WorldWideScience

Sample records for base study analyses

  1. Meta-Analyses of Human Cell-Based Cardiac Regeneration Therapies: Controversies in Meta-Analyses Results on Cardiac Cell-Based Regenerative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Navarese, Eliano P; Moye, Lemuel À

    2016-04-15

    In contrast to multiple publication-based meta-analyses involving clinical cardiac regeneration therapy in patients with recent myocardial infarction, a recently published meta-analysis based on individual patient data reported no effect of cell therapy on left ventricular function or clinical outcome. A comprehensive review of the data collection, statistics, and the overall principles of meta-analyses provides further clarification and explanation for this controversy. The advantages and pitfalls of different types of meta-analyses are reviewed here. Each meta-analysis approach has a place when pivotal clinical trials are lacking and sheds light on the magnitude of the treatment in a complex healthcare field.

  2. Analysing a Web-Based E-Commerce Learning Community: A Case Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…

  3. A mycogeographical study of Norwegian macrofungi based on GLM analyses of herbarium data

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study focuses on the mycogeography of 83 selected macrofungi in Norway. The fungi’s distribution patterns were related to a dataset of 81 environmental variables through GLM in order to reveal which factors that accounts for the species distributions. The GLM models for the 83 species were generally dominated by variables in the categories ‘Temperature’, ‘Energy’, ‘Humidity’ and ‘Topography’, plus the variable Geology richness, confirming established knowledge about which en...

  4. Reduction and technical simplification of testing protocol for walking based on repeatability analyses: An Interreg IVa pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the most appropriate gait measurement protocols to be used in our future studies in the Mobility in Ageing project. A group of young healthy volunteers took part in the study. Each subject carried out a 10-metre walking test at five different speeds (preferred, very slow, very fast, slow, and fast. Each walking speed was repeated three times, making a total of 15 trials which were carried out in a random order. Each trial was simultaneously analysed by three observers using three different technical approaches: a stop watch, photo cells and electronic kinematic dress. In analysing the repeatability of the trials, the results showed that of the five self-selected walking speeds, three of them (preferred, very fast, and very slow had a significantly higher repeatability of the average walking velocity, step length and cadence than the other two speeds. Additionally, the data showed that one of the three technical methods for gait assessment has better metric characteristics than the other two. In conclusion, based on repeatability, technical and organizational simplification, this study helped us to successfully define a simple and reliable walking test to be used in the main study of the project.

  5. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Ogawa

    Full Text Available The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion. Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround, 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono, 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG. The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life

  6. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli. PMID

  7. Indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study revisited: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Steiner, Kate C.; Apte, Michael G.

    2002-02-01

    In previously published analyses of the 41-building 1994-1996 USEPA Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) dataset, higher workday time-averaged indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) were associated with increased prevalence of certain mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, even at peak dCO{sub 2} concentrations below 1,000 ppm. For this paper, similar analyses were performed using the larger 100-building 1994-1998 BASE dataset. Multivariate logistic regression analyses quantified the associations between dCO{sub 2} and the SBS symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Adjusted dCO{sub 2} prevalence odds ratios for sore throat and wheeze were 1.17 and 1.20 per 100-ppm increase in dCO{sub 2} (p <0.05), respectively. These new analyses generally support our prior findings. Regional differences in climate, building design, and operation may account for some of the differences observed in analyses of the two datasets.

  8. Soil heavy metal contamination related to roasted stone coal slag: a study based on geostatistical and multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De'an; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Tianran; Wang, Jiaming

    2016-07-01

    Soil was examined for vanadium (V) and related metal contamination near a stone coal mine in Hubei Province, China. In total, 92 surface and vertical (0-200 cm) soil samples were collected from the site. A handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used for in situ analysis of the soil concentrations of heavy metals, including V, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb). The mean concentrations of these metals were 931, 721, 279, 223, 163, and 11 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils guidelines, up to 88.0, 76.1, and 56.5 % of the soil samples had single factor pollution indices >3 for V, Cr, and Cu, respectively. Furthermore, 2.2 % of samples were slightly polluted with Zn, while there was no Mn or Pb contamination. GaussAmp curve fitting was performed based on the sample frequency distribution of the Nemerow pollution index. The fitted mean was 5.99, indicating severe pollution. The heavy metals were clustered into two groups, V/Cr/Cu/Zn and Mn/Pb, based on the spatial distributions, the Pearson correlation and principal component analyses. The positive correlations within the V/Cr/Cu/Zn group suggested that they originated from roasted stone coal slag. Finally, the negative correlation between the two groups was attributed to mechanical mixing of the slag and original soil. PMID:27068897

  9. Understanding Human Error Based on Automated Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a report on a continuing study of automated analyses of experiential textual reports to gain insight into the causal factors of human errors in aviation...

  10. A study on the seismic behavior of a retrofitted building based on nonlinear static and dynamic analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esra Mete Güneyisi; Gülay Altay

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the seismic performance of an existing five storey reinforced concrete building which represents the typical properties of low-rise non-ductile buildings in Turkey. The effectiveness of shear walls and the steel bracings in retrofitting the building was examined through nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. By using the nonlinear static analysis, retrofitted buildings seismic performances under lateral seismic load were compared with each other.Moreover, the performance points and response levels of the existing and retrofitting cases were determined by way of the capacity-spectrum method described in ATC-40 (1996). For the nonlinear dynamic analysis the records were selected to represent wide ranges of duration and frequency content. Considering the change in the stiffness and the energy dissipation capacities, the performance of the existing and retrofitted buildings were evaluated in terms of story drifts and damage states.It was found that each earthquake record exhibited its own peculiarities, dictated by frequency content, duration, sequence of peaks and their amplitude. The seismic performance of retrofitted buildings resulted in lower displacements and higher energy dissipation capacity depending mainly on the properties of the ground motions and the retrofitting strategies. Moreover,severe structural damage (irreparable or collapse) was observed for the existing building. However, buildings with retrofit alternatives exhibited lower damage levels changing from no damage to irreparable damage states.

  11. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Main outcome measures Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. Data sources Clinical study reports for duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine obtained from the European and UK drug regulators, and summary trial reports for duloxetine and fluoxetine from Eli Lilly’s website. Eligibility criteria for study selection Double blind placebo controlled trials that contained any patient narratives or individual patient listings of harms. Data extraction and analysis Two researchers extracted data independently; the outcomes were meta-analysed by Peto’s exact method (fixed effect model). Results We included 70 trials (64 381 pages of clinical study reports) with 18 526 patients. These trials had limitations in the study design and discrepancies in reporting, which may have led to serious under-reporting of harms. For example, some outcomes appeared only in individual patient listings in appendices, which we had for only 32 trials, and we did not have case report forms for any of the trials. Differences in mortality (all deaths were in adults, odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 4.06), suicidality (1.21, 0.84 to 1.74), and akathisia (2.04, 0.93 to 4.48) were not significant, whereas patients taking antidepressants displayed more aggressive behaviour (1.93, 1.26 to 2.95). For adults, the odds ratios were 0.81 (0.51 to 1.28) for suicidality, 1.09 (0.55 to 2.14) for aggression, and 2.00 (0.79 to 5.04) for akathisia. The corresponding values for children and adolescents were 2.39 (1.31 to 4.33), 2.79 (1.62 to 4.81), and 2.15 (0.48 to 9.65). In the summary trial reports on Eli Lilly’s website, almost all deaths were noted, but all suicidal ideation events were missing, and the information on the remaining outcomes was

  12. Increased risk of stroke in hypertensive women using hormone therapy: analyses based on the Danish Nurse Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Jovanovic, Zorana; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent randomized clinical trials suggest an increased risk of stroke with hormone therapy (HT), whereas observational studies have suggested mixed results. Differences in design, definitions of HT exposure, and stroke outcome may explain these discrepancies. Little attention has been...... paid to identifying subgroups of women who are particularly sensitive to HT. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of various stroke outcomes among women using HT based primarily on estradiol-17beta (unopposed or combined with norethisterone acetate) and to assess the potential modifying effect...... by presence of risk factors for stroke. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: In 1993, the Danish Nurse Study was established, and questionnaires on lifestyle and HT use were sent to all Danish nurses older than 44 years, of whom 19,898 (85.8%) replied. PARTICIPANTS: Postmenopausal women (n = 13...

  13. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary courses…

  14. Studies and analyses of the space shuttle main engine. Failure information propagation model data base and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    The failure information propagation model (FIPM) data base was developed to store and manipulate the large amount of information anticipated for the various Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) FIPMs. The organization and structure of the FIPM data base is described, including a summary of the data fields and key attributes associated with each FIPM data file. The menu-driven software developed to facilitate and control the entry, modification, and listing of data base records is also discussed. The transfer of the FIPM data base and software to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. Complete listings of all of the data base definition commands and software procedures are included in the appendixes.

  15. Is the relationship between common mental disorder and adiposity bidirectional? Prospective analyses of a UK general population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Fezeu, L.K.; Batty, G D; Gale, C R; Kivimaki, M.; Hercberg, S; Czernichow, S.

    2015-01-01

    The direction of the association between mental health and adiposity is poorly understood. Our objective was to empirically examine this link in a UK study. This is a prospective cohort study of 3 388 people (men) aged ? 18 years at study induction who participated in both the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey at baseline (HALS-1, 1984/1985) and the re-survey (HALS-2, 1991/1992). At both survey examinations, body mass index, waist circumference and self-reported common mental disorder (the 30-it...

  16. Increased risk of stroke in hypertensive women using hormone therapy: analyses based on the Danish Nurse Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Jovanovic, Zorana; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2003-01-01

    paid to identifying subgroups of women who are particularly sensitive to HT. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of various stroke outcomes among women using HT based primarily on estradiol-17beta (unopposed or combined with norethisterone acetate) and to assess the potential modifying effect......,122) free of previous major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 144) identified in the national registries of hospital discharges and cause of deaths in the total follow-up through December 31, 1998. RESULTS: In 1993, 28...

  17. Study of fatigue failures to improve safety based on the analyses of failure database in Japanese nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Fukushima-Daiichi accident, nuclear power plants are highly requested to enhance safety against severe accident. It is important to prevent fatigue failure for operating nuclear power plants, especially pressure boundary of components to ensure safety. This paper studies the failure database of nuclear power plant in Japan (NUCIA) and extracts the events caused by fatigue failure. Fatigue failure can be classified according to fatigue mechanism such as mechanical vibration, fluid vibration, high-cycle thermal fatigue, low-cycle fatigue, and fretting fatigue. The study focuses on the classification of significance in safety function of the system, the trend and the countermeasures taken for each kind of fatigue failure. The detailed analysis of fatigue failure in safety-related components proposes important modification of maintenance program and screening criteria of components to be evaluated to ensure safety in system level. (author)

  18. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan;

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... incrementalizing a broad range of static analyses....

  19. On study design in neuroimaging heritability analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Mary Ellen; Li, Bo; Jahanshad, Neda; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A.; Glahn, David C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Blangero, John; Nichols, Thomas E.; Kochunov, Peter; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging genetics is an emerging methodology that combines genetic information with imaging-derived metrics to understand how genetic factors impact observable structural, functional, and quantitative phenotypes. Many of the most well-known genetic studies are based on Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), which use large populations of related or unrelated individuals to associate traits and disorders with individual genetic factors. Merging imaging and genetics may potentially lead to improved power of association in GWAS because imaging traits may be more sensitive phenotypes, being closer to underlying genetic mechanisms, and their quantitative nature inherently increases power. We are developing SOLAR-ECLIPSE (SE) imaging genetics software which is capable of performing genetic analyses with both large-scale quantitative trait data and family structures of variable complexity. This program can estimate the contribution of genetic commonality among related subjects to a given phenotype, and essentially answer the question of whether or not the phenotype is heritable. This central factor of interest, heritability, offers bounds on the direct genetic influence over observed phenotypes. In order for a trait to be a good phenotype for GWAS, it must be heritable: at least some proportion of its variance must be due to genetic influences. A variety of family structures are commonly used for estimating heritability, yet the variability and biases for each as a function of the sample size are unknown. Herein, we investigate the ability of SOLAR to accurately estimate heritability models based on imaging data simulated using Monte Carlo methods implemented in R. We characterize the bias and the variability of heritability estimates from SOLAR as a function of sample size and pedigree structure (including twins, nuclear families, and nuclear families with grandparents).

  20. Network-Based and Binless Frequency Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available We introduce and develop a new network-based and binless methodology to perform frequency analyses and produce histograms. In contrast with traditional frequency analysis techniques that use fixed intervals to bin values, we place a range ±ζ around each individual value in a data set and count the number of values within that range, which allows us to compare every single value of a data set with one another. In essence, the methodology is identical to the construction of a network, where two values are connected if they lie within a given a range (±ζ. The value with the highest degree (i.e., most connections is therefore assimilated to the mode of the distribution. To select an optimal range, we look at the stability of the proportion of nodes in the largest cluster. The methodology is validated by sampling 12 typical distributions, and it is applied to a number of real-world data sets with both spatial and temporal components. The methodology can be applied to any data set and provides a robust means to uncover meaningful patterns and trends. A free python script and a tutorial are also made available to facilitate the application of the method.

  1. Study of oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 by thermogravimetric analyser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dhawan; K Raetzke; F Faupel; S K Sharma

    2001-06-01

    The oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk amorphous alloy Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 has been studied in air environment at various temperatures in the temperature range 591–684 K using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The oxidation kinetics of the alloy in the amorphous phase obeys the parabolic rate law for oxidation in the temperature range 591–664 K. The values of the activation energy and pre-factor as calculated from the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the rate constants have been found to be 1.80 eV and 2.12 × 109 g cm–2.sec–1/2, respectively.

  2. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-09-01

    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  3. Association between forgone care and household income among the elderly in five Western European countries – analyses based on survey data from the SHARE-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirbu Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association between access to health care and household income have rarely included an assessment of 'forgone care', but this indicator could add to our understanding of the inverse care law. We hypothesize that reporting forgone care is more prevalent in low income groups. Methods The study is based on the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE', focusing on the non-institutionalized population aged 50 years or older. Data are included from France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Sweden. The dependent variable is assessed by the following question: During the last twelve months, did you forgo any types of care because of the costs you would have to pay, or because this care was not available or not easily accessible? The main independent variable is household income, adjusted for household size and split into quintiles, calculating the quintile limits for each country separately. Information on age, sex, self assessed health and chronic disease is included as well. Logistic regression models were used for the multivariate analyses. Results The overall level of forgone care differs considerably between the five countries (e.g. about 10 percent in Greece and 6 percent in Sweden. Low income groups report forgone care more often than high income groups. This association can also be found in analyses restricted to the subsample of persons with chronic disease. Associations between forgone care and income are particularly strong in Germany and Greece. Taking the example of Germany, forgone care in the lowest income quintile is 1.98 times (95% CI: 1.08–3.63 as high as in the highest income quintile. Conclusion Forgone care should be reduced even if it is not justified by an 'objective' need for health care, as it could be an independent stressor in its own right, and as patient satisfaction is a strong predictor of compliance. These efforts should focus on population groups with particularly high

  4. Age at Menarche, Level of Education, Parity and the Risk of Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Population-Based Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise F Wilson

    Full Text Available Although rates have declined, hysterectomy is still a frequent gynaecological procedure. To date, there has been no systematic quantification of the relationships between early/mid-life exposures and hysterectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to quantify the associations between age at menarche, education level, parity and hysterectomy.Eligible studies were identified by searches in PubMed and Embase through March 2015. Study-specific estimates were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored using sub-group analysis and meta-regression.Thirty-two study populations were identified for inclusion in at least one meta-analysis. Each year older at menarche was associated with lower risk of hysterectomy-summary hazard ratio 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.95; I2 = 0%; summary odds ratio 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.94; I2 = 61%. Low education levels conferred a higher risk of hysterectomy in the lowest versus highest level meta-analysis (summary hazard ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.80; I2 = 86%, summary odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.35, 1.69; I2 = 90% and dose-response meta-analysis (summary odds ratio 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.23; I2 = 85% per each level lower of education. Sub-group analysis showed that the birth cohort category of study participants, the reference category used for level of education, the year the included article was published, quality of the study (as assessed by the authors and control for the key variables accounted for the high heterogeneity between studies in the education level meta-analyses. In the meta-analyses of studies of parity and hysterectomy the results were not statistically significant.The present meta-analyses suggest that the early life factors of age at menarche and lower education level are associated with hysterectomy, although this evidence should be interpreted with some caution due to variance

  5. Training Residential Staff to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Collins, Shawnee D.; Clay, Casey J.

    2013-01-01

    We taught 6 supervisors of a residential service provider for adults with developmental disabilities to train 9 house managers to conduct trial-based functional analyses. Effects of the training were evaluated with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Results suggest that house managers can be trained to conduct trial-based functional analyses with…

  6. Comparison of veterinary import risk analyses studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos-de Jong, de C.J.; Conraths, F.J.; Adkin, A.; Jones, E.M.; Hallgren, G.S.; Paisley, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two veterinary import risk analyses (IRAs) were audited: a) for inclusion of the main elements of risk analysis; b) between different types of IRAs; c) between reviewers' scores. No significant differences were detected between different types of IRAs, although quantitative IRAs and IRAs publ

  7. A STUDY TO ANALYSE THE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PILATES BASED EXERCISES AND THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.Albert Anand,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal symptoms seen in 85 % of individuals in their life time. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Modified Pilates based exercises for patients with Chronic Non Specific Low Back Pain. Design: A randomized controlled trial, pre test-post test design Setting: The study was conducted in Out Patient Department of physiotherapy, K.G Hospital, Coimbatore, India. Patients: Fifty– two physically active subjects between 18 – 60 years old with Chronic Non specific Low Specific Pain of more than 12 weeks’ duration were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Interventions: Group A subjects underwent a Modified specific Pilates based exercises with Flexibility Exercises & Group B Subjects underwent a Therapeutic Exercises with Flexibility Exercises were conducted over of 8 weeks. Measurements: Back specific Functional Status outcome were measured with the Oswestry Disability Index and pain intensity were measured with Visual analogue scale. Conclusion: The study concluded that the Modified specific Pilates based exercises helps in reducing the pain, improve the back specific function, improve general health, personal Care, Social Life and flexibility in individuals with non specific chronic low back pain than the therapeutic exercise group.

  8. Haematuria analysed--a prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillatt, D A; O'Reilly, P H

    1987-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of haematuria were studied prospectively. The results showed a high proportion (52%) of serious urological disease. The need for thorough investigation of even minor degrees of haematuria is again emphasized.

  9. Mid-Adolescent Predictors of Adult Drinking Levels in Early Adulthood and Gender Differences: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the South Australian School Leavers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Helen R; Winefield, Anthony H; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points) were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing. Respondents were classified into two groups based upon a percentile division: those who drank at levels consistently below NHMRC guidelines and those who consistently drank at higher levels. The results showed that poorer age 15 scores on measures of psychological wellbeing including scores on the GHQ-12, self-esteem, and life-satisfaction as well as engagement in health-related behaviours such as smoking or drug-taking were associated with higher drinking levels in early adulthood. The pattern of results was generally similar for both genders. Higher drinking levels were most strongly associated with smoking and marijuana use and poorer psychological wellbeing during adolescence. PMID:27635278

  10. Mid-Adolescent Predictors of Adult Drinking Levels in Early Adulthood and Gender Differences: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the South Australian School Leavers Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefield, Helen R.; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points) were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing. Respondents were classified into two groups based upon a percentile division: those who drank at levels consistently below NHMRC guidelines and those who consistently drank at higher levels. The results showed that poorer age 15 scores on measures of psychological wellbeing including scores on the GHQ-12, self-esteem, and life-satisfaction as well as engagement in health-related behaviours such as smoking or drug-taking were associated with higher drinking levels in early adulthood. The pattern of results was generally similar for both genders. Higher drinking levels were most strongly associated with smoking and marijuana use and poorer psychological wellbeing during adolescence. PMID:27635278

  11. Mid-Adolescent Predictors of Adult Drinking Levels in Early Adulthood and Gender Differences: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the South Australian School Leavers Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Delfabbro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing. Respondents were classified into two groups based upon a percentile division: those who drank at levels consistently below NHMRC guidelines and those who consistently drank at higher levels. The results showed that poorer age 15 scores on measures of psychological wellbeing including scores on the GHQ-12, self-esteem, and life-satisfaction as well as engagement in health-related behaviours such as smoking or drug-taking were associated with higher drinking levels in early adulthood. The pattern of results was generally similar for both genders. Higher drinking levels were most strongly associated with smoking and marijuana use and poorer psychological wellbeing during adolescence.

  12. Cultural Studies og kritisk diskurs analyse i 8. klasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarstad, Lone Krogsgaard

    2015-01-01

    to be multiplicative and dynamic and power is foregrounded. Critical discourse analysis is used as a tool in class to analyse a dispute on Facebook between Miley Cyrus and Sinead O’Connor. Students work with active construction, making connections, social interaction, reflection, responsibility and they do so......The article presents an exploration of a Cultural Studies and Critical Cultural Pedagogy approach to intercultural competence in lower secondary English classes in Denmark. The presentation is based on the second intervention in a participatory action research project in connection with my doctoral...... thesis in the school year 2013-2014.The approach is based on Cultural Studies and knowledge of social categories and representation, and how these can be taught and discussed in class through an intersectional lens. An intersectional lens allows for the conceptualization of categories...

  13. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  14. Studies on changes of elemental concentration in a humanbody by means of analyses of long hairs based on the standard-free method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We established and reported two years ago the original methods for evaluating daily changes of elemental concentration in a body by means of a standard-free method for powdered beard samples daily taken with electric shaver. It was found that the method is quite useful for investigating short- and long-term changes of elemental concentration in a body. However, the method for beard analysis is applicable only to men. In order to estimate daily changes of elemental concentration in a body for women and children, a new method which allows us to quantitatively analyze hair samples cut into 1 mm pieces has been developed and applied to three long hair samples taken from three persons. It is found that the method enables us to estimate both long- and short-term changes in elemental concentration in a body a well as beard analysis. It is found that sulfur keeps almost constant over a long period, and arsenic shows very rapid changes with a few days' period, while mercury shows only long-term changes with the period of a few months. These behaviors are almost the same as those observed in beard analyses. On the other hand, bromine shows a certain seasonal changes; its concentration shows a certain trend of increasing in summer and decreasing in winter. Lead and calcium show very long-term changes, and the behavior of strontium is quite similar to that of calcium. The method is expected to give us information about history of changes in elemental concentration in a human body over a few or more years. It is expected that the behavior of arsenic showing rapid elevation within a few days can be explained as a response to intakes of arsenic-rich foods. It is expected that the method gives us a clue to the identification of the main pathways of human exposure to certain toxic elements. (author)

  15. Genome-wide analyses of exonic copy number variants in a family-based study point to novel autism susceptibility genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Bucan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The genetics underlying the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs is complex and remains poorly understood. Previous work has demonstrated an important role for structural variation in a subset of cases, but has lacked the resolution necessary to move beyond detection of large regions of potential interest to identification of individual genes. To pinpoint genes likely to contribute to ASD etiology, we performed high density genotyping in 912 multiplex families from the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE collection and contrasted results to those obtained for 1,488 healthy controls. Through prioritization of exonic deletions (eDels, exonic duplications (eDups, and whole gene duplication events (gDups, we identified more than 150 loci harboring rare variants in multiple unrelated probands, but no controls. Importantly, 27 of these were confirmed on examination of an independent replication cohort comprised of 859 cases and an additional 1,051 controls. Rare variants at known loci, including exonic deletions at NRXN1 and whole gene duplications encompassing UBE3A and several other genes in the 15q11-q13 region, were observed in the course of these analyses. Strong support was likewise observed for previously unreported genes such as BZRAP1, an adaptor molecule known to regulate synaptic transmission, with eDels or eDups observed in twelve unrelated cases but no controls (p = 2.3x10(-5. Less is known about MDGA2, likewise observed to be case-specific (p = 1.3x10(-4. But, it is notable that the encoded protein shows an unexpectedly high similarity to Contactin 4 (BLAST E-value = 3x10(-39, which has also been linked to disease. That hundreds of distinct rare variants were each seen only once further highlights complexity in the ASDs and points to the continued need for larger cohorts.

  16. Analyser-based x-ray imaging for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyser-based imaging (ABI) is one of the several phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques being pursued at synchrotron radiation facilities. With advancements in compact source technology, there is a possibility that ABI will become a clinical imaging modality. This paper presents the history of ABI as it has developed from its laboratory source to synchrotron imaging. The fundamental physics of phase-contrast imaging is presented both in a general sense and specifically for ABI. The technology is dependent on the use of perfect crystal monochromator optics. The theory of the x-ray optics is developed and presented in a way that will allow optimization of the imaging for specific biomedical systems. The advancement of analytical algorithms to produce separate images of the sample absorption, refraction angle map and small-angle x-ray scattering is detailed. Several detailed applications to biomedical imaging are presented to illustrate the broad range of systems and body sites studied preclinically to date: breast, cartilage and bone, soft tissue and organs. Ultimately, the application of ABI in clinical imaging will depend partly on the availability of compact sources with sufficient x-ray intensity comparable with that of the current synchrotron environment. (paper)

  17. Microstructural and compositional analyses of GaN-based nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, Angelika; Mueller, Knut; Rosenauer, Andreas [Section Electron Microscopy, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Thomas; Falta, Jens [Section Surface Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Aschenbrenner, Timo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Dartsch, Heiko; Hommel, Detlef [Section Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Kuebel, Christian [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruher Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Composition and microstructure of GaN-based island structures and distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We analysed free-standing InGaN islands and islands capped with GaN. Growth of the islands performed by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) resulted in different microstructures. The islands grown by MBE were plastically relaxed. Cap layer deposition resulted in a rapid dissolution of the islands already at early stages of cap layer growth. These findings are confirmed by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). In contrast, the islands grown by MOVPE relax only elastically. Strain state analysis (SSA) revealed that the indium concentration increases towards the tips of the islands. For an application as quantum dots, the islands must be embedded into DBRs. Structure and composition of Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}N/GaN Bragg reflectors on top of an AlGaN buffer layer and In{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N/GaN Bragg reflectors on top of a GaN buffer layer were investigated. Specifically, structural defects such as threading dislocations (TDs) and inversion domains (IDs) were studied, and we investigated thicknesses, interfaces and interface roughnesses of the layers. As the peak reflectivities of the investigated DBRs do not reach the theoretical predictions, possible reasons are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Net Energy, CO 2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of Jatropha Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangzheng Deng; Jianzhi Han; Fang Yin

    2012-01-01

    Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from Jatropha curcas has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this indus...

  19. A study of the population structure of the Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842) in Mexico based on morphometric and genetic analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Gómez, Víctor Manuel; De La Cruz Agüero, José; García Gasca, Silvia Alejandra; García Rodríguez, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    Several studies on the Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax have focused on the identification of stock composition and boundaries, using morphometric and genetic analysis. In this study, geometric morphometric body landmarks and control region mtDNA sequences were used to examine the population structure of sardines along the Pacific coast of the Baja California Peninsula. Samples from commercial landings in Ensenada (ENS), Baja California, and Bahia Magdalena (BM), Baja California Sur, were obta...

  20. Multivariate analyses to assess the effects of surgeon and hospital volume on cancer survival rates: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Positive results between caseloads and outcomes have been validated in several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is limited information available on the combined effects of surgeon and hospital caseloads. We used nationwide population-based data to explore the association between surgeon and hospital caseloads and survival rates for major cancers. METHODOLOGY: A total of 11,677 patients with incident cancer diagnosed in 2002 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity scores were used to assess the relationship between 5-year survival rates and different caseload combinations. RESULTS: Based on the Cox proportional hazard model, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer survival rates, and hazard ratios ranged from 1.3 in head and neck cancer to 1.8 in lung cancer after adjusting for patients' demographic variables, co-morbidities, and treatment modality. When analyzed using the propensity scores, the adjusted 5-year survival rates were poorer for patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals, compared to those treated by high-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals (P<0.005. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for differences in the case mix, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer 5-year survival rates. Payers may implement quality care improvement in low-volume surgeons.

  1. The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study, Grain Size Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study was funded by NOAA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Program. Dr. L.J. Doyle produced grain size analyses in...

  2. Comparative vibrational spectroscopic studies, HOMO-LUMO, NBO analyses and thermodynamic functions of p-cresol and 2-methyl-p-cresol based on DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, V.; Murugan, M.; Nataraj, A.; Karnan, M.; Ilango, G.

    2014-11-01

    In the present study structural properties of p-cresol, and 2-methoxy-p-cresol have been studied by using B3LYP/cc-pvdz and B3PW91/cc-pvdz of Density Functional Theory (DFT) utilizing Becke three exchange functional and Lee Yang Paar correlation functional. The Fourier transform infrared and Fourier transform Raman spectra of title molecules were recorded (solid phase). Optimized geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and various thermodynamic parameters of the title compounds were calculated with B3LYP/cc-pvdz, and B3PW91/cc-pvdz basis sets. Non-linear optical (NLO) behavior of the p-cresol and 2-methoxy-p-cresol were investigated by determining of electric dipole moment, polarizability α, and hyperpolarizability β using the above mentioned basis sets. The molecular properties such as ionization potential, electronegativity, chemical potential, electrophilicity have been deduced from HOMO-LUMO analysis employing the same basis sets. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of title molecules were reported. UV spectrum was measured in different solvent. The energy and oscillator strength are calculated by Time Dependant Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies also confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. Finally the theoretical FT-IR, FT-Raman, and UV spectra of the title molecules have also been constructed.

  3. How Can Meta-Analyses Guide Practice? A Review of the Learning Disability Research Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, William J.; Zaman, Maliha; Banda, Devender R.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis is considered an acceptable method to evaluate research studies for evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review is to examine the applicability of using meta-analyses in the learning disability field to guide classroom practice. The authors evaluated 15 learning disability meta-analyses in three domains: large-scale…

  4. A syntax-based part-of-speech analyser

    CERN Document Server

    Voutilainen, A

    1995-01-01

    There are two main methodologies for constructing the knowledge base of a natural language analyser: the linguistic and the data-driven. Recent state-of-the-art part-of-speech taggers are based on the data-driven approach. Because of the known feasibility of the linguistic rule-based approach at related levels of description, the success of the data-driven approach in part-of-speech analysis may appear surprising. In this paper, a case is made for the syntactic nature of part-of-speech tagging. A new tagger of English that uses only linguistic distributional rules is outlined and empirically evaluated. Tested against a benchmark corpus of 38,000 words of previously unseen text, this syntax-based system reaches an accuracy of above 99%. Compared to the 95-97% accuracy of its best competitors, this result suggests the feasibility of the linguistic approach also in part-of-speech analysis.

  5. Developments based on stochastic and determinist methods for studying complex nuclear systems; Developpements utilisant des methodes stochastiques et deterministes pour l'analyse de systemes nucleaires complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffard, F.X

    2000-05-19

    In the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics, particle transport plays and important role. Neutronic design, operation and evaluation calculations of nuclear system make use of large and powerful computer codes. However, current limitations in terms of computer resources make it necessary to introduce simplifications and approximations in order to keep calculation time and cost within reasonable limits. Two different types of methods are available in these codes. The first one is the deterministic method, which is applicable in most practical cases but requires approximations. The other method is the Monte Carlo method, which does not make these approximations but which generally requires exceedingly long running times. The main motivation of this work is to investigate the possibility of a combined use of the two methods in such a way as to retain their advantages while avoiding their drawbacks. Our work has mainly focused on the speed-up of 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations (TRIPOLI-4 code) by means of an optimized biasing scheme derived from importance maps obtained from the deterministic code ERANOS. The application of this method to two different practical shielding-type problems has demonstrated its efficiency: speed-up factors of 100 have been reached. In addition, the method offers the advantage of being easily implemented as it is not very to the choice of the importance mesh grid. It has also been demonstrated that significant speed-ups can be achieved by this method in the case of coupled neutron-gamma transport problems, provided that the interdependence of the neutron and photon importance maps is taken into account. Complementary studies are necessary to tackle a problem brought out by this work, namely undesirable jumps in the Monte Carlo variance estimates. (author)

  6. Array-based GNSS Ionospheric Sensing: Estimability and Precision Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Array-based GNSS Ionospheric Sensing: Estimability and Precision Analyses PJG Teunissen1,2, A Khodabandeh1 and B Zhang1 1GNSS Research Centre, Curtin University, Perth, Australia 2Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Introduction: The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have proved to be an effective means of measuring the Earth's ionosphere. The well-known geometry-free linear combinations of the GNSS data serve as the input of an external ionospheric model to capture both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the ionosphere. Next to the slant ionospheric delays experienced by the GNSS antennas, the geometry-free combinations also contain additional unknown delays that are caused by the presence of the carrier-phase ambiguous cycles and/or the code instrumental delays. That the geometry-free combinations, without an external ionospheric model, cannot unbiasedly determine the slant ionospheric delays reveals the lack of information content in the GNSS data. Motivation and objectives: With the advent of modernized multi-frequency signals, one is confronted with many different combinations of the GNSS data that are capable of sensing the ionosphere. Owing to such diversity and the lack of information content in the GNSS data, various estimable ionospheric delays of different interpretations (and of different precision) can therefore be formed. How such estimable ionospheric delays should be interpreted and the extent to which they contribute to the precision of the unbiased slant ionosphere are the topics of this contribution. Approach and results: In this contribution, we apply S-system theory to study the estimability and precision of the estimable slant ionospheric delays that are measured by the multi-frequency GNSS data. Two different S-systems are presented, leading to two different estimable parameters of different precision: 1) the phase-driven ionospheric delays and 2) the code-driven ionospheric delays

  7. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  8. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  9. A stratigraphical-geochemical study on the Chaco Paraná continental rift basin- An approach study based on regional sedimentology and drill-hole core analyses,South América

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Torra

    2006-01-01

    This paper is focused on a geologic "regional rift basin system pattern" and its stratigraphical-geochemical relationship. This is mainly based on the littoral shallow marine sedimentary succession paleogeography and deposits. These successions characterize the large extensional intracratonic Chaco rift basin system evolved from the Upper Cretaceous ( Late Campanian-Senonian-Maastrichtian-Early Paleocene) to Quaternary time. The siliciclastic littoral shallow marine successions were deposited from Early Senonian-Maastrichtian to Late Miocene during three main successive littoral shallow marine transgressions of continental extension.These transgressions happened over the wide pediplanized terrains of South America. These lands exist west of the more positive areas, between the Brazilian Shield and the foreland massifs that were settled in the more westernwards areas. Later, these regional foreland massifs were coupled and raised to the Andean Orogen Belt during the last 5 million years.The extensive intracratonic pediplanized low topographic relief areas were the reservoirs of siliciclastic littoral shallow marine succession deposits during the three successive widespread vast continental littoral shallow marine transgressions.The first transgression began at the Latest Campanian-Senonian and/or Early Maastrichtian time. After this episode, the sedimentary depositional systems continued during the Cenozoic until the Latest Miocene. These successions constitute a major allostratigraphic unit.The limit with underlying units is the regional unconformity between the regional volcanic event (Jurassic-Cretacic and interleaved eolianite sandstones) at the base and the undifferentiated Quaternary sediments (called as the Pampeano and Post-Pampeano Formations sensu lato). Based on many facies analyses there had been checked out different levels in the eustatic sea level variations within the allostratigraphic unit.Three major stages of extensional climax were recognized and

  10. Budget-Impact Analyses: A Critical Review of Published Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Orlewska; Laszlo Gulcsi

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews budget-impact analyses (BIAs) published to date in peer-reviewed bio-medical journals with reference to current best practice, and discusses where future research needs to be directed. Published BIAs were identified by conducting a computerized search on PubMed using the search term 'budget impact analysis'. The years covered by the search included January 2000 through November 2008. Only studies (i) named by authors as BIAs and (ii) predicting financial consequences of a...

  11. Monte Carlo parameter studies and uncertainty analyses with MCNP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software tool called mcnppstudy has been developed to automate the setup, execution, and collection of results from a series of MCNP5 Monte Carlo calculations. This tool provides a convenient means of performing parameter studies, total uncertainty analyses, parallel job execution on clusters, stochastic geometry modeling, and other types of calculations where a series of MCNP5 jobs must be performed with varying problem input specifications. (authors)

  12. Use of Tree-Based Regression in the Analyses of L2 Reading Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Rogers, W. Todd

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether the results of Tree Based Regression (TBR) analyses, informed by a validated cognitive model, would enhance the interpretation of item difficulties in terms of the cognitive processes involved in answering the reading items included in two forms of the Michigan English Language Assessment Battery…

  13. A Web-based Tool Combining Different Type Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2006-01-01

    of both, and they can be goal-dependent or goal-independent. We describe a prototype tool that can be accessed from a web browser, allowing various type analyses to be run. The first goal of the tool is to allow the analysis results to be examined conveniently by clicking on points in the original program...

  14. A Problematic Family Reunion of a Chinese-American in China: Issues of Face Abstract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses thr...%ract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson ...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤琴

    2012-01-01

    As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) and Ting-Toomey and Kurogi(1998) respectively. Lastly, by focusing on the relationship between the rapport-threatening behavior and the face, this paper intends to cultivate our awareness of face and highlight the harmonious interpersonal relationship between different cultures.

  15. A Web-based Tool Combining Different Type Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim Steen; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2006-01-01

    both, and they can be goal-dependent or goal-independent. We describe a prototype tool that can be accessed from a web browser, allowing various type analyses to be run. The first goal of the tool is to allow the analysis results to be examined conveniently by clicking on points in the original program...... minimal "domain model" of the program with respect to the corresponding pre-interpretation, which can give more precise information than the original descriptive type....

  16. Graphic-based musculoskeletal model for biomechanical analyses and animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Edmund Y S

    2003-04-01

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the 'Virtual Human' reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. This paper details the design, capabilities, and features of the VIMS development at Johns Hopkins University, an effort possible only through academic and commercial collaborations. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of this unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system will impact on medical education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal diseases, trauma, and rehabilitation.

  17. SURFACE SUBSIDENCE ANALYSES BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF EXPANSION AND RECONSOLIDATION OF THE BROKEN ROCK STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦汉; 缪协兴

    1997-01-01

    The results of experimental studies about the characteristics of broken rock expansion and reconsolidation were briefly introduced in this paper, and the surface subsidence coefficient under critical mining conditions was also analysed based on the principle of expansion and reconsolidation of the broken rock strata, a equation to calculate the corresponding surface subsidence was finally produced. This calculation method can be used to calculate more accurately the convergence quantity of consolidated rocks in the broken zone of the working face. In addition, case analyses by using the introduced calculation method were conducted and satisfactory results were obtained.

  18. An Apple II -based bidimensional pulse height analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of a pulse height analyser function in an Apple II microcomputer using minimal purpose built hardware is described. Except for a small interface module the system consists of two suites of software, one giving a conventional one dimensional analysis on a span of 1024 channels, and the other a two dimensional analysis on a 128 x 128 image format. Using the recently introduced ACCELERATOR coprocessor card the system performs with a dead time per event of less than 50 μS. Full software facilities are provided for display, storage and processing of the data using standard Applesoft BASIC. (author)

  19. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  20. CVD diamond Brewster window: feasibility study by FEM analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond windows are a crucial component in heating and current drive (H&CD applications. In order to minimize the amount of reflected power from the diamond disc, its thickness must match the desired beam wavelength, thus proper targeting of the plasma requires movable beam reflectors. This is the case, for instance, of the ITER electron cyclotron H&CD system. However, looking at DEMO, the higher heat loads and neutron fluxes could make the use of movable parts close to the plasma difficult. The issue might be solved by using gyrotrons able to tune the beam frequency to the desired resonance, but this concept requires transmission windows that work in a given frequency range, such as the Brewster window. It consists of a CVD diamond disc brazed to two copper cuffs at the Brewster angle. The brazing process is carried out at about 800°C and then the temperature is decreased down to room temperature. Diamond and copper have very different thermal expansion coefficients, therefore high stresses build up during the cool down phase that might lead to failure of the disc. Considering also the complex geometry of the window with the skewed position of the disc, analyses are required in the first place to check its feasibility. The cool down phase was simulated by FEM structural analyses for several geometric and constraint configurations of the window. A study of indirect cooling of the window by water was also performed considering a HE11 mode beam. The results are here reported.

  1. PCR and RFLP analyses based on the ribosomal protein operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas have been primarily based on the highly conserved 16Sr RNA gene. RFLP analysis of 16Sr RNA gene sequences has identified 31 16Sr RNA (16Sr) groups and more than 100 16Sr subgroups. Classification of phytoplasma strains can however, become more refin...

  2. Exploring clinical associations using '-omics' based enrichment analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Hanauer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast amounts of clinical data collected in electronic health records (EHR is analogous to the data explosion from the "-omics" revolution. In the EHR clinicians often maintain patient-specific problem summary lists which are used to provide a concise overview of significant medical diagnoses. We hypothesized that by tapping into the collective wisdom generated by hundreds of physicians entering problems into the EHR we could detect significant associations among diagnoses that are not described in the literature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed an analytic approach original developed for detecting associations between sets of gene expression data, called Molecular Concept Map (MCM, to find significant associations among the 1.5 million clinical problem summary list entries in 327,000 patients from our institution's EHR. An odds ratio (OR and p-value was calculated for each association. A subset of the 750,000 associations found were explored using the MCM tool. Expected associations were confirmed and recently reported but poorly known associations were uncovered. Novel associations which may warrant further exploration were also found. Examples of expected associations included non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and various diagnoses such as retinopathy, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. A recently reported association included irritable bowel and vulvodynia (OR 2.9, p = 5.6x10(-4. Associations that are currently unknown or very poorly known included those between granuloma annulare and osteoarthritis (OR 4.3, p = 1.1x10(-4 and pyloric stenosis and ventricular septal defect (OR 12.1, p = 2.0x10(-3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Computer programs developed for analyses of "-omic" data can be successfully applied to the area of clinical medicine. The results of the analysis may be useful for hypothesis generation as well as supporting clinical care by reminding clinicians of likely problems associated with a

  3. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor's vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment. PMID:22399981

  4. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahai Ren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor’s vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment.

  5. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of contact lens deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Green-Church, Kari B.; Nichols, Jason J

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this report is to describe the contact lens deposition proteome associated with two silicone hydrogel contact lenses and care solutions using a mass spectrometric-based approach. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, examiner-masked crossover clinical trial that included 48 participants. Lenses and no-rub care solutions evaluated included galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance, Vistakon Inc., Jacksonville, FL), lotrafilcon B (O2 Optix, CIBA Vision Inc., Duluth, GA), AQuify (...

  6. Phylogenomic analyses of bat subordinal relationships based on transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Bats, order Chiroptera, are one of the largest monophyletic clades in mammals. Based on morphology and behaviour bats were once differentiated into two suborders Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera Recently, researchers proposed alternative views of chiropteran classification (suborders Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera) based on morphological, molecular and fossil evidence. Since genome-scale data can significantly increase the number of informative characters for analysis, transcriptome RNA-seq data for 12 bat taxa were generated in an attempt to resolve bat subordinal relationships at the genome level. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 1470 orthologous genes and 634,288 aligned sites. We found strong support for the Yinpterochiroptera-Yangochiroptera classification. Next, we built expression distance matrices for each species and reconstructed gene expression trees. The tree is highly consistent with sequence-based phylogeny. We also examined the influence of taxa sampling on the performance of phylogenetic methods, and found that the topology is robust to sampling. Relaxed molecular clock estimates the divergence between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera around 63 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of Yinpterochiroptera, corresponding to the split between Rhinolophoidea and Pteropodidae (Old World Fruit bats), is estimated to have occurred 60 million years ago. Our work provided a valuable resource to further explore the evolutionary relationship within bats. PMID:27291671

  7. Evaluation of mixed dentition analyses in north Indian population: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kumar Goyal; Vijay P Sharma; Pradeep Tandon; Amit Nagar; Gyan P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mixed dentition regression equations analyses (Moyers, Tanaka-Johnston) are based on European population , reliability of these methods is questionable over other population. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on total 260 study models. This study was done in two phases. In the first phase, linear regression equations were made. In the second phase, comparison of actual values of sum of mesiodistal width of canine, first and second premolars with the predicte...

  8. Multiscale entropy-based analyses of soil transect data

    OpenAIRE

    Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; Bird, N. R. A.; Whitmore, A.P.; Cartagena Causape, Maria Carmen; Pachepsky, Yakov

    2008-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the spatial variability of soil properties and the relationships between them is needed to scale up measured soil properties and to model soil processes. The object of this study was to describe the spatial scaling properties of a set of soil physical properties measured on a common 1024-m transect across arable fields at Silsoe in Bedfordshire, east-central England. Properties studied were volumetric water content ({theta}), total porosity ({pi}), pH, and N2O flux. ...

  9. Design of the storage location based on the ABC analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemelka, Milan; Chramcov, Bronislav; Kříž, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper focuses on process efficiency and saving storage costs. Maintaining inventory through putaway strategy takes personnel time and costs money. The aim is to control inventory in the best way. The ABC classification based on Villefredo Pareto theory is used for a design of warehouse layout. New design of storage location reduces the distance of fork-lifters, total costs and it increases inventory process efficiency. The suggested solutions and evaluation of achieved results are described in detail. Proposed solutions were realized in real warehouse operation.

  10. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in prokaryotes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Khandelwal; Jalaj Gupta; B Jayaram

    2012-07-01

    We present here a novel methodology for predicting new genes in prokaryotic genomes on the basis of inherent energetics of DNA. Regions of higher thermodynamic stability were identified, which were filtered based on already known annotations to yield a set of potentially new genes. These were then processed for their compatibility with the stereo-chemical properties of proteins and tripeptide frequencies of proteins in Swissprot data, which results in a reliable set of new genes in a genome. Quite surprisingly, the methodology identifies new genes even in well-annotated genomes. Also, the methodology can handle genomes of any GC-content, size and number of annotated genes.

  11. GIS-based Approaches to Catchment Area Analyses of Mass Transit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Catchment area analyses of stops or stations are used to investigate potential number of travelers to public transportation. These analyses are considered a strong decision tool in the planning process of mass transit especially railroads. Catchment area analyses are GIS-based buffer and overlay...

  12. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, S

    1998-08-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs. PMID:10182280

  13. Hilbert transform based analyses on ship-rocking signals

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wei; Kang, Deyong; Chen, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The ship-rocking is a crucial factor which affects the accuracy of the ocean-based flight vehicle measurement. Here we have analyzed four groups of ship-rocking time series in horizontal and vertical directions utilizing a Hilbert based method from statistical physics. Our method gives a way to construct an analytic signal on the two-dimensional plane from a one-dimensional time series. The analytic signal share the complete property of the original time series. From the analytic signal of a time series, we have found some information of the original time series which are often hidden from the view of the conventional methods. The analytic signals of interest usually evolve very smoothly on the complex plane. In addition, the phase of the analytic signal is usually moves linearly in time. From the auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of the original signals as well as the instantaneous amplitudes and phase increments of the analytic signals we have found that the ship-rocking in horizontal directi...

  14. Quantitative metagenomic analyses based on average genome size normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Jeremy Alexander; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Over the past quarter-century, microbiologists have used DNA sequence information to aid in the characterization of microbial communities. During the last decade, this has expanded from single genes to microbial community genomics, or metagenomics, in which the gene content of an environment can...... provide not just a census of the community members but direct information on metabolic capabilities and potential interactions among community members. Here we introduce a method for the quantitative characterization and comparison of microbial communities based on the normalization of metagenomic data...... by estimating average genome sizes. This normalization can relieve comparative biases introduced by differences in community structure, number of sequencing reads, and sequencing read lengths between different metagenomes. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by comparing metagenomes from two different...

  15. The transverse Talbot effect: Scaling analyses based on wavelet transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C; Ludu, A

    2013-01-01

    Berry and Klein [J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2139 (1996)] studied the fractal properties of the paraxial diffracted field behind a Ronchi grating. In particular, they studied the transverse Talbot images formed at fractional distances in units of the Talbot distance chosen from the Fibonacci convergents to the complement of the inverse golden mean zeta_G=(3-square root of 5)/2. Here, we analyze these Talbot images with two well-known scaling methods, the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) and the wavelet transform multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (WT-MFDFA). We use the widths of the singularity spectra, Delta(alpha)=alpha_H-alpha_min, as a characteristic feature of the Talbot images. The tau scaling exponents of the q moments are linear in q within the two methods, which is a strong argument in favor of the monofractality of the transverse diffractive paraxial field

  16. Differentiating LGBT individuals in substance abuse treatment: analyses based on sexuality and drug preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Santa, Annesa Flentje

    2007-01-01

    In a prior study (Cochran & Cauce, 2006), LGBT individuals seeking treatment demonstrated greater substance use severity, more psychosocial stressors, and increased use of psychiatric services when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. That study, and similar to others in the field of LGBT research, collapsed LGBT individuals into a single category and did not examine individual differences within this category. The present study utilizes the same sample of LGBT clients (N = 610); however, an exploratory cluster analysis was conducted, based on drug preference, to determine which subcategories exist within this unique sample. In a subsequent set of analyses, the sample was divided based on sexuality to determine if there were differences between these groups on psychosocial functioning variables. Results indicated three distinct clusters, which differed in both demographic characteristics and severity of substance use problems. Groups based on sexuality differed in terms of primary problem substance, as well as psychosocial variables. Implications for treatment of these subgroups are discussed. PMID:19835042

  17. Analysing task design and students' responses to context-based problems through different analytical frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Karolina; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2015-05-01

    Background:Context-based learning approaches are used to enhance students' interest in, and knowledge about, science. According to different empirical studies, students' interest is improved by applying these more non-conventional approaches, while effects on learning outcomes are less coherent. Hence, further insights are needed into the structure of context-based problems in comparison to traditional problems, and into students' problem-solving strategies. Therefore, a suitable framework is necessary, both for the analysis of tasks and strategies. Purpose:The aim of this paper is to explore traditional and context-based tasks as well as students' responses to exemplary tasks to identify a suitable framework for future design and analyses of context-based problems. The paper discusses different established frameworks and applies the Higher-Order Cognitive Skills/Lower-Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS/LOCS) taxonomy and the Model of Hierarchical Complexity in Chemistry (MHC-C) to analyse traditional tasks and students' responses. Sample:Upper secondary students (n=236) at the Natural Science Programme, i.e. possible future scientists, are investigated to explore learning outcomes when they solve chemistry tasks, both more conventional as well as context-based chemistry problems. Design and methods:A typical chemistry examination test has been analysed, first the test items in themselves (n=36), and thereafter 236 students' responses to one representative context-based problem. Content analysis using HOCS/LOCS and MHC-C frameworks has been applied to analyse both quantitative and qualitative data, allowing us to describe different problem-solving strategies. Results:The empirical results show that both frameworks are suitable to identify students' strategies, mainly focusing on recall of memorized facts when solving chemistry test items. Almost all test items were also assessing lower order thinking. The combination of frameworks with the chemistry syllabus has been

  18. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Koponen, P.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  19. 基于质构仪的茶树新梢茎杆嫩度变化规律研究%Study of Developmental Pattern of Tea Shoot Tenderness on the Base of Texture Analyser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 韦康; 王丽鸳; 成浩; 贺巍; 周健

    2012-01-01

    使用质构仪测定了龙井43和中茶108新梢各节茎的剪切力,取最大剪切力表示新梢的嫩度,剪切力越小嫩度越高,建立了最大剪切力测定新梢嫩度的方法.结果表明,质构仪测新梢嫩度是可行的;在连续时间内采摘鲜叶新梢老化主要表现在第3~5节茎,第1~2节茎的嫩度变化相对较小;新梢嫩度与成熟度、空间位置、采摘时间、品种有一定的相关性;修剪处理显著提高第3~4节茎的嫩度.本研究初步证明了新梢不同茎位剪切力的变化存在规律性,为鉴定茶树品种的持嫩性提供了评价方法.%Texture analyser was utilized to study shoot tenderness in tea cultivar "Longjing 43" and "Zhongcha 108". The evaluation method was established by taking maximum shearing force to determine shoot tenderness. Low maximum shearing force represents high shoot tenderness. The results showed that it is feasible to use texture analyser to determine shoot tenderness. There was a sharp decrease of shoot tenderness from the third to fifth node. Furthermore, the tenderness of the first and second nodes was relatively high. The shoot tenderness was correlated with maturity, spatial location, plucking time and variety. Pruning significantly increased the tenderness of the third and fourth nodes. A consistently changing pattern of tea shoot tenderness was found by texture analyser in this study, which provided a useful method to evaluate shoot tenderness and its keeping ability in tea plant.

  20. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis: Volume 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S and ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S and ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S and ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754

  1. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis: Volume 1,Scientific Bases and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David

    2001-05-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754

  2. A Game-based Corpus for Analysing the Interplay between Game Context and Player Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Asteriadis, Stylianos;

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing players' aective state while playing video games has been the focus of many recent research studies. In this paper we describe the process that has been followed to build a corpus based on game events and recorded video sessions from human players while playing Super Mario Bros. We...... present dierent types of information that have been extracted from game context, player preferences and perception of the game, as well as user features, automatically extracted from video recordings.We run a number of initial experiments to analyse players' behavior while playing video games as a case...

  3. Comparison between CARIBIC aerosol samples analysed by accelerator-based methods and optical particle counter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Martinsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9–12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS, the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT and the tropical mid troposphere (MT were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with accelerator-based methods particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA. Data from 48 flights during one year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  4. Street-based Topological Representations and Analyses for Predicting Traffic Flow in GIS

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2007-01-01

    It is well received in the space syntax community that traffic flow is significantly correlated to a morphological property of streets, which are represented by axial lines, forming a so called axial map. The correlation co-efficient (R square value) approaches 0.8 and even a higher value according to the space syntax literature. In this paper, we study the same issue using the Hong Kong street network and the Hong Kong Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) datasets, and find surprisingly that street-based topological representations (or street-street topologies) tend to be better representations than the axial map. In other words, vehicle flow is correlated to a morphological property of streets better than that of axial lines. Based on the finding, we suggest the street-based topological representations as an alternative GIS representation, and the topological analyses as a new analytical means for geographic knowledge discovery.

  5. AMPHIDINIUM REVISITED. I. REDEFINITION OF AMPHIDINIUM (DINOPHYCEAE) BASED ON CLADISTIC AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mårten Flø; Murray, Shauna; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2004-01-01

    , and origin of the sulcus. The description of A. elegans by Grell and Wohlfarth-Bottermann was found to be identical to it. A species fitting the original description of A. operculatum was cultured and included in the analyses. Based on cladistic and molecular analyses, it grouped together with all other...

  6. Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study. Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods; Lebervolumen, Leberfettanteil und Koerpergewicht im Verlauf einer Lebensstilinterventionsstudie. Eine Analyse mit quantitativen MR-basierten Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, M.N. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Stefan, N.; Fritsche, A.; Haering, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Innere Medizin IV - Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie und Klinische Chemie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Nikolaou, K. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Machann, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Diabetesforschung (DZD), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m{sup 2} were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI, echo gradient, opposed-phase) and IHLs were quantified by volume-selective MR spectroscopy in single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). Univariable and multivariable correlation analyses between changes of liver volume (Δliver volume), intrahepatic lipids (ΔIHL) and body weight (ΔBW) were performed. Univariable correlation analysis in the whole study cohort showed associations between ΔIHL and ΔBW (r = 0.69; p < 0.0001), ΔIHL and Δliver volume (r = 0.66; p = 0.0002) as well as ΔBW and Δliver volume (r = 0.5; p = 0.0073). Multivariable correlation analysis revealed that changes of liver volume are primarily determined by changes in IHL independent of changes in body weight (β = 0.0272; 95 % CI: 0.0155-0.034; p < 0.0001). Changes of liver volume during lifestyle interventions are independent of changes of body weight primarily determined by changes of IHL. These results show the reversibility of augmented liver volume in steatosis if it is possible to reduce IHLs during lifestyle interventions. (orig.) [German] Lassen sich Zusammenhaenge zwischen den Aenderungen des Lebervolumens, des Anteils intrahepatischer Lipide und des Koerpergewichts waehrend einer Lebensstilintervention feststellen ?In einer prospektiven Interventionsstudie unterzogen sich 150 Probanden mit erhoehtem Diabetesrisiko fuer 6 Monate einer diaetetischen

  7. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Annika; Lüder Ripoli, Florenza; Hammer, Susanne Conradine; Willenbrock, Saskia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method. PMID:27649560

  8. Analysing interview data of case study in educational research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳敏

    2014-01-01

    interviews are an essential source in collecting case study data, because most of case studies are about human affairs. Yin (2003) reported that human affairs should be interpreted through the eyes and body languages of interviewees, and they can provide very important insights into a situation. However, it is also necessary to pay attention to the common biases caused by interview, such as poor recall, inaccurate articulation and time-consuming.

  9. Prediction formulas for individual opioid analgesic requirements based on genetic polymorphism analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yoshida

    Full Text Available The analgesic efficacy of opioids is well known to vary widely among individuals, and various factors related to individual differences in opioid sensitivity have been identified. However, a prediction model to calculate appropriate opioid analgesic requirements has not yet been established. The present study sought to construct prediction formulas for individual opioid analgesic requirements based on genetic polymorphisms and clinical data from patients who underwent cosmetic orthognathic surgery and validate the utility of the prediction formulas in patients who underwent major open abdominal surgery.To construct the prediction formulas, we performed multiple linear regression analyses using data from subjects who underwent cosmetic orthognathic surgery. The dependent variable was 24-h postoperative or perioperative fentanyl use, and the independent variables were age, gender, height, weight, pain perception latencies (PPL, and genotype data of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To examine the utility of the prediction formulas, we performed simple linear regression analyses using subjects who underwent major open abdominal surgery. Actual 24-h postoperative or perioperative analgesic use and the predicted values that were calculated using the multiple regression equations were incorporated as dependent and independent variables, respectively.Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the four SNPs, PPL, and weight were retained as independent predictors of 24-h postoperative fentanyl use (R² = 0.145, P = 5.66 × 10⁻¹⁰ and the two SNPs and weight were retained as independent predictors of perioperative fentanyl use (R² = 0.185, P = 1.99 × 10⁻¹⁵. Simple linear regression analyses showed that the predicted values were retained as an independent predictor of actual 24-h postoperative analgesic use (R² = 0.033, P = 0.030 and perioperative analgesic use (R² = 0.100, P = 1.09 × 10⁻⁴, respectively.We constructed

  10. The Quality of Meta-Analyses of Genetic Association Studies: A Review With Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Minelli, Cosetta; John R. Thompson; Abrams, Keith R; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Attia, John

    2009-01-01

    Although there has been a rapid rise in the publication of meta-analyses of genetic association studies, little is known about their methodological quality. The authors reviewed the quality of 120 randomly selected genetic meta-analyses published between 2005 and 2007. Data extracted included issues of general relevance and other issues specific to genetic epidemiology. Quality was markedly poorer in the 26% of the meta-analyses that accompanied a report on a primary study. Such meta-analyses...

  11. Defining best practice for microarray analyses in nutrigenomic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garosi, P.; Filippo, C. de; Erk, M. van; Rocca-Serra, P.; Sansone, S.A.; Elliott, R.

    2005-01-01

    Microarrays represent a powerful tool for studies of diet-gene interactions. Their use is, however, associated with a number of technical challenges and potential pitfalls. The cost of microarrays continues to drop but is still comparatively high. This, coupled with the complex logistical issues ass

  12. Genome-based comparative analyses of Antarctic and temperate species of Paenibacillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dsouza

    Full Text Available Antarctic soils represent a unique environment characterised by extremes of temperature, salinity, elevated UV radiation, low nutrient and low water content. Despite the harshness of this environment, members of 15 bacterial phyla have been identified in soils of the Ross Sea Region (RSR. However, the survival mechanisms and ecological roles of these phyla are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether strains of Paenibacillus darwinianus owe their resilience to substantial genomic changes. For this, genome-based comparative analyses were performed on three P. darwinianus strains, isolated from gamma-irradiated RSR soils, together with nine temperate, soil-dwelling Paenibacillus spp. The genome of each strain was sequenced to over 1,000-fold coverage, then assembled into contigs totalling approximately 3 Mbp per genome. Based on the occurrence of essential, single-copy genes, genome completeness was estimated at approximately 88%. Genome analysis revealed between 3,043-3,091 protein-coding sequences (CDSs, primarily associated with two-component systems, sigma factors, transporters, sporulation and genes induced by cold-shock, oxidative and osmotic stresses. These comparative analyses provide an insight into the metabolic potential of P. darwinianus, revealing potential adaptive mechanisms for survival in Antarctic soils. However, a large proportion of these mechanisms were also identified in temperate Paenibacillus spp., suggesting that these mechanisms are beneficial for growth and survival in a range of soil environments. These analyses have also revealed that the P. darwinianus genomes contain significantly fewer CDSs and have a lower paralogous content. Notwithstanding the incompleteness of the assemblies, the large differences in genome sizes, determined by the number of genes in paralogous clusters and the CDS content, are indicative of genome content scaling. Finally, these sequences are a resource for further

  13. Study of a bubble chamber's pictures automatic analyser: Coccinelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic scanning and measuring system ''Coccinelle'' built in the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire of College de France, is specially made for the pictures of the new large bubble chambers like BEBC and Mirabelle. This device uses the spot of a high precision cathode ray tube for the analysis of the picture according to a scanning window. The signal of a photomultiplier located behind the picture gives, after processing, the useful information in the form of coordinates of the analyzed points. Electronics, connected to a computer, generates the movements of the spot, the backward and forward movement of the films, and gives the right information for the programs of geometrical reconstruction of the tracks. The use of the device is based upon the collaboration of a programmed automaton and a human operator that have conversational facilities: TV display, light-pen and function keyboard. Beyond a detailed description of the whole device, this thesis insists especially on the following electronic parts: sweep generation of the spot, photomultiplier signal processing

  14. Usage of cathodoluminescence and Raman analyses in shock metamorphic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of in this dissertation have focused on shock metamorphic and cathodoluminescence (combination with Raman spectroscopy) properties of experimentally and naturally shock-metamorphosed minerals, such as zircon, quartzite, a tektite, and impact glasses. The purpose of these investigations is to further investigate the capability of the Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) technique including BSE/CL images and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to document shock deformations and to determine whether specific CL or Raman effects in zircon/scheelite-structure, quartz, tektite and impact glasses can be utilised to determine particular shock pressure stages. The CL spectra of unshocked and shocked (20, 38, 40, 60 and 80 GPa) zircon samples are dominated by narrow emission lines and broad bands in the region of visible light and in the near-ultraviolet range. The emission lines result from rare earth element activators and the broad bands might be associated with lattice defects. Raman spectra revealed that the unshocked and 20 GPa samples represent zircon-structure material, whereas the 38, 40, 60, 80 GPa samples yielded additional peaks with relatively high peak intensities, which are indicative of the presence of the scheelite-type high-pressure phase. According to the Raman measurements, the naturally shock-deformed zircons from the Ries impact structure might be related to the low-shock regime (4 groups. According to the Raman spectra, the stretching (symmetric and antisymmetric) vibrational modes are characteristic for quartz in the unshocked and 12 GPa samples. In the 25 and 28 GPa samples, the background fluorescence is higher compared to the other samples. The energy diagrams of the cathodoluminescence emission centers confirm that recombination centers or traps are closely-spaced in the band gap between conduction and valance bands of quartz as a function of the increasing shock pressure causing non

  15. Results of Chemical Analyses in Support of Yucca Mountain Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeanette

    2007-12-11

    Ground water monitoring for the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (NCEWDP) was established to monitor underground water sources of the area and to protect communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from potential radionuclide contamination of these water sources. It provides hydrological information pertaining to groundwater flow patterns and recharge issues in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) obtained groundwater samples from select NCEWDP wells shown in Figure 1. These samples were analyzed for major cations, major anions, trace elements, rare earth elements, alkalinity, pH and conductivity. These geochemical results can be used to evaluate the degree of interaction between the aquifers sampled, leading to a thorough mapping of the aquifer system. With increased analysis down gradient of the Yucca Mountain area, evaluations can identify viable groundwater flow paths and establish mixing of the groundwater systems. Tracer tests provide insight into groundwater flow characteristics and transport processes of potential contaminants. These tests are important for contaminant migration issues including safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials and remediation of potentially released contaminants. At a minimum, two conservative (non-sorbing) tracers with different diffusion coefficients are used for each tracer test. The tracer test performed under this cooperative agreement utilized fluorinated benzoic acids and halides as conservative tracers. The tracers are of differing size and have differing rates of diffusion into the rock. Larger molecules can not enter the pore spaces that are penetrated by the smaller molecules, therefore larger tracers will travel faster through thegroundwater system. Identical responses of the two tracers indicate no appreciable diffusion into pores of the aquifer system tuff. For the Nye County Tracer Tests, the HRC provided chemical analysis for the tracer

  16. A unified set-based test with adaptive filtering for gene-environment interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianying; Chen, Lin S; Nicolae, Dan L; Pierce, Brandon L

    2016-06-01

    In genome-wide gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies, a common strategy to improve power is to first conduct a filtering test and retain only the SNPs that pass the filtering in the subsequent GxE analyses. Inspired by two-stage tests and gene-based tests in GxE analysis, we consider the general problem of jointly testing a set of parameters when only a few are truly from the alternative hypothesis and when filtering information is available. We propose a unified set-based test that simultaneously considers filtering on individual parameters and testing on the set. We derive the exact distribution and approximate the power function of the proposed unified statistic in simplified settings, and use them to adaptively calculate the optimal filtering threshold for each set. In the context of gene-based GxE analysis, we show that although the empirical power function may be affected by many factors, the optimal filtering threshold corresponding to the peak of the power curve primarily depends on the size of the gene. We further propose a resampling algorithm to calculate P-values for each gene given the estimated optimal filtering threshold. The performance of the method is evaluated in simulation studies and illustrated via a genome-wide gene-gender interaction analysis using pancreatic cancer genome-wide association data. PMID:26496228

  17. Secondary Data Analyses of Subjective Outcome Evaluation Data Based on Nine Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong by analyzing 1,327 school-based program reports submitted by program implementers. In each report, program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants and program implementers. Secondary data analyses were carried out by aggregating nine databases, with 14,390 meaningful units extracted from 6,618 conclusions. Results showed that most of the conclusions were positive in nature. The findings generally showed that the workers perceived the program and program implementers to be positive, and they also pointed out that the program could promote holistic development of the program participants in societal, familial, interpersonal, and personal aspects. However, difficulties encountered during program implementation (2.15% and recommendations for improvement were also reported (16.26%. In conjunction with the evaluation findings based on other strategies, the present study suggests that the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. is beneficial to the holistic development of the program participants.

  18. SIMULATION MODEL BASED ON IACS DATA; ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ANALYSE SECTORAL INCOME RISK IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ZGAJNAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop a static simulation model to analyse income losses and income risks at aggregated agriculture sector level. Our empirical case study is based on farm level records for direct payments claims (IACS data and covers the period 2010–2011. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the impact of different levels of risk on income trends. Results show that 80% of farms are extremely dependent on direct payments. Farm production types highly supported by direct payments consequentially fall into the low-risk group. Results show that a significant share of income loss at sector level is carried by small farms (by economic class. Average probability of larger losses at the sector level ranges between 2% and 64%. Our results also indicate that larger farms often have better risk-return ratios and thus face lower relative income risks.

  19. Analyses of trawling track and fishing activity based on the data of vessel monitoring system (VMS): A case study of the single otter trawl vessels in the Zhoushan fishing ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Yingbin; Zheng, Ji

    2015-02-01

    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the application of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhoushan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels' activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels' speeds were between 2.5 kn and 5.0 kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels' activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more attention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  20. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of Jatropha Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from Jatropha curcas has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of Jatropha biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing Jatropha. Our results show that: (1 Jatropha biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during Jatropha tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of Jatropha biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during Jatropha plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of Jatropha and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase Jatropha production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for Jatropha plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for Jatropha biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  1. Analyses of Trawling Track and Fishing Activity Based on the Data of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS):A Case Study of the Single Otter Trawl Vessels in the Zhoushan Fishing Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; WANG Yingbin; ZHENG Ji

    2015-01-01

    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the ap-plication of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhou-shan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels’ activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels’ speeds were be-tween 2.5kn and 5.0kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels’ activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more at-tention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  2. Liberalisation in network based industries. An economic analysis by case studies of railway, telecommunication and energy utilities; Liberalisierung von Netzindustrien. Eine oekonomische Analyse am Beispiel der Eisenbahn, der Telekommunikation und der Leitungsgebundenen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2006-07-01

    The liberalisation of network based industries represents an economic problem, which raises on the one hand a multiplicity of theoretically unresolved questions and for which exist now on the other hand experiences in economic policy in Germany. The causes of the economic problems are not only to be found thereby in certain industry characteristics of the network based industries, but also in a missed special treatment of the network based economic sectors in the past by the economic policy. However, competition pushes in network based industries at borders, because the infrastructure necessary for the production of network based services typically represents an non-open to attack, natural monopoly in the hand of an established, vertically integrated supplier. From it extensive possibilities for the discrimination of competitors result, the competition political action need draw. It applies to analyze these in the available work and to discuss alternative solutions of the discrimination problem. (orig.)

  3. A New Optimization Method for Centrifugal Compressors Based on 1D Calculations and Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yuan Li; Chu-Wei Gu; Yin Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization design method for centrifugal compressors based on one-dimensional calculations and analyses. It consists of two parts: (1) centrifugal compressor geometry optimization based on one-dimensional calculations and (2) matching optimization of the vaned diffuser with an impeller based on the required throat area. A low pressure stage centrifugal compressor in a MW level gas turbine is optimized by this method. One-dimensional calculation results show that D3/D...

  4. Study on Genetic Structure of Dahe Black Pig Based on DNA Sequence Analyses of Cytochrome b Gene%基于细胞色素b基因的大河乌猪群体遗传结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐利洲; 施晓东; 丁伟; 于龙; 王俊杰; 朱磊; 郭松长

    2013-01-01

    为了弄清大河乌猪群体遗传分化水平和遗传结构,以曲靖市5个地理种群的46个大河乌猪样品为试验材料,采用分子生物学方法测定和分析所有个体的线粒体细胞色素b(Cyt b)基因DNA序列.分子变异分析结果表明,大河乌猪群体遗传变异主要来自种群内(62.63%),说明该物种群体遗传结构不明显.中性检验结果进一步证实,大河乌猪群体曾发生过种群数量扩张.这种不显著的种群结构主要来自于大规模的引种和扩大繁育,致使各地理种群间的遗传趋同和遗传一致性.研究结果有望为大河乌猪分子遗传选育工作提供重要的基础数据,并为其遗传种质资源的保护提供重要参考.%For revealing the level of genetic divergence and genetic structure of Dahe Black pig, this research was implemented using molecular biological methods that sequenced and analyzed the Cyt b DNA sequences based on 46 samples from 5 geographic populations of Qujing city. The AMOVA results showed that most of genetic variation (62. 63%) distributed within populations. This could indicate fully that the whole population genetic structure of this species was not evident because of significant gene flow among different populations. The results of neutrality tests further validated that the instable population structure of this whole group could be affected by the population expansion from the artificial selective breeding and introduction breeding. This instable population structure or lower genetic differentiation could be induced by the large-scale introduction and expanding breeding. The significant gene flow induced the genetic convergence in various geographical populations eventually, population expanding and population genetic diversity declined significantly. This study was expected to provide important scientific basis and data for the molecular genetic breeding of Dahe Black pig and for the manager's effective measures to protect the genetic

  5. Comprehensive logic based analyses of Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar Padwal

    Full Text Available Among the 13 TLRs in the vertebrate systems, only TLR4 utilizes both Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR-domain-containing adapter interferon-β-inducing Factor (TRIF adaptors to transduce signals triggering host-protective immune responses. Earlier studies on the pathway combined various experimental data in the form of one comprehensive map of TLR signaling. But in the absence of adequate kinetic parameters quantitative mathematical models that reveal emerging systems level properties and dynamic inter-regulation among the kinases/phosphatases of the TLR4 network are not yet available. So, here we used reaction stoichiometry-based and parameter independent logical modeling formalism to build the TLR4 signaling network model that captured the feedback regulations, interdependencies between signaling kinases and phosphatases and the outcome of simulated infections. The analyses of the TLR4 signaling network revealed 360 feedback loops, 157 negative and 203 positive; of which, 334 loops had the phosphatase PP1 as an essential component. The network elements' interdependency (positive or negative dependencies in perturbation conditions such as the phosphatase knockout conditions revealed interdependencies between the dual-specific phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 and the kinases in MAPK modules and the role of PP2A in the auto-regulation of Calmodulin kinase-II. Our simulations under the specific kinase or phosphatase gene-deficiency or inhibition conditions corroborated with several previously reported experimental data. The simulations to mimic Yersinia pestis and E. coli infections identified the key perturbation in the network and potential drug targets. Thus, our analyses of TLR4 signaling highlights the role of phosphatases as key regulatory factors in determining the global interdependencies among the network elements; uncovers novel signaling connections; identifies potential drug targets for

  6. Validation of the automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre (ALTAIR): a prospective study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, Jose I; Maderuelo-Fernández, Jose A; Chamoso-Santos, Pablo; Rodríguez-González, Sara; de Paz-Santana, Juan F; Merchan-Cifuentes, Miguel A; Corchado-Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The fundus examination is a non-invasive evaluation of the microcirculation of the retina. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate (reliability and validity) the ALTAIR software platform (Automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre) in order to analyse its utility in different clinical environments. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study in the first phase and a prospective observational study in the second with 4 years of follow-up. The study ...

  7. A review of published analyses of case-cohort studies and recommendations for future reporting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Sharp

    Full Text Available The case-cohort study design combines the advantages of a cohort study with the efficiency of a nested case-control study. However, unlike more standard observational study designs, there are currently no guidelines for reporting results from case-cohort studies. Our aim was to review recent practice in reporting these studies, and develop recommendations for the future. By searching papers published in 24 major medical and epidemiological journals between January 2010 and March 2013 using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge, we identified 32 papers reporting case-cohort studies. The median subcohort sampling fraction was 4.1% (interquartile range 3.7% to 9.1%. The papers varied in their approaches to describing the numbers of individuals in the original cohort and the subcohort, presenting descriptive data, and in the level of detail provided about the statistical methods used, so it was not always possible to be sure that appropriate analyses had been conducted. Based on the findings of our review, we make recommendations about reporting of the study design, subcohort definition, numbers of participants, descriptive information and statistical methods, which could be used alongside existing STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies.

  8. Common variants in the ATP-sensitive K channel genes KCNJ11 (Kir6.2) and ABCC8 (SUR1) in relation to glucose intolerance: population-based studies and meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.M.; Hoebee, B.; Seidell, J.C.; Schaap, M.M.; Bruin, de T.W.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Aims To evaluate the relation between common variants in the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel genes and glucose intolerance. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of reported association studies in Caucasian populations for common variants in the ABCC8 (exons 16 and 18) and the KCNJ11 (E23K) gene

  9. The EU power plant conceptual study - neutronic design analyses for near term and advanced reactor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A power plant conceptual study (PPCS) has been conducted in the framework of the European fusion programme with the main objective to demonstrate the safety and environmental advantages and the economic viability of fusion power. Power plant models with limited (''near term concepts'') and advanced plasma physics and technological extrapolations (''advanced concepts'') were considered. Two near term plant models were selected, one employing a water cooled lithium-lead (WCLL), and the other one a helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket. Two variants were also considered for the advanced power plant models, one adopting a liquid metal blanket with a self-cooled lithium-lead breeder zone and a helium cooled steel structure (''dual coolant lithium lead'', DCLL), and the other one a self-cooled lithium-lead (SCLL) blanket with SiCf/SiC composite as structural material. This report provides a detailed documentation of the neutronics design analyses performed as part of the PPCS study for both the near term and advanced power plant models. Main issues are the assessment of the tritium breeding capability, the evaluation of the nuclear power generation and its spatial distribution, and the assessment and optimisation of the shielding performance. The analyses were based on three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNP code using suitable torus sector models developed for the different PPCS plant variants. (orig.)

  10. Systematic meta-analyses of gene-specific genetic association studies in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Wei, Dong; Zhang, Yaoguang; Chen, Xin; Yang, Fan; Yang, Ze; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Wang, Jianye

    2016-01-01

    In the past twenty-five years, over 700 case-control association studies on the risk of prostate cancer have been published worldwide, but their results were largely inconsistent. To facilitate following and explaining these findings, we performed a systematic meta-analysis using allelic contrasts for gene-specific SNVs from at least three independent population-based case-control studies, which were published in the field of prostate cancer between August 1, 1990 and August 1, 2015. Across 66 meta-analyses, a total of 20 genetic variants involving 584,100 subjects in 19 different genes (KLK3, IGFBP3, ESR1, SOD2, CAT, CYP1B1, VDR, RFX6, HNF1B, SRD5A2, FGFR4, LEP, HOXB13, FAS, FOXP4, SLC22A3, LMTK2, EHBP1 and MSMB) exhibited significant association with prostate cancer. The average summary OR was 1.33 (ranging from: 1.016–3.788) for risk alleles and 0.838 (ranging from: 0.757–0.896) for protective alleles. Of these positive variants, FOXP4 rs1983891, LMTK2 rs6465657 and RFX6 rs339331 had not been previously meta-analyzed. Further analyses with sufficient power design and investigations of the potential biological roles of these genetic variants in prostate cancer should be conducted. PMID:26967244

  11. Assessing the perceived quality of brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation studies for inclusion in meta-analyses and systematic reviews: Description of data employed in the development of a scoring ;tool based on currently accepted guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyling, Arno; van Mil, Anke C C M; Zock, Peter L; Green, Daniel J; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Thijssen, Dick H

    2016-09-01

    Brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD) is widely used as a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. Adherence to expert consensus guidelines on FMD measurement has been found to be of vital importance to obtain reproducible data. This article lists the literature data which was considered in the development of a tool to aid in the objective judgement of the extent to which published studies adhered to expert guidelines for FMD measurement. Application of this tool in a systematic review of FMD studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.03.011) (Greyling et al., 2016 [1]) indicated that adherence to expert consensus guidelines is strongly correlated to the reproducibility of FMD data. PMID:27284565

  12. Assessing the perceived quality of brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation studies for inclusion in meta-analyses and systematic reviews: Description of data employed in the development of a scoring ;tool based on currently accepted guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Greyling

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD is widely used as a non-invasive measure of endothelial function. Adherence to expert consensus guidelines on FMD measurement has been found to be of vital importance to obtain reproducible data. This article lists the literature data which was considered in the development of a tool to aid in the objective judgement of the extent to which published studies adhered to expert guidelines for FMD measurement. Application of this tool in a systematic review of FMD studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2016.03.011 (Greyling et al., 2016 [1] indicated that adherence to expert consensus guidelines is strongly correlated to the reproducibility of FMD data.

  13. Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Madduri, Ravi K; Sotomayor, Borja; Chard, Kyle; Lacinski, Lukasz; Dave, Utpal J; Li, Jianqiang; Liu, Chunchen; Foster, Ian T

    2014-06-01

    Due to the upcoming data deluge of genome data, the need for storing and processing large-scale genome data, easy access to biomedical analyses tools, efficient data sharing and retrieval has presented significant challenges. The variability in data volume results in variable computing and storage requirements, therefore biomedical researchers are pursuing more reliable, dynamic and convenient methods for conducting sequencing analyses. This paper proposes a Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses, which enables reliable and highly scalable execution of sequencing analyses workflows in a fully automated manner. Our platform extends the existing Galaxy workflow system by adding data management capabilities for transferring large quantities of data efficiently and reliably (via Globus Transfer), domain-specific analyses tools preconfigured for immediate use by researchers (via user-specific tools integration), automatic deployment on Cloud for on-demand resource allocation and pay-as-you-go pricing (via Globus Provision), a Cloud provisioning tool for auto-scaling (via HTCondor scheduler), and the support for validating the correctness of workflows (via semantic verification tools). Two bioinformatics workflow use cases as well as performance evaluation are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  14. Disorganized Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses: Time to Systematize the Conduct and Publication of These Study Overviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Riaz, Haris; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    The number of meta-analyses published annually has increased more than 20-fold between 1994 (n = 386) and 2014 (n = 8203). In examining how much of this increase in meta-analysis publication has genuinely represented novel contributions to clinical medicine and public health, it became clear that there was an abundance of redundant and disorganized meta-analyses, creating confusion and generating considerable debate. Ironically, meta-analyses, which should prevent redundant research, have become a victim of it. Recently, 17 meta-analyses were published based on the results of only 3 randomized controlled trials that studied the role of transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale for prevention of cryptogenic stroke. In our search of the published literature, we identified at least 10 topics that were the subject of 10 meta-analyses. In the context of overlapping meta-analyses, one questions what needs to be done to put this "runaway train" back on track. In this review we examine the practice of redundant meta-analyses and the reasons for its disturbing "popularity." The registration of systematic reviews should be mandatory in prospective registries, such as PROSPERO, and the PRISMA checklist should be updated to incorporate new evidence and mandate the reference of previously published reviews and rationale for any new study. PMID:26522792

  15. Disorganized Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses: Time to Systematize the Conduct and Publication of These Study Overviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Riaz, Haris; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    The number of meta-analyses published annually has increased more than 20-fold between 1994 (n = 386) and 2014 (n = 8203). In examining how much of this increase in meta-analysis publication has genuinely represented novel contributions to clinical medicine and public health, it became clear that there was an abundance of redundant and disorganized meta-analyses, creating confusion and generating considerable debate. Ironically, meta-analyses, which should prevent redundant research, have become a victim of it. Recently, 17 meta-analyses were published based on the results of only 3 randomized controlled trials that studied the role of transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale for prevention of cryptogenic stroke. In our search of the published literature, we identified at least 10 topics that were the subject of 10 meta-analyses. In the context of overlapping meta-analyses, one questions what needs to be done to put this "runaway train" back on track. In this review we examine the practice of redundant meta-analyses and the reasons for its disturbing "popularity." The registration of systematic reviews should be mandatory in prospective registries, such as PROSPERO, and the PRISMA checklist should be updated to incorporate new evidence and mandate the reference of previously published reviews and rationale for any new study.

  16. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divided...... into three main categories: economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, cost-of-illness analyses, and other analyses such as assessments of healthcare productivity. Conclusion: We examined a number of studies using register-based data on healthcare costs. Use of register-based data renders...... a comprehensive data material, often in the form of time series, which is very useful in health economic analyses. The disadvantage of register-based data is the use of tariffs, charges, or market prices as proxies for costs in the computation of healthcare costs....

  17. Using multifractal and wavelet analyses to determine drought characteristics: a case study of Jilin province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lu, Wenxi; Chen, Sheming; Liang, Xiujuan

    2016-08-01

    Drought is a recurrent disaster that occurs in virtually all climatic zones of the world. However, drought characteristics vary substantially among different climatic regions. In this study, multifractal and wavelet analyses are used to characterize drought based on monthly precipitation. The rainfall data of 28 precipitation stations from 1958 to 2011 in Jilin province were collected to calculate the standardized precipitation index (SPI), and the negative monthly SPI time-series is used in a multiscaling approach to determine drought characteristics in Jilin province. Simple scaling and multiscaling analyses show significant variations in monthly droughts in the region. Morlet wavelet analysis also shows that significant cycles and multiple time-scales of drought exist in all stations. Cross wavelet analysis shows that drought occurrence in the region is mainly influenced by different climatic factor scales. However, different factors have different degrees of influence at different regions. The enduring influence of medium and long-term climatic patterns (such as El Niño events) may lead to the simple scaling behavior of drought for some regions.

  18. Development of a Low-Cost SIA-Based Analyser for Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochen, Moisés; Caamaño, Alejandro; Bentos, Heinkel

    2011-01-01

    An automated multiparametric water analyser was developed and evaluated. The system was based on Sequential Injection Analysis and featured a photometric detection system comprising a tricolour RGB LED source and a photodiode. A program compiled in Visual Basic was used to control the SIA flow system, the LEDs, and the data acquisition and processing. The program loads and executes methods written in ASCII and stored as text files. The system was capable of handling up to four methods simultaneously. When used to carry out methods based on the APHA standard methods, the figures of merit obtained were considered satisfactory for the purpose. The total cost was under US $4600. It was concluded that the analyser is appropriate for routine use and has potential for an increased number of simultaneous methods and for enhanced capabilities if new versions of the software are developed.

  19. Storage and shipping of tissue samples for DNA analyses: A case study on earthworms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Daniela; Juen, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, molecular analyses play an important role in studies of soil dwelling animals, for example in taxonomy, phylogeography or food web analyses. The quality of the DNA, used for later molecular analyses, is an important factor and depends on collection and preservation of samples prior to DNA extraction. Ideally, DNA samples are frozen immediately upon collection, but if samples are collected in the field, suitable preservation methods might be limited due to unavailability of resources or remote field sites. Moreover, shipping samples over long distances can cause loss of DNA quality e.g. by thawing or leaking of preservation liquid. In this study we use earthworms, a key organism in soil research, to compare three different DNA preservation methods – freezing at −20 °C, storing in 75% ethanol, and freeze drying. Samples were shipped from the United States of America to Austria. The DNA of the samples was extracted using two different extraction methods, peqGOLD™ and Chelex® 100. The DNA amplification success was determined by amplifying four DNA fragments of different length. The PCR amplification success is significantly influenced by preservation method and extraction method and differed significantly depending on the length of the DNA fragment. Freeze drying samples was the best preservation method when samples were extracted using the silica based extraction method peqGOLD™. For samples that were extracted with Chelex® 100, storage in ethanol was the best preservation method. However, the overall amplification success was significantly lower for the extraction procedure based on Chelex® 100. The detection of the small DNA fragments was higher and independent from the extraction method, while the amplification success was significantly reduced for the longer DNA fragments. We recommend freeze drying of DNA samples, especially when they have to be shipped for longer distances. No special packaging or declaration is needed for freeze dried

  20. A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian U. Krägeloh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to other coping strategies. Of the 212 identified articles that included turning to religion in their analyses, 80 combined sub-scale scores to form higher-order coping factors, 38 of which based on exploratory factor analyses of their own datasets. When factor analyses had used individual items as indicators, religious coping was more likely to load together with maladaptive coping strategies, and more likely with adaptive coping strategies when analyses were conducted at sub-scale level. To a large extent, the variation in the results from exploratory factor analyses appears to be due to the diverse and often inappropriate factor analytic techniques used to determine the factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument. Reports from factor analyses of the Brief COPE therefore have very little value when trying to make general conclusions about the role of religious coping in relation to secular coping methods.

  1. X-ray CT analyses, models and numerical simulations: a comparison with petrophysical analyses in an experimental CO2 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Steven; Pudlo, Dieter; Enzmann, Frieder; Reitenbach, Viktor; Albrecht, Daniel; Ganzer, Leonhard; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    An essential part of the collaborative research project H2STORE (hydrogen to store), which is funded by the German government, was a comparison of various analytical methods for characterizing reservoir sandstones from different stratigraphic units. In this context Permian, Triassic and Tertiary reservoir sandstones were analysed. Rock core materials, provided by RWE Gasspeicher GmbH (Dortmund, Germany), GDF Suez E&P Deutschland GmbH (Lingen, Germany), E.ON Gas Storage GmbH (Essen, Germany) and RAG Rohöl-Aufsuchungs Aktiengesellschaft (Vienna, Austria), were processed by different laboratory techniques; thin sections were prepared, rock fragments were crushed and cubes of 1 cm edge length and plugs 3 to 5 cm in length with a diameter of about 2.5 cm were sawn from macroscopic homogeneous cores. With this prepared sample material, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with image analyses, specific surface area measurements (after Brunauer, Emmet and Teller, 1938; BET), He-porosity and N2-permeability measurements and high-resolution microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), which were used for numerical simulations, were applied. All these methods were practised on most of the same sample material, before and on selected Permian sandstones also after static CO2 experiments under reservoir conditions. A major concern in comparing the results of these methods is an appraisal of the reliability of the given porosity, permeability and mineral-specific reactive (inner) surface area data. The CO2 experiments modified the petrophysical as well as the mineralogical/geochemical rock properties. These changes are detectable by all applied analytical methods. Nevertheless, a major outcome of the high-resolution μ-CT analyses and following numerical data simulations was that quite similar data sets and data interpretations were maintained by the different petrophysical standard methods. Moreover, the μ-CT analyses are not only time saving, but also non

  2. Methodology for Web Services Adoption Based on Technology Adoption Theory and Business Process Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Liping; YAN Jianyuan; TONG Lingyun

    2008-01-01

    Web services use an emerging service-oriented architecture for distributed computing. Many organizations are either in the process of adopting web services technology or evaluating this option for incorporation into their enterprise information architectures. Implementation of this new technology requires careful assessment of the needs and capabilities of an organization to formulate adoption strategies. This paper presents a methodology for web services adoption based on technology adoption theory and business process analyses. The methodology suggests that strategies, business areas, and functions within an organization should be considered based on the existing organizational information technology status during the process of adopting web services to support the business needs and requirements.

  3. Palindrome analyser - A new web-based server for predicting and evaluating inverted repeats in nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázda, Václav; Kolomazník, Jan; Lýsek, Jiří; Hároníková, Lucia; Coufal, Jan; Št'astný, Jiří

    2016-09-30

    DNA cruciform structures play an important role in the regulation of natural processes including gene replication and expression, as well as nucleosome structure and recombination. They have also been implicated in the evolution and development of diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Cruciform structures are formed by inverted repeats, and their stability is enhanced by DNA supercoiling and protein binding. They have received broad attention because of their important roles in biology. Computational approaches to study inverted repeats have allowed detailed analysis of genomes. However, currently there are no easily accessible and user-friendly tools that can analyse inverted repeats, especially among long nucleotide sequences. We have developed a web-based server, Palindrome analyser, which is a user-friendly application for analysing inverted repeats in various DNA (or RNA) sequences including genome sequences and oligonucleotides. It allows users to search and retrieve desired gene/nucleotide sequence entries from the NCBI databases, and provides data on length, sequence, locations and energy required for cruciform formation. Palindrome analyser also features an interactive graphical data representation of the distribution of the inverted repeats, with options for sorting according to the length of inverted repeat, length of loop, and number of mismatches. Palindrome analyser can be accessed at http://bioinformatics.ibp.cz. PMID:27603574

  4. Comparing Surface-Based and Volume-Based Analyses of Functional Neuroimaging Data in Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Anticevic, Alan; Dierker, Donna L.; Gillespie, Sarah K.; Repovs, Grega; Csernansky, John G.; Van Essen, David C.; Deanna M Barch

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge in functional neuroimaging is to cope with individual variability in cortical structure and function. Most analyses of cortical function compensate for variability using affine or low-dimensional nonlinear volume-based registration (VBR) of individual subjects to an atlas, which does not explicitly take into account the geometry of cortical convolutions. A promising alternative is to use surface-based registration (SBR), which capitalizes on explicit surface representations ...

  5. A New Optimization Method for Centrifugal Compressors Based on 1D Calculations and Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yuan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization design method for centrifugal compressors based on one-dimensional calculations and analyses. It consists of two parts: (1 centrifugal compressor geometry optimization based on one-dimensional calculations and (2 matching optimization of the vaned diffuser with an impeller based on the required throat area. A low pressure stage centrifugal compressor in a MW level gas turbine is optimized by this method. One-dimensional calculation results show that D3/D2 is too large in the original design, resulting in the low efficiency of the entire stage. Based on the one-dimensional optimization results, the geometry of the diffuser has been redesigned. The outlet diameter of the vaneless diffuser has been reduced, and the original single stage diffuser has been replaced by a tandem vaned diffuser. After optimization, the entire stage pressure ratio is increased by approximately 4%, and the efficiency is increased by approximately 2%.

  6. A Python-based Post-processing Toolset For Seismic Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Brasier, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a Python-based toolset to aid in assessing the response of the UK's Advanced Gas Reactor nuclear power stations to earthquakes. The seismic analyses themselves are carried out with a commercial Finite Element solver, but understanding the raw model output this produces requires customised post-processing and visualisation tools. Extending the existing tools had become increasingly difficult and a decision was made to develop a new, Python-based toolset. This comprises of a post-processing framework (aftershock) which includes an embedded Python interpreter, and a plotting package (afterplot) based on numpy and matplotlib. The new toolset had to be significantly more flexible and easier to maintain than the existing code-base, while allowing the majority of development to be carried out by engineers with little training in software development. The resulting architecture will be described with a focus on exploring how the design drivers were met and the suc...

  7. A protein relational database and protein family knowledge bases to facilitate structure-based design analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine

    2010-08-01

    The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.

  8. The comparison of classification analyses on the public opinion focus of biofuels based on twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shianghau; Guo, Jiannjong

    2016-02-01

    The study combined with the text mining and classification methodology to investigate the biofuels related tweets on the social network so as to understand the general public opinion focus. The contribution of the study enclosed the subsequent two points. First, the study utilized the text mining method to explore the content of biofuels connected tweets on the famed social network "twitter" and found the main keywords consistent with their frequencies. Second, the study applied the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPN), random forests model and two sorts of hybrid algorithmclassification analyses to compare the classification results.

  9. DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Mur Dueñas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.

  10. Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it; Valente, Marco, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2014-10-06

    This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

  11. Evaluation of mixed dentition analyses in north Indian population: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mixed dentition regression equations analyses (Moyers, Tanaka-Johnston are based on European population , reliability of these methods is questionable over other population. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on total 260 study models. This study was done in two phases. In the first phase, linear regression equations were made. In the second phase, comparison of actual values of sum of mesiodistal width of canine, first and second premolars with the predicted values proposed by Moyers, Tanaka-Johnston, and the new proposed mixed dentition analysis for North Indian population were made. Results: Set of four linear regression equations for predicting sum of mesiodistal width of permanent canine, first premolar and second premolar in North Indian population from sum of mesiodistal width of mandibular incisors and mandibular first molars, were proposed as ; (a for males, maxillary arch, Y = 2.9 + 0.40X, (b mandibular arch Y = 3.91 + 0.37X (c for females, maxillary arch Y = 0.56 + 0.45X (d mandibular arch Y = 1.14 + 0.42X. Moyers and Tanaka-Johnston, mixed dentition analysis , is found to be overestimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted canine and premolars in North Indian population.

  12. Comparing Surface-Based and Volume-Based Analyses of Functional Neuroimaging Data in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Dierker, Donna L.; Gillespie, Sarah K.; Repovs, Grega; Csernansky, John G.; Van Essen, David C.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge in functional neuroimaging is to cope with individual variability in cortical structure and function. Most analyses of cortical function compensate for variability using affine or low-dimensional nonlinear volume-based registration (VBR) of individual subjects to an atlas, which does not explicitly take into account the geometry of cortical convolutions. A promising alternative is to use surface-based registration (SBR), which capitalizes on explicit surface representations of cortical folding patterns in individual subjects. In this study, we directly compare results from SBR and affine VBR in a study of working memory in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Each subject's structural scan was used for cortical surface reconstruction using the SureFit method. fMRI data were mapped directly onto individual cortical surface models, and each hemisphere was registered to the population-average PALS-B12 atlas using landmark-constrained SBR. The precision with which cortical sulci were aligned was much greater for SBR than VBR. SBR produced superior alignment precision across the entire cortex, and this benefit was greater in patients with schizophrenia. We demonstrate that spatial smoothing on the surface provides better resolution and signal preservation than a comparable degree of smoothing in the volume domain. Lastly, the statistical power of functional activation in the working memory task was greater for SBR than for VBR. These results indicate that SBR provides significant advantages over affine VBR when analyzing cortical fMRI activations. Furthermore, these improvements can be even greater in disorders that have associated structural abnormalities. PMID:18434199

  13. RooStatsCms: a tool for analyses modelling, combination and statistical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, D; Quast, Prof G

    2008-01-01

    The RooStatsCms (RSC) software framework allows analysis modelling and combination, statistical studies together with the access to sophisticated graphics routines for results visualisation. The goal of the project is to complement the existing analyses by means of their combination and accurate statistical studies.

  14. RooStatsCms: a tool for analyses modelling, combination and statistical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparo, D.; Schott, G.; Quast, G.

    2009-12-01

    The RooStatsCms (RSC) software framework allows analysis modelling and combination, statistical studies together with the access to sophisticated graphics routines for results visualisation. The goal of the project is to complement the existing analyses by means of their combination and accurate statistical studies.

  15. TRMM-based Merged Data Products Compared to Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Bolvin, David; Curtis, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) (launched in November 1997) information as the key calibration tool; in a merged analysis on a 1 degree x l degree latitude/longitude monthly scale based on multiple satellite sources and raingauge analyses. The TRMM-based product will be compared with the community-based Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) results. The long-term GPCP analysis is compared to the new TRMM-based analysis which uses the most accurate TRMM information to calibrate the estimates from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR observations and merges those estimates together with the TRMM and gauge information to produce accurate rainfall estimates with the increased sampling provided by the combined satellite information. The comparison with TRMM results on a month-to-month basis should clarify the strengths and weaknesses of the long-term GPCP product in the tropics and point to how to improve the monitoring analysis. Preliminary results from the TRMM merged satellite analysis indicates close agreement with the GPCP estimates. By the time of the meeting over a year of TRMM products will be available for comparison. Global tropical and regional values will be compared. Seasonal variations, and variations associated with the 1998 El Nino/Southern Oscillation ENSO event will be examined and compared between the two analyses. These variations will be examined carefully and validated where possible from surface-based radar and gauge observations. The role of TRMM observations in the refinement of the long-term monitoring product will be outlined.

  16. Wavelet-based spatial comparison technique for analysing and evaluating two-dimensional geophysical model fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saux Picart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. A methodology has recently been developed to evaluate precipitation forecasts using radar observations. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its

  17. FluxExplorer: A general platform for modeling and analyses of metabolic networks based on stoichiometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Stoichiometry-based analyses of meta- bolic networks have aroused significant interest of systems biology researchers in recent years. It is necessary to develop a more convenient modeling platform on which users can reconstruct their network models using completely graphical operations, and explore them with powerful analyzing modules to get a better understanding of the properties of metabolic systems. Herein, an in silico platform, FluxExplorer, for metabolic modeling and analyses based on stoichiometry has been developed as a publicly available tool for systems biology research. This platform integrates various analytic approaches, in- cluding flux balance analysis, minimization of meta- bolic adjustment, extreme pathways analysis, shadow prices analysis, and singular value decom- position, providing a thorough characterization of the metabolic system. Using a graphic modeling process, metabolic networks can be reconstructed and modi- fied intuitively and conveniently. The inconsistencies of a model with respect to the FBA principles can be proved automatically. In addition, this platform sup- ports systems biology markup language (SBML). FluxExplorer has been applied to rebuild a metabolic network in mammalian mitochondria, producing meaningful results. Generally, it is a powerful and very convenient tool for metabolic network modeling and analysis.

  18. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 2: Introduction, organization, environmental and spaceborne systems analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Introduction, organization, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations for each of the spaceborne subsystems are presented. Environmental effects - propagation analyses are presented with appendices covering radio wave diffraction by random ionospheric irregularities, self-focusing plasma instabilities and ohmic heating of the D-region. Analyses of dc to rf conversion subsystems and system considerations for both the amplitron and the klystron are included with appendices for the klystron covering cavity circuit calculations, output power of the solenoid-focused klystron, thermal control system, and confined flow focusing of a relativistic beam. The photovoltaic power source characteristics are discussed as they apply to interfacing with the power distribution flow paths, magnetic field interaction, dc to rf converter protection, power distribution including estimates for the power budget, weights, and costs. Analyses for the transmitting antenna consider the aperture illumination and size, with associated efficiencies and ground power distributions. Analyses of subarray types and dimensions, attitude error, flatness, phase error, subarray layout, frequency tolerance, attenuation, waveguide dimensional tolerances, mechanical including thermal considerations are included. Implications associated with transportation, assembly and packaging, attitude control and alignment are discussed. The phase front control subsystem, including both ground based pilot signal driven adaptive and ground command approaches with their associated phase errors, are analyzed.

  19. Activity Based Learning in a Freshman Global Business Course: Analyses of Preferences and Demographic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Mark F.; Guy, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates pre-business students' reaction to Activity Based Learning in a lower division core required course entitled Introduction to Global Business in the business curriculum at California State University Chico. The study investigates students' preference for Activity Based Learning in comparison to a more traditional…

  20. STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSES CARRIED OUT AT THE LABORATORY OF A PUBLIC HOSPITAL (CHR AL IDRISSI OF KENITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aziane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work attempts to make a study on the microbiological analyses of pathogens (bacteria or viruses that are at the origin of the human disease, carried out in the laboratory of microbiological analyses of hospital regional CHR al IDRISSI of Kenitra for a period that extends from the year 2007 to 2009 in order to clarify the methodology of work and the problem of infections in developing countries. Our work is based on the monthly inventory of pathogens (E. Coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas, Syphilis, hepatitis viruses and HIV in deferens samples (Urine, Pus, saddle, like and Serum in patients in relation with total analyses carried out for 3 years. Then we follow their development during this period with the analysis of the results.

  1. STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSES CARRIED OUT AT THE LABORATORY OF A PUBLIC HOSPITAL (CHR AL IDRISSI OF KENITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aziane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work attempts to make a study on the microbiological analyses of pathogens (bacteria or viruses that are at the origin of the human disease, carried out in the laboratory of microbiological analyses of hospital regional CHR al IDRISSI of Kenitra for a period that extends from the year 2007 to 2009 in order to clarify the methodology of work and the problem of infections in developing countries. Our work is based on the monthly inventory of pathogens (E. Coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas, Syphilis, hepatitis viruses and HIV in deferens samples (Urine, Pus, saddle, like and Serum in patients in relation with total analyses carried out for 3 years. Then we follow their development during this period with the analysis of the results.

  2. Disagreements in meta-analyses using outcomes measured on continuous or rating scales: observer agreement study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendal, Britta; Higgins, Julian P T; Jüni, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the inter-observer variation related to extraction of continuous and numerical rating scale data from trial reports for use in meta-analyses. DESIGN: Observer agreement study. DATA SOURCES: A random sample of 10 Cochrane reviews that presented a result as a standardised mean...... to the reviews but to the protocols, where the relevant outcome was highlighted. The agreement was analysed at both trial and meta-analysis level, pairing the observers in all possible ways (45 pairs, yielding 2025 pairs of trials and 450 pairs of meta-analyses). Agreement was defined as SMDs that differed less......% v 46%), but not at meta-analysis level. Important reasons for disagreement were differences in selection of time points, scales, control groups, and type of calculations; whether to include a trial in the meta-analysis; and data extraction errors made by the observers. In 14 out of the 100 SMDs...

  3. Reconstruction of Holocene coastal depositional environments based on sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, Zakynthos Island, Western Greece Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Iliopoulos, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Nikolaou, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Nikolaos; Wijngaarden, Gert

    2014-05-01

    Zakynthos Island is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe and the Holocene coastal depositional environments were influenced both by tectonic activity and sea level rise. In the present study detailed sedimentological, palaeontological and 14C dating analyses were used in order to reconstruct the Holocene coastal depositional environments as well as the different rates of sedimentation, based on data from three cores up to 30 m deep. The results of the analyses indicate changes in depositional environments from marine to brackish lagoonal and lagoon / barrier systems with temporary intrusions of marine water via storms or tsunamigenic events. High sedimentation rates in coastal areas of Zakynthos Island correspond well to the most widespread Holocene warm and humid phases. The interpretation of the sedimentological environments reveals that Zakynthos Island before 8300 BP was constituted by two islands, where the present southern part of the island was separated from the northern one by a shallow and narrow sea channel.

  4. a Comparative Study of Alto Saxophone Reeds Through Spectral and Subjective Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Caroline Blythe

    The purpose of this study was to analyze six brands of cane reeds and five brands of synthetic reeds to determine the differences in tone quality produced by each. Spectral analysis was used to determine the individual reed which conformed most closely to the average profile of each brand. A panel of seven saxophone performers then presented their opinions of the each reed's tone quality upon hearing a live performance of an excerpt from Eugene Bozza's Aria for alto saxophone and piano performed on the reeds most representative of each brand. The evaluation form used by the judges included ten sets of bipolar adjectives: good-bad, harmonious-dissonant, clean-dirty, light-dark, pleasurable-painful, beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, complex -simple, masculine-feminine, and interesting-boring. The results indicated that the primary factors influencing the tone quality of a given reed were the strength of the overtones present regardless of their order and the dominance of either the fundamental or the first overtone. Although professional musicians normally hand-select their reeds for performance, this research based on both spectral and subjective analyses provides clear evidence for both musicians and music educators to refine and improve their reed selection process.

  5. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  6. Static and dynamic stress analyses of the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Oram, C.; Sick, M.

    2014-03-01

    More efforts are put on hydro-power to balance voltage and frequency within seconds for primary control in modern smart grids. This requires hydraulic turbines to run at off-design conditions. especially at low load or speed-no load. Besides. the tendency of increasing power output and decreasing weight of the turbine runners has also led to the high level vibration problem of the runners. especially high head Francis runners. Therefore. it is important to carry out the static and dynamic stress analyses of prototype high head Francis runners. This paper investigates the static and dynamic stresses on the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurements and numerical simulations. The site measurements are performed with pressure transducers and strain gauges. Based on the measured results. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the flow channel from stay vane to draft tube cone are performed. Static pressure distributions and dynamic pressure pulsations caused by rotor-stator interaction (RSI) are obtained under various operating conditions. With the CFD results. static and dynamic stresses on the runner at different operating points are calculated by means of the finite element method (FEM). The agreement between simulation and measurement is analysed with linear regression method. which indicates that the numerical result agrees well with that of measurement. Furthermore. the maximum static and dynamic stresses on the runner blade are obtained at various operating points. The relations of the maximum stresses and the power output are discussed in detail. The influences of the boundary conditions on the structural behaviour of the runner are also discussed.

  7. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  8. Intelligence and handedness: Meta-analyses of studies on intellectually disabled, typically developing, and gifted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Tomprou, Dimitra-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between cerebral laterality and intelligence is important in elucidating the neurological underpinnings of individual differences in cognitive abilities. A widely used, behavioral indicator for cerebral laterality, mainly of language, is handedness. A number of studies have compared cognitive abilities between groups of left- and right-handers, while others have investigated the handedness prevalence between groups of different cognitive abilities. The present study comprises five meta-analyses of studies that have assessed the handedness prevalence in (a) individuals with intellectual disability (ID) of unknown/idiopathic nature compared to typically developing (TD) individuals, and (b) individuals with intellectual giftedness (IG) compared to TD individuals. Nineteen data sets totaling 16,076 participants (5795 ID, 8312 TD, and 1969 IG) were included in the analyses. Elevated levels of atypical handedness were found to be robust only for the ID to TD comparison. Findings constrain the range of acceptable theories on the handedness distribution for different intelligence levels.

  9. Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwenhuijsen Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies have suggested associations between environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Some studies have tempted to combine information from various epidemiological studies using meta-analysis. We aimed to describe the methodologies used in these recent meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we aimed to report their main findings. Methods We conducted a bibliographic search with relevant search terms. We obtained and evaluated 16 recent meta-analyses. Results The number of studies included in each reported meta-analysis varied greatly, with the largest number of studies available for environmental tobacco smoke. Only a small number of the studies reported having followed meta-analysis guidelines or having used a quality rating system. Generally they tested for heterogeneity and publication bias. Publication bias did not occur frequently. The meta-analyses found statistically significant negative associations between environmental tobacco smoke and stillbirth, birth weight and any congenital anomalies; PM2.5 and preterm birth; outdoor air pollution and some congenital anomalies; indoor air pollution from solid fuel use and stillbirth and birth weight; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB exposure and birth weight; disinfection by-products in water and stillbirth, small for gestational age and some congenital anomalies; occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents and some congenital anomalies; and agent orange and some congenital anomalies. Conclusions The number of meta-analyses of environmental exposures and pregnancy outcomes is small and they vary in methodology. They reported statistically significant associations between environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke, air pollution and chemicals and pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Study design, methodology and statistical analyses in the clinical development of sparfloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, E; Lelouer, V; Vercken, J B; Caillon, R

    1996-05-01

    Many publications in the past 10 years have emphasised the difficulties of evaluating anti-infective drugs and the need for well-designed clinical trials in this therapeutic field. The clinical development of sparfloxacin in Europe, involving more than 4000 patients in ten countries, provided the opportunity to implement a methodology for evaluation and statistical analyses which would take into account actual requirements and past insufficiencies. This methodology focused on a rigorous and accurate patient classification for evaluability, subgroups of particular interest, efficacy assessment based on automation (algorithm) and individual case review by expert panel committees. In addition, the statistical analyses did not use significance testing but rather confidence intervals to determine whether sparfloxacin was therapeutically equivalent to the reference comparator antibacterial agents. PMID:8737126

  11. Statistical Analyses of Optimum Partial Replacement of Cement by Fly Ash Based on Complete Consumption of Calcium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouypornprasert Winai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this technical paper were to propose the optimum partial replacement of cement by fly ash based on the complete consumption of calcium hydroxide from hydration reactions of cement and the long-term strength activity index based on equivalent calcium silicate hydrate as well as the propagation of uncertainty due to randomness inherent in main chemical compositions in cement and fly ash. Firstly the hydration- and pozzolanic reactions as well as stoichiometry were reviewed. Then the optimum partial replacement of cement by fly ash was formulated. After that the propagation of uncertainty due to main chemical compositions in cement and fly ash was discussed and the reliability analyses for applying the suitable replacement were reviewed. Finally an applicability of the concepts mentioned above based on statistical data of materials available was demonstrated. The results from analyses were consistent with the testing results by other researchers. The results of this study provided guidelines of suitable utilization of fly ash for partial replacement of cement. It was interesting to note that these concepts could be extended to optimize partial replacement of cement by other types of pozzolan which were described in the other papers of the authors.

  12. The phylogenetic relationship of the family Lutjanidae based on analyses of AFLP and mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junbin; LIU Xin

    2006-01-01

    Fishes of the family Lutjanidae are commercially important in South China Sea. However,the phylogeny of Lutjanids is still unclear and there are many controversies over it. Herein, studies about the phylogeny of Lutjanids were performed based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of genome DNA and sequence analysis of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, and 10 Lutjanidae species and 1 Lethrinidae species were employed.The topologies of minimum evolution (ME) trees based on the two analyses respectively were congruent except for positions of genera Pristipomoides and Caesio. The optimal substitution model TrN + G for DNA sequences of 12S rRNA genes in Lutjanids was obtained using MODELTEST 3.6 software and maximum likelihood (ML) analysis supports the topology displayed by the ME tree. The test of log-likelihood suggests that the use of molecular clock calibrations to estimate species divergence time appeared valid. Phylogenetic analyses using AFLP data and DNA sequences of mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes indicated the monophyly of Lutjanus genra. However, further studies are required to reveal the phylogenetic relationship among other genera. In addition, the results demonstrated that AFLP genetic marker was suitable for the phylogenetic analysis of Lutjanids.

  13. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results of this study show that when the number of topics was set to 10, the topic model has the smallest perplexity. Although data scopes and analysis methodsare different to previous studies, the generating topics of this study are consistent with those results produced by analyses of experts. Empirical case studies and measurements of bibliometric indicators were concerned important in every year during the whole analytic period, and the field was increasing stability. Both the two core journals broadly paid more attention to all of the topics in the field of Informetrics. The Journal of Informetricsput particular emphasis on construction and applications ofbibliometric indicators and Scientometrics focused on the evaluation and the factors of productivity of countries, institutions, domains, and journals.

  14. Quantification of rock heterogeneities by structural geological field studies combined with laboratory analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyer, Dorothea; Afsar, Filiz; Philipp, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Heterogeneous rock properties in terms of layering and complex infrastructure of fault zones are typical in sedimentary successions. The knowledge of in-situ mechanical rock properties is crucial for a better understanding of processes such as fracturing and fluid transport in fractured reservoirs. To estimate in situ rock properties at different depths it is important to understand how rocks from outcrops differ from rocks at depth, for example due to alteration and removal of the overburden load. We aim at quantifying these properties by performing structural geological field studies in outcrop analogues combined with laboratory analyses of outcrop samples and drill-cores. The field studies focus on 1) fault zone infrastructure and 2) host rock fracture systems in two different study areas with different lithologies, the North German and the Bristol Channel Basin. We analyse quantitatively the dimension, geometry, persistence and connectivity of fracture systems. The field studies are complemented by systematic sampling to obtain the parameters Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths and elastic strain energy (also referred to as destruction work) from which we estimate rock and fracture toughnesses. The results show that in rocks with distinctive layering fractures are often restricted to individual layers, that is, stratabound. The probability of arrest seems to depend on the stiffness contrast between two single layers as well as on the thickness of the softer layer. The results also show that there are clear differences between fault zones in the different lithologies in terms of damage zone thicknesses and fracture system parameters. The results of laboratory analyses show that the mechanical properties vary considerably and for many samples there are clear directional differences. That is, samples taken perpendicular to layering commonly have higher stiffnesses and strengths than those taken parallel to layering. We combine the results of

  15. Study on the atmospheric component with the scope of analyses on the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out following a specific request from Italian National Department for Environment and shows technical approaches and methodologies of analyses and forecasts set up for environmental impact studies referred to 'atmospheric environment'. This work is presented according to the general items and objectives fixed by the same Department in the wider operative system for the application in Italy of environmental impact procedures. (author)

  16. Trend analyses in the health behaviour in school-aged children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Molcho, Michal; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article presents the scope and development of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, reviews trend papers published on international HBSC data up to 2012 and discusses the efforts made to produce reliable trend analyses. METHODS: The major goal of this article...... collecting data from adolescents aged 11-15 years, on a broad variety of health determinants and health behaviours. RESULTS: A number of methodological challenges have stemmed from the growth of the HBSC-study, in particular given that the study has a focus on monitoring trends. Some of those challenges...

  17. A systematic literature review on reviews and meta-analyses of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    for the improvement of quality of life. Breast cancer was the most common single type of cancer reviewed (8 reviews), all focused on the relief of side effects, primarily by supplements containing soy/plant hormones. The use of these supplements should be discouraged due to a risk for progression of breast cancer......Purpose To provide an overview and evaluate the evidence of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients. Methods Pubmed, Social Science Citation Index, AMED and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for reviews on effects of biologically based CAM-practices, including herbal...... remedies, vitamins and other dietary supplements, for cancer or cancer related symptoms published 2000-2008. All studies were assessed according to the SIGN hierarchy of evidence. Results A total of 78 reviews/meta-analyses were identified. Of these, 32 were evaluated as high-quality, whereas 46 had low...

  18. Phylogenetic study on Shiraia bambusicola by rDNA sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tian-Fan; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Xiao-Hang; Lin, Hai-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2004-01-01

    In this study, 18S rDNA and ITS-5.8S rDNA regions of four Shiraia bambusicola isolates collected from different species of bamboos were amplified by PCR with universal primer pairs NS1/NS8 and ITS5/ITS4, respectively, and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on three selected datasets of rDNA sequences. Maximum parsimony, distance and maximum likelihood criteria were used to infer trees. Morphological characteristics were also observed. The positioning of Shiraia in the order Pleosporales was well supported by bootstrap, which agreed with the placement by Amano (1980) according to their morphology. We did not find significant inter-hostal differences among these four isolates from different species of bamboos. From the results of analyses and comparison of their rDNA sequences, we conclude that Shiraia should be classified into Pleosporales as Amano (1980) proposed and suggest that it might be positioned in the family Phaeosphaeriaceae.

  19. Spatializing Area-Based Measures of Neighborhood Characteristics for Multilevel Regression Analyses: An Areal Median Filtering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Masayoshi; Wong, David W S

    2016-06-01

    Area-based measures of neighborhood characteristics simply derived from enumeration units (e.g., census tracts or block groups) ignore the potential of spatial spillover effects, and thus incorporating such measures into multilevel regression models may underestimate the neighborhood effects on health. To overcome this limitation, we describe the concept and method of areal median filtering to spatialize area-based measures of neighborhood characteristics for multilevel regression analyses. The areal median filtering approach provides a means to specify or formulate "neighborhoods" as meaningful geographic entities by removing enumeration unit boundaries as the absolute barriers and by pooling information from the neighboring enumeration units. This spatializing process takes into account for the potential of spatial spillover effects and also converts aspatial measures of neighborhood characteristics into spatial measures. From a conceptual and methodological standpoint, incorporating the derived spatial measures into multilevel regression analyses allows us to more accurately examine the relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health. To promote and set the stage for informative research in the future, we provide a few important conceptual and methodological remarks, and discuss possible applications, inherent limitations, and practical solutions for using the areal median filtering approach in the study of neighborhood effects on health.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA-Based Analyses of Relatedness Among Turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaojing; Silva, Pradeepa; Gyenai, Kwaku; Xu, Jun; Geng, Tuoyu; Smith, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The domesticated turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, is believed to be a single breed with several varieties whose relatedness and origins remain poorly understood. Using the mitochondrial genome sequence (GenBank accession no. EF153719) that our group first reported, we investigated the relationships among 15 of the most widely occurring turkey varieties using D-loop and 16S RNA sequences. We included, as a non-traditional outgroup, mtDNA sequence information from wild turkey varieties. A total of 24 SNPs, including 18 in the D-loop and 6 in the 16S rRNA, was identified, validated and used. Of the 15 haplotypes detected based on these SNPs, 7 were unique to wild turkeys. Nucleotide diversity estimates were relatively low when compared to those reported for chickens and other livestock. Network and phylogenetic analyses showed a closer relationship among heritage varieties than between heritage and wild turkeys. The mtDNA data provide additional evidence that suggest a recent divergence of turkey varieties.

  1. Ecology of Subglacial Lake Vostok (Antarctica, Based on Metagenomic/Metatranscriptomic Analyses of Accretion Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom D'Elia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake Vostok is the largest of the nearly 400 subglacial Antarctic lakes and has been continuously buried by glacial ice for 15 million years. Extreme cold, heat (from possible hydrothermal activity, pressure (from the overriding glacier and dissolved oxygen (delivered by melting meteoric ice, in addition to limited nutrients and complete darkness, combine to produce one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Metagenomic/metatranscriptomic analyses of ice that accreted over a shallow embayment and over the southern main lake basin indicate the presence of thousands of species of organisms (94% Bacteria, 6% Eukarya, and two Archaea. The predominant bacterial sequences were closest to those from species of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the predominant eukaryotic sequences were most similar to those from species of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous Fungi. Based on the sequence data, the lake appears to contain a mixture of autotrophs and heterotrophs capable of performing nitrogen fixation, nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation and nutrient recycling. Sequences closest to those of psychrophiles and thermophiles indicate a cold lake with possible hydrothermal activity. Sequences most similar to those from marine and aquatic species suggest the presence of marine and freshwater regions.

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of some genera in Oedipodidae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) based on 16S mitochondrial partialgene sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Chu Yin; Xin-Jiang Li; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hong Yin; Cheng-Quan Cao; Bao-Hua Ye; Zhan Yin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the 16S mitochondrial partial gene sequences of 29 genera, containing 26 from Oedipodidae and one each from Tanaoceridae, Pyrgomorphidae and Tetrigidae (as outgroups), the homologus sequences were compared and phylogenetic analyses were performed. A phylogenetic tree was inferred by neighbor-joining (N J). The results of sequences compared show that: (i) in a total of 574 bp of Oedipodidae, the number of substituted nucleotides was 265 bp and the average percentages ofT, C, A and G were 38.3%,11.4%, 31.8% and 18.5%, respectively, and the content of A+T (70.1%) was distinctly richer than that of C+G (29.9%); and (ii) the average nucleotide divergence of 16S rDNA sequences among genera of Oedipodidae were 9.0%, among families of Acridoidea were 17.0%, and between superfamilies (Tetrigoidea and Acridoidea) were 23.9%, respectively. The phylogenetic tree indicated: (i) the Oedipodidae was a monophyletic group, which suggested that the taxonomic status of this family was confLrrned; (ii) the genus Heteropternis separated from the other Oedipodids first and had another unique sound-producing structure in morphology, which is the type-genus of subfamily Heteropterninae; and (iii) the relative intergeneric relationship within the same continent was closer than that of different continents, and between the Eurasian genera and the African genera, was closer than that between Eurasians and Americans.

  3. PASMet: a web-based platform for prediction, modelling and analyses of metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Mejia, Ramon Francisco; Arita, Masanori; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-07-01

    PASMet (Prediction, Analysis and Simulation of Metabolic networks) is a web-based platform for proposing and verifying mathematical models to understand the dynamics of metabolism. The advantages of PASMet include user-friendliness and accessibility, which enable biologists and biochemists to easily perform mathematical modelling. PASMet offers a series of user-functions to handle the time-series data of metabolite concentrations. The functions are organised into four steps: (i) Prediction of a probable metabolic pathway and its regulation; (ii) Construction of mathematical models; (iii) Simulation of metabolic behaviours; and (iv) Analysis of metabolic system characteristics. Each function contains various statistical and mathematical methods that can be used independently. Users who may not have enough knowledge of computing or programming can easily and quickly analyse their local data without software downloads, updates or installations. Users only need to upload their files in comma-separated values (CSV) format or enter their model equations directly into the website. Once the time-series data or mathematical equations are uploaded, PASMet automatically performs computation on server-side. Then, users can interactively view their results and directly download them to their local computers. PASMet is freely available with no login requirement at http://pasmet.riken.jp/ from major web browsers on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems.

  4. Analysing breast cancer microarrays from African Americans using shrinkage-based discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Herbert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer tumours among African Americans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities.

  5. PASMet: a web-based platform for prediction, modelling and analyses of metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Mejia, Ramon Francisco; Arita, Masanori; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-07-01

    PASMet (Prediction, Analysis and Simulation of Metabolic networks) is a web-based platform for proposing and verifying mathematical models to understand the dynamics of metabolism. The advantages of PASMet include user-friendliness and accessibility, which enable biologists and biochemists to easily perform mathematical modelling. PASMet offers a series of user-functions to handle the time-series data of metabolite concentrations. The functions are organised into four steps: (i) Prediction of a probable metabolic pathway and its regulation; (ii) Construction of mathematical models; (iii) Simulation of metabolic behaviours; and (iv) Analysis of metabolic system characteristics. Each function contains various statistical and mathematical methods that can be used independently. Users who may not have enough knowledge of computing or programming can easily and quickly analyse their local data without software downloads, updates or installations. Users only need to upload their files in comma-separated values (CSV) format or enter their model equations directly into the website. Once the time-series data or mathematical equations are uploaded, PASMet automatically performs computation on server-side. Then, users can interactively view their results and directly download them to their local computers. PASMet is freely available with no login requirement at http://pasmet.riken.jp/ from major web browsers on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems. PMID:27174940

  6. Intercomparison study of NOx passive diffusion tubes with chemiluminescence analysers and evaluation of bias factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Heal, Mathew R.; Beverland, Iain J.

    2011-01-01

    Passive diffusion tubes (PDTs) are an inexpensive and simple method to monitor air pollutants. Numerous studies have investigated the performance of PDTs for NO2 but little attention has been paid to PDTs for NOx. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of NOx PDTs in three different urban environments. Duplicate NOx and NO2 PDTs were co-located with chemiluminescence analysers at kerbside, urban centre and background sites in the city of Glasgow for twelve 1-week exposures. PDT...

  7. Linking Proxy-Based and Datum-Based Shorelines on a High-Energy Coastline: Implications for Shoreline Change Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2003-01-01

    A primary purpose of this paper is to quantitatively link variously defined and derived shoreline estimates commonly used for shoreline change analysis. Estimates of shoreline mapping and derivation error, natural shoreline variability, and the relationships between horizontally-derived (proxy-based) shorelines to vertical datums (e.g. MHW) are presented. A series of shoreline repeatability and variability experiments as well as data from a beach monitoring program along the high-energy US Pacific Northwest coast, indicate total uncertainty estimates of the horizontal position of proxy-based shorelines to be approximately ?? 50-150 m for T-sheets and aerial photography and approximately ?? 15 m for datum-based shorelines derived from ground- or air-based topographic surveys. The ability to obtain reliable shoreline change results depends upon both the selected shoreline definition (e.g. horizontal- or feature-based proxy, or datum-based intercept) and the accuracy of the technique used in mapping or interpreting its position. The position of the selected shoreline on the beach profile determines its inherent temporal and spatial variability, an important consideration that has often been overlooked in the scientific literature on shoreline change, Historical shorelines mapped on NOS T-sheets and aerial photos have commonly identified high water line (HWL)-type shorelines, which are shown to be higher on the beach surface than the MHW-datum intercept along coasts subject to wave runup. Analyses of 4.5 years of beach profile data from the southwest Washington coast suggest that both the MHW and HWL-type shorelines have greater natural short-term variability than expected, significantly greater than the variability of shoreline proxies defined farther landward and higher on the beach profile. A model for determining the natural variability of HWL-type shorelines reveals that this short-term variability is the dominant factor in the large total uncertainty values

  8. Analysing the operative experience of basic surgical trainees in Ireland using a web-based logbook

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Peter E

    2011-09-25

    Abstract Background There is concern about the adequacy of operative exposure in surgical training programmes, in the context of changing work practices. We aimed to quantify the operative exposure of all trainees on the National Basic Surgical Training (BST) programme in Ireland and compare the results with arbitrary training targets. Methods Retrospective analysis of data obtained from a web-based logbook (http:\\/\\/www.elogbook.org) for all general surgery and orthopaedic training posts between July 2007 and June 2009. Results 104 trainees recorded 23,918 operations between two 6-month general surgery posts. The most common general surgery operation performed was simple skin excision with trainees performing an average of 19.7 (± 9.9) over the 2-year training programme. Trainees most frequently assisted with cholecystectomy with an average of 16.0 (± 11.0) per trainee. Comparison of trainee operative experience to arbitrary training targets found that 2-38% of trainees achieved the targets for 9 emergency index operations and 24-90% of trainees achieved the targets for 8 index elective operations. 72 trainees also completed a 6-month post in orthopaedics and recorded 7,551 operations. The most common orthopaedic operation that trainees performed was removal of metal, with an average of 2.90 (± 3.27) per trainee. The most common orthopaedic operation that trainees assisted with was total hip replacement, with an average of 10.46 (± 6.21) per trainee. Conclusions A centralised web-based logbook provides valuable data to analyse training programme performance. Analysis of logbooks raises concerns about operative experience at junior trainee level. The provision of adequate operative exposure for trainees should be a key performance indicator for training programmes.

  9. Validation of a fully autonomous phosphate analyser based on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slater, Conor; Cleary, J.; Lau, K.T.;

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the design of a phosphate analyser that utilises a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip. The analyser contains all the required chemical storage, pumping and electronic components to carry out a complete phosphate assay. The system is self-calibrating and self-cleaning, thus capable...

  10. Decadal flood frequency analyses: Case study of station Litija on the Sava river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezak, Nejc; Brilly, Mitja; Sraj, Mojca

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was (1) to perform decadal flood frequency analyses for the nine 30 years long data series, (2) to compare some commonly used distribution functions, (3) to compare the method of moments and the method of L-moments, and (4) to evaluate changes in the Q-T curves for the different hydrological periods. Decadal flood frequency analyses can be useful in climate changes or climate variability assessment. Investigation of the influence of the selected period for flood frequency analyses is important for the observation of changes in the discharge data. To reach the optimal flood frequency analyses results one should choose the best fitting distribution function and appropriate parameter estimation technique. The hydrological station Litija on the river Sava is one of the oldest gauging stations in Slovenia. 116 years of the daily discharge data were used for decadal flood frequency analyses. Data was separated in nine parts, each part contained 30 years of annual maximums. The normal, log-normal, Pearson 3, log-Pearson 3, Gumbel, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized logistic (GL) distributions were used for flood frequency analyses. The method of moments and the method of L-moments were used for parameters estimation. The root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC), Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), Anderson-Darling (A-D) and AIC (Akaike information criterion) tests were used to compare distribution functions and different data samples. The L-moments ratio diagram was also used to assess differences between distribution functions. The GEV, Pearson 3 and log-Pearson 3 distributions gave better results as the normal, log-normal, Gumbel and GL distributions. The Gumbel and log-normal distributions had larger dispersion of tests results as other considered distributions. When distribution parameters were estimated with the method of L-moments test results were better as in case of the

  11. Developing fair tests for mathematics curriculum comparison studies: the role of content analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Óscar; Papick, Ira; Ross, Daniel J.; Grouws, Douglas A.

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the process of development of assessment instruments for a three-year longitudinal comparative study that focused on evaluating American high school students' mathematics learning from two distinct approaches to content organization: curriculum built around a sequence of three full-year courses (Algebra 1, Geometry, and Algebra 2) and a sequence of integrated mathematics courses (algebra and geometry content, together with functions, data analysis, and discrete mathematics is integrated each year). The study was conducted in six school districts in five states involving over 4,000 students from schools that were using both curricular approaches but with different groups of students. In order to develop assessment instruments that were not biased towards either of the two curriculum programs (Fair Tests), an iterative process of content analyses, identification of common topics, internal and external reviews, pilot tests, and revisions was followed, resulting in five tests that were used in the three years of the study. Results indicate that these tests have solid discrimination properties and address adequately mathematics content common to both secondary curriculum programs. The corresponding scoring rubrics are highly reliable, with interrater reliability above 94% for all tests. Mathematics education researchers involved in curriculum comparison studies need to conduct content analyses of the curriculum materials under study in order to identify salient relationships between curriculum programs and student outcomes.

  12. Detection of intestinal parasites by use of the cuvette-based automated microscopy analyser sediMAX(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Taverna, E; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-03-01

    Microscopy is the reference method for intestinal parasite identification. The cuvette-based automated microscopy analyser, sediMAX 1, provides 15 digital images of each sediment sample. In this study, we have evaluated this fully automated instrument for detection of enteric parasites, helminths and protozoa. A total of 700 consecutively preserved samples consisting of 60 positive samples (50 protozoa, ten helminths) and 640 negative samples were analysed. Operators were blinded to each others' results. Samples were randomized and were tested both by manual microscopy and sediMAX 1 for parasite recognition. The sediMAX 1 analysis was conducted using a dilution of faecal samples, allowing determination of morphology. The data obtained using sediMAX 1 showed a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 100%. Some species of helminths, such as Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercolaris, the Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus complex, and schistosomes were not considered in this work, because they are rare in stool specimens, are not easily detectable with microscopy analysis, and require specific recovery techniques. This study demonstrated for the first time that sediMAX 1 can be an aid in enteric parasite identification. PMID:26679923

  13. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species. PMID:26773895

  14. [The effect of image analyser noises in studies of cell structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteĭn, G I

    2002-01-01

    Using image analysers, the influence of noises on the quality of images obtained from three types of digital CCD videocameras was studied. Algorithms for calculating the heterogeneity coefficient of cell structures have been proposed, which take into account the noises on the images. Application of procedures of image smoothing or averaging from a few shots, calculation of differences in heterogeneity coefficients of the object and a free field, and a combination of these methods have significantly reduced the influence of noises and increased the informativeness of texture features. PMID:11868456

  15. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona;

    2015-01-01

    from one municipality was sorted at "Level III", e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at "Level I"). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 +/- 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 +/- 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual...... household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3-4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three...

  16. Application of Rank(S-r), a maturity index based on chemical analyses of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suggate, R.P. [Inst. for Geology & Nuclear Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2002-09-01

    The Rank{sub S} classification of Suggate, which uses data from standard coal industry chemical analyses, is illustrated on interdependent diagrams with axes of atomic O/C and H/C and of calorific value and volatile matter. The Rank{sub S-r} scale, which is compensated for coal type, is linear with depth under conditions of linear geothermal gradients, so that the depth value for each unit increase in rank depends on the geothermal gradient at the time of maximum temperature. A general relation is established between Rank(Sr) and the temperature of attainment of rank: Temp.{sup o}C = 10 x Rank{sub S-r} + 15. Significant oil generation begins at Rank({sub S-r}) 9-10 and expulsion at Rank{sub S-r} 11.5-12.5. A clear general relation exists between Rank{sub S-r} and vitrinite reflectance, but Rank{sub S-r} is somewhat more accurate over the range from peat to the end of the oil window. In the Paleogene Buller Coalfield, New Zealand, the use of Rank{sub S-r} is an aid to interpeting geological history. Coals in the Carboniferous Nottinghamshire-Yorkshire Coalfield in England probably contributed hydrocarbons, including oil, to the adjoining East Midlands hydrocarbon fields. Vertical and lateral variations in Rank{sub S-r} in the coalfield, and the Rank{sub S-r} values in coal measures at the base of the Permian, require a thick Mesozoic-Tertiary cover. In the oilfields of the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia, and the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Rank{sub S-r}/depth gradients imply surface values that are close to zero where little or no cover has been eroded from above the wells, and inferred temperatures that are reasonably close to present temperatures.

  17. Fatigue analyses of the prototype Francis runners based on site measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Chamberland-Lauzon, J.; Oram, C.; Klopfer, A.; Ruchonnet, N.

    2014-03-01

    With the increasing development of solar power and wind power which give an unstable output to the electrical grid, hydropower is required to give a rapid and flexible compensation, and the hydraulic turbines have to operate at off-design conditions frequently. Prototype Francis runners suffer from strong vibrations induced by high pressure pulsations at part load, low part load, speed-no-load and during start-stops and load rejections. Fatigue and damage may be caused by the alternating stress on the runner blades. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to carry out fatigue analysis and life time assessment of the prototype Francis runners, especially at off-design conditions. This paper presents the fatigue analyses of the prototype Francis runners based on the strain gauge site measurements and numerical simulations. In the case of low part load, speed-no-load and transient events, since the Francis runners are subjected to complex hydraulic loading, which shows a stochastic characteristic, the rainflow counting method is used to obtain the number of cycles for various dynamic amplitude ranges. From middle load to full load, pressure pulsations caused by Rotor-stator- Interaction become the dominant hydraulic excitation of the runners. Forced response analysis is performed to calculate the maximum dynamic stress. The agreement between numerical and experimental stresses is evaluated using linear regression method. Taking into account the effect of the static stress on the S-N curve, the Miner's rule, a linear cumulative fatigue damage theory, is employed to calculate the damage factors of the prototype Francis runners at various operating conditions. The relative damage factors of the runners at different operating points are compared and discussed in detail.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Five Potyviruses Infecting Korean Sweet Potatoes Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L. are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, Sweet potato virus C (SPVC, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV, have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95% incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyviruses mentioned above, were compared with previously reported genome sequences. The complete genomes consisted of 10,081 to 10,830 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tails. Their genomic organizations were typical of the Potyvirus genus, including one target open reading frame coding for a putative polyprotein. Based on phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons, the Korean SPFMV isolates belonged to the strains RC and O with >98% nucleotide sequence identity. Korean SPVC isolates had 99% identity to the Japanese isolate SPVC-Bungo and 70% identity to the SPFMV isolates. The Korean SPVG isolates showed 99% identity to the three previously reported SPVG isolates. Korean SPV2 isolates had 97% identity to the SPV2 GWB-2 isolate from the USA. Korean SPLV isolates had a relatively low (88% nucleotide sequence identity with the Taiwanese SPLV-TW isolates, and they were phylogenetically distantly related to SPFMV isolates. Recombination analysis revealed that possible recombination events occurred in the P1, HC-Pro and NIa-NIb regions of SPFMV and SPLV isolates and these regions were identified as hotspots for recombination in the sweet potato potyviruses.

  19. Fatigue analyses of the prototype Francis runners based on site measurements and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing development of solar power and wind power which give an unstable output to the electrical grid, hydropower is required to give a rapid and flexible compensation, and the hydraulic turbines have to operate at off-design conditions frequently. Prototype Francis runners suffer from strong vibrations induced by high pressure pulsations at part load, low part load, speed-no-load and during start-stops and load rejections. Fatigue and damage may be caused by the alternating stress on the runner blades. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to carry out fatigue analysis and life time assessment of the prototype Francis runners, especially at off-design conditions. This paper presents the fatigue analyses of the prototype Francis runners based on the strain gauge site measurements and numerical simulations. In the case of low part load, speed-no-load and transient events, since the Francis runners are subjected to complex hydraulic loading, which shows a stochastic characteristic, the rainflow counting method is used to obtain the number of cycles for various dynamic amplitude ranges. From middle load to full load, pressure pulsations caused by Rotor-stator- Interaction become the dominant hydraulic excitation of the runners. Forced response analysis is performed to calculate the maximum dynamic stress. The agreement between numerical and experimental stresses is evaluated using linear regression method. Taking into account the effect of the static stress on the S-N curve, the Miner's rule, a linear cumulative fatigue damage theory, is employed to calculate the damage factors of the prototype Francis runners at various operating conditions. The relative damage factors of the runners at different operating points are compared and discussed in detail

  20. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nomin Batnyam; Jimin Lee; Jungnam Lee; Seung Bok Hong; Sejong Oh; Kyudong Han

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR-...

  1. Phred-Phrap package to analyses tools: a pipeline to facilitate population genetics re-sequencing studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Moara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted re-sequencing is one of the most powerful and widely used strategies for population genetics studies because it allows an unbiased screening for variation that is suitable for a wide variety of organisms. Examples of studies that require re-sequencing data are evolutionary inferences, epidemiological studies designed to capture rare polymorphisms responsible for complex traits and screenings for mutations in families and small populations with high incidences of specific genetic diseases. Despite the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, Sanger sequencing is still the most popular approach in population genetics studies because of the widespread availability of automatic sequencers based on capillary electrophoresis and because it is still less prone to sequencing errors, which is critical in population genetics studies. Two popular software applications for re-sequencing studies are Phred-Phrap-Consed-Polyphred, which performs base calling, alignment, graphical edition and genotype calling and DNAsp, which performs a set of population genetics analyses. These independent tools are the start and end points of basic analyses. In between the use of these tools, there is a set of basic but error-prone tasks to be performed with re-sequencing data. Results In order to assist with these intermediate tasks, we developed a pipeline that facilitates data handling typical of re-sequencing studies. Our pipeline: (1 consolidates different outputs produced by distinct Phred-Phrap-Consed contigs sharing a reference sequence; (2 checks for genotyping inconsistencies; (3 reformats genotyping data produced by Polyphred into a matrix of genotypes with individuals as rows and segregating sites as columns; (4 prepares input files for haplotype inferences using the popular software PHASE; and (5 handles PHASE output files that contain only polymorphic sites to reconstruct the inferred haplotypes including polymorphic and

  2. Comparing methods of analysing datasets with small clusters: case studies using four paediatric datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L; Yu, Keming; Brocklehurst, Peter; Calvert, Sandra A; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil

    2009-07-01

    Studies of prematurely born infants contain a relatively large percentage of multiple births, so the resulting data have a hierarchical structure with small clusters of size 1, 2 or 3. Ignoring the clustering may lead to incorrect inferences. The aim of this study was to compare statistical methods which can be used to analyse such data: generalised estimating equations, multilevel models, multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Four datasets which differed in total size and in percentage of multiple births (n = 254, multiple 18%; n = 176, multiple 9%; n = 10 098, multiple 3%; n = 1585, multiple 8%) were analysed. With the continuous outcome, two-level models produced similar results in the larger dataset, while generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) produced divergent estimates using the smaller dataset. For the dichotomous outcome, most methods, except generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GH 'xtlogit' in Stata) gave similar odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals within datasets. For the continuous outcome, our results suggest using multilevel modelling. We conclude that generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) should be used with caution when the dataset is small. Where the outcome is dichotomous and there is a relatively large percentage of non-independent data, it is recommended that these are accounted for in analyses using logistic regression with adjusted standard errors or multilevel modelling. If, however, the dataset has a small percentage of clusters greater than size 1 (e.g. a population dataset of children where there are few multiples) there appears to be less need to adjust for clustering.

  3. EEG alpha phenotypes: linkage analyses and relation to alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Evelyn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for a high degree of heritability of EEG alpha phenotypes has been demonstrated in twin and family studies in a number of populations. However, information on linkage of this phenotype to specific chromosome locations is still limited. This study's aims were to map loci linked to EEG alpha phenotypes and to determine if there was overlap with loci previously mapped for alcohol dependence in an American Indian community at high risk for substance dependence. Methods Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview using the Semi Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism. Bipolar EEGs were collected and spectral power determined in the alpha (7.5-12.0 Hz frequency band for two composite scalp locations previously identified by principal components analyses (bilateral fronto-central and bilateral centro-parietal-occipital. Genotypes were determined for a panel of 791 micro-satellite polymorphisms in 410 members of multiplex families using SOLAR. Results Sixty percent of this study population had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Analyses of multipoint variance component LOD scores, for the EEG alpha power phenotype, revealed two loci that had a LOD score of 3.0 or above for the fronto-central scalp region on chromosomes 1 and 6. Additionally, 4 locations were identified with LOD scores above 2.0 on chromosomes 4, 11, 14, 16 for the fronto-central location and one on chromosome 2 for the centro-parietal-occipital location. Conclusion These results corroborate the importance of regions on chromosome 4 and 6 highlighted in prior segregation studies in this and other populations for alcohol dependence-related phenotypes, as well as other areas that overlap with other substance dependence phenotypes identified in previous linkage studies in other populations. These studies additionally support the construct that EEG alpha recorded from fronto-central scalp areas may

  4. FastGroupII: A web-based bioinformatics platform for analyses of large 16S rDNA libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNairnie Pat

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput sequencing makes it possible to rapidly obtain thousands of 16S rDNA sequences from environmental samples. Bioinformatic tools for the analyses of large 16S rDNA sequence databases are needed to comprehensively describe and compare these datasets. Results FastGroupII is a web-based bioinformatics platform to dereplicate large 16S rDNA libraries. FastGroupII provides users with the option of four different dereplication methods, performs rarefaction analysis, and automatically calculates the Shannon-Wiener Index and Chao1. FastGroupII was tested on a set of 16S rDNA sequences from coral-associated Bacteria. The different grouping algorithms produced similar, but not identical, results. This suggests that 16S rDNA datasets need to be analyzed in multiple ways when being used for community ecology studies. Conclusion FastGroupII is an effective bioinformatics tool for the trimming and dereplication of 16S rDNA sequences. Several standard diversity indices are calculated, and the raw sequences are prepared for downstream analyses.

  5. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr David C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA. The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51% from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85. However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems

  6. Case Study Analyses of the SUCCESS DC-8 Scanning Lidar Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, Edward E.

    2000-01-01

    Under project SUCCESS (Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study) funded by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Program, SRI International (SRI) developed an angular scanning backscatter lidar for operation on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft and deployed the scanning lidar during the SUCCESS field campaign. The primary purpose of the lidar was to generate real-time video displays of clouds and contrails above, ahead of, and below the DC-8 as a means to help position the aircraft for optimum cloud and contrail sampling by onboard in situ sensors, and to help extend the geometrical domain of the in situ sampling records. A large, relatively complex lidar database was collected and several data examples were processed to illustrate the value of the lidar data for interpreting the other data records collected during SUCCESS. These data examples were used to develop a journal publication for the special SUCCESS Geophysical Research Letters issue. The data examples justified data analyses of a larger part of the DC-8 lidar database and is the objective of the current study. Efficient processing of the SUCCESS DC-8 scanning lidar database required substantial effort to enhance hardware and software components of the data system that was used for the initial analyses. MATLAB instructions are used to generate altitude and distance color-coded lidar displays corrected for effects introduced by aircraft pitch and forward movement during an angular scan time interval. Onboard in situ sensor atmospheric measurements are propagated to distances ahead of the DC-8 using recorded aircraft velocity so that they can be plotted on the lidar displays for comparison with lidar remotely observed aerosol distributions. Resulting lidar and in situ sensor polar scan displays over extended sampling intervals are integrated into a time series movie format for 36 case studies. Contrails and clouds were detected to ranges of 15 km by the forward-viewing angular scanning lidar

  7. A "crossomics" study analysing variability of different components in peripheral blood of healthy caucasoid individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Gruden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different immunotherapy approaches for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases are being developed and tested in clinical studies worldwide. Their resulting complex experimental data should be properly evaluated, therefore reliable normal healthy control baseline values are indispensable. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess intra- and inter-individual variability of various biomarkers, peripheral blood of 16 age and gender equilibrated healthy volunteers was sampled on 3 different days within a period of one month. Complex "crossomics" analyses of plasma metabolite profiles, antibody concentrations and lymphocyte subset counts as well as whole genome expression profiling in CD4+T and NK cells were performed. Some of the observed age, gender and BMI dependences are in agreement with the existing knowledge, like negative correlation between sex hormone levels and age or BMI related increase in lipids and soluble sugars. Thus we can assume that the distribution of all 39.743 analysed markers is well representing the normal Caucasoid population. All lymphocyte subsets, 20% of metabolites and less than 10% of genes, were identified as highly variable in our dataset. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that the intra-individual variability was at least two-fold lower compared to the inter-individual one at all investigated levels, showing the importance of personalised medicine approach from yet another perspective.

  8. White matter disruption in moderate/severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: Advanced tract-based analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is the leading cause of death and disability in children and can lead to a wide range of impairments. Brain imaging methods such as DTI (diffusion tensor imaging are uniquely sensitive to the white matter (WM damage that is common in TBI. However, higher-level analyses using tractography are complicated by the damage and decreased FA (fractional anisotropy characteristic of TBI, which can result in premature tract endings. We used the newly developed autoMATE (automated multi-atlas tract extraction method to identify differences in WM integrity. 63 pediatric patients aged 8–19 years with moderate/severe TBI were examined with cross sectional scanning at one or two time points after injury: a post-acute assessment 1–5 months post-injury and a chronic assessment 13–19 months post-injury. A battery of cognitive function tests was performed in the same time periods. 56 children were examined in the first phase, 28 TBI patients and 28 healthy controls. In the second phase 34 children were studied, 17 TBI patients and 17 controls (27 participants completed both post-acute and chronic phases. We did not find any significant group differences in the post-acute phase. Chronically, we found extensive group differences, mainly for mean and radial diffusivity (MD and RD. In the chronic phase, we found higher MD and RD across a wide range of WM. Additionally, we found correlations between these WM integrity measures and cognitive deficits. This suggests a distributed pattern of WM disruption that continues over the first year following a TBI in children.

  9. Financial and Performance Analyses of Microcontroller Based Solar-Powered Autorickshaw for a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Raihan Mohammad Siddique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study to examine the economic viability and performance analysis of a microcontroller based solar powered battery operated autorickshaw (m-SBAR, for the developing countries, which is compared with different types of rickshaws such as pedal rickshaw (PR, battery operated autorickshaw (BAR, and solar-powered battery operated autorickshaw (SBAR, available in Bangladesh. The BAR consists of a rickshaw structure, a battery bank, a battery charge controller, a DC motor driver, and a DC motor whereas the proposed m-SBAR contains additional components like solar panel and microcontroller based DC motor driver. The complete design considered the local radiation data and load profile of the proposed m-SBAR. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE analysis, Net Present Worth, payback periods, and Benefit-to-Cost Ratio methods have been used to evaluate the financial feasibility and sensitivity analysis of m-SBAR, grid-powered BAR, and PR. The numerical analysis reveals that LCOE and Benefit-to-Cost Ratio of the proposed m-SBAR are lower compared to the grid-powered BAR. It has also been found that microcontroller based DC motor control circuit reduces battery discharge rate, improves battery life, and controls motor speed efficiency.

  10. Augmentation of French grunt diet description using combined visual and DNA-based analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, John S.; Parkyn, Daryl C.; Murie, Debra J.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Austin, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Trophic linkages within a coral-reef ecosystem may be difficult to discern in fish species that reside on, but do not forage on, coral reefs. Furthermore, dietary analysis of fish can be difficult in situations where prey is thoroughly macerated, resulting in many visually unrecognisable food items. The present study examined whether the inclusion of a DNA-based method could improve the identification of prey consumed by French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum, a reef fish that possesses pharyngeal teeth and forages on soft-bodied prey items. Visual analysis indicated that crustaceans were most abundant numerically (38.9%), followed by sipunculans (31.0%) and polychaete worms (5.2%), with a substantial number of unidentified prey (12.7%). For the subset of prey with both visual and molecular data, there was a marked reduction in the number of unidentified sipunculans (visual – 31.1%, combined &ndash 4.4%), unidentified crustaceans (visual &ndash 15.6%, combined &ndash 6.7%), and unidentified taxa (visual &ndash 11.1%, combined &ndash 0.0%). Utilising results from both methodologies resulted in an increased number of prey placed at the family level (visual &ndash 6, combined &ndash 33) and species level (visual &ndash 0, combined &ndash 4). Although more costly than visual analysis alone, our study demonstrated the feasibility of DNA-based identification of visually unidentifiable prey in the stomach contents of fish.

  11. A Comparison of Model- and Multiple Imputation-Based Approaches to Longitudinal Analyses with Partial Missingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; Li, Fuzhong

    1998-01-01

    Presents an application of latent growth curve methodology to the analysis of longitudinal developmental change in alcohol consumption of 586 young adults, illustrating three approaches to the analysis of missing data: (1) multiple-sample structural equation modeling procedures; (2) raw maximum likelihood analyses; and (3) multiple modeling and…

  12. Conformational determination of [Leu]enkephalin based on theoretical and experimental VA and VCD spectral analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Jalkanen, Karl J.; Cao, X.;

    2004-01-01

    Conformational determination of [Leu]enkephalin in DMSO-d6 is carried out using VA and VCD spectral analyses. Conformational energies, vibrational frequencies and VA and VCD intensities are calculated using DFT at B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Comparison between the measured spectra and the spect...

  13. Analysing a reading strategy based on the elaboration of questions and the pair of answers and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmo Ernesto Francisco Junior

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a reading activity developed with chemistry students. The main aim was to analyse the reflections produced after reading three articles about experimentation. This study was performed with 17 chemistry students from a federal university. The reading strategy involved writing productions. Questions and the pair of questions and answers elaborated from articles were analysed, as well as the contribution of the socialization of knowledge by means of discussions and a debate....

  14. Drive-based recording analyses at >800 Gfc/in 2 using shingled recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Cross, R.; Montemorra, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Since the introduction of perpendicular recording, conventional perpendicular scaling has enabled the hard disk drive industry to deliver products ranging from ˜130 to well over 500 Gb/in 2 in a little over 4 years. The incredible areal density growth spurt enabled by perpendicular recording is now endangered by an inability to effectively balance writeability with erasure effects at the system level. Shingled magnetic recording (SMR) offers an effective means to continue perpendicular areal density growth using conventional heads and tuned media designs. The use of specially designed edge-write head structures (also known as 'corner writers') should further increase the AD gain potential for shingled recording. In this paper, we will demonstrate the drive-based recording performance characteristics of a shingled recording system at areal densities in excess of 800 Gb/in 2 using a conventional head. Using a production drive base, developmental heads/media and a number of sophisticated analytical routines, we have studied the recording performance of a shingled magnetic recording subsystem. Our observations confirm excellent writeability in excess of 400 ktpi and a perpendicular system with acceptable noise balance, especially at extreme ID and OD skews where the benefits of SMR are quite pronounced. We believe that this demonstration illustrates that SMR is not only capable of productization, but is likely the path of least resistance toward production drive areal density closer to 1 Tb/in 2 and beyond.

  15. Optimizing Laguerre expansion based deconvolution methods for analysing bi-exponential fluorescence lifetime images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Chen, Yu; Li, David Day-Uei

    2016-06-27

    Fast deconvolution is an essential step to calibrate instrument responses in big fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) image analysis. This paper examined a computationally effective least squares deconvolution method based on Laguerre expansion (LSD-LE), recently developed for clinical diagnosis applications, and proposed new criteria for selecting Laguerre basis functions (LBFs) without considering the mutual orthonormalities between LBFs. Compared with the previously reported LSD-LE, the improved LSD-LE allows to use a higher laser repetition rate, reducing the acquisition time per measurement. Moreover, we extended it, for the first time, to analyze bi-exponential fluorescence decays for more general FLIM-FRET applications. The proposed method was tested on both synthesized bi-exponential and realistic FLIM data for studying the endocytosis of gold nanorods in Hek293 cells. Compared with the previously reported constrained LSD-LE, it shows promising results. PMID:27410552

  16. Surface-Based Analyses of Anatomical Properties of the Visual Cortex in Macular Degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doety Prins

    Full Text Available Macular degeneration (MD can cause a central visual field defect. In a previous study, we found volumetric reductions along the entire visual pathways of MD patients, possibly indicating degeneration of inactive neuronal tissue. This may have important implications. In particular, new therapeutic strategies to restore retinal function rely on intact visual pathways and cortex to reestablish visual function. Here we reanalyze the data of our previous study using surface-based morphometry (SBM rather than voxel-based morphometry (VBM. This can help determine the robustness of the findings and will lead to a better understanding of the nature of neuroanatomical changes associated with MD.The metrics of interest were acquired by performing SBM analysis on T1-weighted MRI data acquired from 113 subjects: patients with juvenile MD (JMD; n = 34, patients with age-related MD (AMD; n = 24 and healthy age-matched controls (HC; n = 55.Relative to age-matched controls, JMD patients showed a thinner cortex, a smaller cortical surface area and a lower grey matter volume in V1 and V2, while AMD patients showed thinning of the cortex in V2. Neither patient group showed a significant difference in mean curvature of the visual cortex.The thinner cortex, smaller surface area and lower grey matter volume in the visual cortex of JMD patients are consistent with our previous results showing a volumetric reduction in their visual cortex. Finding comparable results using two rather different analysis techniques suggests the presence of marked cortical degeneration in the JMD patients. In the AMD patients, we found a thinner cortex in V2 but not in V1. In contrast to our previous VBM analysis, SBM revealed no volumetric reductions of the visual cortex. This suggests that the cortical changes in AMD patients are relatively subtle, as they apparently can be missed by one of the methods.

  17. Systematic review with meta-analyses of studies on the association between cirrhosis and liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Emilie; Rumessen, Jüri; Gluud, Lise L

    2011-01-01

    effects models due to an expected clinical heterogeneity. Sixteen studies were included. Evidence of liver metastases was diagnosed in 22% of cases and 38% of controls based on autopsies (n = 14 studies) or laparoscopy (n = 2 studies). Random effects meta-analysis suggested that patients with cirrhosis...... (Medline, Embase, and Web of Science) and manual searches were combined (October 2010) to identify observational studies on patients with malignant disease reporting the risk of liver metastases among cases (with cirrhosis) and controls (without liver disease). Meta-analysis was performed using random...

  18. D Recording for 2d Delivering - the Employment of 3d Models for Studies and Analyses -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, A.; Baratti, G.; Jiménez, B.; Girardi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d'Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino). APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying and 3D material to

  19. Studies on the determination of sulphur in thoria by thermal analyzer coupled with a quadrupole mass analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-sintered thorium oxide powder is heated in the temperature range of 800 to 1200 deg C in a thermal analyser and the evolved gases were studied by a quadrupole mass analyser. Sulphur present in the thorium oxide matrix is started evolving in the form of sulphur dioxide when the sample is heated in argon atmosphere at around 850 to 900 deg C temperature. This paper highlights the detection of sulphur in the thorium oxide matrix by a quadrupole mass analyser coupled with a thermal analyser. (author)

  20. The neuronal correlates of digits backward are revealed by voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available Digits backward (DB is a widely used neuropsychological measure that is believed to be a simple and effective index of the capacity of the verbal working memory. However, its neural correlates remain elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the neural correlates of DB in 299 healthy young adults by combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC analyses. The VBM analysis showed positive correlations between the DB scores and the gray matter volumes in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG, the right posterior STG, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left Rolandic operculum, which are four critical areas in the auditory phonological loop of the verbal working memory. Voxel-based correlation analysis was then performed between the positive rsFCs of these four clusters and the DB scores. We found that the DB scores were positively correlated with the rsFCs within the salience network (SN, that is, between the right anterior STG, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the right fronto-insular cortex. We also found that the DB scores were negatively correlated with the rsFC within an anti-correlation network of the SN, between the right posterior STG and the left posterior insula. Our findings suggest that DB performance is related to the structural and functional organizations of the brain areas that are involved in the auditory phonological loop and the SN.

  1. The Core Competitiveness of the Wisdom Tourism Food Analyses Based on the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s largest industry, the tourism Food industry of the world has rapidly developed in recent years. Transferring “digital food” to “wisdom food” means new opportunities and challenges that the sustainable development of the food should face. However, the informational development of this industry still lags behind, the exploitation and utilization of information resources haven’t owned an effective platform, which lack of a benign circulation and interactive mechanism, therefore, to combine the IOT with the food about wisdom has always been a new tendency. This study constructed framework of the tourism Food core competitiveness based on IOT. Then, this study proposed a measurement model for the tourism Food core competitiveness and test the model through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the indicators demonstrate that the model is effective and present that resource protection ability, operation management ability, service ability and Tourism Food service chain integration ability all have influence on the tourism Food core competitiveness.

  2. Bursty reconnection modulating the substorm current wedge, a substorm case study re-analysed by ECLAT tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, Hermann; Palin, Laurianne; Ågren, Karin; Zivkovic, Tatjana; Facsko, Gabor; Sergeev, Victor; Kubyshkina, Marina; Nikolaev, Alexander; Milan, Steve; Imber, Suzanne; Kauristie, Kirsti; Palmroth, Minna; van de Kamp, Max; Nakamura, Rumi; Boakes, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Multi-instrumental data mining and interpretation can be tedious and complicated. In this context, the ECLAT (European Cluster Assimilation Technology) project was created to « provide a novel and unique data base and tools for space scientists, by providing an upgrade of the European Space Agency's Cluster Active Archive (CAA). » How can this new tool help the space plasma physics community? Here we demonstrate the power of coordinated global and meso-scale ground-based data to put satellite data into the proper context. We re-analyse a well-isolated substorm with a strong growth phase, which starts right overhead the Scandinavian network of instruments on 8 September 2002. This event was previously studied in detail by Sergeev et al (2005), based on a THEMIS-like configuration near-midnight using a unique radial constellation of LANL (~6.6Re), Geotail and Polar (~9Re), and Cluster (~16Re). In this new study we add detailed IMAGE spacecraft and ground-based network data. Magnetospheric models are specially adapted using solar wind conditions and in-situ observations. Simulation results are compared to the in-situ observations and discussed. We show how - both before and after substorm onset - bursty reconnection in the tail modulates the localised field aligned current flow associated with the substorm current wedge.

  3. A (not so) dangerous method: pXRF vs. EPMA-WDS analyses of copper-based artefacts

    OpenAIRE

    Orfanou, V.; Rehren, T.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of metal objects with portable and handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has become increasingly popular in recent years. Here, methodological concerns that apply to non-destructive, surface examination with XRF instruments of ancient metal artefacts are discussed based on the comparative analyses of a set of copper-based objects by means of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA). The analytical investigation aims to explore issues of instrument...

  4. Using uncertainty and sensitivity analyses in socioecological agent-based models to improve their analytical performance and policy relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika Ligmann-Zielinska

    Full Text Available Agent-based models (ABMs have been widely used to study socioecological systems. They are useful for studying such systems because of their ability to incorporate micro-level behaviors among interacting agents, and to understand emergent phenomena due to these interactions. However, ABMs are inherently stochastic and require proper handling of uncertainty. We propose a simulation framework based on quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to build parsimonious ABMs that serve two purposes: exploration of the outcome space to simulate low-probability but high-consequence events that may have significant policy implications, and explanation of model behavior to describe the system with higher accuracy. The proposed framework is applied to the problem of modeling farmland conservation resulting in land use change. We employ output variance decomposition based on quasi-random sampling of the input space and perform three computational experiments. First, we perform uncertainty analysis to improve model legitimacy, where the distribution of results informs us about the expected value that can be validated against independent data, and provides information on the variance around this mean as well as the extreme results. In our last two computational experiments, we employ sensitivity analysis to produce two simpler versions of the ABM. First, input space is reduced only to inputs that produced the variance of the initial ABM, resulting in a model with output distribution similar to the initial model. Second, we refine the value of the most influential input, producing a model that maintains the mean of the output of initial ABM but with less spread. These simplifications can be used to 1 efficiently explore model outcomes, including outliers that may be important considerations in the design of robust policies, and 2 conduct explanatory analysis that exposes the smallest number of inputs influencing the steady state of the modeled system.

  5. A case study of discordant overlapping meta-analyses: vitamin d supplements and fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Bolland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic are now very common, and discordant results often occur. To explore why discordant results arise, we examined a common topic for overlapping meta-analyses- vitamin D supplements and fracture. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 24 meta-analyses of vitamin D (with or without calcium and fracture in a PubMed search in October 2013, and analysed a sample of 7 meta-analyses in the highest ranking general medicine journals. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the quality of the meta-analyses, and compared their methodologies, analytic techniques and results. Applying the AMSTAR tool suggested the meta-analyses were generally of high quality. Despite this, there were important differences in trial selection, data extraction, and analytical methods that were only apparent after detailed assessment. 25 trials were included in at least one meta-analysis. Four meta-analyses included all eligible trials according to the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria, but the other 3 meta-analyses "missed" between 3 and 8 trials, and 2 meta-analyses included apparently ineligible trials. The relative risks used for individual trials differed between meta-analyses for total fracture in 10 of 15 trials, and for hip fracture in 6 of 12 trials, because of different outcome definitions and analytic approaches. The majority of differences (11/16 led to more favourable estimates of vitamin D efficacy compared to estimates derived from unadjusted intention-to-treat analyses using all randomised participants. The conclusions of the meta-analyses were discordant, ranging from strong statements that vitamin D prevents fractures to equally strong statements that vitamin D without calcium does not prevent fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in trial selection, outcome definition and analytic methods between overlapping meta-analyses led to discordant estimates of the efficacy of vitamin D for fracture prevention

  6. Applicability study of deuterium excess in bottled water life cycle analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper explores the possible use of d‑excess in the investigation of bottled water. Based on the data set from Brencic and Vreca’s paper (2006. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, d‑excess values were statistically analysed and compared among different bottled water groups and different bottlers. The bottled water life cycle in relation to d‑excess values was also theoretically identified. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among the groups. Differences were detected in the shape of empirical distributions. Groups of still and flavoured waters have similar shapes, but sparkling waters differed to the others. Two distinctive groups of bottlers could be discerned. The first group is represented by bottlers with a high range of d‑excess (from 7.7 ‰ to 18.6 ‰ with average of 12.0 ‰ exploring waters originating from the aquifers rich in highly mineralised groundwater and relatively high concentrations of CO2 gas. The second group is represented by bottlers using groundwater from relatively shallow aquifers. Their d‑excess values have characteristics similar to the local precipitation (from 7.8 ‰ to 14.3 ‰ with average of 10.3 ‰. More frequent sampling and better knowledge of production phases are needed to improve usage of isotope fingerprint for authentication of bottled waters.

  7. Analyses of the soil surface dynamic of South African Kalahari salt pans based on hyperspectral and multitemporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Behling, Robert; Mielke, Christian; Schleicher, Anja Maria; Guanter, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The consequences of climate change represent a major threat to sustainable development and growth in Southern Africa. Understanding the impact on the geo- and biosphere is therefore of great importance in this particular region. In this context the Kalahari salt pans (also known as playas or sabkhas) and their peripheral saline and alkaline habitats are an ecosystem of major interest. They are very sensitive to environmental conditions, and as thus hydrological, mineralogical and ecological responses to climatic variations can be analysed. Up to now the soil composition of salt pans in this area have been only assessed mono-temporally and on a coarse regional scale. Furthermore, the dynamic of the salt pans, especially the formation of evaporites, is still uncertain and poorly understood. High spectral resolution remote sensing can estimate evaporite content and mineralogy of soils based on the analyses of the surface reflectance properties within the Visible-Near InfraRed (VNIR 400-1000 nm) and Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR 1000-2500 nm) regions. In these wavelength regions major chemical components of the soil interact with the electromagnetic radiation and produce characteristic absorption features that can be used to derive the properties of interest. Although such techniques are well established for the laboratory and field scale, the potential of current (Hyperion) and upcoming spaceborne sensors such as EnMAP for quantitative mineralogical and salt spectral mapping is still to be demonstrated. Combined with hyperspectral methods, multitemporal remote sensing techniques allow us to derive the recent dynamic of these salt pans and link the mineralogical analysis of the pan surface to major physical processes in these dryland environments. In this study we focus on the analyses of the Namibian Omongwa salt pans based on satellite hyperspectral imagery and multispectral time-series data. First, a change detection analysis is applied using the Iterative

  8. Drive-based recording analyses at >800 Gfc/in{sup 2} using shingled recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Cross, R., E-mail: William.r.cross@seagate.com [Seagate Technology, 389 Disc Drive, Longmont, CO 80503 (United States); Montemorra, Michael, E-mail: Mike.r.montemorra@seagate.com [Seagate Technology, 389 Disc Drive, Longmont, CO 80503 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Since the introduction of perpendicular recording, conventional perpendicular scaling has enabled the hard disk drive industry to deliver products ranging from {approx}130 to well over 500 Gb/in{sup 2} in a little over 4 years. The incredible areal density growth spurt enabled by perpendicular recording is now endangered by an inability to effectively balance writeability with erasure effects at the system level. Shingled magnetic recording (SMR) offers an effective means to continue perpendicular areal density growth using conventional heads and tuned media designs. The use of specially designed edge-write head structures (also known as 'corner writers') should further increase the AD gain potential for shingled recording. In this paper, we will demonstrate the drive-based recording performance characteristics of a shingled recording system at areal densities in excess of 800 Gb/in{sup 2} using a conventional head. Using a production drive base, developmental heads/media and a number of sophisticated analytical routines, we have studied the recording performance of a shingled magnetic recording subsystem. Our observations confirm excellent writeability in excess of 400 ktpi and a perpendicular system with acceptable noise balance, especially at extreme ID and OD skews where the benefits of SMR are quite pronounced. We believe that this demonstration illustrates that SMR is not only capable of productization, but is likely the path of least resistance toward production drive areal density closer to 1 Tb/in{sup 2} and beyond. - Research Highlights: > Drive-based recording demonstrations at 805 Gf/in{sup 2} has been demonstrated using both 95 and 65 mm drive platforms at roughly 430 ktpi and 1.87 Mfci. > Limiting factors for shingled recording include side reading, which is dominated by the reader crosstrack skirt profile, MT10 being a representative metric. > Media jitter and associated DC media SNR further limit areal density, dominated by crosstrack

  9. Implementation Quality of a Positive Youth Development Program: Cross-Case Analyses Based on Seven Cases in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-case analyses of factors that influence the process and implementation quality of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. based on seven cases were carried out. Systematic and integrative analyses revealed several conclusions. First, several factors related to policy, people, program, process, and place (5 “P”s) were conducive to the successful implementation of the Tier 1 Program in the schools. Second, there were obstacles and difficulties with reference to the 5 “P”s that impede...

  10. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters. PMID:22171549

  11. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Egil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters.

  12. Wind Power Forecasting Error Frequency Analyses for Operational Power System Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M.

    2012-08-01

    The examination of wind power forecasting errors is crucial for optimal unit commitment and economic dispatch of power systems with significant wind power penetrations. This scheduling process includes both renewable and nonrenewable generators, and the incorporation of wind power forecasts will become increasingly important as wind fleets constitute a larger portion of generation portfolios. This research considers the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study database of wind power forecasts and numerical actualizations. This database comprises more than 30,000 locations spread over the western United States, with a total wind power capacity of 960 GW. Error analyses for individual sites and for specific balancing areas are performed using the database, quantifying the fit to theoretical distributions through goodness-of-fit metrics. Insights into wind-power forecasting error distributions are established for various levels of temporal and spatial resolution, contrasts made among the frequency distribution alternatives, and recommendations put forth for harnessing the results. Empirical data are used to produce more realistic site-level forecasts than previously employed, such that higher resolution operational studies are possible. This research feeds into a larger work of renewable integration through the links wind power forecasting has with various operational issues, such as stochastic unit commitment and flexible reserve level determination.

  13. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  14. Voxel-based analyses of gray/white matter volume and diffusion tensor data in major depression. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that frontolimbic dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. We used voxel-based analysis to simultaneously elucidate regional changes in gray/white matter volume, mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the central nervous system of patients with unipolar major depression. We studied 21 right-handed patients and 42 age- and gender-matched right-handed normal subjects without central nervous system disorders. All image processing and statistical analyses were performed using SPM5 software. Local areas showing significant gray matter volume reduction in depressive patients compared with normal controls were observed in the right parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, left parietal and occipital lobes, and right superior temporal gyrus. Local areas showing increased mean diffusivity in depressive patients were observed in the bilateral parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus, pons, cerebellum, left frontal and temporal lobes, and right frontal lobe. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups for fractional anisotropy and white matter volume in the entire brain. Although there was no local area in which FA and MD were significantly correlated with disease severity, FA tended to correlate negatively with depression days (total accumulated days in depressive state) in the right anterior cingulate and the left frontal white matter (FDR-corrected P=0.055 for both areas). These results suggest that the frontolimbic neural circuit may play an important role in the neuropathology of patients with major depression. (author)

  15. Optimisation of recovery protocols for double-base smokeless powder residues analysed by total vaporisation (TV) SPME/GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzier, Georgina; Bors, Dana; Ash, Jordan; Goodpaster, John V; Lewis, Simon W

    2016-09-01

    The investigation of explosive events requires appropriate evidential protocols to recover and preserve residues from the scene. In this study, a central composite design was used to determine statistically validated optimum recovery parameters for double-base smokeless powder residues on steel, analysed using total vaporisation (TV) SPME/GC-MS. It was found that maximum recovery was obtained using isopropanol-wetted swabs stored under refrigerated conditions, then extracted for 15min into acetone on the same day as sample collection. These parameters were applied to the recovery of post-blast residues deposited on steel witness surfaces following a PVC pipe bomb detonation, resulting in detection of all target components across the majority of samples. Higher overall recoveries were obtained from plates facing the sides of the device, consistent with the point of first failure occurring in the pipe body as observed in previous studies. The methodology employed here may be readily applied to a variety of other explosive compounds, and thus assist in establishing 'best practice' procedures for explosive investigations. PMID:27343617

  16. High temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor steady state thermal-hydraulics analyses based on CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Based on general purpose CFD code Fluent, the PBMR-400 full load nominal condition thermal-hydraulics performance was studied by applying local thermal non-equilibrium porous media model. Purpose: In thermal hydraulics study of the gas cooled pebble bed reactor, the core of the reactor can be treated as macroscopic porous media with strong inner heat source, and the original Fluent code can not handle it properly. Methods: By introducing a UDS in the calculation domain of the reactor core and subjoining a new resistance term, we develop a non-equilibrium porous media model which can give an accurate description of the core of the pebble bed. The mesh of CFD code is finer than that of the traditional pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics analysis code such as THERMIX and TINTE, thus more information about coolant velocity fields, temperature field and solid phase temperature field can be acquired. Results: The nominal condition calculation results of the CFD code are compared to those of the well-established thermal-hydraulic code THERMIX and TINTE, and show a good consistency. Conclusion: The extended local thermal non-equilibrium model can be used to analyse thermal-hydraulics of high temperature pebble bed type reactor. (authors)

  17. Polymorphisms in the XPC gene affect urinary bladder cancer risk: a case-control study, meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    Compromised activity of the DNA repair enzymes may raise the risk of a number of cancers. We analyzed polymorphisms in the Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C (XPC) gene for their correlation with urinary bladder cancer. Ala499Val and Lys939Gln polymorphisms were genotyped in 234 urinary bladder cancer cases and 258 control samples. A significant association between Ala499Val polymorphism and bladder cancer was observed (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.19-2.66, p = 0.005); however, Lys939Gln was unrelated (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.65-1.45, P = 0.89). Further analysis revealed that Ala499Val was a significant risk factor only in the presence of smoking (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.28-3.87, p < 0.004) or tobacco chewing (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.43-4.04, p = 0.0008). To further appraise the association, we undertook meta-analyses on seven studies (2893 cases and 3056 controls) on Ala499Val polymorphism and eleven studies (5064 cases and 5208 controls) on Lys939Gln polymorphism. Meta-analyses corroborated the above results, showing strong association of Ala499Val (OR = 1.54, CI = 1.21-1.97, p = 0.001) but not that of Lys939Gln (OR = 1.13, CI = 0.95-1.34, p = 0.171) with urinary bladder cancer risk. In conclusion, XPC Ala499Val substitution increases urinary bladder cancer risk, but Lys939Gln appears to be neutral. PMID:27246180

  18. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF) and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  19. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    Full Text Available Yellow fever (YF is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  20. Analyses of Large Coal-Based SOFCs for High Power Stack Block Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P; Koeppel, Brian J

    2010-10-01

    This report summarizes the numerical modeling and analytical efforts for SOFC stack development performed for the coal-based SOFC program. The stack modeling activities began in 2004, but this report focuses on the most relevant results obtained since August 2008. This includes the latter half of Phase-I and all of Phase-II activities under technical guidance of VPS and FCE. The models developed to predict the thermal-flow-electrochemical behaviors and thermal-mechanical responses of generic planar stacks and towers are described. The effects of cell geometry, fuel gas composition, on-cell reforming, operating conditions, cell performance, seal leak, voltage degradation, boundary conditions, and stack height are studied. The modeling activities to evaluate and achieve technical targets for large stack blocks are described, and results from the latest thermal-fluid-electrochemical and structural models are summarized. Modeling results for stack modifications such as scale-up and component thickness reduction to realize cost reduction are presented. Supporting modeling activities in the areas of cell fabrication and loss of contact are also described.

  1. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomin Batnyam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR- and DNA-sequencing primers. It compares the sequences from six different primates (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque and designs primers on the conserved region across species. UniPrimer is linked to RepeatMasker, Primer3Plus, and OligoCalc softwares to produce primers with high accuracy and UCSC In-Silico PCR to confirm whether the designed primers work. To test the performance of UniPrimer, we designed primers on sample sequences using UniPrimer and manually designed primers for the same sequences. The comparison of the two processes showed that UniPrimer was more effective than manual work in terms of saving time and reducing errors.

  2. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnyam, Nomin; Lee, Jimin; Lee, Jungnam; Hong, Seung Bok; Oh, Sejong; Han, Kyudong

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR- and DNA-sequencing primers. It compares the sequences from six different primates (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) and designs primers on the conserved region across species. UniPrimer is linked to RepeatMasker, Primer3Plus, and OligoCalc softwares to produce primers with high accuracy and UCSC In-Silico PCR to confirm whether the designed primers work. To test the performance of UniPrimer, we designed primers on sample sequences using UniPrimer and manually designed primers for the same sequences. The comparison of the two processes showed that UniPrimer was more effective than manual work in terms of saving time and reducing errors. PMID:22693428

  3. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor: association analyses for obesity of several polymorphisms in large study groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rief Winfried

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP is postulated to be involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. It exerts its function through its receptor, GIPR. We genotyped three GIPR SNPs (rs8111428, rs2302382 and rs1800437 in German families with at least one obese index patient, two case-control studies and two cross-sectional population-based studies. Methods Genotyping was performed by MALDI-TOF, ARMS-PCR and RFLP. The family-study: 761 German families with at least one extremely obese child or adolescent (n = 1,041 and both parents (n = 1,522. Case-control study: (a German obese children (n = 333 and (b obese adults (n = 987 in comparison to 588 adult lean controls. The two cross-sectional population-based studies: KORA (n = 8,269 and SHIP (n = 4,310. Results We detected over-transmission of the A-allele of rs2302382 in the German families (pTDT-Test = 0.0089. In the combined case-control sample, we estimated an odd ratio of 1.54 (95%CI 1.09;2.19, pCA-Test = 0.014 for homozygotes of the rs2302382 A-allele compared to individuals with no A-allele. A similar trend was found in KORA where the rs2302382 A-allele led to an increase of 0.12 BMI units (p = 0.136. In SHIP, however, the A-allele of rs2302382 was estimated to contribute an average decrease of 0.27 BMI units (p-value = 0.031. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential relevance of GIPR variants for obesity. However, additional studies are warranted in light of the conflicting results obtained in one of the two population-based studies.

  4. Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses - Literature-based Recommendations for Evaluating Strengths, Weaknesses, and Clinical Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Janice M; Bolton, Laura L

    2015-11-01

    Good quality systematic reviews (SRs) summarizing best available evidence can help inform clinical decisions, improv- ing patient and wound outcomes. Weak SRs can misinform readers, undermining care decisions and evidence-based practice. To examine the strengths and weaknesses of SRs and meta-analyses and the role of SRs in contemporary evidence-based wound care practice, and using the search terms systematic review, meta-analysis, and evidence-based practice, the authors searched Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for important terminology and recommendations to help clinicians evaluate SRs with meta-analysis. Reputable websites, recent textbooks, and synthesized available literature also were reviewed to describe and summarize SR strengths and weaknesses. After developing a checklist for critically evaluating SR objectives, inclusion/exclusion criteria, study quality, data extraction and synthesis methods, meta-analysis homogeneity, accuracy of results, interpretation, and consistency between significant findings and abstract or conclusions, the checklist was applied to topical wound care SRs identified in Cochrane and MEDLINE searches. Best available evidence included in the SRs from 169 randomized controlled trials on 11,571 patients supporting topical intervention healing effects on burns, surgical sites, and diabetic, venous, or pressure ulcers was summarized and showed SRs and clinical trials can demonstrate different outcomes because the information/data are compiled differently. The results illustrate how evidence insufficient to support firm conclusions may still meet immediate needs to guide carefully considered clinical wound and patient care decisions while encouraging better future science. PMID:26544016

  5. Parametric Study of Control Rod Exposure for PWR Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Interim Staff Guidance on burnup credit (ISG-8) for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Spent Fuel Project Office, recommends the use of analyses that provide an ''adequate representation of the physics'' and notes particular concern with the ''need to consider the more reactive actinide compositions of fuels burned with fixed absorbers or with control rods fully or partly inserted.'' In the absence of readily available information on the extent of control rod (CR) usage in U.S. PWRs and the subsequent reactivity effect of CR exposure on discharged SNF, NRC staff have indicated a need for greater understanding in these areas. In response, this paper presents results of a parametric study of the effect of CR exposure on the reactivity of discharged SNF for various CR designs (including Axial Power Shaping Rods), fuel enrichments, and exposure conditions (i.e., burnup and axial insertion). The study is performed in two parts. In the first part, two-dimensional calculations are performed, effectively assuming full axial CR insertion. These calculations are intended to bound the effect of CR exposure and facilitate comparisons of the various CR designs. In the second part, three-dimensional calculations are performed to determine the effect of various axial insertion conditions and gain a better understanding of reality. The results from the study demonstrate that the reactivity effect increases with increasing CR exposure (e.g., burnup) and decreasing initial fuel enrichment (for a fixed burnup). Additionally, the results show that even for significant burnup exposures, minor axial CR insertions (e.g., eff of a spent fuel cask

  6. Elemental analyses of pine bark and wood in an environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Process Chemistry Group, AAbo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FIN-20500 AAbo (Finland); Lill, J.-O.; Heselius, S.-J. [Turku PET Centre, Accelerator Laboratory, AAbo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FIN-20500 AAbo (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Department of Geology and Mineralogy, AAbo Akademi University, Domkyrkotorget 1, FIN-20500 AAbo (Finland); Mattsson, K. [Department of Biology, AAbo Akademi University, BioCity, Artillerig. 6, FIN-20500 AAbo (Finland)

    2005-05-01

    Bark and wood samples were taken from the same individuals of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area close to a Cu-Ni smelter in Harjavalta and from some relatively unpolluted areas in western Finland. The samples were analysed by thick-target particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) after preconcentration by dry ashing at 550 {sup o}C. The elemental contents of pine bark and wood were compared to study the impact of heavy metal pollution on pine trees. By comparison of the elemental contents in ashes of bark and wood, a normalisation was obtained. For the relatively clean areas, the ratios of the concentration in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash for different elements were close to 1. This means that the ashes of Scots Pine wood and bark have quite similar elemental composition. For the samples from the polluted area the mean concentration ratios for some heavy metals were elevated (13-28), reflecting the effect of direct atmospheric contamination. The metal contents in the ashes of pine bark and wood were also compared to recommendations for ashes to be recycled back to the forest environment. Bark from areas close to emission sources of heavy metal pollution should be considered with caution if aiming at recycling the ash. Burning of bark fuel of pine grown within 6 km of the Cu-Ni smelter is shown to generate ashes with high levels of Cu, Ni as well as Cd, As and Pb. (author)

  7. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods – a case study in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-C. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  8. Sensitivity studies for 3-D rod ejection analyses on axial power shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Park, Guen-Tae; Ryu, Seok-Hee; Um, Kil-Sup; Lee, Jae-Il [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The current safety analysis methodology using the point kinetics model combined with numerous conservative assumptions result in unrealistic prediction of the transient behavior wasting huge margin for safety analyses while the safety regulation criteria for the reactivity initiated accident are going strict. To deal with this, KNF is developing a 3-D rod ejection analysis methodology using the multi-dimensional code coupling system CHASER. The CHASER system couples three-dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, sub-channel analysis code THALES, and fuel performance analysis code FROST using message passing interface (MPI). A sensitivity study for 3-D rod ejection analysis on axial power shape (APS) is carried out to survey the tendency of safety parameters by power distributions and to build up a realistic safety analysis methodology while maintaining conservatism. The currently developing 3-D rod ejection analysis methodology using the multi-dimensional core transient analysis code system, CHASER was shown to reasonably reflect the conservative assumptions by tuning up kinetic parameters.

  9. Scaling and Spectral Analyses Based on Spatial Correlation Functions of Urban Form

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Urban form has been empirically demonstrated to be of scaling invariance and can be described with fractal geometry. However, the valid range of fractal dimension and the relationships between various fractal indicators of cities are not yet revealed in theory. Especially, systematic methods of spatial analysis have not yet been developed for fractal cities. By mathematical deduction and transformation (e.g. Fourier transform), I find that scaling analysis, spectral analysis, and spatial correlation analysis are all associated with fractal concepts and can be integrated into a new approach to fractal analysis of cities. This method can be termed '3S analyses' of urban form. Using the 3S analysis, I derived a set of fractal parameter equations, by which different fractal parameters of cities can be linked up with one another. Each fractal parameter has its own reasonable range of values. According to the fractal parameter equations, the intersection of the rational ranges of different fractal parameters sugges...

  10. Predictability of the monthly North Atlantic Oscillation index based on fractal analyses and dynamic system theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The predictability of the monthly North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO, index is analysed from the point of view of different fractal concepts and dynamic system theory such as lacunarity, rescaled analysis (Hurst exponent and reconstruction theorem (embedding and correlation dimensions, Kolmogorov entropy and Lyapunov exponents. The main results point out evident signs of randomness and the necessity of stochastic models to represent time evolution of the NAO index. The results also show that the monthly NAO index behaves as a white-noise Gaussian process. The high minimum number of nonlinear equations needed to describe the physical process governing the NAO index fluctuations is evidence of its complexity. A notable predictive instability is indicated by the positive Lyapunov exponents. Besides corroborating the complex time behaviour of the NAO index, present results suggest that random Cantor sets would be an interesting tool to model lacunarity and time evolution of the NAO index.

  11. Variability Abstractions: Trading Precision for Speed in Family-Based Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Family-based (lifted) data-flow analysis for Software Product Lines (SPLs) is capable of analyzing all valid products (variants) without generating any of them explicitly. It takes as input only the common code base, which encodes all variants of a SPL, and produces analysis results corresponding...

  12. Diffraction Studies from Minerals to Organics - Lessons Learned from Materials Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, Pamela S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In many regards the study of materials and minerals by powder diffraction techniques are complimentary, with techniques honed in one field equally applicable to the other. As a long-time materials researcher many of the examples are of techniques developed for materials analysis applied to minerals. However in a couple of cases the study of new minerals was the initiation into techniques later used in materials-based studies. Hopefully they will show that the study of new minerals structures can provide opportunities to add new methodologies and approaches to future problems. In keeping with the AXAA many of the examples have an Australian connection, the materials ranging from organics to battery materials.

  13. Data base management study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  14. Explorations in genome-wide association studies and network analyses with dairy cattle fertility traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Null, D J; Cole, J B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene networks associated with 3 fertility traits in dairy cattle-daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate-using different approaches. Deregressed predicted transmitting abilities were available for approximately 24,000 Holstein bulls and 36,000 Holstein cows sampled from the National Dairy Database with high-density genotypes. Of those, 1,732 bulls and 375 cows had been genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The remaining animals were genotyped with various chips of lower density that were imputed to high density. Univariate and trivariate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with both medium- (60,671 markers) and high-density (312,614 markers) panels were performed for daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate using GEMMA (version 0.94; http://www.xzlab.org/software.html). Analyses were conducted using bulls only, cows only, and a sample of both bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was used to develop gene interaction networks. The most significant markers were further investigated to identify putatively associated genes. Little overlap in associated genes could be found between GWAS using different reference populations of bulls only, cows only, and combined bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was able to identify several genes that were not identified by ordinary GWAS. The results obtained herein will aid in further dissecting the complex biology underlying fertility traits in dairy cattle, while also providing insight into the nuances of GWAS. PMID:27209127

  15. Partial correlation analyses of global diffusion tensor imaging-derived metrics in glioblastoma multiforme: Pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Cortez-Conradis; Camilo; Rios; Sergio; Moreno-Jimenez; Ernesto; Roldan-Valadez; Ernesto; Roldan-Valadez

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine existing correlates among diffusion tensor imaging(DTI)-derived metrics in healthy brains and brains with glioblastoma multiforme(GBM). METHODS: Case-control study using DTI data from brain magnetic resonance imaging of 34 controls(mean, 41.47; SD, ± 21.94 years; range, 21-80 years) and 27 patients with GBM(mean, SD; 48.41 ± 15.18 years; range, 18-78 years). Image postprocessing using FSL software calculated eleven tensor metrics: fractional(FA) and relative anisotropy; pure isotropic(p) and anisotropic diffusions(q), total magnitude of diffusion(L); linear(Cl), planar(Cp) and spherical tensors(Cs); mean(MD), axial(AD) and radial diffusivities(RD). Partial correlation analyses(controlling the effect of ageand gender) and multivariate Mancova were performed.RESULTS: There was a normal distribution for all metrics. Comparing healthy brains vs brains with GBM, there were significant very strong bivariate correlations only depicted in GBM: [FA?Cl(+)], [FA?q(+)], [p?AD(+)], [AD?MD(+)], and [MD?RD(+)]. Among 56 pairs of bivariate correlations, only seven were significantly different. The diagnosis variable depicted a main effect [F-value(11, 23) = 11.842, P ≤ 0.001], with partial eta squared = 0.850, meaning a large effect size; age showed a similar result. The age also had a significant influence as a covariate [F(11, 23) = 10.523, P < 0.001], with a large effect size(partial eta squared = 0.834).CONCLUSION: DTI-derived metrics depict significant differences between healthy brains and brains with GBM, with specific magnitudes and correlations. This study provides reference data and makes a contribution to decrease the underlying empiricism in the use of DTI parameters in brain imaging.

  16. Developing computational model-based diagnostics to analyse clinical chemistry data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Bochove, K. van; Ommen, B. van; Freidig, A.P.; Someren, E.P. van; Greef, J. van der; Graaf, A.A. de

    2010-01-01

    This article provides methodological and technical considerations to researchers starting to develop computational model-based diagnostics using clinical chemistry data.These models are of increasing importance, since novel metabolomics and proteomics measuring technologies are able to produce large

  17. Exploring the World of Agent-Based Simulations: Simple Models, Complex Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Susan M.; Lucas, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference E. Yücesan, C.-H. Chen, J. L. Snowdon, and J. M. Charnes, eds. Agent-based simulations are models where multiple entities sense and stochastically respond to conditions in their local environments, mimicking complex large-scale system behavior. We provide an overview of some important issues in the modeling and analysis of agent-based systems. Examples are drawn from a range of fields: biological modeling, sociologic...

  18. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyllas, N. M.; Gloor, E.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Quesada, C. A.; Domingues, T. F.; Galbraith, D. R.; Torre-Lezama, A.; Vilanova, E.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Higuchi, N.; Neill, D. A.; Silveira, M.; Ferreira, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-07-01

    Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth, designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR), has been developed. The model allows for within-stand variations in tree size distribution and key functional traits and between-stand differences in climate and soil physical and chemical properties. It runs at the stand level with four functional traits - leaf dry mass per area (Ma), leaf nitrogen (NL) and phosphorus (PL) content and wood density (DW) varying from tree to tree - in a way that replicates the observed continua found within each stand. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three eddy covariance flux measurement sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for larger trees. At the stand level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil nutrient availability on the gross (ΠG) and net (ΠN) primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU). Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. On the other hand, all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to both mean annual precipitation and soil nutrient status

  19. Advances in global sensitivity analyses of demographic-based species distribution models to address uncertainties in dynamic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujokaitis-Lewis, Ilona; Curtis, Janelle M R

    2016-01-01

    Developing a rigorous understanding of multiple global threats to species persistence requires the use of integrated modeling methods that capture processes which influence species distributions. Species distribution models (SDMs) coupled with population dynamics models can incorporate relationships between changing environments and demographics and are increasingly used to quantify relative extinction risks associated with climate and land-use changes. Despite their appeal, uncertainties associated with complex models can undermine their usefulness for advancing predictive ecology and informing conservation management decisions. We developed a computationally-efficient and freely available tool (GRIP 2.0) that implements and automates a global sensitivity analysis of coupled SDM-population dynamics models for comparing the relative influence of demographic parameters and habitat attributes on predicted extinction risk. Advances over previous global sensitivity analyses include the ability to vary habitat suitability across gradients, as well as habitat amount and configuration of spatially-explicit suitability maps of real and simulated landscapes. Using GRIP 2.0, we carried out a multi-model global sensitivity analysis of a coupled SDM-population dynamics model of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in Mount Rainier National Park as a case study and quantified the relative influence of input parameters and their interactions on model predictions. Our results differed from the one-at-time analyses used in the original study, and we found that the most influential parameters included the total amount of suitable habitat within the landscape, survival rates, and effects of a prevalent disease, white pine blister rust. Strong interactions between habitat amount and survival rates of older trees suggests the importance of habitat in mediating the negative influences of white pine blister rust. Our results underscore the importance of considering habitat attributes along

  20. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaoyan; HU Xiaozhong; Khaled A. S. AL-RASHEID; Saieh A. AL-FARRAJ; SONG Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and -αtubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxylricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  1. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  2. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  3. Syntheses,Structure Analyses and Thermal Stabilities of Two Schiff Base Metal Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yinli; CHEN Sanping; FAN Guang; ZHAO Zhijie; GAO Shengli

    2009-01-01

    A Schiff base ligand 1-salicylideneamino-l,3,4-triazole(L)was prepared.Two new complexes with Schiff base,takes a mononuclear zinc structure and the coordination geometry of zinc atom exhibits a distorted tetrahedron,in which a zig-zag chain is constructed through hydrogen bonding interactions.A 2D supramolecular network is formed through π-π stacking between triazole planes and phenyl planes of adjacent chains,and a 3D supramolecular network is further constructed by these non-covalent π-π stacking interactions between the triazole planes of neighboring layers.Complex 2 takes a dinuclear structure with the bidentate-bridging Schiff base ligands,and cobalt site exhibits a distorted octahedron.The lattice water molecules and neutral complex 2 units form a dimer with hydrogen bonding interactions.In addition,IR and thermal gravimetric analysis are presented.

  4. Präferenzmessung für Automobile mit alternativen Antriebssystemen - Eine Anwendung adaptiver hybrider Verfahren der Choice-based-Conjoint-Analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden Präferenzen für Automobile mit alternativen Antriebssystemen in Deutschland untersucht. Für die Präferenzanalyse werden adaptive hybride Verfahren der Choice-based-Conjoint-Analyse verwendet. Die Ergebnisse der empirischen Studie zeigen, dass sich die bestehende Heterogenität der Antriebspräferenzen anhand individueller psychografischer Merkmale erklären lässt. Zum Beispiel bevorzugen besonders umweltbewusst eingestellte Personen batterie-elektrische Antriebe im Vergle...

  5. Development and validation of a preference based measure derived from the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) for use in cost utility analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Meads David M; Ratcliffe Julie; McKenna Stephen P; Brazier John E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pulmonary Hypertension is a severe and incurable disease with poor prognosis. A suite of new disease-specific measures – the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) – was recently developed for use in this condition. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preference based measure from the CAMPHOR that could be used in cost-utility analyses. Methods Items were selected that covered major issues covered by the CAMPHOR QoL scale (activities,...

  6. G-BASE data conditioning procedures for stream sediment and soil chemical analyses

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Lister; Johnson, C C

    2005-01-01

    Data conditioning is the process of making data fit for the purpose for which it is to be used and forms a significant component of the G-BASE project. This report is part of a series of manuals to record G-BASE project methodology. For data conditioning this has been difficult as applications used for processing data and the way in which data are reported continue to evolve rapidly and sections of this report have had to be continually updated to reflect this fact. However, the principals of...

  7. Development of gas chromatographic methods for the analyses of organic carbonate-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terborg, Lydia; Weber, Sascha; Passerini, Stefano; Winter, Martin; Karst, Uwe; Nowak, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, novel methods based on gas chromatography (GC) for the investigation of common organic carbonate-based electrolyte systems are presented, which are used in lithium ion batteries. The methods were developed for flame ionization detection (FID), mass spectrometric detection (MS). Further, headspace (HS) sampling for the investigation of solid samples like electrodes is reported. Limits of detection are reported for FID. Finally, the developed methods were applied to the electrolyte system of commercially available lithium ion batteries as well as on in-house assembled cells.

  8. Analysing Regional Land Surface Temperature Changes by Satellite Data, a Case Study of Zonguldak, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, S.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, climate change is one of the most important problems that the ecological system of the world has been encountering. Global warming and climate change have been studied frequently by all disciplines all over the world and Geomatics Engineering also contributes to such studies by means of remote sensing, global positioning system etc. Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing satellites is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and there are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. Generally three algorithms are used to obtain LST by using Landsat 5 TM data. These algorithms are radiative transfer equation method, single channel method and mono-window algorithm. Radiative transfer equation method is not applicable because during the satellite pass, atmospheric parameters must be measured in-situ. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Acquisition date of the image is 28.08.2011 and our study area is Zonguldak, Turkey. High resolution images are used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of these analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperature than the city center and arid land. Because different surface properties like reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank are all together in city center, LST differs about 10 ºC in the city center. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature because of land cover structure. Thanks to this

  9. Horticulture III, IV, and V. Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the horticulture program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for horticulture III, IV, and V. For each task, applicable information pertaining to performance and enabling objectives,…

  10. Bragg prism monochromator and analyser for super ultra-small angle neutron scattering studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Sohrab Abbas; Markus Strobl; Wolfgang Treimer

    2008-11-01

    We have designed, fabricated and operated a novel Bragg prism monochromator–analyser combination. With a judicious choice of the Bragg reflection, its asymmetry and the apex angle of the silicon single crystal prism, the monochromator has produced a neutron beam with sub-arcsec collimation. A Bragg prism analyser with the opposite asymmetry has been tailored to accept a still sharper angular profile. With this optimized monochromator–analyser pair, we have attained the narrowest and sharpest neutron angular profile to date. At this facility, we have recorded the first SUSANS spectra spanning wave vector transfers ∼ 10−6 Å-1 to characterize samples containing agglomerates up to tens of micrometres in size.

  11. Intra-specific genetic relationship analyses of Elaeagnus angustifolia based on RP-HPLC biochemical markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. has various ecological, medicinal and economical uses. An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to classify and analyse the intra-specific genetic relationships of seventeen populations of E. angustifolia, collected from the Xinjiang areas of China. Chromatograms of alcohol-soluble proteins produced by seventeen populations ofE. angustifolia, were compared. Each chromatogram of alcohol-soluble proteins came from a single seed of one wild plant only. The results showed that when using a Waters Delta Pak. C18, 5 μm particle size reversed phase column (150 mm×3.9 mm), a linear gradient of 25%~60% solvent B with flow rate of 1 ml/min and run time of 67 min, the chromatography yielded optimum separation ofE. angustifolia alcohol-soluble proteins. Representative peaks in each population were chosen according to peak area and occurrence in every seed. The converted data on the elution peaks of each population were different and could be used to represent those populations. GSC (genetic similarity coefficients) of 41% to 62% showed a medium degree of genetic diversity among the populations in these eco-areas. Cluster analysis showed that the seventeen populations ofE. angustifolia could be divided into six clusters at the GSC=0.535 level and indicated the general and unique biochemical markers of these clusters. We suggest that E. angustifolia distribution in these eco-areas could be classified into six variable species. RP-HPLC was shown to be a rapid, repeatable and reliable method for E. angustifolia classification and identification and for analysis of genetic diversity.

  12. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed

    2007-12-01

    The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources. PMID:18268376

  13. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources

  14. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed [FUM Radiation Detection And Measurement Laboratory, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The {sup 252}Cf radioisotope and {sup 241}Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be sources.

  15. Are Gene Expression Microarray Analyses Reliable? A Review of Studies of Retinoic Acid Responsive Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter J. van der Spek; Andreas Kremer; Lynn Murry; Michael G. Walker

    2003-01-01

    Microarray analyses of gene expression are widely used, but reports of the same analyses by different groups give widely divergent results, and raise questions regarding reproducibility and reliability. We take as an example recent published reports on microarray experiments that were designed to identify retinoic acid responsive genes. These reports show substantial differences in their results. In this article, we review the methodology, results, and potential causes of differences in these applications of microarrays. Finally, we suggest practices to improve the reliability and reproducibility of microarray experiments.

  16. Are Gene Expression Microarray Analyses Reliable? A Review of Studies of Retinoic Acid Responsive Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterJ.vanderSpek; AndreasKremer; LynnMurry; MichaelG.Walker

    2003-01-01

    Microarray analyses of gene expression are widely used,but reports of the same analyses by different groups give widely divergent results,and raise questions regarding reproducibility and reliability.We take as an example recent published reports on microarray experiments that were designed to identify retinoic acid responsive genes.These reports show substantial differences in their results.In this article,we review the methodology,results,and potential causes of differences in these applications of microarrays.Finally,we suggest practices to improve the reliability and reproducibility of microarray experiments.

  17. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  18. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe, E-mail: vine@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus [Econet AS, Omøgade 8, 2.sal, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  19. [Analyses of biogenic related compounds based on intramolecular excimer-forming fluorescence derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideyuki

    2003-08-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method based on a novel concept is introduced for the assay of biological substances. This method is based on an intramolecular excimer-forming fluorescence derivatization with a pyrene reagent, followed by reverse-phase HPLC. Polyamines, polyphenols, and dicarboxylic acids, which have two or more reactive functional groups in a molecule, were converted to the corresponding polypyrene-labeled derivatives by reaction with the appropriate pyrene reagent. The derivatives exhibited intramolecular excimer fluorescence (440-520 nm), which can clearly be discriminated from the monomer (normal) fluorescence (360-420 nm) emitted by pyrene reagents and monopyrene-labeled derivatives of monofunctional compounds. With excimer fluorescence detection, highly selective and sensitive determination of polyamines, polyphenols, and dicarboxylic acids can be achieved. Furthermore, the methods were successfully applied to the determination of various biological and environmental substances in real samples, which require only a small amount of sample and simple pretreatment.

  20. Critical experiments analyses by using 70 energy group library based on ENDF/B-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yoshihisa; Matsumoto, Hideki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center; Huria, H.C.; Ouisloumen, M.

    1998-03-01

    The newly developed 70-group library has been validated by comparing kinf from a continuous energy Monte-Carlo code MCNP and two dimensional spectrum calculation code PHOENIX-CP. The code employs Discrete Angular Flux Method based on Collision Probability. The library has been also validated against a large number of critical experiments and numerical benchmarks for assemblies with MOX and Gd fuels. (author)

  1. Optimised procedure to analyse maillard reaction-associated fluorescence in cereal-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Andrade, Cristina; Rufián Henares, J. A.; Morales, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent Maillard compounds measurement provides more specific information on the extent of the Maillard reaction than other unspecific tools to monitor the reaction, and is suitable, as the first approach, to assess the nutritional quality of foods as related to protein damage. This work presents an optimised laboratory procedure for the measurement of total fluorescent intermediate compounds (FIC) associated with Maillard reaction, described and evaluated in a cereal-based product. Total...

  2. Energetic and Exergetic Performance Analyses of Solar Dish Based CO2 Combined Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumitra; Ghosh, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual configuration of a solar dish based combined cycle power plant with a topping gas turbine block and a bottoming steam turbine cycle coupled through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Carbon dioxide has been considered as the working fluid for the topping cycle and it has been considered in gaseous state all through the cycle. Two-stage compression has been proposed for the carbon dioxide cycle. The conventional GT combustion chamber is replaced by a high-...

  3. Generation and Nonlinear Dynamical Analyses of Fractional-Order Memristor-Based Lorenz Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huiling Xi; Yuxia Li; Xia Huang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, four fractional-order memristor-based Lorenz systems with the flux-controlled memristor characterized by a monotone-increasing piecewise linear function, a quadratic nonlinearity, a smooth continuous cubic nonlinearity and a quartic nonlinearity are presented, respectively. The nonlinear dynamics are analyzed by using numerical simulation methods, including phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams, the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectrum diagrams. Some interesting phenome...

  4. Extended Distance-based Phylogenetic Analyses Applied to 3D Homo Fossil Skull Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Waddell, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how 3D geometric morphometric data can be analyzed using newly developed distance-based evolutionary tree inference methods, with extensions to planar graphs. Application of these methods to 3D representations of the skullcap (calvaria) of 13 diverse skulls in the genus Homo, ranging from Homo erectus (ergaster) at about 1.6 mya, all the way forward to modern humans, yields a remarkably clear phylogenetic tree. Various evolutionary hypotheses are tested. Results of these te...

  5. PRODUCTION PROCESS DESIGN OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS BASED ON FUNCTIONAL VALUE ANALYSES

    OpenAIRE

    Pershakova T. V.; Shubina L. N.; Derenkova I. A.; Naumov N. N.

    2015-01-01

    The article substantiates the feasibility of the method of functional value analysis application to ensure high efficiency for the production of functional food products. This article describes the design technique of food functionality based on the methodology of value analysis, allowing considering such factors as consumer preferences, nutritional, functional value, economic and technological indicators while developing product formulations and technologies. With the example of flour confec...

  6. Using knowledge based micro simulation in analysing the application of legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, J.S.; Wassink, J.G.J.

    1993-01-01

    The method of knowledge based micro simulation (KBMS) was developed to help determine (ex-ante) the socio-economic consequences of social security legislation. This paper discusses the possibilities of the KBMS method in the proces of ex-post evaluation of legislation, namely in monitoring the application of legislation by the (local) administrative organisations. The two possibilities that are discussed are: - the monitoring of actual compliance with legislation by the administrative organis...

  7. Integrated Genomic and Network-Based Analyses of Complex Diseases and Human Disease Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harazi, Olfat; Al Insaif, Sadiq; Al-Ajlan, Monirah A; Kaya, Namik; Dzimiri, Nduna; Colak, Dilek

    2016-06-20

    A disease phenotype generally reflects various pathobiological processes that interact in a complex network. The highly interconnected nature of the human protein interaction network (interactome) indicates that, at the molecular level, it is difficult to consider diseases as being independent of one another. Recently, genome-wide molecular measurements, data mining and bioinformatics approaches have provided the means to explore human diseases from a molecular basis. The exploration of diseases and a system of disease relationships based on the integration of genome-wide molecular data with the human interactome could offer a powerful perspective for understanding the molecular architecture of diseases. Recently, subnetwork markers have proven to be more robust and reliable than individual biomarker genes selected based on gene expression profiles alone, and achieve higher accuracy in disease classification. We have applied one of these methodologies to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) data that we have generated using a microarray and identified significant subnetworks associated with the disease. In this paper, we review the recent endeavours in this direction, and summarize the existing methodologies and computational tools for network-based analysis of complex diseases and molecular relationships among apparently different disorders and human disease network. We also discuss the future research trends and topics of this promising field. PMID:27318646

  8. Integrated Genomic and Network-Based Analyses of Complex Diseases and Human Disease Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harazi, Olfat; Al Insaif, Sadiq; Al-Ajlan, Monirah A; Kaya, Namik; Dzimiri, Nduna; Colak, Dilek

    2016-06-20

    A disease phenotype generally reflects various pathobiological processes that interact in a complex network. The highly interconnected nature of the human protein interaction network (interactome) indicates that, at the molecular level, it is difficult to consider diseases as being independent of one another. Recently, genome-wide molecular measurements, data mining and bioinformatics approaches have provided the means to explore human diseases from a molecular basis. The exploration of diseases and a system of disease relationships based on the integration of genome-wide molecular data with the human interactome could offer a powerful perspective for understanding the molecular architecture of diseases. Recently, subnetwork markers have proven to be more robust and reliable than individual biomarker genes selected based on gene expression profiles alone, and achieve higher accuracy in disease classification. We have applied one of these methodologies to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) data that we have generated using a microarray and identified significant subnetworks associated with the disease. In this paper, we review the recent endeavours in this direction, and summarize the existing methodologies and computational tools for network-based analysis of complex diseases and molecular relationships among apparently different disorders and human disease network. We also discuss the future research trends and topics of this promising field.

  9. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  10. Acquisition, Analyses and Interpretation of fMRI Data: A Study on the Effective Connectivity in Human Primary Auditory Cortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the effective connectivity characteristics in auditory cortices was conducted on five healthy Malay male subjects with the age of 20 to 40 years old using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), statistical parametric mapping (SPM5) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). A silent imaging paradigm was used to reduce the scanner sound artefacts on functional images. The subjects were instructed to pay attention to the white noise stimulus binaurally given at intensity level of 70 dB higher than the hearing level for normal people. Functional specialisation was studied using Matlab-based SPM5 software by means of fixed effects (FFX), random effects (RFX) and conjunction analyses. Individual analyses on all subjects indicate asymmetrical bilateral activation between the left and right auditory cortices in Brodmann areas (BA)22, 41 and 42 involving the primary and secondary auditory cortices. The three auditory areas in the right and left auditory cortices are selected for the determination of the effective connectivity by constructing 9 network models. The effective connectivity is determined on four out of five subjects with the exception of one subject who has the BA22 coordinates located too far from BA22 coordinates obtained from group analysis. DCM results showed the existence of effective connectivity between the three selected auditory areas in both auditory cortices. In the right auditory cortex, BA42 is identified as input centre with unidirectional parallel effective connectivities of BA42→BA41and BA42→BA22. However, for the left auditory cortex, the input is BA41 with unidirectional parallel effective connectivities of BA41→BA42 and BA41→BA22. The connectivity between the activated auditory areas suggests the existence of signal pathway in the auditory cortices even when the subject is listening to noise. (author)

  11. Neural Network-Based Model for Landslide Susceptibility and Soil Longitudinal Profile Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Barari, Amin; Choobbasti, A. J.;

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create an empirical model for assessing the landslide risk potential at Savadkouh Azad University, which is located in the rural surroundings of Savadkouh, about 5 km from the city of Pol-Sefid in northern Iran. The soil longitudinal profile of the city of Babol......, located 25 km from the Caspian Sea, also was predicted with an artificial neural network (ANN). A multilayer perceptron neural network model was applied to the landslide area and was used to analyze specific elements in the study area that contributed to previous landsliding events. The ANN models were...... studies in landslide susceptibility zonation....

  12. Root distribution analyses as a means of improving sensor-based deficit irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Sebastian; Werisch, Martin; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    The limited and seasonally variable availability of water and its efficient distribution when growing crops is still an unsolved problem in agriculture. Sensor-based deficit irrigation (DI), where a sensor is used to detect the soil water status and irrigation is provided according to certain threshold values, is one strategy to address that issue. Threshold values are needed that ensure high water productivity and high reliability. A stochastic approach of simulation and optimization in combination with irrigation experiments of drip irrigated maize for model parameterization was used to derive reliable soil water tension threshold values for irrigation control. A weakness of the applied model was the unknown parameterization of the plant root, which had to be included into the optimization besides parameters for the soil only, thus increasing the complexity of the problem. In a follow-up irrigation experiment with the same DI system parameters, focus was put on the investigation of the plant's root distribution in order to improve the validity of the model when determining optimal soil water tension threshold values in sensor-based deficit irrigation systems. Soil samples for a fully and a deficiently irrigated treatment during different stages of plant development were taken and the root density at different depths was determined. The difference in root growth for both treatments are shown and reliable soil water tension threshold values for varying values of irrigation parameters recalculated in a Monte Carlo simulation, after incorporating the new root parameterization into the model. This further improves the significance of derived threshold values and helps to assess possibilities and limitations of this approach when used for investigating the potentials of sensor-based DI systems.

  13. Generation and Nonlinear Dynamical Analyses of Fractional-Order Memristor-Based Lorenz Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Xi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, four fractional-order memristor-based Lorenz systems with the flux-controlled memristor characterized by a monotone-increasing piecewise linear function, a quadratic nonlinearity, a smooth continuous cubic nonlinearity and a quartic nonlinearity are presented, respectively. The nonlinear dynamics are analyzed by using numerical simulation methods, including phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams, the largest Lyapunov exponent and power spectrum diagrams. Some interesting phenomena, such as inverse period-doubling bifurcation and intermittent chaos, are found to exist in the proposed systems.

  14. Eye gaze in intelligent user interfaces gaze-based analyses, models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Yukiko I; Bader, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in eye-tracking technologies opened the way to design novel attention-based intelligent user interfaces, and highlighted the importance of better understanding of eye-gaze in human-computer interaction and human-human communication. For instance, a user's focus of attention is useful in interpreting the user's intentions, their understanding of the conversation, and their attitude towards the conversation. In human face-to-face communication, eye gaze plays an important role in floor management, grounding, and engagement in conversation.Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfac

  15. Cosmological Analyses Based On The Combined Planck And WMAP Mission Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles

    We propose to: (1) make a detailed comparison of WMAP, Planck, and other cosmic microwave background (CMB) data to understand areas of conflict, and if possible, resolve them; (2) combine WMAP and Planck data into a unified cosmological dataset; and (3)extend cosmological analyses with the combined data. Recent cosmological measurements have revolutionized cosmology and the CMB has played a crucial role. The Planck mission team just released cosmological data and papers, this on the heels of the WMAP team's release of final nine-year data and papers. This proposal is to compare and attempt to understand the subtle but important differences between the two recently released WMAP and Planck cosmological results, to combine the data so as to benefit from the full available small and larger scale measurements, and to use this to enhance cosmological solutions. The WMAP and Planck CMB cosmology datasets are broadly consistent with one another. Yet, differences exist beyond the fact that Planck data extend to finer angular scales than WMAP data. We propose to go beyond the "quick look" we have done so far to identify and help resolve discrepancies. We provide two examples of the kinds of discrepancies that should be resolved. Even though the Planck data release relied on the absolute calibration established by WMAP the two sets of analyzed data appear to be off by a factor of 0.975. This small but significant discrepancy is difficult to explain and merits investigation. Also, while cosmological parameters from Planck agree with WMAP parameters within 1.1# of the larger WMAP uncertainty, this large a discrepancy is difficult to explain in detail since the cosmic variance uncertainties that play a large role in the parameter uncertainties are common to Planck and WMAP: both missions view the same sky. These are just two examples; additional careful and detailed comparisons are required. Over the course of the last several years a number of scientists around the world

  16. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations

  17. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  18. Deconvoluting complex tissues for expression quantitative trait locus-based analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Ji-Heui; Li, Qiyuan; Fatima, Aquila;

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer genome-wide association studies have pinpointed dozens of variants associated with breast cancer pathogenesis. The majority of risk variants, however, are located outside of known protein-coding regions. Therefore, identifying which genes the risk variants are acting through present...

  19. Construct Validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist in Cancer Survivors: Analyses Based on Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuHamel, Katherine N.; Ostrof, Jamie; Ashman, Teresa; Winkel, Gary; Mundy, Elizabeth A.; Keane, Terence M.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Vickberg, Suzanne M. J.; Hurley, Karen; Chhabra, Rosy; Scigliano, Eileen; Papadopoulos, Esperanza; Moskowitz, Craig; Redd, William

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is critically important for the identification and treatment of this disorder. The PTSD Checklist (PCL; F. W. Weathers & J. Ford, 1996) is a self-report measure that is increasingly used. In this study, the authors investigated the factorial validity of the PCL with data from 236 cancer…

  20. Comprehensive review of genetic association studies and meta-analyses on miRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Srivastava

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of corresponding messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Variations in the level of expression of distinct miRNAs have been observed in the genesis, progression and prognosis of multiple human malignancies. The present study was aimed to investigate the association between four highly studied miRNA polymorphisms (mir-146a rs2910164, mir-196a2 rs11614913, mir-149 rs2292832 and mir-499 rs3746444 and cancer risk by using a two-sided meta-analytic approach. METHODS: An updated meta-analysis based on 53 independent case-control studies consisting of 27573 cancer cases and 34791 controls was performed. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used to investigate the strength of the association. RESULTS: Overall, the pooled analysis showed that mir-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (OR = 0.846, P = 0.004, TT vs. CC while other miRNA SNPs showed no association with overall cancer risk. Subgroup analyses based on type of cancer and ethnicity were also performed, and results indicated that there was a strong association between miR-146a rs2910164 and overall cancer risk in Caucasian population under recessive model (OR = 1.274, 95%CI = 1.096-1.481, P = 0.002. Stratified analysis by cancer type also associated mir-196a2 rs11614913 with lung and colorectal cancer at allelic and genotypic level. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests an important role of mir-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism with overall cancer risk especially in Asian population. Further studies with large sample size are needed to evaluate and confirm this association.

  1. Sources of variability and comparability between salmonid stomach contents and isotopic analyses: study design lessons and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    We compared sources of variability and cost in paired stomach content and stable isotope samples from three salmonid species collected in September 2001–2005 and describe the relative information provided by each method in terms of measuring diet overlap and food web study design. Based on diet analyses, diet overlap among brown trout, rainbow trout, and mountain whitefish was high, and we observed little variation in diets among years. In contrast, for sample sizes n ≥ 25, 95% confidence interval (CI) around mean δ15Ν and δ13C for the three target species did not overlap, and species, year, and fish size effects were significantly different, implying that these species likely consumed similar prey but in different proportions. Stable isotope processing costs were US$12 per sample, while stomach content analysis costs averaged US$25.49 ± $2.91 (95% CI) and ranged from US$1.50 for an empty stomach to US$291.50 for a sample with 2330 items. Precision in both δ15Ν and δ13C and mean diet overlap values based on stomach contents increased considerably up to a sample size of n = 10 and plateaued around n = 25, with little further increase in precision.

  2. Hierarchical segmentation-based software for cover classification analyses of seabed images (Seascape)

    OpenAIRE

    Teixidó, Nuria; Albajes-Eizagirre, Anton; Bolbo, Didier; Le Hir, Emilie; Demestre, Montserrat; Garrabou, Joaquim; Guigues, Laurent; Gili, Josep Maria; Piera, Jaume; Prelot, Thomas; Soria-Frisch, Aureli

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of marine research is to quantify the areal coverage of benthic communities. It is technically feasible to efficiently obtain images of marine environments at different depths and benthic habitats over large spatial and temporal scales. Currently, there is a large and growing library of digital images to analyze, representing a valuable benthic ecological archive. Benthic coverage is the basis of studies on biodiversity, characterization of communities and evaluation of ch...

  3. Determination of radioactive emission origins based on analyses of isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of radioactivity emissions can be determined through gamma spectroscopy of air samples with good precision, which means that the type of source of the emission may be found, e.g. nuclear weapons test, of nuclear power plant accident. Combined with information on wind trajectories it is normally possible to recognize time and area for the emission. In this preliminary study, the knowledge of and preparedness for such measurements are described. (L.E.)

  4. Epistatic Gene-Based Interaction Analyses for Glaucoma in eMERGE and NEIGHBOR Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shefali Setia; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Lucas, Anastasia; Bradford, Yuki; Linneman, James G; Hauser, Michael A; Pasquale, Louis R; Peissig, Peggy L; Brilliant, Murray H; McCarty, Catherine A; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L; Vrabec, Tamara R; Tromp, Gerard; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2016-09-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease and is one of the major leading causes of blindness worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified several common variants associated with glaucoma; however, most of these variants only explain a small proportion of the genetic risk. Apart from the standard approach to identify main effects of variants across the genome, it is believed that gene-gene interactions can help elucidate part of the missing heritability by allowing for the test of interactions between genetic variants to mimic the complex nature of biology. To explain the etiology of glaucoma, we first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on glaucoma case-control samples obtained from electronic medical records (EMR) to establish the utility of EMR data in detecting non-spurious and relevant associations; this analysis was aimed at confirming already known associations with glaucoma and validating the EMR derived glaucoma phenotype. Our findings from GWAS suggest consistent evidence of several known associations in POAG. We then performed an interaction analysis for variants found to be marginally associated with glaucoma (SNPs with main effect p-value value value <0.001) among the top 17 gene-gene models identified in the discovery phase. Variants from gene-gene interaction analysis that we found to be associated with POAG explain 3.5% of additional genetic variance in eMERGE dataset above what is explained by the SNPs in genes that are replicated from previous GWAS studies (which was only 2.1% variance explained in eMERGE dataset); in the NEIGHBOR dataset, adding replicated SNPs from gene-gene interaction analysis explain 3.4% of total variance whereas GWAS SNPs alone explain only 2.8% of variance. Exploring gene-gene interactions may provide additional insights into many complex traits when explored in properly designed and powered association studies. PMID:27623284

  5. Long-term hydrometeorological measurements and model-based analyses in the hydrological research catchment Rietholzbach

    OpenAIRE

    Gurtz, J.; Verbunt, M.; Zappa, M.; Moesch, M.; Pos, F.; Moser, U.

    2003-01-01

    In this study a 25-year (1976–2000) series of observed precipitation, temperature, runoff and further water-flows of a lysimeter balance within the pre-alpine research catchment Rietholzbach (Switzerland) is analyzed. The comparison of the precipitation volumes on this lysimeter to precipitation collected by a conventional rain gauge shows that conventional rain gauges provide strongly underestimated values for precipitation, especially in winter. The obtained monthly precipitation correction...

  6. Models and analyses for inertial-confinement fusion-reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1981-05-01

    This report describes models and analyses devised at Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the technical characteristics of different inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor elements required for component integration into a functional unit. We emphasize the generic properties of the different elements rather than specific designs. The topics discussed are general ICF reactor design considerations; reactor cavity phenomena, including the restoration of interpulse ambient conditions; first-wall temperature increases and material losses; reactor neutronics and hydrodynamic blanket response to neutron energy deposition; and analyses of loads and stresses in the reactor vessel walls, including remarks about the generation and propagation of very short wavelength stress waves. A discussion of analytic approaches useful in integrations and optimizations of ICF reactor systems concludes the report.

  7. Models and analyses for inertial-confinement fusion-reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes models and analyses devised at Los Alamos National Laboratory to determine the technical characteristics of different inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor elements required for component integration into a functional unit. We emphasize the generic properties of the different elements rather than specific designs. The topics discussed are general ICF reactor design considerations; reactor cavity phenomena, including the restoration of interpulse ambient conditions; first-wall temperature increases and material losses; reactor neutronics and hydrodynamic blanket response to neutron energy deposition; and analyses of loads and stresses in the reactor vessel walls, including remarks about the generation and propagation of very short wavelength stress waves. A discussion of analytic approaches useful in integrations and optimizations of ICF reactor systems concludes the report

  8. Pseudomonas community structure and antagonistic potential in the rhizosphere: insights gained by combining phylogenetic and functional gene-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rodrigo; Gomes, Newton C M; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Opelt, Katja; Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-09-01

    The Pseudomonas community structure and antagonistic potential in the rhizospheres of strawberry and oilseed rape (host plants of the fungal phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae) were assessed. The use of a new PCR-DGGE system, designed to target Pseudomonas-specific gacA gene fragments in environmental DNA, circumvented common biases of 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analyses and proved to be a reliable tool to unravel the diversity of uncultured Pseudomonas in bulk and rhizosphere soils. Pseudomonas-specific gacA fingerprints of total-community (TC) rhizosphere DNA were surprisingly diverse, plant-specific and differed markedly from those of the corresponding bulk soils. By combining multiple culture-dependent and independent surveys, a group of Pseudomonas isolates antagonistic towards V. dahliae was shown to be genotypically conserved, to carry the phlD biosynthetic locus (involved in the biosynthesis of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol - 2,4-DAPG), and to correspond to a dominant and highly frequent Pseudomonas population in the rhizosphere of field-grown strawberries planted at three sites in Germany which have different land use histories. This population belongs to the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage and showed closest relatedness to P. fluorescens strain F113 (97% gacA gene sequence identity in 492-bp sequences), a biocontrol agent and 2,4-DAPG producer. Partial gacA gene sequences derived from isolates, clones of the strawberry rhizosphere and DGGE bands retrieved in this study represent previously undescribed Pseudomonas gacA gene clusters as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. PMID:17686023

  9. A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Krägeloh, Christian U

    2011-01-01

    Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to ...

  10. Radiological analyses of France Telecom surge arresters. Study performed for the CGT FAPT Cantal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the radiological characterization of various versions of surge arresters used in the past to protect telephone lines against over-voltages. These equipment, which use various radioactive materials, were assessed by gamma radiation flow measurements, alpha-beta-gamma count rate measurements, dose rate measurements, gamma spectrometry analyses, tritium emanation test, radon 222 emanation test, smearing. Recommendations are formulated to manage radioactive surge arresters which are still being operated

  11. Seismic criteria studies and analyses. Quarterly progress report No. 3. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-03

    Information is presented concerning the extent to which vibratory motions at the subsurface foundation level might differ from motions at the ground surface and the effects of the various subsurface materials on the overall Clinch River Breeder Reactor site response; seismic analyses of LMFBR type reactors to establish analytical procedures for predicting structure stresses and deformations; and aspects of the current technology regarding the representation of energy losses in nuclear power plants as equivalent viscous damping.

  12. Methodical study of cost-benefit analyses of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six American cost-benefit analyses (CBA) of nuclear energy and, in particular, of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) were analysed under the aspect of their methodical difficulties. Two different methodical approaches can be discerned which are related to two completely different applications, according to which the advantages and disadvantages of the breeder reactor are estimated in line with the basic concept of cost-benefit analysis. The analytical methods used to justify the continuation of the breeder-related research programme reveal that the specific energy-related technological and economic conditions of the geographic region considered have to be taken into account. The results of a CBA performed for the USA can therefore not be transferred to the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the in part strongly differing quantitative results the analyses reviewed do not suggest a clear and final decision in favour of the continuation of the American LMFBR research programme to the extent envisaged. In addition, neither by a positive nor by a negative overall result of the analysis can it be concluded that no other advanced electricity generating technology would have a more favourable cost-benefit ratio, or that the breeder-related research activities, which have been pursued for several years already, should be discontinued. (orig.)

  13. SEM-EBSD based Realistic Modeling and Crystallographic Homogenization FE Analyses of LDH Formability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Ngoc Tam, Nguyen; Nakamura, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Hideo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2007-05-01

    Homogenization algorithm is introduced to the elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element (FE) procedure to develop multi-scale analysis code to predict the formability of sheet metal in macro scale, and simultaneously the crystal texture and hardening evolutions in micro scale. The isotropic and kinematical hardening lows are employed in the crystalline plasticity constitutive equation. For the multi-scale structure, two scales are considered. One is a microscopic polycrystal structure and the other a macroscopic elastic plastic continuum. We measure crystal morphologies by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), and define a three dimensional representative volume element (RVE) of micro ploycrystal structure, which satisfy the periodicity condition of crystal orientation distribution. Since nonlinear multi-scale FE analysis requires large computation time, development of parallel computing technique is needed. To realize the parallel analysis on PC cluster system, the dynamic explicit FE formulations are employed. Applying the domain partitioning technique to FE mesh of macro continuum, homogenized stresses based on micro crystal structures are computed in parallel without solving simultaneous linear equation. The parallel FEM code is applied to simulate the limit dome height (LDH) test problem and hemispherical cup deep drawing problem of aluminum alloy AL6022, mild steel DQSK, high strength steel HSLA, and dual phase steel DP600 sheet metals. The localized distribution of thickness strain and the texture evolution are obtained.

  14. Methodology for Definition of Yellow Fever Priority Areas, Based on Environmental Variables and Multiple Correspondence Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno; Rita de Cássia Barradas Barata

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Pau...

  15. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results ...

  16. Dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Winkels, R.M.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Kragt, L.; Orten-Luiten, van A.C.B.; Tigchelaar, E.F.; Chan, D.S.M.; Norat, T.; Kampman, E.

    2015-01-01

    Use of dietary supplements is rising in countries where colorectal cancer is prevalent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on dietary supplement use and colorectal cancer risk. We identified relevant studies in Medline, Embase and Cochrane up

  17. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Fyllas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon Basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the Basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the Basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR has been developed. The model incorporates variations in tree size distribution, functional traits and soil physical properties and runs at the stand level with four functional traits, leaf dry mass per area (Ma, leaf nitrogen (NL and phosphorus (PL content and wood density (DW used to represent a continuum of plant strategies found in tropical forests. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three Amazon eddy flux sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for large trees. At the stand-level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil fertility on the gross (ΠG and net (ΠN primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU. Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. However all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to annual precipitation and soil fertility.

  18. The analyses of extreme climate events over China based on CMIP5 historical and future simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Dong, W.; Feng, J.; Chou, J.

    2013-12-01

    The extreme climate events have a serious influence on human society. Based on observations and 12 simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), Climatic extremes and their changes over china in history and future scenarios of three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) are analyzed. Because of the background of global warming, in observations, the frost days (FD) and low-temperature threshold days (TN10P) have decreasing trend, and summer days (SU), high-temperature threshold days (TX90P), the heavy precipitation days (R20) and contribution of heavy precipitation days (P95T) show an increasing trend. Most coupled models can basically simulate main characteristics of most extreme indexes. The models reproduce the mean FD and TX90P value best and can give basic trends of the FD, TN10P, SU and TX90P. High correlation coefficients between simulated results and observation are found in FD, SU and P95T. For FD and SU index, most of the models have good ability to capture the spatial differences between the mean state of the 1986-2005 and 1961-1980 periods, but for other indexes, most of models' simulation ability for spatial disparity are not so satisfactory and have to be promoted. Under the high emission scenario of RCP8.5, the century-scale linear changes of Multi-Model Ensembles (MME) for FD, SU, TN10P, TX90P, R20 and P95T are -46.9, 46.0, -27.1, 175.4, 2.9 days and 9.9%, respectively. Due to the complexities of physical process parameterizations and the limitation of forcing data, a large uncertainty still exists in the simulations of climatic extremes. Fig.1 Observed and modeled multi-year average for each index (Dotted line: observation) Table1. Extreme index definition

  19. Analysing soil degradation through hydric erosion. Case study - Ialomita County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA BIANCA OVREIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analy sing soil degradation through hydric erosion. Case study – Ialomița County, Romania. Landscape degradation through different processes has intensified and extended spatially to all geographical regions at global level, irrespective of the social, economic or political background. The main process which contributes to soil degradation is hydric erosion. Surface drainage, which is the most common form of erosion, affects hundreds of thousands of hectares worldwide. Surface runoff therefore demands more attent ion, as it can produce advanced land degradation, up to the stage when it cannot be used any more for agricultural purposes. In our country, hydric erosion affects nearly 50% of all agricultural and arable land, with an annual estimated damage of about 126 million tonnes of rich soil [1] [2]. The Ialomița county is located on the lower reach of the homonymous river, in a landscape dominated by lowlands, having more than 80% of its administrative area used for agricultural purposes. Soil degradation through different hydric processes would therefore have major implications on agricultural yields, as it would reduce the productivity potential of the soil land cover. Consequently, the main goal of the present research was to quantify the amount of soil loss thr ough hydric erosion for the Ialomița county’s territory, using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and GIS - based techniques. This study also relies on many scientific references, field observations and in - depth analysis of thematic maps

  20. Statistical Approaches to Analyse Gene Bank Data Using a Lentil Germplasm Collection as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Sonnante

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Normally in a plant gene bank a large number of accessions per each crop and/ or taxon is stored. During their characterization and preliminary evaluation, several quantitative and qualitative data are recorded and, usually, a wide intra accession variation is observed. Th e management of all this information becomes very difficult without effective statistical methods combining these different types of data. At the Institute of Plant Genetics, CNR, in Bari (Italy this problem has been tackled by testing many statistical approaches. The present contribution describes one of these approaches, which to date has proven to be highly adequate; a case study describing a lentil germplasm collection has been used for demonstration. A valuable application of this method is the determination of core subsets important to increase the utilization and accessibility of plant genetic resources. In the presented case study a subset of the lentil germplasm collection was chosen to perform molecular analysis based on ISSR markers. The samples were selected on the basis of both morpho-agronomic evaluation and geographical origin. These markers proved to be useful for distinguishing among closely related genotypes and for possibly substantiating the genetic peculiarity of some interesting material.

  1. Comparative physical-chemical characterization of encapsulated lipid-based isotretinoin products assessed by particle size distribution and thermal behavior analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carla Aiolfi, E-mail: carlaaiolfi@usp.br [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Menaa, Farid [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg 97080 (Germany); Fluorotronics, Inc., 1425 Russ Bvld, San Diego Technology Incubator, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Menaa, Bouzid, E-mail: bouzid.menaa@gmail.com [Fluorotronics, Inc., 1425 Russ Bvld, San Diego Technology Incubator, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Quenca-Guillen, Joyce S. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Matos, Jivaldo do Rosario [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Mercuri, Lucildes Pita [Department of Exact and Earth Sciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP 09972-270 (Brazil); Braz, Andre Borges [Department of Engineering of Mines and Oil, Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Rossetti, Fabia Cristina [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14015-120 (Brazil); Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Ines Rocha Miritello [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-06-10

    Isotretinoin is the drug of choice for the management of severe recalcitrant nodular acne. Nevertheless, some of its physical-chemical properties are still poorly known. Hence, the aim of our study consisted to comparatively evaluate the particle size distribution (PSD) and characterize the thermal behavior of the three encapsulated isotretinoin products in oil suspension (one reference and two generics) commercialized in Brazil. Here, we show that the PSD, estimated by laser diffraction and by polarized light microscopy, differed between the generics and the reference product. However, the thermal behavior of the three products, determined by thermogravimetry (TGA), differential thermal (DTA) analyses and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), displayed no significant changes and were more thermostable than the isotretinoin standard used as internal control. Thus, our study suggests that PSD analyses in isotretinoin lipid-based formulations should be routinely performed in order to improve their quality and bioavailability.

  2. Clear genetic distinctiveness between human- and pig-derived Trichuris based on analyses of mitochondrial datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Gasser, Robin B.; Su, Ang;

    2012-01-01

    The whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, causes trichuriasis in ~600 million people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Whipworms also infect other animal hosts, including pigs (T. suis), dogs (T. vulpis) and non-human primates, and cause disease in these hosts, which is similar to trichuriasis...... of humans. Although Trichuris species are considered to be host specific, there has been considerable controversy, over the years, as to whether T. trichiura and T. suis are the same or distinct species. Here, we characterised the entire mitochondrial genomes of human-derived Trichuris and pig...... for nuclear ribosomal DNA. Using molecular analytical tools, employing genetic markers defined herein, future work should conduct large-scale studies to establish whether T. trichiura is found in pigs and T. suis in humans in endemic regions....

  3. Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of recycled fibre-based paper for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2002-01-01

    Food-contact materials, including paper, have to comply with a basic set of criteria concerning safety. This means that paper for food contact should not give rise to migration of components, which can endanger human health. The objectives of this pilot study were, first, to compare paper...... of different qualities as food-contact materials and to Perform a preliminary evaluation of their suitability from a safety point of view, and, second, to evaluate the use of different in vitro toxicity tests for screening of paper and board. Paper produced from three different categories of recycled fibres (B...... for mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic compounds; (3) a recombinant yeast cell bioassay as a screening test for compounds with oestrogenic activity; (4) an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)-receptor assay (CALUX assay) as a screening test for compounds with dioxin-like activity. In addition, the papers were tested...

  4. Pathways from fertility history to later life health: Results from analyses of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Grundy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research shows associations between fertility histories and later life health. The childless, those with large families, and those with a young age at entry to parenthood generally have higher mortality and worse health than parents of two or three children. These associations are hypothesised to reflect a range of biosocial influences, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Objective: To identify pathways from fertility histories to later life health by examining mediation through health-related behaviours, social support and strain, and wealth. Additionally to examine mediation through allostatic load - an indicator of multisystem physical dysregulation, hypothesised to be an outcome of chronic stress. Methods: Associations between fertility histories, mediators, and outcomes were analysed using path models. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Outcomes studied were a measure of allostatic load based on 9 biomarkers and self-reported long-term illness which limited activities. Results: Early parenthood (Conclusions: In England early parenthood and larger family size are associated with less wealth and poorer health behaviours and this accounts for much of the association with health. At least part of this operates through stress-related physiological dysfunction (allostatic load.

  5. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of C-13 in CO2. Using a set of reference gases of known CO2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO2 concentration, and 0.05 per thousand for δC-13 at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of C-13 on CO2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO2 concentration and 1.3 per thousand for δC-13, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source. (authors)

  6. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-05-01

    CO2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of δ 13C in CO2. Using a set of reference gases of known CO2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO2 concentration, and 0.05 ‰ for δ 13C at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of δ 13C on CO2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO2 concentration and 1.3 ‰ for δ 13C, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source.

  7. Genetic architecture and bottleneck analyses of Salem Black goat breed based on microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Thiruvenkadan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Salem Black goat population for genetic analysis at molecular level to exploit the breed for planning sustainable improvement, conservation and utilization, which subsequently can improve the livelihood of its stakeholders. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 50 unrelated Salem Black goats with typical phenotypic features in several villages in the breeding tract and the genetic characterization and bottleneck analysis in Salem Black goat was done using 25 microsatellite markers as recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. The basic measures of genetic variation were computed using bioinformatic software. To evaluate the Salem Black goats for mutation drift equilibrium, three tests were performed under three different mutation models, viz., infinite allele model (IAM, stepwise mutation model (SMM and two-phase model (TPM and the observed gene diversity (He and expected equilibrium gene diversity (Heq were estimated under different models of microsatellite evolution. Results: The study revealed that the observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH10, ILSTS008 to 17 (BM64444 with a total of 213 alleles and mean of 10.14±0.83 alleles across loci. The overall observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, inbreeding estimate and polymorphism information content values were 0.631±0.041, 0.820±0.024, 0.233±0.044 and 0.786±0.023 respectively indicating high genetic diversity. The average observed gene diversities (He pooled over different markers was 0.829±0.024 and the average expected gene diversities under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 0.769±0.026, 0.808±0.024 and 0.837±0.020 respectively. The number of loci found to exhibit gene diversity excess under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 18, 17 and 12 respectively. Conclusion: All the three statistical tests, viz., sign test, standardized differences test and Wilcoxon sign rank test, revealed

  8. Clear genetic distinctiveness between human- and pig-derived Trichuris based on analyses of mitochondrial datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Liu

    Full Text Available The whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, causes trichuriasis in ∼600 million people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Whipworms also infect other animal hosts, including pigs (T. suis, dogs (T. vulpis and non-human primates, and cause disease in these hosts, which is similar to trichuriasis of humans. Although Trichuris species are considered to be host specific, there has been considerable controversy, over the years, as to whether T. trichiura and T. suis are the same or distinct species. Here, we characterised the entire mitochondrial genomes of human-derived Trichuris and pig-derived Trichuris, compared them and then tested the hypothesis that the parasites from these two host species are genetically distinct in a phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data. Taken together, the findings support the proposal that T. trichiura and T. suis are separate species, consistent with previous data for nuclear ribosomal DNA. Using molecular analytical tools, employing genetic markers defined herein, future work should conduct large-scale studies to establish whether T. trichiura is found in pigs and T. suis in humans in endemic regions.

  9. Scaling and transport analyses based on an international edge turbulence database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P.; Ramisch, M.; Beletskii, A. A.; Dinklage, A.; Endler, M.; Marsen, S.; Nold, B.; Stroth, U.; Tamain, P.; Wilcox, R.

    2014-09-01

    Microscopic turbulence properties in the edge of toroidally confined fusion plasmas are studied by comparative analysis of experimental data from seven devices, collected in an international edge turbulence database. The database contains Langmuir probe measurements of fluctuations in the floating potential and ion saturation current across the last closed flux surface. They are used to address statistical properties and particle transport. Universal features of plasma edge turbulence such as an increase in skewness across the scrape-off layer (SOL) as footprints of density blobs are recovered in all devices. Analysis of the correlation lengths and times reveals power law scaling relations with macroscopic drift-wave parameters, albeit weaker than would be expected for drift-wave turbulence. As a result, the turbulent diffusivity scales with the inverse of the magnetic field strength, which is closer to Bohm-like scaling than to gyro-Bohm scaling. Nearly identical scaling relations are determined in the confined plasma edge and the SOL, pointing to a strong connection between drift-wave turbulence in the edge and blobs in the SOL. The contributions of blobs and holes (negative density spikes) to the radial particle transport are analyzed qualitatively with a conditional averaging approach. Blobs are connected to outward transport in the SOL of all devices whereas holes exhibit no uniform propagation pattern.

  10. MRSA transmission on a neonatal intensive care unit: epidemiological and genome-based phylogenetic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Nübel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA may cause prolonged outbreaks of infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. While the specific factors favouring MRSA spread on neonatal wards are not well understood, colonized infants, their relatives, or health-care workers may all be sources for MRSA transmission. Whole-genome sequencing may provide a new tool for elucidating transmission pathways of MRSA at a local scale. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We applied whole-genome sequencing to trace MRSA spread in a NICU and performed a case-control study to identify risk factors for MRSA transmission. MRSA genomes had accumulated sequence variation sufficiently fast to reflect epidemiological linkage among individual patients, between infants and their mothers, and between infants and staff members, such that the relevance of individual nurses' nasal MRSA colonization for prolonged transmission could be evaluated. In addition to confirming previously reported risk factors, we identified an increased risk of transmission from infants with as yet unknown MRSA colonisation, in contrast to known MRSA-positive infants. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of epidemiological (temporal, spatial and genomic data enabled the phylogenetic testing of several hypotheses on specific MRSA transmission routes within a neonatal intensive-care unit. The pronounced risk of transmission emanating from undetected MRSA carriers suggested that increasing the frequency or speed of microbiological diagnostics could help to reduce transmission of MRSA.

  11. Clear genetic distinctiveness between human- and pig-derived Trichuris based on analyses of mitochondrial datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Gasser, Robin B; Su, Ang; Nejsum, Peter; Peng, Lifei; Lin, Rui-Qing; Li, Ming-Wei; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    The whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, causes trichuriasis in ∼600 million people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Whipworms also infect other animal hosts, including pigs (T. suis), dogs (T. vulpis) and non-human primates, and cause disease in these hosts, which is similar to trichuriasis of humans. Although Trichuris species are considered to be host specific, there has been considerable controversy, over the years, as to whether T. trichiura and T. suis are the same or distinct species. Here, we characterised the entire mitochondrial genomes of human-derived Trichuris and pig-derived Trichuris, compared them and then tested the hypothesis that the parasites from these two host species are genetically distinct in a phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data. Taken together, the findings support the proposal that T. trichiura and T. suis are separate species, consistent with previous data for nuclear ribosomal DNA. Using molecular analytical tools, employing genetic markers defined herein, future work should conduct large-scale studies to establish whether T. trichiura is found in pigs and T. suis in humans in endemic regions.

  12. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on palynofacies analyses of the Cansona Formation (Late Cretaceous), Sinú-San Jacinto Basin, northwest Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao-Lemus, Tatiana; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Torres, Diego; Plata, Angelo; Parra, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    To reconstruct the paleoenvironments of the Cansona Formation, a Cretaceous succession in Colombia that has controversial paleoenvironmental interpretation, occasionally deep marine and occasionally shallow marine, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 93 samples from four sections of the Sinú San Jacinto Basin in the north, midwest, and southwest sectors. For the palynofacies analyses, the kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Four palynofacies associations were revealed for the four sections: Palynofacies Association I (PA I), which consisted of microforaminiferal linings, scolecodonts, dinoflagellate cysts, pollen grains, and fungi hyphae; PA II, which consisted of phytoclast translucent non-biostructured and biostructured, opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); PA III, which consisted of pseudoamorphous particles, cuticles, resin, and fungal spores; and PA IV, which consisted of fluorescent and non-fluorescent amorphous organic matter and the fresh-water algae Botryococcus. In contrast to early studies that suggested a generalization of the depositional environment for the Cansona Formation (deep or shallow conditions), this study suggests that the formation reflects conspicuous stratigraphic and lateral changes and hence different depositional environments. The Cerro Cansona (CC4 section) and Chalán (AP section) areas are a more marine proximal settings (Early Campanian-Maastrichtian), and there is an intermediate setting for the Lorica area (SC section) and deeper conditions for the Montería area (CP2 section).

  13. "Ruhm und Ehre" oder LOM für Lehre? - eine qualitative Analyse von Anreizverfahren für gute Lehre an Medizinischen Fakultäten in Deutschland [A qualitative study to investigate the acceptance of performance-based allocation of resources for the improvement of education at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Purpose: To investigate the acceptance of performance-based allocation of resources for the improvement of education at German medical schools. Methods: As a means of qualitative analysis, group interviews were performed at four medical schools at the level of university professors and that of tenured or tenure-track scientists without a university professorship. The analysis of the interviews combined qualitative and statistical elements. Results and Conclusions: Professors and tenured or tenure-track scientists cite different reasons for the lack of performance-based allocation of resources. While the scientists consider the low priority of students’ education to be the main reason, the professors most frequently name the lack of educational measurement systems. Fame and glory are considered by both professors and scientists to be superior motives for a commitment toward improving the quality of medical students’ education. However, performance-based allocation of resources is considered an effective steering mechanism. Ideally, each faculty should develop a local consensus on educational measurement systems. The allocations should be spent strictly on the improvement of the quality of education, e.g., by investing in the infrastructure and in the didactic qualification of teachers and by hiring highly qualified teaching personnel. [german] Zielsetzung: Die Akzeptanz von Anreizverfahren für qualitativ gute Lehre an den Medizinischen Fakultäten Deutschlands zu ermitteln. Methodik: Als Verfahren der qualitativen Analyse wurden Gruppeninterviews durchgeführt. Diese Interviews fanden an vier Medizinischen Fakultäten jeweils auf der Ebene der berufenen Professoren und des Mittelbaus statt. Die Auswertung erfolgte qualitativ und beinhaltet statistische Elemente. Ergebnisse und Fazit: Die Ursachen für das Fehlen von Anreizverfahren für gute Lehre werden von berufenen Professoren und vom Mittelbau grundsätzlich unterschiedlich

  14. Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Studies and Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Change in Adult Lung Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenbo; Kowgier, Matthew; Loth, Daan W.; Soler Artigas, María; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Hodge, Emily; Gharib, Sina A.; Smith, Albert V.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Mathias, Rasika A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Launer, Lenore J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Hansen, Joyanna G.; Albrecht, Eva; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Allerhand, Michael; Barr, R. Graham; Brusselle, Guy G.; Couper, David J.; Curjuric, Ivan; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dupuis, Josée; Fall, Tove; Foy, Millennia; Franceschini, Nora; Gao, Wei; Gläser, Sven; Gu, Xiangjun; Hancock, Dana B.; Heinrich, Joachim; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; Ingelsson, Erik; James, Alan; Karrasch, Stefan; Koch, Beate; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Kumar, Ashish; Lahousse, Lies; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Lumley, Thomas; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meibohm, Bernd; Morris, Andrew P.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musk, Bill; North, Kari E.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schulz, Holger; Smith, Lewis J.; Sood, Akshay; Starr, John M.; Strachan, David P.; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Voorman, Arend; Wain, Louise V.; Wells, Martin T.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Williams, O. Dale; Heckbert, Susan R.; Stricker, Bruno H.; London, Stephanie J.; Fornage, Myriam; Tobin, Martin D.; O′Connor, George T.; Hall, Ian P.; Cassano, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function. Methods We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis. Results The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P  =  5.71 × 10-7). In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ≥3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P  =  2.18 × 10-8) at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively. Conclusions In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function. PMID:24983941

  15. Large-scale genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses of longitudinal change in adult lung function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Tang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function.We performed GWAS of the rate of change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 in 14 longitudinal, population-based cohort studies comprising 27,249 adults of European ancestry using linear mixed effects model and combined cohort-specific results using fixed effect meta-analysis to identify novel genetic loci associated with longitudinal change in lung function. Gene expression analyses were subsequently performed for identified genetic loci. As a secondary aim, we estimated the mean rate of decline in FEV1 by smoking pattern, irrespective of genotypes, across these 14 studies using meta-analysis.The overall meta-analysis produced suggestive evidence for association at the novel IL16/STARD5/TMC3 locus on chromosome 15 (P  =  5.71 × 10(-7. In addition, meta-analysis using the five cohorts with ≥3 FEV1 measurements per participant identified the novel ME3 locus on chromosome 11 (P  =  2.18 × 10(-8 at genome-wide significance. Neither locus was associated with FEV1 decline in two additional cohort studies. We confirmed gene expression of IL16, STARD5, and ME3 in multiple lung tissues. Publicly available microarray data confirmed differential expression of all three genes in lung samples from COPD patients compared with controls. Irrespective of genotypes, the combined estimate for FEV1 decline was 26.9, 29.2 and 35.7 mL/year in never, former, and persistent smokers, respectively.In this large-scale GWAS, we identified two novel genetic loci in association with the rate of change in FEV1 that harbor candidate genes with biologically plausible functional links to lung function.

  16. Analyses and Simulation of V-I Characteristics for Solar Cells Based on P-N Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jian-bang; REN Ju; GUO Wen-ge; HOU Chao-qi

    2005-01-01

    Through theoretical analyses of the Shockley equation and the difference between a practical P-N junction and its ideal model, the mathematical models of P-N junction and solar cells had been obtained. With Matlab software, the V-I characteristics of diodes and solar cells were simulated, and a computer simulation model of the solar cells based on P-N junction was also established. Based on the simulation model, the influences of solar cell's internal resistances on open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current under certain illumination were numerically analyzed and solved. The simulation results showed that the equivalent series resistance and shunt resistance could strongly affect the V-I characteristics of solar cell, but their influence styles were different.

  17. Eine Re-Analyse der Blue Mountains Eye Study zum Kataraktrisiko durch inhalative Kortikoide: Ein Beitrag zur Objektivierung der Diskussion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartung, Joachim; Knapp, Guido

    1999-01-01

    In einer Re-Analyse der Blue Mountains Eye Study von Cumming, Mitchell und Leeder (1997) wird gezeigt, daß diese Studie keinen Beitrag zur Klärung des Kataraktrisikos von inhalativen Kortikoiden leistet. Akzeptiert man die Schlußweisen der Studie, so ergibt sich ein diffuses und zugleich aber auch interessantes Bild von diversen Aussagen zu Kataraktrisiken bei inhalativen Kortikoiden, systemisch verabreichten Kortikoiden bzw. einer Kombination von inhalativen und systemisch verabreichten Kort...

  18. Parsimony and model-based analyses of indels in avian nuclear genes reveal congruent and incongruent phylogenetic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri, Tamaki; Kimball, Rebecca T; Harshman, John; Bowie, Rauri C K; Braun, Michael J; Chojnowski, Jena L; Han, Kin-Lan; Hackett, Shannon J; Huddleston, Christopher J; Moore, William S; Reddy, Sushma; Sheldon, Frederick H; Steadman, David W; Witt, Christopher C; Braun, Edward L

    2013-01-01

    Insertion/deletion (indel) mutations, which are represented by gaps in multiple sequence alignments, have been used to examine phylogenetic hypotheses for some time. However, most analyses combine gap data with the nucleotide sequences in which they are embedded, probably because most phylogenetic datasets include few gap characters. Here, we report analyses of 12,030 gap characters from an alignment of avian nuclear genes using maximum parsimony (MP) and a simple maximum likelihood (ML) framework. Both trees were similar, and they exhibited almost all of the strongly supported relationships in the nucleotide tree, although neither gap tree supported many relationships that have proven difficult to recover in previous studies. Moreover, independent lines of evidence typically corroborated the nucleotide topology instead of the gap topology when they disagreed, although the number of conflicting nodes with high bootstrap support was limited. Filtering to remove short indels did not substantially reduce homoplasy or reduce conflict. Combined analyses of nucleotides and gaps resulted in the nucleotide topology, but with increased support, suggesting that gap data may prove most useful when analyzed in combination with nucleotide substitutions. PMID:24832669

  19. Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick H. Sheldon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Insertion/deletion (indel mutations, which are represented by gaps in multiple sequence alignments, have been used to examine phylogenetic hypotheses for some time. However, most analyses combine gap data with the nucleotide sequences in which they are embedded, probably because most phylogenetic datasets include few gap characters. Here, we report analyses of 12,030 gap characters from an alignment of avian nuclear genes using maximum parsimony (MP and a simple maximum likelihood (ML framework. Both trees were similar, and they exhibited almost all of the strongly supported relationships in the nucleotide tree, although neither gap tree supported many relationships that have proven difficult to recover in previous studies. Moreover, independent lines of evidence typically corroborated the nucleotide topology instead of the gap topology when they disagreed, although the number of conflicting nodes with high bootstrap support was limited. Filtering to remove short indels did not substantially reduce homoplasy or reduce conflict. Combined analyses of nucleotides and gaps resulted in the nucleotide topology, but with increased support, suggesting that gap data may prove most useful when analyzed in combination with nucleotide substitutions.

  20. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY ANALYSES OF GENE EXPRESSION AND GENOME WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDY DATA IN OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, YU; PATEL, SANJAY; NIBBE, ROD; MAXWELL, SEAN; CHOWDHURY, SALIM A.; KOYUTURK, MEHMET; ZHU, XIAOFENG; LARKIN, EMMA K.; BUXBAUM, SARAH G; PUNJABI, NARESH M.; GHARIB, SINA A.; REDLINE, SUSAN; CHANCE, MARK R.

    2015-01-01

    The precise molecular etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown; however recent research indicates that several interconnected aberrant pathways and molecular abnormalities are contributors to OSA. Identifying the genes and pathways associated with OSA can help to expand our understanding of the risk factors for the disease as well as provide new avenues for potential treatment. Towards these goals, we have integrated relevant high dimensional data from various sources, such as genome-wide expression data (microarray), protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in order to define sub-network elements that connect some of the known pathways related to the disease as well as define novel regulatory modules related to OSA. Two distinct approaches are applied to identify sub-networks significantly associated with OSA. In the first case we used a biased approach based on sixty genes/proteins with known associations with sleep disorders and/or metabolic disease to seed a search using commercial software to discover networks associated with disease followed by information theoretic (mutual information) scoring of the sub-networks. In the second case we used an unbiased approach and generated an interactome constructed from publicly available gene expression profiles and PPI databases, followed by scoring of the network with p-values from GWAS data derived from OSA patients to uncover sub-networks significant for the disease phenotype. A comparison of the approaches reveals a number of proteins that have been previously known to be associated with OSA or sleep. In addition, our results indicate a novel association of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, the STAT family of proteins and its related pathways with OSA. PMID:21121029

  1. Clinical, polysomnographic and genome-wide association analyses of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a European Narcolepsy Network study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luca, G. De; Haba-Rubio, J.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Lammers, G.J.; Overeem, S.; Donjacour, C.E.; Mayer, G.; Javidi, S.; Iranzo, A.; Santamaria, J.; Peraita-Adrados, R.; Hor, H.; Kutalik, Z.; Plazzi, G.; Poli, F.; Pizza, F.; Arnulf, I.; Lecendreux, M.; Bassetti, C.; Mathis, J.; Heinzer, R.; Jennum, P.; Knudsen, S.; Geisler, P.; Wierzbicka, A.; Feketeova, E.; Pfister, C.; Khatami, R.; Baumann, C.; Tafti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and PSG characteristics of narcolepsy with cataplexy and their genetic predisposition by using the retrospective patient database of the European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN). We have analysed retrospective data of 1099 patients with narcolepsy diagno

  2. Meta-Analyses of Animal Studies: An Introduction of a Valuable Instrument to Further Improve Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Hooijmans, Carlijn R.; IntHout, Joanna; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2014-01-01

    In research aimed at improving human health care, animal studies still play a crucial role, despite political and scientific efforts to reduce preclinical experimentation in laboratory animals. In animal studies, the results and their interpretation are not always straightforward, as no single study is executed perfectly in all steps. There are several possible sources of bias, and many animal studies are replicates of studies conducted previously. Use of meta-analysis to combine the results ...

  3. Validation study for crediting chlorine in criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuel disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobes, Vladimir [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management practices in the United States rely on dry storage systems that include both canister- and cask-based systems. The United States Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign is examining the feasibility of direct disposal of dual-purpose (storage and transportation) canisters (DPCs) in a geological repository. One of the major technical challenges for direct disposal is the ability to demonstrate the subcriticality of the DPCs loaded with SNF for the repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the DPCs may undergo degradation over time. Specifically, groundwater ingress into the DPC (i.e., flooding) could allow the system to achieve criticality in scenarios where the neutron absorber plates in the DPC basket have degraded. However, as was shown by Banerjee et al., some aqueous species in the groundwater provide noticeable reactivity reduction for these systems. For certain amounts of particular aqueous species (e.g., chlorine, lithium) in the groundwater, subcriticality can be demonstrated even for DPCs with complete degradation of the neutron absorber plates or a degraded fuel basket configuration. It has been demonstrated that chlorine is the leading impurity, as indicated by significant neutron absorption in the water that is available in reasonable quantities for the deep geological repository media under consideration. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the available integral experiments worldwide that could be used to validate DPC disposal criticality evaluations, including credit for chlorine. Due to the small number of applicable critical configurations, validation through traditional trending analysis was not possible. The bias in the eigenvalue of the application systems due only to the chlorine was calculated using TSURFER analysis and found to be on the order of 100 percent mille (1 pcm = 10-5 keff). This study investigated the design of a series of

  4. Validation Study for Crediting Chlorine in Criticality Analyses for US Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobes, Vladimir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management practices in the United States rely on dry storage systems that include both canister- and cask-based systems. The United States Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign is examining the feasibility of direct disposal of dual-purpose (storage and transportation) canisters (DPCs) in a geological repository. One of the major technical challenges for direct disposal is the ability to demonstrate the subcriticality of the DPCs loaded with SNF for the repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the DPCs may undergo degradation over time. Specifically, groundwater ingress into the DPC (i.e., flooding) could allow the system to achieve criticality in scenarios where the neutron absorber plates in the DPC basket have degraded. However, as was shown by Banerjee et al., some aqueous species in the groundwater provide noticeable reactivity reduction for these systems. For certain amounts of particular aqueous species (e.g., chlorine, lithium) in the groundwater, subcriticality can be demonstrated even for DPCs with complete degradation of the neutron absorber plates or a degraded fuel basket configuration. It has been demonstrated that chlorine is the leading impurity, as indicated by significant neutron absorption in the water that is available in reasonable quantities for the deep geological repository media under consideration. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the available integral experiments worldwide that could be used to validate DPC disposal criticality evaluations, including credit for chlorine. Due to the small number of applicable critical configurations, validation through traditional trending analysis was not possible. The bias in the eigenvalue of the application systems due only to the chlorine was calculated using TSURFER analysis and found to be on the order of 100 percent mille (1 pcm = 10-5 keff). This study investigated the design of a series of

  5. Validation Study for Crediting Chlorine in Criticality Analyses for US Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management practices in the United States rely on dry storage systems that include both canister- and cask-based systems. The United States Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign is examining the feasibility of direct disposal of dual-purpose (storage and transportation) canisters (DPCs) in a geological repository. One of the major technical challenges for direct disposal is the ability to demonstrate the subcriticality of the DPCs loaded with SNF for the repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the DPCs may undergo degradation over time. Specifically, groundwater ingress into the DPC (i.e., flooding) could allow the system to achieve criticality in scenarios where the neutron absorber plates in the DPC basket have degraded. However, as was shown by Banerjee et al., some aqueous species in the groundwater provide noticeable reactivity reduction for these systems. For certain amounts of particular aqueous species (e.g., chlorine, lithium) in the groundwater, subcriticality can be demonstrated even for DPCs with complete degradation of the neutron absorber plates or a degraded fuel basket configuration. It has been demonstrated that chlorine is the leading impurity, as indicated by significant neutron absorption in the water that is available in reasonable quantities for the deep geological repository media under consideration. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the available integral experiments worldwide that could be used to validate DPC disposal criticality evaluations, including credit for chlorine. Due to the small number of applicable critical configurations, validation through traditional trending analysis was not possible. The bias in the eigenvalue of the application systems due only to the chlorine was calculated using TSURFER analysis and found to be on the order of 100 percent mille (1 pcm = 10-5 keff). This study investigated the design of a series of critical configurations

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, biological screenings, DNA binding study and POM analyses of transition metal carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Noor; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Uddin, Nizam; Tariq, Muhammad; Ullah, Hameed; Ali, Saqib; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Khan, Abdur Rehman

    2015-04-01

    This article contains the synthesis of a novel carboxylic acid derivative, its transition metal complexes and evaluation of biological applications. Six carboxylate complexes of transition metals, Zn(II) and Hg(II), have been successfully synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and NMR (1H, 13C). The ligand, HL, (4-[(2,6-Diethylphenyl)amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid) was also characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis. The complexation occurs via oxygen atoms of the carboxylate moiety. FT-IR date show the bidentate nature of the carboxylate moiety of the ligand as the Δν value in all complexes is less than that of the free ligand. The ligand and its complexes were screened for antifungal and antileishmanial activities. The results showed that the ligand and its complexes are active with few exceptions. UV-visible spectroscopy and viscometry results reveal that the ligand and its complexes interact with the DNA via intercalative mode of interaction. A new and efficient strategy to identify the pharmacophores and anti-pharmacophores sites in carboxylate derivatives for the antibacterial/antifungal activity using Petra, Osiris and Molinspiration (POM) analyses was also carried out.

  7. Precursor analyses - The use of deterministic and PSA based methods in the event investigation process at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficient feedback of operating experience (OE) is a valuable source of information for improving the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants (NPPs). It is therefore essential to collect information on abnormal events from both internal and external sources. Internal operating experience is analysed to obtain a complete understanding of an event and of its safety implications. Corrective or improvement measures may then be developed, prioritized and implemented in the plant if considered appropriate. Information from external events may also be analysed in order to learn lessons from others' experience and prevent similar occurrences at our own plant. The traditional ways of investigating operational events have been predominantly qualitative. In recent years, a PSA-based method called probabilistic precursor event analysis has been developed, used and applied on a significant scale in many places for a number of plants. The method enables a quantitative estimation of the safety significance of operational events to be incorporated. The purpose of this report is to outline a synergistic process that makes more effective use of operating experience event information by combining the insights and knowledge gained from both approaches, traditional deterministic event investigation and PSA-based event analysis. The PSA-based view on operational events and PSA-based event analysis can support the process of operational event analysis at the following stages of the operational event investigation: (1) Initial screening stage. (It introduces an element of quantitative analysis into the selection process. Quantitative analysis of the safety significance of nuclear plant events can be a very useful measure when it comes to selecting internal and external operating experience information for its relevance.) (2) In-depth analysis. (PSA based event evaluation provides a quantitative measure for judging the significance of operational events, contributors to

  8. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  9. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  10. Geographical origin of cereal grains based on element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuluan; Luo, Donghui; Dong, Hao; Wan, Juan; Luo, Haiying; Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Qin, Fangfang; Han, Wanqing; Wang, Li; Wang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ(13)C and δ(13)N) of different cereal grains from different regions were determined, using element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS) as the key method. Systematically, δ(13)C and δ(13)N of 5 kinds of cereal grains of different origins, 30 wheat samples from different cultivation areas and 160 rice samples of different cultivars from Guangdong province of China were examined. The results indicated that the δ(13)C values of rice, soybean, millet, wheat and corn were significantly (P 0.05), which indicated that the cultivar of cereal grains was not significant based on δ(13)C value. Thus, the comparison of δ(13)C would be potentially useful for rapid and routine discrimination of geographical origin of cereal grains. PMID:25529718

  11. Comparative study of the electronic structure of natural and synthetic rubies using XAFS and EDAX analyses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Parikh; D M Bhardwaj; R P Gupta; N L Saini; S Fernandes; R K Singhal; D C Jain; K B Garg

    2002-12-01

    We have studied the Cr–K-edge XANES and EXAFS in natural Indian rubies from two sources and a synthetic ruby at ESRF. Weight % of various constituents in them is determined using EDAX measurements. Taking the results from the three techniques together we are able to demonstrate their feasibility in quantitative study of precious stones.

  12. Structured multiplicity and confirmatory statistical analyses in pharmacodynamic studies using the quantitative electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, Georg; Staner, Luc; Boeijinga, Peter

    2011-09-30

    Pharmacodynamic (PD) clinical studies are characterised by a high degree of multiplicity. This multiplicity is the result of the design of these studies that typically investigate effects of a number of biomarkers at various doses and multiple time points. Measurements are taken at many or all points of a "hyper-grid" that can be understood as the cross-product of a number of dimensions each of which has typically 3-30 discrete values. This exploratory design helps understanding the phenomena under investigation, but has made a confirmatory statistical analysis of these studies difficult, so that such an analysis is often missing in this type of studies. In this contribution we show that the cross-product structure of PD studies allows to combine several well-known techniques to address multiplicity in an effective way, so that a confirmatory analysis of these studies becomes feasible without unrealistic loss of power. We demonstrate the application of this technique in two studies that use the quantitative EEG (qEEG) as biomarker for drug activity at the GABA-A receptor. QEEG studies suffer particularly from the curse of multiplicity, since, in addition to the common dimensions like dose and time, the qEEG is measured at many locations over the scalp and in a number of frequency bands which inflate the multiplicity by a factor of about 250.

  13. Integrated analyses of gene expression and genetic association studies in a founder population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanovich, Darren A.; Caliskan, Minal; Billstrand, Christine; Michelini, Katelyn; Chavarria, Claudia; De Leon, Sherryl; Mitrano, Amy; Lewellyn, Noah; Elias, Jack A.; Chupp, Geoffrey L.; Lang, Roberto M.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Decara, Jeanne M.; Gilad, Yoav; Ober, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have become a standard tool for dissecting genetic contributions to disease risk. However, these studies typically require extraordinarily large sample sizes to be adequately powered. Strategies that incorporate functional information alongside genetic associations have proved successful in increasing GWAS power. Following this paradigm, we present the results of 20 different genetic association studies for quantitative traits related to complex diseases, conducted in the Hutterites of South Dakota. To boost the power of these association studies, we collected RNA-sequencing data from lymphoblastoid cell lines for 431 Hutterite individuals. We then used Sherlock, a tool that integrates GWAS and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data, to identify weak GWAS signals that are also supported by eQTL data. Using this approach, we found novel associations with quantitative phenotypes related to cardiovascular disease, including carotid intima-media thickness, left atrial volume index, monocyte count and serum YKL-40 levels. PMID:26931462

  14. PCR-RFLP analyses for studying the diversity of GH and Pit-1 genes in Slovak Simmental cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trakovická

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of growth hormone (GH and specific pituitary transcription factor (Pit-1 genes diversity in population of 353 Slovak Simmental cows. The analyses were based on single nucleotide polymorphisms GH/AluI and Pit-1/HinfI detections. A polymorphic site of GH gene (AluI has been linked to differences in circulating metabolites, metabolic hormones and milk yield. Bovine Pit-1 is responsible for pituitary development and hormone secreting gene expression, including GH gene. The Pit-1/HinfI locus was associated with growth, milk production and reproduction performance in cattle. Samples of genomic DNA were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Digestion of GH gene PCR products with restriction enzyme AluI revealed allele L and V with frequency 0.695 and 0.305, respectively. The digested Pit-1 gene PCR products with enzyme HinfI revealed alleles A (0.249 and B (0.751. Dominant genotypes were for GH gene heterozygous LV (0.47 and for Pit-1 gene homozygous BB (0.56 animals. The observed heterozygosity, effective allele numbers and polymorphism information content of GH/AluI and Pit-1/HinfI bovine loci population were 0.42/0.37, 1.73/1.59 and 0.33/0.30, respectively. The median polymorphic information content of loci was also transferred to the higher observed homozygosity in population (0.58/0.63. Keywords: cattle, growth hormone, leptin, PCR, Pit-1, polymorphism.

  15. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analyses of NEO-PI-R Scales In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Brant, Larry J; Costa, Paul T.

    2005-01-01

    We examined age trends in the five factors and 30 facets assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data (N = 1,944; 5,027 assessments) collected between 1989 and 2004. Consistent with cross-sectional results, Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses showed gradual personality changes in adulthood: a decline up to age 80 in Neuroticism, stability and then decline in Extraversion, decline in Openness, increase in Agreeableness, and increase up to ag...

  16. The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schröder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The "European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites" (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF aims at the provision and sound validation of well documented Climate Data Records (CDRs in sustained and operational environments. In this study, a total column water vapour (WVPA climatology from CM SAF is presented and inter-compared to water vapour data records from various data sources. Based on homogenised brightness temperatures from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, a climatology of WVPA has been generated within the Hamburg Ocean-Atmosphere Fluxes and Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS framework. Within a research and operation transition activity the HOAPS data and operations capabilities have been successfully transferred to the CM SAF where the complete HOAPS data and processing schemes are hosted in an operational environment. An objective analysis for interpolation, kriging, has been developed and applied to the swath-based WVPA retrievals from the HOAPS data set. The resulting climatology consists of daily and monthly mean fields of WVPA over the global ice-free ocean. The temporal coverage ranges from July 1987 to August 2006. After a comparison to the precursor product the CM SAF SSM/I-based climatology has been comprehensively compared to different types of meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-ERA40, ERA INTERIM and operational analyses and from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-JRA. This inter-comparison shows an overall good agreement between the climatology and the analyses, with daily absolute biases generally smaller than 2 kg m−2. The absolute bias to JRA and ERA INTERIM is typically smaller than 0.5 kg m−2. For the period 1991–2006, the root mean square error (RMSE to both reanalysis is approximately 2 kg m−2. As SSM/I WVPA and radiances are assimilated in JMA and all

  17. The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schröder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF aims at the provision and sound validation of well documented Climate Data Records (CDRs in sustained and operational environments. In this study, a total column water vapour path (WVPA climatology from CM SAF is presented and inter-compared to water vapour data records from various data sources. Based on homogenised brightness temperatures from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, a climatology of WVPA has been generated within the Hamburg Ocean–Atmosphere Fluxes and Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS framework. Within a research and operation transition activity the HOAPS data and operation capabilities have been successfully transferred to the CM SAF where the complete HOAPS data and processing schemes are hosted in an operational environment. An objective analysis for interpolation, namely kriging, has been applied to the swath-based WVPA retrievals from the HOAPS data set. The resulting climatology consists of daily and monthly mean fields of WVPA over the global ice-free ocean. The temporal coverage ranges from July 1987 to August 2006. After a comparison to the precursor product the CM SAF SSM/I-based climatology has been comprehensively compared to different types of meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-ERA40, ERA INTERIM and operational analyses and from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA–JRA. This inter-comparison shows an overall good agreement between the climatology and the analyses, with daily absolute biases generally smaller than 2 kg m−2. The absolute value of the bias to JRA and ERA INTERIM is typically smaller than 0.5 kg m−2. For the period 1991–2006, the root mean square error (RMSE for both reanalyses is approximately 2 kg m−2. As SSM/I WVPA and radiances are assimilated into JMA and all ECMWF analyses and

  18. Comparative study of three Plumbago L. species (Plumbaginaceae) by microscopy, UPLC–UV and HPTLC analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a comparative study of anatomy of leaves, stems and roots of three species of Plumbago, namely P. auriculata Lam., P. indica L. and P. zeylanica L. by light microscopy. The paper also provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the naphthoquinone, plumbagin, a major constit...

  19. A Prospective Study of Stimulant Response in Preschool Children: Insights from ROC Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Elizabeth J.; Manos, Michael J.; Findling, Robert L.; Schubel, Emily A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of psychostimulant medication in a naturalistic sample of preschoolers. Benefits and side effects for methylphenidate and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall) were examined. Method: Twenty-eight preschoolers (ages 4.0-5.9) participated in the present investigation. They were obtained…

  20. Correcting for multivariate measurement error by regression calibration in meta-analyses of epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    -specific, averaged and empirical Bayes estimates of RC parameters. Additionally, we allow for binary covariates (e.g. smoking status) and for uncertainty and time trends in the measurement error corrections. Our methods are illustrated using a subset of individual participant data from prospective long-term studies...

  1. Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identify multiple loci associated with pulmonary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Hancock (Dana); M. Eijgelsheim (Mark); J.B. Wilk (Jemma); S.A. Gharib (Sina); L.R. Loehr (Laura); K. Marciante (Kristin); N. Franceschini (Nora); Y.M.T.A. van Durme; T.H. Chen; R.G. Barr (Graham); M.B. Schabath (Matthew); D.J. Couper (David); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); N.M. Punjabi (Naresh); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); P.L. Enright (Paul); K.E. North (Kari); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); T. Lumley (Thomas); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); G.T. O'Connor (George); S.J. London (Stephanie)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSpirometric measures of lung function are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important lung-function measures: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and it

  2. Psychiatric genome-wide association study analyses implicate neuronal, immune and histone pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dushlaine, Colm; Rossin, Lizzy; Lee, Phil H.;

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from ...

  3. Higher Education Business Management Staff and the MBA: A Small Study Analysing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is a key sector for the United Kingdom contributing over £70 billion of output. It functions in an increasingly complex operating, regulatory, and legislative environment that has led to an increased need for effective nonacademic business managers. This study evaluates the benefits of a specialist master of business…

  4. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  5. Psychiatric genome-wide association study analyses implicate neuronal, immune and histone pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dushlaine, Colm; Rossin, Lizzy; Lee, Phil H.; Duncan, Laramie; Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Newhouse, Stephen; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Posthuma, Danielle; Nurnberger, John I.; Lee, S. Hong; Faraone, Stephen V.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayes, Monica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breuer, Rene; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Byrne, Enda M.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Mattheisen, Manuel; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flicldnger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisen, Louise; Gailagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andres; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stephane; Jones, Edward G.; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kaehler, Anna K.; Kahn, Rene S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landen, Mikael; Laengstroem, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Muir, Walter J.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Noethen, Markus M.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnstroem, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribases, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Cair, David St.; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sutdiffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; Van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zoellner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R.; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nicholas; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Wray, Naomi R.; Zhao, Zhaoming; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Holmans, Peter A.; Breen, Gerome

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from ove

  6. Simulation of the Impact of New Air-Based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Case, Jonathan; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Jones, Linwood; Ruff, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H'Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRad) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRad is being designed to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRad will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx. 3 x the aircraft altitude). The instrument is described in a paper presented to the Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Symposium. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact of the HIRad instrument on H'Wind analyses, both in terms of adding it to the full suite of current measurements, as well as using it to replace instrument(s) that may not be functioning at the future tame the HIRad instrument is implemented.

  7. Study of CP Violation in Dalitz-Plot Analyses of B-Meson Decays to Three Kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, Brian [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Standard Model (SM) explains CP violation in terms of the CKM matrix. The BABAR experiment was designed mainly to test the CKM model in B decays. B decays that proceed through b → s loop diagrams, of which B {yields} KKK decays are an example, are sensitive to new physics effects that could lead to deviations from the CKM predictions for CP violation. We present studies of CP violation in the decays B+ → K+K-K+, B+ → KS0KS0K+, and B0 → K+K-KS0, using a Dalitz plot amplitude analysis. These studies are based on approximately 470 million B$\\bar{B}$ decays collected by BABAR at the PEP-II collider at SLAC. We perform measurements of time-dependent CP violation in B0 → K+K-KS0, including B0 → ΦKS0. We measure a CP-violating phase βeff (ΦKS0) = 0.36 ± 0.11 ± 0.04 rad., in agreement with the SM. This is the world's most precise measurement of this quantity. We also measure direct CP asymmetries in all three decay modes, including the direct CP asymmetry ACP (ΦK+) = (12.8 ± 4.4 ± 1.3)%, which is 2.8 sigma away from zero. This measurement is in tension with the SM, which predicts an asymmetry of a few percent. We also study the resonant and nonresonant features in the B → KKK Dalitz plots. We find that the hypothetical scalar fX(1500) resonance, introduced by prior analyses to explain an unknown peak in the mKK spectrum, cannot adequately describe the data. We conclude instead that the fX(1500) can be explained as the sum of the f0(1500), f'2(1525), and f0(1710) resonances, removing the need for the hypothetical fX(1500). We also find that an exponential

  8. Analysing Repeat Visitation on Country Level with Passive Mobile Positioning Method: an Estonian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Kuusik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the capabilities and limits of the passive mobile positioning (PMP method in studying loyalty of tourists on the macro level. The repeat visitors were identified using database of call activities of roaming phones in Estonia since 25.04.2005 till 31.01.2009. For this purpose was developed model which selected repeat visits on the basis of time interval. The findings of the study revealed that it is possible to observe the duration, density, seasonality and dynamics of repeat visitations. In addition the local destinations and events most loved by repeat visitors and the trajectory they are using could be also identified. Another important finding revealed that repeat visitors stay longer in destination than first time visitors. The results presented in this paper could be used by Estonian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications and by Enterprise Estonia developing the Estonian tourism policy

  9. The Process of Designing and Analysing a Qualitative Study into Multiple WIL Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Lisa J.; McAdie, Tina M.; Bravington, Alison; King, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Title: Designing a Qualitative Study into Multiple Work Integrated Learning (WIL) Experiences. Authors: Lisa Ward, Dr Tina McAdie, Alison Bravington, Professor Nigel King Group / institution: University of Huddersfield. Conference theme(s) covered: Challenges and Innovations in the design and delivery of WIL Sub-theme: Impacts of WIL on graduate outcomes and employability Background / context: Universities are forever looking for the perfect Work Integrated Learning (WIL) model: t...

  10. An empirical study analysing the dynamics of two International Strategic Alliances in the Indian hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rathore, Abhijeet

    2009-01-01

    This report undertakes a significant study in the field of Indian hotel industry, which has witnessed some major strategic co-marketing alliances with renowned International hospitality players that have become more prominent especially after the liberalisation of Indian economy in early nineties. The rationale behind this report is to critically examine the dynamics of two well known international joint ventures namely, Hotel Leelaventure-Kempinski Hotels and East India Hotels limited - Hilt...

  11. Special studies and analyses for the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Safety, and Environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report identifies major tasks accomplished, details plans for the orderly completion of all work in process, and provides a complete listing of deliverables (reports, briefings, letters, etc.) provided under the contract. Purpose of this contract was to provide environmental studies, analytical planning, evaluation, and other technical assistance and support to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness (EP) and designated EP offices and divisions

  12. Case study: readiness and total ownership cost analyses for new fighter aircraft, F-XX

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Keebom; Doerr, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Acquisition Research Case Study Disclaimer: The views represented in this report are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy position of the Navy, the Department of Defense, or the Federal Government. This case is intended to illustrate key trade-offs in planning the acquisition of a major weapon system. In particular, the impact of logistics and maintenance decisions on life-cycle costs and readiness ar...

  13. Quantifying the impact of between-study heterogeneity in multivariate meta-analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Dan; White, Ian R.; Riley, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Measures that quantify the impact of heterogeneity in univariate meta-analysis, including the very popular I 2 statistic, are now well established. Multivariate meta-analysis, where studies provide multiple outcomes that are pooled in a single analysis, is also becoming more commonly used. The question of how to quantify heterogeneity in the multivariate setting is therefore raised. It is the univariate R 2 statistic, the ratio of the variance of the estimated treatment effect under the rando...

  14. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Aschemann-Witzel Jessica; Perez-Cueto Federico JA; Niedzwiedzka Barbara; Verbeke Wim; Bech-Larsen Tino

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaig...

  15. A comparative case study of indoor soundscape approach on objective analyses and subjective evaluations of libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Dökmeci, Papatya; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    International audience In this study indoor soundscaping approaches were used to evaluate 3 different libraries in Sheffield, United Kingdom. Acoustic measurement and recordings as well as social survey on indoor soundscapes were carried out in each library. Usage, time spent, evaluation of physical conditions, demographics, sound perception, noise annoyance, and sound preferences were included in the survey. In addition, established frameworks were used for examining the architectural cha...

  16. Robotic pilot study for analysing spasticity: clinical data versus healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Nitin; Johnson, Denise; Taylor, Graham W.; Allen, O. Brian; Abdullah, Hussein A

    2015-01-01

    Background Spasticity is a motor disorder that causes significant disability and impairs function. There are no definitive parameters that assess spasticity and there is no universally accepted definition. Spasticity evaluation is important in determining stages of recovery. It can determine treatment effectiveness as well as how treatment should proceed. This paper presents a novel cross sectional robotic pilot study for the primary purpose of assessment. The system collects force and positi...

  17. Neutronics analyses for fast spectrum nuclear systems and scenario studies for advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    The present PhD thesis summarizes the three-years study about the neutronic investigation of a new concept nuclear reactor aiming at the optimization and the sustainable management of nuclear fuel in a possible European scenario. A new generation nuclear reactor for the nuclear reinassance is indeed desired by the actual industrialized world, both for the solution of the energetic question arising from the continuously growing energy demand together with the corresponding reduction of oil ava...

  18. Trace element contamination in Slovakian part of Carpathian mountains studied by moss monitoring and foliar analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of terrestrial mosses as biomonitors in large-scale-multielement studies of heavy metal deposition from the atmosphere is a well established technique in Europe. In such studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to distinguish different source categories. A combination of INAA and AAS has been found very useful in this respect, in particular when epithermal activation is used for instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 44 elements in Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens moss samples from the Slovakian part of Carpathian Mts. and a background area in Central Norway were identified. The highest concentrations of the majority of trace elements were found in mosses growing in the second European Black Triangle (Poland - Czech-Slovak border) and hot spots Central Spis in Slovakia. These results are in conformity with the load of trace elements in the foliage of white fir (abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 5 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni, and Ti in all studied localities. Anthropogenic and geogenic influences are being discussed on the basis of the results. Warimax rotated principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas

  19. Clinical Presentation and Microbial Analyses of Contact Lens Keratitis; an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Rasoulinejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microbial keratitis is an infective process of the cornea with a potentially and serious visual impairments. Contact lenses are a major cause of microbial keratitis in the developed countries especially among young people. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and microbiological characteristic of CLK in patients referred to the emergency department (ED of teaching hospitals, Babol, Iran. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of all patients with contact lens induced corneal ulcers admitted to the teaching hospitals of Babol, Iran, from 2011- 2013. An ophthalmologist examined patients with the slit-lamp and clinical features of them were noted (including pain, redness, foreign body sensation, chemosis, epiphora, blurred vision, discomfort, photophobia, discharge, ocular redness and swelling. All suspected infectious corneal ulcers were scraped for microbial culture and two slides were prepared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 18.0. Results: A total of 14 patients (17 eyes were recruited into the study (100% female. The patients’ age ranged from 16-37 years old (mean age 21.58±7.23 years. The most prevalent observed clinical signs were pain and redness. Three samples reported as sterile. The most common isolated causative organism was pseudomonas aeroginosa (78.6%, Staphylococcus aureus 14.3%, and enterobacter 7.1%, respectively. Treatment outcome was excellent in 23.5%, good in 47.1%, and poor in 29.4% of cases. Conclusion: Improper lens wear and care as well as the lack of awareness about the importance of aftercare visits have been identified as potential risk factors for the corneal ulcer among contact lens wearers. Training and increasing the awareness of adequate lens care and disinfection practices, consulting with an ophthalmologist, and frequent replacement of contact lens storage cases would greatly help reducing the risk of microbial keratitis.

  20. Studies on Aries River (Apuseni Mountains) pollution using factorial analyses (in Romanian)

    OpenAIRE

    Forray Ferenc La̒za̒r

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we try to use factor analysis in the characterisation of river water chemistry between the municipalities of Cheia and Muncel along a 54-km stretch of the Aries River (NW Romania). The results show that 4 factors can explain 88% of the water chemistry. The first factor explains 39% of the total data variance, and represents the water-rock interactions. This high percent indicates the importance of water rock interactions in defining the chemistry of surface waters. The se...

  1. Study of parameters important to soil-structure interaction in seismic analyses of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of state-of-the-art techniques for analyzing the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on structures during earthquakes is outlined. Emphasis is placed on methods to account for energy dissipation as a result of both wave propagation away from the structure's foundation and hysteretic soil response. Solution techniques are grouped into two major types: substructure methods, which break the problem into a series of steps; and direct methods, which analyze the soil-structure model in one step. In addition to theoretical and historical development of SSI methodology, case studies are presented illustrating the application of these solution techniques. 94 references

  2. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschemann-Witzel Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly

  3. Study of parameters important to soil-structure interaction in seismic analyses of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    The development of state-of-the-art techniques for analyzing the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on structures during earthquakes is outlined. Emphasis is placed on methods to account for energy dissipation as a result of both wave propagation away from the structure's foundation and hysteretic soil response. Solution techniques are grouped into two major types: substructure methods, which break the problem into a series of steps; and direct methods, which analyze the soil-structure model in one step. In addition to theoretical and historical development of SSI methodology, case studies are presented illustrating the application of these solution techniques. 94 references.

  4. A Karyological Study on Johrenia dichotoma DC. (Apiaceae by Image Analysing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Martın

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study Karyotype Analysis was defined in Johrenia dichotoma DC. This taxa contained diploid chromosome number of as 2n=22. The total haploid chromosome lengths 29.84 μm with average chromosome lengths from 2.25 to 3.47 μm. The karyotype formulae of this taxa consisted of eleven pairs of median chromosome. Also, the chromosome morphology of J. dichotoma was identified by calculating arm and centromeric index, the ratio length of its chromosome arms, and its ideogram was done. Chromosome morphology is new for science world. The research has made contribution to the cytotaxonomic revision of the genus Johrenia in Turkey.

  5. A Karyological Study on Johrenia dichotoma DC. (Apiaceae) by Image Analysing System

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Martın; Yavuz Bagcı; Muhittin Dinc; Fahim Altınordu; Ahmet Duran

    2014-01-01

    In this study Karyotype Analysis was defined in Johrenia dichotoma DC. This taxa contained diploid chromosome number of as 2n=22. The total haploid chromosome lengths 29.84 μm with average chromosome lengths from 2.25 to 3.47 μm. The karyotype formulae of this taxa consisted of eleven pairs of median chromosome. Also, the chromosome morphology of J. dichotoma was identified by calculating arm and centromeric index, the ratio length of its chromosome arms, and its ideogram was done. Chromosome...

  6. Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

  7. Building-related symptoms among U.S. office workers and risks factors for moisture and contamination: Preliminary analyses of U.S. EPA BASE Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Cozen, Myrna

    2002-09-01

    The authors assessed relationships between health symptoms in office workers and risk factors related to moisture and contamination, using data collected from a representative sample of U.S. office buildings in the U.S. EPA BASE study. Methods: Analyses assessed associations between three types of weekly, workrelated symptoms-lower respiratory, mucous membrane, and neurologic-and risk factors for moisture or contamination in these office buildings. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of associations for these risk factors as odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for personal-level potential confounding variables related to demographics, health, job, and workspace. A number of risk factors were associated (e.g., 95% confidence limits excluded 1.0) significantly with small to moderate increases in one or more symptom outcomes. Significantly elevated ORs for mucous membrane symptoms were associated with the following risk factors: presence of humidification system in good condition versus none (OR = 1.4); air handler inspection annually versus daily (OR = 1.6); current water damage in the building (OR = 1.2); and less than daily vacuuming in study space (OR = 1.2). Significantly elevated ORs for lower respiratory symptoms were associated with: air handler inspection annually versus daily (OR = 2.0); air handler inspection less than daily but at least semi-annually (OR=1.6); less than daily cleaning of offices (1.7); and less than daily vacuuming of the study space (OR = 1.4). Only two statistically significant risk factors for neurologic symptoms were identified: presence of any humidification system versus none (OR = 1.3); and less than daily vacuuming of the study space (OR = 1.3). Dirty cooling coils, dirty or poorly draining drain pans, and standing water near outdoor air intakes, evaluated by inspection, were not identified as risk factors in these analyses, despite predictions based on previous findings elsewhere, except that very

  8. Ion collision cross section analyses in quadrupole ion traps using the filter diagonalization method: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; He, Miyi; Guo, Dan; Zhai, Yanbing; Xu, Wei

    2016-04-28

    Previously, we have demonstrated the feasibility of measuring ion collision cross sections (CCSs) within a quadrupole ion trap by performing time-frequency analyses of simulated ion trajectories. In this study, an improved time-frequency analysis method, the filter diagonalization method (FDM), was applied for data analyses. Using the FDM, high resolution could be achieved in both time- and frequency-domains when calculating ion time-frequency curves. Owing to this high-resolution nature, ion-neutral collision induced ion motion frequency shifts were observed, which further cause the intermodulation of ion trajectories and thus accelerate image current attenuation. Therefore, ion trap operation parameters, such as the ion number, high-order field percentage and buffer gas pressure, were optimized for ion CCS measurements. Under optimized conditions, simulation results show that a resolving power from 30 to more than 200 could be achieved for ion CCS measurements. PMID:27066889

  9. Analysing Health Professionals' Learning Interactions in an Online Social Network: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Verspoor, Karin; Gray, Kathleen; Barnett, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises a longitudinal analysis of learning interactions occurring over three years among health professionals in an online social network. The study employs the techniques of Social Network Analysis (SNA) and statistical modeling to identify the changes in patterns of interaction over time and test associated structural network effects. SNA results indicate overall low participation in the network, although some participants became active over time and even led discussions. In particular, the analysis has shown that a change of lead contributor results in a change in learning interaction and network structure. The analysis of structural network effects demonstrates that the interaction dynamics slow down over time, indicating that interactions in the network are more stable. The health professionals may be reluctant to share knowledge and collaborate in groups but were interested in building personal learning networks or simply seeking information. PMID:27440295

  10. [Study of the Sporothrix schenkii (yeast forms) extract. Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analyses: characterization of enzymatic activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbaum, S; Duriez, T; Dujardin, L; Biguet, J

    1978-07-28

    An extract from living yeast forms of S. schenckii was prepared. The yeasts originated from a shake culture in B.H.I. broth (Difco) incubated for 3 days at 35 degrees C in darkness; they were harvested, washed and disrupted with glass beads in a model MSK Braun mechanical cell homogenizer; a freezing-thawing was added to improve the extract. After electrophoretic separation in agarose gel, the extract's components were characterized by their enzymic activity; with this technique, 30 bands were revealed. These enzymic activities were also investigated on the antigenic fractions of the extract revealed by a rabbit hyperimmunserum: 16 among 22 immunoprecipitates are identified by their catalytic properties. Study of the earliest precipitating antibodies (appearing-order and enzymic caracterization) in rabbits just immunized completes this work. How to ameliorate the quality of the extract by culture and extraction conditions is also specified. PMID:692628

  11. Multi-path transportation futures study : vehicle characterization and scenario analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering; ORNL

    2009-12-03

    Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance - and uncertainty - of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). This Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of 'what if' questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  12. Analyses of archaeological pottery samples using X-ray fluorescence technique for provenance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological artifacts reveal information on past human activities, artifact preparation technology, art and possible trade. Ceramics are the most stable and abundant material in archaeological context. Pottery is the most abundant tracers in all archaeological excavations. Compared to major elements, elements present at trace concentrations levels are source specific and they maintain same concentration levels in source clay as well as finished products e.g., fired clay potteries. As it is difficult to find out exact source or origin, provenance study is carried out first to establish whether objects under study are from the same or different sources/origin. Various analytical techniques like instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been used for obtaining elemental concentrations in archaeological potteries. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry provides a non-destructive means for elemental characterization of a wide range of archaeological materials. Ten archaeological pottery samples were collected from Kottapuram, Kerala under the supervision of archaeological survey of India. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry using a handheld Olympus Innov-X Delta XRF device, ACD BARC, has been used for chemical characterization of the pottery samples. The instrument is equipped with the Delta Rhodium (Rh) anode X-Ray tube and uses a Silicon Drift Detector (resolution <200 eV at 5.95 keV Mn Kα X-ray). NIST 2781 SRM was analyzed for quality control purpose. Ten elements namely Fe, Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Zr, Mo and Se were chosen for cluster analysis and their concentration values were utilized for multivariate statistical analysis using WinSTAT 9.0

  13. Government-promoted collective research and development in Japan: Analyses of the organization through case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.

    1990-06-01

    A study was commissioned by the Energy Conservation and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to better understand the strategies used for cooperative and joint-venture research and development (R D) overseas. The study evaluates the organization and management of several different types of cooperative R D programs in Japan that are sponsored under the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) Program, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) Program, and the Key Technology Center (KTC) Program. The ERATO Program grew out of a concern over revising the government's approach to supporting research and technology development. The program was initiated to address what was regarded as a lack of creativity in areas at the forefront of science. The program recruits young researchers and allows them flexibility to explore multi-disciplinary areas at the forefront of science. It has been organized to allow for individual creativity but at the same time to benefit from the combined knowledge of an assembly of researchers. Because the plan is such a radical departure from conventional Japanese philosophy, it has met with certain bureaucratic obstacles. Visits to four ERATO projects are described. The third program, the KTC Program, focuses on getting private firms to venture into risky areas of advanced technology to pave the way for future industries. Its goal is to encourage a shift of resources in the private sector toward areas that are considered essential for the competitive development of future industries. The principal philosophy behind the KTC is that the private sector is in the best position to identify promising technical challenges and to weigh their commercial potential against research uncertainties. Three KTC research joint ventures are briefly described. 13 refs., 9 figs., 35 tabs.

  14. Simultaneous Analyses and Applications of Multiple Fluorobenzoate and Halide Tracers in Hydrologic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E

    2004-01-22

    An analytical method that employs ion chromatography has been developed to more fully exploit the use of fluorobenzoic acids (FBAs) and halides as hydrologic tracers. In a single run, this reliable, sensitive, and robust method can simultaneously separate and quantify halides (fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide) and up to seven FBAs from other common groundwater constituents (e.g., nitrate and sulfate). The usefulness of this ion chromatographic (IC) analytical method is demonstrated in both field and laboratory tracer experiments. Field experiments in unsaturated tuff featuring fractures or a fault show that this efficient and cost-effective method helps achieve the objectives of tracer studies that use multiple FBAs and/or diffusivity tracers (simultaneous use of one or more FBA and halide). The field study examines the hydrologic response of fractures and the matrix to different flow rates and the contribution of matrix diffusion in chemical transport. Laboratory tracer experiments with eight geologic media from across the United States--mostly from Department of Energy facilities where groundwater contamination is prevalent and where subsurface characterization employing tracers has been ongoing or is in need--reveal several insights about tracer transport behavior: (1) Bromide and FBAs are not always transported conservatively. (2) The delayed transport of these anionic tracers is likely related to geologic media characteristics, such as organic matter, pH, iron oxide content, and clay mineralogy. (3) Any use of iodine as a hydrologic tracer should take into account the different sorption behaviors of iodide and iodate and the possible conversion of iodine's initial chemical form. (4) The transport behavior of potential FBA and halide tracers under relevant geochemical conditions should be evaluated before beginning ambitious, large-scale field tracer experiments.

  15. Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix A. Supporting analyses and tradeoffs, book 2. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Attitude reference systems for use with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) are described. The systems considered are fixed and gimbaled star trackers, star mappers, and digital sun sensors. Covariance analyses were performed to determine performance for the most promising candidate in low altitude and synchronous orbits. The performance of attitude estimators that employ gyroscopes which are periodically updated by a star sensor is established by a single axis covariance analysis. The other systems considered are: (1) the propulsion system design, (2) electric power and electrical integration, (3) thermal control, (4) ground data processing, and (5) the test plan and cost reduction aspects of observatory integration and test.

  16. Dating gasoline releases using ground-water chemical analyses: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents case studies where geochemical data were analyzed in spatial and temporal relation to documented gasoline releases at typical service station sites. In particular, the authors present ground-water analytical data for sites where (1) the date of the gasoline release is known with a good degree of confidence, (2) the release is confined to a relatively short period of time so as to be considered essentially instantaneous, (3) antecedent geochemical condition are known or can be reasonably expected to have been either unaffected by previous hydrocarbon impacts or minor in comparison to known release events, and (4) where geologic materials can be classified as to structure and composition. The authors' intent is to provide empirical data regarding the hydrogeological fate of certain gasoline components, namely the compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of gasoline weathering as a means of comparing releases in given hydrogeologic environments. Trends seen in a variety of comparative hydrocarbon compound ratios may provide a basis for evaluating relative release dates

  17. Studies on Aries River (Apuseni Mountains pollution using factorial analyses (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forray Ferenc La̒za̒r

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we try to use factor analysis in the characterisation of river water chemistry between the municipalities of Cheia and Muncel along a 54-km stretch of the Aries River (NW Romania. The results show that 4 factors can explain 88% of the water chemistry. The first factor explains 39% of the total data variance, and represents the water-rock interactions. This high percent indicates the importance of water rock interactions in defining the chemistry of surface waters. The second factor explains 23% of the data variation and represents the influence of mining effluents. The influence of the mine tailings on water chemistry is represented by the third factor. The sum of the second and the third factor can explain 40% of the total data variance, which confirms that the Arieş River is highly polluted by the mining industry. The last factor, which explains 8% of data variation represents the influence of the agricultural and domestic effluents.

  18. Ab initio computational study of vincristine as a biological active compound: NMR and NBO analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Joohari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vincristine is a biological active alkaloid that has been used clinically against a variety of neoplasms. In the current study we have theoretically investigated the magnetic properties of titled compound to predict physical and chemical properties of vincristine as a biological inhibitor. Ab initio computation using HF and B3LYP with 3-21G(d and 6-31G(d level of theory have been performed and then magnetic shielding tensor (, ppm, shielding asymmetry (, magnetic shielding anisotropy (aniso, ppm, the skew of a tensor (K, chemical shift anisotropy ( and chemical shift ( were calculated to indicate the details of the interaction mechanism between microtubules and vincristine. Moreover, EHOMO, ELUMO and Ebg were evaluated. The maximum and minimum values of Ebg were found in HF/3-21g and B3LYP/3-21g respectively. It was also uggested that O24, O37, O49 and O55 with minimum values of iso, are active sites of titled compound. Furthermore the calculated chemical shifts were compared with experimental data in DMSO and CDCl3 solvents.

  19. A CLINICAL STUDY TO ANALYSE THE SPECTRUM OF PERITONITIS DUE TO HOLLOW VISCUS PERFORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Datta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Perforation peritonitis is the one of the common abdominal surgical emergency . The spectrum of etiology of perforation in Tropical countries continues to be different from its Western counterpart. The objective of the study was to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis as encountered at K aturi M edical C ollege and H ospital , G untur. A.P. Hundred consec utive cases of perforation peritonitis over a period of 26 months . (June 2010 - July 2012 were reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, operative findings and postoperative course retrospectively. The most common type of perforation in our series was per forated duodenal ulcer (56 cases followed by Appendicular (16 cases, Ileal (12 cases, Colonic ( 6 cases, Gastric ( 4 cases, Jejunal (2 cases, Gall bladder (2 cases, Anastomotic ulcer ( 2 cases were reported . Despite delay in seeking medical treatment (32%, the overall mortality (11% , favorably comparable with other published series though the overall morbidity (29% was favorable. In contrast to western literature, where lower gastrointestinal tract perforations predominate, upper gastrointestinal tr act perforations constitute the majority of cases in India. Mostly males and elderly people are affected due to injudicious usage of NSAIDS, alcohol, smoking. ( 11 Withdrawal from these habits and using of proton pump inhibitors and H - Pylori eradication which warrant early recognition and prompt treatment to avoid serious complications and death.

  20. Environmental and Physiological Influences on the TEX86 Proxy: Results from Continuous Culture Studies and Stable Carbon Isotope Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Hurley, S.; Elling, F. J.; Koenneke, M.; Santoro, A. E.; Buchwald, C.; Wankel, S. D.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Zhang, Y.; Shah Walter, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Membrane lipids of marine Archaea - known as GDGTs - are the basis of the TEX86 sea surface temperature (SST) paleoproxy. GDGTs are ubiquitous in marine sediments, and their broad distribution and high preservation potential have led to an ever-increasing use of TEX86. The planktonic Thaumarchaeota that are believed to be the major sources of GDGTs to marine sediments are autotrophic nitrifiers, assimilating carbon directly from dissolved CO2. Therefore the δ13C values of GDGTs additionally provide information about the DIC system and paleoproductivity. However, as for all biological proxies, understanding the physiology and biochemistry of the responsible organisms is essential to understanding how the proxies work. From this perspective, the TEX86-SST proxy is uniquely perplexing: How is it possible that multiple approaches to calibration show a good correlation between TEX86 and SSTs, when maximum activity of Thaumarchaeota is near and below the base of the photic zone? Here we show data from two studies that help address this question. Analyses of GDGT δ13C values show that the dominant GDGT flux to sediments is not from the sea surface. The data are measured on intact GDGTs purified by orthogonal dimensions of HPLC, followed by measurement of δ13C values on a Spooling Wire Microcombustion (SWiM)-IRMS with 1σ precision of ±0.2‰ and accuracy of ±0.3‰. Using this approach, we confirm that GDGTs, generally around -19.0‰ to -18.5‰, are isotopically "heavy" compared to other marine lipids, and that crenarchaeol in particular is a good tracer of water column GDGT export. In parallel, we investigated the mechanistic underpinning of the TEX86 proxy using isothermal culture studies of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 to explore the relationship between TEX86 and growth conditions. Evidence suggests that growth rate and electron donor supply are important controls on GDGT ratios and that TEX86 scales with the in-situ rate of

  1. Studies of the TLR4-associated protein MD-2 using yeast-display and mutational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Daiva M; Chervin, Adam S; Ranoa, Diana R; Kelley, Stacy L; Tapping, Richard I; Kranz, David M

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates the innate immune system by forming a complex with myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which is present on antigen presenting cells. MD-2 plays an essential role in this activation of the innate immune system as a member of the ternary complex, TLR4:MD-2:LPS. With the goal of further understanding the molecular details of the interaction of MD-2 with LPS and TLR4, and possibly toward engineering dominant negative regulators of the MD-2 protein, here we subjected MD-2 to a mutational analysis using yeast display. The approach included generation of site-directed alanine mutants, and ligand-driven selections of MD-2 mutant libraries. Our findings showed that: (1) proline mutations in the F119-K132 loop that binds LPS were strongly selected for enhanced yeast surface stability, (2) there was a preference for positive-charged side chains (R/K) at residue 120 for LPS binding, and negative-charged side chains (D/E) for TLR4 binding, (3) aromatic residues were strongly preferred at F119 and F121 for LPS binding, and (4) an MD-2 mutant (T84N/D101A/S118A/S120D/K122P) exhibited increased binding to TLR4 but decreased binding to LPS. These studies revealed the impact of specific residues and regions of MD-2 on the binding of LPS and TLR4, and they provide a framework for further directed evolution of the MD-2 protein. PMID:26320630

  2. Evaluation of the Pseudostatic Analyses of Earth Dams Using FE Simulation and Observed Earthquake-Induced Deformations: Case Studies of Upper San Fernando and Kitayama Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Tohid

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the accuracy of the pseudostatic approach is governed by the accuracy with which the simple pseudostatic inertial forces represent the complex dynamic inertial forces that actually exist in an earthquake. In this study, the Upper San Fernando and Kitayama earth dams, which have been designed using the pseudostatic approach and damaged during the 1971 San Fernando and 1995 Kobe earthquakes, were investigated and analyzed. The finite element models of the dams were prepared based on the detailed available data and results of in situ and laboratory material tests. Dynamic analyses were conducted to simulate the earthquake-induced deformations of the dams using the computer program Plaxis code. Then the pseudostatic seismic coefficient used in the design and analyses of the dams were compared with the seismic coefficients obtained from dynamic analyses of the simulated model as well as the other available proposed pseudostatic correlations. Based on the comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the pseudostatic seismic coefficients are evaluated and discussed. PMID:24616636

  3. Study of the production mechanism of the η meson in proton-proton collisions by means of analysing power measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysing power measurements for the #vector#pp→ppη reaction studied in this dissertation are used in the determination of the reaction mechanism of the η meson production in nucleon-nucleon collisions. Measurements have been performed in the close-to-threshold energy region at beam momenta of pbeam=2.010 and 2.085 GeV/c, corresponding to the excess energies of Q=10 and 36 MeV, respectively. The experiments were realised by means of a cooler synchrotron and storage ring COSY along with a cluster jet target. For registration of the reaction products the COSY-11 facility has been used. The identification of the η meson has been performed with the missing mass method. The results for the angular dependence of the analysing power combined with the hitherto determined isospin dependence of the total cross section for the η meson production in the nucleon-nucleon collisions, reveal a statistically significant indication that the excitation of the nucleon to the S11 resonance, the process which intermediates the production of the η meson, is predominantly due to the exchange of a π meson between the colliding nucleons. The determined values of the analysing power at both excess energies are consistent with zero implying that the η meson is produced predominantly in the s-wave at both excess energies. (orig.)

  4. What Happened, and Why: Toward an Understanding of Human Error Based on Automated Analyses of Incident Reports. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maille, Nicolas P.; Statler, Irving C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Rosenthal, Loren; Shafto, Michael G.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) project of NASA s Aviation Safety and Security Program was to develop technologies that will enable proactive management of safety risk, which entails identifying the precursor events and conditions that foreshadow most accidents. This presents a particular challenge in the aviation system where people are key components and human error is frequently cited as a major contributing factor or cause of incidents and accidents. In the aviation "world", information about what happened can be extracted from quantitative data sources, but the experiential account of the incident reporter is the best available source of information about why an incident happened. This report describes a conceptual model and an approach to automated analyses of textual data sources for the subjective perspective of the reporter of the incident to aid in understanding why an incident occurred. It explores a first-generation process for routinely searching large databases of textual reports of aviation incident or accidents, and reliably analyzing them for causal factors of human behavior (the why of an incident). We have defined a generic structure of information that is postulated to be a sound basis for defining similarities between aviation incidents. Based on this structure, we have introduced the simplifying structure, which we call the Scenario as a pragmatic guide for identifying similarities of what happened based on the objective parameters that define the Context and the Outcome of a Scenario. We believe that it will be possible to design an automated analysis process guided by the structure of the Scenario that will aid aviation-safety experts to understand the systemic issues that are conducive to human error.

  5. The importance of uncertainties in scenario analyses--A study on future ecosystem service delivery in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landuyt, Dries; Broekx, Steven; Engelen, Guy; Uljee, Inge; Van der Meulen, Maarten; Goethals, Peter L M

    2016-05-15

    Land use is rapidly changing and is significantly affecting ecosystem service delivery all around the world. The socio-economic context and political choices largely determine land use change. This land use change, driven by socio-economic pressures, will impact diverse elements of the environment including, for example, air quality, soil properties, water infiltration and food and wood production, impacts that can be linked to the provisioning of ecosystem services. To gain more insight into the effects of alternative socio-economic developments on ecosystem service delivery, land use change models are being coupled to ecosystem service delivery models to perform scenario analyses. Although the uncertainty of the results of these kind of scenario analyses are generally far from negligible, studies rarely take them into account. In this study, a cellular automaton land use change model is coupled to Bayesian belief network ecosystem service delivery models to facilitate the study of error propagation in scenario analysis. The proposed approach is applied to model the impact of alternative socio-economic developments on ecosystem service delivery in Flanders, Belgium and to assess the impact of land use allocation uncertainty on the uncertainty associated to future ecosystem service delivery. Results suggest that taking into account uncertainties may have an effect on policy recommendations that come out of the scenario analysis. However, in this study, uncertainties in the applied ecosystem service models were dominant, reducing the importance of accounting for land use allocation uncertainty. PMID:26930321

  6. Applications of diagonal chromatography for proteome-wide characterization of protein modifications and activity-based analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Kris; Impens, Francis; Van Damme, Petra; Ghesquière, Bart; Hanoulle, Xavier; Vandekerckhove, Joël

    2007-12-01

    Numerous gel-free proteomics techniques have been reported over the past few years, introducing a move from proteins to peptides as bits of information in qualitative and quantitative proteome studies. Many shotgun proteomics techniques randomly sample thousands of peptides in a qualitative and quantitative manner but overlook the vast majority of protein modifications that are often crucial for proper protein structure and function. Peptide-based proteomic approaches have thus been developed to profile a diverse set of modifications including, but not at all limited, to phosphorylation, glycosylation and ubiquitination. Typical here is that each modification needs a specific, tailor-made analytical procedure. In this minireview, we discuss how one technique - diagonal reverse-phase chromatography - is applied to study two different types of protein modification: protein processing and protein N-glycosylation. Additionally, we discuss an activity-based proteome study in which purine-binding proteins were profiled by diagonal chromatography.

  7. Dynamic Associations of Change in Physical Activity and Change in Cognitive Function: Coordinated Analyses of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Lindwall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a coordinated analyses approach to examine the association of physical activity and cognitive change in four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with physical activity included both as a fixed (between-person and time-varying (within-person predictor of four domains of cognitive function (reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge was used. Baseline physical activity predicted fluency, reasoning and memory in two studies. However, there was a consistent pattern of positive relationships between time-specific changes in physical activity and time-specific changes in cognition, controlling for expected linear trajectories over time, across all four studies. This pattern was most evident for the domains of reasoning and fluency.

  8. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  9. Effects of can parameters on canned-forging process of TiAl base alloy(Ⅰ)--Microstructural analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘咏; 韦伟峰; 黄伯云; 何双珍; 周科朝; 贺跃辉

    2002-01-01

    By using thermal simulation technique, the conventional canned-forging process of TiAl based alloy was studied. The effect of can parameters on the microstruct ures of TiAl alloy was analyzed in this process. The results show that, the defo rmation microstructure of TiAl based alloy without canning is inhomogeneous. In lateral area, crack and shearing lines can be found; while in central area, fine -grained shearing zone can be found. The effect of can is to reduce the seconda ry tensile stress. However, only when the deformation of the steel can is coinci dental with that of TiAl alloy ingot, can this effect be effective. Moreover, a thick can would enhance the microstructural homogeneity in TiAl based alloy. With the H/D ratio of the ingot increasing, the deformation of TiAl alloy would be more unsteady, therefore, a thicker can should be needed.

  10. Molecular systematics of the Amphisphaeriaceae based on cladistic analyses of partial LSU rDNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewon, Rajesh; Liew, Edward C Y; Hyde, Kevin D

    2003-12-01

    The Amphisphaeriaceae is an important family of ascomycetes within the Xylariales. There has been, however, disagreement regarding the taxonomic placement of many genera within this family and whether it should be confined to ascomycetes producing Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs. In this study, phylogenetic relationships among members of the Amphisphaeriaceae are investigated using partial sequences of the 28S rDNA. Molecular data provided further evidence to support the association of several coelomycetous genera with the ascomycetous Amphisphaeriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses also show that all ascomycetous genera possessing Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs are monophyletic and confirm the anamorphic-teleomorphic connections of some. There is, however, insufficient evidence to support the restriction of Amphisphaeriaceae to genera, which produce Pestalotiopsis-like anamorphs, because the phylogenetic placement of Amphisphaeria umbrina is not fully resolved and its affinities with other members received low bootstrap support. The results also indicate that Iodosphaeria and Arecophila should be excluded from the Amphisphaeriaceae. The placement of Lanceispora in the Amphisphaeriaceae is doubtful. A broad concept of the family Amphisphaeriaceae is advocated until further data are available.

  11. Data concatenation, Bayesian concordance and coalescent-based analyses of the species tree for the rapid radiation of Triturus newts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wielstra

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships for rapid species radiations are difficult to disentangle. Here we study one such case, namely the genus Triturus, which is composed of the marbled and crested newts. We analyze data for 38 genetic markers, positioned in 3-prime untranslated regions of protein-coding genes, obtained with 454 sequencing. Our dataset includes twenty Triturus newts and represents all nine species. Bayesian analysis of population structure allocates all individuals to their respective species. The branching patterns obtained by data concatenation, Bayesian concordance analysis and coalescent-based estimations of the species tree differ from one another. The data concatenation based species tree shows high branch support but branching order is considerably affected by allele choice in the case of heterozygotes in the concatenation process. Bayesian concordance analysis expresses the conflict between individual gene trees for part of the Triturus species tree as low concordance factors. The coalescent-based species tree is relatively similar to a previously published species tree based upon morphology and full mtDNA and any conflicting internal branches are not highly supported. Our findings reflect high gene tree discordance due to incomplete lineage sorting (possibly aggravated by hybridization in combination with low information content of the markers employed (as can be expected for relatively recent species radiations. This case study highlights the complexity of resolving rapid radiations and we acknowledge that to convincingly resolve the Triturus species tree even more genes will have to be consulted.

  12. Analysing value-based management as decision-making tool in a petrochemical company / Zonwabele Zweli Tom

    OpenAIRE

    Tom, Zonwabele Zweli

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the understanding of value – based management (VBM) as a decision making tool, how it is embraced in all management levels and its impact on the performance of a petrochemical company. The application of VBM links business strategy, finance, performance management and management processes all together to create value. VBM is a powerful management framework with the aim to focus all managerial processes on shareholder value creation. It encourages employees at all...

  13. Aviation and programmatic analyses; Volume 1, Task 1: Aviation data base development and application. [for NASA OAST programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A method was developed for using the NASA aviation data base and computer programs in conjunction with the GE management analysis and projection service to perform simple and complex economic analysis for planning, forecasting, and evaluating OAST programs. Capabilities of the system are discussed along with procedures for making basic data tabulations, updates and entries. The system is applied in an agricultural aviation study in order to assess its value for actual utility in the OAST working environment.

  14. A protocol for a systematic review on the impact of unpublished studies and studies published in the gray literature in meta-analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Schmucker, Christine; Bluemle, Annette; Briel, Matthias; Portalupi, Susan; Lang, Britta; Motschall, Edith; Schwarzer, Guido; Bassler, Dirk; Mueller, Katharina F; von Elm, Erik; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses are particularly vulnerable to the effects of publication bias. Despite methodologists' best efforts to locate all evidence for a given topic the most comprehensive searches are likely to miss unpublished studies and studies that are published in the gray literature only. If the results of the missing studies differ systematically from the published ones, a meta-analysis will be biased with an inaccurate assessment of the intervention's effects.As part of the OPEN pr...

  15. Using meta-analytic path analysis to test theoretical predictions in health behavior: An illustration based on meta-analyses of the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hagger, Martin; Chan, Dervin K. C.; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs fr...

  16. Are decisions using cost-utility analyses robust to choice of SF-36/SF-12 preference-based algorithm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Surrey M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost utility analysis (CUA using SF-36/SF-12 data has been facilitated by the development of several preference-based algorithms. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how decision-making could be affected by the choice of preference-based algorithms for the SF-36 and SF-12, and provide some guidance on selecting an appropriate algorithm. Methods Two sets of data were used: (1 a clinical trial of adult asthma patients; and (2 a longitudinal study of post-stroke patients. Incremental costs were assumed to be $2000 per year over standard treatment, and QALY gains realized over a 1-year period. Ten published algorithms were identified, denoted by first author: Brazier (SF-36, Brazier (SF-12, Shmueli, Fryback, Lundberg, Nichol, Franks (3 algorithms, and Lawrence. Incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs for each algorithm, stated in dollars per quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY, were ranked and compared between datasets. Results In the asthma patients, estimated ICURs ranged from Lawrence's SF-12 algorithm at $30,769/QALY (95% CI: 26,316 to 36,697 to Brazier's SF-36 algorithm at $63,492/QALY (95% CI: 48,780 to 83,333. ICURs for the stroke cohort varied slightly more dramatically. The MEPS-based algorithm by Franks et al. provided the lowest ICUR at $27,972/QALY (95% CI: 20,942 to 41,667. The Fryback and Shmueli algorithms provided ICURs that were greater than $50,000/QALY and did not have confidence intervals that overlapped with most of the other algorithms. The ICUR-based ranking of algorithms was strongly correlated between the asthma and stroke datasets (r = 0.60. Conclusion SF-36/SF-12 preference-based algorithms produced a wide range of ICURs that could potentially lead to different reimbursement decisions. Brazier's SF-36 and SF-12 algorithms have a strong methodological and theoretical basis and tended to generate relatively higher ICUR estimates, considerations that support a preference for these algorithms over the

  17. Metagenome-based diversity analyses suggest a significant contribution of non-cyanobacterial lineages to carbonate precipitation in modern microbialites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificacion eLopez-Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are thought to play a key role in carbonate formation due to their metabolic activity, but other organisms carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis (photosynthetic eukaryotes or other metabolisms (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, sulfate reduction, may also contribute to carbonate formation. To obtain more quantitative information than that provided by more classical PCR-dependent methods, we studied the microbial diversity of microbialites from the Alchichica crater lake (Mexico by mining for 16S/18S rRNA genes in metagenomes obtained by direct sequencing of environmental DNA. We studied samples collected at the Western (AL-W and Northern (AL-N shores of the lake and, at the latter site, along a depth gradient (1, 5, 10 and 15 m depth. The associated microbial communities were mainly composed of bacteria, most of which seemed heterotrophic, whereas archaea were negligible. Eukaryotes composed a relatively minor fraction dominated by photosynthetic lineages, diatoms in AL-W, influenced by Si-rich seepage waters, and green algae in AL-N samples. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial taxa, followed by Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria (Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi. Community composition varied among sites and with depth. Although cyanobacteria were the most important bacterial group contributing to the carbonate precipitation potential, photosynthetic eukaryotes, anoxygenic photosynthesizers and sulfate reducers were also very abundant. Cyanobacteria affiliated to Pleurocapsales largely increased with depth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations showed considerable areas of aragonite-encrusted Pleurocapsa-like cyanobacteria at microscale. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a strong positive correlation of Pleurocapsales and Chroococcales with aragonite formation at

  18. Study on Technology Development Strategy of Big Airplane Industry in China —— Analyses Based on the Cournot Model%基于古诺竞争模型的我国航空产业技术提升策略研究——以大飞机为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓和; 安家康

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands the Cournot Model and Analyses the R&D strategy select problem between technology introduction and self- reliance R&D through the comparison with cost and revenue. The findings show that on the single plane type market, the domestic company should choose the self - reliance technology R&D in the coming two stage if the success of the self - reliance R&D is very possible, on the two plane type market, the domestic company should choose technology introduction in the first stage and the self- reliance technology R&D the second stage if the success of the self- reliance R&D is very possible.%在扩展古诺竞争模型的基础上,通过比较不同技术提升策略对我国大飞机厂商收益的影响,考察了发展大飞机产业自主研发与技术引进的选择问题。研究结果表明,在单一机型竞争市场上,若自主研发的成功概率很大,则国内厂商在未来两期的最优技术提升策略是自主创新;在两种机型竞争市场上,若自主研发的成功概率很大,则国内厂商在未来两期的最优技术提升策略是第一期技术引进、第二期自主研发。

  19. A new internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes and the feasibility of repeated data collection from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann, Nana; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kjerholt, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: An Internet-based tool for reporting and analysing patient-reported outcomes (PROs) has been developed. The tool enables merging PROs with blood test results and allows for computation of treatment responses. Data may be visualized by graphical analysis and may be exported for downstream...... statistical processing. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) were willing and able to use the tool and fill out questionnaires regularly. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Haematology, Roskilde...... University Hospital, Denmark. Validated questionnaires that were used were European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30, Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form, Brief Fatigue Inventory and Short Form 36 Health Survey. Questionnaires were filled...

  20. Surrogacy of progression free survival for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer studies: meta-analyses of published studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Madan G.; Acharyya, Suddhasatta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: PFS is often used as a surrogate endpoint for OS in metastatic breast cancer studies. We have evaluated the association of treatment effect on PFS with significant HR$_{OS}$ (and how this association is affected by other factors) in published prospective metastatic breast cancer studies. Methods: A systematic literature search in PubMed identified prospective metastatic breast cancer studies. Treatments effects on PFS were determined using hazard ratio (HR$_{PFS}$), increase in media...

  1. Soil microbial community structure in diverse land use systems:A comparative study using Biolog,DGGE,and PLFA analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Dong; YAO Huai-Ying; GE De-Yong; HUANG Chang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    Biolog,16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE),and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses were used to assess soil microbial community characteristics in a chronosequence of tea garden systems (8-,50-,and 90year-old tea gardens),an adjacent wasteland,and a 90-year-old forest.Biolog analysis showed that the average well color development (AWCD) of all carbon sources and the functional diversity based on the Shannon index decreased (P<0.05)in the following order:wasteland>forest>tea garden.For the DGGE analysis,the genetic diversity based on the Shannon index was significantly lower in the tea garden soils than in the wasteland.However,compared to the 90-year-old forest,the tea garden soils showed significantly higher genetic diversity.PLFA analysis showed that the ratio of Gram positive bacteria to Gram negative bacteria was significantly higher in the tea garden soils than in the wasteland,and the highest value was found in the 90-year-old forest.Both the fungal PLFA and the ratio of fungi to bacteria were significantly higher in the three tea garden soils than in the wasteland and forest,indicating that fungal PLFA was significantly affected by land-use change.Based on cluster analysis of the soil microbial community structure,all three analytical methods showed that land-use change had a greater effect on soil microbial community structure than tea garden age.

  2. Socio-economic inequality in childhood and beyond: an overview of challenges and findings from comparative analyses of cohort studies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The growing number of countries with large child cohort studies offers an unprecedented opportunity for comparative research. A topic of central interest in my research is, to what extent the sizable gaps in development that exist between children from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the US are also present in other countries, and to what extent the mechanisms explaining these gaps are similar or different across countries. This overview draws on the results of comparative analyses of birth cohort study data collected in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, to illustrate the challenges that arise in carrying out this kind of research and the way these challenges were met – in particular those having to do with data access and comparability, and those having to do with causal inference. I conclude that this type of research also offers great promise as shown by findings on SES gaps in child development in the four countries.

  3. A comparative evaluation of money-based and energy-based cost-benefit analyses of tertiary municipal wastewater treatment using forested wetlands vs. sand filtration in Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae-Young; Day, John W.; Lane, Robert R.; Day, Jason N. [Coastal Ecology Institute, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Forested wetlands have been used to provide advanced secondary and tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater for a number of cities in southern Louisiana. Wetland assimilation provides the same services as conventional methods in improving wastewater quality, while having positive impacts on wetlands. Suspended solids and nutrients in wastewater increase net primary productivity (NPP), which leads to increased organic soil formation. This leads to increased elevation that offsets subsidence, a major cause of coastal wetland loss in Louisiana. The City of Breaux Bridge, LA, has discharged secondarily treated municipal wastewater into a forested wetland since 1950, and wetland assimilation was permitted by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in 1997. We compared benefits and costs of utilizing forested wetlands and conventional sand treatment using money-based and energy-based cost-benefit analyses (CBA). The wetland method had a higher benefit-cost ratio than conventional treatment by 6.0 times based on dollar-based CBA, and by 21.7 times from the energy analysis. Methodologically, dollar-based CBA is a market price-based assessment, liming to an anthropocentric framework, while embodied energy analysis accounts for monetary and nonmonetary values such as carbon sequestration by wetlands, which contributes a more complete assessment of the interaction between the natural environment and the human economy. Wetlands treat more wastewater per unit of energy and with less financial cost than conventional methods, because the wetland method utilizes natural energies such as sunlight, wind and rain, while conventional treatment methods depend on imported nonrenewable energies and materials such as chemicals and electricity and require additional capital investment. Increasing application of natural energies is becoming more important with depleting fossil fuels. Further, wastewater addition increases NPP

  4. How and for whom does web-based acceptance and commitment therapy work? Mediation and moderation analyses of web-based ACT for depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Pots, Wendy T.M.; Trompetter, Hester R.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms. However, little is known how and for whom therapeutic change occurs, specifically in web-based interventions. This study focuses on the mediators, moderators and predictors of change during a web-based ACT intervention. Methods Data from 236 adults from the general population with mild to moderate depressive symptoms, randomized to either web-based ACT (n = 82) or one of t...

  5. In vivo biostability of polymeric spine implants: retrieval analyses from a United States investigational device exemption study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Kai; Koettig, Petra; Welch, William C; Dawson, John M

    2011-11-01

    The Dynesys System for stabilizing the lumbar spine was first surgically implanted in Europe in 1994. In 2003, a prospective, randomized, investigational device exemption clinical trial of the system for non-fusion dynamic stabilization began. Polycarbonate urethane (PCU) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) components explanted from four patients who had participated in the study were analyzed for biostability. Components had been implanted 9-19 months. The explanted components were visually inspected and digitally photographed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the surface of the spacers. The chemical and molecular properties of the retrieved spacers and cords were quantitatively compared with lot-matched, shelf-aged, components that had not been implanted using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). FTIR analyses suggested that the explanted spacers exhibited slight surface chemical changes but were chemically unchanged below the surface and in the center. New peaks that could be attributed to biodegradation of PCU were not observed. The spectral analyses for the cords revealed that the PET cords were chemically unchanged at both the surface and the interior. Peaks associated with the PET biodegradation were not detected. GPC results did not identify changes to the distributions of molecular weights that might be attributed to biodegradation of either PCU spacers or PET cords. The explanted condition of the retrieved components demonstrated the biostability of both PCU spacers and PET cords that had been in vivo for up to 19 months. PMID:21538208

  6. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  7. Shearing microscopy using polarized optical microscope with shear stage and spectral analyser to study liquid crystalline polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Yonetake, K; Masuko, T; Akiyama, R

    2002-01-01

    In-situ polarized optical microscopy using a shear stage and a spectral analyser as well as a CCD camera were applied to study the phase transition under shear flow for a thermotropic and side-chain-type liquid crystalline polysiloxane. The onset of the appearance of anisotropic texture of the polysiloxane was observed under shear flow using the CCD camera at temperatures much higher than the isotropic-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature if the polysiloxane was cooled from the isotropic phase in the quiescent state. Both the onset temperature and the temperature for full development of the anisotropic texture across the field of view became higher as the shear rate increased. The transmitted light intensity was also measured using a spectral analyser with crossed polarisers at wavelengths from 300 nm to 800 nm, and the integrated intensity of the spectrum was calculated. Changes in the spectrum and the integrated intensity against temperature in the cooling process were compared with observation using the CCD camera. Temperature dependence of the integrated intensity showed that the onset of the appearance of the anisotropic texture under high shear rates was detected at temperatures slightly higher than that observed using the CCD camera. PMID:11856377

  8. Males in rural Bangladeshi communities are more susceptible to chronic arsenic poisoning than females: analyses based on urinary arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, C; Inaoka, T; Kadono, T; Nagano, M; Nakamura, S; Ushijima, K; Murayama, N; Miyazaki, K; Ohtsuka, R

    2001-12-01

    Spot urine samples were collected from the inhabitants of two rural communities in northwestern Bangladesh. We compared arsenic levels in the urine samples ([As](u); n = 346) with those in water from tube wells ([As](tw); range < 1-535 microg/L; n = 86) on an individual basis. The small variation of [As](u) within subjects and highly positive correlation with [As](tw) indicate that [As](u) is a useful indicator of exposure. Analyses of [As](u) showed that creatinine correction was necessary, that [As](u) only reflected recent exposure, and that there were substantial interindividual differences for a given [As](tw) level. To evaluate the toxic effects of arsenic exposure, we constructed a system for rating skin manifestations, which revealed distinct sex-related differences. Comparison of males and females in the same households confirmed that skin manifestations were more severe in the males, and in the males of one community a dose-response relationship between [As](u) and the degree of skin manifestation was evident. The results of this study indicate that [As](u) in spot urine samples can be used as an exposure indicator for As. They suggest that there might be sex-related, and perhaps community-related, differences in the relationship between [As](u) and skin manifestations, although several confounding factors, including sunlight exposure and smoking habits, might contribute to the observed sex difference. The existence of such differences should be further confirmed and examined in other populations to identify the subpopulations sensitive to chronic arsenic toxicity.

  9. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  10. Simulation of the Impact of New Aircraft and Satellite-Based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, TImothy L.; Atlas, R. M.; Black, P. G.; Case, J. L.; Chen, S. S.; Hood, R. E.; Johnson, J. W.; Jones, L.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlborn, E. W.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate observations of surface ocean vector winds (OVW) with high spatial and temporal resolution are required for understanding and predicting tropical cyclones. As NASA's QuikSCAT and Navy's WindSat operate beyond their design life, many members of the weather and climate science communities recognize the importance of developing new observational technologies and strategies to meet the essential need for OVW information to improve hurricane intensity and location forecasts. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an innovative technology development which offers new and unique remotely sensed satellite observations of both extreme oceanic wind events and strong precipitation. It is based on the airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which is the only proven remote sensing technique for observing tropical cyclone (TC) ocean surface wind speeds and rain rates. The proposed HIRAD instrument advances beyond the current nadir viewing SFMR to an equivalent wide-swath SFMR imager using passive microwave synthetic thinned aperture radiometer (STAR) technology. This sensor will operate over 4-7 GHz (C-band frequencies) where the required TC remote sensing physics has been validated by both SFMR and WindSat radiometers. The instrument is described in more detail in a paper by Jones et al. presented to the Tropical Meteorology Special Symposium at this AMS Annual Meeting. Simulated HIRAD passes through a simulation of hurricane Frances are being developed to demonstrate HIRAD estimation of surface wind speed over a wide swath in the presence of heavy rain. These are currently being used in "quick" OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments) with H'Wind analyses as the discriminating tool. The H'Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic , Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of wind

  11. A meta-analytic review of life cycle assessment and flow analyses studies of palm oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, Yosef; Halog, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews and performs a meta-analysis of the recent life cycle assessment and flow analyses studies palm oil biodiesel. The best available data and information are extracted, summarized, and discussed. Most studies found palm oil biodiesel would produce positive energy balance with an energy ratio between 2.27 and 4.81, and with a net energy production of 112 GJ ha(-1) y(-1). With the exception of a few studies, most conclude that palm oil biodiesel is a net emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG). The origin of oil palm plantation (planted area) is the foremost determinant of GHG emissions and C payback time (CPBT). Converting peatland forest results in GHG emissions up to 60 tons CO(2) equivalent (eq) ha(-1) y(-1) leading to 420 years of CPBT. In contrast, converting degraded land or grassland for plantation can positively offset the system to become a net sequester of 5 tons CO(2) eq ha(-1) y(-1). Few studies have discussed cradle-to-grave environmental impacts such as acidification, eutrophication, toxicity, and biodiversity, which open opportunity for further studies. PMID:22941969

  12. Improving correlations between MODIS aerosol optical thickness and ground-based PM 2.5 observations through 3D spatial analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Faruqui, Shazia J.; Smith, Solar

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) continues to focus on developing methods to improve correlations between satellite-based aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values and ground-based, air pollution observations made at continuous ambient monitoring sites (CAMS) operated by the Texas commission on environmental quality (TCEQ). Strong correlations and improved understanding of the relationships between satellite and ground observations are needed to formulate reliable real-time predictions of air quality using data accessed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) at the CSR direct-broadcast ground station. In this paper, improvements in these correlations are demonstrated first as a result of the evolution in the MODIS retrieval algorithms. Further improvement is then shown using procedures that compensate for differences in horizontal spatial scales between the nominal 10-km MODIS AOT products and CAMS point measurements. Finally, airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) observations, collected during the Texas Air Quality Study of 2000, are used to examine aerosol profile concentrations, which may vary greatly between aerosol classes as a result of the sources, chemical composition, and meteorological conditions that govern transport processes. Further improvement in correlations is demonstrated with this limited dataset using insights into aerosol profile information inferred from the vertical motion vectors in a trajectory-based forecast model. Analyses are ongoing to verify these procedures on a variety of aerosol classes using data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (Calipso) lidar.

  13. A methodology for eliciting, representing, and analysing stakeholder knowledge for decision making on complex socio-ecological systems: from cognitive maps to agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H A; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J

    2015-03-15

    This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation models (quantitative) with the ultimate goal of improving understanding and communication about decision making in complex socio-ecological systems. The methodology integrates cognitive mapping and agent based modelling. It cascades through a sequence of qualitative/soft and numerical methods comprising: (1) Interviews to elicit mental models; (2) Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models; (3) Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process; (4) All-encompassing conceptual model of decision making, and (5) computational (in this case agent-based) Model. We apply the proposed methodology (labelled ICTAM) in a case study of viticulture irrigation in South Australia. Finally, we use strengths-weakness-opportunities-threats (SWOT) analysis to reflect on the methodology. Results show that the methodology leverages the use of cognitive mapping to capture the richness of decision making and mental models, and provides a combination of divergent and convergent analysis methods leading to the construction of an Agent Based Model.

  14. A methodology for eliciting, representing, and analysing stakeholder knowledge for decision making on complex socio-ecological systems: from cognitive maps to agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H A; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J

    2015-03-15

    This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation models (quantitative) with the ultimate goal of improving understanding and communication about decision making in complex socio-ecological systems. The methodology integrates cognitive mapping and agent based modelling. It cascades through a sequence of qualitative/soft and numerical methods comprising: (1) Interviews to elicit mental models; (2) Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models; (3) Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process; (4) All-encompassing conceptual model of decision making, and (5) computational (in this case agent-based) Model. We apply the proposed methodology (labelled ICTAM) in a case study of viticulture irrigation in South Australia. Finally, we use strengths-weakness-opportunities-threats (SWOT) analysis to reflect on the methodology. Results show that the methodology leverages the use of cognitive mapping to capture the richness of decision making and mental models, and provides a combination of divergent and convergent analysis methods leading to the construction of an Agent Based Model. PMID:25622296

  15. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Analyses of NEO-PI-R Scales In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Brant, Larry J.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined age trends in the five factors and 30 facets assessed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging data (N = 1,944; 5,027 assessments) collected between 1989 and 2004. Consistent with cross-sectional results, Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses showed gradual personality changes in adulthood: a decline up to age 80 in Neuroticism, stability and then decline in Extraversion, decline in Openness, increase in Agreeableness, and increase up to age 70 in Conscientiousness. Some facets showed different curves from the factor they define. Birth cohort effects were modest, and there were no consistent Gender × Age interactions. Significant non-normative changes were found for all five factors; they were not explained by attrition but might be due to genetic factors, disease, or life experience. PMID:16248708

  16. Study on dynamic response of embedded long span corrugated steel culverts using scaled model shaking table tests and numerical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A series of scaled-model shaking table tests and its simulation analyses using dynamic finite element method were performed to clarify the dynamic behaviors and the seismic stability of embedded corrugated steel culverts due to strong earthquakes like the 1995 Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The dynamic strains of the embedded culvert models and the seismic soil pressure acting on the models due to sinusoidal and random strong motions were investigated. This study verified that the corrugated culvert model was subjected to dynamic horizontal forces (lateral seismic soil pressure) from the surrounding ground,which caused the large bending strains on the structure; and that the structures do not exceed the allowable plastic deformation and do not collapse completely during strong earthquake like Hyogoken-nanbu earthquake. The results obtained are useful for design and construction of embedded long span corrugated steel culverts in seismic regions.

  17. Assessing models of speciation under different biogeographic scenarios; An empirical study using multi-locus and RNA-seq analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Tollis, Marc; Hsieh, PingHsun; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Liu, Zhen; Kusumi, Kenro; Culver, Melanie; Murphy, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary biology often seeks to decipher the drivers of speciation, and much debate persists over the relative importance of isolation and gene flow in the formation of new species. Genetic studies of closely related species can assess if gene flow was present during speciation, because signatures of past introgression often persist in the genome. We test hypotheses on which mechanisms of speciation drove diversity among three distinct lineages of desert tortoise in the genus Gopherus. These lineages offer a powerful system to study speciation, because different biogeographic patterns (physical vs. ecological segregation) are observed at opposing ends of their distributions. We use 82 samples collected from 38 sites, representing the entire species' distribution and generate sequence data for mtDNA and four nuclear loci. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis in *BEAST estimates the species tree. RNA-seq data yield 20,126 synonymous variants from 7665 contigs from two individuals of each of the three lineages. Analyses of these data using the demographic inference package ∂a∂i serve to test the null hypothesis of no gene flow during divergence. The best-fit demographic model for the three taxa is concordant with the *BEAST species tree, and the ∂a∂i analysis does not indicate gene flow among any of the three lineages during their divergence. These analyses suggest that divergence among the lineages occurred in the absence of gene flow and in this scenario the genetic signature of ecological isolation (parapatric model) cannot be differentiated from geographic isolation (allopatric model).

  18. Deep aquifer systems in the molasse basin of South-West Germany. Thorough hydrogeological study as a basis for a future quantitative an qualitative management; Systemes d`aquiferes profonds dans le bassin molassique du sud-ouest de l`Allemagne. Analyse hydrogeologique approfondie servant de base a un futur management quantitatif et qualitatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzel, R.; Bertleff, B. [Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Wuerttemberg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The sandstone basin of the south of Germany is an area where the geothermic exploitation is intensive. The well-working of these equipments require good attainments about the quantities of available water in the aquifer stratum and about the geometric conditions. That is the reason why the rest part of the basin has been largely prospected for almost twenty years. Hydraulic, hydro-chemical and isotopic studies have shown that two circulation zones have to be differentiated. Very different replacement conditions are represented in the latter. The possibilities of geometric exploitations are determined by the ratio of the paleo-Pleistocene aquiferous stratum and of the recently formed one. This study handles above all with the results of the hydro-chemical and isotopic exams and with the issue of the renewal of the aquiferous stratum. The possible consequences for the future use of the stratum will be outlined. (authors). 61 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Energy and exergy based performance analyses of a solid oxide fuel cell integrated combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy based performance of SOFC integrated combined cycle is presented. • The system utilize the GT exhaust for fuel preheating, air preheating and steam generation. • The study considers the effect of additional fuel burning in the combustion chamber. • Detail parametric analysis is presented to show the effect of various operating parameters. • System performance is compared with another system with air recuperator before fuel recuperator. - Abstract: This article provides the energy and exergy based performance analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) – gas turbine (GT) – steam turbine (ST) combined cycle power plant. The system utilizes the GT exhaust heat for fuel and air preheating subsequently in a fuel recuperator (FR) and an air recuperator (AR) before finally producing steam in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) coupled with the ST cycle. It considers 30% external reforming in a pre-reformer (PR) by steam extracted from the bottoming ST plant. The study considers the effect of additional fuel burning in the combustion chamber (CC) as a means for increasing the net GT and ST power output. A detailed parametric analysis based on variation of compressor pressure ratio (CPR), fuel flow rate (FFR), air flow rate (AFR), current density, single level boiler pressure and ST inlet temperature (STIT) is also provided. Results indicate improved system performance at higher CPR. The optimum single level boiler pressure is found to be 40 bar with 50% additional fuel burning. Burning of additional fuel improves the GT and ST power output, however with reduction in the plant’s overall efficiency. Further comparison of performance with a similar other system where the AR is placed head of the FR indicates slightly better performance of the proposed system with FR ahead of AR (FRAOAR)

  20. Mid-Holocene decline in African buffalos inferred from Bayesian coalescence-based analyses of microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Rasmus; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Okello, J.B.A;

    2008-01-01

    pandemic in the late 1800s, but little is known about the earlier demographic history of the species. We analysed genetic variation at 17 microsatellite loci and a 302-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region to infer past demographic changes in buffalo populations from East Africa. Two Bayesian...

  1. Use of the LIBS method in oil paintings examination based on examples of analyses conducted at the Wilanow Palace Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelewska, ElŻbieta; Pawlak, Agnieszka; Selerowicz, Anna; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Marczak, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of a study of the paint layers in 17th-century paintings belonging to the collection of the Wilanow Palace Museum. The works chosen for examination are of great importance to the Museum, as they might have been painted by court artists of King John III Sobieski. The aim of the study was therefore to determine the technological structure of the paintings, to determine the scope of conservation interventions and, above all, to gather comparative material that would serve to conduct further multidisciplinary attributive research. The presentation relates to studies in which laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and optical microscopy were used as diagnostic tools. LIBS is based on the evaporation of a small amount of the material under investigation, and the generation of plasma which emits continuum and line radiation. The analysis of line radiation allows us to identify the elements appearing in the sample being investigated. The microscope pictures were taken using a Bresser Digital Hand Micro 1.3Mpx and the Hirox 8700 microscopes. The results obtained have confirmed the utility of the LIBS method in the study of artworks. They have also proven that it can be used as a method to complement microchemical analysis, as well as an method to identify and examine artworks from which samples cannot be taken, as it is micro-destructive and the analysis can be conducted directly on the object, without the need to take samples.

  2. Evidence for the selective reporting of analyses and discrepancies in clinical trials: a systematic review of cohort studies of clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Dwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most publications about selective reporting in clinical trials have focussed on outcomes. However, selective reporting of analyses for a given outcome may also affect the validity of findings. If analyses are selected on the basis of the results, reporting bias may occur. The aims of this study were to review and summarise the evidence from empirical cohort studies that assessed discrepant or selective reporting of analyses in randomised controlled trials (RCTs.A systematic review was conducted and included cohort studies that assessed any aspect of the reporting of analyses of RCTs by comparing different trial documents, e.g., protocol compared to trial report, or different sections within a trial publication. The Cochrane Methodology Register, Medline (Ovid, PsycInfo (Ovid, and PubMed were searched on 5 February 2014. Two authors independently selected studies, performed data extraction, and assessed the methodological quality of the eligible studies. Twenty-two studies (containing 3,140 RCTs published between 2000 and 2013 were included. Twenty-two studies reported on discrepancies between information given in different sources. Discrepancies were found in statistical analyses (eight studies, composite outcomes (one study, the handling of missing data (three studies, unadjusted versus adjusted analyses (three studies, handling of continuous data (three studies, and subgroup analyses (12 studies. Discrepancy rates varied, ranging from 7% (3/42 to 88% (7/8 in statistical analyses, 46% (36/79 to 82% (23/28 in adjusted versus unadjusted analyses, and 61% (11/18 to 100% (25/25 in subgroup analyses. This review is limited in that none of the included studies investigated the evidence for bias resulting from selective reporting of analyses. It was not possible to combine studies to provide overall summary estimates, and so the results of studies are discussed narratively.Discrepancies in analyses between publications and other study documentation

  3. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene.

  4. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae - Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  5. 3D RECORDING FOR 2D DELIVERING – THE EMPLOYMENT OF 3D MODELS FOR STUDIES AND ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rizzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d’Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino. APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying

  6. A comparative study between xerographic, computer-assisted overlay generation and animated-superimposition methods in bite mark analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Meng Wei; Chong, Zhen Feng; Asif, Muhammad Khan; Rahmat, Rabiah A; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran

    2016-09-01

    This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, p<0.05). In conclusion, bite mark analysis using the computer-assisted animated-superimposition method was the most accurate, followed by the computer-assisted overlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks.

  7. A comparative study between xerographic, computer-assisted overlay generation and animated-superimposition methods in bite mark analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Meng Wei; Chong, Zhen Feng; Asif, Muhammad Khan; Rahmat, Rabiah A; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran

    2016-09-01

    This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, p<0.05). In conclusion, bite mark analysis using the computer-assisted animated-superimposition method was the most accurate, followed by the computer-assisted overlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks. PMID:27591538

  8. A Microarray Based Genomic Hybridization Method for Identification of New Genes in Plants: Case Analyses of Arabidopsis and Oryza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanzhu Fan; Maria D. Vibranovski; Ying Chen; Manyuan Long

    2007-01-01

    To systematically estimate the gene duplication events in closely related species, we have to use comparative genomic approaches, either through genomic sequence comparison or comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Given the scarcity of complete genomic sequences of plant species, in the present study we adopted an array based CGH to investigate gene duplications in the genus Arabidopsis. Fragment genomic DNA from four species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata subsp. lyrata, A. lyrata subsp. petraea, and A. halleri, was hybridized to Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA, USA) tiling arrays that are designed from the genomic sequences of A. thaliana. Pairwise comparisons of signal intensity were made to infer the potential duplicated candidates along each phylo-genetic branch. Ninety-four potential candidates of gene duplication along the genus were identified. Among them, the majority (69 of 94) were A. thaliana lineage specific. This result indicates that the array based CGH approach may be used to identify candidates of duplication in other plant genera containing closely related species, such as Oryza, particularly for the AA genome species. We compared the degree of gene duplication through retrotransposon between O. sativa and A. thaliana and found a strikingly higher number of chimera retroposed genes in rice. The higher rate of gene duplication through retroposition and other mechanisms may indicate that the grass species is able to adapt to more diverse environments.

  9. Experimental study of high current negative ion sources D{sup -} / H{sup -}. Analysis based on the simulation of the negative ion transport in the plasma source; Etude experimentale de sources a fort courant d`ions negatifs D{sup -} / H{sup -}. Analyse fondee sur la simulation du transport des ions dans le plasma de la source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riz, D.

    1996-10-30

    In the frame of the development of a neutral beam injection system able to work the ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), two negative ion sources, Dragon and Kamaboko, have been installed on the MANTIS test bed in Cadarache, and studies in order to extract 20 mA/cm{sup 2} of D{sup -}. The two production modes of negative ions have been investigated: volume production; surface production after cesium injection in the discharge. Experiments have shown that cesium seeding is necessary in order to reach the requested performances for ITER. 20 mA/cm{sup 2} have been extracted from the Kamaboko source for an arc power density of 2.5 kW/liter. Simultaneously, a code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ions transport in the source plasma, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collisions H{sup -}/H{sup +} and of charge exchange H{sup -}/H{sup 0} are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. The code allows to obtain the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at a given location. The calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain several phenomena observed on negative ion sources, such as the isotopic effect H{sup -}/D{sup -} and the influence of the polarisation of the plasma grid and of the magnetic filter on the negative ions current. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, working with large arc power densities (> 1 kW/liter), only negative ions produced in volume at a distance lower that 2 cm from the plasma grid and those produced at the grid surface have a chance of being extracted. (author). 122 refs.

  10. Flood Mapping and Flood Dynamics of the Mekong Delta: ENVISAT-ASAR-WSM Based Time Series Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dech

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing is a valuable tool for monitoring flooding. Microwave sensors are especially appropriate instruments, as they allow the differentiation of inundated from non-inundated areas, regardless of levels of solar illumination or frequency of cloud cover in regions experiencing substantial rainy seasons. In the current study we present the longest synthetic aperture radar-based time series of flood and inundation information derived for the Mekong Delta that has been analyzed for this region so far. We employed overall 60 Envisat ASAR Wide Swath Mode data sets at a spatial resolution of 150 meters acquired during the years 2007–2011 to facilitate a thorough understanding of the flood regime in the Mekong Delta. The Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam comprises 13 provinces and is home to 18 million inhabitants. Extreme dry seasons from late December to May and wet seasons from June to December characterize people’s rural life. In this study, we show which areas of the delta are frequently affected by floods and which regions remain dry all year round. Furthermore, we present which areas are flooded at which frequency and elucidate the patterns of flood progression over the course of the rainy season. In this context, we also examine the impact of dykes on floodwater emergence and assess the relationship between retrieved flood occurrence patterns and land use. In addition, the advantages and shortcomings of ENVISAT ASAR-WSM based flood mapping are discussed. The results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of Mekong Delta flood dynamics in an environment where the flow regime is influenced by the Mekong River, overland water-flow, anthropogenic floodwater control, as well as the tides.

  11. Late Quaternary climate and environmental changes in a permafrost section near Igarka, Northern Siberia based on leaf wax analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Imke; Schweri, Lea; Zech, Jana; Tananaev, Nikita; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf wax biomarkers, such as long chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their carbon isotopic composition are a promising tool for reconstructing past climate and environmental changes and gain more and more attention in paleoresearch. Here we present the results of leaf wax analyses from a permafrost outcrop at the left banks of the Yenisei River near the city of Igarka, Northern Russia. Fluvio-glacial sediments are exposed in the lower part of the outcrop and probably date back to ~60 ka. The upper part consist of aeolian sediments deposited since, overprinted by various pedogenetic processes. First results indicate a continuous contribution of deciduous trees to the vegetation during the last glacial. Compound specific deuterium and radiocarbon analyses are in progress in order to investigate changes in paleoclimate and to establish a robust chronology.

  12. A comparative study of first and all-author co-citation counting, and two different matrix generation approaches applied for author co-citation analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The present article contributes to the current methodological debate concerning author co-citation analyses. (ACA) The study compares two different units of analyses, i.e. first- versus inclusive all-author co-citation counting, as well as two different matrix generation approaches, i...... for the seemingly advantages of the Drexel approach....

  13. Genetic variation in Opisthorchis viverrini (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) from northeast Thailand and Laos PDR based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Nuchjungreed, Chadaporn; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Ando, Katsuhiko; Petney, Trevor N.; Neil B. Chilton; Andrews, Ross H.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variation in Opisthorchis viverrini adults originating from different locations in northeast Thailand and Laos, People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), was examined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. In an initial analysis, the genomic DNA of one fluke from each of ten localities was amplified using 15 random primers (10-mers); however, genetic variation among O. viverrini specimens was detected reliably for only four primers. A more detailed RAPD analysis using these...

  14. Waste dumps rehabilitation measures based on physico-chemical analyses in Zăghid mining area (Sălaj County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko M. Varga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with an abandoned coal mine from Zăghid area, North-WesternTransylvanian Basin (Sălaj County. The mining activity was stopped in 2005, without any attempt ofecological rehabilitation of the mined area and especially of the waste dumps left behind. The proposedrehabilitation models are based on some physical-chemical analyses of soil and waste samples (e.g. pH,EC, Salinity, humidity, porosity, density, plasticity, organic substances, mineralogical composition, heavymetals. Erosion map has been drawn based on the determined mineralogical composition (accordingSTAS 1913/5-85 – using Galton curve of tailings and the soil type. The values obtained for moisture andplasticity have been used to determine the ideal general inclination angle of the landfill systems in thestudied perimeter. Through chemical analysis, heavy metals like Ni and Cu have been identified, as themain pollution factors for surface and underground water. Therefore, the concentration of heavy metalsin the waters from Zăghid area is high in the water bodies, which are formed on waste dumps, but alsoin the mine water. This analysis is useful in establishing the actual state of the waste dumps and theircontent and the negative effects, which exercise on the environment in order to select the rehabilitationmodel for the waste dumps from Zăghid mining area. The main measures consist in: waste dumpsleveling, soil remediation, perennial plants culture and acid mine water decontamination.

  15. Characterization and novel analyses of acute stress response patterns in a population-based cohort of young adults: influence of gender, smoking, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Carly E; Henley, David; Marsh, Julie; Atkinson, Helen; Newnham, John P; Matthews, Stephen G; Lye, Stephen J; Pennell, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the biological stress response system has been implicated in the development of psychological, metabolic, and cardiovascular disease. Whilst changes in stress response are often quantified as an increase or decrease in cortisol levels, three different patterns of stress response have been reported in the literature for the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (reactive-responders (RR), anticipatory-responders (AR) and non-responders (NR)). However, these have never been systematically analyzed in a large population-based cohort. The aims of this study were to examine factors that contribute to TSST variation (gender, oral contraceptive use, menstrual cycle phase, smoking, and BMI) using traditional methods and novel analyses of stress response patterns. We analyzed the acute stress response of 798, 18-year-old participants from a community-based cohort using the TSST. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone, plasma cortisol, and salivary cortisol levels were quantified. RR, AR, and NR patterns comprised 56.6%, 26.2%, and 17.2% of the cohort, respectively. Smokers were more likely to be NR than (RR or AR; adjusted, p stress-response patterns, in addition to other parameters vary with gender, smoking, and BMI. The distribution of these patterns has the potential to vary with adult health and disease and may represent a biomarker for future investigation.

  16. Recombination structure and genetic relatedness among members of the family Bromoviridae based on their RNAs 1 and 2 sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Moncef

    2009-06-01

    In determining putative recombination events and their evolution rates in the RNAs 1 and 2 of currently the known members of the family Bromoviridae, a detailed study comprising 107 accessions retrieved from the international databases, has been carried out by using RECCO and RDP v3.31beta algorithms. These programs allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in all the five virus genera composing the family Bromoviridae with various degrees of consistency. The RNAs 1 and 2 showed inferred phylogenies fully congruent and clearly delineated five clusters representing the five studied virus genera. In this respect, we proposed to classify the Ilarviruses in three distinct subgroups instead of 10 as mentioned in several reports of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses where its suggestions were based on antigenic differences. Moreover, we confirmed that Alfalfa mosaic virus should be considered as a component of the Ilarvirus genus instead of being the unique representative of Alfamovirus genus. In addition, Pelargonium zonate spot and Olive latent 2 viruses fully deserve their affiliation to the family Bromoviridae. PMID:19255837

  17. Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic and epigenetic studies in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Timofeeva, Maria; Meng, Xiangrui; Rudan, Igor; Little, Julian; Satsangi, Jack; Campbell, Harry; Theodoratou, Evropi

    2016-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive field synopsis of genetic and epigenetic associations for paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). A systematic review was performed and included 84 genetic association studies reporting data for 183 polymorphisms in 71 genes. Meta-analyses were conducted for 20 SNPs in 10 genes of paediatric Crohn’s disease (CD) and for 8 SNPs in 5 genes of paediatric ulcerative colitis (UC). Five epigenetic studies were also included, but formal meta-analysis was not possible. Venice criteria and Bayesian false discovery probability test were applied to assess the credibility of associations. Nine SNPs in 4 genes were considered to have highly credible associations with paediatric CD, of which four variants (rs2066847, rs12521868, rs26313667, rs1800629) were not previously identified in paediatric GWAS. Differential DNA methylation in NOD2 and TNF-α, dysregulated expression in let-7 and miR-124 were associated with paediatric IBD, but not as yet replicated. Highly credible SNPs associated with paediatric IBD have also been implicated in adult IBD, with similar magnitudes of associations. Early onset and distinct phenotypic features of paediatric IBD might be due to distinct epigenetic changes, but these findings need to be replicated. Further progress identifying genetic and epigenetic susceptibility of paediatric IBD will require international collaboration, population diversity and harmonization of protocols. PMID:27670835

  18. Realising the Value of Linked Data to Health Economic Analyses of Cancer Care: A Case Study of Cancer 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorgelly, Paula K; Doble, Brett; Knott, Rachel J

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing appetite for large complex databases that integrate a range of personal, socio-demographic, health, genetic and financial information on individuals. It has been argued that 'Big Data' will provide the necessary catalyst to advance both biomedical research and health economics and outcomes research. However, it is important that we do not succumb to being data rich but information poor. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of building Big Data, analysing Big Data and making appropriate inferences in order to advance cancer care, using Cancer 2015 (a prospective, longitudinal, genomic cohort study in Victoria, Australia) as a case study. Cancer 2015 has been linked to State and Commonwealth reimbursement databases that have known limitations. This partly reflects the funding arrangements in Australia, a country with both public and private provision, including public funding of private healthcare, and partly the legislative frameworks that govern data linkage. Additionally, linkage is not without time delays and, as such, achieving a contemporaneous database is challenging. Despite these limitations, there is clear value in using linked data and creating Big Data. This paper describes the linked Cancer 2015 dataset, discusses estimation issues given the nature of the data and presents panel regression results that allow us to make possible inferences regarding which patient, disease, genomic and treatment characteristics explain variation in health expenditure. PMID:26547307

  19. The 2012/2013 ABRF Proteomic Research Group Study: Assessing Longitudinal Intralaboratory Variability in Routine Peptide Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Keiryn L; Wang, Xia; Bystrom, Cory E; Chambers, Matthew C; Andacht, Tracy M; Dangott, Larry J; Elortza, Félix; Leszyk, John; Molina, Henrik; Moritz, Robert L; Phinney, Brett S; Thompson, J Will; Bunger, Maureen K; Tabb, David L

    2015-12-01

    Questions concerning longitudinal data quality and reproducibility of proteomic laboratories spurred the Protein Research Group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF-PRG) to design a study to systematically assess the reproducibility of proteomic laboratories over an extended period of time. Developed as an open study, initially 64 participants were recruited from the broader mass spectrometry community to analyze provided aliquots of a six bovine protein tryptic digest mixture every month for a period of nine months. Data were uploaded to a central repository, and the operators answered an accompanying survey. Ultimately, 45 laboratories submitted a minimum of eight LC-MSMS raw data files collected in data-dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. No standard operating procedures were enforced; rather the participants were encouraged to analyze the samples according to usual practices in the laboratory. Unlike previous studies, this investigation was not designed to compare laboratories or instrument configuration, but rather to assess the temporal intralaboratory reproducibility. The outcome of the study was reassuring with 80% of the participating laboratories performing analyses at a medium to high level of reproducibility and quality over the 9-month period. For the groups that had one or more outlying experiments, the major contributing factor that correlated to the survey data was the performance of preventative maintenance prior to the LC-MSMS analyses. Thus, the Protein Research Group of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities recommends that laboratories closely scrutinize the quality control data following such events. Additionally, improved quality control recording is imperative. This longitudinal study provides evidence that mass spectrometry-based proteomics is reproducible. When quality control measures are strictly adhered to, such reproducibility is comparable among many disparate groups. Data from the study are

  20. Empowered teams : case-study analyses of the process of introducing empowered teams into organisations with a poor industrial relations history

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Lennon, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This research focuses on case-study analyses of the process of introducing empowered teams into organisations with a poor industrial relations history. The chosen research methodology is in the ethnographic mode and analogous to grounded theory; data was collected in five case-study organisations. The respondent data is presented for each case study in turn and then analysed in a cross-case manner, highlighting some critical themes/issues identified by respondents who were k...

  1. Study of the type of gamma radioactivity in platform carbonaceous rocks: analyses and environmental, diagenetic and geodynamical interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In well-logging, values of gamma-activity are measured by scintillometry. A conventional paradigm is to link high γ-activity to Potassium (K) and Thorium (Th) isotopes present in clays and to Uranium isotopes present either in detrital sediments (typically in zircon or monazite minerals) or to sediments rich in organic matter. In shallow-water carbonates platforms, high γ-activities are interpreted in the same way. However, in a first γ-scintillometer survey of the Gorges du Nan section (sub-alpine Vercors massif), we found inconsistencies between lithologies and their expected γ-responses: the highest radioactive beds do not correspond to high argillaceous or detrital limestones and marls, but to some low content argillaceous or 'pure' limestones beds. The aim of this study was to identify the radioactive isotopes associated to different types of carbonates, their localisation, their abundance and their respective contribution to the total gamma response in order to propose a new method for the interpretation of gamma-ray logs in shallow-water carbonates. This study was focused on two intervals: - The first one corresponds to the Ba3 depositional sequence (Upper Barremian) which is composed essentially of limestones. This sequence was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble and in the Swiss Jura near Neuchatel; - The second one corresponds to the 'Lower Oritolina marls' interval. This interval was studied in the Vercors and Chartreuse sub-alpine massifs near Grenoble, in Spain (Organya basin) and in central Tunisia near Kairouan. We carried out detailed sedimentological, diagenetic and isotopic studies of all these sections. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes analyses allowed us to establish some large scale correlations between sections in the French Alps, in the Pyrenees and in central Tunisia. The good correlation between Oxygen and Carbon stable isotopes curves of the Lower Orbitolina marls in all the

  2. A robust University-NGO partnership: Analysing school efficiencies in Bolivia with community-based management techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Neiva de Figueiredo; Ann Marie Jursca Keffer; Miguel Angel Marca Barrientos; Silvana Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Community-based management research is a collaborative effort between management, academics and communities in need with the specific goal of achieving social change to foster social justice. Because it is designed to promote and validate joint methods of discovery and community-based sources of knowledge, community-based management research has several unique characteristics, which may affect its execution. This article describes the process of a community-based management research project w...

  3. How and for whom does web-based acceptance and commitment therapy work? Mediation and moderation analyses of web-based ACT for depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pots, Wendy T.M.; Trompetter, Hester R.; Schreurs, Karlein M.G.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms. However, little is known how and for whom therapeutic change occurs, specifically in web-based interventions. This study focuses on the mediators, moderators and predictors of ch

  4. A comprehensive study on characterization of elite Neem chemotypes through mycofloral, tissue-cultural, ecomorphological and molecular analyses using azadirachtin-A as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Parvathi

    2011-03-01

    Azadirachtin-A (Aza-A), a tetranortriterpenoid, found in minuscule amounts in the Neem seed-kernels, has proved to be a potent biopesticide. Given the vast biodiversity of Azadirachta indica (Neem) in India, this study is an overview of four main aspects that corroborate with each other in identifying elite Neem chemotypes based on their Aza-A content. These biomarkers included mycofloral, tissue-cultural, ecomorphometrical and molecular analyses on accessions from five ecogeographically different regions in Andhra Pradesh, India, which high-lighted the characteristics of trees that yielded the highest Aza-A. In essence, extremely-arid-alkaline regions with maximum soil pH (8.05) yielded trees with the highest amount of this biopesticide. Likewise, both VAM and soil fungal diversity and frequency exhibited maximal values in their rhizosphere, whereas it exhibited the least values for percentage moisture and also for several micronutrients measured (P2O5, Zn, Fe and Cu). In vitro studies on seeds with high versus low Aza-A content gave sturdier seedlings in the former; with profusely coiled roots and fibirillar foliage in tissue-culture; in addition to these seeds being more viable. Furthermore, their cotyledons alone exhibited significant amount of Aza-A, as measured by HPLC. Besides this significant difference, the impact of growth factors culminated not only in the variations of several secondary metabolites, but also differences in DNA patterns from various parts of a single in vitro plant. Ecomorphometric analyses clearly indicated that at least eight parameters (seed diameter, soil pH, percentage moisture, K2O, P2O5, Zn, lower lobe serrations and upper-lobe-distance of leaves) were significantly related to the quantitative variations in Aza-A. Finally, PCR analyses exhibited a habitat-based molecular concordance of ISSR and FISSR profiles with Aza-A content among the Neem chemotypes. Their relatedness was based on dendrograms constructed by UPGMA algorithms

  5. Aromatizität: Geschichte und mathematische Analyse eines fundamentalen chemischen Begriffs (HYLE Studies in History and Philosophy of Chemistry, No. 2 (e-book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Neus

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Aromaticity is one of the most important concepts not only in organic chemistry. This book first outlines the historical development of the concept since the discovery of benzene in 1825 and then analyses its meaning in mathematical terms. The author distinguishes between many different aspects of the notion of aromaticity and discusses a large variety of numerical parameters (energetic, geometric, magnetic, spectroscopic and reactivity parameters. The central issue is whether all these parameters essentially refer to the same basic property of aromaticity, or whether there are several independent factors behind the received notion that allow to distinguish between different types of aromaticity. Julia Neus discusses in great detail the different opinions and arguments put forward by numerous research groups since 1989. Many chemists have argued for the existence of at least two orthogonal and independent types of aromaticity, based on the mathematical-statistical approach of factor analysis. Others have supported the idea that aromaticity is a single, one-dimensional concept, because of the high correlation coefficients they obtained. By carefully assessing all the arguments and by referring to statistical analyses and to the physical and chemical background, the author concludes that the common set of different aspects of aromaticity comprises more than a single chemical notion. However, a lot of research work has still to be done to identify the quantum chemical basis of these types of aromaticity. e-book of Aromatizität: Geschichte und mathematische Analyse eines fundamentalen chemischen Begriffs (HYLE Studies in History and Philosophy of Chemistry, No. 2

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of black Dahe pig based on DNA sequences analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lizhou; Yu, Long; Wang, Junjie; Liu, Chao; Shi, Xiaodong; Ding, Wei; Zhu, Lei; Guo, Songchang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of black Dahe pigs, we collected 175 samples from 5 local populations and sequenced them using a combination of two selected molecular markers for mitochondrial cytochrome b and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) DRB. Overall, the results of AMOVA and phylogenetic tree and gene flow analyses detected high levels of gene flow among the five populations, particularly individual pigs from Dahe town (Pop1) or Yingshang town (Pop2) to other populations (Pop3, Pop4, and Pop5). The genetic diversity analyses showed that the diversity indices of the five populations did not vary significantly, but they were much lower than those of other Chinese pig species. These results suggest that distinct gene flow, unstable population pattern, and lower genetic diversity have been influenced mainly by human introductions for economic ends. These findings provide genetic information that could be used for the preservation and further genetic improvement of the black Dahe pig, as well as an important reference for the evaluation, conservation, and utilization of the genetic resources of this breed.

  7. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  8. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ(13)C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m(2) and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m(2)) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  9. ATOM PROBE STUDY OF TITANIUM BASE ALLOYS : PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Menand, A.; Chambreland, S.; Martin, C

    1986-01-01

    Two different titanium base alloys, Ti46 Al54 and Ti88.8 Cu2.3, Al8.9, have been studied by atom probe microanalysis. A precipitate of Ti2 Al was analysed in the binary alloys. Micro-analysis of Ti Cu Al alloy revealed the presence of Copper enriched zones. The study has also exhibited a penetration of Hydrogen in the samples, probably due to preparation technique. The results demonstrate the feasibility of studies on titanium base alloys by mean of atom probe.

  10. Incorporating Concomitant Medications into Genome-Wide Analyses for the Study of Complex Disease and Drug Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hillary T.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Marvel, Skylar W.; Buse, John B.; Havener, Tammy M.; Wilson, Alyson G.; Wagner, Michael J.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Friedewald, W.T.

    2016-01-01

    Given the high costs of conducting a drug-response trial, researchers are now aiming to use retrospective analyses to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify underlying genetic contributions to drug-response variation. To prevent confounding results from a GWAS to investigate drug response, it is necessary to account for concomitant medications, defined as any medication taken concurrently with the primary medication being investigated. We use data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Disease (ACCORD) trial in order to implement a novel scoring procedure for incorporating concomitant medication information into a linear regression model in preparation for GWAS. In order to accomplish this, two primary medications were selected: thiazolidinediones and metformin because of the wide-spread use of these medications and large sample sizes available within the ACCORD trial. A third medication, fenofibrate, along with a known confounding medication, statin, were chosen as a proof-of-principle for the scoring procedure. Previous studies have identified SNP rs7412 as being associated with statin response. Here we hypothesize that including the score for statin as a covariate in the GWAS model will correct for confounding of statin and yield a change in association at rs7412. The response of the confounded signal was successfully diminished from p = 3.19 × 10−7 to p = 1.76 × 10−5, by accounting for statin using the scoring procedure presented here. This approach provides the ability for researchers to account for concomitant medications in complex trial designs where monotherapy treatment regimens are not available.

  11. Analysing the Correlation between Social Network Analysis Measures and Performance of Students in Social Network-Based Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnik, Goran; Costa, Eric; Alves, Cátia; Castro, Hélio; Varela, Leonilde; Shah, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Social network-based engineering education (SNEE) is designed and implemented as a model of Education 3.0 paradigm. SNEE represents a new learning methodology, which is based on the concept of social networks and represents an extended model of project-led education. The concept of social networks was applied in the real-life experiment,…

  12. Porosity and permeability determination of organic-rich Posidonia shales based on 3-D analyses by FIB-SEM microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grathoff, Georg H.; Peltz, Markus; Enzmann, Frieder; Kaufhold, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the porosity and permeability in shales to improve modelling fluid and gas flow related to shale diagenesis. Two samples (WIC and HAD) were investigated, both mid-Jurassic organic-rich Posidonia shales from Hils area, central Germany of different maturity (WIC R0 0.53 % and HAD R0 1.45 %). The method for image collection was focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For image and data analysis Avizo and GeoDict was used. Porosity was calculated from segmented 3-D FIB based images and permeability was simulated by a Navier Stokes-Brinkman solver in the segmented images. Results show that the quantity and distribution of pore clusters and pores (≥ 40 nm) are similar. The largest pores are located within carbonates and clay minerals, whereas the smallest pores are within the matured organic matter. Orientation of the pores calculated as pore paths showed minor directional differences between the samples. Both samples have no continuous connectivity of pore clusters along the axes in the x, y, and z direction on the scale of 10 to 20 of micrometer, but do show connectivity on the micrometer scale. The volume of organic matter in the studied volume is representative of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the samples. Organic matter does show axis connectivity in the x, y, and z directions. With increasing maturity the porosity in organic matter increases from close to 0 to more than 5 %. These pores are small and in the large organic particles have little connection to the mineral matrix. Continuous pore size distributions are compared with mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) data. Differences between both methods are caused by resolution limits of the FIB-SEM and by the development of small pores during the maturation of the organic matter. Calculations show no permeability when only considering visible pores due to the lack of axis connectivity. Adding the organic matter with a

  13. Mechanical and thermo-mechanical analyses of the tapered plug for plugging of deposition tunnels. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Gatter, Patrik (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-09-15

    This report presents results from a study that was carried out in order to examine the applicability of the tapered plug concept for plugging of deposition tunnels in the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The report presents results from mechanical and thermo-mechanical models of the tapered plug. The models were analyzed with 3DEC. The models included a portion of a deposition tunnel and its intersection with a main tunnel. In the deposition tunnel, a tapered concrete plug was installed. The plug was subjected to the combined load from the swelling backfill material and from pore pressure inside the deposition tunnel. The thermo-mechanical effects due to the heat generation in the spent fuel were also included in the analyses. Generic material parameter values for the concrete were used. The following items were studied: - Stresses and displacements in the plug. - Shear stresses and shear displacements in the rock-concrete interface. - Stress additions in the rock due to the loads. The sensitivity of the results to changes of constitutive models, to changes of the plug geometry and to pore water pressure in the rock-concrete interface was examined. The results indicate that the displacements in the plug will be within reasonable ranges but the stresses may locally be high enough that they exceed acceptable levels. However, they can be reduced by choice of advantageous plug geometry and by having a good rock-concrete bond. The results also show that the stress additions in the rock due to the thermal load may yield stresses that locally exceed the spalling strength of the rock. At most locations, however, the rock stresses will amount at lower levels. It was concluded that, with choice of an appropriate design, the tapered plug seems to be an applicable concept for plugging of deposition tunnels. It was also concluded that further studies of the tapered plug concept should use material properties parameter values for low-pH concrete. Further, they should also

  14. A robust University-NGO partnership: Analysing school efficiencies in Bolivia with community-based management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Neiva de Figueiredo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based management research is a collaborative effort between management, academics and communities in need with the specific goal of achieving social change to foster social justice. Because it is designed to promote and validate joint methods of discovery and community-based sources of knowledge, community-based management research has several unique characteristics, which may affect its execution. This article describes the process of a community-based management research project which is descriptive in nature and uses quantitative techniques to examine school efficiencies in low-income communities in a developing country – Bolivia. The article describes the partnership between a US-based university and a Bolivian not-for-profit organisation, the research context and the history of the research project, including its various phases. It focuses on the (yet unpublished process of the community-based research as opposed to its content (which has been published elsewhere. The article also makes the case that the robust partnership between the US-based university and the Bolivian NGO has been a determining factor in achieving positive results. Strengths and limitations are examined in the hope that the experience may be helpful to others conducting descriptive quantitative management research using community-engaged frameworks in cross-cultural settings. Keywords: international partnership, community-engaged scholarship, education efficiency, multicultural low-income education.

  15. Studying Sensing-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2013-01-01

    Recent sensing-based systems involve a multitude of users, devices, and places. These types of systems challenge existing approaches for conducting valid system evaluations. Here, the author discusses such evaluation challenges and revisits existing system evaluation methodologies....

  16. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  17. Time point-based integrative analyses of deep-transcriptome identify four signal pathways in blastemal regeneration of zebrafish lower jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xuelong; Lyu, Kailun; Gao, Siqi; Wang, Guan; Fan, Chunxin; Zhang, Xin A; Yan, Jizhou

    2015-03-01

    There has been growing interest in applying tissue engineering to stem cell-based regeneration therapies. We have previously reported that zebrafish can faithfully regenerate complicated tissue structures through blastemal cell type conversions and tissue reorganization. To unveil the regenerative factors and engineering arts of blastemal regeneration, we conducted transcriptomal analyses at four time points corresponding to preamputation, re-epitheliation, blastemal formation, and respecification. By combining the hierarchical gene ontology term network, the DAVID annotation system, and Euclidean distance clustering, we identified four signaling pathways: foxi1-foxo1b-pou3f1, pax3a-mant3a-col11/col2, pou5f1-cdx4-kdrl, and isl1-wnt11 PCP-sox9a. Results from immunohistochemical staining and promoter-driven transgenic fish suggest that these pathways, respectively, define wound epidermis reconstitution, cell type conversions, blastemal angiogenesis/vasculogenesis, and cartilage matrix-orientation. Foxi1 morpholino-knockdown caused expansions of Foxo1b- and Pax3a-expression in the basal layer-blastemal junction region. Moreover, foxi1 morphants displayed increased sox9a and hoxa2b transcripts in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. Thus, a Foxi1 signal switch is required to establish correct tissue patterns, including re-epitheliation and blastema formation. This study provides novel insight into a blastema regeneration strategy devised by epithelial cell transdifferentiation, blood vessel engineering, and cartilage matrix deposition. PMID:25420467

  18. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to identify contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although research has focused on remediating ecological impacts of environmental contaminants on the Great Lakes and other aquatic ecosystems, there exists a continuing need for additional biologically-based tools for monitoring success. Profiling of endogenous metabolites (i.e....

  19. Determination of S17 from 7Be(d,n)8B reaction CDCC analyses based on three-body model

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, K; Iseri, Y; Kamimura, M; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Yahiro, Masanobu; Iseri, Yasunori; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2003-01-01

    The astrophysical factor $S_{17}$ for $^7$Be($p,\\gamma$)$^8$B reaction is reliably extracted from the transfer reaction $^7$Be($d,n$)$^8$B at $E=7.5$ MeV with the asymptotic normalization coefficient method. The transfer reaction is accurately analyzed with CDCC based on the three-body model. This analysis is free from uncertainties of the optical potentials having been crucial in the previous DWBA analyses.

  20. ATOP - The Advanced Taiwan Ocean Prediction System Based on the mpiPOM. Part 1: Model Descriptions, Analyses and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A data-assimilated Taiwan Ocean Prediction (ATOP system is being developed at the National Central University, Taiwan. The model simulates sea-surface height, three-dimensional currents, temperature and salinity and turbulent mixing. The model has options for tracer and particle-tracking algorithms, as well as for wave-induced Stokes drift and wave-enhanced mixing and bottom drag. Two different forecast domains have been tested: a large-grid domain that encompasses the entire North Pacific Ocean at 0.1° × 0.1° horizontal resolution and 41 vertical sigma levels, and a smaller western North Pacific domain which at present also has the same horizontal resolution. In both domains, 25-year spin-up runs from 1988 - 2011 were first conducted, forced by six-hourly Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP and NCEP reanalysis Global Forecast System (GSF winds. The results are then used as initial conditions to conduct ocean analyses from January 2012 through February 2012, when updated hindcasts and real-time forecasts begin using the GFS winds. This paper describes the ATOP system and compares the forecast results against satellite altimetry data for assessing model skills. The model results are also shown to compare well with observations of (i the Kuroshio intrusion in the northern South China Sea, and (ii subtropical counter current. Review and comparison with other models in the literature of _ are also given.

  1. A quantitative method to analyse an open-ended questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario Battaglia, Onofrio; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an open-ended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k -means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  2. The Potential to Forgo Social Welfare Gains through Overreliance on Cost Effectiveness/Cost Utility Analyses in the Evidence Base for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations of clinical treatments most commonly take the form of cost effectiveness or cost utility analyses. This is appropriate since the main—sometimes the only—benefit of such interventions is increased health. The majority of economic evaluations in public health, however, have also been assessed using these techniques when arguably cost benefit analyses would in many cases have been more appropriate, given its ability to take account of nonhealth benefits as well. An examination of the nonhealth benefits from a sample of studies featured in a recent review of economic evaluations in public health illustrates how overfocusing on cost effectiveness/cost utility analyses may lead to forgoing potential social welfare gains from programmes in public health. Prior to evaluation, programmes should be considered in terms of the potential importance of nonhealth benefits and where these are considerable would be better evaluated by more inclusive economic evaluation techniques.

  3. Breast density changes associated with postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: post hoc radiologist- and computer-based analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Pettersen, Paola; Alexandersen, P;

    2010-01-01

    (1 mg) continuously combined with drospirenone (2 mg) was administered to postmenopausal women for up to 2 years (26 treatment cycles, 28 d/cycle) in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. This post hoc analysis assessed the changes in breast density measured from digitized images by two radiologist...... mineral density at the spine and femur were also assessed. Results: Breast density assessed by the radiologist-based approaches increased significantly from baseline in the HT group (P < 0.01), with significant divergence from placebo at 2 years (P < 0.01). Heterogeneity examination of radiograph score by...... computer-based technique was unchanged in the HT group and decreased significantly with placebo (P < 0.001) to produce a significant group divergence (P < 0.05). Changes in mammographic markers by radiologist- and computer-based approaches correlated with each other in the HT group (P < 0.01) but not in...

  4. Ein empirischer Vergleich der Prozessaufzeichnungsmethoden Mouselab und Eyetracking bei Präferenzmessungen mittels Choice-based Conjoint Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Martin; Decker, Reinhold; Pfeiffer, Jella

    2010-01-01

    In choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis respondents’ decisions in choice settings are used to determine relevant attributes and attribute levels of the products considered. Yet, the cognitive process preceding the choice decision is usually ignored. The eye tracking technique can be used to gain...

  5. A Structural Equation Model to Analyse the Antecedents to Students' Web-Based Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray

    2015-01-01

    Web-based problem-solving, a compound ability of critical thinking, creative thinking, reasoning thinking and information-searching abilities, has been recognised as an important competence for elementary school students. Some researchers have reported the possible correlations between problem-solving competence and information searching ability;…

  6. Re-examining the phylogeny of clinically relevant Candida species and allied genera based on multigene analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsui, Clement K M; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Robert, Vincent; Meyer, Wieland

    2008-01-01

    Yeasts of the artificial genus Candida include plant endophytes, insect symbionts, and opportunistic human pathogens. Phylogenies based on rRNA gene and actin sequences confirmed that the genus is not monophyletic, and the relationships among Candida species and allied teleomorph genera are not clea

  7. Multi-parametric cytometry from a complex cellular sample: Improvements and limits of manual versus computational-based interactive analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondois-Rey, F; Granjeaud, S; Rouillier, P; Rioualen, C; Bidaut, G; Olive, D

    2016-05-01

    The wide possibilities opened by the developments of multi-parametric cytometry are limited by the inadequacy of the classical methods of analysis to the multi-dimensional characteristics of the data. While new computational tools seemed ideally adapted and were applied successfully, their adoption is still low among the flow cytometrists. In the purpose to integrate unsupervised computational tools for the management of multi-stained samples, we investigated their advantages and limits by comparison to manual gating on a typical sample analyzed in immunomonitoring routine. A single tube of PBMC, containing 11 populations characterized by different sizes and stained with 9 fluorescent markers, was used. We investigated the impact of the strategy choice on manual gating variability, an undocumented pitfall of the analysis process, and we identified rules to optimize it. While assessing automatic gating as an alternate, we introduced the Multi-Experiment Viewer software (MeV) and validated it for merging clusters and annotating interactively populations. This procedure allowed the finding of both targeted and unexpected populations. However, the careful examination of computed clusters in standard dot plots revealed some heterogeneity, often below 10%, that was overcome by increasing the number of clusters to be computed. MeV facilitated the identification of populations by displaying both the MFI and the marker signature of the dataset simultaneously. The procedure described here appears fully adapted to manage homogeneously high number of multi-stained samples and allows improving multi-parametric analyses in a way close to the classic approach. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  8. Human tear peptide/protein profiling study of ocular surface diseases by SPE-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea González

    2014-06-01

    Obtained spectra were aligned by variable penalty dynamic time warping (VPdtw and the resulting data analyzed using multivariate statistics. Comparative analyses revealed good performance of VPdtw and a high discrimination of groups with a correct assignment of 89.3% using twelve informative peaks. SDS–PAGE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis allowed identification of lipocalin-1 as a biomarker candidate.

  9. Analyse Nederlands statiegeldsysteem voor PET flessen : studie naar kosten, materiaalgebruik en energiegebruik van het Nederlandse statiegeldsysteem voor frisdrank- en waterflessen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch deposit-refund system for large (>0.5 l) PET bottles has been analysed in terms of costs, material use and energy use. A process chain analysis has been conducted to quantify the costs, material usage and energy use of all process steps from the beverage industry to the RPET processor a

  10. Positron emission tomography study of pindolol occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors in humans: preliminary analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical studies in rodents suggest that augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) therapy by the 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor agent pindolol might reduce the delay between initiation of treatment and antidepressant response. This hypothesis is based on the ability of pindolol to potentiate the increase in serotonin (5-HT) transmission induced by SSRIs, an effect achieved by blockade of the 5-HT1A autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). However, placebo-controlled clinical studies of pindolol augmentation of antidepressant therapy have reported inconsistent results. Here, we evaluated the occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors following treatment with controlled release pindolol in nine healthy volunteers with positron-emission tomography (PET). Each subject was studied four times: at baseline (scan 1), following 1 week of oral administration of pindolol CR (7.5 mg/day) at peak level, 4 h after the dose (scan 2), and at 10 h following the dose (scan 3), and following one dose of pindolol CR (30 mg) (at peak level, 4 h) (scan 4). Pindolol occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors was evaluated in the DRN and cortical regions as the decrease in binding potential (BP) of the radiolabelled selective 5-HT1A antagonist [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635 or [carbonyl-11C] N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide abbreviated as [11C]WAY-100635. Pindolol dose-dependently decreased [11C]WAY-100635 BP. Combining all the regions, occupancy was 20 ± 8% at scan 2, 14 ± 8% at scan 3, and 44 ± 8% at scan 4. The results of this study suggest that at doses used in clinical studies of augmentation of the SSRI effect by pindolol (2.5 mg t.i.d.), the occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors is moderate and highly variable between subjects. This factor might explain the variable results obtained in clinical studies. On the other hand, at each dose tested, pindolol occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors was higher in the DRN compared to cortical regions

  11. Using multi-scale stable isotopes analyses to study the microbial processes of soil organic matter stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, P.; Remusat, L.; Zeller, B.; Bode, S.; Brewer, E.; Boeckx, P. F.; Derrien, D.

    2012-12-01

    Soil microorganisms are increasingly recognized as important drivers for the stabilization of soil organic matter (OM) with soil assemblages, but the way they act remains not fully explored. Here, we used a multi-scale approach to investigate the attachment of microbial products with soil organo-mineral assemblages. A surface acidic Cambisol was amended with 13C15N labeled glycine and leaf fragments prior to sequential density separation of plant debris, aggregates and non-aggregates mineral grains with little OM attached. Labels were tracked using elemental analyzer coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS), liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to IRMS and nano-scale secondary ions MS (NanoSIMS). After 8h of glycine incubation, the comparison between γ-irradiated and non-sterile soils revealed that more than 90% and 85% of the stabilized glycine-derived 13C and 15N were found in microbial products, with a higher occurrence in aggregates than in plant debris and mineral grains. NanoSIMS images showed that these stabilized microbial products are principally not confined to the microbial cells, but evenly spread at the surface of the mineral-attached OM as extracellular products. After calibration, the comparison of their C/N ratios with the C/N ratios of the corresponding soil particles suggested that the microbial products are stabilized through physico-chemical interactions most likely mediated by the reactivity of the underlying minerals. Unlike NanoSIMS, LC-IRMS analyses allow the tracing of 13C tracers within microbial biomasses using amino sugars as biomarkers. After 3 months of incubation, freshly produced amino sugars deriving from the readily accessible glycine and finely ground leaf fragments clearly peaked in microbial aggregates and plant debris, respectively. Differences in distributions indicated that bacteria and fungi both grow where the resource is, but accumulate in microbial aggregates. These results suggested either a higher

  12. SNP array-based copy number and genotype analyses for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of human unbalanced translocations

    OpenAIRE

    van Uum, Chris MJ; Stevens, Servi JC; Dreesen, Joseph CFM; Drüsedau, Marion; Smeets, Hubert J.; Hollanders-Crombach, Bertien; Die-Smulders, Christine EM de; Geraedts, Joep PM; Engelen, John JM; Coonen, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for chromosomal rearrangements (CR) is mainly based on fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Application of this technique is limited by the number of available fluorochromes, the extensive preclinical work-up and technical and interpretative artefacts. We aimed to develop a universal, off-the-shelf protocol for PGD by combining single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-derived copy number (CN) determination and genotyping for detection of unbalan...

  13. Revisiting the phylogeny of Bombacoideae (Malvaceae): Novel relationships, morphologically cohesive clades, and a new tribal classification based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Sobrinho, Jefferson G; Alverson, William S; Alcantara, Suzana; Queiroz, Luciano P; Mota, Aline C; Baum, David A

    2016-08-01

    Bombacoideae (Malvaceae) is a clade of deciduous trees with a marked dominance in many forests, especially in the Neotropics. The historical lack of a well-resolved phylogenetic framework for Bombacoideae hinders studies in this ecologically important group. We reexamined phylogenetic relationships in this clade based on a matrix of 6465 nuclear (ETS, ITS) and plastid (matK, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG) DNA characters. We used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference to infer relationships among 108 species (∼70% of the total number of known species). We analyzed the evolution of selected morphological traits: trunk or branch prickles, calyx shape, endocarp type, seed shape, and seed number per fruit, using ML reconstructions of their ancestral states to identify possible synapomorphies for major clades. Novel phylogenetic relationships emerged from our analyses, including three major lineages marked by fruit or seed traits: the winged-seed clade (Bernoullia, Gyranthera, and Huberodendron), the spongy endocarp clade (Adansonia, Aguiaria, Catostemma, Cavanillesia, and Scleronema), and the Kapok clade (Bombax, Ceiba, Eriotheca, Neobuchia, Pachira, Pseudobombax, Rhodognaphalon, and Spirotheca). The Kapok clade, the most diverse lineage of the subfamily, includes sister relationships (i) between Pseudobombax and "Pochota fendleri" a historically incertae sedis taxon, and (ii) between the Paleotropical genera Bombax and Rhodognaphalon, implying just two bombacoid dispersals to the Old World, the other one involving Adansonia. This new phylogenetic framework offers new insights and a promising avenue for further evolutionary studies. In view of this information, we present a new tribal classification of the subfamily, accompanied by an identification key. PMID:27154210

  14. An automatic generation of non-uniform mesh for CFD analyses of image-based multiscale human airway models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-11-01

    The authors have developed a method to automatically generate non-uniform CFD mesh for image-based human airway models. The sizes of generated tetrahedral elements vary in both radial and longitudinal directions to account for boundary layer and multiscale nature of pulmonary airflow. The proposed method takes advantage of our previously developed centerline-based geometry reconstruction method. In order to generate the mesh branch by branch in parallel, we used the open-source programs Gmsh and TetGen for surface and volume meshes, respectively. Both programs can specify element sizes by means of background mesh. The size of an arbitrary element in the domain is a function of wall distance, element size on the wall, and element size at the center of airway lumen. The element sizes on the wall are computed based on local flow rate and airway diameter. The total number of elements in the non-uniform mesh (10 M) was about half of that in the uniform mesh, although the computational time for the non-uniform mesh was about twice longer (170 min). The proposed method generates CFD meshes with fine elements near the wall and smooth variation of element size in longitudinal direction, which are required, e.g., for simulations with high flow rate. NIH Grants R01-HL094315, U01-HL114494, and S10-RR022421. Computer time provided by XSEDE.

  15. Spatially explicit power analyses for occupancy-based monitoring of wolverine in the U.S. Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M; Ivan, Jacob S; Schwartz, Michael K

    2014-02-01

    Conservation scientists and resource managers often have to design monitoring programs for species that are rare or patchily distributed across large landscapes. Such programs are frequently expensive and seldom can be conducted by one entity. It is essential that a prospective power analysis be undertaken to ensure stated monitoring goals are feasible. We developed a spatially based simulation program that accounts for natural history, habitat use, and sampling scheme to investigate the power of monitoring protocols to detect trends in population abundance over time with occupancy-based methods. We analyzed monitoring schemes with different sampling efforts for wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations in 2 areas of the U.S. Rocky Mountains. The relation between occupancy and abundance was nonlinear and depended on landscape, population size, and movement parameters. With current estimates for population size and detection probability in the northern U.S. Rockies, most sampling schemes were only able to detect large declines in abundance in the simulations (i.e., 50% decline over 10 years). For small populations reestablishing in the Southern Rockies, occupancy-based methods had enough power to detect population trends only when populations were increasing dramatically (e.g., doubling or tripling in 10 years), regardless of sampling effort. In general, increasing the number of cells sampled or the per-visit detection probability had a much greater effect on power than the number of visits conducted during a survey. Although our results are specific to wolverines, this approach could easily be adapted to other territorial species. PMID:24001256

  16. Simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minxiu; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Khan, Mazhar I

    2015-11-01

    A new high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyser-based multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of eight reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine. The reproductive and respiratory pathogens include North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-NA), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), swine influenza virus (SIV) (including H1 and H3 subtypes), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Nine pairs of specific chimeric primers were designed and used to initiate PCRs, and one pair of universal primers was used for subsequent PCR cycles. The specificity of the GeXP assay was examined using positive controls for each virus. The sensitivity was evaluated using serial ten-fold dilutions of in vitro-transcribed RNA from all of the RNA viruses and plasmids from DNA viruses. The GeXP assay was further evaluated using 114 clinical specimens and was compared with real-time PCR/single RT-PCR methods. The specificity of the GeXP assay for each pathogen was examined using single cDNA/DNA template. Specific amplification peaks of the reproductive and respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyser. The minimum copies per reaction detected for each virus by the GeXP assay were as follows: 1000 copies/μl for PRV; 100 copies/μl for CSFV, JEV, PCV-2 and PPV; and 10 copies/μl for SIV-H1, SIV-H3 and PRRSV-NA. Analysis of 114 clinical samples using the GeXP assay demonstrated that the GeXP assay had comparable detection to real-time PCR/single RT-PCR. This study demonstrated that the GeXP assay is a new method with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of these swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens. The GeXP assay may be adopted for molecular epidemiological surveys of these reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine populations. PMID:26259690

  17. Multi-site study of diffusion metric variability: effects of site, vendor, field strength, and echo time on regions-of-interest and histogram-bin analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, K. G.; Chou, M.-C.; Preciado, R. I.; Gimi, B.; Rollins, N. K.; Song, A.; Turner, J.; Mori, S.

    2016-03-01

    It is now common for magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) based multi-site trials to include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of the protocol. It is also common for these sites to possess MR scanners of different manufacturers, different software and hardware, and different software licenses. These differences mean that scanners may not be able to acquire data with the same number of gradient amplitude values and number of available gradient directions. Variability can also occur in achievable b-values and minimum echo times. The challenge of a multi-site study then, is to create a common protocol by understanding and then minimizing the effects of scanner variability and identifying reliable and accurate diffusion metrics. This study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two diffusion metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA) using two common analyses (region-of-interest and mean-bin value of whole brain histograms). The goal of the study was to identify sources of variability in diffusion-sensitized imaging and their influence on commonly reported metrics. The results demonstrate that the site, vendor, field strength, and echo time all contribute to variability in FA and MD, though to different extent. We conclude that characterization of the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time is a worthwhile step in the construction of multi-center trials.

  18. Evidence for simvastatin anti-inflammatory actions based on quantitative analyses of NETosis and other inflammation/oxidation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid M. Al-Ghoul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin (SMV has been shown to exhibit promising anti-inflammatory properties alongside its classic cholesterol lowering action. We tested these emerging effects in a major thermal injury mouse model (3rd degree scald, ~20% TBSA with previously documented, inflammation-mediated intestinal defects. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs inflammation measurement methods were used alongside classic gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness measurements with exogenous melatonin treatment as a positive control. Our hypothesis is that simvastatin has protective therapeutic effects against early postburn gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness. To test this hypothesis, we compared untreated thermal injury (TI adult male mice with TI littermates treated with simvastatin (0.2 mg/kg i.p., TI+SMV immediately following burn injury and two hours before being sacrificed the day after; melatonin-treated (Mel (1.86 mg/kg i.p., TI+Mel mice were compared as a positive control. Mice were assessed for the following: (1 tissue oxidation and neutrophil infiltration in terminal ileum mucosa using classic carbonyl, Gr-1, and myeloperoxidase immunohistochemical or biochemical assays, (2 NETosis in terminal ileum and colon mucosa homogenates and peritoneal and fluid blood samples utilizing flow cytometric analyses of the surrogate NETosis biomarkers, picogreen and Gr-1, and (3 transepithelial gut leakiness as measured in terminal ileum and colon with FITC-dextran and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER. Our results reveal that simvastatin and melatonin exhibit consistently comparable therapeutic protective effects against the following: (1 gut mucosa oxidative stress as revealed in the terminal ileum by markers of protein carbonylation as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO and Gr-1 infiltration, (2 NETosis as revealed in the gut milieu, peritoneal lavage and plasma utilizing picogreen and Gr-1 flow cytometry and microscopy, and (3 transepithelial gut leakiness as assessed

  19. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove;

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  20. Analyses on gravity variation before and after the Lijiang earthquake based on a finite rectangular dislocation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕乃玲; 李辉; 申重阳

    2003-01-01

    The methods were discussed to calculate the gravity variation due to crustal deformation based on a model of dislocation on a finite rectangular plane. Taking the Lijiang MS=7.0 earthquake as an example the calculating principle of fault parameters were determined, and the results were given. Of particular interests were the characteristics of the gravity variations in different dislocation types.With comparison between the calculated results and the practical measurements, it was found that the model could to some extent account for the observations. But it failed to give explanations to the more far spatial gravity variation.

  1. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses on the gender-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to tetrabromobisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin

    2014-12-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) accounts for the largest production of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) along the Laizhou Bay in China and is the most widely used BFR in industrial products. It can induce diverse toxicities including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and endocrine disrupting effects in mammalian and fish models. In this work, we applied iTRAQ-based proteomics to investigate the gender-specific responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to TBBPA. Thirty-one proteins were differentially expressed in hepatopancreas between male and female mussels, which clearly indicated the biological differences between male and female mussels at the protein level. After exposure of TBBPA (18.4 nmol/L) for one month, a total of 60 proteins were differentially expressed in response to the TBBPA treatment in mussel hepatopancreas, among which 33 and 29 proteins were significantly altered in TBBPA-treated male and female mussel samples, respectively. Only two of the 60 proteins were commonly altered in both male and female mussel samples exposed to TBBPA. Based on KEGG analysis, these differentially expressed proteins of TBBPA-induced effects were assigned to several groups, including cytoskeleton, reproduction and development, metabolism, signal transduction, gene expression, stress response and apoptosis. Overall, results indicated that TBBPA exposure could induce apoptosis, oxidative and immune stresses and disruption in energy, protein and lipid metabolisms in both male and female mussels with different mechanisms. This work suggested that the gender differences should be considered in ecotoxicoproteomics.

  2. Analysing Business Interaction in a Virtual Organisation: Using Business Action Theory to Study Complex Inter-Organisational Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Axelsson

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the complexity of inter-organisational systems (IOS) — on one hand enabling organisations to become successful actors conducting electronic commerce, and on the other hand being organisationally very complex and demanding to develop, implement, and use, since several organisations with differing objectives are involved. The paper proposes a model to analyse business interaction: the business action theory (BAT) phase model. The aim of the paper is to show how BAT can...

  3. Analyses of a Virtual World

    CERN Document Server

    Holovatch, Yurij; Szell, Michael; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of a series of results obtained from the analysis of human behavior in a virtual environment. We focus on the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) Pardus which has a worldwide participant base of more than 400,000 registered players. We provide evidence for striking statistical similarities between social structures and human-action dynamics in the real and virtual worlds. In this sense MMOGs provide an extraordinary way for accurate and falsifiable studies of social phenomena. We further discuss possibilities to apply methods and concepts developed in the course of these studies to analyse oral and written narratives.

  4. Implementation of analyses based on social media data for marketing purposes in academic and scientific organizations in practice – opportunities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grabarczyk-Tokaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of practice use of analyses, based on data collected in social media, for institutions’ communication and marketing purposes. The subject is being discussed from the perspective of Digital Darwinism — situation, when development of technologies and new means of communication is significantly faster than growth in the knowledge and digital skills among organizations eager to implement those solutions. To diminish negative consequences of Digital Darwinism institutions can broaden their knowledge with analyses of data from cyber space to optimize operations, and make use of running dialog and cooperation with prosuments to face dynamic changes in trends, technologies and society. Information acquired from social media user generated content can be employed as guidelines in planning, running and evaluating communication and marketing activities. The article presents examples of tools and solutions, that can be implement in practice as a support for actions taken by institutions.

  5. Analyses on schedule-cost coefficient correlation of spaceflight project based on historical statistics and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yanqiong; Chen Yingwu

    2006-01-01

    When analyze the uncertainty of the cost and the schedule of the spaceflight project, it is needed to know the value of the schedule-cost correlation coefficient. This paper deduces the schedule distribution, considering the effect of the cost, and proposes the estimation formula of the correlation coefficient between the ln(schedule) and the cost. On the basis of the fact and Taylor expansion, the relation expression between the schedule-cost correlation coefficient and the ln-schedule-cost correlation coefficient is put forward. By analyzing the value features of the estimation formula of the ln-schedule-cost correlation coefficient, the general rules are proposed to ascertain the value of the schedule-cost correlation coefficient. An example is given to demonstrate how to approximately amend the schedule-cost correlation coefficient based on the historical statistics, which reveals the traditional assigned value is inaccurate. The universality of this estimation method is analyzed.

  6. Degradation of dental ZrO2-based materials after hydrothermal fatigue. Part I: XRD, XRF, and FESEM analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Jorge; Pinto, Ana M; Monteiro, Regina C C; Braz Fernandes, Francisco M; Laranjeira, Pedro; Veiga, João P

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of simulated low-temperature degradation (s-LTD) and hydrothermal fatigue on the degradation of three ZrO(2)-based dental materials. Lava, IPS, and NanoZr discs were randomly assigned to (1) Control-Storage in distilled water at 37°C; (2) Aging at 134°C for 5 h (s-LTD); (3) Thermocycling in saliva for 30,000 cycles (TF). XRD revealed that ZrO(2) m phase was identified in all groups but TF increased the m phase only for Lava. Under the FESEM, Lava showed no alterations under s-LTD, but displayed corrosion areas up to 60 µm wide after TF. We conclude that TF accelerated the degradation of Lava through an increase in the m phase and grain pull-out from the material surface. PMID:22447060

  7. A CFBPN Artificial Neural Network Model for Educational Qualitative Data Analyses: Example of Students' Attitudes Based on Kellerts' Typologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorek, Nurettin; Ugulu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks are suggested as a model that can be "trained" to yield qualitative results out of a huge amount of categorical data. It can be said that this is a new approach applied in educational qualitative data analysis. In this direction, a cascade-forward back-propagation neural network (CFBPN) model was…

  8. The effect of heat fluxes on ammonia emission from swine waste lagoon based on neural network analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes)...

  9. Method for evaluating an extended Fault Tree to analyse the dependability of complex systems: Application to a satellite-based railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating dependability of complex systems requires the evolution of the system states over time to be analysed. The problem is to develop modelling approaches that take adequately the evolution of the different operating and failed states of the system components into account. The Fault Tree (FT) is a well-known method that efficiently analyse the failure causes of a system and serves for reliability and availability evaluations. As FT is not adapted to dynamic systems with repairable multi-state components, extensions of FT (eFT) have been developed. However efficient quantitative evaluation processes of eFT are missing. Petri nets have the advantage of allowing such evaluation but their construction is difficult to manage and their simulation performances are unsatisfactory. Therefore, we propose in this paper a new powerful process to analyse quantitatively eFT. This is based on the use of PN method, which relies on the failed states highlighted by the eFT, combined with a new analytical modelling approach for critical events that depend on time duration. The performances of the new process are demonstrated through a theoretical example of eFT and the practical use of the method is shown on a satellite-based railway system. - Highlights: • New approach modelling critical events stemming from degraded-state duration. • Evaluating a repairable, multi-state and time duration dependent Fault Tree. • Practical solution for dependability analysis of a GNSS-based localisation. • Taking into account the local impacts on the GNSS-based localisation

  10. Genome-wide linkage analyses of type 2 diabetes in Mexican Americans: the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kelly J; Lehman, Donna M; Arya, Rector; Fowler, Sharon; Leach, Robin J; Göring, Harald H H; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Dyer, Tom D; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Stern, Michael P

    2005-09-01

    The San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study was initiated to identify susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes. Evidence was previously reported of linkage to diabetes on 10q with suggestive evidence on 3p and 9p in a genome-wide scan of 440 individuals from 27 pedigrees ascertained through a single diabetic proband. Subsequently, the study was expanded to include 906 individuals from 39 extended Mexican-American pedigrees, two additional examination cycles approximately 5.3 and 7.6 years after baseline, and genotypes for a new set of genome-wide markers. Therefore, we completed a second genome-wide linkage scan. Using information from a participant's most recent exam, the prevalence of diabetes in nonprobands was 21.8%. We performed genome-wide variance components-based genetic analysis on the discrete trait diabetes using a liability model and on the quantitative Martingale residual obtained from modeling age of diabetes diagnosis using Cox proportional hazard models. Controlling for age and age(2), our strongest evidence for linkage to the trait diabetes and the quantitative Martingale residual was on chromosome 3p at marker D3S2406 with multipoint empirical logarithm of odds scores of 1.87 and 3.76, respectively. In summary, we report evidence for linkage to diabetes on chromosome 3p in a region previously identified in at least three independent populations. PMID:16123354

  11. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension: Further analyses of the normative aging study data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.; Kim, Rokho; Korrick, S. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Harvard Health of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Rotnitzky, A. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In an earlier report based on participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, we found a significant association between the risk of hypertension and lead levels in tibia. To examine the possible confounding effects of education and occupation, we considered in this study five levels of education and three levels of occupation as independent variables in the statistical model. Of 1,171 active subjects seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 563 provided complete data for this analysis. In the initial logistic regression model, acre and body mass index, family history of hypertension, and dietary sodium intake, but neither cumulative smoking nor alcohol ingestion, conferred increased odds ratios for being hypertensive that were statistically significant. When the lead biomarkers were added separately to this initial logistic model, tibia lead and patella lead levels were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for hypertension. In the final backward elimination logistic regression model that included categorical variables for education and occupation, the only variables retained were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and tibia lead level. We conclude that education and occupation variables were not confounding the association between the lead biomarkers and hypertension that we reported previously. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Positron emission tomography study of pindolol occupancy of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors in humans: preliminary analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diana; Mawlawi, Osama; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Kent, Justine; Simpson, Norman; Parsey, Ramin V.; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Slifstein, Mark; Huang Yiyun; Heertum, Ronald van; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Caltabiano, Stephen; Malizia, Andrea; Cowley, Hugh; Mann, J. John; Laruelle, Marc

    2000-07-01

    Preclinical studies in rodents suggest that augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) therapy by the 5-hydroxytryptamine{sub 1A} (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptor agent pindolol might reduce the delay between initiation of treatment and antidepressant response. This hypothesis is based on the ability of pindolol to potentiate the increase in serotonin (5-HT) transmission induced by SSRIs, an effect achieved by blockade of the 5-HT{sub 1A} autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). However, placebo-controlled clinical studies of pindolol augmentation of antidepressant therapy have reported inconsistent results. Here, we evaluated the occupancy of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors following treatment with controlled release pindolol in nine healthy volunteers with positron-emission tomography (PET). Each subject was studied four times: at baseline (scan 1), following 1 week of oral administration of pindolol CR (7.5 mg/day) at peak level, 4 h after the dose (scan 2), and at 10 h following the dose (scan 3), and following one dose of pindolol CR (30 mg) (at peak level, 4 h) (scan 4). Pindolol occupancy of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors was evaluated in the DRN and cortical regions as the decrease in binding potential (BP) of the radiolabelled selective 5-HT{sub 1A} antagonist [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]WAY-100635 or [carbonyl-{sup 11}C] N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide abbreviated as [{sup 11}C]WAY-100635. Pindolol dose-dependently decreased [{sup 11}C]WAY-100635 BP. Combining all the regions, occupancy was 20 {+-} 8% at scan 2, 14 {+-} 8% at scan 3, and 44 {+-} 8% at scan 4. The results of this study suggest that at doses used in clinical studies of augmentation of the SSRI effect by pindolol (2.5 mg t.i.d.), the occupancy of 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors is moderate and highly variable between subjects. This factor might explain the variable results obtained in clinical studies. On the other hand, at each dose tested, pindolol occupancy of 5

  13. Body mass index, exercise, and other lifestyle factors in relation to age at natural menopause: analyses from the breakthrough generations study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; McFadden, Emily; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2012-05-15

    The authors examined the effect of women's lifestyles on the timing of natural menopause using data from a cross-sectional questionnaire used in the United Kingdom-based Breakthrough Generations Study in 2003-2011. The analyses included 50,678 women (21,511 who had experienced a natural menopause) who were 40-98 years of age at study entry and did not have a history of breast cancer. Cox competing risks proportional hazards models were fitted to examine the relation of age at natural menopause to lifestyle and anthropometric factors. Results were adjusted for age at reporting, smoking status at menopause, parity, and body mass index at age 40 years, as appropriate. All P values were 2-sided. High adult weight (P(trend) vegetarian (P < 0.001) were associated with older age at menopause. Neither height nor history of an eating disorder was associated with menopausal age. These findings show the importance of lifestyle factors in determining menopausal age. PMID:22494951

  14. Evaluation of impact factors on PM2.5 based on long-term chemical components analyses in the megacity Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Cen, Kuang; Liu, Xiuli; Yu, Yang; Zibat, Volker; Dietze, Volker; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Nine years of sampling and analyses of fine particles (PM2.5) were performed in Beijing from 2005 to 2013. Twenty-seven chemical elements and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were analyzed in order to study chemical characteristics and temporal distribution of Beijing aerosols. Principle component analysis defined different types of elemental sources, based on which, the influences of a variety of anthropogenic activities including governmental intervention measures and natural sources on air quality were evaluated. For the first time, Ga is used as a tracer element for heating activities mainly using coal in Beijing, due to its correlation with BC and coal combustion, as well as its concentration variation between the heating- and non-heating periods. The traffic restrictions effectively reduced emissions of relevant heavy metals such as As, Cd, Sn and Sb. The expected long-term effectiveness of the steel smelters relocation was not observed due to the nearby relocation with increased capacity. Firework display during every Chinese spring festival season and special events such as the Olympic Games resulted in several times higher concentrations of K, Sr and Ba than other days and thus they were proposed as tracers for firework display. The impacts of all these factors were quantified and evaluated. Sand dust or dust storms induced higher concentrations of geogenic elements in PM2.5 compared to non-dust days. Sustainable mitigation measures, such as traffic restrictions, are necessary to be continued and improved to obtain more "blue sky" days in the future.

  15. Evaluation of impact factors on PM2.5 based on long-term chemical components analyses in the megacity Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Cen, Kuang; Liu, Xiuli; Yu, Yang; Zibat, Volker; Dietze, Volker; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Nine years of sampling and analyses of fine particles (PM2.5) were performed in Beijing from 2005 to 2013. Twenty-seven chemical elements and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were analyzed in order to study chemical characteristics and temporal distribution of Beijing aerosols. Principle component analysis defined different types of elemental sources, based on which, the influences of a variety of anthropogenic activities including governmental intervention measures and natural sources on air quality were evaluated. For the first time, Ga is used as a tracer element for heating activities mainly using coal in Beijing, due to its correlation with BC and coal combustion, as well as its concentration variation between the heating- and non-heating periods. The traffic restrictions effectively reduced emissions of relevant heavy metals such as As, Cd, Sn and Sb. The expected long-term effectiveness of the steel smelters relocation was not observed due to the nearby relocation with increased capacity. Firework display during every Chinese spring festival season and special events such as the Olympic Games resulted in several times higher concentrations of K, Sr and Ba than other days and thus they were proposed as tracers for firework display. The impacts of all these factors were quantified and evaluated. Sand dust or dust storms induced higher concentrations of geogenic elements in PM2.5 compared to non-dust days. Sustainable mitigation measures, such as traffic restrictions, are necessary to be continued and improved to obtain more "blue sky" days in the future. PMID:27115848

  16. IPD-Work consortium: pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data strengthen evidence base for a link between psychosocial factors and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E; Batty, G David; Rugulies, Reiner

    2015-05-01

    Established in 2008 and comprising over 60 researchers, the IPD-Work (individual-participant data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium is a collaborative research project that uses pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data from multiple cohort studies representing a range of countries. The aim of the consortium is to estimate reliably the associations of work-related psychosocial factors with chronic diseases, disability, and mortality. Our findings are highly cited by the occupational health, epidemiology, and clinical medicine research community. However, some of the IPD-Work's findings have also generated disagreement as they challenge the importance of job strain as a major target for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention, this is reflected in the critical discussion paper by Choi et al (1). In this invited reply to Choi et al, we aim to (i) describe how IPD-Work seeks to advance research on associations between work-related psychosocial risk factors and health; (ii) demonstrate as unfounded Choi et al's assertion that IPD-Work has underestimated associations between job strain and health endpoints; these include the dichotomous measurement of job strain, potential underestimation of the population attributable risk (PAR) of job strain for CHD, and policy implications arising from the findings of the IPD-Work consortium; and (iii) outline general principles for designing evidence-based policy and prevention from good-quality evidence, including future directions for research on psychosocial factors at work and health. In addition, we highlight some problems with Choi et al's approach. PMID:25654401

  17. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for natural gas- (NG- based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1 compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon content than petroleum, CNG- and LNG-powered vehicles emit 10–20% and 5–10% less GHGs than gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, respectively; (2 gas-to-liquid- (GTL- powered vehicles involve approximately 50% more WTW fossil energy uses than conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, primarily because of the low efficiency of GTL production. Nevertheless, since NG has a lower carbon content than petroleum, GTL-powered vehicles emit approximately 30% more GHGs than conventional-fuel vehicles; (3 The carbon emission intensity of the LNG energy chain is highly sensitive to the efficiency of NG liquefaction and the form of energy used in that process.

  18. NMR-based metabonomic analyses of the effects of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) on macrophage metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China); Zhao Jing [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Hao Fuhua [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China); Chen Chang [Institute of Biophysics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) (Singapore); Tang, Huiru, E-mail: huiru.tang@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China)

    2011-05-15

    The metabonomic changes in murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line induced by ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been investigated, by analyzing both the cells and culture media, using high-resolution NMR in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods. Upon treatment with USPIO, macrophage cells showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, essential amino acids such as valine, isoleucine, and choline metabolites together with an increase of glycerophospholipids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, glycine, and glutamate. Such cellular responses to USPIO were also detectable in compositional changes of cell media, showing an obvious depletion of the primary nutrition molecules, such as glucose and amino acids and the production of end-products of glycolysis, such as pyruvate, acetate, and lactate and intermediates of TCA cycle such as succinate and citrate. At 48 h treatment, there was a differential response to incubation with USPIO in both cell metabonome and medium components, indicating that USPIO are phagocytosed and released by macrophages. Furthermore, information on cell membrane modification can be derived from the changes in choline-like metabolites. These results not only suggest that NMR-based metabonomic methods have sufficient sensitivity to identify the metabolic consequences of murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line response to USPIO in vitro, but also provide useful information on the effects of USPIO on cellular metabolism.

  19. Purity analyses of high-purity organic compounds with nitroxyl radicals based on the Curie–Weiss law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nobu-matsumoto@aist.go.jp; Shimosaka, Takuya [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Central-3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    This work reports an attempt to quantify the purities of powders of high-purity organic compounds with stable nitroxyl radicals (namely, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO), 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine (TEMPOL), and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl benzoate (4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate)) in terms of mass fractions by using our “effective magnetic moment method,” which is based on both the Curie–Weiss law and a fundamental equation of electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR). The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment resulting from the radicals was measured with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The g value for each compound was measured with an X-band ESR spectrometer. The results of the purities were (0.998 ± 0.064) kg kg{sup −1} for TEMPO, (1.019 ± 0.040) kg kg{sup −1} for TEMPOL, and (1.001 ± 0.048) kg kg{sup −1} for 4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate. These results demonstrate that this analytical method as a future candidate of potential primary direct method can measure the purities with expanded uncertainties of approximately 5%.

  20. Purity analyses of high-purity organic compounds with nitroxyl radicals based on the Curie-Weiss law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Shimosaka, Takuya

    2015-05-01

    This work reports an attempt to quantify the purities of powders of high-purity organic compounds with stable nitroxyl radicals (namely, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO), 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine (TEMPOL), and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl benzoate (4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate)) in terms of mass fractions by using our "effective magnetic moment method," which is based on both the Curie-Weiss law and a fundamental equation of electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR). The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment resulting from the radicals was measured with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The g value for each compound was measured with an X-band ESR spectrometer. The results of the purities were (0.998 ± 0.064) kg kg-1 for TEMPO, (1.019 ± 0.040) kg kg-1 for TEMPOL, and (1.001 ± 0.048) kg kg-1 for 4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate. These results demonstrate that this analytical method as a future candidate of potential primary direct method can measure the purities with expanded uncertainties of approximately 5%.