adherence, and comparisons among GH devices. We concluded that improved awareness of the strengths and limitations of GH devices will enable nurses to guide families in selecting and using GH devices, improving adherence and outcomes, and helping children reach full growth potential. PMID:26292454

  14. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  15. Nanoelectromechanics of shuttle devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhter, R. I.; Gorelik, L. Y.; Krive, I. V.; Kiselev, M. N.; Parafilo, A. V.; Jonson, M.

    2013-04-01

    A single-electron tunneling (SET) device with a nanoscale central island that can move with respect to the bulk sourceand drain electrodes allows for a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) coupling between the electrical current through the device and the mechanical vibrations of the island. Although the electromechanical "shuttle" instability and the associated phenomenon of single-electron shuttling were predicted more than 15 years ago, both theoretical and experimental studies of NEM-SET structures are still carried out. New functionalities based on quantum coherence, Coulomb correlations and coherent electron-spin dynamics are still of particular interest. In this article we present a short review of recent activities in this area.

  16. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  17. Nanoscale memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO2. (topical review)

  18. INLET STRATIFICATION DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    An inlet stratification device (5) for a circuit circulating a fluid through a tank (1 ) and for providing and maintaining stratification of the fluid in the tank (1 ). The stratification de- vice (5) is arranged vertically in the tank (1) and comprises an inlet pipe (6) being at least partially...... formed of a flexible porous material and having an inlet (19) and outlets formed of the pores of the porous material. The stratification device (5) further comprises at least one outer pipe (7) surrounding the inlet pipe (6) in spaced relationship thereto and being at least partially formed of a porous...

  19. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  20. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  1. Microwave Magnetoelectric Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tatarenko, A. S.; Bichurin, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    Tunable microwave magnetoelectric devices based on layered ferrite-ferroelectric structures are described. The theory and experiment for attenuator, band-pass filter and phase shifter are presented. Tunability of the ME devices characteristics can be executed by application of an electric field. This electric tuning is relatively fast and is not power-consuming. The attenuator insertion losses vary from 26 dB to 2 dB at frequency 7251 MHz. The tuning range of 25 MHz of band-pass filter at fre...

  2. Graphene field emission devices

    OpenAIRE

    DUESBERG, GEORG

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Graphene field emission devices are fabricated using a scalable process. The field enhancement factors, determined from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, are within few hundreds and match the theoretical predictions. The devices show high emission current density of ∼10 nA μm−1 at modest voltages of tens of volts. The emission is stable with time and repeatable over long term, whereas the noise in the emission current is comparable to that from individual carbon nanotubes emitting under...

  3. Phononic crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  4. Device configuration-management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fusion Chamber System, a major component of the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility, contains several hundred devices which report status to the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for control and monitoring purposes. To manage the large number of diversity of devices represented, a device configuration management system was required and developed. Key components of this software tool include the MFTF Data Base; a configuration editor; and a tree structure defining the relationships between the subsystem devices. This paper will describe how the configuration system easily accomodates recognizing new devices, restructuring existing devices, and modifying device profile information

  5. Nano devices and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Chung, Yung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This volume on semiconductor devices focuses on such topics as nano-imprinting, lithography, nanowire charge-trapping, thermo-stability in nanowires, nano-electrodes, and voltage and materials used for fabricating and improving electrical characteristics of nano-materials.

  6. Container Monitoring Device (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.; Ruijsbroek, W.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Stage Gate 11 is een bedrijf dat technologische innovaties naar de markt brengt. De drie ondernemers hebben een nieuw product ontwikkeld, de Container Monitoring Device, een product dat stalen containers ‘smart’ maakt door er allerlei sensoren aan te koppelen. Maar waar ligt precies de toegevoegde w

  7. Devic's Disease (Neuromyelitis optical)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case report about a young woman initially treated as having multiple sclerosis, who relapsed with serious visual impairment. Devic's disease is a demyelinating disorder that presents as transverse myelitis associated with optic neuritis, typically bilateral. Multiple sclerosis is in fact the main differential diagnosis

  8. Inlet stratification device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An inlet stratification (5) is adapted to be arranged vertically in a tank (1) during operation. The stratification device (5) comprises an inlet pipe (6) formed of a flexible porous material and having a lower and upper end. The lower end of the inlet pipe (6) is connected to a bottom cap (10...

  9. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...

  10. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  11. Optical switching device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, F.J.A. den; Hanzen, R.M.N.; Duine, P.A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Draijer, C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sluis, P. van der

    2000-01-01

    A description is given of an optical switching device (1) comprising a transparent substrate (3), a switching film (5) of a hydride compound of a trivalent transition or rare earth metal having a thickness of 300 nm, and a palladium capping layer (7) having a thickness of 30 nm. The capping layer is

  12. Spark ablation device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Ott, A.; Pfeiffer, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    A spark ablation device for generating nanoparticles comprising a spark generator; the spark generator comprising first and second electrodes, wherein the spark generator further comprises at least one power source which is arranged to be operative at a first energy level for maintaining a discharge

  13. Air Stable Photovoltaic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A method of forming a conducting polymer based photovoltaic device comprising the steps of : (a) providing a transparent first electrode; (b) providing the transparent first electrode with a layer of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein the metal oxide is selected from the group consisting of : TiO...

  14. The missing intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Devassy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUD is an acceptable and common form of contraception worldwide. The objective of this study was to report the case of an asymptomatic missing intrauterine contraceptive (IUD inserted to prevent intrauterine adhesions after synechiolysis. A patient presented with missing IUD threads. Ultrasound of the pelvis showed an empty uterine cavity with the missing IUD probably anterior to the uterus. We present a stepwise approach in the management of the and ldquo;lost IUD and rdquo;, where the strings of the device are not visible at the time of speculum examination. We suggest first determining sonographically whether the IUD is within the cavity. If it is in situ, options for retrieval are including hysteroscopic retrieval. If the IUD is not within the cavity, X-rays are recommended. The device will not be present on X-ray if expulsion has occurred. If the device is present on the X-ray, cystoscopic or laparoscopic retrieval is required. IUD-providers should not only screen potential users and insert IUD correctly, but also ensure adequate follow-up with localization. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3587-3589

  15. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  16. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten;

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. Wavelength converters will be essential devices to exploit the full potential of the wavelength dimension in wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) networks. Based on experiments, we discuss different candidates for efficient wavelength converters with attention to expected...

  17. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  18. A Medical Delivery Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical delivery device comprising at least two membrane electrode assembly units each of which comprises three layers: an upper and a lower electrode and a selective ionic conductive membrane provided there-between. At least one of the three layers are shared...

  19. Cybersecurity for Connected Diabetes Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Klonoff, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes devices are increasingly connected wirelessly to each other and to data-displaying reader devices. Threats to the accurate flow of information and commands may compromise the function of these devices and put their users at risk of health complications. Sound cybersecurity of connected diabetes devices is necessary to maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and commands. Diabetes devices can be hacked by unauthorized agents and also by patients themselves to...

  20. The Development of Training Model Based on Theory of Planned Behavior and Willingness to Behave Higienic Practices for The Food Handler at Foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handajani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Training is not always change the personal behavior. According to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 2005, the behavior intention is influence by three factors including the attitude, the subjective norms and the perceived behavior control (PBC. Willingness is the independent concept of the presumption behavior and influenced by intention as well. The aim of  this study was to develop training model based on the theory of planned behavior and and willingness to higienic behavior for the food handler at foodcourt Baseball in Unesa Surabaya and implementation analysis of the development of training model. The development of the training model is using preliminary investigation phase, design phase and implementation. Partial Least Square (PLS was performed. The effectiveness of training model was analyzed by using t test with two paired samples (paired t - test. The result of food handlers hygienic behavioral analisys showed: PBC had contributed the most to the intentions through the willingness to behave hygienic practices, compared to the contribution of the attitude, subjective norm and PBC directly against the intention. These results could be used to develop a model of training for food handlers at the venue. The training was significantly effective (paired t test, p <0,05 in increasing the knowledge, practicing the hygienic behavior, attitude, subjective norm, PBC, intention and willingness of hygienic behavior of food handlers. The practicality of evaluation model was obtained by instructor assessment activities in very good result (88,42, 96% of trainees could participate well, and 89% of trainees responded well to the training. This training model was effectively proven to be used in increasing the intention of hygienic behavior of food handlers.

  1. 台灣棒球維基館網站推展成效探討 Evaluating the Effectiveness of TaiwanBaseballWiki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinn-Cheng Lin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 本文旨在探討台灣棒球維基館成立兩年餘之發展成效。首先,本研究分析2005/4/14至2007/8/19期間之相關數據,發現:(一網站瀏覽量共3600多萬次,其中74%來自前20%的高流量頁面;瀏覽量月成長率平均值約15%;(二註冊使用者月成長率平均值約33%,雖已有880餘位,但編寫10次以上者僅163人,只佔18.43%,卻完成了高達91%的內容,而使用者中1.9%的17位核心使用者更貢獻了80.8%的主要內容;(三頁面月成長率平均值約6.06%,在一萬多個內容頁面中,每日平均被瀏覽10次以上的僅有915頁。其次,本研究針對使用者進行問卷調查,結果顯示:(一受訪者以年輕球迷居多,平均年齡24.8歲;(二受訪者有64%未註冊帳號,多數原因為只做短暫的查詢;(三受訪者僅有34%曾參與寫作,其動機以增進內容豐富性佔多數。此外,本文綜合多項指標,提出一個客觀的核心頁面評定準則,並建議台灣棒球維基館在進一步掌握使用者特性後,應加強內容品質之提升,並積極推展具歷史傳承、知識深化等價值之內容,以平衡目前較偏重於當代職棒明星之走向。This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TaiwanBaseballWiki, established in 2005. First, the researchers collected data and analyzed the web logs from April 14, 2005 to August 19, 2007. A number of statistical measurements were used to analyze the data. The results show that 1. The number of page views has grown by almost 15% per month on average; 74% of page views came from 20% high browsing pages; 2. The registered users has grown by nearly 33% every month on average. It is also found that only 163 users have edited more than 10 times and were accounted for 91% of all the editing. Among them, the most active 1.9% of the users did 80.8% of all the editing; 3. The pages have grown by almost 6.06% per month on average, and only 8

  2. Medical device regulation for manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, P; Jeswiet, J

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturers of medical devices are held to a higher standard than manufacturers of many other products due to the potential severity of the consequences of introducing inferior or unsafe products to the market-place. In Canada, the medical device industry is regulated by Health Canada under the Medical Device Regulations of the Food and Drug Act. The Medical Device Regulations define requirements of medical device design, development and manufacture to ensure that products reaching the public are safe and effective. Health Canada also requires that medical device manufacturers maintain distribution records to ensure that devices can be traced to the source and consumers can be contacted successfully in the event that a device is recalled. Medical devices exported from Canada must be compliant with the regulations of the country of import. The Canadian Medical Device Regulations were based on the Medical Device Directives of the European Union thus facilitating approval of Canadian devices for the European market. The United States Food and Drug Administration has separate and distinct requirements for safety and quality of medical devices. While effort has been made to facilitate approval and trade of Canadian medical devices in the United States and the European Union, obtaining approval from multiple regulatory bodies can result in increased device development time and cost. The Global Harmonization Task Force is an organization composed of members from Japanese, Australian, European, Canadian and American medical device regulatory bodies. This organization was formed with the objective of harmonizing medical device regulations in an effort to facilitate international trade and standardize the quality of medical devices available to all countries. This paper discusses the requirements that must be met by manufacturers when designing and manufacturing medical devices.

  3. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, M. A. A.

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  4. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  5. Device for crushing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanygin, A.S.; Bulavtsev, V.A.; Zhidkov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to simplify the design. The device includes a hydrocylinder with main piston and rod, additional piston with rod placed in the cavity of the main piston rod, wedge attached to the additional piston rod, extension jaws attached to the hydrocylinder housing, and attachment for supply of the working fluid into the above-piston cavity of the rod in the main piston. The latter is made in the form of a channel with reverse valve which connects the rod cavity of the hydrocylinder to the above-piston cavity of the main piston rod. The reverse valve is in the main piston and is made with push rod which goes beyond the limits of the piston on the side of the hydrocylinder rod cavity. The device is designed to separate blocks from the massif on the borehole line.

  6. Anti-gravity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsingh, S. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.

  7. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  8. Integrated elastic microscope device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. M.; Wright, D.; Watkins, R.; Cen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    The growing power of imaging and computing power of smartphones is creating the possibility of converting your smartphone into a high power pocket microscopy system. High quality miniature microscopy lenses attached to smartphone are typically made with glass or plastics that can only be produce at low cost with high volume. To revise the paradigm of microscope lenses, we devised a simple droplet lens fabrication technique that which produces low cost and high performance lens. Each lens is integrated into thin 3-D printed holder with complimentary light emitted diode (LEDs) that clips onto majority of smartphones. The integrated device converts a smartphone into a high power optical microscope/dermatoscope at around $2. This low cost device has wide application in a multitude of practical uses such as material inspection, dermascope and educational microscope.

  9. Microwave Magnetoelectric Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tatarenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunable microwave magnetoelectric devices based on layered ferrite-ferroelectric structures are described. The theory and experiment for attenuator, band-pass filter and phase shifter are presented. Tunability of the ME devices characteristics can be executed by application of an electric field. This electric tuning is relatively fast and is not power-consuming. The attenuator insertion losses vary from 26 dB to 2 dB at frequency 7251 MHz. The tuning range of 25 MHz of band-pass filter at frequency 7360 MHz was obtained. A maximum phase shift of 30–40 degree at the frequency region 6–9 GHz was obtained.

  10. Particle capture device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-23

    In example embodiments, particle collection efficiency in aerosol analyzers and other particle measuring instruments is improved by a particle capture device that employs multiple collisions to decrease momentum of particles until the particles are collected (e.g., vaporized or come to rest). The particle collection device includes an aperture through which a focused particle beam enters. A collection enclosure is coupled to the aperture and has one or more internal surfaces against which particles of the focused beam collide. One or more features are employed in the collection enclosure to promote particles to collide multiple times within the enclosure, and thereby be vaporized or come to rest, rather than escape through the aperture.

  11. Dielectrokinetic chromatography devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-12-16

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  12. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Kishore, K Lal

    2008-01-01

    This book is written in a simple lucid Language along with derivation of equations and supported by numerous solved problems to help the student to understand the concepts clearly.Advances in Miniaturization of Electronic Systems by ever increasing packaging densities on Integrated Circuits has made it very essential for thorough Knowledge of the concepts, phenomenon, characteristics and behaviour of semiconductor Devices for students and professionals.

  13. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Haken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.

  14. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    OpenAIRE

    Haken, H.

    2004-01-01

    Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of c...

  15. Memristor: the illusive device

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-05-03

    The memristor (M) is considered to be the fourth two-terminal passive element in electronics, alongside the resistor (R), the capacitor (C), and the inductor (L). Its existence was postulated in 1971 but its first implementation was reported in 2008. Where was it hiding all that time and what can we do with it? Come and learn how the memristor completes the roster of electronic devices much like a missing particle that physicists seek to complete their tableaus.

  16. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  17. Alignment reference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  18. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  19. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  20. Incore inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention can inspect surfaces of equipments in reactor water in a nuclear reactor in a state of atmospheric air. Namely, an inspection device is movable forwardly and backwardly in a water-proof vessel. An annular sucker with pleats is disposed to the outer side of a lid of the water-proof vessel. A television camera for an under water monitoring is disposed to the inner side of the lid of the water-proof vessel by way of a partitioning wall with lid. Transferring screws are disposed at the back and on the side of the water-proof vessel. In the device having such a constitution, (1) the inside of the water-proof vessel is at first made water-tight by closing the partitioning wall with lid, (2) the back and the side screws are operated by the guide of the underwater monitoring television camera, to transfer the water-proof vessel to the surface of the reactor core to be inspected, (3) the annular sucker with pleats is urged on the surface to be inspected by the back screw, to fix the water-proof vessel, (4) reactor water in a space of the annular sucker with pleats is discharged and replaced with air, and (5) the lid of the partition wall with lid is opened and the inspection device is disposed at a position of the underwater monitoring television camera, to inspect the surface to be inspected in a state of atmospheric air. (I.S.)

  1. Incore instrument device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An incore instrument device has an integrally disposed touch panel having a function of displaying an operation indication method such as for setting of conditions for incore measurement and information processing and results of the incore measurement and a function capable of conducting operation indication such as for setting conditions and information processing for incore measurement relative to a control section upon touching an information position on a displayed information. In addition, an information processing section comprising a man-machine function program formed so as to recognize the content of the operation indication for the incore measurement by touching and let the control section to conduct it is disposed to the outside by way of a communication interface. In addition, a programming device is disposed for forming and rewriting the program of the man-machine function relative to the information processing section. Then, when various indication operations are conducted upon performing incore measurement, a view point can be concentrated to one predetermined point thereby enabling to improve the operationability without danger. In addition, the programming of the man-machine function does not apply unnecessary load to the control section in the incore instrumentation device. (N.H.)

  2. DeviceNet-based device-level control in SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Leng Yong Bin; Lu Cheng Meng; Miao Hai Feng; Liu Song Qiang; Shen Guo Bao

    2002-01-01

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is an EPICS-based distributed system. One of the key techniques to construct the system is the device-level control. The author describes the design and implementation of the DeviceNet-based device controller. A prototype of the device controller was tested in the experiments of magnet power supply and the result showed a precision of 3 x 10 sup - sup 5

  3. Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James

    2007-06-01

    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  4. Novel Concepts for Device to Device Communication using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Hundebøll, Martin; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk;

    2014-01-01

    Device-to-device communication is currently a hot research topic within 3GPP. Even though D2D communication has been part of previous ad hoc, meshed and sensor networks proposals, the main contribution by 3GPP is that the direct communication among two devices is carried out over a dynamically as...

  5. Sports courtyard school-operated high level baseball team training and management research%体育院校办高水平棒球队训练与管理研究--以天津体育学院棒球队为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路欢

    2013-01-01

    Along with the baseball movement in the domestic popularization, the baseball movement more and more receives takes, each provinces and cities sports colleges and universities also all invest the vision to this item have the development, has in the potential movement project, but the sports courtyard school-operated high level baseball team also has many difficulties, how handles the high level baseball Sports Team, the sports courtyard school-operated high level Sports Team's development pattern also is how, how between the training time and does the study conflict solve, these questions all are worth us considering.%  随着棒球运动在国内的普及,棒球运动越来越受到重视,各个省市的体育运动院校也都将目光投入到这项有发展,有潜力的运动项目上,但是体育运动院校办高水平棒球队还有许多的困难,如何办好高水平棒球运动队,体育院校办高水平运动队的发展模式又是怎样的,训练时间与学习之间的冲突如何解决,这些问题都是值得我们考虑的。

  6. An introduction to electrooptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan P

    1974-01-01

    An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices aims to present an introduction to the electrooptic effect and to summarize work on devices employing the electrooptic effect. The book provides the necessary background in classical crystal optics. The text then discusses topics including crystal symmetry, the tensor description of linear dielectric properties, propagation in anisotropic media, and passive crystal optic devices. The book also describes the phenomenological description of tensor nonlinear dielectric properties of crystals, with emphasis on the electrooptic effect; device design and appli

  7. Portable source identification device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2005-05-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet (7.3 m) in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

  8. Modeling of graphene nanoribbon devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing

    2012-09-21

    Recent advances in graphene nanoribbon (GNR) electronic devices provide a concrete context for developing simulation methods, comparing theories to experiments, and using simulations to explore device physics. We present a review on modeling of graphene nanoribbon devices, with an emphasis on electronic and magnetoresistive devices. Device modeling is reviewed in a synergistic perspective with GNR material properties, device characteristics, and circuit requirements. Similarity with and difference to carbon nanotube devices are discussed. Device modeling and simulation results are compared to experimental data, which underlines the importance of theory-experiment collaborations in this field. Importance of the GNR edges, which have a negative impact on the carrier mobility due to edge roughness but offer new possibilities of spintronic devices and edge doping, is emphasized. Advanced device modeling of GNRs needs to have the capability to describe GNR device physics, including three-dimensional electrostatics, quantum and atomistic scale effects, elastic and inelastic scattering processes, electron-electron interaction, edge chemistry, magnetic field modulation, and spintronic and thermoelectric device phenomena. PMID:22875475

  9. Mechanical device for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Maij, E.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanical device for tissue- regeneration inside a patient, comprising means (2, 3) to place a scaffold for the tissue under mechanical stress. Said means comprise a first device-part (2) and a second device-part (3) which parts are arranged to be movable with respect to

  10. Medical devices and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Errors related to health care devices are not well understood. Nurses in intensive care and progressive care environments can benefit from understanding manufacturer-related error and device-use error, the principles of human factors engineering, and the steps that can be taken to reduce risk of errors related to health care devices.

  11. A microfluidic device with pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a microfluidic device for mixing liquid reagents, the device comprises, a chip forming at least one reaction chamber between a bottom and a top and extending between an inlet and an outlet. To enable manufacturing from less rigid materials, the device comprises pillars...

  12. Fundamentals of power semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, BJayant

    2010-01-01

    Offers an in-depth treatment of the physics of operation of power semiconductor devices that are commonly used by the power electronics industry. This book shows analytical models for explaining the operation of various power semiconductor devices. It is suitable for practicing engineers in the power semiconductor device community.

  13. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  14. Nanoscale Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoye

    Continuous downscaling in microelectronics has pushed conventional CMOS technology to its physical limits, while Moore's Law has correctly predicted the trend for decades, each step forward is accompanied with unprecedented technological difficulties and near-exponential increase in cost. At the same time, however, demands for low-power, low-cost and high-speed devices have never diminished, instead, even more stringent requirements have been imposed on device performances. It is therefore crucial to explore alternative materials and device architectures in order to alleviate the pressure caused by downscaling. To this end, we investigated two different approaches: (1) InSb nanowire based field effect transistors (NWFETs) and (2) single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) -- peptide nucleic acid (PNA) --SWCNT conjugate. Two types of InSb nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. In both cases, NWFETs were fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and crystallinity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. For electrochemistry nanowire, ambipolar conduction was observed with strong p-type conduction, the effect of thermal annealing on the conductivity was analyzed, a NWFET model that took into consideration the underlapped region in top-gated NWFET was proposed. Hole mobility in the channel was calculated to be 292.84 cm2V-1s -1 with a density of 1.5x1017/cm3. For CVD nanowire, the diameter was below 40nm with an average of 20nm. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was speculated to be the mechanism responsible for nanowire growth. The efficient gate control was manifested by high ION/I OFF ratio which was on the order of 106 and a small inverse subthreshold slope (chemically functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes to synthesize the conjugate and characterized its electrical properties. Negative differential resistance (NDR) was

  15. Data mining mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

  16. Computed tomography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computed tomography device comprising a subtraction unit which obtains differential data strings representing the difference between each time-serial projection data string of a group of projection data strings corresponding to a prospective reconstruction image generated by projection data strings acquired by a data acquisition system, a convolution unit which convolves each time-serial projection data string of the group of projection data strings corresponding to the prospective reconstruction image, and a back-projection unit which back-projects the convolved data strings

  17. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  18. Nanotube resonator devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Zettl, Alexander K; Weldon, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    A fully-functional radio receiver fabricated from a single nanotube is being disclosed. Simultaneously, a single nanotube can perform the functions of all major components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A DC voltage source, as supplied by a battery, can power the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, successful music and voice reception has been demonstrated. Also disclosed are a radio transmitter and a mass sensor using a nanotube resonator device.

  19. Pneumatically actuated micropipetting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Nicolas; Buser, Rudolf A.

    1998-03-01

    We have realized a valveless micropipetting device with an integrated sensor which can aspirate and dispense liquid volumes without any valves, hence without any reflow or dead volume. With an external pneumatic actuation, we have demonstrated aspirating and dispensing from 190nl of 6 (mu) l of water. Measurements showed a standard deviation of down to 1 percent. An integrated capacitive sensor will allow monitoring of the pressure throughout the pipetting process and detect malfunctions, e.g. clotting of the pipetting tip. It is our intention to use this demonstrated precise aspiration mechanism in combination with a micromachined reaction chamber and a miniaturized optical analysis system.

  20. Anisotropic metamaterial devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiang Jiang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a rapid development has been achieved in a subject area, so called optical transformation, which is based on the property of metric invariance in Maxwell's equations. Optical transformation, also known as transformation optics, allows metamaterials to be tailor-made according to practical needs. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent progress on the parametric design of transformation devices, such as invisibility cloaks, electromagnetic (EM concentrator, EM-wave converter, etc. The technique of optical transformation can also be applied when the sources are included in the transformed space.

  1. COMMUNICATION - ORGANIZATIONS’ WORK DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication represents a complex process of transmitting messages, owing to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel towards a receiver that will decode it. Owing to communication, organizations transmit to their customers the fact that they are capable of meeting one of their needs, of settling a problem or of offering a profit. Non-verbal and para-verbal communications usually accompany verbal communication. The importance of assimilating the forms of communication is, at an organizational level, a complex device that determines the mastering of certain techniques, procedures, and algorithms of encoding and decoding intricate messages transmitted through various channels.

  2. Exploiting Windows Device Drivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr Bahia; ayarei(译)

    2008-01-01

    设备驱动漏洞现在正在增长成为Windows和其他操作系统安全的主要威胁。这是一个新领域,很少有公开的技术文档讲述这个方面。据我所知,第一个windows设备驱动攻击是由SEC-LABS小组在win32 Device Drivers Communication Vulnerabilities白皮书中提到的。

  3. Graphene device and method of using graphene device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Vincent; Girit, Caglar; Kessler, Brian; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2015-08-11

    An embodiment of a graphene device includes a layered structure, first and second electrodes, and a dopant island. The layered structure includes a conductive layer, an insulating layer, and a graphene layer. The electrodes are coupled to the graphene layer. The dopant island is coupled to an exposed surface of the graphene layer between the electrodes. An embodiment of a method of using a graphene device includes providing the graphene device. A voltage is applied to the conductive layer of the graphene device. Another embodiment of a method of using a graphene device includes providing the graphene device without the dopant island. A dopant island is placed on an exposed surface of the graphene layer between the electrodes. A voltage is applied to the conductive layer of the graphene device. A response of the dopant island to the voltage is observed.

  4. Emissivity modulating electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Sheets, Judd

    2009-05-01

    The IR-ECDTM (Infra-Red ElectroChromic Device) variable emitance device (VED) is an all-solid-state monolithic vacuum deposited thin film system with a unique metamaterial IR transparent-electrode system which functions as an electrically controlled dimmable mirror in the IR region. The maximum reflectance corresponding to the bleached condition of the system is around 90% (low-e condition, e=0.1). The minimum reflectance reaches nearly zero in the colored condition of the system (high emittance, e=1). The average emissivity modulation of the IRECDTM is 0.7 in the 8-12 micron region, and at 9.7 micron (room temperature) it reaches a value of 0.9. Half and full emissivity modulations occur within 2 and10 minutes respectively. Because of its light weight (5g/m2), low voltage requirement (+/- 1 Volts), extremely good emissivity control properties (from 0 to 0.9 at 300K) and highly repeatable deposition process, the IR-ECDTM technology is very attractive for satellite thermal control applications. The IR-ECDTM has been under evaluation in a real space environment since March 8, 2007. This paper presents recent achievements of the IR-ECDTM including space test results.

  5. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  6. [Medical device use errors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesdorf, Wolfgang; Marsolek, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    Medical devices define our everyday patient treatment processes. But despite the beneficial effect, every use can also lead to damages. Use errors are thus often explained by human failure. But human errors can never be completely extinct, especially in such complex work processes like those in medicine that often involve time pressure. Therefore we need error-tolerant work systems in which potential problems are identified and solved as early as possible. In this context human engineering uses the TOP principle: technological before organisational and then person-related solutions. But especially in everyday medical work we realise that error-prone usability concepts can often only be counterbalanced by organisational or person-related measures. Thus human failure is pre-programmed. In addition, many medical work places represent a somewhat chaotic accumulation of individual devices with totally different user interaction concepts. There is not only a lack of holistic work place concepts, but of holistic process and system concepts as well. However, this can only be achieved through the co-operation of producers, healthcare providers and clinical users, by systematically analyzing and iteratively optimizing the underlying treatment processes from both a technological and organizational perspective. What we need is a joint platform like medilab V of the TU Berlin, in which the entire medical treatment chain can be simulated in order to discuss, experiment and model--a key to a safe and efficient healthcare system of the future. PMID:19213452

  7. Thermoplastic tape compaction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, V.W.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite. 5 figures.

  8. Thermoplastic tape compaction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Vincent W.

    1994-01-01

    A device for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite.

  9. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  10. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2013-10-08

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  11. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2014-12-09

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  12. Human Factors and Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical device hardware- and software-driven user interfaces should be designed to minimize the likelihood of use-related errors and their consequences. The role of design-induced errors in medical device incidents is attracting widespread attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is fully cognizant that human factors engineering is critical to the design of safe medical devices, and user interface design is receiving substantial attention by the agency. Companies are paying more attention to the impact of device design, including user instructions, upon the performance of those health professionals and lay users who operate medical devices. Concurrently, the FDA is monitoring human factors issues in its site inspections, premarket device approvals, and postmarket incident evaluations. Overall, the outlook for improved designs and safer device operation is bright

  13. Cybersecurity for Connected Diabetes Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes devices are increasingly connected wirelessly to each other and to data-displaying reader devices. Threats to the accurate flow of information and commands may compromise the function of these devices and put their users at risk of health complications. Sound cybersecurity of connected diabetes devices is necessary to maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and commands. Diabetes devices can be hacked by unauthorized agents and also by patients themselves to extract data that are not automatically provided by product software. Unauthorized access to connected diabetes devices has been simulated and could happen in reality. A cybersecurity standard designed specifically for connected diabetes devices will improve the safety of these products and increase confidence of users that the products will be secure. PMID:25883162

  14. Firewood preparation devices in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the market situation regarding firewood preparation devices is presented. The information was collected from the answers to a mail questionnaire. The review is assumed to include all the leading manufacturers and importers. Firewood production devices were available from 26 manufacturers. The range of models amounted to over 70. These may be divided into three categories: 1. cutting devices: the most common solution being a cross-cutting circular saw. There were only a few of these on sale as it is quite easy to include a splitting device on the same frame. 2. Splitting devices: e.g. screw splitter and hydraulically powered splitter. About 20 models are available on the markets. Cross cutting and splitting devices: these are the most popular devices. A cross-cutting circular saw with screw or hydraulic splitter is the most common type. There are about 50 models available on the markets. Cross-cutting and splitting devices are often equipped with conveyor for transferring the split wood e.g. into a trailer. Chopping devices are delivered as tractor powered devices, as electric motor powered devices or as combustion engine powered devices. Some of them are equipped with a time saving feeding device enabling the next stem to be lifted into position while the previous one is being chopped. The Finnish Work Efficiency Institute's studies show that when cross-cutting and splitting of stems into pieces of 35-50 cm in length, productivity for one operator varies in between 0.8 - 3.2 m3/h, depending on the device and work method used. (6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  15. Laser beam steering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, M. E.; Andrews, A. P.; Gunning, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Agile beam steering is a critical requirement for airborne and space based LIDAR and optical communication systems. Design and test results are presented for a compact beam steering device with low inertia which functions by dithering two complementary (positive and negative) binary optic microlens arrays relative to each other in directions orthogonal to the direction of light propagation. The miniaturized system has been demonstrated at scan frequencies as high as 300 Hz, generating a 13 x 13 spot array with a total field of view of 2.4 degrees. The design is readily extendable to a 9.5 degree field of view and a 52 x 52 scan pattern. The system is compact - less than 2 in. on a side. Further size reductions are anticipated.

  16. Electronic control devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of these lectures is the translation of information from particle detectors to computers. Large solid angle general purpose detectors at the intersection regions of high energy e+e- storage rings and pp and pp storage rings are discussed. Three choices for data acquisition are reviewed: use CAMAC (Computer Aided Measurement and Control), start from scratch and design a system, or wait for the final version of the proposed FASTBUS to be developed. The do-it-yourself procedure includes designs of drift chamber discriminator, time to amplitude converter, and data card block diagram. Trigger systems, the fast decision making systems judging an event interesting enough for a read-out cycle to be initiated, are discussed. Finally, a FASTBUS system layout, with its goals of minimum bus speed, general system topologies, and support multiple smart devices is given

  17. Optically Reconfigurable Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic components with adjustable parameters, from variable-focal-length lenses to spectral filters that can change functionality upon stimulation, have enormous technological importance. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nano-mechanical actuation of their consitutive parts, stretching or application of thermal stimuli. Here we report a new dielectric metasurface platform for reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and re-written as two-dimensional binary or grey-scale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase-transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films optimized for high-optical-contrast ovonic switching with a sub-wavelength-resolution optical writing process to demonstrate technologically relevant devices: visible-range reconfigurable bi-chr...

  18. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  19. Efficient thermoelectric device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ila, Daryush (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high efficiency thermo electric device comprising a multi nanolayer structure of alternating insulator and insulator/metal material that is irradiated across the plane of the layer structure with ionizing radiation. The ionizing radiation produces nanocrystals in the layered structure that increase the electrical conductivity and decrease the thermal conductivity thereby increasing the thermoelectric figure of merit. Figures of merit as high as 2.5 have been achieved using layers of co-deposited gold and silicon dioxide interspersed with layers of silicon dioxide. The gold to silicon dioxide ratio was 0.04. 5 MeV silicon ions were used to irradiate the structure. Other metals and insulators may be substituted. Other ionizing radiation sources may be used. The structure tolerates a wide range of metal to insulator ratio.

  20. Elongated toroid fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device for achieving ignition of a plasma with ohmic heating is described comprising: means for defining a toroidal plasma chamber,a and confining gas therein, and means including electrically conductive coils for generating plasma within the chamber and for confining and shaping such plasma substantially into and filling a predetermined single region of the chamber without an axisymmetric internal separatix and ohmically heating the confined plasma to ignition. The predetermined region is toroidal with a major axis defining an axial direction parallel thereto and a transaxial direction perpendicular to the axis and having an axial cross section with an elongation, k, greater than 4, where k is the ratio of the maximum axial dimension of the cross section to the maximum transaxial dimension of the cross section

  1. Ceramics for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  2. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  3. Driver's condition control devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yashan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the various types of biotechnical systems of transport security, that often called by general title "Antison. Their main disadvantage is the uncertainty of detecting drowsiness phase of driver’s state and the absence of biological feedbacks, that providing control of functional parameters of a human-driver in a mode of adaptation. Structurally, these systems are complicated by the presence of contact with the driver of sensors that restrict the freedom of his movements. There is described experiment, which was carried out in Greece in 2008, and where tested different types of systems which include motion sensors, EEG monitoring for the eyes, the recognition of road markings, control automotive electrical system. The results showed the feasibility of using sleep prevent devices.

  4. Millimeter wave nonreciprocal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group within the MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Research Laboratory of Electronics proposed a three year research program aimed at developing coherent magnetic wave signal-processing techniques for microwave energy which may form either the primary signal or else the intermediate frequency (IF) modulation of millimeter wavelength signals-especially at frequencies in the 50-94 GHz. range. Emphasis has been placed upon developing advanced types of signal processors that make use of quasi-optical propagation of electromagnetic and magnetostatic waves propagating in high quality single crystal ferrite thin films. A strong theoretical effort is required in order to establish valid models useful for predicting device performance. We emphasized new filter and circulator designs that employ combinations of the Faraday effect, field displacement nonreciprocity and magnetostatic resonance and periodic structures.

  5. False color viewing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  6. QoE-Aware Device-to-Device Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang ZHOU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia services over mobile device-to-device (D2D networks has recently received considerable attention. In this scenario, each device is equipped with a cellular communication interface, as well as a D2D interface over a shared medium. In this work, we study the performance properties of the mobile D2D communications in the framework of user satisfaction, and develop a fully distributed QoE-aware multimedia communication scheme (QAMCS. Specifically, we translate the opportunistic multimedia communications issue into a stochastic optimization problem, which opens up a new degree of performance to exploit. Moreover, QAMCS is designed for a heterogeneous and dynamic environment, in which user demand, device mobility, and transmission fashion may vary across different devices and applications. Importantly, QAMCS is able to maximize the user satisfaction and only needs each device to implement its own scheme individually in the absence of a central controller.

  7. Current devices of respiratory physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hristara-Papadopoulou, A; Tsanakas, J; Diomou, G; Papadopoulou, O.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years patients with respiratory diseases use various devices, which help the removal of mucus from the airways and the improvement of pulmonary function. The aim of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of the current devices of respiratory physiotherapy, as it comes from the review of literature. The current devices of physiotherapy for patients with respiratory diseases, are presented as an alternative therapy method or a supplemental therapy and they can motivate pa...

  8. Optoelectronic devices toward monolithic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergia, V.

    1992-12-01

    Starting from the present state of tl art of discrete devices up to the on going realization of monolithic semicorxtuctor integrated prototypes an overview ofoptoelectronic devices for telecom applications is given inchiding a short classification of the different kind of integrated devices. On the future perspective of IBCN distribution network some economica of hybrid and monolithic forms of integration are attempted. lnaflyashoitpresentationoftheactivitiesperformedintbefieldofmonolithic integration by EEC ESPR1T and RACE projects is reported. 1.

  9. Barriers to medical device innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergsl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacob Bergsland, Ole Jakob Elle, Erik Fosse The Intervention Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it's purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The FDA classifies medical devices in three classes, depending on the risk of the device. Since Class I and II devices have relatively simple requirements for getting to the market, this review will focus on “implantable devices”, which, in general, belong to Class III. The European Union and Canada use a slightly different classification system. While early generations of medical devices were introduced without much testing, either technical or clinical, the process of introducing a Class III medical device from concept to clinical practice has become strongly regulated and requires extensive technological and clinical testing. The modern era of implantable medical devices may be considered to have started in the 1920s with development of artificial hips. The implantable pacemaker was another milestone and pacemakers and cardioverters/defibrillators have since saved millions of lives and created commercial giants in the medical device industry. This review will include some examples of cardiovascular devices. Similar considerations apply to the total implantable device market, although clinical and technological applications obviously vary considerably. Keyword: implantable, FDA, regulation, CE-mark, innovation

  10. Mobile device security for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Campagna, Rich; Krishnan, Ashwin

    2011-01-01

    The information you need to avoid security threats on corporate mobile devices Mobile devices have essentially replaced computers for corporate users who are on the go and there are millions of networks that have little to no security. This essential guide walks you through the steps for securing a network and building a bulletproof framework that will protect and support mobile devices in the enterprise. Featuring real-world case scenarios, this straightforward guide shares invaluable advice for protecting mobile devices from the loss of sensitive and confidential corporate informati

  11. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  12. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  13. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged

  14. 77 FR 69488 - Medical Devices; Custom Devices; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is in the process... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Devices; Custom Devices; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  15. 76 FR 8637 - Medical Devices; Medical Device Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... this organizational change to provide clarification of MDDS functionality and because this ordering is... of an order classifying the device in class I or class II. To change the classification of the device... which is of substantial importance in preventing impairment of human health or it presents a...

  16. ITER tokamak device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, J.; Salpietro, E.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-07-01

    The results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are summarized. These activities, carried out between April 1988 and December 1990, produced a consistent set of technical characteristics and preliminary plans for co-ordinated research and development support of ITER, a conceptual design, a description of design requirements and a preliminary construction schedule and cost estimate. After a description of the design basis, an overview is given of the tokamak device, its auxiliary systems, facility and maintenance. The interrelation and integration of the various subsystems that form the ITER tokamak concept are discussed. The 16 ITER equatorial port allocations, used for nuclear testing, diagnostics, fueling, maintenance, and heating and current drive, are given, as well as a layout of the reactor building. Finally, brief descriptions are given of the major ITER sub-systems, i.e., (1) magnet systems (toroidal and poloidal field coils and cryogenic systems), (2) containment structures (vacuum and cryostat vessels, machine gravity supports, attaching locks, passive loops and active coils), (3) first wall, (4) divertor plate (design and materials, performance and lifetime, a.o.), (5) blanket/shield system, (6) maintenance equipment, (7) current drive and heating, (8) fuel cycle system, and (9) diagnostics.

  17. Simulation of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Oriato, D

    2001-01-01

    cathode, made using an AIGaAs heterostructure step. Simulations show the importance of the insertion of a thin highly-doped layer between the transit region and the electron launcher in order to improve device operation. Chapter 5 is an introduction to Ill-nitrides, in particular GaN and its alloy ln-GaN. We outline the discrepancy in the elastic and piezoelectric parameters found in the literature. Strain, dislocations and piezoelectricity are presented as the main features of a InGaN/GaN system. In chapter 6 an extensive simulation of the dependence of the optical band gap of a single InGaN quantum well on the piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization is reported. Quantum Confined Stark Effect and screening mechanisms are found to play a major role. The simulation of a novel InGaN/GaN double quantum well LED is presented. A wide well is used to capture electrons that tunnels in a narrow well where they recombine with holes. Resonant asymmetric tunneling of electron and holes is used to increase the efficie...

  18. Radioactive iodine removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a radioactive iodine removing device of an off-gas processing step in a spent fuel reprocessing facility, spiral structures having an inclination of more than about 20deg is disposed at the inside of an iodine adsorbent packing portion, and dampers are disposed at a packing inlet and a discharging exit for iodine adsorbents respectively. After completion of discharge of the iodine adsorbents, a damper disposed in the midway of a adsorbent packing pipeline is opened for packing the iodine absorbents. The iodine adsorbents used have a spherical shape of 10 to 20 mesh (1 to 2mm), and the adsorbents are packed uniformly both radially and vertically to the packing portion upon injection of the adsorbents and, as a result, the packing portion can be made compact. Further, since the discharged iodine adsorbents can be contained in a vessel directly or in a different vessel having an excellent containing performance by taking the dimension of the vessel into consideration, it is possible to reduce the generation amount of wastes than that in a conventional case. (N.H.)

  19. 77 FR 51571 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers, and components thereof....

  20. 77 FR 58576 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and... importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers... after importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  1. Polymer Thermoelectric Generators: Device Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Shannon

    2014-03-01

    Recent control of the transport properties in polymers has encouraged the development of polymer thermoelectric (TE) devices. Polymer TEs are thought to be less expensive and more scalable than their inorganic counterparts. The cost of the raw material is less and polymer TEs can leverage the large areal manufacturing technique established by the plastics industry. Additionally, while the overall ZT of polymer TEs appears attractive, individual polymer properties have a very different scale than their inorganic counterparts (i.e., the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity are approximately one and two orders of magnitude smaller, respectively). Furthermore, the majority of TE measurements on polymers have been limited to thin-films where traditional TE materials are measured in bulk. So why should it be expected that polymer TE devices resemble traditional TE devices? Given the uniqueness of polymers, different device architectures are proposed that can leverage the unique strengths of polymer films. It will be shown that by logically considering device requirements, new polymer TE devices have non-linear features that are more attractive than linear inorganic TE devices. This leads to very different device optimizations that favor polymer TEs.

  2. Plugging device for nuclear pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plugging device assembled near an access opening is used for plugging the primary pipes. This plugging device comprises a rim flexible joint put in mechanical pressure by the displacement of mechanical pieces. This joint has a central compartment pressurizable. This joint is fixed by a stirrup-piece and a shaft in support on the tube plate

  3. Insertion device vacuum system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented

  4. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...

  5. Personalized Adaptation to Device Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, E.; Dijk, van E.M.A.G.; de Bra, P.; Brusilovsky, P.; Conejo, R.

    2002-01-01

    Device characteristics, such as screen size and means of interaction, and the context in which a device is used, seriously affect the user’s mental representation of an information environment and its intended use. We hypothesize that user characteristics are valuable resources for determining which

  6. Electrical nanogap devices for biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For detecting substances that are invisible to the human eye or nose, and particularly those biomolecules, the devices must have very small feature sizes, be compact and provide a sufficient level of sensitivity, often to a small number of biomolecules that are just a few nanometres in size. Electrical nanogap devices for biosensing have emerged as a powerful technique for detecting very small quantities of biomolecules. The most charming feature of the devices is to directly transduce events of biomolecules specific binding into useful electrical signals such as resistance/impedance, capacitance/dielectric, or field-effect. Nanogap devices in electrical biosensing have become a busy area of research which is continually expanding. A wealth of research is available discussing planar and vertical nanogap devices for biosensing. Planar nanogap devices including label-free, gold nanoparticle-labeled, nanoparticles-enhanced, nanogapped gold particle film, and carbon nanotube nanogap devices as well as vertical nanogap devices with two and three terminals for biosensing are carefully reviewed. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated overview of the work in this field. In each part, we discuss the principles of operation of electrical biosensing and consider major strategies for enhancing their performance and/or key challenges and opportunities in current stages, and in their further development.

  7. Mixing in a Microfluid Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Deryabin, Mikhail

    Mixing of fluids in microchannels cannot rely on turbulence since the flow takes place at extremly low Reynolds numbers. Various active and passive devices have been developed to induce mixing in microfluid flow devices. We describe here a model of an active mixer where a transverse periodic flow...

  8. Wound Healing Devices Brief Vignettes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Caesar A.; Hare, Marc A.; Perdrizet, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: The demand for wound care therapies is increasing. New wound care products and devices are marketed at a dizzying rate. Practitioners must make informed decisions about the use of medical devices for wound healing therapy. This paper provides updated evidence and recommendations based on a review of recent publications.

  9. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  10. Sample processing device and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A sample processing device is disclosed, which sample processing device comprises a first substrate and a second substrate, where the first substrate has a first surface comprising two area types, a first area type with a first contact angle with water and a second area type with a second contact...

  11. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-02-20

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  12. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...

  13. Nanoscale wicking methods and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jijie (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Noca, Flavio (Inventor); Sansom, Elijah B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A fluid transport method and fluid transport device are disclosed. Nanoscale fibers disposed in a patterned configuration allow transport of a fluid in absence of an external power source. The device may include two or more fluid transport components having different fluid transport efficiencies. The components may be separated by additional fluid transport components, to control fluid flow.

  14. Optical device for straightness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekteris, Vladas; Jurevicius, Mindaugas; Turla, Vytautas

    2015-11-01

    The present paper describes the research of the optical device for two-dimensional straightness measurement of technological machines. Mathematical study of an optical device, operating on the phase principle and measuring transversal displacements of machine parts in two directions ( X and Y) during their linear longitudinal motion in a machine (alongside the Z axis), is presented. How to estimate the range of travel along the Z axis is analytically shown. At this range, the measurer gives correct measurements of transverse displacement. The necessary distance from the objective focus to the image plane was defined mathematically. The sample results of measuring the displacement of the table of a technological machine by using the optical device are presented in the paper. This optical device for non-contact straightness measurement can be used for measurement straightness in turning, milling, drilling, grinding machines and other technological machines, also in geodesy and cartography, and for moving accuracy testing of mechatronic devices, robotics and others.

  15. Content Sharing for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    The miniaturisation of computing devices has seen computing devices become increasingly pervasive in society. With this increased pervasiveness, the technologies of small computing devices have also improved. Mobile devices are now capable of capturing various forms of multimedia and able to communicate wirelessly using increasing numbers of communication techniques. The owners and creators of local content are motivated to share this content in ever increasing volume; the conclusion has been that social networks sites are seeing a revolution in the sharing of information between communities of people. As load on centralised systems increases, we present a novel decentralised peer-to-peer approach dubbed the Market Contact Protocol (MCP) to achieve cost effective, scalable and efficient content sharing using opportunistic networking (pocket switched networking), incentive, context-awareness, social contact and mobile devices. Within the report we describe how the MCP is simulated with a superimposed geographi...

  16. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  17. Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    This edited book is devoted specifically to the applications of complex nonlinear dynamic phenomena to real systems and device applications. While in the past decades there has been significant progress in the theory of nonlinear phenomena under an assortment of system boundary conditions and preparations, there exist comparatively few devices that actually take this rich behavior into account. "Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics" applies and exploits this knowledge to make devices which operate more efficiently and cheaply, while affording the promise of much better performance. Given the current explosion of ideas in areas as diverse as molecular motors, nonlinear filtering theory, noise-enhanced propagation, stochastic resonance and networked systems, the time is right to integrate the progress of complex systems research into real devices.

  18. Pyrotechnic devices and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelblau, Harry

    2002-05-01

    Pyroshock is mechanical shock transmitted through structures from explosive devices, sometimes accompanied by structural impact. These devices are designed to cause the intentional separation of structures, or to cause the deployment of various mechanisms or subsystems required for mission operation. Separation devices usually fall into two categories: (a) line sources, such as linear shaped charges, and (b) point sources, such as explosive bolts, pin puller and pushers, and gas generators. The advantages of these devices are high reliability (especially when redundantly activated), low cost and weight, high activation speed, and low structural deformation a short distance from the source. The major limitation is pyroshock, a severe high-frequency transient capable of causing failure or malfunction to small nearby elements, especially electronic and optical components located close to the source. This pyroshock tutorial, which is intended to summarize recent improvements to the technology, is initiated with a review of explosive and companion devices.

  19. Surgical tools and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents information and knowledge on the field of biomedical devices and surgical tools. The authors look at the interactions between nanotechnology, nanomaterials, design, modeling, and tools for surgical and dental applications, as well as how nanostructured surfaces can be created for the purposes of improving cell adhesion between medical devices and the human body. Each original chapter is revised in this second edition and describes developments in coatings for heart valves, stents, hip and knee joints, cardiovascular devices, orthodontic applications, and regenerative materials such as bone substitutes. There are also 8 new chapters that address: Microvascular anastomoses Inhaler devices used for pulmonary delivery of medical aerosols Surface modification of interference screws Biomechanics of the mandible (a detailed case study) Safety and medical devices The synthesis of nanostructured material Delivery of anticancer molecules using carbon nanotubes Nano and micro coatings for medic...

  20. Turi device for radioactive source transport in the MUK device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TURI radioactive source transport device for on-line studies with a mass spectrometer in a proton beam is described. This device is a part of the multidetector MUK-device the aim of which is the measurement of the angular correlations and lifetimes observed in radioactive decay of short-lived nuclei (T1/2>0.1 s). The TURY system ensures the velocity of the radioactive target movement 1 cm per 0.25 s, and microcomputer control of experiment the accuracy of the tape stop is 0.15 mm

  1. Ontology-Based Device Descriptions and Device Repository for Building Automation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibowski Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Device descriptions play an important role in the design and commissioning of modern building automation systems and help reducing the design time and costs. However, all established device descriptions are specialized for certain purposes and suffer from several weaknesses. This hinders a further design automation, which is strongly needed for the more and more complex building automation systems. To overcome these problems, this paper presents novel Ontology-based Device Descriptions (ODDs along with a layered ontology architecture, a specific ontology view approach with virtual properties, a generic access interface, a triple store-based database backend, and a generic search mask GUI with underlying query generation algorithm. It enables a formal, unified, and extensible specification of building automation devices, ensures their comparability, and facilitates a computer-enabled retrieval, selection, and interoperability evaluation, which is essential for an automated design. The scalability of the approach to several ten thousand devices is demonstrated.

  2. Multilayer polymer light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowski, Zachary; Thomas, Adam; Tzolov, Marian

    2013-03-01

    The interplay of device layers and their interfaces is a major area of study in Polymer Light Emitting Devices (PLEDs). Many factors such as the degradation, efficiency, and overall performance depend on how these layers interact with each other. A fundamental understanding of the interfaces of these layers can lend to better performing devices using a multitude of organic polymers deposited in conjunction with each other in several ways. We have studied basic PLED devices in which we vary the emissive layer used, along with final bake temperatures. Devices include a glass substrate with Indium Tin Oxide anode, Aluminum cathode, and Plexcore Hole Injection layer. The active polymer films were spin casted from solution of MEH-PPV and PFO. Single layer and dual layers of several polymers are studied by examining current-voltage characteristics, film densities, impedance measurements, light emission, and efficiency calculations. We have found that not only do dual layers positively alter the performance of the device in the majority of cases, but the solvents in which each layer is originally in when deposited affects the formation of the interface, thereby altering the device mechanisms.

  3. High voltage MOSFET devices and methods of making the devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sujit; Matocha, Kevin; Chatty, Kiran

    2015-12-15

    A SiC MOSFET device having low specific on resistance is described. The device has N+, P-well and JFET regions extended in one direction (Y-direction) and P+ and source contacts extended in an orthogonal direction (X-direction). The polysilicon gate of the device covers the JFET region and is terminated over the P-well region to minimize electric field at the polysilicon gate edge. In use, current flows vertically from the drain contact at the bottom of the structure into the JFET region and then laterally in the X direction through the accumulation region and through the MOSFET channels into the adjacent N+ region. The current flowing out of the channel then flows along the N+ region in the Y-direction and is collected by the source contacts and the final metal. Methods of making the device are also described.

  4. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged from the engine and an exit-opening (5) for transporting the exhaust gasses away from the engine, and comprises a flexible thermal insulating layer, arranged for resisting the temperature of the e...

  5. Mobile device-to-device distributed computing using data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Remédios, Diogo; Teófilo, António; Paulino, Hervé; Lourenço, João

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing computing power, available storage and communication capabilities of mobile devices makes it possible to start processing and storing data locally, rather than offloading it to remote servers; allowing scenarios of mobile clouds without infrastructure dependency. We can now aim at connecting neighboring mobile devices, creating a local mobile cloud that provides storage and computing services on local generated data. In this paper, we describe an early overview of a dis...

  6. Life cycle of mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Rohal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted features of life cycle of mobile devices. The article highlighted a number of disadvantages associated with managing the life cycle of the product. Disadvantages include the orientation is not on the quality of mobile devices and their design, the obsolescence of digital products. The article drew attention to the need for process improvement life cycle management of mobile devices. For since this type of product is now the most popular among the population, consumers are interested, first of all, quality, and only then, look good.

  7. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chortos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  8. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  9. Medical applications of magnet devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, J.R.

    1975-09-01

    The use of magnetic devices in medically-related applications has often been frustrated by insufficient magnetic force, or by an inappropriately designed device. Magnetic treatment systems are discussed generally, and two systems are described in detail. First, a superconducting magnet, with integral orientation system, intended for use in intravascular catheter guidance is described. The maximum field and gradient produced by this solenoid are 20,000 Oe, and 2250 Oe/cm, respectively. The system is both powerful and easy to use, by virtue of its completely portable design. The second is a magnetic traction device which has been successfully employed in the treatment of esophageal atresia.

  10. Streamline-based microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a streamline-based device and a method for using the device for continuous separation of particles including cells in biological fluids. The device includes a main microchannel and an array of side microchannels disposed on a substrate. The main microchannel has a plurality of stagnation points with a predetermined geometric design, for example, each of the stagnation points has a predetermined distance from the upstream edge of each of the side microchannels. The particles are separated and collected in the side microchannels.

  11. Arrhythmia management after device removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Nobuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Arrhythmic management is needed after removal of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Patients completely dependent on CIEDs need temporary device back-up until new CIEDs are implanted. Various methods are available for device back-up, and the appropriate management varies among patients. The duration from CIED removal to implantation of a new CIED also differs among patients. Temporary pacing is needed for patients with bradycardia, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) or catheter ablation is needed for patients with tachyarrhythmia, and sequential pacing is needed for patients dependent on cardiac resynchronization therapy. The present review focuses on arrhythmic management after CIED removal. PMID:27588151

  12. 21 CFR 801.109 - Prescription devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription devices. 801.109 Section 801.109 Food... DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.109 Prescription devices. A device... direct the use of such device, and hence for which “adequate directions for use” cannot be...

  13. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall be securely attached to the device so that they will not come loose in transportation, handling, and...

  14. Developing Linux kernel space device driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wei; Wang Qinruo; Wu Naiyou

    2003-01-01

    This thesis introduces how to develop kernel level device drivers on Linux platform in detail. On the basis of comparing proc file system with dev file system, we choose PCI devices and USB devices as instances to introduce the method of writing device drivers for character devices by using these two file systems.

  15. Handling device for stud tensioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handling device for a stud tensioner machine used by example for fixing the reactor vessel head has an extension module, joining elements and means for displacement in vertical and horizontal axis

  16. Integrated Ultrasonic-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva

    This thesis deals with the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of integrated ultrasonic-photonic devices, with particular focus on the use of standard semiconductor materials such as GaAs and silicon. The devices are based on the use of guided acoustic waves to modulate the light...... in channel waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Numerical models are developed based on the finite element method, and applied to several scenarios, such as optimization of the geometrical parameters of waveguides, use of slow light in photonic crystal waveguides and use of Lamb waves in membranized...... systems, all in search for paths to improve acousto-optic interaction. Some of the solutions proposed lead to enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude in the eciency of the device. The main aspects related to the design of the devices are discussed, including single-mode guidance, optical coupling...

  17. #DDOD: Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case to request means on consolidating multiple data sources (MDR, PMA, 510(k), R&L) in order to build a list of all marketed medical devices....

  18. Thermoelectric Devices Advance Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices heat, cool, and generate electricity when a temperature differential is provided between the two module faces. In cooperation with NASA, Chico, California-based United States Thermoelectric Consortium Inc. (USTC) built a gas emissions analyzer (GEA) for combustion research. The GEA precipitated hydrocarbon particles, preventing contamination that would hinder precise rocket fuel analysis. The USTC research and design team uses patent-pending dimple, pin-fin, microchannel and microjet structures to develop and design heat dissipation devices on the mini-scale level, which not only guarantee high performance of products, but also scale device size from 1 centimeter to 10 centimeters. USTC continues to integrate the benefits of TE devices in its current line of thermal management solutions and has found the accessibility of NASA technical research to be a valuable, sustainable resource that has continued to positively influence its product design and manufacturing

  19. Nanomechanical Water Purification Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, proposes a lightweight, low-pressure water purification device that harnesses the unique properties of carbon nanotubes and will operate...

  20. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  1. Preventing the radiological dispersal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the IAEA plan of action to protect against nuclear terrorism, the nature of the threat of a radiological dispersal device, international instruments for the prevention of nuclear terrorism, recent progress and perspectives for future action. (author)

  2. Nanomechanical Water Purification Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, proposes a lightweight, low-pressure water filtration device that harnesses the unique properties of nanoparticles to destroy or remove...

  3. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Zorić; Igor Karlović

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing an...

  4. Piezo-phototronic effect devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L.; Yang, Qing

    2013-09-10

    A semiconducting device includes a piezoelectric structure that has a first end and an opposite second end. A first conductor is in electrical communication with the first end and a second conductor is in electrical communication with the second end so as to form an interface therebetween. A force applying structure is configured to maintain an amount of strain in the piezoelectric member sufficient to generate a desired electrical characteristic in the semiconducting device.

  5. Amorphous silicon based betavoltaic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N; Riesen, Y.; Franco, A; S. Dunand; Kind, H.; Schneider, S.; Ballif, C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon betavoltaic devices are studied both by simulation and experimentally. Devices exhibiting a power density of 0.1 μW/cm2 upon Tritium exposure were fabricated. However, a significant degradation of the performance is taking place, especially during the first hours of the exposure. The degradation behavior differs from sample to sample as well as from published results in the literature. Comparisons with degradation from beta particles suggest an effect of tritium...

  6. Operating systems for mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Hroch, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on operating systems for mobile devices. The first part is listed first term PC operating system and the most common types of these systems. The operating systems for mobile devices are now chosen the most widely used platforms, which are subsequently described. There is something about their history, development, and are given different versions of these systems.In the second part of this work is compared with popular operating systems today, Android and iOS. ...

  7. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  8. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  9. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given

  10. PKM Mechatronic Clamping Adaptive Device

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Borboni; Francesco Aggogeri; Angelo Merlo; Nicola Pellegrini; Cinzia Amici

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a novel adaptive fixturing device based on active clamping systems for smart micropositioning of thin-walled precision parts. The modular architecture and the structure flexibility make the system suitable for various industrial applications. The proposed device is realized as a Parallel Kinematic Machine (PKM), opportunely sensorized and controlled, able to perform automatic error-free workpiece clamping procedures, drastically reducing the overall fixturing set-up time. ...

  11. Lightweight cryptography for constrained devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alippi, Cesare; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography is a rapidly evolving research field that responds to the request for security in resource constrained devices. This need arises from crucial pervasive IT applications, such as those based on RFID tags where cost and energy constraints drastically limit the solution...... complexity, with the consequence that traditional cryptography solutions become too costly to be implemented. In this paper, we survey design strategies and techniques suitable for implementing security primitives in constrained devices....

  12. Trustworthy execution on mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Vasudevan, Amit; Newsome, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief considers the various stakeholders in today's mobile device ecosystem, and analyzes why widely-deployed hardware security primitives on mobile device platforms are inaccessible to application developers and end-users. Existing proposals are also evaluated for leveraging such primitives, and proves that they can indeed strengthen the security properties available to applications and users, without reducing the properties currently enjoyed by OEMs and network carriers. Finally, this brief makes recommendations for future research that may yield practical and deployable results.

  13. High speed serdes devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, David R; Sorna, Michael A; Dramstad, Kent; Ogilvie, Clarence Rosser; Amanullah, Mohammad; Rockrohr, James Donald

    2008-01-01

    Offers an understanding of the features and functions typically found on HSS devices. This book explains how these HSS devices are used in protocol applications and the analysis which must be performed to use such HSS devices.

  14. 77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data... infringing electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data...

  15. 棒球缝合法在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中的应用%Application of baseball suture in laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromyoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干晓琴; 刘江; 林海; 张凌; 张强; 黄利琼; 张家佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of the baseball suture in laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromy-oma.Methods Ninety-six patients with gigantic hysteromyoma undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy at our department from January, 2013 to December,2015 were randomly divided into research group ( using Lin's baseball suture) and control group ( with classical con-tinuous suture) ,48 cases in each group.The suture time,whole operation time,intraoperative blood loss,postoperative complications and hospital stay were compared between the two groups.Results The average intraoperative blood loss in the research group was signifi-cantly lower than that in the control group (P0.05).No postoperative complications happened in the both groups.Conclusion In laparoscopic myomectomy for gigantic hysteromyoma,baseball suture can reduce the intraoperative blood loss.Therefore,it is a very good method for clinical application.%目的:观察棒球缝合法在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中的应用效果。方法将2013年01月至2015年12月在成都市妇女儿童中心医院妇科接受腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术的患者96例,采用随机数字表法分为研究组(采用棒球缝合法)和对照组(采用传统连续扣锁缝合法),每组48例,比较两组子宫肌瘤剥除创面缝合时间、手术总时间、术中出血量、住院天数及术后并发症情况。结果研究组患者术中出血量明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);两组术中缝合肌瘤剥除创面时间、手术总时间、术后住院天数比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。两组患者均无术中术后并发症发生。结论在腹腔镜下巨大子宫肌瘤剥除术中采用棒球缝合法可以减少术中出血量,是一种值得临床应用的好方法。

  16. Light-Emitting Devices with Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yu Deng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a previous study and tremendous progress in basic theoretical modeling, material developments and device engineering for polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs.

  17. 16 CFR 1507.9 - Toy smoke devices and flitter devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. 1507... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.9 Toy smoke devices and flitter devices. (a) Toy smoke devices shall be so constructed that they will neither burst nor produce external flame (excluding...

  18. Resource management for device-to-device underlay communication

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Lingyang; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication will become a key feature supported by next generation cellular networks, a topic of enormous importance to modern communication. Currently, D2D serves as an underlay to the cellular network as a means to increase spectral efficiency. Although D2D communication brings large benefits in terms of system capacity, it also causes interference as well as increased computation complexity to cellular networks as a result of spectrum sharing. Thus, efficient resource management must be performed to guarantee a target performance level of cellular communication.This

  19. An Overview of Biofield Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehsam, David; Chevalier, Gaétan; Barsotti, Tiffany; Gurfein, Blake T

    2015-11-01

    Advances in biophysics, biology, functional genomics, neuroscience, psychology, psychoneuroimmunology, and other fields suggest the existence of a subtle system of "biofield" interactions that organize biological processes from the subatomic, atomic, molecular, cellular, and organismic to the interpersonal and cosmic levels. Biofield interactions may bring about regulation of biochemical, cellular, and neurological processes through means related to electromagnetism, quantum fields, and perhaps other means of modulating biological activity and information flow. The biofield paradigm, in contrast to a reductionist, chemistry-centered viewpoint, emphasizes the informational content of biological processes; biofield interactions are thought to operate in part via low-energy or "subtle" processes such as weak, nonthermal electromagnetic fields (EMFs) or processes potentially related to consciousness and nonlocality. Biofield interactions may also operate through or be reflected in more well-understood informational processes found in electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrocardiographic (ECG) data. Recent advances have led to the development of a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic biofield devices, defined as physical instruments best understood from the viewpoint of a biofield paradigm. Here, we provide a broad overview of biofield devices, with emphasis on those devices for which solid, peer-reviewed evidence exists. A subset of these devices, such as those based upon EEG- and ECG-based heart rate variability, function via mechanisms that are well understood and are widely employed in clinical settings. Other device modalities, such a gas discharge visualization and biophoton emission, appear to operate through incompletely understood mechanisms and have unclear clinical significance. Device modes of operation include EMF-light, EMF-heat, EMF-nonthermal, electrical current, vibration and sound, physical and mechanical, intentionality and nonlocality, gas and

  20. An Overview of Biofield Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehsam, David; Chevalier, Gaétan; Barsotti, Tiffany; Gurfein, Blake T

    2015-11-01

    Advances in biophysics, biology, functional genomics, neuroscience, psychology, psychoneuroimmunology, and other fields suggest the existence of a subtle system of "biofield" interactions that organize biological processes from the subatomic, atomic, molecular, cellular, and organismic to the interpersonal and cosmic levels. Biofield interactions may bring about regulation of biochemical, cellular, and neurological processes through means related to electromagnetism, quantum fields, and perhaps other means of modulating biological activity and information flow. The biofield paradigm, in contrast to a reductionist, chemistry-centered viewpoint, emphasizes the informational content of biological processes; biofield interactions are thought to operate in part via low-energy or "subtle" processes such as weak, nonthermal electromagnetic fields (EMFs) or processes potentially related to consciousness and nonlocality. Biofield interactions may also operate through or be reflected in more well-understood informational processes found in electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrocardiographic (ECG) data. Recent advances have led to the development of a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic biofield devices, defined as physical instruments best understood from the viewpoint of a biofield paradigm. Here, we provide a broad overview of biofield devices, with emphasis on those devices for which solid, peer-reviewed evidence exists. A subset of these devices, such as those based upon EEG- and ECG-based heart rate variability, function via mechanisms that are well understood and are widely employed in clinical settings. Other device modalities, such a gas discharge visualization and biophoton emission, appear to operate through incompletely understood mechanisms and have unclear clinical significance. Device modes of operation include EMF-light, EMF-heat, EMF-nonthermal, electrical current, vibration and sound, physical and mechanical, intentionality and nonlocality, gas and